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Sample records for cebada hordeum vulgare

  1. CAPACIDAD COMBINATORIA PARA RENDIMIENTO DE GRANO Y CARACTERES DE CALIDAD MALTERA EN CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare L. Combining ability for grain yield and malting quality traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

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    Rudy Rivas P.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Se cruzaron seis genotipos de cebada de ciclo de desarrollo primaveral en un arreglo dialelo, con el fin de estudiar sus capacidades combinatorias para rendimiento de grano y doce caracteres de calidad maltera. El comportamiento de los híbridos F1 fue analizado utilizando el Modelo I, método 2 de Griffing. El análisis de capacidad combinatoria general (CCG, de capacidad combinatoria específica (CCE y la relación CCG/CCE, demostraron que ocho de los trece caracteres estudiados mostraron expresión asociada a efectos génicos de tipo aditivo, que fueron: peso de grano, extracto de malta, viscosidad, friabilidad, proteína de la malta, proteína soluble, índice de Kolbach y amino nitrógeno libre (FAN: free amino nitrogen. Por otra parte en la expresión de los caracteres calibre de grano, diferencia del extracto, e índice de Hartong fueron importantes tanto los efectos aditivos como los no aditivos, siendo los primeros de mayor magnitud. Solo el rendimiento de grano y el poder diastásico mostraron predominio de acción génica de tipo no aditivo (dominancia y sobredominancia, aunque los efectos aditivos también estuvieron presentes.Six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes were crossed in a diallel system to study combining ability for grain yield and twelve malting quality traits. The F1 hybrids behavior was analyzed using Griffing’s Model I, method 2. The analysis for general combining ability (CCG, specific combining ability (CCE and the relationship CCG/CCE showed that expression of eight out of the thirteen traits were associated with genes which were additive in their effects: grain weight, malt extract, viscosity, friability, malt protein, soluble protein, Kolbach index and free amino nitrogen (FAN. On the other hand, the expression of grain plumpness, extract difference and the Hartong index showed both additive and non-additive genetic control, the former being of greater magnitude. Only grain yield and diastatic power

  2. VOLÁTILES DE MAÍZ (lea mays, CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare Y CAFE (Coffea arábica TOSTADOS. INFLUENCIA DE LA ADICIÓN DE ESTOS CEREALES EN EL AROMA DEL CAFÉ

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    Alvaro Duarte Ruiz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los volátiles de café a dos grados de torrefacción, como también los del maíz y los de cebada tostados, fueron extraídos por "Headspace" dinámico. La composición de los volátiles fue determinada por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CGAREM. Los constituyentes mayoritarios del café torrefactado a 230 "C durante 8 minutos fueron el furfural 2-metil-3 dihidrofuranona y 2,3- pentadiona mientras que a230"Cy 10 minutos fueron el 2-furanmetanol, 3 metilpirazina, la 1,6-dimetilpirazina y acetato de 2-furanmetanol. Los constituyentes de mayor concentración en el maíz fueron el furfural y el 5-metilfurfuraI y en la cebada el 2-metilbutanal, el 3 metilbutanal y el furano. El análisis sensorial del café y mezclas de café con maiz y cebada permitió detectar adulteración a partir de 20% de cereal en un café torrefactado durante 8 min., pero cuando la torrefacción se realizó por 10 min. fue muy difícil percibir el aroma a cereal, principalmente cuando éste es cebada. Los resultados fueron utilizados como indicadores de la adulteración del café con cereales y como un criterio de evaluación para garantizar la pureza del café Colombiano.

  3. VOLÁTILES DE MAÍZ (lea mays), CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare) Y CAFE (Coffea arábica) TOSTADOS. INFLUENCIA DE LA ADICIÓN DE ESTOS CEREALES EN EL AROMA DEL CAFÉ

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Duarte Ruiz; Margoth Suárez

    2010-01-01

    Los volátiles de café a dos grados de torrefacción, como también los del maíz y los de cebada tostados, fueron extraídos por "Headspace" dinámico. La composición de los volátiles fue determinada por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CGAREM). Los constituyentes mayoritarios del café torrefactado a 230 "C durante 8 minutos fueron el furfural 2-metil-3 dihidrofuranona y 2,3- pentadiona mientras que a230"Cy 10 minutos fueron el 2-furanmetanol, 3 metilpi...

  4. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, I.

    1989-01-01

    A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jabatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent...

  5. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B;

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and...

  6. Volátiles De Maíz {lea mays, cebada (Hordeum vulgare y café (Coffea arábica tostados. influencia de la adición de estos cereales en el aroma del café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margoth Suárez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los volátiles de café a dos grados de torrefacción, como también los del maíz y los de cebada tostados, fueron extraídos por "Headspace" dinámico. La composición de los volátiles fue determinada por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CGAREM. Los constituyentes mayoritarios del café torrefactado a 230 "C durante 8 minutos fueron el furfural 2-metil-3-dihidrofuranona y 2,3- pentadiona mientras que a230"Cy 10 minutos fueron el 2-furanmetanol, 3-metilpirazina, la 1,6-dimetilpirazina y acetato de 2-furanmetanol. Los constituyentes de mayor concentración en el maíz fueron el furfural y el 5-metilfurfuraI y en la cebada el 2-metilbutanal, el 3-metilbutanal y el furano. El análisis sensorial del café y mezclas de café con maiz y cebada permitió detectar adulteración a partir de 20% de cereal en un café torrefactado durante 8 min., pero cuando la torrefacción se realizó por 10 min. fue muy difícil percibir el aroma a cereal, principalmente cuando éste es cebada. Los resultados fueron utilizados como indicadores de la adulteración del café con cereales y como un criterio de evaluación para garantizar la pureza del café Colombiano.

  7. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.; Bothmer, R. von

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  8. Fine structure of plastids during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.

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    Fortunat Młodzianowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of plastids was studied in the course of androgenesis in in the pollen of Hordeum vulgare L. It was found that these organelles occur in all stages of androgenesis. Their structure was simple and was frequently manifested on the cross section only by the presence of the envelope and matrix of different degree of density. Single thylakoids, nucleoid-like regions and starch grains were, however, also noted. The structure of plastids in embryoids formed from microspores of barley was compared with embryos developed from fertilized egg cell, and we did not found any fundamental differences between them. However, only plastid ribosomes were difficult to identify on ultrathin sections in embryoids and in the embryos.

  9. Volátiles de maíz {lea mays), cebada (hordeum vulgare) y café (coffea arábica) tostados. influencia de la adición de estos cereales en el aroma del café

    OpenAIRE

    Margoth Suárez; Edgar Moreno; Edgar Bautista

    2010-01-01

    Los volátiles de café a dos grados de torrefacción, como también los del maíz y los de cebada tostados, fueron extraídos por "Headspace" dinámico. La composición de los volátiles fue determinada por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CGAREM). Los constituyentes mayoritarios del café torrefactado a 230 "C durante 8 minutos fueron el furfural 2-metil-3-dihidrofuranona y 2,3- pentadiona mientras que a230"Cy 10 minutos fueron el 2-furanmetanol, ...

  10. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

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    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  11. [In vitro effect of Hordeum vulgare on the crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaroud, Samira; Harrache, Djamila; Amar, Amina

    2012-01-01

    The recommended conservative treatment of hyperoxaluria is mainly based on hyperhydration and ingestion of inhibitors of crystallization. In accordance with this context, the aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of Hordeum vulgare on calcium oxalate crystallization oxalo-dependent. The crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in supersaturated aqueous solution at 37 °C, was followed in a model turbidimetric continuous in a closed system. The proposed model is very good reproducibility (CV < 10%), crystallization was monitored continuously in the presence of Hordeum vulgare at different concentrations (0.0625 to 1 g/L). The comparison of turbidimetric parameters, that characterize the growth stage of monohydrated oxalate calcium crystals and observation of the crystals obtained at the end of crystallization into scanning electron microscopy, have been able to demonstrate the inducing effect of Hordeum vulgare to 0.0625 g/L and a slight inhibitory effect at the others concentrations. PMID:23207820

  12. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most of...

  13. Separate Location of Parental Chromosomes in Squashed Metaphases of Hybrid between Hordeum vulgare L. and Four Polyploid, Alien Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    In 38 squashed, somatic metaphases of four hybrids between diploid Hordeum vulgare and two tetra-and two hexaploid alien species, each of the H. vulgare chromosomes was identifed, and differentiated from the chromosomes of the other parental species, by its Giemsa C-banding pattern. The H. vulgare...

  14. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine Groth; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, A.

    2009-01-01

    to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 A resolution and refined to an R (cryst) of 19.0% and an R (free) of 23.8%. The...

  15. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids was...

  16. Dataset for transcriptional response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to drought and subsequent re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokáš, Filip; Vojta, Petr; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important species, which can be cultivated in environmentally adverse conditions due to its higher tolerance in contrast to other cereal crops. The draft of H. vulgare genome is available already for couple of years; however its functional annotation is still incomplete. All available databases were searched to expand current annotation. The improved annotation was used to describe processes and genes regulated in transgenic lines showing higher tolerance to drought in our associated article, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2016.01.010 (Vojta et al., 2016) [1]. Here we present whole transcriptome response, using extended annotation, to severe drought stress and subsequent re-watering in wild-type barley plants in stem elongation phase of growth. Up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct GO categories and these enriched by stress and revitalization are highlighted. Transcriptomic data were evaluated separately for root and aerial tissues. PMID:27331111

  17. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  18. Localising QTLs for leaf rust resistance and agronomic traits in barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicherer, S.; Backes, G.; Walther, U.; Jahoor, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Hordeum vulgare accession 'HOR 1063' was crossed with the barley cultivar Krona, and 220 doubled haploid lines were produced based on this cross. A molecular map was constructed based on RFLP markers. Field trials were performed over 2 years and at two locations. In field trials, resistance t...

  19. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  20. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  1. Cistatinas de cebada: proteínas de defensa contra artrópodos

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Gil, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Las cistatinas son un grupo de proteínas identificadas en animales, plantas y algunos microorganismos que inhiben cisteín proteasas C1A, de la familia de la papaína. Las cistatinas de plantas o fitocistatinas tienen un papel endógeno relacionado con el intercambio proteico y la muerte celular programada y se ha demostrado que actúan como proteínas de defensa frente a plagas y patógenos. En cebada, Hordeum vulgare L., se ha identificado la familia completa de cistatinas compuesta por trece mie...

  2. Cloning and characterization of four B-hordein genes from Tibetan hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao-Xue; Qian, Gang; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Deng, Guang-Bing; Wu, Fang; Tang, Ya-Wei; Qiang, Xiao-Lin; Yu, Mao-Qun

    2006-10-01

    Four B-hordein genes, designated BH1-BH4, were cloned using PCR amplification from two hull-less barley cultivars, ZQ7239 and ZQ148, collected from Tibet. The results of sequencing indicated that BH1-BH4 contained complete open reading frames (ORFs). Comparison of their predicted polypeptide sequences with the published sequences suggested that they all share the same basic protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the deduced amino-acid sequences of BH1-BH4 genes were more closely related to B-hordeins from cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) than to any other prolamins from wild barley and Aegilops tauschii. Comparison of the coding regions of BH1-BH4 genes showed that BH1 had a lower sequence identity to other previously published B-hordeins than the other three B-hordeins obtained in this study. BH1 was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The resulting plasmid produced a 28.15 kDa protein in Escherichia coli. The potential value of B-hordein genes in grain quality improvement of hull-less barley has been discussed. PMID:17046594

  3. Complete genomic sequence of barley (Hordeum vulgare) endornavirus (HvEV) determined by next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candresse, Thierry; Marais, Armelle; Sorrentino, Roberto; Faure, Chantal; Theil, Sébastien; Cadot, Valérie; Rolland, Mathieu; Villemot, Julie; Rabenstein, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Endornaviruses are unusual plant-, fungus- and oomycete-infecting viruses with a large, ca 14- to 17-kb linear double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome and a persistent lifestyle. The complete genome sequence of an endornavirus from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Nerz variety was determined from paired Illumina MySeq reads derived from purified dsRNAs. The genome is 14,243 nt long, with 5' and 3' non-coding regions of 207 and 47 nt, respectively. It encodes a single large protein of 4663 amino acids that carries conserved motifs for a methyltransferase, a helicase and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The sequence of Hordeum vulgare endornavirus (HvEV) carries all the hallmarks of a typical member of the genus Endornavirus, with the exception of an UDP-glycosyltransferase motif observed in many, but not all, endornaviral genomes. PMID:26666441

  4. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Woldeamlak, A.

    2001-01-01

    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting the productivity of mixtures include genotype combination, crop density and component crop ratio.Grain yields differed significantly among genotype combinations in certain years. A combination of Ardu 12/6...

  5. Effects of Dosages and Application Periods of EDTA on Morphological and Cytogenetic Characters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    İLBAŞ, Ali İrfan; EROĞLU, Yasemin; EROĞLU, Halil Erhan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) has many applications in plant research in addition to other applications, such as chelation and medical therapy. The morphological and cytogenetic effects of EDTA on barley seedlings were investigated in the present study. Seeds of Hordeum vulgare L. were treated with different doses of EDTA (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mmol/l) and 2 different application periods (20 and 22 h). Except mitotic index, all of the measurements for the investigated characters we...

  6. Molecular modeling approach to explore the role of cathepsin B from Hordeum vulgare in the degradation of Aβ peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanavade, Maruti J; Parulekar, Rishikesh S; Kamble, Subodh A; Sonawane, Kailas D

    2016-01-01

    The pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of Aβ peptides in human brains. These Aβ peptides can be degraded by several enzymes such as hACE, hECE, hIDE and cathepsin B. Out of which cathepsin B also belongs to the papain super family and has been found in human brains, it has a role in Aβ peptide degradation through limited proteolysis. The Aβ concentrations are maintained properly by its production and clearance via receptor-mediated cellular uptake and direct enzymatic degradation. However, the reduced production of Aβ degrading enzymes as well as their Aβ degrading activity in human brains initiate the process of accumulation of Aβ peptides. So it becomes essential to investigate the molecular interactions involved in the process of Aβ degradation in detail at the atomic level. Hence, homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation techniques have been used to explore the possible role of cathepsin B from Hordeum vulgare in the degradation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. The homology model of cathepsin B from Hordeum vulgare shows good similarity with human cathepsin B. Molecular docking and MD simulation results revealed that the active site residues Cys32, HIS112, HIS113 are involved in the catalytic activity of cathepsin B. The sulfhydryl group of the Cys32 residue of cathepsin B from Hordeum vulgare cleaves the Aβ peptide from the carboxylic end of Glu11. Hence, this structural study might be helpful in designing alternative strategies for the treatment of AD. PMID:26568474

  7. Bioacumulación de arsénico en las etapas de desarrollo de la cebada maltera (Hordeum distichon L. Arsenic bioaccumulation in the stages of development of malt barley (Hordeum distichon L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    Full Text Available La contaminación por arsénico en aguas y suelos de Zimapán, Hidalgo, México; origina que la cebada maltera (Hordeum distichon L. acumule este elemento. El objetivo fue determinar los niveles de bioacumulación de arsénico en órganos y tejidos de cebada bajo condiciones controladas, en diferentes etapas de desarrollo de la planta. Se cultivó la cebada en 25 macetas, cinco por cada uno de cinco ensayos diferenciados, incluyendo controles negativos (suelo y agua no contaminados y positivos. Se utilizaron cinco semillas por macetas y se evaluó la acumulación de arsénico en cada uno de los órganos: raíz, tallo, hoja, espiga y grano, en cada una de las cinco etapas de desarrollo consideradas: formación del coleoptilo o aparición de la primera hoja; amacollamiento u hojas verdaderas a partir de la axila foliar; etapa de "encañado" o primer nudo separado del suelo donde aparecerán las primeras espigas, espigamiento y llenado de granos. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con tres tratamientos: con arsénico, control positivo y control negativo. Se realizaron cinco réplicas por tratamiento. El cultivo presentó una elevada acumulación de arsénico en sus diferentes etapas de desarrollo, directamente proporcional al tiempo de exposición. La raíz presentó la más alta concentración de arsénico acumulada (100 y 300 mg kg-1, seguida por las hojas (80 a 180 mg kg-1 y el tallo (70 a 110 mg kg-1. El nivel de acumulación de arsénico en granos resultó entre 40-90 mg kg-1, que de acuerdo a normas argentinas, pueden considerarse como altamente contaminados. En índice de bioacumulación (IBA, las hojas presentaron los valores más altos, clasificando como niveles medios (0.1-1 para plantas verdes. Este índice se utilizó como indicativo para estimar niveles de contaminación por arsénico en suelos. En el tallo se presentaron los mayores valores de IBA; por lo tanto, este órgano sirvió como indicador específico del

  8. Hordein variation in Brazilian barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. and wild barley (H. euclaston Steud. and H. stenostachys Godr.

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    Echart-Almeida Cinara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the hordein polypeptide patterns of Brazilian barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. and of two native species of Hordeum from southern Brazil (H. euclaston Steud. and H. stenostachys Godr.. Forty different hordein polypeptide bands with molecular weights ranging from 30 to 94 kDa were found in the seeds of the three species studied. Twelve of the 14 varieties examined showed intravarietal polymorphism. The number of bands ranged from 10 to 17, depending on the variety, and from 3 to 13 among individual seeds, with a total of 26 bands in H. vulgare. Phenograms using each seed as an operational taxonomic unit (OTU showed that the seeds from most varieties did not form distinct clusters. Seeds from different plants of the native species varied considerably. The molecular weights of the hordein polypeptides of the two native species were quite different from those of H. vulgare. There was a greater similarity between the native species than with H. vulgare, although H. stenostachys was slightly closer to the cultivated species than H. euclaston.

  9. Generation mean analysis of grain yield and its related traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Raikwar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis was performed using three crosses namely DL 88 x K 560, K 603 x Azad, RD 2552 x NDB 1020 to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its component characters in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of these crosses along with P1 and P2 were studied for six morphological traits. Additive x additive (i epistatic effect was more important and higher than the dominance x dominance (l epistatic effect in the inheritance of no. of effective tillers/plant in DL88 x K560, length of main spike and grain yield/plant in RD 2552 x NDB1020. The length of main spike, weight of grains/main spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant were significantly higher in RD 2552 x NDB 1020.Thus, these characters were mainly under the control of dominance x dominance (l type of epistasis. Therefore, selection for these characters would be fruitful, if delayed till dominance and epistasis effects are reduced to minimum. The additive × additive (i type gene interaction and duplicate epistasis also seen in this trait suggest the possibilities of obtaining transgressive segregants in later generations. The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive types of gene interaction for all the traits studied.

  10. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) Improvement by Mutation Induction in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase food availability and household incomes of families in the Andean region of Peru, a mutation induction method was applied to improve barley (Hordeum vulgare) and kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) cultivars. Barley cultivar Buenavista was treated with 200 and 300Gy inducing different kinds of mutations. Twenty promising mutant lines were selected and have been evaluated at the national trials. From them Mbv-Earlier, from 300Gy dose was selected and released in 2006 as a new cultivar denominated Centenario. This cultivar has a high yield potential (5,552 kg/ha), resistance to stripe rust (P. striiformis f sp hordei) and better food quality than the parental cultivar. Kiwicha traditional cultivar Seleccion Ancash treated with 400Gy , identified a higher yield mutant denominated Centenario Cultivar. At farmer location in the coast the yield has a variation of 3,500 to 5,500 kg/ha and in the highland from 2,500 to 3,700 kg/ha. The better yield potential, tolerance to Sclerotinia sp, color and size of its grains have contributed in the preference of Centenario over other commercial cultivars. (author)

  11. Reduction of gramine concentration by gamma-irradiation in seedlings of Hordeum vulgare var. Amaginijo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma-irradiation on gramine concentration in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare var. Amaginijo) were investigated. Similarly to other barley cultivars, this amine appeared in shoots of sprouting seedlings and its concentration increased in the course of subsequent development to attain a maximum around the ninth day. Exposure of two-day-old seedlings to gamma-radiation resulted in significant reductions of the concentration as compared with non-irradiated control, dependent upon the radiation dose, whilst the five-day-old seedlings were slightly affected. Seeds were more radioresistant than younger seedlings, when the decline in gramine quantity was taken as a marker of radiation effect. Longer storage of irradiated seeds enhanced the decrease of this compound in seedlings. At relatively low doses, gramine concentration was successively recovered to reach the control level during further growth. This decline of gramine content could not be correlated solely with water content of seeds and oxygen did not seem to be a critical factor. On the basis of these results, probable mechanisms for radiation-induced reduction of the amine concentration are discussed. In these experiments it was found that changing patterns of gramine content were in close parallel with those of growth

  12. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. PMID:26527793

  13. Evaluation of barley (hordeum vulgare l.) germplasm for high forage production under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore high biomass producing salt tolerant cultivars of a potential forage crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), 30-day old plants of 105 different accessions from different origin were subjected to saline and non-saline (control) conditions for 45 days. Salinity stress (150 mM NaCl) markedly suppressed plant growth (shoot and/or root fresh and dry weights), chlorophyll pigments (a and b), internal CO/sub 2/ concentration, stomatal conductance, rate of transpiration and photosynthesis, while a considerable salt-induced increase was observed in all fluorescence related attributes including efficiency of photosystem-II (Fv/Fm), co-efficient of non-photochemical quenching (QN), photochemical quenching (QP), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in all 105 accessions of barley. The response of all 105 barley accessions to salt stress varied significantly for all the morpho-physiological attributes determined in the present study. Overall, on the basis of shoot and root dry weights, accessions, 4050, 4053, 4056, 4163, 4228, 4229, 4244, 4245, 4290, 4414, 4415, 4427, 4452, Mahali, Jesto, 4165, 4229, 4249, 4405, 4409, 4426, 4456, and Giza 123 were found superior while accessions, 4245, 4158, 4166, 4246, 4406, 4423, 4441, 4442 4447, 4453 and 4458 inferior under saline conditions. (author)

  14. Auxin effects on somaclonal variation and plant regeneration from mature embryo of barley (hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), immature embryos are the most commonly used as explant source for In vitro regeneration and genetic transformation but, mature embryos are alternative to immature embryo due to the fact that they have advantages such as easy storage and ready availability throughout the year. The effects of different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/l) of three auxins (2,4-D, dicamba and picloram) were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Calli, embryogenic calli and regenerated plants were observed in all of the studied auxins. The MS (Murashige and Skoog basal medium) containing 12 mg/l dicamba was found to be the most effective for embryogenic callus, responded embryogenic callus and regeneration efficiency. Plant tissue culture can bring about genetic changes that are known as somaclonal variation. Genetic and epigenetic changes were examined by RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and CRED-RA (Coupled Restriction Enzyme Digestion-Random Amplification) techniques, respectively. Increased auxin concentration led to the decrease in the GTS (Genomic Template Stability) value. DNA hypermethylation occurred in higher concentrations of 2,4-D and picloram, while DNA hypomethylation was observed in dicamba. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Cadmium and Copper in Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Žaltauskaitė

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of toxic effects of cadmium and copper on the growth of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivated in hydroponics. The seedlings of barley were treated with four different concentrations of cadmium and copper, ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg L-1. The aim of the study was to assess toxic effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on the growth of spring barley, and to determine metal accumulation in above-ground and underground parts of the plant. The impact of Cu and Cd on photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the essential micronutrients (Mn, Fe were examined. Metal treatment reduced the growth of roots (by 60%, shoots (Cd – 48 %, Cu – 57% and dry weight (Cd – 47 %, Cu – 52% of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. Regression analysis revealed that there was significant negative relationship between MDA content and biomass of barley treated with Cu (r=-0.99, p=0.01. The examined heavy metals were accumulated mainly in the roots and bioconcentration of Cu there was higher than that of Cd, indicating that roots tended to accumulate higher amounts of Cu than Cd. Though translocation of Cd from roots to above-ground tissues was higher, higher levels of Cd were observed in leaves.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.1951

  16. Genetic Diversity Assessment in Several Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Cultivars Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza BLORI-MOGHADAM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, genetic diversity in seven cultivars of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare populations was evaluated using 10 microsatellite markers. Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh leaves and amplification reactions were done by PCR. The amplification products were separated on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gels containing 7M urea and visualized via silver staining method. High level of polymorphism was observed among populations. Polymorphic bands ranged from 100 to 300 bp. Altogether 65 alleles were observed among all genotypes, with an average of 9.2 alleles per locus for all loci. Polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.80 to 0.88 with an average of 0.84. �Sahand� populations showed the lowest mean of gene diversity whereas the highest mean of heterozygosity observed in Rayhan populations that can prepare a powerful resource of genetic diversity for breeding programs. The genotypes were clustered using unweight pair-group method on arithmetic average by POPGEN32 software. The dendrogram discriminated all the genotypes in several groups. The results showed that SSR markers have a high ability to reveal most of the information in a single locus and can be used for genetic analysis in molecular levels determination of genetic similarity and clustering barley cultivars.

  17. Proteomic Response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to Salinity Stress: Similarities and Differences between a Glycophyte and a Halophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maršálová, Lucie; Vítámvás, Pavel; Hynek, Radovan; Prášil, Ilja T; Kosová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley H. marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defense-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant family, several chaperones from heat shock protein family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper and nascent polypeptide-associated complex families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H. vulgare indicate plant tissue damage as

  18. Characterization of microRNAs and their targets in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) using deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pingchuan; Bian, Jianxin; Yue, Hong; Feng, Kewei; Wang, Mengxing; Du, Xianghong; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a negative regulatory role in various developmental and metabolic processes of plants. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum), as the progenitor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare), has served as a valuable germplasm resource for barley genetic improvement. To survey miRNAs in wild barley, we sequenced the small RNA library prepared from wild barley using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 70 known miRNAs and 18 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the miRNAs identified in wild barley contained the highly conserved hairpin sequences found in barley cultivars. MiRNA target predictions showed that 12 out of 52 miRNA families were predicted to target transcription factors, including 8 highly conserved miRNA families in plants and 4 wheat-barley conserved miRNA families. In addition to transcription factors, other predicted target genes were involved in diverse physiological and metabolic processes and stress defense. Our study for the first time reported the large-scale investigation of small RNAs in wild barley, which will provide essential information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in wild barley and also shed light on future practical utilization of miRNAs for barley improvement. PMID:27100818

  19. Implication of phospholipase D in response of Hordeum vulgare root to short-term potassium deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsi, Chokri; Russo, Marco A; Sgherri, Cristina; Izzo, Riccardo; Navari-Izzo, Flavia; Abdelly, Chedly

    2009-03-15

    To verify the possible involvement of lipids and several other compounds including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in the response of Hordeum vulgare to early potassium deprivation, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 30d with a modified Hewitt nutrient solution containing 3mM K(+). They were then incubated for increasing periods of time ranging from 2 to 36h in the same medium deprived of K(+). In contrast to leaves, root K(+) concentration showed its greatest decrease after 6h of treatment. The main lipids of the control barley roots were phospholipids (PL), representing more than 50% of the total lipids. PL did not change with treatment, whereas free sterols (FS) decreased following K(+) deprivation, showing a reduction of approximately 17% after 36h. With respect to the individual PL, 30h K(+) deprivation led to a reduction in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels, whereas phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidic acid (PA) levels increased. The maximum PA accumulation and the highest phospholipase D (PLD) activation, estimated by an accumulation of phosphatidylbutanol (PtBut), were observed after 24h of K(+) starvation. At the root level, H(2)O(2) showed the maximum value after 6h of incubation in -K solution. In parallel, G3PDH activity reached its minimum. On the basis of a concomitant stimulation of PLD activity and, consequently, PA accumulation, enhancement of H(2)O(2) production, and inhibition of G3PDH activity, we suggest a possible involvement of these three compounds in an early response to K(+) deprivation. PMID:18814934

  20. The Influence of Processing by Impulse Pressure on the Productivity of the Don Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Violetta Aleksandrovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is the important indicator, which determines the amount of yield. The productivity of plants depends on the number of bruchids per plant and on the weight of 1000 bruchids. The article studies the influence of impulse pressure of various magnitudes on plant productivity of Don barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. It was found that the pressure of 17 MPa was the most effective for increasing the productivity. Impulse pressure of other magnitudes also had influence on the productivity of Don barley.

  1. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Marchiol; Alessandro Mattiello; Filip Pošćić; Guido Fellet; Costanza Zavalloni; Elvio Carlino; Rita Musetti

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nC...

  2. Luteibacter rhizovicinus gen. nov., sp nov., a yellow-pigmented gammaproteobacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jens E.; Binnerup, Svend J.; Kroer, Niels;

    2005-01-01

    Three strains of Gram-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, chemo-organotrophic bacteria, motile by a polar flagellum, were isolated from the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at a research field near Copenhagen, Denmark. The three strains, LJ79, LJ96(T) and LJ99, formed visible...... colonies on one-tenth-strength tryptic soy broth supplemented with agar (1/10 TSBA) after incubation for 6 days at 15 degrees C. The strains hydrolysed starch, casein (skimmed milk), gelatin and various pentoses and hexoses and grew on MacConkey agar and full-strength TSBA. Growth on 1/10 TSBA occurred at...

  3. Physiological and biochemical reactions of Hordeum vulgare seedlings to the action of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Khromykh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrical indexes, and spectrophotometrically measured protein and glutathione (GSH, GSSG contents and activity of peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7, glutathione-reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST, EС 2.5.1.18 were examined in Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings after 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l AgNPs treatment during 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that the action of nanoparticles has a stressful effect on the physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings. Growth of roots was inhibited and fresh weight decreased by 29% and 21% under low and high concentrations respectively. Conversely, leaf growth was intensified, and leaf length (16% and 18% and fresh weight (35% and 44% increased at low and high concentrations respectively. POD activity in roots increased by 26% and 7%, and decreased in leaves to 57% and 81% of control at low and high concentrations respectively. GSH content changed insignificantly, but GSSG content increased in roots (2 and 2.5-fold and in leaves (13% and 30% at both AgNPs concentrations. GSH/GSSG-ratio decreased in roots (1.9 and 2.6-fold and in leaves (1.1 and 1.3-fold at low and high concentrations respectively. GR activity decreased at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (7% in roots and 17% in leaves respectively and increased at 0.1 mg/l (52% in roots and 6% in leaves. GST activity increased in leaves (52% and 78% at low and high concentrations but decreased by 17% in roots under high concentration of nanosilver. Thus, the action of AgNPs on barley seedlings had a dose-dependent and organ-specific character. The various directions of changes in growth, metabolic processes and activity of antioxidant defense systems appear to be a stress response of barley seedlings to the impact of AgNPs, which underlines the necessity of detailed study of plant intracellular processes exposed to the action of nanomaterial.

  4. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    -binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric......In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  5. Nitrogen uptake by Azospirillum brasilense inoculated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as influenced by N and P fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a sandy-loam soil under potted conditions revealed that application of nitrogen and phosphorus increased the population of Azospirillium in the barley rhizosphere. A two fold increase was observed in the Azospirillium population at 80 days compared to that at 40 days of plant growth. The unsterilized inoculated roots had more population than the surface sterilized inoculated roots. Increased drymatter production of barley was obtained in A. brasilense inoculated N0P1 (0 kg N and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1) treatment than uninoculated control. Also N and P uptake was higher in A. brasilense inoculated plants in the presence of both N and P fertilizers. The 15N data revealed that at harvest nearly 36 per cent of the total N uptake was from the nitrogen fixed by A. brasilense irrespective of P treatment. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants. PMID:25495930

  7. The activity of some oxidoreductases in Hordeum vulgare L. plants treated with ethylmethanesulfonate and Rosmarinus officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gogu Gheorghita; Elena Ciornea; Ioana Daciana Mierlici

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide- dismutase) in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L.) after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50%) of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (EHR). The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-a...

  8. Influence of laser light on leaf area and parameters of photosynthetic activity in DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Garczyński S.; Rybiński W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial material for performed studies was constituted by hull and hull-less DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The kernels were irradiated with helium-neon laser (He-Ne) in red light spectrum and at the wavelength of 632 nm. Plants obtained in greenhouse conditions were analyzed for blade area and their photosynthetic activity in flag and penultimate leaves (photosynthetic and transpiration rate, photosynthetic gas efficiency). The results indicated a biostimulation effect o...

  9. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and its effect on selected physiological and morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriama Kopernická

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and other toxic elements in the environment, mainly located in soil and groundwater, have a significant effect on plant and its productivity that has a huge attention in recent years. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil cause toxicity to plants, and contaminate the food chain. The industrial areas, as well as developing countries have been contaminated with high concentration of heavy metals. Main sources of contamination are mining and other industrial processes, as well as military and or lanfills, sludge dumps or waste disposal sites. The heavy metals are very dangerous to environment and pose serious danger to public health by entering throught the food chain or into drinking water. Phytoextraction is one way how to remove the contaminants from soil by plants. Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a technology that has been studied for several years. It is more ecological and cheaper way how to clean our environment.Several plant species are known becauce they hyperaccumulate a high contents of metals from the soil. The accumulators are mainly herbaceous species, crops and nowadays angiosperm trees with a high growth such as poplars or willows. We have focused on the determination of some morphological (lenght and weight of roots and biomass and physiological (contents of dry mass and number of lief stomata characteristics and the determination of the bioaccumulation factor and the translocation factor of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Imprints of leaves were evaluated using an optical microscope Axiostar Plus, Carl Zeiss, lens CP Achromat 40x/0.65, eyepiece PI 10x / 18, Canon Utilities Software Zoom Browser EX 4.6 and hardware Acer Travel Mate 4600, Canon Power Shot A95. The density of stomata was evaluated on an area of 1 mm2. Samples of the dried plants (leaves and roots were mineralized by acid digestion using microwave digestion device MARS X - press 5. The end of determination to obtain the cadmium content was

  10. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  11. The impacts of BSMV on vegetative growth and water status in hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare var. nudum in VIGS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV is an established and extensively used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS vector for gene function analysis in monocots. However, the phenotypes generated by targeted gene silencing may be affected or masked by symptoms of BSMV infection. To better understand the potential effects of BSMV-VIGS in hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare var. nudum, the accumulation pattern of BSMV and its impacts on vegetative growth and water status were investigated. The results indicated that the vegetative growth of infected plants was significantly and continuously impacted by BSMV from 10 to 40 days post inoculation (dpi. When the accumulation of BSMV was extremely high (7 to 11 dpi, infected plants displayed twisted leaf tips with an increased water lose rate (WLR and decreased water content (WC. Virus accumulation declined and stabilized after 25 dpi, at this stage, the WLR and WC were unaffected in the infected plants. The efficiency of VIGS was tested by the silencing of Phytoene desaturase (PDS. RT-qPCR indicated that BSMV-VIGS can be sustained with good efficiency for up to 40 dpi under an altered condition with lower temperature (22 ±1°C and higher relative humidity (70 ±10%. It was concluded that 25 to 40 dpi was the appropriate time zone for drought-related gene analysis by BSMV-VIGS under such condition.

  12. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  13. A flavonoid mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exhibits increased sensitivity to UV-B radiation in the primary leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present investigation was to define the role of soluble flavonoids as UV-B protectants in the primary leaf of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). For this purpose we used a mutant line (Ant 287) from the Carlsberg collection of proanthocyanidin-free barley containing only 7% of total extractable flavonoids in the primary leaf as compared to the mother variety (Hiege 550/75). Seven-day-old leaves from plants grown under high visible light with or without supplementary UV-B radiation were used for the determination of UV-B sensitivity. UV-B-induced changes were assessed from parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem II, including initial and maximum fluorescence, apparent quantum yield, and photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. A quartz fibre-optic microprobe was used to evaluate the amount of potentially harmful UV-B (310 nm radiation) penetrating into the leaf as a direct consequence of flavonoid deficiency. Our data indicate an essential role of flavonoids in UV-B protection of barley primary leaves. In leaves of the mutant line grown under supplementary UV-B, an increase in 310nm radiation in the mesophyll and a strong decrease in the quantum yield of photosynthesis were observed as compared to the corresponding mother variety. Primary leaves of liege responded to supplementary UV-B radiation with a 30% increase in the major flavonoid saponarin and a 500% increase in the minor compound lutonarin. This is assumed to be an efficient protective response since no changes in variable chlorophyll fluorescence were apparent. In addition, a further reduction in UV-B penetration into the mesophyll was recorded in these leaves

  14. TaMSH7: A cereal mismatch repair gene that affects fertility in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langridge Peter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome pairing, recombination and DNA repair are essential processes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. Investigating the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Ph2 (Pairing homoeologous locus has identified numerous candidate genes that may have a role in controlling such processes, including TaMSH7, a plant specific member of the DNA mismatch repair family. Results Sequencing of the three MSH7 genes, located on the short arms of wheat chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D, has revealed no significant sequence divergence at the amino acid level suggesting conservation of function across the homoeogroups. Functional analysis of MSH7 through the use of RNAi loss-of-function transgenics was undertaken in diploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed several T0 lines with reduced MSH7 expression. Positive segregants from two T1 lines studied in detail showed reduced MSH7 expression when compared to transformed controls and null segregants. Expression of MSH6, another member of the mismatch repair family which is most closely related to the MSH7 gene, was not significantly reduced in these lines. In both T1 lines, reduced seed set in positive segregants was observed. Conclusion Results presented here indicate, for the first time, a distinct functional role for MSH7 in vivo and show that expression of this gene is necessary for wild-type levels of fertility. These observations suggest that MSH7 has an important function during meiosis and as such remains a candidate for Ph2.

  15. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2) and titanium oxide (nTiO2) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  16. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Pošćić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2 and titanium oxide (nTiO2 nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively. Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production.

  17. BAC library resources for map-based cloning and physical map construction in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cheng-Cang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Although second generation sequencing (2GS technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also generated. The new BAC libraries were fully characterized in depth by scrutinizing the major quality parameters such as average insert size, degree of contamination (plate wide, neighboring, and chloroplast, empty wells and off-scale clones (clones with 250 fragments. Additionally a set of gene-based probes were hybridized to high density BAC filters and showed that genome coverage of each library is between 2.4 and 6.6 X. Conclusion BAC libraries representing >20 haploid genomes are available as a new resource to the barley research community. Systematic utilization of these libraries in high-throughput BAC fingerprinting should allow developing a genome-wide physical map for the barley genome, which will be instrumental for map-based gene isolation and genome sequencing.

  18. Adaptation and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L. landraces revealed by molecular analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitocchi Elena

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the cereal crops, barley is the species with the greatest adaptability to a wide range of environments. To determine the level and structure of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. landraces from the central highlands of Ethiopia, we have examined the molecular variation at seven nuclear microsatellite loci. Results A total of 106 landrace populations were sampled in the two growing seasons (Meher and Belg; the long and short rainy seasons, respectively, across three districts (Ankober, Mojanawadera and Tarmaber, and within each district along an altitudinal gradient (from 1,798 to 3,324 m a.s.l. Overall, although significant, the divergence (e.g. FST is very low between seasons and geographical districts, while it is high between different classes of altitude. Selection for adaptation to different altitudes appears to be the main factor that has determined the observed clinal variation, along with population-size effects. Conclusions Our data show that barley landraces from Ethiopia are constituted by highly variable local populations (farmer's fields that have large within-population diversity. These landraces are also shown to be locally adapted, with the major driving force that has shaped their population structure being consistent with selection for adaptation along an altitudinal gradient. Overall, our study highlights the potential of such landraces as a source of useful alleles. Furthermore, these landraces also represent an ideal system to study the processes of adaptation and for the identification of genes and genomic regions that have adaptive roles in crop species.

  19. The activity of some oxidoreductases in Hordeum vulgare L. plants treated with ethylmethanesulfonate and Rosmarinus officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogu Gheorghita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide- dismutase in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50% of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (EHR. The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-alcoholic rosemary extract, after the EMS treatment, led to a significant decrease of the activities of these enzymes, since the rosemary extract has an obvious antioxidant effect.

  20. The Effect of Different Gamma Radiation Doses Applied on Tokak 157/37 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Karahan 99 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) on M1 Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Yeşim; Zeynep ERGÜN; Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    In this research study, the dose of different gamma radiation on seed germination of Hordeum vulgare TOKAK 157/37 barley kind and KARAHAN 99 wheatTriticum aestivum, and the mechanisms of the dose required to maximize the rate and percentage of germination and increased growth of root, seedling, TAEK was conducted in Ankara. The moisture rate has been %11, the barley and wheat seeds whose germination per cent is 98 % has been irradiated with 9 different doses between 0-600Gy in the centre of 6...

  1. Sink-source proximity affecting photosynthate distributive pattern in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yielding ability of cereals is an interplay of source-sink capacities and is controlled presumably by physiological events at different growth stages. The translocation of 14C-sucrose from the flag leaf to the ears and other plant parts of the main tiller of barley (H. vulgare L. cv 292) were studied at its appearance (I), maturation (II) and senescence initiation (III) stages. At every stage, there was preferentially higher 14C-translocation from the flag leaf to the ears in comparison to other plant parts, indicating thereby the crucial role played by sink-source proximity in PHS'ate(photosynthate) Partg(partitioning). In order to ascertain such Partg behaviour of the different leaves on the main tiller at stage-II, the leaves starting basipetally, from flag to the fifth leaf, were labelled with 14C-sucrose and their relative translocation to the ears and roots were determined. There was a differential 14C-translocation to the sinks due to the change in the sink-source proximity, viz. >90% 14C were translocated to the ears from flag leaf, which declined to ≤5% only from the fifth leaf, the reverse being true for the roots. Further, spikelet's central grains preferentially accumulated more 14C-assimilates than the peripheral ones, probably due to being in close proximity to the unloading points. Thus, the distributive pattern of photoassimilates showed stage-specific quantitative changes and that the sink-source proximity played a crucial role in the PHS'ate Partg. (author). 3 figs., 29 refs

  2. Evaluation of drought resistance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars using agronomic characteristics and drought tolerance indices

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    Mohsen Saeidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the performance of barley under drought stress conditions and screening quantitative indices of drought tolerance, twelve barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars were tested in a split-plot arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications under irrigated and post-anthesis water deficiency conditions. This study was carried out in the field research of campus of agriculture and natural resources, Razi university, Kermanshah state in the west of Iran during 2010-2011. The results showed that post anthesis water deficiency caused 22, 18.3, 5.9, 5.5 and 21.9 percent reduction in grain yield, biomass, thousand grain weight, number of grain per spike and number of spike per m2 in average respectively, but had no significant effect on harvest index. Mean comparisons showed that Nosrat cultivar with 838 g m-2 and Afzal cultivar with 392 g m-2, respectively had the highest and the lowest grain yield under non-stress condition. Under water stress environment Nosrat and Karoun cultivars with 696 and 656 g m-2 and also, Aras and Sahra cultivars with 322 and 327 g m-2, respectively had the highest and the lowest grain yield. The estimates of stress tolerance attributes indicated that the identification of drought-tolerant genotypes based on a single criterion was contradictory. For example, according to STI, GMP and MP cultivars Nosrat, Karoun and Sararud were the most, whereas Aras and Afzal cultivars the least relative tolerant genotypes. As to YI cultivars Nosrat, Karoun and Sararud were the most and Aras, Sahra and Afzal the least relative tolerant genotypes. According to YSI, SSPI, RDI and ATI indices selected the Sararud and Zarjo cultivars as the most relatively tolerant genotypes. DI selected the cultivars Sararud, Nosrat and Karoun as the best, while the cultivars Sahra, Aras and Reihan as the the worst relatively tolerant genotypes. Grain yield in stress condition was significantly and positively correlated

  3. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  4. Etude des caracteres d'enracinement et de leur role dans l'adaptation au deficit hydrique chez l'orge (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Khaldoun, A; Chery, J; Monneveux, P.

    1990-01-01

    Les effets d’un déficit hydrique sur les caractéristiques de l’enracinement de 5 variétés d’orge (Hordeum vulgare L) ont été comparés. Les génotypes, originaires de la zone méditerranéenne, ont été cultivés en serre et en pots sous différentes conditions de déficit hydrique. Cela a permis de mettre en évidence d’importantes différences variétales pour la plupart des caractères étudiés : - nombre de racines principales; - volume racinaire; - rapport entre la masse de matière sèche des pa...

  5. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms. PMID:26640049

  6. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B; Stölen, O

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  7. Localisation of genes for resistance against ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ and ¤Puccinia graminis¤ in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ ssp. ¤spontaneum¤) line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, G.; Madsen, L.H.; Jaiser, H.; Stougaard, J.; Herz, M.; Mohler, V.; Jahoor, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley...

  8. Cama de Broiler y Grano de Cebada Entero o Molido en Raciones de Engorda Invernal de Novillos Broiler Litter and Whole or Milled Barley Grain in Winter Steer Fattening Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rojas G

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta animal al consumo de raciones de engorda formuladas con cama de broiler y grano de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L. entero o molido incorporado al ensilaje de praderas de ballica-trébol blanco (Lolium perenne L.-Trifolium repens L. al momento de su elaboración. Los tratamientos fueron: 1 ensilaje, cama de broiler y grano de cebada molido, mezclados al momento de la alimentación invernal; 2 ensilaje adicionado con cama de broiler al momento de ensilar y grano de cebada molido adicionado al momento de la alimentación invernal; 3 ensilaje adicionado con cama de broiler y grano de cebada molido al momento de ensilar; y 4 ensilaje adicionado con cama de broiler y grano de cebada entero al momento de ensilar. Los incrementos diarios de PV fueron de 1,086; 1,099; 1,074 y 1,111 kg animal-1 (P ≥ 0,05; el consumo de alimentos de 8,7; 8,7; 8,4 y 8,4 kg MS animal-1 y las eficiencias de conversión de alimentos de 8; 7,9; 7,9 y 7,5 kg MS alimento consumido kg-1 incremento PV para los tratamientos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente. Se concluye que la incorporación de cama de broiler sola o con grano de cebada al ensilaje de praderas, al momento de su confección, no afecta el consumo ni los incrementos de PV de los novillos y la incorporación de grano de cebada entero o molido al momento de realizar el ensilaje, produce respuestas similares en los novillos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the animal response to feeding with fattening rations which included ryegrass-white clover (Lolium perenne L.-Trifolium repens L. pasture silage, broiler litter, and milled or whole barley (Hordeum vulgare L grain.. Treatments were 1 pasture silage based ration with broiler litter and milled barley supplemented at the time of winter feeding; 2 pasture silage based ration with broiler litter incorporated to the silo at the date of conservation and milled barley supplemented at feeding time; 3 pasture silage based

  9. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. PMID:27295343

  10. Simultaneous estimation of relative biological effectiveness of alpha particles and protons in thermal neutron exposure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles and protons emitted during exposure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds to thermal neutrons were estimated. sup(10)B-enriched re-dried seeds were irradiated with thermal neutrons or gamma-rays. Two assumptions so far believed that boron distribution was uniform throughout either natural dormant seeds or sup(10)B -enriched seeds, and that boron atoms enter the seeds as freely as water molecules do, were found to be invalid. A boron addition effect (BAE) as high as 58.2 was obtained after thermal neutron exposure of seeds presoaked in 4800 microg/g of sup(10)B-enriched boric acid solution. Estimates of RBE of alpha particles were nearly constant and independent of the contents of absorbed sup(10)B. RBE averaged 55.0 and 55.1 for the seed and spike presoaking methods of boron absorption, respectively. We could also obtain RBE of protons as high as 48.7 and 43.9 for the seed and spike methods, respectively. Boron addition converted the principal capture element during thermal neutron exposure from protons in dormant seeds to boron in sup(10)B enriched-seeds

  11. Development and validation of a terrestrial biotic ligand model predicting the effect of cobalt on root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Biotic Ligand Model was developed predicting the effect of cobalt on root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare) in nutrient solutions. The extent to which Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ ions and pH independently affect cobalt toxicity to barley was studied. With increasing activities of Mg2+, and to a lesser extent also K+, the 4-d EC50Co2+ increased linearly, while Ca2+, Na+ and H+ activities did not affect Co2+ toxicity. Stability constants for the binding of Co2+, Mg2+ and K+ to the biotic ligand were obtained: log K CoBL = 5.14, log K MgBL = 3.86 and log K KBL = 2.50. Limited validation of the model with one standard artificial soil and one standard field soil showed that the 4-d EC50Co2+ could only be predicted within a factor of four from the observed values, indicating further refinement of the BLM is needed. - Biotic Ligand Models are not only a useful tool to assess metal toxicity in aquatic systems but can also be used for terrestrial plants

  12. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.;

    1991-01-01

    Three basic chitinases and one basic beta-1,3-glucanase were secreted into the medium when embryogenic cell suspensions of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Igri' were cultured as undifferentiated aggregates in the presence of 2,4-D. The enzymes were purified by affinity and ion exchange......I at 8.7. Further analysis showed that this enzyme is also expressed in barley grain. The amino acid composition and five partial amino acid sequences covering 93 residues of chitinase K were determined. A high similarity was found between chitinase K and barley chitinase T and C as well as basic...... chitinases from barley aleurone and barley, bean and potato leaves. The purified beta-1,3-glucanase with a molecular weight (MW) of 32 kDa and pI greater-than-or-equal-to 9.8 constituted 1% of the soluble protein in the medium. Based on similar MW, pI and amino acid composition as well as identical N...

  13. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Megan C; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:26946124

  14. Molecular mapping of a non-host resistance gene YrpstY1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xinxia; He, Zhonghu; Lu, Yaming; Wang, Zhenlin; Xia, Xianchun

    2010-10-01

    Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered as a non-host or inappropriate host species for wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Most barley cultivars show a broad-spectrum resistance to wheat stripe rust. To determine the genes for resistance to wheat stripe rust in barley, a cross was made between a resistant barley line Y12 and a susceptible line Y16. The two parents, F(1) and 147 BC(1) plants were tested at seedling stage with Chinese prevalent race CYR32 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by artificial inoculation in greenhouse. The results indicated that Y12 possessed one dominant resistance gene to wheat stripe rust, designated YrpstY1 provisionally. A total of 388 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to map the resistance gene in Y12 using bulked segregant analysis. A linkage map, including nine SSR loci on chromosome 7H and YrpstY1, was constructed using the BC(1) population, indicating that the resistance gene YrpstY1 is located on chromosome 7H. It is potential to transfer the resistance gene into common wheat for stripe rust resistance. PMID:21039455

  15. The Effect of Different Gamma Radiation Doses Applied on Tokak 157/37 Barley (Hordeum vulgare and Karahan 99 Wheat (Triticum aestivum on M1 Generation

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    Yeşim KARA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research study, the dose of different gamma radiation on seed germination of Hordeum vulgare TOKAK 157/37 barley kind and KARAHAN 99 wheatTriticum aestivum, and the mechanisms of the dose required to maximize the rate and percentage of germination and increased growth of root, seedling, TAEK was conducted in Ankara. The moisture rate has been %11, the barley and wheat seeds whose germination per cent is 98 % has been irradiated with 9 different doses between 0-600Gy in the centre of 60Co which has 1.92 kGy/h powers. The objective of that work was to evaluate determine the efficient gamma radiation dose and to determine the physiological effects and the action of the processing for gamma radiation in plant kinds. At the laboratory experiment it has been seen that the percentage of germination of rising radiation doses has no effect on M1 generation, but after diminishing of root length and seedling height with rising radiation doses it has been determined that the growth of the first leaf has stopped on the 14th day and this event has been given importance statistically for TOKAK 157/37 barley kind, 50 % efficient dose has been determined as ED50 485 Gy, for KARAHAN 99 wheat kind, 50 % efficient dose has been determined as ED50 370 Gy.

  16. Influence of laser light on leaf area and parameters of photosynthetic activity in DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

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    Garczyński S.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The initial material for performed studies was constituted by hull and hull-less DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The kernels were irradiated with helium-neon laser (He-Ne in red light spectrum and at the wavelength of 632 nm. Plants obtained in greenhouse conditions were analyzed for blade area and their photosynthetic activity in flag and penultimate leaves (photosynthetic and transpiration rate, photosynthetic gas efficiency. The results indicated a biostimulation effect of laser light, causing an increase of blade area of flag and penultimate leaves. This effect was higher for flag leaves, and exposure to 180 min of irradiation was more effective as compared to 60 min. The reaction observed depended on the kind of DH lines analyzed, and two of them – R63N/14 and R58N/91 increased their blade area more effectively than others. Simultaneously, photo- synthetic and transpiration rate decreased in dependence on time of irradiation and the kind of DH lines used. On the other hand, gas exchange efficiency defined as photosynthetic coefficient of water use (CO2 assimilation / H2O transpiration increased for all DH lines and laser light exposure as compared to control.

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DE CEBADA SEMBRADA SOLA Y ASOCIADA A ESPECIES FORRAJERAS PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE ENSILAJE An evaluation of the production and quality of barley sown alone or combined with forage species for the production of silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Catrileo S.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante la temporada 1999/2000, se evaluó la productividad y calidad de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L. sembrada sola y en asociación con especies forrajeras para ensilaje. El ensayo se realizó en un suelo Ultisol en el secano de la IX Región, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, 38º41’ lat. Sur, 72º25’long. Oeste, 200 m.s.n.m. Los tratamientos evaluados correspondieron a cebada sembrada sola (T1 y las asociaciones de cebada/trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense (T2, cebada/ballica (Lolium multiflorum de rotación (T3 y cebada/pradera ballica/trébol blanco (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens (T4. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones, cortando cada tratamiento en siete estados fenológicos de la cebada. La altura y el contenido de MS de la cebada no presentaron diferencias significativas (P > 0,05 por efecto de los distintos tratamientos y estados de corte evaluados. La cebada asociada con las forrajeras no aumentó la producción de materia seca, salvo en los estados de antésis en progreso y grano acuoso-lechoso (P During the 1999/2000 season, the productivity and quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. sown alone or in association with forage species for silage was evaluated. The study was conducted in an Ultisol in the dryland of the IX Region at the Carillanca Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA, 38º41’ S lat, 72º25’W long, 200 m.a.s.l. The treatments evaluated were: barley alone (T1; barley with red clover (Trifolium pratense (T2; barley with rotational ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum (T3; and barley in mixture with perennial ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens (T4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with three replicates, cutting each treatment at seven phenological stages of the barley crop. The height and DM content of the barley did not

  18. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H. spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, S; Baum, M; Ceccarelli, S; Goodchild, A; El-Haramein, F Jaby; Jahoor, A; Backes, G

    2005-02-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore, difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between a Hordeum vulgare cultivar ('Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields are higher, rather than in dry environments where straw quality is already relatively good. PMID:15678328

  19. Analysis of inhibition of photosynthesis due to water stress in the C3 species Hordeum vulgare and Vicia faba: Electron transport, CO 2 fixation and carboxylation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, A; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

    1996-07-01

    A C3 monocot, Hordeum vulgare and C3 dicot, Vicia faba, were studied to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition of photosynthesis due to water stress. The net rate of CO2 fixation (A) and transpiration (E) were measured by gas exchange, while the true rate of O2 evolution (J O2) was calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence analysis through the stress cycle (10 to 11 days). With the development of water stress, the decrease in A was more pronounced than the decrease in J O2 resulting in an increased ratio of Photosystem II activity per CO2 fixed which is indicative of an increase in photorespiration due to a decrease in supply of CO2 to Rubisco. Analyses of changes in the J O2 A ratios versus that of CO2 limited photosynthesis in well watered plants, and RuBP pool/RuBP binding sites on Rubisco and RuBP activity, indicate a decreased supply of CO2 to Rubisco under both mild and severe stress is primarily responsible for the decrease in CO2 fixation. In the early stages of stress, the decrease in C i (intercellular CO2) due to stomatal closure can account for the decrease in photosynthesis. Under more severe stress, CO2 supply to Rubisco, calculated from analysis of electron flow and CO2 exchange, continued to decrease. However, C i, calculated from analysis of transpiration and CO2 exchange, either remained constant or increased which may be due to either a decrease in mesophyll conductance or an overestimation of C i by this method due to patchiness in conductance of CO2 to the intercellular space. When plants were rewatered after photosynthesis had dropped to 10-30% of the original rate, both species showed near full recovery within two to four days. PMID:24271534

  20. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  1. Molecular size and net charge of pathogenesis-related enzymes from barley (Hordeum vulgare L., v. Karat) infected with Drechslera teres f. teres (Sacch.) Shoem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, G M; Welschbillig, N; Reiss, E

    1998-05-01

    Molecular size and net charge of isoforms of pathogenesis-related (PR) chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase were studied in uninfected barley (Hordeum vulgare L., v. Karat) leaves and in barley leaves infected with the pathogenic fungus Drechslera teres f. teres (Sacch.) Shoem. Molecular characteristics were determined by time-dependent polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis under native conditions and by applying an extended version of the computer program MOL-MASS (Rothe, G. M., Weidmann, H., Electrophoresis 1991, 12, 703-709). Uninfected barley leaves contained predominantly one peroxidase isozyme but also three very weak peroxidases. Activities of all of these three peroxidases increased considerably after infection with Drechslera teres. The molecular masses of peroxidases 1 and 3 were estimated to be 38 +/- 5 and 42 +/- 7 kDa and their apparent valences at pH 8.4 were Z = 3.13 and 3.20, respectively. Amongst the chitinase isoforms, chitinase 1 and chitinase 2 appeared after infection, while chitinase 3 was also observed in uninfected leaves of barley. The molecular mass of chitinase 3 (31 +/- 6 kDa; f/fo = 1.20) was larger than that of chitinase 1 (20 +/- 2 kDa; f/fo = 1.04) and chitinase 2 (23 +/- 3 kDa; f/fo = 1.06). The valence of constitutive chitinase 3 (Z = 1.44 +/- 0.81) at pH 8.4 was lower than that of adaptive chitinase 1 (Z = 3.27 +/- 1.02) and chitinase 2 (Z = 2.96 +/- 1.38). Infection of barley leaves with Drechslera teres also induced the hydrolytic enzyme beta-1,3-glucanase 1; beta-1,3-glucanase 2 appeared in uninfected and in infected leaves. Constitutive beta-1,3-glucanase 2 was smaller (molecular mass 19 +/- kDa; f/fo = 1.05) than adaptive beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (molecular mass 26 +/- 4 kDa; f/fo = 1.07). The valence of adaptive beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (Z = 9.58 +/- 4.17) was approximately threefold that of beta-1,3-glucanase 2 (Z = 2.80 +/- 0.93). PMID:9629909

  2. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possess a significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess little or virtually no pre-formed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during...

  3. Genetic Diversity of SSR Markers in Cultivated Hordeum vulgare L. in Qinghai Province%青海省栽培青稞SSR标记遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海宁; 杨菁; 何桂芳

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to analyze genetic diversity of SSR markers in Hordeum vulgare L. in Qinghai Province and lay a foundation for screening and protecting some excellent H. vulgare cultivars. [ Method] SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 42 cultivated H. vulgare from Qinghai Province. [ Result ] 42 H. vulgare showed polymorphism in 7 SSR markers locus. A total of 24 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 6, with an average of 3.0. According to SSR markers polymorphism, 42 H. vulgare could be divided into 4 groups, namely Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and IV. [ Result] The study indicated that cultivated H. vulgare from Qinghai Province is rich in genetic diversity, which will provide reference for selecting parent of H. vulgare breeding.%[目的]分析我国青海省青稞SSR标记遗传多样性,为具有某些优异特性的青稞品种或资源筛选及青稞资源的保护奠定基础.[方法]利用SSR标记评估42份青海省栽培青稞的遗传多样性.[结果]42份青稞材料在7个SSR标记位点处表现出多态性,各位点扩增的等位基因数为1~6个,共鉴定出24个等位基因,每位点平均3.0个;根据SSR标记多态性可将42份青稞材料分为4组,即Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ.[结论]该研究表明青海省栽培青稞具有丰富的遗传多样性,可为青稞育种亲本选择提供参考.

  4. Efeitos de potenciais de água no solo, em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. Effects of soil water potentials at different phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Urchei

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de défices hídricos, em três estádios fonológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L., foi conduzido experimento em vasos, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Foram utilizados nove tratamentos decorrentes da combinação dos potenciais mínimos de água no solo de -0,05, -0,20 e -1,50 MPa, com os estádios fenológicos de máximo perfilhamento, florescimento e grão leitoso, permanecendo uniformizados durante o restante do ciclo, entre os potenciais de -0,01 a -0,05 MPa. Os resultados de produção, peso e teor de proteína dos grãos, tamanho de espigas, número total e número de espigas chochas, mostraram que os efeitos de défices hídricos variaram com a intensidade, duração e estádio fenológico da cultura, onde o estádio de florescimento mostrou-se mais sensível ao défice de água. A ocorrência de défice hídrico intenso, em cada um dos estádios, bem como ciclos repetidos de défices moderados ou intensos, levaram à diminuições significativas na produção de grãos, além de ocorrer tendência ao aumento do teor de protema dos grãos. O manejo da irrigação na cultura da cevada, quando se busca a máxima eficiência no uso da água, deve levar em conta os diferentes estádios fenológicos.The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effects of water deficits in three phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.. Pots were arranged in a randomized block design with nine treatments. They originated from the combination of minimum soil water potentials of -0,05, -0,20 and -1,50 MPa, with the phenological phases of maximum tillering, flowering and milky grain, having been hold uniformly along the rest of the cycle, between -0,01 and -0,05 MPa potentials. Weight of grain, protein content, spike sizes, spike total number and number of hollow spikes, showed that water deficit effects varied with the intensity, duration and

  5. Influence of Straw Pulp Film Mulching on Water Conservation Effect of Hordeum vulgare Farmland in Tibet%西藏青稞农田草浆地膜覆盖的保水效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关法春

    2012-01-01

    采用对比方法研究了草浆地膜覆盖对青稞(Hordeum vulgare)农田土壤的保水作用,以期明确草浆地膜的农田保水理论依据和保水效果.结果表明:草浆地膜覆盖下的土壤表面相对湿度、土壤紧实度和土壤含水量等指标均低于塑料地膜覆盖处理,其中土壤含水量指标显著低于后者(n=3,P<0.05);与对照相比,草浆地膜覆盖下0~5 cm土层内土壤紧实度显著降低,但土壤温度与对照相比相差不大,同时土壤表层水分散失明显减少,土壤含水量增加7.59%,达到显著差异水平(n=3,P<0.05).草浆地膜覆盖保水效果十分明显.%In order to offer theoretical basis and clarify practical effect, straw pulp film and plastic film were compared to investigate the effect of film mulches for water conservation of soil in Hordeum vulgare farmland. Plastic film, straw pulp film and CK treatment were administrated; the effect was compared by measuring relative humidity of soil surface, soil temperature, soil compaction and water content. The results showed that all four factors monitored were lower in the treatment of straw pulp film than the plastic film, among which water content of the former was significantly reduced than the latter(n=3, P<0.05). In the treatment of straw pulp film comparing to CK, soil compaction was significantly reduced(n=3, P<0.05), while no significant difference in soil temperature was shown between the two. The evaporation of soil moisture reduced dramatically in the treatment of straw pulp film, resulting in a 7.59% statistically significant increase in the water content of soil (n=3, P<0.05). In conclusion, the straw pulp film mulch has significantly improved the water conservation of the soil in Hordeum vulgare farmland.

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE \tENSILAJE DE CEBADA EN TRES ESTADOS DE CORTE EN LA ENGORDA INVERNAL DE NOVILLOS Evaluation of three cuttings periods of whole crop barley silage in winter finishing steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rojas G.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, ubicado en Temuco, durante 84 días de la temporada invernal de 1996, se utilizaron 28 novillos Hereford de 20 meses de edad y 342 kg de peso vivo promedio, con el objetivo de evaluar el ensilaje de cebada (Hordeum vulgare en tres estados de corte en comparación al de maíz (Zea mayz, en raciones de engorda, sobre algunas variables productivas. Los tratamientos estuvieron constituidos por 1 ensilaje de maíz; 2 ensilaje de cebada con grano lechoso; 3 ensilaje de cebada con grano harinoso; y 4 ensilaje de cebada con grano harinoso duro. Los ensilajes se entregaron a discreción, complementándolos con cantidades diarias fijas de concentrados, equivalentes al 0,9% del peso vivo de los animales, base materia seca. Los concentrados se formularon, para cada ensilaje, con grano de avena (Avena sativa, grano de lupino australiano (Lupinus angustifolius y sales minerales comerciales, de forma tal que la oferta de alimentos fuera isoproteica al 13%, asumiéndose un consumo total de materia seca equivalente al 2,5% del peso vivo de los animales. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con 7 repeticiones. Los incrementos de peso vivo fueron de 1,069a; 0,883b; 1,024a y 0,742c kg d-1 (POver a period of 84 days of the winter of 1996, 28 Hereford steers of 20 months of age and 342 kg live weight, were fattened in order to evaluate whole barley silage (Hordeum vulgare at three cutting periods in comparison to maize silage (Zea mayz in the Carillanca Regional Investigation Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA. Treatments were T1: maize silage; T2 : barley silage at the milky state ; T3 : barley silage at the starchy state; and T4 : barley silage at the hard starchy state. The silages were offered ad libitum and supplemented daily with concentrates equivalent to 0.9% of the animal live weight on a dry matter basis. The

  7. Effects of Different Temperature and Harvest Time on Barley(Hordeum vulgare L.) Sprouts Production%不同温度处理和采收时间对大麦芽苗菜生产的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春龙; 韩春梅; 叶少平; 李龙秀; 林依倔

    2013-01-01

    [目的]确定大麦(Hordeum vulgare L.)芽苗菜生产的适宜处理温度和采收时间.[方法]利用正交试验设计,研究不同温度处理(15、20、25、30℃)和采收时间(9、10、11 d)2个因素对大麦芽苗菜生长和产量的影响.[结果]A3B2(即处理温度为25℃,采收时间为10 d)处理下大麦芽苗菜的株高较高为12.7 cm,生物产量和经济产量最高,分别为77.19和1.44 kg/m2.[结论]该研究可为提高大麦芽苗菜产量、制订高产优质的栽培技术提供理论依据.

  8. Japon Balığı (Carassius Auratus L. 1758) ve Arpa Bitkisinin (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Gelişimi ve Su Kalitesinin İyileştirilmesi Üzerine Aquaponik Sistemin Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİNBALTA, Mehmet Anıl; HAMZAOĞLU, Gökhan; ÇELİK, Meryem Yeşim; DERNEKBAŞI, Seval

    2015-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Japon balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve arpa bitkisi (Hordeum vulgare L.) kullanılarak model bir akuaponik sistem oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma süresince arpa bitkisinin suyun nitrit, nitrat ve fosfat değerlerinde yaptığı değişim ve balıkların gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 30 günlük araştırma süresince günlük olarak pH, sıcaklık ve oksijen değerleri ölçülmüştür. Haftalık olarak bitki yetiştirme yatağına giren ve bitkiden süzülen suyun nitrit (NO2...

  9. ANÁLISIS DEL IMPACTO ECONÓMICO DEL CONTRATO INIA-CCU PARA MEJORAMIENTO GENÉTICO DE CEBADA CERVECERA Economic impact analysis of the INIA-CCU agreement for barley breeding research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Campos M.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la producción de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L., se destina principalmente a la fabricación de malta y cerveza. En 1978, el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA y la Compañía Cervecerías Unidas (CCU, la más importante empresa productora de cerveza del país, firmaron un convenio de investigación con el propósito de iniciar trabajos de mejoramiento genético para producir variedades de cebada con altos rendimientos y elevada calidad maltera. Las nuevas variedades creadas a través de este convenio han sido entregadas por CCU a los productores bajo un sistema de contrato de producción. Desde 1978 hasta 1999, INIA introdujo la variedad Aramir y creó las variedades Granifén INIA/CCU, Libra INIA/CCU y Acuario INIA/CCU, que han sido cultivadas en el centro y sur del país, demostrando buena adaptación, rendimiento y calidad, comparadas Aramir. De acuerdo a los resultados, la tasa interna de retorno para este convenio alcanzó a 51,98%, cuando las elasticidades precio de la demanda y la oferta calculadas fueron - 0,54 y 1,06 respectivamente. El beneficio social neto calculado alcanzó a 5.359 millones de pesos, en donde el excedente del productor fue equivalente a 64,9% de los beneficios sociales netos de la investigación en mejoramiento genético de la cebada en Chile.In Chile barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is produced mainly for beer production. In 1976, the Chilean Agricultural Research Institute (INIA and the Compañía Cervecerías Unidas (CCU, the most important beer producer in the country, signed an agreement to initiate breeding research to produce both high yield and high quality malting cultivars in order to be distributed under contract to barley producers. The new varieties created under this agreement have been distributed to the producers under a system of contract production. From 1978 to 1999, INIA introduced the Aramir variety and created three new varieties, Granifen INIA/CCU, Acuario INIA/CCU and Libra INIA

  10. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  11. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  12. Aplicación de modelos en los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la meseta central : Simulación de rotaciones y modelado de la arquitectura de la planta en leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo profundiza en el estudio de los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la Meseta Central. Sobre la base de la alternativa tradicional ce^eal^arbecho, se han estudiado durante tres años de cultivo 1995/96, 1996/97 y 1997/98 seis rotaciones diferentes: monocultivo de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.), cebada/barbecho, cebada/habas (Viciafaba L.), cebada/guisantes {Pisum sativum L.), cebada/habas/barbecho y cebada/guisantes/barbecho. Entre las rotaciones, se ha comparado la biomasa, el rendimien...

  13. Effects of Soil Aluminum on Early Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Wheat an Barley Cultivars Growing in an Andisol Efecto del Aluminio del Suelo en la Colonización Temprana por Micorrizas Arbusculares en Cultivares de Trigo y Cebada Creciendo en un Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Seguel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phytotoxicity in acid soils is an important environmental stress that negatively affects crop production, but arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi performance would allow plants to better withstand this environmental condition. This study aimed to analyze the effect of soil Al on early AM colonization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars. Near-isogenic Crac, Invento, and Porfiado wheat cultivars and Sebastián and Aurora barley cultivars were sown in pots in an acid soil at three Al saturation levels (60, 34, and 11%. At 20 d after sowing (DAS 'Crac' presented higher AM colonization (27% than other cultivars. However, 'Invento' had the fastest colonization at 41 DAS, which was inhibited in short term at lower Al-saturation. Moreover, roots of 'Aurora' were colonized 28 and 51% at 20 and 66 DAS, respectively, and also decreased at lower Al-saturation. In soil with 60% Al-saturation a great spore production was observed at 41 DAS, 'Aurora' had the highest spore density at 66 DAS. At 20 DAS a negative relationship (r = -0.37; p La fitotoxicidad por Al en suelos ácidos es un importante estrés que afecta negativamente la producción de cultivos, pero la actividad de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (MA permitiría que las plantas soporten mejor esta condición ambiental. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el efecto del Al en la colonización MA temprana de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.. Cultivares de trigo Crac, Invento, y Porfiado, y de cebada Sebastián y Aurora fueron sembrados en macetas en un suelo ácido con tres niveles de saturación de Al (60, 34, y 11%. A los 20 días después de la siembra (DDS 'Crac' presentó la mayor colonización MA (27%; sin embargo, 'Invento' tuvo la más rápida colonización a los 41 DDS, la cual fue inhibida a corto plazo a una menor saturación de Al. Por otra parte, las raíces de 'Aurora' fueron colonizadas 28 y 51% a los

  14. Effects of INH, DNP, 2, 4-D and CMU on the sugar content of the barley and maize leaves; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 3-D y CMU) sobre el contenido en azucares de hohas de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Sancho, P.

    1979-07-01

    1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solution was absorbed by barley and maize roots during 24 and 48 hours in dark or light conditioners in order to determine the best conditions. for the obtention of labelled sugars with high specific activity. Results show that the highest specific activity was obtained In maize plants treated with DNP for 24 hours in dark conditions. (Author) 51 refs.

  15. Effects of INH, DNP, 2,4-D and CMU on the photosynthetic activity of barley and maize plants; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 4-D y CMU) sobre la actividad fotosintetica de plantular de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Prieto, M. P.

    1979-07-01

    Determinations of the rate of photosynthesis were made in barley and maize leaves treated with INH, DNP, 2,4-D or CMU. 1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solutions was absorbed by roots during 24 or 48 hours in both dark and light conditions. After this period, photosynthetic activity, compensation point and 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilation were determined. Results show that INH increases the rate of photosynthesis, DNP and 2,4-D do not alter it sensibly and CMU acts as a strong inhibitor of photosynthesis. Some possible applications for ths obtention of labelled compounds by biosynthesis are discussed. (Author) 87 refs.

  16. Comparative study of the inhibition produced by CMU (3-p-chlorophenyl-1. 1-dimethyl-urea) in barley leaves, on the photophosphorilation, photocarboxilation and hill reaction; Estudio comparativo de la inhibicion que produce el CMU sobre la fotogosforilacion, totocarboxilacion y reaccion de hill en cebada. (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Sancho, C.

    1977-07-01

    The effect of different concentrations of CMU (from 10 {sup -}8 M to 10{sup -}3 H) on the photophosphorilation, photocarboxilation and Hill reaction was studied. CMU (Carbon-H labelled) was utilized to determine the concentration of CMU in leaf parenchyma. Photocarboxilation and photophosphorolation was sensible to concentrations less than 10{sup -}7 M. Hill reaction in isolated chloroplasts was sensible from concentrations of the order of 10{sup -}8 M. (Author) 50 refs.

  17. Breeding of Hordeum Vulgare L. via chemical and physical Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted under field conditions to compare for yield, yield components and some agronomic traits, of four selective mutants that have been obtained by using chemical mutagen (Sodium Azide) and physical mutagen ( Gamma ray, 20 KG) and their parent Arivate and Numar. The results show that the selective mutants have a high degree of genetic stability and exceeded their parents in some agronomic parameters. There fore, the two best selective mutants were accepted for registration and release under the name of Barrak and Amel as a new varieties by Nacional Committee for Registration and Release of Agricultural varieties

  18. Molecular analysis of genome instability in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable protocol for regenerating barley from seedling explants, including leaf bases with a complete apical meristem, has been developed at the Institute of Genetic Engineering. The system was established with Bulgarian barley cultivars (Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei) and reconstructed genotypes (K. Gecheff IG). Pretreatment of the mature embryos with a high concentration of 2.4D generated valuable and stable genetic deviations in the regenerants. The brewery cultivar Ruen was selected as the model genotype. It has been demonstrated that genetic variations, such as higher yield, earlier maturation and lower protein content, have been induced and maintained for 5 years. Comparative experiments, including treatment of barley mature seeds with 60Co gamma rays (10 and 20 krad) and sodium azide (1.10-3 M and 5 x 10-4 M), were also carried out. The results obtained showed that both treatments stimulated calusogenesis and regeneration of the plants. Molecular markers such as proteins, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were applied in studies on the mutagenic effects of 2.4D, gamma rays and sodium azide, and a combination threof, on the quality and quantity of the genetic diversification generated in tissue culture of the Bulgarian barley cultivars Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei and the reconstructed genotypes

  19. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    During germination of barley seeds, the mobilization of protein is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the...... active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. One of the key cysteine proteases in Barley...

  20. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  1. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and...... 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high...... crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri .times. H. brevisubulatum) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 27-30) and (H. jubatum .times. H. lechleri) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 20-22). The first combination...

  2. Vulgar Music and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Rock music, rap, and heavy metal are all forms of vulgar music. Vulgarity refers to actions and communication that are "common, noisy, and gross," and are "untranscendent." A technological society is a vulgar society in its base of materialism and exclusive concern with power. Its excessive rationality produces a need for escape, for ecstasy, for…

  3. Comparative studies on ThreeTriticum species and hordeum2 as affected by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat grains of three species, i. e. T. monococcun, T. durum and T. aestivum as well as grain of Giza-117 barley Hordeum vulgar were irradiated with 0, 1, 2, 4, 16 or 64 krad. It could be concluded that the stimulation dosage was 1 rad for both monococcum and aestivum and 4 krad for durum., whereas, the dosage 2 krad was the promising dosage for barley (Hordeum vulgare) cv. Giza-117, in this respect. This conclusion was based on the changes in germination percentage, height of plant, number of spikes per plant, weight of spikes per plant, Yield of grains per feddan, yield of straw per feddan and weight of 1000 grains, as well as total-N, soluble-N and protein content. The higher dosage depressed progressively the aforementioned characters. (author)

  4. Diversity of Fungal Pathogens Infecting Hordeum L. in Macedonia, Symptoms and Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Karov, Ilija; Mitrev, Sasa; Kovacevik, Biljana; Kostadinovska, Emilija

    2011-01-01

    During April, May and June 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 several plant pathogenic fungi are discovered on barley variety Hordeum vulgare L. Ement. Lam. in Macedonia. The monitoring confirms the presence of Cochliobolus sativus (Ito & Kurib.) Drechsler ex Dastur, Blumeria graminis (Erysiphe graminis DC.), Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Sacc.) Arx & Oliver, Puccinia hordei Otth., and Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostr. The presence of anamorph Septoria tritici Rob ex Desm., which telemorph i...

  5. Efecto del procesado de la cebada en dietas para lechones destetados precozmente

    OpenAIRE

    Medel de la Torre, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo general de esta tesis doctoral ha sido evaluar el uso de la cebada como cereal base en raciones para lechones, utilizando maíz como patrón de comparación. Los objetivos particulares fueron evaluar diferentes tipos de procesados térmicos (PT) y el tamaño de partículas (TPAR) de la cebada, y la suplementación enzimática (SE) y el granulado de la dieta, como metodologías para incrementar el valor nutritivo del cereal en estas raciones. Para ello se realizaron siete experimentos. En l...

  6. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  7. Mycoflora Of Barley Hordeum Vulgare L. At Different Locations In Hail Area- Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 400 grain samples collected from barley fields in Hail area at the northern part of Saudi Arabia was used for this study. Isolation and identification of seed-borne fungi were conducted according to standard tests described by the International Seed Testing Association ISTA using YGCA medium. A total of 265 of external mycoflora and 517 of internal mycoflora were grouped into five fungal genera namely Aspergillus Alternaria Penillium Fusarium and Ulocladium spp. were isolated. Comparsion between frequencies and relative densities of external and internal mycoflora was carried out among the species of the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger reaveled high Fr. and RD of external mycoflora A. flavus Fr.60.9 - 40.5 RD 48.3 - 40.9and A. niger Fr. 52.7- 48.6- and RD 38.7- 41.9 as external internal mycoflora mycoflora respectively. All the species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were predominant as internal mycoflora .The most predominant species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were U. atrium Fr 89 -75.5and RD -79- 62.5 as internal external mycoflora respectively and Alternaria alternate Fr. 60 - 46.6 and RD. 55-32.3as externalinternal mycoflora respectively.

  8. Frequency of Aneuploids in Progenies of Autotriploid Barley, Hordeum Vulgare L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome counts of 863 progeny plants originating from 68 autotriploid barley plants revealed a considerable variation in chromosome numbers ranging from the diploid number (2n= 14) to 2n= 39. The most frequent groups were plants with 15 and 16 chromosomes each constituting about 27% of all pro...

  9. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  10. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed Sourour; Bouharb Ameni; Cherif Mejda

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel) through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours), on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours) and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours). Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germinat...

  11. Hordein gene dose effects in triploid endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two maternal chromosome sets in triploid barley endosperm allows the distinction of maternal and paternal hordein bands in an electrophoregram: the maternal bands are stronger due to the higher gene dose. In the F1 generation there are differences between reciprocal crosses and in the F2 generation all 16 classes that are theoretically possible for a pair of polymorphic loci can be distinguished. This full classification is rarely possible in genetic studies, and allows more accurate estimates of recombination rates. Two hordein gene clusters (Hor1 and Hor2, corresponding to hordein C and hordein B respectively were analyzed in hybrids obtained by crossing two winter barley cultivars Partizan and HWV-247. Hordein separation was performed by acid-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 3.2 (A-PAGE. A set of most informative bands of B and C hordeins was selected in each cross by two criteria: (1 presence or absence of bands in the parents and (2 signal strength to allow doses scoring. The average genetic distance between Hor1 and Hor2 loci was 11 cM. Distances in male and female maps were not significantly different, suggesting a similar recombination rate in male and female meiosis.

  12. Effect of herbicide clomazone on photosynthetic processes in primary barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, R.; Špundová, M.; Ilík, P.; Lazár, D.; Klem, K.; Tomek, P.; Nauš, J.; Prášil, Ondřej

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2004), s. 161-170. ISSN 0048-3575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/00/1274; GA ČR GP522/01/P098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : clomazone * herbicide * photosynthesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2004

  13. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.;

    1988-01-01

    mixoploid with respect to alien chromosomes (19-22). In one combination, chromosome no. 7 was duplicated. Meiosis in triple hybrids showed low, but variable pairing (1.3-5.5 chiasmata per cell). The syndesis probably did not include the barley chromosomes. Direct backcrosses to di- and tetraploid...

  14. [Hordein locus polymorphism of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2007-11-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F loci in 93 landrace specimens of barley assigned to 17 ancient provinces located in modem Turkey. Forty-five alleles of Hrd A with frequencies of 0.11-29.34%, 51 alleles of Hrd B with frequencies of 0.11-8.07%, and 5 alleles of Hrd F with frequencies of 0.75-41.29% have been detected. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies has demonstrated that barley populations from different old provinces of Turkey are similar to one another. Cluster structure of local barley populations has been found, most populations (82%) falling into three clusters. The first cluster comprises barley populations from six provinces (Thracia, Bithynia, Pontus, Lydia, Cappadocia, and Armenia); the second cluster, populations from five provinces (Paphlagonia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Mesopotamia); and the third one, populations from three provinces (Phrygia, Karia, and Lycia). Barley populations from Mysia, Pamphlya, and Syria do not fall in any cluster. PMID:18186193

  15. Expression of dehydrin 5 during the development of frost tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Holková, L.; Prášil, I.T.; Prášilová, P.; Bradáčová, M.; Vítámvás, P.; Čapková, Věra

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 11 (2008), s. 1142-1151. ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3191; GA MZe 1G57060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cold acclimation * Dehydrin 5 * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2008

  16. Obtaining somaclonal lines in cereals (Triticum aestivum L. and Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of high-volume wheat and barley plant breeding from somatic cells cultivated in vitro is developed. The frequency of morphogenetic cell line formation is a very important factor characterizing the morphogenetic properties of plants, introduced in the culture in vitro. This value reflects the possibility of regeneration of a certain number of plants in vitro. Statistic analysis of the cell line induction frequencies and frequencies of morphogenetic line occurrence shows, that both processes are explained genetically. The data exist which point to increasing morphological potentials of cell cultures after irradiation with certain radiation doses

  17. Inheritance of prehaustorial resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; Ayliffe, Michael; Khatkar, Mehar S; Fetch, Tom; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Rust pathogens within the genus Puccinia cause some of the most economically significant diseases of crops. Different formae speciales of P. graminis have co-evolved to mainly infect specific grass hosts; however, some genotypes of other closely related cereals can also be infected. This study investigated the inheritance of resistance to three diverse pathotypes of the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) in the 'Yerong' ✕ 'Franklin' (Y/F) barley doubled haploid (DH) population, a host with which it is not normally associated. Both parents, 'Yerong' and 'Franklin', were immune to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes; however. there was transgressive segregation within the Y/F population, in which infection types (IT) ranged from complete immunity to mesothetic susceptibility, suggesting the presence of heritable resistance. Both QTL and marker-trait association (MTA) analysis was performed on the Y/F population to map resistance loci in response to P. graminis f. sp. avenae. QTL on chromosome 1H ('Yerong' Rpga1 and Rpga2) were identified using all forms of analysis, while QTL detected on 5H ('Franklin' Rpga3 and Rpga4) and 7H (Rpga5) were only detected using MTA or composite interval mapping-single marker regression analysis respectively. Rpga1 to Rpga5 were effective in response to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes used in this study, suggesting resistance is not pathotype specific. Rpga1 co-located to previously mapped QTL in the Y/F population for adult plant resistance to the barley leaf scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) on chromosome 1H. Histological evidence suggests that the resistance observed within parental and immune DH lines in the population was prehaustorial and caused by callose deposition within the walls of the mesophyll cells, preventing hyphal penetration. PMID:25025780

  18. Transport, Kompartimentierung und Abbau von glutathionhaltigen Fremdstoffmetaboliten in Gerste (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Scheer, Christian Ernst

    2005-01-01

    Mit den in dieser Arbeit erzielten Ergebnissen lassen sich wichtige Fragen im glutathionabhängigen Entgiftungsstoffwechsel von Pflanzen beantworten. In mikroskopischen Studien zum interzellulären Transport konnte erstmalig die Mobilität von Glutathionkonjugaten in vivo gezeigt werden. Danach werden Glutathionkonjugate in der Wurzel akropetal im Phloem und im Kurzstreckentransport innerhalb des Parenchyms über Plasmodesmata transportiert. Außerdem wurde eine Verlagerung der Konjugate in den Ap...

  19. A single locus is responsible for salinity tolerance in a Chinese landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugen Xu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Salinity and waterlogging are two major abiotic stresses severely limiting barley production. The lack of a reliable screening method makes it very hard to improve the tolerance through breeding programs. METHODS: This work used 188 DH lines from a cross between a Chinese landrace variety, TX9425 (waterlogging and salinity tolerant, and a Japanese malting barley, Naso Nijo (waterlogging and salinity sensitive, to identify QTLs associated with the tolerance. RESULTS: Four QTLs were found for waterlogging tolerance. The salinity tolerance was evaluated with both a hydroponic system and in potting mixture. In the trial with potting mixture, only one major QTL was identified to associate with salinity tolerance. This QTL explained nearly 50% of the phenotypic variation, which makes it possible for further fine mapping and cloning of the gene. This QTL was also identified in the hydroponic experiment for different salt-related traits. The position of this QTL was located at a similar position to one of the major QTLs for waterlogging tolerance, indicating the possibility of similar mechanisms controlling both waterlogging and salinity tolerance. CONCLUSION: The markers associated with the QTL provided a unique opportunity in breeding programs for selection of salinity and waterlogging tolerance.

  20. Responses to iron limitation in Hordeum vulgare L. as affected by the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S; Rothe, A; Kania, A; Wasaki, J; Römheld, V; Engels, C; Kandeler, E; Neumann, G

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 treatments stimulated biomass production in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley plants, both in hydroponics and in soil culture. Root/shoot biomass ratio was increased in severely Fe-deficient plants grown in hydroponics but not under moderate Fe limitation in soil culture. Significantly increased biomass production in high CO2 treatments, even under severe Fe deficiency in hydroponic culture, indicates an improved internal Fe utilization. Iron deficiency-induced secretion of PS in 0.5 to 2.5 cm sub-apical root zones was increased by 74% in response to elevated CO2 treatments of barley plants in hydroponics but no PS were detectable in root exudates collected from soil-grown plants. This may be attributed to suppression of PS release by internal Fe concentrations above the critical level for Fe deficiency, determined at final harvest for soil-grown barley plants, even without additional Fe supply. However, extremely low concentrations of easily plant-available Fe in the investigated soil and low Fe seed reserves suggest a contribution of PS-mediated Fe mobilization from sparingly soluble Fe sources to Fe acquisition of the soil-grown barley plants during the preceding culture period. Higher Fe contents in shoots (+52%) of plants grown in soil culture without Fe supply under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may indicate an increased efficiency for Fe acquisition. No significant influence on diversity and function of rhizosphere-bacterial communities was detectable in the outer rhizosphere soil (0-3 mm distance from the root surface) by DGGE of 16S rRNA gene fragments and analysis of marker enzyme activities for C-, N-, and P-cycles. PMID:18453445

  1. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  2. Effect of the simulated weightlessness (clinorotation) on a photosynthetic apparatus of barley plants (hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volovik, O. I.; Sytnik, S. K.; Topchiy, N. N.

    The effect of microgravitation (simulated by clinorotation) on the organization and functioning of chloroplasts, isolated from barley plants, is studied with the use SDS-electrophoresis, spectrophotometric and polarography methods. The relative content of monomeric forms of light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) increases at the expense of its oligomeric forms under clinorotation conditions. The decrease of the portion of the entire complex of photosystem I (PSI) as well as of the sum of the PSI complexes and the complex CPa (related to PSII) was observed in experimental variants. Clinorotation induced the decrease in PSI, PSII and full electron transport activity, and the extent of the reduction depended on the light intensity during plant growth. The ATP synthesis coupled with cyclic, noncyclic and linear electron transport was inhibited under the simulated microgravitation.

  3. Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (hordeum vulgare L. subs. simpatina) germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a poly house and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1(54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley. (author)

  4. Effect of nitrogen application on yield and yield components of barley (hordeum vulgare l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research was aimed to study the effect of different levels of inorganic fertilizer N on the yield and yield components of barley varieties at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements. Barley varieties (local and sterling) were sown in the main plots whereas different nitrogen levels (i.e. 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg ha/sup -1/) were allotted to sub-plots. The results showed that different varieties and nitrogen levels had significantly (p<0.05) affected plant height, 1000 grains weight, grains spike/sup -1/, straw yield, grain yield, biological yield, grain and plant N. Maximum grain spike/sup -1/ , thousand grain weight and grain yield was recorded in sterling. Taller plants, highest biological yield, straw yield, grain and plant N was observed in local variety. Nitrogen applied at the rate of 60 kg ha/sup -1/ resulted in maximum grain spike/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, grain and plant N. (author)

  5. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation on barley's (Hordeum Vulgare L.) susceptibility to cochliobolus sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two barley genotypes (Tadmor, W12291), and one promising line selected in AECS (76) were exposed to 60 cobalt gamma radiation. The doses used were: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. Susceptibility assessments were scored using a rating scale extending from 1 (highly resistant) to 5 (very susceptible) according to the percentage of infected area at subcrown interodes. In general, doses of 10, 15, 20 and 30 Gy increased the resistance to the pathogen Cochliobolus sativus by 56.29%, 58.29%, 54.57% and 49.71% respectively. The genotypes did not response similarly to the irradiation. The best response was obtained with c.v Tadmor. (author)

  6. A comparative study of some barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) lines and mutants under local environmental condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield, 1000 grain weight and other agronomical traits were studied under the rain fed condition. Nineteen pure lines (doubled haploid) and mutants and two controls were grown in the field. Net blotch resistance in 150 (Dh), mutants, and their parental genotype were used to determine their resistance level against three strains of net bloch. Differences were found among the genotypes. Five lines (Dh) and mutants resistant to net blotch with good agronomic performance were selected for further investigation. (author)

  7. Durable resistance to net blotch and agronomic performance in some barley mutants [Hordeum vulgare L.; Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds from the net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) susceptible cultivar Thibaut were treated by gamma ray radiation and subsequently evaluated for reaction to the pathogen in the M2-M5 generations. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of putative mutants were compared with Thibaut in two different locations. Genetic variation among some mutant lines/cv Thibaut was estimated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Sixteen mutant lines and their mother cultivar Thibaut were analyzed with 14 EcoR1-Mse1 primer combinations. A total number of 504 AFLP bands were analyzed for each pair mutant/Thibaut. Narrow genetic variation among all genotypes was detected with an average of genetic similarity of 0.96. Cluster analysis with the entire AFLP data divided all genotypes into two major groups. The resistant mutant lines were grouped in one subcluster with 0.98 similarity index. Some resistant mutant lines to net blotch with good agronomic performances were produced

  8. The effect of irradiating barley seeds (Hordeum Vulgare) on plantlet growth and net blotch resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two cultivars (Smash and Thibaut) and one line (74-F-6) with water contents adjusted between 12.8 and 13.3%, were irradiated with various doses (1-sup 1 sup 6 sup 0 Gy) of sup 6 sup 0 Co γ rays. Doses of 1-sup 4 sup 0 Gy favored an increases length of the first leaf. In general, doses of 15 and sup 2 sup 0 Gy decreased barley susceptibility to Drechrlera teres f. maculata by 25 and 21%, respectively. This reduction was a function of the line or cultivar used. The best response was obtained with cv. Smash. Seedling growth stimulation and host susceptibility to D. teres were significantly correlated (r= -0.68). The stimulatory effect of γ rays on growth could be used at low levels, to provide adequate field resistance to net blotch caused by D. teres f. maculata. (author). 28 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  10. Luteibacter rhizovicinus MIMR1 promotes root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Basilico, Roberto; Taverniti, Valentina; Arioli, Stefania; Piagnani, Claudia; Bernacchi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    In order to preserve environmental quality, alternative strategies to chemical-intensive agriculture are strongly needed. In this study, we characterized in vitro the potential plant growth promoting (PGP) properties of a gamma-proteobacterium, named MIMR1, originally isolated from apple shoots in micropropagation. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence allowed the taxonomic identification of MIMR1 as Luteibacter rhizovicinus. The PGP properties of MIMR1 were compared to Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca DSM 19603(T), which was selected as a reference PGP bacterium. By means of in vitro experiments, we showed that L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 and P. chlororaphis DSM 19603(T) have the ability to produce molecules able to chelate ferric ions and solubilize monocalcium phosphate. On the contrary, both strains were apparently unable to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Furthermore, the ability to produce 3-indol acetic acid by MIMR1 was approximately three times higher than that of DSM 19603(T). By using fluorescent recombinants of strains MIMR1 and DSM 19603(T), we also demonstrated that both bacteria are able to abundantly proliferate and colonize the barley rhizosphere, preferentially localizing on root tips and in the rhizoplane. Finally, we observed a negative effect of DSM 19603(T) on barley seed germination and plant growth, whereas MIMR1, compared to the control, determined a significant increase of the weight of aerial part (+22 %), and the weight and length of roots (+53 and +32 %, respectively). The results obtained in this work make L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 a good candidate for possible use in the formulation of bio-fertilizers. PMID:23653264

  11. Rhizodeposition and biotic interactions in the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Hordeum vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical processes at the soil-plant interface are largely regulated by organic and inorganic compounds released by roots and microorganisms. Several abiotic and biotic factors are suspected to stimulate rhizodeposition and, thus, contribute to enriching of the rhizosphere with plant-derived compounds. This thesis focused on the effects of two factors, (i) the elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration accompanied by nutrient limitation in the soil and (ii) low-level root infestation by pl...

  12. Quantification of the tissue-culture induced variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarek Piotr T

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When plant tissue is passaged through in vitro culture, many regenerated plants appear to be no longer clonal copies of their donor genotype. Among the factors that affect this so-called tissue culture induced variation are explant genotype, explant tissue origin, medium composition, and the length of time in culture. Variation is understood to be generated via a combination of genetic and/or epigenetic changes. A lack of any phenotypic variation between regenerants does not necessarily imply a concomitant lack of genetic (or epigenetic change, and it is therefore of interest to assay the outcomes of tissue culture at the genotypic level. Results A variant of methylation sensitive AFLP, based on the isoschizomeric combinations Acc65I/MseI and KpnI/MseI was applied to analyze, at both the sequence and methylation levels, the outcomes of regeneration from tissue culture in barley. Both sequence mutation and alteration in methylation pattern were detected. Two sets of regenerants from each of five DH donor lines were compared. One set was derived via androgenesis, and the other via somatic embryogenesis, developed from immature embryos. These comparisons delivered a quantitative assessment of the various types of somaclonal variation induced. The average level of variation was 6%, of which almost 1.7% could be accounted for by nucleotide mutation, and the remainder by changes in methylation state. The nucleotide mutation rates and the rate of epimutations were substantially similar between the andro- and embryo-derived sets of regenerants across all the donors. Conclusion We have developed an AFLP based approach that is capable of describing the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the tissue culture-induced variation. We believe that this approach will find particular value in the study of patterns of inheritance of somaclonal variation, since non-heritable variation is of little interest for the improvement of plant species which are sexually propagated. Of significant biological interest is the conclusion that the mode of regeneration has no significant effect on the balance between sequence and methylation state change induced by the tissue culture process.

  13. Tolerance of four spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties to weed harrowing

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Preben Klarskov; Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Holst, Niels; Andreasen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the tolerance to weed harrowing of four spring barley varieties and examined the possible interactions between varietal weed suppressive ability and two nutrient levels. Tolerance was defined as the combined effect of crop resistance (ability to resist soil covering) and crop recovery (the ability to recover in terms of yield). The weed harrowing strategy was a combination of one pre- and one post-emergence weed harrowing. In terms of yield, the four varieties responded signif...

  14. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald;

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  15. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Altinkut A.; Kazan K.; Gozukirmizi N.

    2003-01-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA) was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive), which w...

  16. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...... and 24 varieties and was found valuable for future use in regular screening programmes...

  17. SEED PRODUCTION of WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) and BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KAYAÇETİN, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    Seed production of wheat and barley compose of several subsequentel processes such as production of required amount of certified seeds on time. An effective seed production program includes many basic components mechinal cleaning during sowing, harvest and the selector, removal of other species from field from heading to harvest, on time harvest and a good storage. The aim of seed production is to ensure clean seed material free from other species and weed seeds, large, plump grain without di...

  18. Molecular Marker Development and Linkage Analysis in Three Low Phytic Acid Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mutant Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytate is the primary form of phosphorus found in mature cereal grain. This form of phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals due to a lack of the enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several barley low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been identified that contain substantial decreases...

  19. Improvement of Forage Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Characters Using Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted at Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) farm at Inshas, Egypt during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons on barley forage crop genotype. The aim of this investigation to evaluate the effect of different gamma ray doses (100-350 Gy) on the barley forage yield and related traits. Seeds of barley forage genotype were subjected to five gamma ray treatments (100,150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy). The two cuts were taken per season, the obtained results showed that the doses of 200 and 250 Gy increased the majority of studied characters i.e., plant height, number of leaves/plant, fresh weight/plant, fresh weight/fed, and dry weight/fed. However the dry weight/ plant was decreased by some dose treatments. The low dose treatments, (100 and 150 Gy) increased the number of leaves/plant, stem diameter and leaves / stem ratio. The positive effects on yield and its components were more appeared in the second season than in the first ones.

  20. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  1. Lysine-Rich Proteins in High-Lysine Hordeum Vulgare Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    The salt-soluble proteins in barley grain selected for high-lysine content (Hiproly, CI 7115 and the mutants 29 and 86) and of a control (Carlsberg II) with normal lysine content, contain identical major proteins as determined by MW and electrophoretic mobility. The concentration of a protein group...... with a high lysine content varies significantly among the barleys examined. One protein, present in large amounts in Hiproly, is assumed to be partially responsible for the high-lysine character of Hiproly, CI 7115 and the mutants 29 and 86....

  2. Almacenamiento de semilla de cebada maltera : análisis físico, proximal y deterioro fisiológico.

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Zambrano, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    En México, la semilla de cebada maltera es utilizada para la elaboración de cerveza, proceso que involucra en primer lugar el malteado, que consiste del remojo, germinación y secado de las semillas de cebada. La germinación de las semillas durante el malteado es de suma importancia para tener buena calidad de malta, lo cual se logra con semillas de adecuada calidad física y fisiológica aunado a niveles óptimos de nutrientes en la semilla. En el presente estudio se realizó el análisis físico y...

  3. Fertilización nitrogenada y balance de nutrientes en cebada cervecera Nitrogen fertilization and nutrients balance in malting barley

    OpenAIRE

    María Rosa Landriscini; María Aurora Lázzari; Juan Alberto Galantini

    2010-01-01

    La difusión de cebada cervecera (CC) con alto potencial de rendimiento aumenta los requerimientos de nutrientes, por ello el déficit y el desbalance nutricional serán limitantes de la producción. El Sistema DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) utiliza relaciones entre nutrientes foliares e indica el orden en que los nutrientes están limitando el rendimiento. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: a) establecer el orden de requerimientos nutricionales de los principales macronutrie...

  4. Transferability and polymorphism of barley EST-SSR markers used for phylogenetic analysis in Hordeum chilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorado Gabriel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hordeum chilense, a native South American diploid wild barley, is a potential source of useful genes for cereal breeding. The use of this wild species to increase genetic variation in cereals will be greatly facilitated by marker-assisted selection. Different economically feasible approaches have been undertaken for this wild species with limited direct agricultural use in a search for suitable and cost-effective markers. The availability of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST derived microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers, commonly called as EST-SSRs, for barley (Hordeum vulgare represents a promising source to increase the number of genetic markers available for the H. chilense genome. Results All of the 82 barley EST-derived SSR primer pairs tested for transferability to H. chilense amplified products of correct size from this species. Of these 82 barley EST-SSRs, 21 (26% showed polymorphism among H. chilense lines. Identified polymorphic markers were used to test the transferability and polymorphism in other Poaceae family species with the aim of establishing H. chilense phylogenetic relationships. Triticum aestivum-H. chilense addition lines allowed us to determine the chromosomal localizations of EST-SSR markers and confirm conservation of the linkage group. Conclusion From the present study a set of 21 polymorphic EST-SSR markers have been identified to be useful for diversity analysis of H. chilense, related wild barleys like H. murinum, and for wheat marker-assisted introgression breeding. Across-genera transferability of the barley EST-SSR markers has allowed phylogenetic inference within the Triticeae complex.

  5. Single and combined toxicity of copper and cadmium to H. vulgare growth and heavy metal bioaccumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaltauskaitė J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The single and combined effects of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd (0.1-10 mg L−1 in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plants grown in hydroponics are investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of the binary mixture of Cu and Cd to the growth of H. vulgare and accumulation of these metals by the plants. Single and combined metal treatment led to major effects in the growth of roots and shoots and dry weight of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. It was observed that combined effects of heavy metals to plants are endpoint and concentration depending. The binary mixture Cu+Cd exhibited additive or less than additive interaction for dry weight, root length and shoot height. Analysis of tissue metal concentrations showed that Cu and Cd were mainly accumulated in the roots and the combination of Cu+Cd had less than additive response of metal bioaccumulation in the leaves and roots.

  6. Genetic diversity at the Dhn3 locus in Turkish Hordeum spontaneum populations with comparative structural analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçarlı, Cüneyt; McGuffin, Liam J; Çaputlu, Süleyman; Aravena, Andres; Gürel, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    We analysed Hordeum spontaneum accessions from 21 different locations to understand the genetic diversity of HsDhn3 alleles and effects of single base mutations on the intrinsically disordered structure of the resulting polypeptide (HsDHN3). HsDHN3 was found to be YSK2-type with a low-frequency 6-aa deletion in the beginning of Exon 1. There is relatively high diversity in the intron region of HsDhn3 compared to the two exon regions. We have found subtle differences in K segments led to changes in amino acids chemical properties. Predictions for protein interaction profiles suggest the presence of a protein-binding site in HsDHN3 that coincides with the K1 segment. Comparison of DHN3 to closely related cereals showed that all of them contain a nuclear localization signal sequence flanking to the K1 segment and a novel conserved region located between the S and K1 segments [E(D/T)DGMGGR]. We found that H. vulgare, H. spontaneum, and Triticum urartu DHN3s have a greater number of phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C than other cereal species, which may be related to stress adaptation. Our results show that the nature and extent of mutations in the conserved segments of K1 and K2 are likely to be key factors in protection of cells. PMID:26869072

  7. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  8. 大麦(Hordeum vulgare)昼夜节律钟基因CCA1的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Circadian Clock Gene CCA1 in Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢国芳; 宋萌; 姚涵; 韩渊怀

    2012-01-01

    CCA 1 gene plays an important role in circadian clock sensitivity in rice (Oryza sativa L. ) and Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, CCAl gene in barley was cloned by RT-PCR using homological primers based on the highly conserved region of the multiple alignments of the rice and Arabidopsis. The similarities of this sequence were up to 72% and 69%, respectively, to corresponding mRNA sequences of rice and maize in BLASTx of GenBank database. Using ORF Finder software, a 2157 bp open reading frame was found to code 718 amino acids. Using Compute pI/Mw tool, the amino acid sequence was analyzed, and it revealed that the molecular weight of this protein was about 77 769. 4 Da, and isoelectric point was about 6. 55. We established fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR system with barley inbred lines HUADAMAI 1 and HUADAMAI 2, and studied the expression of CCAl in leaf under 16h/8h (light/ dark) conditions. Expression analysis showed that the gene expression peaked at dawn (ZTO) then gradually declined from ZTO to ZT15, bottomed at ZT15, then increased and returned to the initial level at ZT24. This study will provide information of barley CCAl gene for further studying the function in regulating photoperiod sensitivity in barley, and provide scientific basis for clarifying the mechanism of the circadian synchronization in barley.%昼夜节律钟基因CCA1在调解水稻和拟南芥的光周期反应中起着重要作用.利用BLAST手段以玉米中的CCA1基因序列作为靶序列,调取Genbank数据库信息,并结合RT-PCR方法获得了大麦的cDNA同源序列.BLASTx分析发现其与水稻和玉米的序列相似性分别达到72%和69%.通过ORF Finder软件分析发现,该序列包含一个2157 bp的开放阅读框,编码一个由718个氨基酸残基组成的蛋白序列,其分子量为77769.4 Da,等电点为6.55.采用实时荧光定量PCR分析发现,随光照时间的变化,该基因在大麦叶片中的表达量呈现出白天不断降低而夜晚逐渐升高的昼夜变化趋势,且在华大麦1号和华大麦2号中的表达曲线存在一定的差异.本研究为进一步研究大麦CCA1基因在调控大麦光周期响应途径中的功能,阐明大麦光周期敏感机制提供了科学依据.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: barley [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _S.png Hordeum_vulgare_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy, Variation, and Relationships in the Hordeum parodii Group (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Jacobsen, N.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The Hordeum parodii group contains three species, viz. H. parodii Covas (6x), H. tetraploidum Covas (4x), and H. fuegianum Bothmer, Jacobsen, et Jorgensen, sp. nov. (4x). The former two species mainly occur in C and S Argentina, while H. fuegianum is native to Tierra del Fuego. All three species...

  11. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  12. Overexpression of Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise) Fundamentally Affects Morphology and Fertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mřížová, K.; Jiskrová, E.; Vyroubalová, Š.; Novák, Ondřej; Ohnoutková, L.; Pospíšilová, H.; Frébort, I.; Harwood, W.A.; Galuszka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013). E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : MASS-SPECTROMETRY * TRANSGENIC BARLEY * ARABIDOPSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  13. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Weining

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous RNAs that regulates the gene expression involved in various biological and metabolic processes. Barley is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and is a model organism for genetic and genomic studies in Triticeae species. However, the miRNA research in barley has lagged behind other model species in grass family. To obtain more information of miRNA genes in barley, we sequenced a small RNA library created from a pool of equal amounts of RNA from four different tissues using Solexa sequencing. In addition to 126 conserved miRNAs (58 families, 133 novel miRNAs belonging to 50 families were identified from this sequence data set. The miRNA* sequences of 15 novel miRNAs were also discovered, suggesting the additional evidence for existence of these miRNAs. qRT-PCR was used to examine the expression pattern of six randomly selected miRNAs. Some miRNAs involved in drought and salt stress response were also identified. Furthermore, the potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted using the psRNATarget tools. Our results significantly increased the number of novel miRNAs in barley, which should be useful for further investigation into the biological functions and evolution of miRNAs in barley and other species.

  14. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hordeum secalinum, H. capense and their interspecific hybrids with H. vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    The European H. secalinum (2n = 4x = 48) and the South African H. capense (2n = 4x = 28) had similar karyotypes with ten pairs of metacentrics, three of submetacentrics, and one of SAT-chromosomes. The C-banded karyotypes of H. secalinum from northern Europe were characterized by banding patterns...

  15. Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Gallagher, Eimear; Hossain, Mohammad B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613.17), were identified as constituents of the fraction with highest antioxidant capacity. Upon identification of phenolics in the other active fractions, the order of most potent contributors to observed antioxidant capacity of barley extract were, flavanols>flavonols (quercetin)>hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, caffeic, coumaric acids). The most abundant polyphenol in the overall extract was ferulic acid (277.7μg/gdw barley), followed by procyanidin B (73.7μg/gdw barley). PMID:27211640

  16. GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

  17. Effect of caffeine on peroxidase activity and gamma-ray-induced oxic and anoxic damage in Hordeum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of caffeine during and after gamma radiation of barley seeds was studied using seedling injury and peroxidase activity as parameters. The radiation-induced stimulation of peroxidase activity is evident in eight-day only seedlings but not in embryos (i.e. immediately after irradiation). Caffeine present during irradiation of seeds soaked in oxygenated water diminishes seedling injury and also reduces the peroxidase activity to the level observed in eight-day old seedlings of unirradiated seeds. Caffeine, however, produces just the opposite effect (i.e. enhances the seedling injury and peroxidase activity of eight-day old seedlings) when applied during irradiation of seeds soaked in oxygen-free water. There is no evidence that caffeine effects enzyme activity under in vitro conditions. (author)

  18. Environmental influence on the effect of gamma irradiation on proximate chemical composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of 10, 20 and 30 krad gamma rays on Ash, Moisture, Crude protein, Crude fat, Crude fibre and Nitrogen free extract contents of barely variety, C-63 sown on 5th and 20th November and 5th December were observed. Sowing dates had significant effects for all characters except moisture percentage and carbohydrates. Ash, moisture and carbohydrates percentages had increased due to early sowing, while crude protein, fat and fibre percentages had decreased due to late sowing. Radiation effects were highly significant for all characters except moisture percentage. The severity of stimulatory or inhibitory effect, in general, was dependent upon the intensity of radiation doses and time of sowing for all characters studied. Maximum stimulatory effects were due to 30 krad which were 6.23, 32.78, 4.92 and 29.07% for Ash, Protein, fat and fibre, respectively than their respective controls. The retarding effects of 14.57 and 8.20% for moisture and carbohydrate were also found due to 30 krad, as compared with their respective controls

  19. Protein and malt quality in some gamma-ray induced high yielding mutants in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of various yield traits of 5 high yielding mutants isolated from 25 kR .gamma.-ray treated M2 population of a 6 rowed barley cv. DL-36 are reported. These mutants were superior over control in height, number of effective tillers, total grain yield and protein percentage. Though the mutants possessed high grain yields, malt quality declined due to the increase in hull percentage

  20. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  1. The cytogenetic disturbance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) sprouts under the action of gamma-irradiation of seeds and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research results showed that gamma-irradiation of seeds in 2,5 and 5,0 Gy doses raised the sensitivity of plants to the further stressful factor action. In the process of seeds germination the drought served as the factor modifying the damaging influence of the ionizing radiation on genome of plants. On the one hand, there was noticed the antagonism of interaction of both factors on seeds germination and the mitotic activity of root cells, on the other hand – synergism of action on the output of aberrant cells

  2. Biochemical characterization of protein composition of high-lysine mutant ML-109 of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present studies was to determine the biochemical basis of a high lysine content in the mutant ML-109. The protein composition of kernels of high-lysine mutant of winter barley and its initial breeding line were analysed. The portion of individual fractions differing by their solubility in total proteins as well as amino acid composition of kernel protein and separated main protein fractions were also determined. The performed studies showed that a high lysine content in the kernels of the analysed mutant results from a decrease in the hordein level and from an increase in the portion of salt soluble proteins - albumins and globulins. Besides that, the obtained results indicate that the amino acid composition of the main protein fractions of the analysed mutant was advantageously changed; these fractions contained more lysine and other exogenic amino acids. (author). 15 refs, 6 tabs

  3. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on biodiversity of weed communities in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed biodiversity in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and numbers of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. On this basis, the constancy of species in particular years, Shannon-Wiener species diversity indices and diversity profiles according to Rényi were determined. Weed species richness increased linearly at all plots during the 15-year period. Chenopodium album was a constant and dominant species in terms of weed species density and biomass year after year. The quality of the plot had no clear influence on the diversity of weeds in barley. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. The significance of the correlation between the productivity of barley and weed diversity was not confirmed.

  4. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on biodiversity of weed communities in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed biodiversity in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and numbers of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. On this basis, the constancy of species in particular years, Shannon-Wiener species diversity indices and diversity profiles according to Rényi were determined. Weed species richness increased linearly at all plots during the 15-year period. Chenopodium album was a constant and dominant species in terms of weed species density and biomass year after year. The quality of the plot had no clear influence on the diversity of weeds in barley. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. The significance of the correlation between the productivity of barley and weed diversity was not confirmed.

  5. Effect of Osmo-priming on Germination and Enzyme Activity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Seeds under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaei S. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming was used in barley to increase seed germination and tolerance on stress exposure. Barley seeds were treated with PEG (Polyethylene 6000 mw. After 7 days our results showed that, seed priming treatments significantly (p≤ 0.01 affected germination percentage, normality seedling percentage, and germination index. Seed priming with PEG increased germination characteristics as the compared to the unprimed. Also, priming increased catalase as compared to the unprimed seeds. Therefore, the highest germination characteristics and catalase activity were attained from priming with PEG.

  6. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the...... active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  7. Can barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) adapt to fast climate changes? A controlled selection experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemayehu, Fikadu Reta; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon;

    2013-01-01

    to environmental stress, we conducted a selection experiment over five plant generations (G0–G4) in three scenarios, where atmospheric [CO2] and temperature were increased as single factors and in combination. The treatments represented the expected environmental characteristics in Northern Europe around year 2075...... to environmental change needs to be explored in order to select the most productive genotypes. Presently, it is unknown whether cereal crops like spring barley can adapt to climate stressors over relatively few generations. To evaluate if strong selection pressures could change the performance of barley...

  8. CONTRIBUTION REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF SIMAZIN TREATMENT ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES TO BARLEY PLANTLETS (HORDEUM VULGARE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA CĂPRARU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Simazin herbicide to Miraj and to Dana cultivars, in concentration of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1% determinated the variation of some physiological indices. The energy and the faculty of germination decreased to both cultivars, proportionally to the increase of the pesticide concentration. The process of photosynthesis was intensified at the high doses of herbicide also producing the accumulation of total mineral elements.

  9. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Some Saudi Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L. Landraces Based on Two Types of Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.H.M. El-Awady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Very little is known about the genetic diversity and morphological variability present in barley landrace in KSA, a country experiencing loss of biodiversity because of replacement of landraces with modern landraces. Approach: The molecular markers RAPD and ISSR were used as an efficient tools to estimate the intra-and inter-cultivar polymorphism among six barley KSA landraces collected from different geographical regions in order to assess the genetic relationships and develop cultivar-specific molecular fingerprints. The long term objective was to use these fingerprints to identify molecular markers that co-segregate and could be used in isolating gene(s which controlling some important traits, thereafter could be used in breeding programs (marker assisted selection. Results: Out of 20 and 10 primers of RAPD and ISSR, respectively, a clear and reproducible band profile of 13 RAPD primers and 7 ISSR primers were obtained. In RAPD analyses, 61 out of 111 bands (54.6% were polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 5-15 per primer, with an average of 8.54 per primer. In ISSR analyses, a total of 53 alleles were detected, among which 16 alleles (30.2% were polymorphic. The number of alleles per primer ranged from 5-10 with an average of 7.57 alleles per ISSR primer. The mean Polymorphism Information Content (PIC values were 0.45 and 0.37 for RAPD and ISSR markers, respectively. Conclusion: ISSR is better than RAPD to detect genetic diversity among the barley landraces. The RAPDs and ISSRs have confirmed each other and the ISSR results are more realistic comparing to RAPD results regarding to the geographical distribution of the six barley landraces. The outcome of this investigation can help strengthen the exiting pool of information on barley that may help assess national barley programs in KSA.

  11. Characterization and partial purification of beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Hejgaard, J.;

    1993-01-01

    was inhibited by UDP and uridine 5' triphosphate (UTP). Glucanase digestion of the in vitro product showed that it was a beta-1,3-linked polysaccharide. Two different procedures were used for further enrichment of polypeptides involved in callose synthase activity. Sucrose gradient centrifugation with...

  12. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anjali, E-mail: joshianjali1982@gmail.com; Sharma, Arti [Centre For Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Nayyar, Harsh [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Verma, Gaurav [Dr. SS Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  13. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf;

    2014-01-01

    were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in...... dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  14. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian Xiao; Irino, Nobuto; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones studies. Tricin demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity compared to three other compounds. The results suggest that a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position and methoxy groups at the C-3',5' positions of the tricin skeleton may have important roles in this inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that tricin inhibits melanin biosynthesis with higher efficacy than arbutin, and it could be used as a whitening agent. PMID:25827948

  15. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wanic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and weed density of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. Weed density increased linearly on all plots during the 15-year period. The average values confirm the increase in weed biomass in the case when spring barley was grown once or twice after this crop; however, those differences were influenced by the previous situation only during some seasons. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. A negative correlation between the yield of barley and weed biomass was shown.

  16. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrzębska; Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full ...

  17. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L Hecht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies after the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm-3 increases in the top soil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g-1 due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24-340 seeds m-2 in two consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm. Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the top soil (0-10 cm. Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the top soil. Rooting depth of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4-1.0 mm was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased SRL and increased shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m-2 suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a modifier of root architecture and that root traits and their utility in breeding for greater productivity have to be understood in the context of high planting densities.

  18. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager;

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve the...... separate introductions of the gene of interest and the resistance gene for selection, respectively. The transgenic lines (T0), currently growing in greenhouse will be self pollinated and the molecular, physiological and agronomic characterization of subsequent generations will be undertaken....

  19. A study on zinc distribution in calcareous soils for cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) and barely ( Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Compared to other cereals, such as wheat and barley cultivars which have low sensitivity to Zn deficiency, cowpea is sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency, however it extensively grows even in soils with deficient in Zn. A 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea and barely to Zn in calcareous soils with different DTPA- Zn. The soil samples were taken from soil surface up to 0.3 m in which their DTPA- Zn ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 mg kg-1. Shoot dry matter, concentration and uptake of Zn were found to be significantly correlated with soil DTPA- Zn in cowpea and barely. Critical deficiency level of Zn in cowpea was 1.3 mg kg-1 in soil and 28.5 mg kg-1 in shoot dry matter, however, to barely symptoms of Zn deficiency was not observed and concentration of Zn was higher than the critical level reported in literatures. Organic carbon (OC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), pH and field capacity soil moisture content(FC) were significantly correlated with plant responses to Zn which were the most influenced characteristics to Zn uptake by plants.

  20. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  1. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds

  2. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hordeum secalinum, H. capense and their interspecific hybrids with H. vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    The European H. secalinum (2n = 4x = 48) and the South African H. capense (2n = 4x = 28) had similar karyotypes with ten pairs of metacentrics, three of submetacentrics, and one of SAT-chromosomes. The C-banded karyotypes of H. secalinum from northern Europe were characterized by banding patterns...... reproductive system. No banding pattern polymorphism was present within plants of H. secalinum from Spain and H. capense, suggesting self-pollination. In both species banding pattern polymorphism was prevalent among plants. Together with other evidence the fairly similar basic C-banded karyotypes of the two...

  3. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  4. Using SSR Markers For Assessment Genetic Diversity And Detection Drought Escape Candidate Genes In Barley Lines (Hordeum Vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougerdchi Vahideh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of genetic diversity using molecular markers is one of the primary and important steps in breeding programs. In this study, genetic diversity of 52 barley lines evaluated using 68 SSR primer pairs and 47 primer pairs produced clear and polymorphic banding pattern. In general, 153 polymorphic alleles detected. The number of observed polymorphic alleles varied from 2 to 9, with an average of 3.26 alleles per locus. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC ranged from 0.07 to 0.81, with an average of 0.45. In this research, SSR markers differentiated the studied lines efficiently. Using cluster analysis, studied barley lines divided into two groups. Genetic diversity was relatively corresponding with geographical origins, because the lines related to a country somewhat diverged from each other. Two-rowed Iranian and Chinese barleys classified in one subgroup. Also, most six-rowed barleys classified in one subgroup. Association mapping analysis was used to identify candidate genes for drought escape in barley lines and 16 informative markers were identified after which confirmation in other tests could be suitable for marker assisted breeding drought escape.

  5. Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganal Martin W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was a systematic survey of the molecular diversity in barley genetic resources. To this end 953 cultivated barley accessions originating from all inhabited continents except Australia were genotyped with 48 SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated with routine statistics (allelic richness, gene diversity, allele frequency, heterozygosity and unique alleles, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA, and analysis of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium. Results A genotyping database for 953 cultivated barley accessions profiled with 48 SSR markers was established. The PCoA revealed structuring of the barley population with regard to (i geographical regions and (ii agronomic traits. Geographic origin contributed most to the observed molecular diversity. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2. The values of LD for barley were comparable to other plant species (conifers, poplar, maize. The pattern of intrachromosomal LD with distances between the genomic loci ranging from 1 to 150 cM revealed that in barley LD extended up to distances as long as 50 cM with r2 > 0.05, or up to 10 cM with r2 > 0.2. Few loci mapping to different chromosomes showed significant LD with r2 > 0.05. The number of loci in significant LD as well as the pattern of LD were clearly dependent on the population structure. The LD in the homogenous group of 207 European 2-rowed spring barleys compared to the highly structured worldwide barley population was increased in the number of loci pairs with r2 > 0.05 and had higher values of r2, although the percentage of intrachromosomal loci pairs in significant LD based on P 0.80 provided higher LD values as compared to 19 low polymorphic loci (PIC Conclusion A global population of cultivated barley accessions was highly structured. Clustering highlighted the accessions with the same geographic origin, as well as accessions possessing similar agronomic characters. LD in barley extended up to 50 cM, and was strongly dependent on the population structure. The data on LD were summarized as a genome-wide LD map for barley.

  6. Identification of SNPs in barley(Hordeum vulgare L.)by deep sequencing of six reduced representation libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganggang; Guo; Dawa; Dondup; Lisha; Zhang; Sha; Hu; Xingmiao; Yuan; Jing; Zhang

    2014-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are required for genotyping and linkage mapping in identifying genes from crops with complex genomes, such as barley. As the most common variation, single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) are suitable for accurate genotyping by using the next-generation sequencing(NGS) technology. Reduced representation libraries(RRLs) of five barley accessions and one mutant were sequenced using NGS technology for SNP discovery. Twenty million short reads were generated and the proportion of repetitive sequences was reduced by more than 56%. A total of 6061 SNPs were identified, and 451 were mapped to the draft sequence of the barley genome with pairing reads. Eleven SNPs were validated using length polymorphic allele-specific PCR markers.

  7. Propiedades reológicas y de adsorción de agua de harina extrudida de arroz y bagazo de cebada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El bagazo de cebada procedente de la industria cervecera se utiliza comúnmente en la alimentación animal, pero por medio de un proceso adecuado puede servir como alternativa en las formulaciones de productos alimentares ricos en fibra y proteína. La combinación de bagazo de cebada y arroz (82:18 fue procesada por extrusión para obtener la harina mixta extrudida de bagazo y arroz, de la cual se determinaron las propiedades reológicas y de adsorción de agua, cuyos valores fueron comparados con la harina de arroz cruda. Los modelos matemáticos de Oswin, Smith, Peleg (1988 y Peleg (1993 fueron utilizados para explicar las propiedades de absorción en diferentes temperatura (25, 30, 35 y 45 ºC y actividades de agua (0.11 a 0.97. Peleg (1993 fue el modelo que mejor describe las curvas de absorción de agua. El perfil de viscosidad aparente de la harina extrudida es similar al de harina de arroz crudo; no presenta viscosidad inicial pero se caracteriza por tener menor temperatura de pasta, quiebra de viscosidad y tendencia a la retrogradación.

  8. [Cytogenetic analysis of alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with unstable fertility and viability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, E D; Pershina, L A; Bil'danova, L L

    2006-02-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis was performed with four alloplasmic recombinant (Hordeum vulgare)-Triticum aestivum lines differing in morphological traits, number of seeds per spike, and seed plumpness. None of the lines displayed introgression of the barley genetic material: the karyotypes included only common wheat chromosomes. Two lines, 79(B) and 79(D), were cytogenetically stable. Plants of lines 79(A) and 79(C) displayed a high frequency of unbalanced chromosome aberrations, including dicentric and polycentric chromosomes, terminal deletions varying in size, acentric fragments, and multiple unidentifiable translocations. Previous studies of the mitochondrial genome showed that the two cytologically unstable lines, which were also unstable in fertility and viability, are characterized by heteroplasmy at the mitochondrial 18S-5S locus (simultaneous presence of barley and wheat fragments). Stable lines 79(B) and 79(D) with normal fertility contained only wheat mitochondrial markers. It was assumed that the substantial instability of the nuclear genome in lines 79(C) and 79(A) was a result of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility and was associated with heteroplasmy, while elimination or considerable reduction of barley material in the mitochondrial genome stabilized the nuclear genome of lines 79(B) and 79(D). In turn, the instability of the nuclear genome was responsible for a decrease in viability and fertility of plants. PMID:16583704

  9. Cytological study of Hordeum bulbosum L. in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Khodayari; Hojjatolah Saeidi

    2011-01-01

    Hordeum bulbosum L. (Poaceae) is considered to be sources of useful alleles which can be used in cereal improvement. Thirty two native Iranian H. bulbosum were collected from different localities and were studied by karyotype analysis. We assessed the karyotype asymmetry of the Iranian bulbous barley populations and analyzed the data to look for their geographic distribution correlations. All of the studied populations were tetraploid (2n=4x=28) and the analysed parameters of karyotype of H. ...

  10. Effect of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia (mainly increased level of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and low-density lipoprotein(LDL cholesterol with a decrease in high-density lipoprotein(HDL- cholesterol is the predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD. Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic impasse. Aim of the work: Many people have fast food that contains large amount of lipids and leads to the formation of free radicals which cause hyperlipidemia. The present study demonstrate the effect of the fennel (Foeniculum vulgare in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat and 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for a further 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with Foeniculum vulgare for another 3 weeks (10 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat and 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given Foeniculum vulgare (10 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with fennel ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommend to use fennel in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  11. GENOTOXICIDAD DE PLAGUICIDAS EN SISTEMAS VEGETALES

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Juana SÁNCHEZ ALARCÓN; Sandra GÓMEZ-ARRROYO; Cortés Eslava, Josefina; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Socorro FERNÁNDEZ; Rafael VILLALOBOS-PIETRINI

    2013-01-01

    La presente revisión comprende el análisis de publicaciones que evalúan la capacidad genotóxica de plaguicidas, empleando diversos organismos vegetales como sistemas de prueba desarrollados a partir de 1990. Incluye un total de 149 trabajos en donde se analizaron 167 plaguicidas. Fueron usadas 28 especies vegetales dentro de las cuales destacan Allium cepa (cebolla), Vicia faba (haba) y Hordeum vulgare (cebada). Los grupos de plaguicidas más evaluados son los organofosforados, seguidos por lo...

  12. Acometimento oral no pênfigo vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Miziara Ivan Dieb; Ximenes Filho João Aragão; Ribeiro Fernando César; Brandão Ana Laura

    2003-01-01

    O Pênfigo Vulgar (PV) é uma doença vesicobolhosa caracterizada pela presença de auto-anticorpos contra moléculas de adesão intraepidérmicas. OBJETIVO: Identificar as características do PV em cada sexo, formas de apresentação, idade de acometimento, métodos de diagnóstico e tratamento utilizado. FORMA DE ESTUDO: coorte histórica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Pacientes com PV acompanhados no Ambulatório de Otorrinolaringologia do HC-FMUSP entre 1990 e 2001. RESULTADOS: Dos 23 pacientes, 91,3% foram mul...

  13. Parámetros técnicos de eficiencia y uso racional de los medios de transporte de grano para la cosecha de cebada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel García Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo fue llevado a cabo en la Región del Bajío Guanajuatense, México, con el objetivo de caracterizar la tecnología del transporte de la cosecha del grano de cebada maltera, determinando los parámetros e indicadores específicos que influyen en la eficiencia y uso racional del mismo. En el estudio se analizan dos tipos de camiones: 12 y 18 t de capacidad nominal de carga, 20 y 30 m3 de capacidad volumétrica, respectivamente. Los resultados arrojados indican que existe una utilización de la capacidad de carga de ambos tipos de medios de transporte de un 86 %, lo cual implica un desaprovechamiento del 9 % respecto al mínimo óptimo recomendado (95 %, lo cual equivale a 1,08 y 1,62 t por cada viaje realizado, respectivamente.

  14. Armida, nueva variedad de cebada maltera para riego en El Bajío Armida, new malt barley cultivar for irrigation area in El Bajío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zamora Díaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Armida es producto del proceso de mejoramiento genético que se originó de un cruzamiento triple realizado por el programa nacional de cebada maltera del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias en el Campo Experimental Bajío, es una variedad que tiene tolerancia a las principales enfermedades de la cebada maltera en condiciones de riego; así como, moderada tolerancia a la roya de la hoja (Puccinia hordei Otth., alto potencial de rendimiento, calidad industrial y ciclo vegetativo más corto que la variedad testigo Esperanza. Las selecciones individuales en generaciones segregantes de la variedad Armida se llevaron a cabo alternadamente en los Campos Experimentales Valle de México y Bajío. Esta variedad se evaluó durante once ciclos agrícolas con rendimientos experimentales promedio en grano superior al 12% al de la variedad comercial Esperanza.Armida is product of breeding process that originated from a triple crossing made by National Research Forestry, Agriculture and livestock Institute of the national program for malt barley, at "Bajío" Experimental Field, is a variety that is tolerant to most of common diseases to malting barley under irrigation conditions, as well as, moderated tolerance to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth., high yield potential, industrial quality and shorter growing season than control variety Esperanza. The individual selections in segregating generations of Armida variety were held alternately in the Valle de Mexico and Bajío experimental fields. This variety was evaluated for eleven growing seasons with average experimental grain yields above 12% to commercial Esperanza variety.

  15. Caracterización morfológica de almidones de los géneros Triticum y Hordeum en la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Sáez, José Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch grains are increasingly used in archaeobotanical studies as markers of diet, plant domestication, tool use and site organization in archaeological research, because their morphology and features provide a means to identify the plant that produced them. In this paper we characterize morphometrically the starch grains of five species of the genus Triticum and three varieties of Hordeum vulgare. In addition there is an assessment of the studies of starch grains made in the Prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula, indicating the achievements, the weaknesses and future directions to promote this type of bioarchaeological analysis; especially, there is a need to rely on wide reference collections, as well as apply statistical analyses and carry out experimental studies to control the processes of alteration of the starch grains.Los granos de almidón son cada vez más utilizados en los estudios arqueobotánicos como marcadores de la dieta, la domesticación de plantas, el uso de herramientas y la organización microespacial de los yacimientos arqueológicos, debido a que su morfología y características permiten identificar las plantas que los produjeron. En el presente trabajo se caracterizan morfométricamente los granos de almidón de cinco especies del género Triticum y tres variedades de Hordeum vulgare. Además se hace un balance de los estudios de almidones realizados en la Prehistoria de la Península Ibérica, señalando los logros, las debilidades y futuras directrices para potenciar este tipo de análisis bioarqueológico; especialmente la necesidad de contar con amplias colecciones de referencia, la aplicación de análisis estadísticos paralelos, y la realización de estudios experimentales para controlar los procesos de alteración de los almidones.

  16. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  17. Fertilización nitrogenada y balance de nutrientes en cebada cervecera Nitrogen fertilization and nutrients balance in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Landriscini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La difusión de cebada cervecera (CC con alto potencial de rendimiento aumenta los requerimientos de nutrientes, por ello el déficit y el desbalance nutricional serán limitantes de la producción. El Sistema DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System utiliza relaciones entre nutrientes foliares e indica el orden en que los nutrientes están limitando el rendimiento. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: a establecer el orden de requerimientos nutricionales de los principales macronutrientes para CC; b evaluar la sensibilidad de la metodología DRIS para detectar posibles respuestas a la fertilización nitrogenada, y c determinar si el manejo de la fertilización nitrogenada mejora el balance de nutrientes en la planta. Se utilizaron plantas de CC provenientes de 8 ensayos de fertilización realizados en los años 1999 y 2000 y muestreadas durante los estadíos de macollaje y espigazón. En macollaje, las parcelas testigo y las fertilizadas mostraron al N como el nutriente más deficiente, y al S en los casos de mayor aporte de N (cuando se fertilizó con 30 o 60 kg N ha-1. En este estadio se observó un leve desbalance nutricional, reflejado por el «Índice de Balance Nutricional» (IBN y la relación N:S. En espigazón la CC mostró deficiencias importantes de N, seguidas en muchos casos por el S, las cuales afectaron directamente el rendimiento. El P y el K mostraron índices adecuados no evidenciándose deficiencias en los suelos. En 1999, los rendimientos fueron bajos y con respuesta a la fertilización, excepto en un sitio donde hubo alta disponibilidad de nitratos y rendimientos elevados. En 2000, la mayor disponibilidad hídrica produjo mayores rendimientos con marcadas deficiencias de N debidas a la escasez de N disponible a la siembra. El S alternó con el N en el orden de requerimientos y el IBN mostró valores decrecientes al incrementarse el aporte de N. La correlación de este índice con los rendimientos de las parcelas

  18. Remoción de nutrientes por cebada en seis suelos de Cundinamarca y Boyacá - Colombia Nutrient uptake by barley in six Colombian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amézquita Edgar

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la producción de cereales como la cebada está restringida por variados factores entre los que destacan lluvias irregulares, heladas, acidez del suelo, infertilidad y enfermedades, inadecuado manejo del suelo, además de escaso germoplasma adaptado. Una alternativa para enfrentar parte del problema está en la selección de líneas en diferentes terrenos, tendiente a desarrollar variedades adaptables aún a suelos de baja productividad. Para llegar a una apropiada recomendación a los agricultores se consideró la cantidad de nutrientes removidos por las plantas en madurez fisiológica. La cebada comercial 124 mostró preferencias por suelos de moderada fertilidad pero tuvo una relativa menor eficiencia en la conversión de nutrientes a grano frente al trigo Bonza. Sus requerimientos nutricionales para alcanzar rendimientos cercanos a 2.5 t/ha sin riego se definieron así: Macronutrientes (kg/ha: 30N, 8P, 45K, 8Ca, 2.5 Mg; Micronutrientes (g/ha: 140 Mn, 40 Zn, 24 Cu, 340 Fe. La más alta eficiencia nutricional para varias líneas promisorias de cebada sembradas en terrenos ondulados se dió en el suelo más productivo pero arcilloso (Vertic Tropudalf, una respuesta intermedia se halló en uno humífero ácido poco profundo (Paralithic Humitropept y una muy baja eficiencia se reportó en el de menos retención de humedad e infértil (Ustic Dystropept. Se seleccionaron dos líneas con baja adaptación a los tres terrenos mencionados, una rindió bien en el ambiente más difícil, y tres líneas exhibieron alta adaptación a todos los terrenos escogidos.

    In Colombia, the increase of barley production is restricted by such factors as irregular rainfall, low temperatures, soil acidity, low fertility and disease, associated with improper soil management and scarse improve germoplasm, A suitable use of fertilizers is an alternative to face part of the problem by means of plant breeding in different terrain, tend to develop of low

  19. Evaluación de la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae en cebada Assessment of resistance against Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F. Tocho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El pulgón verde de los cereales, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, es una de las principales plagas de estos cultivos en el mundo y también presente en Argentina. Si bien el control químico es la práctica más utilizada, el uso de variedades resistentes (uno de los componentes principales del MIP es la estrategia más efectiva y ambientalmente más amigable para el control de plagas. Dado que las plantas presentan distintos mecanismos que les permiten defenderse de los insectos, el objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum en una población de líneas recombinantes de cebada, e identificar aquellas con mejores características, portadoras de genes de resistencia a este insecto. La antixenosis fue analizada por la prueba de libre selección de hospederos. La antibiosis se evaluó por los parámetros del ciclo y el desarrollo del áfido y la tolerancia por características de crecimiento de las plantas bajo infestación. Al menos ocho líneas antibióticas fueron más tolerantes que sus testigos, presentando similares pesos secos, área foliar y contenido de clorofila bajo infestación. Estas líneas portadoras de genes de resistencia pueden ser de utilidad en los planes de mejora de la cebada.Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani is one of the major pests of cereals around the world that is present in Argentina. Chemical control is the most widely used practice; however, the use of resistant varieties, one of the main components in IPM, is the most effective and environmentally sustainable strategy of control. Since plants have different types of insect resistance that allow them to defend against pests, the aim of the current study was to characterize the resistance to Schizaphis graminum in a population of recombinant inbred lines of barley and to identify lines with improved characteristics that enable the development of commercial cultivars. Antixenosis was studied by the host free choice test. Antibiosis

  20. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, S; Lyoussi, B; Wibo, M; Morel, N

    2001-05-01

    The hypotensive effects of the water extract of Marrubium vulgare L. and Foeniculum vulgare L. were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Oral administration of Marrubium or Foeniculum extract lowered the systolic blood pressure of SHR but not of WKY. In SHR, Foeniculum but not Marrubium treatment increased water, sodium and potassium excretion. Ex vivo as well as in vitro, Marrubium extract inhibited the contractile responses of rat aorta to noradrenaline and to KCl (100 mM). Inhibition was greater in aorta from SHR compared to WKY and was not affected by the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine. Vascular effects of Foeniculum extract were less pronounced than those of Marrubium and were blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine. These results indicate that hypotensive activity of Marrubium and Foeniculum extracts seems to be mediated through different pathways: Foeniculum appeared to act mainly as a diuretic and a natriuretic while Marrubium displayed vascular relaxant activity. PMID:11349824

  1. Features of Vulgar Latin in the inscriptions of Naissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Vojin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epigraphic material from the region of Naissus, in spite of its relative scarcity and poor state of preservation, offers valuable examples of Vulgar Latin usage. Interesting phenomena include an instance of the imperial name Pertinax in the form Pertenax, which may be due to a vulgar reinterpretation of the name (‘Very Tough’, cf. Constans, Valens, sim. and may imply rhizotony (Perténax; the adjective superstantes ‘survivors’, apparently the issue of two consequent vulgar developments, superstes > superstens (hypercorrect spelling > superstans (false analogy; an isosyllabic 3rd declension nominative singular, Melioris (from the name Melior, as well as a 3rd decl. dative singular generi from the 2nd decl. noun gener ‘son-in-law’; an early borrowing from Germanic, brutes ‘daughter-in-law’; a ‘weak’ future participle, sequiture, for secuturae; the bastard noun volumptas, cf. voluntas and voluptas; a correlative construction with sic...sic for quemadmodum...sic; and the verb adjuvare followed by a dative, which illustrates a vulgarism known from the Glossaries. Another kind of vulgarity, which is rather a matter of simplicity than purely linguistic incompetence, is found in cases such as an epitaph whose dedicator calls herself bene merita; or a semi-metric inscription-a commaticum-whose actual text may be the outcome of tampering with a regular epigraphic poem

  2. Teratogenic effects of Origanum Vulgare extract in mice fetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Ragerdi Kashani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on reproduction have mentioned Origanum Vulgare extract’s ability to reduce mortality rates and improve fertility rates. However, other studies have suggested that it is possible to use Origanum Vulgare extract to induce abortion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of Origanum Vulgare on embryo survival and macroscopic abnormalities in mice.Methods: In this study, 24 mice Balb/c female weighting approximately 25-30 g were divided into 4 groups. Origanum Vulgare extract was prepared; different concentrations (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg in 0.25 ml distilled water were administered, by oral gavage, to three experimental groups of mice between day 6 (starting gastrulation until day 15 of pregnancy (end of organogenesis. The control group consisted of six mice that received 0.25 ml of distilled water daily. On day 16 of study, pregnant mice were anesthetized by chloroform and fetuses were removed and stained with Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red s and microwave irradiation. Morphological and skeletal abnormalities were investigated by light and stereomicroscopes.Results: The results of this study showed that high doses of the Origanum Vulgare extract significantly decreased the mean number of embryos (100.5, P>0.05, mean number of live embryos (70.5, P>0.05 in each mouse and resulted in significant reduction in mean weight(11848 mg, P>0.05 and crown-rump length(11.90.23 mm, P>0.05 and the overall size of fetuses compared to control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the groups receiving low dose of Origanum Vulgare extract with control group. In addition, under the effect of the Origanum Vulgare extract the subcutaneous bleeding seemed (20.1, P>0.05 significantly more frequent compared to the control group. Conclusion: Origanum Vulgare extract did not have any positive effect on fetal development; and high dosages led to an increased incidence rate of

  3. Cytological study of Hordeum bulbosum L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Khodayari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hordeum bulbosum L. (Poaceae is considered to be sources of useful alleles which can be used in cereal improvement. Thirty two native Iranian H. bulbosum were collected from different localities and were studied by karyotype analysis. We assessed the karyotype asymmetry of the Iranian bulbous barley populations and analyzed the data to look for their geographic distribution correlations. All of the studied populations were tetraploid (2n=4x=28 and the analysed parameters of karyotype of H. bulbosum support the autopolyploidy origin of the species with nearly symmetric karyotype. The results showed the most asymmetric karyotypes within northeast (Golestan and northwest (Gardane-e Heiran populations and the most symmetric karyotyps in populations from the west of Iran. Therefore, it can be assumed that the oldest populations are in the slopes of Zagros Mountains and the youngest germplasms occur in the northeast of this country. It can be concluded that the species originated from the west of Iran and distributed towards east and northeast.

  4. Omslaget - hvid okseøje (Leucanthemum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen redergør for den historiske baggrund for den illustration (tavle 994 fra Flora Danica, udgivet i 1790) af hvid okseøje (Leucanthemum vulgare), der er anvendt som illustration på festskriftets omslag. De illustratorer, der blev anvendt af Martin Vahl, udgiver af Flora Danica da tavle 994...

  5. The vasorelaxant activity of marrubenol and marrubiin from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, Sanae; Morel, Nicole; Wibo, Maurice; Fabre, Nicolas; Llabres, Gabriel; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2003-01-01

    Crude extracts of the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare show a potent in vitro inhibition of KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta. Bio-guided fractionations, spectroscopic analysis and chemical derivatization revealed the furanic labdane diterpenes marrubenol and marrubiin as the most active compounds. PMID:12567286

  6. Marruboside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside from Marrubium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, François

    2002-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:12049220

  7. In silico and in vitro analyses of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of hydrolysates generated from crude barley (Hordeum vulgare) protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Wynne, Kieran; O'Connor, Paula; Gallagher, Eimear; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K; Hayes, Maria

    2016-07-15

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) plays a key role in control of hypertension, and type-2 diabetes mellitus, which frequently co-exist. Our current work utilised in silico methodologies and peptide databases as tools for predicting release of ACE-I inhibitory peptides from barley proteins. Papain was the enzyme of choice, based on in silico analysis, for experimental hydrolysis of barley protein concentrate, which was performed at the enzyme's optimum conditions (60 °C, pH 6.0) for 24 h. The generated hydrolysate was subjected to molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filtration, following which the non-ultrafiltered hydrolysate (NUFH), and the generated 3 kDa and 10 kDa MWCO filtrates were assessed for their in vitro ACE-I inhibitory activities. The 3 kDa filtrate (1 mg/ml), that demonstrated highest ACE-I inhibitory activity of 70.37%, was characterised in terms of its peptidic composition using mass spectrometry and 1882 peptides derived from 61 barley proteins were identified, amongst which 15 peptides were selected for chemical synthesis based on their predicted ACE-I inhibitory properties. Of the synthesized peptides, FQLPKF and GFPTLKIF were most potent, demonstrating ACE-I IC50 values of 28.2 μM and 41.2 μM respectively. PMID:26948626

  8. Genetic Study of the Manganese Use Efficiency Trait in Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Genome- Wide Association and Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leplat, Florian Jean Victor

    functionality in Mn dependent pathways and processes. In a the second step, a genuine statistical method to assist breeding programs in selecting new varieties, named Genomic Selection (GS), was applied. It was demonstrated that GS is an effective tool to be used in breeding programs for selecting more...... efficiency remained elusive. This PhD study aimed to understand better the genetic determination of the trait and propose new insights for plant breeding purposes. Two genome-wide approaches were used in a winter barley collection to characterize the genetic control of the trait. First, a Genome...... efficient varieties for Mn efficiency. The obtained results, using the two different genome-wide approaches, provided useful information for future barley breeding for Mn efficiency. Moreover candidate genes identification opened perspectives for a better characterization of Mn efficiency trait at the...

  9. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grando, S.; Baum, M.; Ceccarelli, S.; Goodchild, A.; El-Haramein, F.J.; Jahoor, A.; Backes, G.

    2005-01-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore, ...

  10. Evaluation of recurrent radiation with Cobalt 60 gamma rays on agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) in the R2M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of recurrent radiation on agronomic traits in two barley varieties. The research was carried out at experimental fields pertaining to the Instituto de Investigacion Agropecuaria, Acuicola y Forestal of the Estado de Mexico (ICAMEX). The biological material was irradiated in the Gamma Cell 220 at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The experimental design was divided plots in the randomized blocks, with four replications. The factor varieties (Cerro Prieto and Puebla) was assigned to the big plots mean while in the factor doses was assignated to the small plots (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 krad of gamma rays). The variables under study were: germination, number of shoots, plant height, incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, spike length and yield. The analysis of variance exhibited no significant differences between varieties for all the studied variables. Regarding to dose, most of the studied variables exhibited significant differences, except for incidence of Puccinia striiformis and days to flowering. The interaction variety x doses showed significance only for the variable days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. The mean separation by Tukey test at 0.05 and the regression analysis showed that the variables: germination, number of shoots, plant height, spike length and yield decreased as the dose increased. On the other hand in the variables incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering and days to physiological maturity exhibited a direct relationship with the dose. (Author)

  11. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Hull-Caryopsis Adhesion/Separation Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Covered/Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Duan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The covered/naked caryopsis trait of barley is an important agronomic trait because it is directly linked to dietary use. The formation of covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by an NUD transcription factor, which is involved in pericarp cuticle development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this trait remains so far largely unknown. In this study, comparative transcriptomes of grains three weeks after anthesis of Tibetan Hulless barley landrace Dulihuang and covered barley Morex were analyzed using RNA-seq technique. A total of 4031 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified. The Nud gene was overexpressed in Morex, with trace expression in Dulihuang. Among seventeen cuticle related DEGs, sixteen were down regulated and one up regulated in Morex. These results suggest that the Nud gene in covered caryopsis might down regulate cuticle related genes, which may cause a permeable cuticle over pericarp, leading to a hull-caryopsis organ fusion. A functional cuticle covering the pericarp of naked caryopsis might be the result of deletion or low expression level of the Nud gene. The functional cuticle defines a perfect boundary to separate the caryopsis from the hull in naked barley.

  12. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  13. Detection of duplicates among repatriated Nordic spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) accessions using agronomic and morphological descriptors and microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birgitte; Ortiz, Rodomiro; von Bothmer, Roland; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2013-01-01

    Duplicate accessions in gene banks may be increasing while funding resources to maintain them are not always available. This research investigated the ability of agronomic and morphological descriptors for detecting duplicates among 138 repatriated putative Nordic barley germplasm and compared th...... selection intensity) and are therefore complementary. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V....

  14. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Jianjun; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Li, Yin; Shan, Lianju; Lin, Yan; Fan, Wei; Gu, Guoxian

    2006-09-20

    Four kinds of solvent extracts from three Chinese barley varieties (Ken-3, KA4B, and Gan-3) were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley through free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity, and individual and total phenolic contents. Results showed that extraction solvent mixtures had significant impacts on antioxidant activity estimation, as well as different extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley. The highest DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities and reducing power were found in 80% acetone extracts, whereas the strongest *OH scavenging activity, O2*- scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity were found in 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Additionally, 80% acetone showed the highest extraction capacity for (+)-catechin and ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, 80% methanol for (-)-epicatechin and syringic acid, and water for protocatechuic and gallic acids. Furthermore, correlations analysis revealed that TPC, reducing power, DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities were well positively correlated with each other (p extract free phenolic compounds from barley. DPPH* scavenging activity and ABTS*+ scavenging activity or reducing power could be used to assess barley antioxidant activity. PMID:16968094

  15. Response of photosynthetic apparatus of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to combined effect of elevated CO2 concentration and different growth irradiances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurasová, I.; Kalina, J.; Štroch, M.; Urban, Otmar; Špunda, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2003), s. 209-219. ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/00/1381; GA MŠk LN00A141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : CO2 concentration * fluorescence * photosynthesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2003

  16. Bacterial community responses to soil-injected liquid ammonium nutrition and effect of temperature on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain yield formation

    OpenAIRE

    Matoka, Charles Mboya

    2007-01-01

    Injection of concentrated liquid ammonium nutrition into soil is an agricultural practice aimed at mitigating nitrogen losses. In Germany, it is referred to as controlled uptake long term ammonium nutrition (CULTAN) technique. Being an anion, nitrate is mobile in soil and thus is not bound to negatively charged surfaces of clay minerals or organic compounds. This may thus result in leaching and may eventually cause environmental pollution. Ammonium ions, on the other hand, may be unspecifical...

  17. The cytogenetic disturbances in sprouts of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under the actions of gamma-irradiating of seeds and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-irradiating of seeds in doses 2.5 and 5.0 Gy raises sensitivity of plants to operation of the stressful factor. The drought at germination of seeds as the modifying factor of damaging operation of an ionizing radiation on a genome of plants was shown. (authors)

  18. DNA binding sites recognised in vitro by a knotted class 1 homeodomain protein encoded by the hooded gene, k, in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusell, L; Rasmussen, I; Gausing, K

    1997-01-01

    The homeodomain of the knotted classes of transcription factors from plants differs from the well characterized Antp/En type homeodomains from Drosophila at key amino acid residues contributing to the DNA binding. A cDNA, Hvh21, derived from the hooded gene and encoding a full length homolog of...

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci for Salinity Tolerance Identified under Drained and Waterlogged Conditions and Their Association with Flowering Time in Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Ma

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting crop production via adverse effects of osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity, and stress-related nutritional disorders. Detrimental effects of salinity are also often exacerbated by low oxygen availability when plants are grown under waterlogged conditions. Developing salinity-tolerant varieties is critical to overcome these problems, and molecular marker assisted selection can make breeding programs more effective.In this study, a double haploid (DH population consisting of 175 lines, derived from a cross between a Chinese barley variety Yangsimai 1 (YSM1 and an Australian malting barley variety Gairdner, was used to construct a high density molecular map which contained more than 8,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Salinity tolerance of parental and DH lines was evaluated under drained (SalinityD and waterlogged (SalinityW conditions at two different sowing times.Three quantitative trait loci (QTL located on chromosome 1H, single QTL located on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 5H and 7H, were identified to be responsible for salinity tolerance under different environments. Waterlogging stress, daylight length and temperature showed significant effects on barley salinity tolerance. The QTL for salinity tolerance mapped on chromosomes 4H and 7H, QSlwd.YG.4H, QSlwd.YG.7H and QSlww.YG.7H were only identified in winter trials, while the QTL on chromosome 2H QSlsd.YG.2H and QSlsw.YG.2H were only detected in summer trials. Genes associated with flowering time were found to pose significant effects on the salinity QTL mapped on chromosomes 2H and 5H in summer trials. Given the fact that the QTL for salinity tolerance QSlsd.YG.1H and QSlww.YG.1H-1 reported here have never been considered in the literature, this warrants further investigation and evaluation for suitability to be used in breeding programs.

  20. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  1. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water. PMID:26341252

  2. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    .3. Solubilized and degraded proteins evaluated by biuret, SDS-PAGE, and differential proteomics revealed that pH 4.3 had the greatest impact on both solubilization and degradation. In order to boost proteolysis, the recombinant barley endoprotease B2 (rec-HvEP-B2) was included after 8 h using the pH 4.3 regime....... Proteolysis evaluated by SDS-PAGE and differential proteomics confirmed a powerful effect of adding rec-HvEP-B2 to the soaked barley, regardless of the genotype. Our study addresses the use of rec-HvEP-B2 as an effective feed enzyme protease. HvEP-B2 has the potential to increase the digestibility of protein...

  3. The fungi communities of the soil environment of Triticum aestivum and its forecrops: Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba ssp. minor and Trifolium pratense

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Pląskowska

    2014-01-01

    The species spectrum and abundance of the fungi communities were affected by the soil environment developed by wheat and its forecrops, and by atmospheric conditions. The fungi of the genus Fusarium were the greatest threat to winter wheat regardless of the forecrop. The field bean was the best forecrop to the wheat whereas spring barley was the worst.

  4. Leaf proteome alterations in the context of physiological and morphological responses to drought and heat stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, J A; Habte, E; Templer, S E; Colby, T; Schmidt, J; von Korff, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify barley leaf proteins differentially regulated in response to drought and heat and the combined stresses in context of the morphological and physiological changes that also occur. The Syrian landrace Arta and the Australian cultivar Keel were subjected to drought, high temperature, or a combination of both treatments starting at heading. Changes in the leaf proteome were identified using differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The drought treatment caused strong reductions of biomass and yield, while photosynthetic performance and the proteome were not significantly changed. In contrast, the heat treatment and the combination of heat and drought reduced photosynthetic performance and caused changes of the leaf proteome. The proteomic analysis identified 99 protein spots differentially regulated in response to heat treatment, 14 of which were regulated in a genotype-specific manner. Differentially regulated proteins predominantly had functions in photosynthesis, but also in detoxification, energy metabolism, and protein biosynthesis. The analysis indicated that de novo protein biosynthesis, protein quality control mediated by chaperones and proteases, and the use of alternative energy resources, i.e. glycolysis, play important roles in adaptation to heat stress. In addition, genetic variation identified in the proteome, in plant growth and photosynthetic performance in response to drought and heat represent stress adaption mechanisms to be exploited in future crop breeding efforts. PMID:23918963

  5. Competition and niche differentiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) mixtures under rainfed conditions in the Central Highlands of Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Woldeamlak, A.; L. Bastiaans; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Barley and wheat mixtures were grown in the field using additive and replacement ratios at two locations (Halhale and Mendefera) in Eritrea during the 1997 and 1998 seasons. The aim was to assess yield advantage and to analyse competition and niche differentiation using a hyperbolic regression model. It proved advantageous to grow barley and wheat in mixtures because more land area was required to obtain the same yield in sole crops. The hyperbolic regression approach confirmed that barley an...

  6. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM. PMID:26468909

  7. The Effect of Natural Variation at Ppd-H1 and HvELF3 on Responses to Osmotic Stress in Barley (Hordeum Vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Ermias Habte

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock is an important timing system that, in part, controls stress adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the model crop barley, the clock orthologs Ppd-H1 and HvELF3 are important regulators of photoperiod response and flowering. However, little is known about additional effects of the clock on plant performance and stress adaptation in barley. Therefore, the objectives of this study were i) to analyse the effects of natural variation at the barley photoperiod response and cloc...

  8. Germination and microwave processing of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) changes the structural and physicochemical properties of β-d-glucan & enhances its antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mudasir; Gani, Adil; Shah, Asima; Gani, Asir; Masoodi, F A

    2016-11-20

    The nutraceutical potential of β-d-glucan is largely dependent on its structure, size and viscosity. The present study analyzed the effect of germination and microwave processing of barley on the structural, size, antioxidant and thermal characteristics of β-d-glucan. The molecular weight and viscosity of β-d-glucan obtained from germinated barley (GGB) were the lowest (144kDa and 37.33cp) as compared to β-d-glucan from microwave processed barley (GMB) and unprocessed barley (GUB). The GGB exhibited higher antioxidant potential than GMB and GUB. The Structural elucidation by ATR-FTIR revealed scission in polymeric chain and β glycosydic linkage of β-d-glucan obtained from processed barley. The highest peak intensity at glycosydic linkage in GGB confirms more scission in the molecule. The DSC curve of GGB showed the highest transition temperature. It was concluded that germination of barley can be a good approach for enhancing the antioxidant potential of β-d-glucan. PMID:27561541

  9. Influence of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. as intercrop with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. on the diversity of weed communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Orzech

    2014-09-01

    Spring barley weeding was significantly higher in case of cultivating it in mixed stand with Italian ryegrass (without chemical control, than in pure stand (with control. In the plots with mixed crop, lower diversity and homogeneity of weeds’ communities were recorded than in pure stand. Barley in mixed crop sown after spring barley, during both times of evaluation (spring and before harvest, increased the value of the index of dominance according to the number of species the most. As concerns the composition of species, number and biomass, the communities of pure stand and mixed crop with Italian ryegrass on the plot after potato were the most similar.

  10. Identification of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Autophagy Genes and Their Expression Levels during Leaf Senescence, Chronic Nitrogen Limitation and in Response to Dark Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Avila-Ospina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a cereal of primary importance for forage and human nutrition, and is a useful model for wheat. Autophagy genes first described in yeast have been subsequently isolated in mammals and Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis and maize it was recently shown that autophagy machinery participates in nitrogen remobilization for grain filling. In rice, autophagy is also important for nitrogen recycling at the vegetative stage. In this study, HvATGs, HvNBR1 and HvATI1 sequences were identified from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC, complementary DNA (cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. The gene models were subsequently determined from alignments between genome and transcript sequences. Essential amino acids were identified from the protein sequences in order to estimate their functionality. A total of twenty-four barley HvATG genes, one HvNBR1 gene and one HvATI1 gene were identified. Except for HvATG5, all the genomic sequences found completely matched their cDNA sequences. The HvATG5 gene sequence presents a gap that cannot be sequenced due to its high GC content. The HvATG5 coding DNA sequence (CDS, when over-expressed in the Arabidopsis atg5 mutant, complemented the plant phenotype. The HvATG transcript levels were increased globally by leaf senescence, nitrogen starvation and dark-treatment. The induction of HvATG5 during senescence was mainly observed in the flag leaves, while it remained surprisingly stable in the seedling leaves, irrespective of the leaf age during stress treatment.

  11. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ijaz Hussain, Abdullah; Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. ...

  12. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among the...

  13. Development of mutants of local barley bakur (T. Hordeum vulgare. c v Bakkur L.) with good quantitative and qualitative traits under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of local barley bakur were exposed to 150 Gy of gamma rays from cobalt 60 source irradiated seeds were planted in rows as M1.From M1 magnetized population plants , the main spike of each plants were collected, threshed and planted head to row method in 2008 winter season as M2. Evaluation of mutants was done for the increase in long spike and level of resistance to loading in compare with mother variety (untreated) resulted in selecting fifty mutated plants. These plants were planted as plant/ row method along with the mother variety and evaluated for grain yield and level of resistance for lodging which consequent y resulted in selecting of twenty four mutant lines which were varied in plant height long spike and yield. These lines were planted in the research farm during 2009 and the research farm during 2009 and 2011 winter season as M4 and M5 for two consecutive season resulted in selecting eight mutant lines which were distinguished of others in respect of level of resistance and increase of yield. These mutant lines were planted in plots in Kawkban and Bani-Mater locations during 2010 and 2011 seasons along with mother variety and improved variety Kawkban-1 which dominated in the region. Data were collected from the trail analyzed them separate y over each location. Results showed that the mutant line Al-e rra-B-008-15 was the best in grain yield and early maturity followed by Al-erra-B-008-20 and Al-erra-B-008-20. In the meantime these mutant line showed resistance to loading compare with other including the mother variety. There fore it can be recommended to register these mutants as a new varieties for Kawkaban Bain-Mater regions as well as for similar areas in the central and northern regions. This research summarizing results obtained from the trail conducted in both research farm and in farmer fields at Kawkaban and Bani-Mater locations. (Author)

  14. AB-QTL analysis reveals new alleles associated to proline accumulation and leaf wilting under drought stress conditions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammed A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Land plants have evolved several measures to maintain their life against abiotic stresses. The accumulation of proline is the most generalized response of plants under drought, heat or salt stress conditions. It is known as an osmoprotectant which also acts as an instant source of energy during drought recovery process. But, both its role and genetic inheritance are poorly understood in agriculture crops. In the present work, advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL analysis was performed to elucidate genetic mechanisms controlling proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley under drought stress conditions. Results The analysis revealed eight QTL associated to proline content (PC and leaf wilting (WS. QTL for PC were localized on chromosome 3H, 4H, 5H and 6H. The strongest QTL effect QPC.S42.5H was detected on chromosome 5H where drought inducible exotic allele was associated to increase PC by 54%. QTL effects QPC.S42.3H, QPC.S42.4H and QPC.S42.6H were responsible to heighten PC due to the preeminence of elite alleles over the exotic alleles which ranged from 26% to 43%. For WS, QTL have been localized on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H and 4H. Among these, QWS.S42.1H and QWS.S42.4H were associated to decrease in WS due to the introgression of exotic alleles. In addition, two digenic epistatic interaction effects were detected for WS where the additive effect of exotic alleles imparted a favorable increase in the trait value. Conclusions The present data represents a first report on whole-genome mapping of proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley. The detected QTL are linked to new alleles from both cultivated and wild accessions which bring out an initial insight on the genetic inheritance of PC and WS. These QTL alleles are fixed in the isogenic background of Scarlett, which will allow for positional cloning of underlying genes and to develop drought resilient barley cultivars.

  15. Vitalité des plantes d'orge ("Hordeum vulgare" L.) en conditions de stress hydrique et thermique analysée par la fluorescence chlorophyllienne

    OpenAIRE

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; Strasser, Reto J.

    2008-01-01

    L'évaluation de la tolérance aux stress hydrique et thermique et leur combinaison a été étudiée chez des variétés d'orge d'origine marocaine. La technique de fluorescence chlorophyllienne a été intensivement employée "in vivo" comme outil non destructeur pour évaluer les réponses des différentes variétés ainsi que d'autres paramètres (RWC, Indexe de plastochrone, âge des feuilles...). Les courbes OJIP de la fluorescence chorophyllienne ont été analysées par JIP-test qui traduit les changement...

  16. Vitalité des plantes d'orge ("Hordeum vulgare" L.) en conditions de stress hydrique et thermique analysée par la fluorescence chlorophyllienne

    OpenAIRE

    Oukarroum, Abdallah

    2007-01-01

    L'évaluation de la tolérance aux stress hydrique et thermique et leur combinaison a été étudiée chez des variétés d'orge d'origine marocaine. La technique de fluorescence chlorophyllienne a été intensivement employée "in vivo" comme outil non destructeur pour évaluer les réponses des différentes variétés ainsi que d'autres paramètres (RWC, Indexe de plastochrone, âge des feuilles...). Les courbes OJIP de la fluorescence chorophyllienne ont été analysées par JIP-test qui traduit les changement...

  17. Influence of jet-cooking and pH on extraction and molecular weight of ß-glucan and arabinoxylan from barley (Hordeum vulgare Prowashonupana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food processing conditions may affect the solubility and molecular weight of beta-glucans and arabinoxylans in cereal products. This can dramatically affect the functional and physiological properties of the final products. Therefore, the purpose of the research was to explore the effects of jet-c...

  18. Development of the terrestrial biotic ligand model for predicting nickel toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare): ion effects at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Paula M C; Kreager, Nancy J

    2009-08-01

    The focus of the present study was to investigate the potential for Al3+, Mg2+, and H+ to influence Ni2+ toxicity for barley seedlings grown in acidic aqueous solutions and to assess the capacity of a two-site terrestrial biotic ligand model (tBLM) to accurately predict 50% effect activities (EA50s). To accomplish these objectives, 48-h EA50Ni2+ values were obtained for three sets of exposures in which the pH and activity of Al3+ and Mg2+ were varied. Exposures contained both Al alone and in combination with Mg so that compound ion effects could be investigated. A tBLM was then constructed to predict EA50Ni2+ values from the exposure solution chemistry. The results show a slight protective effect of H+ against Ni2+ toxicity and a strong protective effect of Mg2+, as indicated by a 4.6- and 8.0-fold increase in the measured EA50Ni2+ values corresponding to changes in pH from 6.0 to 4.5 and {Mg2+} from 0 to 1.40 mM, respectively. Increasing solution {Al3+} from 0 to 0.5 microM had no effect on Ni2+ toxicity, although Al itself negatively affected root elongation. Comparison of EA50 values calculated as both Ni2+ and measured concentration of total Ni in the root ([Root-Ni]T) showed [Root-Ni]T to be a more normalized measure of Ni bioavailability. The strong correlation between root growth inhibition and tBLM-predicted root-Ni accumulation suggests that toxicity was influenced by Ni2+ binding to low-affinity ligands within the cell wall, in addition to Ni2+ uptake through Mg2+ transporters. Predicted EA50Ni2+ values generated with the model were all within a factor of +/-1.5 from measured values--a result that emphasizes the advantage of using the tBLM for risk assessment. PMID:19374472

  19. A Substantial Fraction of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Low Phytic Acid Mutations Have Little or No Effect on Yield across Diverse Production Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Raboy; Kevin Peterson; Chad Jackson; Marshall, Juliet M.; Gongshe Hu; Hirofumi Saneoka; Phil Bregitzer

    2015-01-01

    The potential benefits of the low phytic acid (lpa) seed trait for human and animal nutrition, and for phosphorus management in non-ruminant animal production, are well documented. However, in many cases the lpa trait is associated with impaired seed or plant performance, resulting in reduced yield. This has given rise to the perception that the lpa trait is tightly correlated with reduced yield in diverse crop species. Here we report a powerful test of this correlation. We measured grain yie...

  20. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers. PMID:27463368

  1. Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) for Improving Manganese Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lizhi

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a nutritional problem, causing significant reductions in crop yields and in severe cases resulting in complete loss of crops during winter time. Different plant species and genotypes within the same species vary in their tolerance with respect to growth in soils with ...

  2. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Götz, C.; Fekete, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Forczek, Sándor; Fuksová, Květoslava; Li, X.; Englmann, M.; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, A.; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 5 (2007), s. 1447-1457. ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : UPLC * FTICR-MS * tritium autoradiography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.867, year: 2007

  3. A novel itera-like densovirus isolated by viral metagenomics from the sea barley Hordeum marinum

    OpenAIRE

    François, Sarah; Bernardo, Pauline; Filloux, Denis; Roumagnac, Philippe; Yaverkovski, N.; Froissart, Rémy

    2014-01-01

    Densoviruses (DVs) infect arthropods and belong to the Parvoviridae family. Here, we report the complete coding sequence of a novel DV isolated from the plant Hordeum marinum (Poaceae) by viral metagenomics, and we confirmed reamplification by PCR. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this novel DV is related to the genus Iteradensovirus.

  4. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum: dissolved CO(2) determines underwater photosynthesis and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, O.; Malik, Aneeka; Colmer, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds....

  5. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hordeum taxa from North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding patterns of Hordeum pusillum, H. intercedens, H. brachyantherum (2x, 4x, 6x), H. jubatum, H. arizonicum, and H. depressum (2x and 4x) were rather similar, with mostly small to very small bands with no preferential disposition. The use of C-banding patterns did not improve the lev...

  6. AFLP genetic polymorphism in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) populations in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turpeinen, T.; Vanhala, T.; Nevo, E.; Nissila, E.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity produced by the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was studied in 94 genotypes of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell., originating from ten ecologically and geographically different locations in Israel. Eight primer pairs produced 204 discernible

  7. Pênfigo Vulgar - um caso pediátrico

    OpenAIRE

    Faria Boto, Ana Cristina; Galhardo, Júlia; Ramos, Margarida; Helena Neves, Maria; Sousa Coutinho, Vasco; Serrão Neto, Ana; Leça, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O Pênfigo Vulgar é uma doença auto-imune rara na infância, com evolução crónica e mortalidade significativa. A doença manifesta-se por lesões vesiculares, semelhantes a infecções benignas, mas que são refractárias ao tratamento sintomático e persistem após a fase aguda. Apresenta-se o caso de uma criança de três anos com lesões muco-cutâneas orais, persistentes. A biópsia permitiu o diagnóstico de Pênfigo Vulgar, tendo sido iniciada terapia corticosteróide sistémica. A dificuldade no ...

  8. Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Garbacki, Nancy; Tits, Monique; Bailleul, Francois

    2002-03-01

    The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity are reported for the first time. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of these five compounds on cyclooxygenase (Cox) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis activity. Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1. These results are of interest, as Cox-2 is mainly associated with inflammation and the Cox-1 inhibition with adverse side effects often observed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The occurrence of these phenylpropanoid esters could also explain some other pharmacological properties of M. vulgare. PMID:11849848

  9. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Keyvan Yousefi; Sanaz Hamedeyazdan; Mohammadali Torbati; Fatemeh Fathiazad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Methods: Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radic...

  10. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro; Isabel Martins Madrid; Cíntia Lidiane Guidotti Aguiar; Leonardo Mortagua de Castro; Marlete Brum Cleff; Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite

    2013-01-01

    Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control co...

  11. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control containing levamisole hydrochloride (0.2 mg/mL, distilled water and 70 ºGL grain alcohol at the same concentration of the extracts. Test results showed that the different O. vulgare extracts inhibited egg hatch of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes at a percentage that varied from 8.8 to 100%; dye and hydroalcoholic extract were the most promising inhibitors. In view of this ovicidal property, O. vulgare may be an important source of viable antiparasitic compounds for nematodiosis control in ruminants.

  12. POLYPODIUM VULGARE LINN. A VERSATILE HERBAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervaiz Ahmad Dar*, G. Sofi and M. A. Jafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Polypodium vulgare Linn. also called as Bisfaij in Unani system of medicine is a perineal fern growing to a height of 30cm. Polypodium vulgare Linn. rhizome is used in European, American, Chinese, and Unani and Ayurveda traditions. It is claimed to be efficacious in jaundice, dropsy, scurvy and combined with mallows it removes hardness of the spleen. The distilled water of the roots and leaves is considered good for ague (malarial fever, and the fresh or dried roots, mixed with honey and applied to the nose, were used in the treatment of polypus The fresh root is used in the form of decoction, or powder for melancholia and also for rheumatic swelling of the joints. The rhizome extract was found to possess anti-epileptic activity. The ecdysones present in the rhizome (0.07%-1% dry weightwas seen to act topically on a wide variety of arthropods and caused abnormal molting and death, so ecdysone analogues may be useful not only as insecticides but also miticides. The aqueous extract of Polypodium vulgare Linn. was found to possess analgesic activity, protective effect in various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, stimulatory effect on the adrenoceptors, and antioxidant properties.

  13. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Methods: Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the methanol extract were quantified, spectrophotometrically. Results: The amount of marrubiin was calculated as 156 mg/g of M. vulgare extract. The antioxidant assay revealed a strong radical scavenging activity for the M. vulgare methanol extract with RC50 value of 8.24μg/mL. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents for M. vulgare were determined as 60.4 mg gallic acid equivalent and 12.05 mg quercetin equivalent per each gram of the extract, correspondingly. Conclusion: The presented fingerprint of marrubiin in M. vulgare extract developed by HPTLC densitometry afforded a detailed chemical profile, which might be useful in the identification as well as quality evaluation of herbal medications based on M. vulgare. Besides, the considerable antioxidant activity of M. vulgare was associated with the presence of marrubiin along with phenolics and flavonoids exerting a synergistic effect. PMID:27123428

  14. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica De Falco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  15. Analgesic profile of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M M; de Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Schlemper, V

    1998-04-01

    Marrubium vulgare L. is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to cure a variety of diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that a hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed significant, nonspecific antispasmodic effects on isolated smooth muscle. In this report, we have investigated the possible analgesic effects of the same hydroalcoholic extract in different models of pain in mice. The results suggest that this extract exhibits significant analgesic activity, antagonizing chemically-induced acute pain. Such effects may be related to the presence of steroids and terpenes, which were detected by TLC analysis. PMID:23195761

  16. Exploitation of nuclear and cytoplasm variability in Hordeum chilense for wheat breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giménez, María J.; Ramírez, Mª Carmen; Martín Ramírez, Azahara Carmen; Gutierrez, Natalia; Ávila, Carmen M.; Martín Muñoz, Antonio Pedro; Atienza, Sergio G

    2011-01-01

    Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schultz. is a diploid wild barley native to Chile and Argentina. The high crossability of this species with other members of the Triticeae tribe promoted the development of the new species × Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner. Hexaploid tritordeum was developed from the hybrid derived from the cross between H. chilense (used as female parent) and durum wheat. The interest of H. chilense is based on the presence of traits potentially useful for wheat breeding, including...

  17. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  18. Therapeutic and pharmacological potential of Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooti Wesam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill is one of the oldest spice plants which, due to its economic importance and significant pharmaceutical industry applications, is considered as one of the world’s most important medicinal plants. The purpose of this study is to investigate and collect scientific reports such as morphological characteristics, phytochemical compounds and evaluation of the therapeutic properties of this valuable medicinal plant that have been published. Methods: In order to gather the information the keywords Fennel and Foeniculum vulgare mill, therapeutic, and pharmacology have been searched until January 1, 2015 from journals accessible in databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, EBSCO, Medline, PubMed, Embase, SID and Iran Medex. Results: The results showed that this plant has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anti-bacterial and estrogenic effects which are probably due to the presence of aromatic compounds such as anethole, estragole and fenshon. Conclusion: Fennel possesses various pharmacological properties and the fennel bioactive molecules play an important role in human health, hence, it might be used for different drug productions.

  19. [Development of a vulgarity scale based on Ortega's "The revolt of the masses"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    This study developed a scale measuring the spiritual vulgarity of the masses, based upon Ortega's "The revolt of the masses" (1957). A questionnaire was constructed with forty items, based on Ortega's descriptions of the characteristics of the spiritual vulgarity of the masses. The questionnaire was completed by 200 university students. The results of factor analysis of the vulgarity measurements yielded two subscales; autistic attitude and contumelious attitude. The two scales were correlated with other existing measures of social values, which was further evidence of validity. PMID:19172911

  20. Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways

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    Khan Aslam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Origanum vulgare Linn has traditionally been used in the treatment of urolithiasis. Therefore, we investigated the crude extract of Origanum vulgare for possible antiurolithic effect, to rationalize its medicinal use. Methods The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare (Ov.Cr was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, supersaturated solution of calcium and oxalate, kidney epithelial cell lines (MDCK and urinary bladder of rabbits were used, whereas, in the in vivo studies, rat model of urolithiasis was used for the study of preventive and curative effect. Results In the in vitro experiments, Ov.Cr exhibited a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml inhibitory effect on the slope of nucleation and aggregation and also decreased the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM produced in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against DPPH free radical and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ov.Cr reduced the cell toxicity using MTT assay and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM and COM (66 μg/cm2 crystals. Ov.Cr relaxed high K+ (80 mM induced contraction in rabbit urinary bladder strips, and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (CRCs towards right with suppression of the maximum response similar to that of verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. In male Wistar rats receiving lithogenic treatment comprising of 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water given for 3 weeks along with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl for the first 5 days, Ov.Cr treatment (10-30 mg/kg prevented as well as reversed toxic changes including loss of body weight, polyurea, crystalluria, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. Conclusion These data indicating the antiurolithic activity in Ov

  1. Carlos Jansen and the literary vulgarization for the youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Araujo Miranda Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the translations of Carlos Jansen for the youth, age group corresponding approximately to the contemporary concepts of preadolescence and adolescence, made at the end of the 19th century. Jansen was a pioneer in translating into Brazilian Portuguese works for the youth among which novels by Swift, Defoe, and Cervantes. His widely adapted versions had a pedagogical goal, serving as a reading material for children and adolescents attending schools. For this reason he was called a "vulgarizer" by critics of that period. The research encompassed the analysis of newspapers published between 1880 and 1899, available at the National Library's Hemeroteca Digital Brasileira, which provide data on the advertising and reception of his works. We intend to enrich historical research on children's literature in Brazil and analyse to what degree Jansen's pedagogical project has governed his translation practice.

  2. Brier Study on the Translation of Chinese Vulgarism Language into English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余娜

    2009-01-01

    Vulgarism language,also named four-letter words in English,is words or phrases ofroughness and pushiness used in people's daily life.Though crude and ungrarefid,it is an indispensable part of any,qnguage.It is a common way for people to exprcss their emotions with such words.Any language in the world has vulgarism hnguage and Chinese has no exception.Chinese vulgarism language not only exists in daily life.but in literary works as well.In English and Chinese their expressions of vnlgamm language differ because of the different categories.In this article,the author would like to come up with a preliminary study on the translation of Chinese vulgarism language into English.

  3. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L.) by pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido; Silvia Martínez-Martínez; Ángel Faz Cano; Asuman Büyükkilif-Yanardag; Arocena, Joselito M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg) and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose) or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum di...

  4. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet;

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five...... for the diverse repertoire of Marrubium diterpenoids. Co-expression of MvCPS1 and MvELS in engineered E. coli and Nicotiana benthamiana offers opportunities for producing precursors for an array of biologically active diterpenoids. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  5. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Shamkant B. Badgujar; Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H.

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scienti...

  6. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, sex ratio distorters and population genetics in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    OpenAIRE

    Rigaud, T.; Bouchon, D; Souty-Grosset, C.; Raimond, R

    1999-01-01

    Two maternally inherited sex ratio distorters (SRD) impose female-biased sex ratios on the wood louse Armadillidium vulgare by feminizing putative males. These SRD are (i) an intracytoplasmic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia, and (ii) another non-Mendelian element of unknown nature: the f element. Mitochondrial DNA variation was investigated in A. vulgare field populations to trace the evolution of host-SRD relationships and to investigate the effect of SRD on host cytoplasmic polymorphism. T...

  7. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRA RED (FT-IR) SPECTRAL STUDIES OF FOENICULUM VULGARE

    OpenAIRE

    V. Devika; Mohandass, S.; T. Nusrath

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. Medicinal plants as a group comprise approximately 8000 species and account for about 50% of all the higher flowering plant species in India. In the present study, the plant Foeniculum vulgare was subjected to FT-IR spectroscopy. FT-IR-is a vibrational spectroscopy that records absorptions of IR light by chemical bonds in all molecules incl. polymers. Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae) commonly known as fennel is a well know...

  8. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Veni Bharti; Neeru Vasudeva

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be

  9. Proteomic analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under glutathione reveals high demand for thiamin transport and antioxidant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4-6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM. To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare.

  10. Chemical composition, therapeutic potential and perspectives of Foeniculum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Garga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare is a widely distributed plant in most tropical and subtropical countries and have long been used in folk medicines to treat obstruction of the liver, spleen and gall bladder and for digestive complaints such as colic, indigestion, nausea and flatulence. In recent years the interest in this plant has increased considerably with substantial progress on its chemical and pharmacological properties. This review discusses the current knowledge of its chemistry, the various compounds isolated and pharamcological studies conducted. These studies carried out with the extracts and volatile oil support most of the reports of using this plant in folk medicines. However, well controlled, double-binding clinical trials are lacking. Several compounds including trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone and polyphenolics were isolated from this plant and some of these interact with potential mechanisms of the body. Together this data strongly supports the view that this plant has potential beneficial therapeutic actions in the management of bacterial and fungal infections, colic pain and lipid peroxidation.

  11. Antioedematogenic effect of marrubiin obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulzer, Hellen K; Tagliari, Monika P; Zampirolo, Julio A; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Schlemper, Valfredo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the antioedematogenic profile of marrubiin (1), the main constituent of Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine of several countries to treat different pathologies. Compound (1) was analyzed in a model of microvascular leakage in mice ears. The results show that it exhibits significant and dose-related antioedematogenic effects. The results obtained for ID50 values (mg/kg, i.p.) and maximal inhibition (%) for the different phlogistic agents used were as follows: histamine (HIS, 13.84 mg/kg and 73.7%); (BK, 18.82 mg/kg and 70.0%); carrageenan (CAR, 13.61 mg/kg and 63.0%). The other phlogistic agonists, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), caused inhibition of less than 50%. In addition, (1) (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the OVO-induced allergic edema in actively sensitized animals (maximal inhibition 67.6+/-4%). Our results demonstrate that the systemic administration of marrubiin exerts a non-specific inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory agent-induced microvascular extravasation of Evans blue in mouse ear. PMID:16846706

  12. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

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    P. E. Pensel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis. PMID:26886858

  14. Antimicrobial Effects Of The Ethanolic Extracts And Essential Oils Of Tanacetum Vulgare L From Romania

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    Mureşan Maria Lucia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of the extracts and essential oil of wildgrowing Tanacetum vulgare L on: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacilus subtilis, using the diffusion disc method. The essential oils but also the ethanolic extracts tested exhibited moderate action on Staphilococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and low action on E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The moderate antimicrobial activity is related to the amount of some chemical components of the essential oil of T. vulgare flos. Thus, this paper presents also the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the essential oils of T. vulgare harvested from two different habitats. The essential oils obtained by steam-distillation were analysed by gas-cromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  15. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  16. Phytochemical Analysis, Antibacterial Activity of Marrubium vulgare L against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

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    Saeide Saeidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicines are the major remedy in traditional medical systems and made a great contribution in maintaining human health and in preventing many infectious diseases. The present study was carried out to determine the potential antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts and essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. against Staphylococcus aureus which is antibiotic resistant. Materials and Methods: All 17 strains of S. aureus isolated from nose and throat sample from 160 healthy subjects, hospital staffs and inpatient in the city of Zabol (Amir Al-Momenin hospital, Zabol, south-eastern Iran were screened during years 2010-2011. In this study, the essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS in order to determine their chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil and extract. Results: Thirty-one components in the oil of Marrubium vulgare were identified. The results demonstrated that the major components of the essential oil were γ-Eudesmol (11%, Germacrene (10%, D-Citronelly formate (10%, β-Citronellol (8%, Geranyl tiglate (7.1%, Geranyl formate (6.02%. The least MIC value of extract M. vulgare was 2.5 mg/mL and the highest MIC value of essential oil M. vulgare was 2.5 mg/mL. Conclusion: This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil and extract has a potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil and extract as antibacterial agent. Further research is required to evaluate the practical values of therapeutic applications.

  17. Antispasmodic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Marrubium vulgare on isolated tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemper, V; Ribas, A; Nicolau, M; Cechinel Filho, V

    1996-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare is a medicinal plant used in Brazil and in many countries in folk medicine against several diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the roots and aerial parts of M. vulgare in several smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The results showed that this extract exert a significant antispasmodic activity which inhibits the action of some neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, bradykinin, prostaglandin E(2), histamine and oxytocin, with putative selectivity for cholinergic contractions. These findings support the popular use in folk medicine of this plant as an antispasmodic. PMID:23194972

  18. Atividade in vitro do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare frente à Sporothrix Schenckii In vitro activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare against Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Cleff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro activity of the essential oil Origanum vulgare against Sporothrix schenckii was determined by the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. For this, seven samples of S. schenckii were studied, two isolated from two cases of human sporotrichosis and five isolated from cats. Analysis of the essential oil was carried out in a gas chromatograph (GC/FID for the identification and quantification of thymol and carvacrol (antifungal agents. MIC was obtained based on the microdilution method according to the adapted document NCCLS-M 27A2 for fitopharmacy. All the isolates presented sensibility to the essential oil. S. schenckii was inhibited in a concentration of 0.25% (250m l/ml. Chromatographic analysis showed that thymol concentration was bigger than carvacrol. The antifungal activity demonstrated by the essential oil of O. vulgare against S. Schenckii stimulates the accomplishment of more studies, including in vivo studies.

  19. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Maha M; Taher, Eman E; El-Bahy, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare), composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98%) and thymol (32.82%) in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55%) in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens. PMID:22983292

  20. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal Activities of the Essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Salama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare, composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98% and thymol (32.82% in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55% in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens.

  1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  2. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  3. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Salido, S.; Waard, de P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier screening of Lithuanian plants, horehound (Marrubium vulgare) showed good antioxidant activity and as this species is used in herbal teas and cough pastilles it was selected for further investigation. Some fractions of the aerial parts were strong scavengers of the model free radicals

  4. 'Galega Vulgar' - yield indices and quality of elementary olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the evolution of two olive yield indexes (humidity and fat) and three olive oil quality parameters (acidity, peroxid value and UV absorbances) for cv. Galega vulgar from the olive grove Quinta Senhora de Mercules, Castelo Branco, during the 1995/96 harvest. It shows also the evolution of fatty acid composition of the same olive oil

  5. Analysis of essential oils of Origanum vulgare from six production areas of China and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HY. Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae, from six different production areas of China and Pakistan were analyzed via gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID and examined for their volatile constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS. This procedure allowed the identification of 11 to 46 components among six production areas, representing 98.5% to 99.9% of the total oil extracted. The yields of the essential oil of the six production areas of O. vulgare ranged from 0.1 to 0.7%. The class of oxygenated monoterpenes was predominant in all the essential oils. However, samples S5 and S6 have high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (33.7 and 43.7%; while sample S6 is high on oxygenated sesquiterpene (32.9%. The principal component analysis of O. vulgare was employed to provide a comprehensive evaluation of essential oil components. The cluster analysis of O. vulgare was classified into three subsets, characterized according to the major essential oil components. The current study investigated the composition differences of essential oil among six production areas offering foundation for quality control, resource optimization, and clinical treatments.

  6. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal Activities of the Essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Maha M.; Eman E. Taher; Mohamed M. El-Bahy

    2012-01-01

    Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare), composed of phenols, main...

  7. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Arisarum vulgare seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjer Kadri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background.Arisarum vulgare is screened and its total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid contents were measured. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the methanol-water (7:3 extract of this plant is evalu- ated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfon- ic tests expressed by Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC. HPLC analyses are carried out to identify some polyphenols. The aim of this study is to identify, to quantify the phenolic compounds contained in the seeds of A. vulgare, and to evaluate their antioxidant capacity. Material and methods. Methanol-water (7:3 extract and three fraction obtained from silica gel column chromatography of A. vulgare were assayed by using RP-HPLC, spectrophotometric analyses, DPPH and ABTS tests. Results.Results obtained in the present study, revealed that total phenolic and flavonoids of methanol-water extract of A. vulgare seeds were respectively 1.2 g GAE and 0.34 g QE per 100 g of plant extract dry weight. The total antioxidant capacity expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC per 100 g of plant extract, obtained by ABTS and DPPH tests were respectively 1.3 g and 0.99 g VCE per 100 g dry weight. On the other hand RP-HPLC analyses reveal that the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanol-water (7:3 extract are gallic acid, caffeic acid and rutin. Conclusions.The results reveal that the methanol-water extract of A. vulgare seeds possesses strong antioxi- dative properties in vitro. Results confirmed by high polyphenols and flavonoids contents and corroborated by HPLC identifications.

  8. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  9. Patrones de absorción de nitrógeno nativo y del fertilizante en cebada cervecera con fertilizaciones cercanas a la siembra Soil and fertilizer nitrogen uptake patterns in malting barley with near seeding fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aurora Lázzari

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe escasa información sobre la aplicación de fertilizantes nitrogenados, en cebada cervecera, y su relación con el aumento de rendimiento de granos sin aumentar la concentración proteica a niveles que excedan el rango exigido por las malterías. Se llevaron a cabo ocho experimentos a campo en diferentes sitios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, en los años 1999 y 2000, para determinar el efecto del nitrógeno sobre el crecimiento, la absorción de N del suelo y del fertilizante, el rendimiento y la concentración de N en grano. Los tratamientos fueron 0, 30 y 60 kg N ha-1 aplicados a la emergencia de la planta, 30 y 60 kg N ha-1 aplicados en macollaje temprano, y 60 kg N ha-1 fraccionado en dos momentos: 30 kg N ha-1 cada uno aplicados a la emergencia y en macollaje temprano. Dentro de cada parcela se ubicó una microparcela a la que se le aplicó urea marcada con 15N. En cuatro momentos del ciclo de la cebada, desde macollaje temprano hasta madurez fisiológica, se evaluó la producción de materia seca y la absorción de N de plantas extraídas de las microparcelas. El crecimiento continuó hasta madurez fisiológica, y generalmente alcanzó el máximo después de antesis, en coincidencia con el período de mayor absorción de nitrógeno. La dosis de 30 kg N ha-1 aumentó el rendimiento pero no la concentración de N del grano. El agregado de 60 kg N ha-1 afectó ambos. El momento de aplicación de N no afectó el rendimiento de la materia seca ni la concentración de N en el grano. La variación en la absorción de N entre sitios fue mayor que la variación en la absorción de N del fertilizante. El Índice de Cosecha de Nitrógeno no fue afectado por las dosis de N aplicado.There is a lack of data associated with applications of nitrogen fertilizer to increase yield while not increasing seed protein to levels exceeding those acceptable for malting barley in Buenos Aires province. Field experiments were carried out on eight sites

  10. A chloroplast genealogy of hordeum (poaceae): Long-term persisting haplotypes, incomplete lineage sorting, regional extinction, and the consequences for phylogenetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Sabine S; Blattner, Frank R

    2006-08-01

    To analyze reasons for inconclusive results of earlier chloroplast phylogenies in the grass genus Hordeum, we established a genealogy of chloroplast haplotypes by sequencing the trnL-trnF region in 875 individuals, covering all 31 species of the genus. Although the outcomes of phenetic and parsimony analyses of 88 haplotypes were ambiguous, a network approach showed that in Hordeum ancient chloroplast types co-occur with their descendants. Moreover, we found up to 18 different chloroplast haplotypes within a single species and up to 6 species sharing single haplotypes. Persisting polymorphisms together with incomplete lineage sorting occurred preferentially in the rapidly speciating New World taxa of the genus, where ancient chloroplast types have survived for at least 4 Myr. Lineages-through-time plots and a high number of missing chloroplast haplotypes indicated far-reaching extinction of chloroplast lineages in Europe and particularly the Mediterranean. Survival of these lineages in East Asia and North America resulted in chloroplast relationships that markedly differed from nuclear estimations of species relationships. Thus, even for the deepest splits in the genus, reaching back more than 9 Myr, no safe phylogenetic inference from chloroplast data is possible in Hordeum. The chloroplast genealogy, however, revealed biogeographic patterns and indicated processes involved in speciation in Hordeum. We conclude that the described phenomena are not restricted to Hordeum and that the knowledge of the chloroplast relationships within a genus is indispensable to prevent misinterpretation of phylogeographic data within single species. PMID:16754643

  11. Análisis lingüístico de los piropos vulgares

    OpenAIRE

    Lopera Medina, Sergio Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Los piropos vulgares se ubican en el plano de la descortesía y estos invaden la imagen de la mujer. En este artículo se reporta el análisis lingüístico de los piropos vulgares en una población universitaria en Medellín-Colombia. Se siguió el método cualitativo de investigación y como instrumento de recolección de información se aplicó un cuestionario de hábitos sociales (Discourse Completion Test –DCT). Se utilizó el programa lingüístico computacional Cratilo para el análisi...

  12. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRA RED (FT-IR SPECTRAL STUDIES OF FOENICULUM VULGARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Devika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. Medicinal plants as a group comprise approximately 8000 species and account for about 50% of all the higher flowering plant species in India. In the present study, the plant Foeniculum vulgare was subjected to FT-IR spectroscopy. FT-IR-is a vibrational spectroscopy that records absorptions of IR light by chemical bonds in all molecules incl. polymers. Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. The results showed the detections of the bands in organic molecules. Thus the study became evident that the plant posses some bioactive compounds at various bands obtained after FT-IR.

  13. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  14. Comparison of chemical composition of the essential oil from Marrubium vulgare L. and M. incanum Desr. during the second year of cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Grażyna Zawiślak

    2015-01-01

    Horehound herb (Marrubium vulgare L.) is harvested from plantations in Poland. In our country, there are also favorable conditions for M. incanum Desr. growing. The aim of the study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils from M. vulgare L. and M. incanum Desr. in the second year of cultivation. The study revealed the presence of 31 compounds in the essential oil from M. vulgare L. and 24 compounds in the essential oil from M. incanum Desr. Chromatographic analysis revealed ...

  15. PROMOTIVE EFFECT OF IRRADIATED SODIUM ALGINATE ON SEED GERMINATION CHARACTERISTICS OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Idrees; M. Naeem; Tariq Aftab; Nadeem Hashmi; M. Masroor A. Khan; Moinuddin; Lalit Varshney

    2012-01-01

    Radiolytically derived oligomers of sodium alginate are considered to act as signal molecules, affecting growth, development and defense mechanisms of plants through gene regulation. Since germination is a critical stage in the life cycle of plants, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of irradiated sodium alginate (ISA) on the characteristics of seed germination of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Soaking the seeds in an aqueous solution of ISA showed significant improvement in va...

  16. 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition of the Fructus of Foeniculum vulgare and Its Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Je Hyeong; Lee, Dong Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2012-01-01

    The fruits of Foeniculum vulgare (Foeniculi Fructus) have been widely used in Chinese medicine as an antiemetic, ameliorating stomach ailments and as an analgesic. In order to establish its potential for antiallergic use, inhibitory actions of the fruiton 5-lipoxgenase (5-LOX) and β-hexosaminidase release were evaluated. The 70% ethanol extract of this plant material (FR) considerably inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene production from A23187-induced rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells. T...

  17. EFFECT OF FOENICULUM VULGARE SEED EXTRACT ON MAMMARY GLANDS AND OVIDUCTS OF OVARIECTOMISED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, K; Vanithakumari, G.; Anusya, S; Mekala, N.; Malini, T.; Elango, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of acetone extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., seeds at different dose levels (50/ug, 150/ug and 250/ug/100gm body wt.) on mammary glands and oviducts of castrated rats was investigated. The extract was found to increase nucleic acids and protein concentration as well as the organ weights in both the tissues. The medium and high doses were very effective. The results confirm the estrogenic nature of the seed extract.

  18. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Dmitruk; Weronika Haratym

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biolog...

  19. Phytochemical Analysis, Antibacterial Activity of Marrubium vulgare L against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Saeide Saeidi; Mohammad Bokaeian; Elham Saboori; Abbas Ali Niazi; Negar Amini-Borojeni; Hamde Khaje; Saphora Bazi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are the major remedy in traditional medical systems and made a great contribution in maintaining human health and in preventing many infectious diseases. The present study was carried out to determine the potential antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts and essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. against Staphylococcus aureus which is antibiotic resistant. Materials and Methods: All 17 strains of S. aureus isolated from nose and throat sample from 160 healthy s...

  20. A PROMISING TREND IN THE PROCESSING OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) WHOLE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Timasheva, Lidiya; Gorbunova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic plants are a valuable source of biologically active substances. The use of aromatic plant processing products in the pharmaceutical, perfume and cosmetic, and food industries is of great interest. The search for new plant sources of biologically active substances and the study of their composition and properties are still topical. Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ) is a promising aromatic raw material containing a number of biologically active substances. Until now, essential oils w...

  1. Susceptibility of Two Sitophilus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Essential Oils from Foeniculum vulgare and Satureja hortensis

    OpenAIRE

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae), and Summer savory, Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae), against two stored-product insects. Essential oils from two species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and their fumigant toxicities were tested against adults of the wheat weevil, Sitophilus granarius and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae). The mortality was determined after 24 an...

  2. Preliminar toxicological assesement of Ruta graveolens, Origanum vulgare and Persea americana on the preimplantational mouse embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, V; Trujillo, G; G. D'Arrigo; U. Paredes; J. Pino

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in natural medicine makes it necessary to study plant properties as well as their possible secondary effects. In recent years the toxic effects of many medicinal plants on the preimplantational mouse embryo development have been studied. Many of them produce malformations and alterations in the embryonic development. Ruta graveolens "ruda", Origanum vulgare "oregano" and Persea americana "palta" are used in rural areas to menstrual colic and to provoke abortion (estrella,...

  3. Antimicrobial Effects Of The Ethanolic Extracts And Essential Oils Of Tanacetum Vulgare L From Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mureşan Maria Lucia

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of the extracts and essential oil of wildgrowing Tanacetum vulgare L on: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacilus subtilis, using the diffusion disc method. The essential oils but also the ethanolic extracts tested exhibited moderate action on Staphilococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and low action on E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The moderate antimicrobial activity is related to the amount of some ch...

  4. Yield of Different Green Forage Crops, in Pure Stand and in Mixtures Part 1.: Spring (two roweed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., Pea (Pisum sativum L. and Vetch (Vicia sp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hoffman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Green fodder crops in pure stand and in mixtures have a great potential and will have a great role in the nutrition for ruminants in Hungary. Therefore experiment was carried out to measure the born of green fodder crop production in the present situation of cattle husbandry. The experimental area was situated on the farm of the Department of Botany and Plant Production at the University of Kaposvár, Faculty of Animal Science. The type of the soil was brown forest soil with clay illuvitation. The small plot trials were carried out in four repetitions using conventional random adjustment. After the harvesting the yield of the plots were weighted and the dry matter content, crude protein yield crude fibber was determined by Weendei analysis. The chemical components of the variations were determined in two repetitions. The following species was used in the small plot trial: spring barley, pea and vetch. The highest green and dry matter yield was measured at the barley varieties in pure stand. Between the barley varieties Annabell gave the highest green, DM and crude protein yield. Spring Barley Annabell and pea Rubin in mixture gave the highest yield of crude protein.

  5. Engineering of the aspartate family biosynthetic pathway in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by transformation with heterologous genes encoding feed-back-insensitive aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Galili, G; Knudsen, S;

    1996-01-01

    In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In order to modify the flux through the aspartate family pathway in barley and enhance the...

  6. Evaluation of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa Roth in Pure and Mixed Cropping with Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. to Determine the Best Combination of Legume and Cereal for Forage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh S. Shobeiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mixed cereal-legume cropping can supply valuable forage in dry areas, as well as improving soil characteristics to approach sustainable farming systems in these regions. Approach: In order to comprise quality and quantity of produced forage and to determine the best planting ratio in a hairy vetch and barley mix cropping, a two year study was conducted during 2008 and 2009 in Zanjan Center for Research of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Zanjan, Iran, using these two forage crops in a completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. Hairy vetch and barley were single- or mix cropped at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 ratios. Results: Analysis of variance of two years data showed hay yield, absorbed N, P and K amounts and crude protein content varied among years and different planting ratio, significantly, with higher amounts in the second year. The highest dry matter yield, absorbed N, P and K and crude protein content were obtained in 50:50 planting ratio. The land equivalent ratio was more than one for all mix cropping treatments, with the highest value in 50:50 planting ratio, which also led to the highest LER in respect to crude protein. Conclusion: A 50:50 mixture of barley-hairy vetch can produce the highest dry forage yield, with a higher LER and the highest forage quality than sole cropping.

  7. Screening for spontaneous virulent mutants of erysiphe-graminis-f-sp-hordei on barley hordeum-vulgare lines with resistance genes ml-a-1 ml-a-6 ml-a-12 and ml-g

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, J.; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1985-01-01

    Seedlings of 4 barley lines with powdery mildew resistance genes Ml-al, Ml-a6, Mla12 or Ml-g were inoculated with powdery mildew culture CR3 which is avirulent to the 4 host lines. Inoculation density was 1.2 infectious conidia/mm2, and in total 50 million conidia were screened for the occurrence...

  8. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley. PMID:23216085

  9. Gaseous nitrogen losses from field plots grown with pea (Pisum sativum L.) or spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) estimated by 15N mass balance and acetylene inhibition techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    In a mass balance of N-15-labelled nitrate added to soil grown with pea or barley, denitrification estimates using the acetylene-inhibition technique were compared with unaccounted for N-15. During the growth season of 1989, which was drier than average, N losses due to denitrification estimated by...... the acetylene-inhibition technique were negligible. A substantial amount of fertilizer N was unaccounted for by the N-15 mass balance, especially in the pea plots. The loss took place during the period of grain-filling in which no leaching occurred, and was accompanied by a decrease in N-15 content of...... the plants. Volatilization of ammonia from the aerial parts of the plants is a possible explanation of the observed loss. An estimation of denitrification relying only on the N-15 mass balance would have resulted in an overestimation of denitrification....

  10. Chromosomal Location and Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein (gfp) Gene in Microspore Derived Transgenic Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)%转基因大麦中gfp基因的染色体位置及其表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建民; Carlson A R; 万建民; Kasha K J

    2003-01-01

    通过对大麦小孢子进行基因枪轰击获得4株转绿色荧光蛋白基因(gfp)的植株(A、C、D、E),以gfp基因为探针进行荧光原位杂交(FISH)研究转化植株中转基因插入位置和基因表达.4个株系在染色体7L(5HL)的不同位置都有一个插入点,而E株系在染色体5S(7HS)还有第2个插入点.所有的转基因T0代植株都是半合子并在T1、T2代发生分离.D株系GFP未表达,但FISH和PCR分析表明gfp基因已成功插入其染色体.各株系在根尖和花粉中的GFP表达水平不同:C株系在花粉表达强而在根尖表达中等;A株系在花粉中等表达而在根尖表达较淡;E株系则在根尖高表达,花粉中等表达.A和C株系在根尖和花粉的GFP分离都表现单位点特性,而E株系的根尖分离表现重叠作用(15∶1)特征,但在花粉中表达GFP的频率低.PCR结果和3个分离株系的根尖表达结果一致.D和E株系的GFP表达不正常可能和gfp基因插入位置或基因的结构有关.%Four doubled haploid barley lines (A,C,D,E) derived from gfp (green fluorescent protein) transformation and selection following particle bombardment of microspores were studied for gene expression pattern and the location of genome inserts.The integration sites were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the gfp plasmid DNA as a probe.Plants from events A,C,D and E all have a single insert site on chromosome 7L(5HL) at different locations while line E has a second insert site on chromosome 5S(7HS).All original transgenic plants were hemizygous for the transgenes and segregated in the T1 and T2 generations.Although line D had no GFP expression,FISH and PCR could detect gfp gene on its chromosome in transformed plants.Expression levels of GFP varied with lines and tissues examined.Plants from line C showed good expression in pollen and an intermediate level in root tips.Plants from A have intermediate expression of GFP in the pollen and light expression in the root tips.Line E showed strong expression in the root-tips and an intermediate level of GFP in the pollen.Lines A and C segregated as a single Mendelian locus while E segregated in a duplicate loci ratio (15∶1) on seedling root tips but had low expression frequency in the pollen.PCR results were consistent with GFP expression on root tips in the three segregating lines.The expression of GFP for lines D and E was abnormal and may be related to the physical location of the transgene or the gene construct used.

  11. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. PMID:26471595

  12. La glucosio-6-fosfato deidrogenasi in orzo (Hordeum vulgare): aspetti biochimici in risposta alla nutrizione azotata ed allo stress salino e confronto con l’enzima dall’alga verde unicellulare Chlorella sorokiniana

    OpenAIRE

    Guerriero, Gea

    2006-01-01

    [ITALIANO] La via del pentoso fosfato (OPPP) genera il potere riducente necessario per la riduzione del nitrito e per l’organicazione dell’ammonio. La reazione catalizzata dalla GOGAT nei tessuti non fotosintetici necessita dello shunt del pentoso fosfato come fonte di potere riducente. Il principale enzima della OPPP è la glucosio-6-fosfato deidrogenasi (G6PDH). In tutte le piante finora studiate sono state trovate diverse isoforme della G6PDH: una citosolica (Cy-G6PDH) e due compartimentate...

  13. Genotype-Dependent Effect of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Cd-induced Changes in Antioxidative Metabolism, Ultrastructure, and Photosynthetic Performance in Barley Seedlings (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Fang; Sun, Hongyan;

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse hydroponic experiment was performed using Cd-sensitive (cv. Dong 17) and Cd-tolerant (Weisuobuzhi) barley seedlings to evaluate how different genotypes responded to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Results showed that 5 μ...

  14. Genetic Diversity and Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Leaf Stripe Resistance in Barley(Hordeum vulgare)%大麦遗传多样性及SSR标记与大麦条纹病抗性关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司二静; 赖勇; 孟亚雄; 李葆春; 马小乐; 尚勋武; 王化俊

    2015-01-01

    为了解大麦(Horeumvulgare)亲本材料遗传多样性,筛选与大麦条纹病性状相关联的SSR标记,利用100对多态性SSR引物对86个大麦品种进行分析,共检测出269个等位变异,平均每对引物为2.69个,变幅为2~5;等位基因频率为0.012~0.988; Shannon指数为0.064~1.385;遗传相似系数为0.547~0.955;多态性信息含量(polymorphic information content,PIC)为0.023~0.737,平均为0.357.群体遗传结构分析表明,供试大麦亲本材料可分为5个亚群.根据一般线性模型(general linear model,GLM)分析,共5个标记与大麦条纹病抗性性状关联,解释率在6.20%~11.15%之间,其中TACMD和MGB317达到极显著水平(P<0.01),解释率分别为9.24%和9.45%;根据混合线性模型(mixed linear model,MLM)分析,发现3个与大麦条纹病抗性相关的标记,解释率在4.57%~17.63%之间,标记HVM54达到极显著水平(P<0.01),解释率为17.63%.本研究为大麦条纹病抗病育种提供了一定理论依据.

  15. Genetic Diversity of SSR Markers in Cultivated Hordeum vulgare L. in Qinghai Province%青海省栽培青稞SSR标记遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁; 迟德钊; 吴昆仑; 何桂芳

    2010-01-01

    [目的]分析我国青海省青稞SSR标记遗传多样性,为具有某些优异特性的青稞品种或资源筛选及青稞资源的保护奠定基础.[方法]利用SSR标记评估42份青海省栽培青稞的遗传多样性.[结果]42份青稞材料在7个SSR标记位点处表现出多态性,各位点扩增的等位基因数为1~6个,共鉴定出24个等位基因,每位点平均3.0个;根据SSR标记多态性可将42份青稞材料分为4组,即Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ.[结论]该研究表明青海省栽培青稞具有丰富的遗传多样性,可为青稞育种亲本选择提供参考.

  16. Standardization of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Its Oleoresin and Marketed Ayurvedic Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasrija Anubhuti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, one of the most common use in India kitchen as a spice and as well as in traditional medicine for its estrogenic, lactagouge, diuretic, antioxidant, immune booster and its usefulness in dyspepsia. The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice that makes studies of their correct identification are very essential. In the present study the fruit of the plant, raw materials, their oleo resins and marketed formulations was subjected to Standardization parameter viz macro-microscopic, physico-chemical, microbial, heavy metals and Thin Layer Chromatography to fix the quality standards of this drug. Anethole, an active compound of Foeniculum vulgare, was also analyzed in different samples of Foeniculum vulgare. The result shown that physicochemical parameters evaluated are useful in standardization, Heavy metals and microbial load for raw materials, oleoresins and finished formulations are found to be within the limit of WHO guidelines, indicating that they are free from pathogens and they are safe to be used in Indian System of medicine. The data obtained from the study would be useful in the identification of the fruits of Fennel and serve as standards. The above parameters studied, may be used as a tool for the correct identification and standardization of the plant also to test the adulterants if any.

  17. Biosynthesis of the labdane diterpene marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare via a non-mevalonate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Reuter, B; Zapp, J

    1997-09-01

    The biosynthesis of the furanic labdane diterpene marrubiin has been studied in plantlets and shoot cultures of Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae). The use of [2-14C]acetate, [2-14C]pyruvate, [2-14C]mevalonic acid and [U-14C]glucose incorporation experiments showed that the labelling of sterols in etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare was in accordance with their biosynthesis via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. In contrast, the incorporation rates of these precursors into the diterpene marrubiin could not be explained by biosynthesis of this compound via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. Cultivation of etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare on medium containing [1-13C]glucose and subsequent 13C-NMR spectroscopy of marrubiin led to the conclusion that the biosynthesis of marrubiin follows a non-mevalonate pathway. All isoprenic units of 13C-labelled marrubiin were enriched in those carbons that correspond to positions 1 and 5 of a putative precursor isopentenyl diphosphate. This labelling pattern from [1-13C]glucose is consistent with an alternative pathway via trioses, which has already been shown to occur in Eubacteria and Gymnospermae. The labdane skeleton is a precursor of many other skeletal types of diterpenes. Therefore it becomes obvious that in connection with the few known examples of a non-mevalonate pathway to isoprenoids the formation of some isoprenoids in plants via a non-mevalonate pathway might be quite common. PMID:9291117

  18. Using elevated CO2 to increase the biomass of a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. and to trigger hyperaccumulation of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important challenge to use phytoremediation is how to improve its efficiency by increasing the accumulation of metals in plants, or by improving key plant biological traits that should enhance metal uptake. In this paper, we used open-top chambers to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (860 μL L-1) on biomass and Cs uptake by a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. growing on soils spiked with various levels of cesium (0, 300, 1500 and 3000 mg Cs kg-1). The results showed that elevated CO2 not only increased aboveground biomass of the Sorghum and Trifolium species by 32-111%, and by 8-11%, respectively, compared to the ambient CO2 treatment, but also caused more accumulation of Cs by Sorghum species (up to 73%) than Trifolium species (up to 43%). It was speculated that the increase in biomass and the improvement in Cs accumulation ability at elevated CO2 could be related to lowered soil pH values, and changes in number and kind of microorganisms in the rhizospheres of the two tested species. This is the first report of a link among elevated CO2, increased biomass and hyperaccumulation of Cs by Sorghum and Trifolium species.

  19. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (Cav.) andOriganum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Leonor; Miguel, Graça; Gomes, Sónia; Costa, Ludmila; Venâncio, Florencia; Teixeira, Adriano; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2005-10-19

    Antilisterial activities of Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare essential oils were tested against 41 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The oil of T. capitata was mainly constituted by one component, carvacrol (79%), whereas for O. vulgare three components constituted 70% of the oil, namely, thymol (33%), gamma-terpinene (26%), and p-cymene (11%). T. capitata essential oil had a significantly higher antilisterial activity in comparison to O. vulgare oil and chloramphenicol. No significant differences in L. monocytogenes susceptibilities to the essential oils tested were registered. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. capitata essential oil and of carvacrol were quite similar, ranging between 0.05 and 0.2 microL/mL. Antioxidant activity was also tested, the essential oil of T. capitata showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of O. vulgare. Use of T. capitata and O. vulgare essential oils can constitute a powerful tool in the control of L. monocytogenes in food and other industries. PMID:16218659

  20. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Starks, Courtney; Hamberger, Björn; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five different candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs) of the TPS-c and TPS-e/f clades. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the M. vulgare diTPS family. In addition to MvEKS ent-kaurene synthase of general metabolism, we identified three diTPSs of specialized metabolism: MvCPS3 (+)-copalyl diphosphate synthase, and the functional diTPS pair MvCPS1 and MvELS. In a sequential reaction, MvCPS1 and MvELS produce a unique oxygenated diterpene scaffold 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene en route to marrubiin and an array of related compounds. In contrast with previously known diTPSs that introduce a hydroxyl group at carbon C-8 of the labdane backbone, the MvCPS1-catalyzed reaction proceeds via oxygenation of an intermediate carbocation at C-9, yielding the bicyclic peregrinol diphosphate. MvELS belongs to a subgroup of the diTPS TPS-e/f clade with unusual βα-domain architecture. MvELS is active in vitro and in vivo with three different prenyl diphosphate substrates forming the marrubiin precursor 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene, as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, manoyl oxide and miltiradiene. MvELS fills a central position in the biosynthetic system that forms the foundation for the diverse repertoire of Marrubium diterpenoids. Co-expression of MvCPS1 and MvELS in engineered E. coli and Nicotiana benthamiana offers opportunities for producing precursors for an array of biologically active diterpenoids. PMID:24990389

  1. Induced mutations and their genetic aspects in wheat (Triticum aestivum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hexaploid nature of common wheat (Triticum aestivum vulgare) and triplication of the genes allow a great number of primary induced changes to be present and maintained through generations. Induced mutations have been obtained in the morphological characters of the wheat spike, grain character, plant height, disease resistance, and in many other quantitative characters. In some of our experiments these have been followed through 25 generations. The genetic aspects of these changes, their effect on the micro-evolutionary processes in the populations, and their applicability in plant breeding are discussed. (author). 56 refs

  2. Phenolic compounds from Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp. Piperitum (Apiaceae herb and evaluation of hepatoprotective antioxidant activity

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    Mona T. M. Ghanem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the 80% methanolic extract as well as the ethyl acetate (EtOAc and butanol (BuOH fractions of the wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp; Piperitum and cultivated fennel (F. vulgare var. azoricum. In addition, quantification of the total phenolic content in the 80% methanol extract of fennel wild and cultivated herbs is measured. Materials and Methods: An amount of 400 g of air dried powdered herb of wild and cultivated fennel were sonicated with aqueous methanol (80%, successively extracted with Hexane, EtOAc, and n-BuOH. The EtOAc and n-BuOH were subjected to repeated column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The antioxidant effect was determined in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH· . Hepatoprotective activity was carried out using a Wistar male rat (250-300 g. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined as chlorogenic acid and rutin equivalents, respectively. Results: Two phenolic compounds, i.e., 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and 3?,8?-binaringenin were isolated from the fennel wild herb, their structures were elucidated by spectral methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and UV. The EtOAc and BuOH fractions of wild fennel were found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity higher than those of cultivated fennel. An in vitro method of rat hepatocytes monolayer culture was used for the investigation of hepatotoxic effects of the 80% methanol extract on the wild and cultivated fennel, which were >1000 and 1000 ΅g/mL, respectively. As well as, their hepatoprotective effect against the toxic effect of paracetamol (25 mM was exerted at 12.5 ΅g/mL concentration. Conclusions: Fennel (F. Vulgare is a widespread plant species commonly used as a spice and flavoring. The results obtained in this study indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare herb is a potential source of natural

  3. Morphometric parameters and seed germination of Origanum vulgare L. grown in Crimean foothills

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    E.F. Myagkih

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation shown that the seeds of Оriganum vulgareL. grown in the foothills of the Crimea are very small (1.8-1.9 mm long and 1.2-1.3 mm wide, weight of 1000 seeds is 0.079-0.089. In the first year after harvest the germination is highest and then it quickly decreases. In particular, the highest level of oregano germination was observed one month after harvesting. Some samples (Nr. 64 and 79 retained high germination potential (according the National Standard of Ukraine during 6 and 12 months. Further storage of seeds shown significant decreasing of germination.

  4. Instrumental neutron activities analysis of Marrubium vulgare L., a valuable medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    Twenty two chemical elements were identified by Instrumental neutron activation analysis in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) a traditional medicine plant, used indigenously in Mediterranean basin to cure several diseases. The precision of the results was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material GBW 07605 (GSV-4) Tea leaves. Results showed that K was the dominant chemical element in studied plant (4.40%). The Ca and Fe mass fractions were also relatively high. However potential toxic elements in this Lamiaceae plant were within the safety limits suggested by WHO/FAO.

  5. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  6. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen. PMID:27244472

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL. (UMBELLIFERAE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Dahak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance to push scientifically the investigations on the organic extracts of the plants aromatic as potential source of new antimicrobial compounds comes from the traditional use of the plants. However, the consumption of these natural products requires à thorough research in this field. The antimicrobial effect of organic and aqueous leaves extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., However, which makes difficult this antimicrobial activity, is the insolubility of organic extracts in water. The standard M27-T technique is basically used to cure this problem. The microorganisms under examination were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus hirea, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The M27-T technique allowed us to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs of different extracts. Therefore, the test’s results showed that the all samples were clearly different in terms of antimicrobial activities. All extracts of Foeniculum vulgare showed the most activity on all the microorganisms tested. The most significant and active extract under study were methanol and ethyl acetate on all the bacteria tested in comparaison to the hexane and aqueous extracts. On the other hand, the results of antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract were more compelling than the hexane and dichloromethane extracts when used on Candida albicans (ATCC and CBS (MIC = 0,78 mg mL-1. It then appear that C. albicans ATCC is the least susceptible microorganisms to the ethyl acetate extract. The chloramphenicol, amoxicillin and amphotericin B were used as standard antibiotics to carry this study."

  8. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Henchiri, Cherifa; Siracusa, Laura; Sari, Madani; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Algeria. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusion revealed the presence of fifteen metabolites, all belonging to the class of polyphenols. Particularly, seven flavonoids have been detected, together with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid in small amounts; the extract is dominated by the presence of a series of complex molecules, characterized as verbascoside (acteoside) derivatives. Concerning the anti-diabetic effectiveness a series of in vivo experiments were carried out on albinos Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxane; they were treated twice a day with aqueous extract from aerial part infusion (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract the Marrubium vulgare induced an significant effect antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic (dose-dependent effect). A decrease in blood glucose by 50% for the dose 100 mg/kg and more than 60% for doses 200 and 300 mg/kg, as well as a significant lowering of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in treated animals, compared with diabetic controls group (p<0.001), have been observed. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar effects. PMID:22100836

  9. Analysis of the antinociceptive properties of marrubiin isolated from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V

    2000-04-01

    We have shown previously that Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant employed frequently in folk medicine to treat a variety of ailments, exhibits antispasmodic and antinociceptive effects in different experimental models. This work describes the antinociceptive profile of marrubiin, the main constituent of this plant, which was analysed in some models of nociception in mice. The results showed that marrubiin exhibits potent and dose-related antinociceptive effects, whose calculated ID50 values (micromol/kg, i.p.) were the following: 2.2 in the writhing test, 6.6 (first phase) and 6.3 (second phase) in the formalin-induced pain test and 28.8 when evaluated in the capsaicin test. It was more potent than some well-known analgesic drugs. The antinociception produced by the marrubiin was not reversed by naloxone when analyzed against the writhing test. In the hot-plate test, marrubiin did not increase the latency period of pain induced by the thermal stimuli. Its exact mechanism of action remains to be determined, but the results suggest that marrubiin, like hydroalcoholic extract of M. vulgare, does not interact with opioid systems. PMID:10839213

  10. Phenolic compounds of 'Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa' olive oils along early ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Fátima; Martins, Luisa L; Mourato, Miguel; Vitorino, Conceição; Antunes, Paulo; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the lipophilic and hydrophilic phenol composition of virgin olive oils (VOO) obtained from olives from two of the most important Portuguese cultivars ('Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa'), harvested at different ripening stages and under two irrigation schemes (rain fed and irrigated), was evaluated. Phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), phenolic acids and derivatives and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), as well as tocopherols were quantified. Lipophilic (>300mgkg(-1)) and hydrophilic phenols (>600mgkg(-1)) were present in high contents in both VOO, for early ripening stages. Gamma-tocopherol content is higher in 'Galega Vulgar' VOO. Total phenols showed a decrease between ripening index 2.5 and 3.5. The dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), also known as oleacein, was the major phenolic compound identified in both oils. The concentration of free hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in both VOO is very low while their esterified derivatives, like 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, are much more abundant. PMID:27283606

  11. Evaluation of Salt Stress at Gerimination and Seedling Stages of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in Hydroponic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of medicinal plants with tolerance to salinity stress has an economical importance in Iran. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on different Morpho-Physiological traits of Foeniculum vulgare Mill in germination and seedling stage in hydroponic condition. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four (in first experiment and three (in second experiment replications. Salinity effects of NaCl [0, 50, 100, 150 200 (Mm] was evaluated on three genotypes of  Foeniculum vulgare (Estahban, Isfahan, Shiraz. Analysis of variance showed that salinity levels reduced the percentage of germination, seed vigor index, rootlenght, stem length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, biomass, the ratio of shoot to root, chlorophyll index, chlorophyll a and b and caroteniod content. Significant variation was observed between different genotypes on different levels of salinity. Tolerance to salinity in seedling was more than germination. In two experiments, the genotype of Shiraz showed superiority in view point of tolerance.

  12. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations. PMID:27209011

  13. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

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    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  14. The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdoub Hafedh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to validate its antiseptic and anticancer properties with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time the antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of M. vulgare essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50 were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M. vulgare essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against the different tested microorganisms. The present results results showed a significant activity against microorganisms especially Gram (+ bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 6.6-25.2 mm and 1120-2600 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram (- bacteria exhibited a higher resistance. As far as the antifungal activity, among four strains tested, Botrytis cinerea exhibited the strongest activity with inhibition zones of 12.6 mm. However, Fusarium solani, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger were less sensitive to M. vulgare essential oil. About the citotoxicity assay, this finding indicate the capability of this essential oil to inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell lines under some conditions with IC50 value of 0.258 μg/ml. Conclusion This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+ pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi. The present studies confirm the use of this

  15. Mitigación de la erosión de suelos en plantaciones de almendro por cubiertas vegetales: implicaciones para la agricultura sostenible de montaña (SE España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Durán Zuazo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La conservación y gestión sostenible de los recursos suelo y agua constituyen uno de los mayoresretos de los sistemas agrícolas de secano. Durante dos años hidrológicos se han estudiado lastasas de erosión y escorrentía de un suelo de cultivo en ladera con tres tipos de cubierta vegetal:cebada (Hordeum vulgare, veza (Vicia sativa, y tomillo (Thymbra capitata en una plantaciónextensiva de almendros (Prunus amygdalus. El ensayo se realizó en Lanjarón (Granada, SE Españacon parcelas cerradas de erosión de 144 m2 (24 m x 6 m en una ladera con pendiente del 35%.Las franjas vegetales de 3 m de ancho se dispusieron de forma intermitente y transversal a lapendiente entre hileras de árboles de almendro. Los registros de erosión y escorrentía agrícolasfueron significativamente inferiores en las parcelas con cubiertas de tomillo, en contraste con lasregistradas con veza. La efectividad de las cubiertas de tomillo respecto a las de cebada y veza enel control de erosión y escorrentía superaron el 69 y 67%, respectivamente. Las cubiertas vegetalesal recortar y frenar la trayectoria de la escorrentía superficial retienen los sedimentos transportados ypromueven su infiltración en el suelo. Asimismo, la escorrentía remanente con mucho menos energíapuede reinfiltrarse en el suelo antes de ser interceptada por la siguiente franja. Se concluye que laasociación de cultivo leñoso con franjas de cubiertas vegetales representa un modelo eficiente deadaptación a los sistemas tradicionales para la mejora de la productividad y sostenibilidad de laagricultura de montaña de clima semiárido.

  16. Floral volatiles ofTanacetum vulgare L. attractive toLobesia botrana den. et schiff. females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D; Suchy, V; Marion-Poll, F; Hradsky, P; Farkas, P

    1992-05-01

    The European grapevine moth (EGVM),Lobesia botrana, is a major pest of grapes in Europe. Females are attracted to a nonhost plant: tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), which is a common weed in Slovakian vineyards. A steam distillate extract of tansy flowers was analyzed by means of a GC-EAG technique to screen constituents detected by the olfactory receptors of EGVM females. From more than 200 GC peaks, nine peaks corresponding to monoterpenoids released an EAG response in more than 70% of the females (N=15):p-cymene,d-limonene,α-thujene,α-thujone,β-thujone, thujyl alcohol, terpinene-4-ol, (Z)-verbenol, and piperitone. The steam distillate of tansy as well as a synthetic blend of identified compounds released consistent attraction in a field cage. The use of nonhost plants and host plant odors in integrated pest management is discussed. PMID:24253963

  17. Topical application of a melanotropin analogue to vulgar vitiligo dermo-epidermal minigrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartzmann-Solon A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Human subjects with active vulgar vitiligo do not respond well to autologous dermo-epidermal minigrafting. Eighteen subjects were treated with the a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH synthetic analogue [Nle4, D-Phe7]-a-MSH. The hormone (50 ml, 0.4 mM was applied topically to 30-cm2 lesions in which 29-48 minigrafts had been made. The hormone did not improve the success of the minigrafting and no differences were observed in local or distant repigmentation in treated subjects as compared to the placebo group. Aliquots of 24-h urine concentrated by lyophilization irreversibly darkened toad skins, demonstrating the presence of the analogue. This is the first report of the transdermal delivery of a topically applied melanotropin in living human subjects.

  18. Investigation on antibacterial synergism of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are well known as strong antimicrobial agents of plant origin. In spite of this, the antimicrobial synergism of essential oils isolated from different plant species is poorly investigated. The following study examines the synergism of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus vulgaris L against pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. First, the antibacterial effect of the oils was tested, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of both oils were determined using the microdilution method. To test whether the oils act synergistically, every possible combination of essential oil concentrations was used in a dynamic checkerboard method. The results indicated that the oils indeed acted synergistically with fractional inhibitory concentration indexes of 0.45 and 0.50. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  19. A study on the inoculated root of Sorghum vulgare by mycorrhiza under the water stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Alizadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the symbiotic effect of mycorrhiza on the yieldand root characteristics of Sorghum vulgare under water stress. The experiment was carried out in afactorial test using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD in three replications. Treatmentswere conducted base on drought stress in four levels and mycorrhiza were applied in two ranges M1(inoculated by mycorrhiza and M0 (non-mycorrhiza. The Results showed that, the drought stress hadsignificant influences on dry matter of shoot, length of the root and percentage of the mycorrhizacolonization. It seemed that, the mycorrhiza had significantly increased the biomass of sorghum byinfluences on the root characteristics, such as: root length, colonization and root/shoot ratio.

  20. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised. PMID:17253250

  1. A new monoterpene acid from Marrubium vulgare with potential antihepatotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bahar; Masoodi, Mubashir H; Siddique, Anwarul H; Khan, Shamshir

    2010-11-01

    The whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. afforded a new terpenoid, characterised as p-menthane-5,6-dihydroxy-3-carboxylic acid (1), which has been designated as marrubic acid. Its structure has been elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical analyses. The compound (1) also exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) by 40.16%, serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) by 35.06%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 30.51%. On the other hand, total protein (TP) levels were increased by 34.07%, as compared to the standard drug silymarin, which decreased SGOT by 53.04%, SGPT by 55.96%, ALP by 35.87% and increased TP levels by 59.59%. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by histopathological examinations of liver sections. PMID:20628963

  2. Chemical constituents of Marrubium vulgare as potential inhibitors of nitric oxide and respiratory burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Farzana; Rasoola, Shagufta; Shah, Zafar Ali; Soomro, Samreen; Jabeen, Almas; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L., led to the isolation of three new secondary metabolites, 11-oxomarrubiin (1), vulgarcoside A (2) and 3-hydroxyapigenin-4'-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with four known constituents 4-7 from the polar fractions of the methanolic extract. The structures of all compounds were deduced on the basis of NMR data and HRESI-MS measurements. The new constituents 1-3 exhibited moderate to low level of inhibition on nitric oxide (NO.) production. The compound 2 also showed a moderate inhibition on pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. The new constituents 1-3 showed no inhibitory effect on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. PMID:25230489

  3. Analgesic potential of marrubiin derivatives, a bioactive diterpene present in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyre-Silva, C; Yunes, R A; Schlemper, V; Campos-Buzzi, F; Cechinel-Filho, V

    2005-04-01

    Marrubiin, a furane labdane diterpene, is the main analgesic compound present in Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in Brazil and other countries to treat several ailments. Considering its important pharmacological action, as well as its high yield, some structural modifications were performed in order to obtain more active compounds. Success was obtained in reducing the lactonic function, in the formation of marrubiinic acid and two esterified derivatives, which exhibited significant analgesic effect against the writhing test in mice. Marrubiinic acid showed better activity and excellent yield, and its analgesic effect was confirmed in other experimental models of pain in mice, suggesting its possible use as a model to obtain new and potent analgesic agents. PMID:15848207

  4. Paprastojo raudonėlio (Origanum vulgare L.) morfologijos ir biologijos savitumai

    OpenAIRE

    Revko, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Magistro darbe pateikti paprastojo raudonėlio (Origanum vulgare L.) rausvažiedės ir baltažiedės formų, augančių VDU Kauno botanikos sodo vaistinių ir prieskoninių augalų kolekcijoje, vegetatyvinių organų lapo ir stiebo anatominės ir morfologinės sandaros ypatumai, bei įvertinti generatyvinių ir vegetatyvinių organų morfologinių požymių parametrų skirtumai. Nustatyti koreliacijos koeficientai tarp stiebo aukščio ir žiedyno ilgio, priklausomybė mentūrių skaičiaus žiedyne nuo žiedyno ilgio i...

  5. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26996035

  6. Trace elements and essential oil composition in chemotypes of the aromatic plant Origanum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements, essential oil yield and its percentage composition were determined by neutron activation analysis, hydrodistillation and gas chromatography in two chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. cultivated in the same field. Statistical tests such as analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, t-test, and multiple correlation were applied. The results showed that the samples contain the highest recorded oil yield for aromatic plants. Also, there is a statistically significant difference between the chemotypes of the plant not only in the predominant compound but in a number of other components. Iron, chromium and scandium showed a negative significant correlation with carvacrol and a positive one with thymol. Europium shows characteristic correlations with chromium, cobalt, iron and scandium within each chemotype of the plant. These correlations could make probable a role of this element in the biosynthesis of the predominant compounds. (author)

  7. The anthelmintic effect of Urtica dioica and Tanacetum vulgare L. on Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus

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    Omer lokman Omer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effects of alcoholic (Ethanol extracts and aquaus extract of leaves Urtica dioica and extract of both leaves and flowers of Tanacetum vulgare on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. Three different concentrations of each extract (I, 2, 4 micrograms /ml were used. The mortality of Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus by using aqueous extract of two plants was increased with the increasing the concentration and duration of exposure; reach 96.2% and 97.8% at concentration of 4 micrograms/ml for 30 minutes for Urtica dioica and Tanacetum volgare respectively. However, it was found that the effec of these plants by ethanol were decreased with the same concentration when the time of exposure is increased. The mortality rate of protocoleces decreased from 69% to 4.2% when exposed to Urtica dioica extract for 10 and 30 min respectively at 1mg/ml.

  8. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact. PMID:27375241

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of hydromethanolic extract from Marrubium vulgare Lamiaceae on leukocytes oxidative metabolism: An in vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed El Abbouyi; Said El Khyari; Rabia Eddoha; Najoie Filali-Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Marrubium vulgare Lamiaceae, known as white horehound, is frequently used in folk medicine to treat many illnesses from ancient times. Aims: The present study is conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanolic extract of the aerial part of M. vulgare. Materials and Methods: The oxygen consumption and the production of superoxide anions, by rat pleural polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by opsonized zymosan, were performed. PMNs were collected after ind...

  10. The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Mejdoub Hafedh; Bekir Ahmed; Ben Mansour Riadh; Ben Chobba Ines; Kadri Adel; Zarai Zied; Gharsallah Néji

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to validate its antiseptic and anticancer properties with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time the antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of M. vulgare essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of...

  11. Avaliação biológica de Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae Biological evaluation of Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Araujo R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill. é espécie herbácea da família Umbelliferae, nativa da região do Mediterrâneo e da Ásia Menor, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro. É conhecida popularmente como funcho ou erva-doce e usada na medicina como analgésico, digestivo, carminativo, diurético, expectorante, lactígeno, anti-inflamatório, e antiespasmódico. O extrato bruto etanólico para a verificação das atividades biológicas foi preparado a partir de sementes compradas no comércio. Para a realização do perfil fitoquímico foi utilizada a cromatografia em camada delgada analítica; a atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo teste de difusão em disco de papel e da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM; a atividade antinociceptiva foi realizada pelo método de contorções abdominais em cobaias. Os micro-organismos testados foram isolados clínicos multirresistentes obtidos do Setor de Bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Pernambuco. O estudo fitoquímico identificou a maioria dos compostos secundários presentes na fração metanólica das sementes, sendo eles: triterpenos, glicosídeos de flavanóides, terpenos menores (monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenóide e diterpenóides, e açúcares redutores. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o extrato etanólico apresentou maior atividade frente à Micrococcus spp. (CIM=250µg/mL. Os resultados da avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva demonstraram que apenas a dosagem de 298 mg/Kg quando comparado com o padrão indometacina conseguiu uma redução significativa no número de contorções abdominais dos animais. Estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados para a identificação e isolamento de alguns compostos secundários, bem como a realização de outros protocolos de analgesia.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae is a herbaceous plant of the family Umbelliferae, native to the Mediterranean and Asia Minor region and widely distributed all over the Brazilian

  12. Evaluation of Origanum vulgare essential oil as antimicrobial agent in sausage Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare em linguiça

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiano Busatta; Altemir José Mossi; Maria Regina Alves Rodrigues; Rogério Luis Cansian; José Vladimir Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and ...

  13. Effect of cadmium on selected physiological and morphological parameters in metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Sławomir; Bednarek, Wiesław; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium tolerance of three populations of Echium vulgare L., naturally occurring on two Zn-Pb waste deposits (metallicolous populations M1, M2) and on an uncontaminated site (non-metallicolous population, NM) was investigated. The plants were cultivated in hydroponics at 0, 5, 15, 30, or 50μM Cd for 14 days. Although Cd reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments indifferently in the three populations, plant growth parameters and root viability analyses confirmed different Cd tolerances decreasing in the order M1>M2>NM in the populations studied. Organic acids (tartrate, malate, citrate, succinate) were not responsible for the elevated Cd tolerance of the metallicolous populations, although malate and citrate might participate in Cd detoxification in the roots of the M1 and M2. Phytochelatin concentrations were higher in the roots of M1 and M2 populations of E. vulgare, suggesting their role in Cd detoxification and different Cd tolerances. PMID:24732029

  14. Control of Aspergillus flavus Growth in Tomato Paste by Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    F Kalantary

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in culture media and tomato paste. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). Trans- cinnamaldehyde was found to be the main constituent of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO), followed by methyl eugenol, δ- cadinene and γ- cadinene. The major c...

  15. Antibacterial Effects of Origanum vulgare Essence Against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated From Selected Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saghi; Bahador; Khaledi; Ataee Kachoei; Amiri Dastjerdi; Esmaeili

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection due to Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant challenge to modern healthcare systems. The rapid emergence and global dissemination of A. baumannii as a major nosocomial pathogen is remarkable and it demonstrates its successful adaptation to the 21st century hospital environment. Recent studies have discussed about essential oil of Origanum vulgare against a range of bacteria, including various species of Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Esc...

  16. A study on the inoculated root of Sorghum vulgare by mycorrhiza under the water stress condition

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Alizadeh; Ali Parsaeimehr

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the symbiotic effect of mycorrhiza on the yieldand root characteristics of Sorghum vulgare under water stress. The experiment was carried out in afactorial test using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three replications. Treatmentswere conducted base on drought stress in four levels and mycorrhiza were applied in two ranges M1(inoculated by mycorrhiza) and M0 (non-mycorrhiza). The Results showed that, the drought stress hadsignificant infl...

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Physalis alkekengi L., Alcea rosea L., Bunium persicum B. Fedtsch. and Marrubium vulgare L. on Mushroom Tyrosinase

    OpenAIRE

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Jahangiri, Alireza; Azemi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Arkian, Elaheh; Mousavi, Hamideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The key enzyme in the process of melanin biosynthesis is tyrosinase. Skin hyperpigmentation and browning of foods are undesirable phenomena which tyrosinase represents. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors have been used increasingly for medicinal and cosmetic products. Objectives: In this study, inhibitory effects of four plants including: physalis alkekengi L., Alcea rosea L., Bunium persicum B. Fedtsch. and Marrubium vulgare L. on diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase were ev...

  18. FEATURES OF ACCUMULATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL IN PLANTS OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagkikh E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the accumulation of essential oil in the collection samples of Oregano studied in the foothill zone of the Crimea. The range of variability of the mass fraction of essential oil of Origanum vulgare (from trace amounts to 0.53% of the bone dry weight. We have revealed that the greatest amount of essential oil accumulates in the inflorescences during the flowering phase

  19. Combination Studies of Oreganum Vulgare Extract Fractions and Volatile Oil along with Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole against Common Fish Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Joginder Singh Dhuhan; Neeru Vasudeva; Veni Bharti

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study is aimed at finding new antibiotic therapy for aquaculture due to potential of bacteria to develop resistance to the existing therapies. Use of large quantities of synthetic antibiotics in aquaculture thus has the potential to be detrimental to fish health, to the environment and wildlife and to human health. Methods: Antimicrobial potential of volatile oil and fractions of chloroform extract of Oreganum vulgare was evaluated alone and in the presence of standard antimicrob...

  20. FEATURES OF ACCUMULATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL IN PLANTS OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE CRIMEA

    OpenAIRE

    Myagkikh E. F.; Mishnev A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the features of the accumulation of essential oil in the collection samples of Oregano studied in the foothill zone of the Crimea. The range of variability of the mass fraction of essential oil of Origanum vulgare (from trace amounts to 0.53% of the bone dry weight). We have revealed that the greatest amount of essential oil accumulates in the inflorescences during the flowering phase

  1. EFFECT OF SEAWEED EXTRACT OF SARGASSUM VULGARE ON GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF TWO TOMATOES CULTIVARS (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L) UNDER SALT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Elouaer Mohamed Aymen; Latique Salma; Chernane Halima; Hannachi Cherif; Elkaoua Mimoun

    2014-01-01

    Salt stress is a major adverse factor that can lower seed germination and seedlings growth, leading to reduced plant growth and ultimately lower crop productivity in arid and semi arid regions of the world. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important crop occupying a large area in both Morocco and Tunisia, where salt stress is the most limiting factor. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the effect of seaweed liquid extract (SWE) from Sargassum vulgare at diff...

  2. Antibacterial Effects of Origanum vulgare Essence Against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated From Selected Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection due to Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant challenge to modern healthcare systems. The rapid emergence and global dissemination of A. baumannii as a major nosocomial pathogen is remarkable and it demonstrates its successful adaptation to the 21st century hospital environment. Recent studies have discussed about essential oil of Origanum vulgare against a range of bacteria, including various species of Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia coli. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects O. vulgare essence against multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of A. baumannii from selected hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods This oil was obtained using the hydrodistillation method and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrography (GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity against MDR isolates was achieved using disc diffusion method and macro-broth dilution assay. Results Analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of pulegone (68.59% piperitone (7.8%, piperitenone (7.8%, 1, 8-cineole (1.3%, and carvacrol (1.6% as the major components. The results showed a significant activity against MDR A. baumannii with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the ranges of 7-15 mm and 20-35 µL/mL respectively. Conclusions This investigation showed that the essence oil of O. vulgare had a potent antimicrobial activity against MDR A. baumannii. Further research is required to evaluate the practical values of therapeutic applications.

  3. Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare L. on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Soraya, Hamid; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khorrami, Arash; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2013-08-01

    Isoproterenol injection (100 mg/kg; sc) produced changes in ECG pattern including ST-segment elevation and suppressed R-amplitude. The methanolic extract of M. vulgare at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg significantly amended the ECG changes. A severe myocardial necrosis and edematous along with a sharp reduction in the arterial blood pressure, left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dt(max or min)), but a marked increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were seen in the isoproterenol group. All parameters were significantly improved by the extract treatment. The extract (10 mg/kg) strongly increased LVdP/dt(max). Similarly, treatment with 40 mg/kg of M. vulgare lowered the elevated LVEDP and the heart to body weight ratio. In addition to in vitro antioxidant activity, the extract suppressed markedly the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in serum and in myocardium. The results demonstrate that M. vulgare protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and suggest that the effects could be related to antioxidant activities. PMID:24228389

  4. Effect of Quantity and Distribution of Rainfalls on Hordeum murinum L. Growth and Development Efecto de la Cantidad y Distribución de las Precipitaciones en el Crecimiento y Desarrollo de Hordeum murinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Johnston B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of Hordeum murinum L. seeds growing with extreme pluviometric regimes in cool greenhouse conditions were evaluated. Seven treatments according to quantity and distribution of real rainfalls of the semiarid zone of the Metropolitan Region, Chile were applied: rainy-late, normal-late, dry-early, rainy-normal, normal-early and dry-late, plus a reference without water stress, at 2/3 field capacity. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with five replicate pots. Seeds produced in the last year were sown in pots with disinfected soil leaving the more uniform plants after emergence. Evaluations were made of phytomass production, spearing shoots of roots, the quantity of floral stems and seeds, their total weight and the proportion of seed annex structures, and the viability and germination capacity of seeds. The life cycle of dry years was shortest and with the least dry shoot matter production, the rainy-normal and normal-late years had similar dry root matter production, therefore the most important factor was rainfall distribution. All the reproductive growth values were lower than the reference. There was no seed production in both distributions of dry years and in the normal-early. There were only differences in late distributions, there were no differences among treatments in seed quality. Thus, H. murinum uses its resources principally for seed production and late distributions determined seed production.Se evaluó el desarrollo de plantas de Hordeum murinum sometidas a regímenes pluviométricos simulados en invernadero frío. En un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cinco repeticiones, se establecieron tratamientos según cantidad y distribución de las precipitaciones reales del secano de la Región Metropolitana, Chile: lluvioso-tardío, normal-tardío, seco-temprano, lluvioso-normal, normal-temprano, seco-tardío y uno de referencia sin restricción hídrica. Se sembraron semillas del a

  5. Allelic variation, alternative splicing and expression analysis of Psy1 gene in Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult.

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    Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wild barley Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult. is a valuable source of genes for increasing carotenoid content in wheat. Tritordeums, the amphiploids derived from durum or common wheat and H. chilense, systematically show higher values of yellow pigment colour and carotenoid content than durum wheat. Phytoene synthase 1 gene (Psy1 is considered a key step limiting the carotenoid biosynthesis, and the correlation of Psy1 transcripts accumulation and endosperm carotenoid content has been demonstrated in the main grass species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze the variability of Psy1 alleles in three lines of H. chilense (H1, H7 and H16 representing the three ecotypes described in this species. Moreover, we analyze Psy1 expression in leaves and in two seed developing stages of H1 and H7, showing mRNA accumulation patterns similar to those of wheat. Finally, we identify thirty-six different transcripts forms originated by alternative splicing of the 5' UTR and/or exons 1 to 5 of Psy1 gene. Transcripts function is tested in a heterologous complementation assay, revealing that from the sixteen different predicted proteins only four types (those of 432, 370, 364 and 271 amino acids, are functional in the bacterial system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large number of transcripts originated by alternative splicing of Psy1, and the coexistence of functional and non functional forms, suggest a fine regulation of PSY activity in H. chilense. This work is the first analysis of H. chilense Psy1 gene and the results reported here are the bases for its potential use in carotenoid enhancement in durum wheat.

  6. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

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    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  7. BIOREACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILLER

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    Anita Dua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of dried Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller seeds was analyzed for the presence of bioreactive compounds: ascorbate, riboflavin, tocopherol and polyphenols with potential antioxidant properties. The extract had low ascorbate (197.12+1.82µg, riboflavin (11.97+0.35µg and tocopherol (280.33+5.67µg/g dry seeds content. However the extract had high polyphenol content (16.506+0.32mg/g dry seeds. Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by various mechanisms including DPPH free radical scavenging, metal induced protein and lipid oxidation inhibition and protection of DNA against H2O2 induced damage. Fennel had excellent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 2.1mg dry seed weight. IC50 observed for protection of proteins and lipids against metal ion induced oxidation is 2.1 and 2.5mg dry seed weight respectively. Extract equivalent to 0.5µg seeds is enough to protect DNA against H2O2 induced oxidation. The results suggest that polyphenols are the principal components responsible for high antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of fennel.

  8. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer. PMID:26257756

  9. Treatment of patients with vulgar psoriasis through electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controlled and randomized clinical therapeutical assay in phase III was carried out in 52 patients with vulgar psoriasis, who were assisted in the Dermatology department of 'Dr Joaquin Castillo Duany' Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from 2005 to 2010 who were divided into 2 groups (26 members each): the active group which was conventionally treated with 20% cade ointment; and the experimental group, to which the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field was applied, with the objective of determining the effectiveness of this field in those affected during the periods of crisis and intercrisis. The studied population was clinically characterized by means of a frequency analysis, while the hypothesis tests were used for the evaluation of proportions which null hypothesis were accepted with 5 % as maximum error. In the series the used field was effective to treat the disorder during crisis and more effective than the cade ointment to prolong the intercrisis stage, without causing adverse reactions, so that it constituted a new alternative therapy that can be generalized in the dermatological services of the country, in order to improve the life quality of those who suffer that dermatosis

  10. Antifungal properties of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi and Eucalyptus sp. essential oils against Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobonja Jelica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are among the most important sources of biologically active secondary metabolites, with high antimicrobal potential. This study was carried out to examine in vitro antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, Carum carvi (Apiaceae and Eucalyptus sp.(Myrtaceae essential oils against three Candida albicans strains of different origin (laboratory-CAL, human pulmonary-CAH and ATCC10231-CAR. The essential oils were screened on C. albicans using disc and well-diffusion and microdilution method, and compared to Nystatine and Fluconazole as standard anti-mycotics. The activity of tested oils was expressed by inhibition zone diameter (mm, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC (mg/ml. The results indicated that studied essential oils show antifungal activity against all three isolates of C. albicans. It was observed that each oil exhibits different degree of antifungal activity depending on the oil concentration applied as well as on analyzed strain of C. albicans. Carum carvi demonstrated the strongest antifungal effect to all tested strains, showing the lowest MIC values (0.03mg/ml for CAL, 0.06mg/ml for CAH, and 0.11mg/ml for CAR, respectively. Eucalyptus sp. exhibited the lowest antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.11 mg/ml for CAL to 0.45 mg/ml for both CAH and CAR. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIRADICALS ACTIVITY OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. AND THYMUS VULGARIS ESSENTIAL OILS

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    Miroslava Kačániová

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study were antioxidant properties of oregano and thyme essential oil by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities and antibacterial activities against one Gram-positive strain (Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960; Escherichia coli CCM 3988 was also performed. The thyme EOs showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli CCM 3988 in 0.75 and 0.375 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. Very strong antibacterial activity was found in thyme and oregano EOs against Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 in 0.75, 0.375, 0.188 and 0.094 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. In comparison to BHT (5.60 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.82 µg.ml-1 after 60 min and ascorbic acid (7.48 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 4.79 µg.ml-1 after 60 min, O. vulgare oil shows significantly higher DPPH activity (2.99 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.02 µl.ml-1 after 60 min. From the other side, T. vulgaris essential (9.69 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 5.84 µl.ml-1 after 60 min oil shows lower antiradical activity in comparison to BHT, and higher activity in comparison to ascorbic acid.

  12. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  13. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo eMurillo-Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L. cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer.

  14. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Coccimiglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol.

  15. Biochemical and Physiological Studies on the Effects of Senescence Leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Pal Khaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticum vulgare (Wheat based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar. During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed’s germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  16. Effect of gamma - irradiation on the volatile flavor profile of fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volatile flavor compounds of non-irradiated and 1, 5, 10 and 20 kGy gamma-irradiated seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Pakistan were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 82 compounds were identified in the non irradiated fennel, with EAnethole (36.74 percentage), Estragole (26.31 percentage), and β-Limonene (15.99 percentage) as the major compounds. The irradiation doses caused slight variations in the number and contents of the volatile components. Though several volatile compounds showed increase after Υ-irradiation, the contents of major compounds such as beta-Limonene and estrgole were decreased. The overall number of the volatile compounds showed increase up to the recommended irradiation doses of 10 kGy but their contents decreased. In general no major change was noted in the overall major flavor compounds of the subject spice. Therefore the application of Υ--irradiation is feasible without any significant qualitative or quantitative loss of volatile flavor compounds when exposed to 10 kGy Υ--irradiation. (author)

  17. Activity of ladanein on leukemia cell lines and its occurrence in Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Racha; Joha, Sami; Cheok, Meyling; Roumy, Vincent; Idziorek, Thierry; Preudhomme, Claude; Quesnel, Bruno; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François; Hennebelle, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Three methoxylated flavones isolated from Marrubium peregrinum - ladanein, scutellarein-5,7,4'-trimethyl ether, and scutellarein-5,6,7,4'-tetramethyl ether - were assayed for their cytotoxicity towards a recently developed dasatinib-resistant murine leukemia cell line (DA1-3b/M2 (BCR-ABL)), together with the structurally related non-methylated flavone scutellarein. The most active compound, ladanein, was looked for in 20 common Lamiaceae species by a quick HPLC screening. Among the possible positive results, the most interesting source was found to be Marrubium vulgare, which led to the isolation and identification of ladanein for the first time in this species. Ladanein also displayed moderate (20-40 microM) activities against K562, K562R (imatinib-resistant), and 697 human leukemia cell lines but was toxic neither to MOLM13 nor to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This work provides a common natural source for the hemi-synthesis of future ladanein-derived flavones and the study of their antileukemic activity. PMID:19644796

  18. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent. PMID:25266989

  19. Effects of landfill leachate treatment on hepatopancreas of Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Anita; Canonico, Barbara; Mazzeo, Roberto; Santolini, Riccardo; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Nannoni, Francesco; Protano, Giuseppe; Papa, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The major environmental impact of landfills is emission of pollutants via the leachate and gas pathways. The hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea, Latreille 1804) plays an important role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants, such as heavy metals. To evaluate the effects of landfill leachate treatment, 2 different approaches were applied: 1) the detection of accumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, Zn, Pb, Ni, V) in hepatopancreatic cells, and 2) the evaluation of biological effect of contaminants on fresh hepatopancreatic cells by flow-cytometric analyses. The presence of 2 different cell types (herein referred to as "small" [S] cells and "big" [B] cells, in agreement with the literature based on morphological examinations) was detected for the first time by flow cytometry, which also highlighted their different response to stress stimuli. In particular, B cells appeared more sensitive to landfill leachate treatment, being more damaged in the short term, while S cells seemed more adaptive. Furthermore, S cells could represent a pool from which they are able to differentiate into B cells. These findings were also confirmed by principal component analyses, underlining that S SYBR Green I bright cells correlate with specific chemicals (Ca, Cu, Co), confirming their resistance to stress stimuli, and suggesting that the decrease of specific cell types may prime other elements to replace them in a homeostasis-preservation framework. PMID:23929682

  20. Main: 1BGP [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BGP 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. Peroxidase Bp 1 Precursor. Name=Prx5; Hordeum Vulgare Molecu ... vity; IEA.|GO; GO:0006979; P:response to oxidative stress ; IEA.|InterPro; IPR002016; Peroxidase.|InterPro; I ...

  1. Main: 3CI2 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3CI2 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. Subtilisin-Chymotrypsin Inhibitor-2a Hordeum Vulgare Chymotr ... ucture Of Barley Serine Proteinase Inhibitor 2 And Comparison ... With The Structures In Crystals J.Mol.Biol. V. 222 ...

  2. Main: 1CNS [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CNS 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. 26 Kda Endochitinase 2 Precursor Hordeum Vulgare ...1.1; -.|PIR; A29104; A29104.|PIR; A38664; A38664.|PDB; 1CNS; X-ray; A/B=24-266.|PDB; 2BAA; X-ray; @=24-266.|...SSDYCTPSAQWPCAPGKRYYGRGPIQLSHNYNYGPAGRAIGVDLLANPDLVATDATVGFKTAIWFWMTAQPPKPSSHAVIAGQWSPSGADRAAGRVPGFGVITNIINGGIECGHGQDSRVADRIGFYKRYCDILGVGYGNNLDCYSQRPFA barley_1CNS.jpg ...

  3. Sensitivity of spoiling and pathogen food-related bacteria to Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil Sensibilidade de bactérias deteriorantes e patogênicas de interesse em alimentos ao óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Leite de Souza; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima

    2006-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, has been known as plant specie with prominent biological properties for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative spoiling and/or pathogen food-related bacteria, as well as to observe its antimicrobial effectiveness in a food conservation micromodel. The results showed a strong antibacterial activity of the assayed essential oil noted by large growt...

  4. Importance of diet in the growth, survivorship and reproduction of the no-tillage pest Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda) Importancia de la dieta en el crecimiento, la supervivencia y la reproducción de Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda) plaga en siembra directa

    OpenAIRE

    ARIEL J FABERI; ALICIA N LÓPEZ; Natalia L Clemente; Manetti, Pablo L.

    2011-01-01

    The studies of Armadillidium vulgare as pest are virtually null worldwide. However under no-tillage systems this species has found an adequate environment for its development and it has become an important pest in some crops in Argentina. It has been shown that the composition of vegetables affects the isopods biology. Our hypothesis was that soybean leaf litter has high nutritive value which allows A. vulgare to grow faster, survive longer, and have higher fecundity favoring the population i...

  5. Interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil Interferência do aquecimento sobre a atividade antimicrobiana e composição química do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Leite de Souza; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; José Maria Barbosa Filho; Márcia Ortiz Mayo Marques

    2008-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, essential oil has a variety of biological properties and its antimicrobial activity has received a renewed interest for use in food conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of O. vulgare essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil kept at room temperature and exposed to different heating temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120 °C during 1 hour) w...

  6. On the Broadcast of Vulgar Advertisements on TV%试析电视恶俗广告的生存之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张幼斌

    2011-01-01

    With more and more vulgar advertisements broadcast on TV for brand communication and sales promotion, taking the annual top vulgar advertisements voted by netizens in recent years as samples, the concept and representation attributes of vulgar advertising are discussed, with special attention paid to the analysis of the effectiveness of vulgar advertising in attention-drawing, memory-keeping and fame-affecting. Suggestions are proposed in the end for providing reference for enterprises which intend to make use of vulgar advertising marketing.%以当前电视恶俗广告越来越多地成为品牌传播和销售促进的方式为背景,从恶俗广告的概念界定入手,以近年网民选评的上榜恶俗广告为案例,总结恶俗广告的元素表征,着重从注意力、记忆及知名度效应等角度分析阐释恶俗广告发挥效用的原因,举证其效用所在,以期为企业拟运用恶俗广告营销提供借鉴。

  7. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Ligustrum vulgare L. as an Individual Treatment and in Combination with Palladium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana D. Marković

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the growth inhibitory effects of methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of L. vulgare on HCT-116 cells over different time periods and their synergistic effect with a Pd(apox complex. The antiproliferative activity of plant extracts alone or in combination with the Pd(apox complex was determined using MTT cell viability assay, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter of cytotoxicity. Results show that antiproliferative effects of L. vulgare extracts increase with extension of exposure time, with decreasing IC50 values, except for 72 h where the IC50 values for methanolic leaf extract were lower than for the fruit extract. The Pd(apox complex alone had a weak antiproliferative effect, but combination with L. vulgare extracts caused stronger effects with lower IC50 values than with L. vulgare extracts alone. The type of cell death was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridin orange/ethidium bromide method. Treatments with plant extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HCT-116 cells and co-treatments with Pd(apox complex caused higher levels of apoptotic cells than treatment with plant extracts alone. The results indicate that L. vulgare is a considerable source of natural bioactive substances with antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 cells and which have a substantial synergistic effect with the Pd(apox complex.

  8. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R Descamps

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0, mean generation time (T, doubling time (DT, and finite rate of increase (λ of the bird cherry-oat aphid on the different cereal crops were estimated. Differences in fertility life table parameters of R. padi among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by Jackknife re-sampling. Results indicated that beer barley might be the most suitable food for R. padi due to greater adult longevity (20.88 d, higher fecundity (41 nymphs female-1, higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.309 females female-1 d-1, lower doubling time (2.24, and lower nymphal mortality (22.2%. Therefore, it can be concluded from the present study that R. padi prefers beer barley for fast and healthy development over other cereal crops.El áfido Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae es una de las principales plagas de numerosos cultivos de la región semiárida pampeana de Argentina. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes cereales incluidos Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L. and Secale cereale L. sobre los parámetros biológicos de R. padi en laboratorio. Se estimaron longevidad, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (R0, tiempo generacional medio (T, tiempo de duplicación (TD, y tasa finita de incremento (λ del pulgón de la avena en diferentes cereales. Las diferencias de

  9. STABILITAS OKSIDATIF MINYAK BIJI KENARI (Canarium indicum DAN Canarium vulgare SELAMA PENYIMPANAN PADA SUHU 30 DAN 40°C [Oxidative Stability of Canarium Nut (Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare Oil during Storage at 30 and 40°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartati Djarkasi1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study the effect of temperature and storage on the oxidative stability of crude and refined canarium nut oil extracted from the seeds of Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare. The experiment was designed to include storage of two type of canarium nut oil at two different temperatures for up to 35 days. The oils (crude and refined used had the similar condition. Parameter used for oxidative deterioration indicators were two peroxide value, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and free fatty acid value. The result showed that refining oil can decrease component natural antioxidant of canarium oil cause more sensitive to the oxidation. Increased storage temperature can raise oxidation of crude and refined oils from both species Canarium. The peroxide values of crude and refined oils both Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored at 30 °C were 2.17, 4.35, 3.36 and 3.77 meq O2/kg oil, respectively. When they were stored at 4C the similar results were 6.21, 19.09, 8.12 and 17.23 meq O2/kg oil. Furthermore, TBARS value of crude and refined oils both for Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored 30C were 4.55, 7.78, 5.70 and 6.58 µmol MDA/kg oil. When they were stored at 40 °C the similar results were 9.99, 55.46, 12.46 and 43.62 µmol MDA/kg oil.

  10. Genetic structure and ecogeographical adaptation in wild barley (Hordeum chilense Roemer et Schultes as revealed by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourdille Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-allelic microsatellite markers have become the markers of choice for the determination of genetic structure in plants. Synteny across cereals has allowed the cross-species and cross-genera transferability of SSR markers, which constitute a valuable and cost-effective tool for the genetic analysis and marker-assisted introgression of wild related species. Hordeum chilense is one of the wild relatives with a high potential for cereal breeding, due to its high crossability (both interspecies and intergenera and polymorphism for adaptation traits. In order to analyze the genetic structure and ecogeographical adaptation of this wild species, it is necessary to increase the number of polymorphic markers currently available for the species. In this work, the possibility of using syntenic wheat SSRs as a new source of markers for this purpose has been explored. Results From the 98 wheat EST-SSR markers tested for transferability and polymorphism in the wild barley genome, 53 primer pairs (54.0% gave cross-species transferability and 20 primer pairs (20.4% showed polymorphism. The latter were used for further analysis in the H. chilense germplasm. The H. chilense-Triticum aestivum addition lines were used to test the chromosomal location of the new polymorphic microsatellite markers. The genetic structure and diversity was investigated in a collection of 94 H. chilense accessions, using a set of 49 SSR markers distributed across the seven chromosomes. Microsatellite markers showed a total of 351 alleles over all loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 27, with a mean of 7.2 alleles per locus and a mean Polymorphic Information Content (PIC of 0.5. Conclusions According to the results, the germplasm can be divided into two groups, with morphological and ecophysiological characteristics being key determinants of the population structure. Geographic and ecological structuring was also revealed in the analyzed

  11. The Possible Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Radiation-Induced Certain Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation

  12. The effect of drought on photosynthetic plasticity in Marrubium vulgare plants growing at low and high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ghader; Ajory, Neda

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is a biological process most affected by water deficit. Plants have various photosynthetic mechanisms that are matched to specific climatic zones. We studied the photosynthetic plasticity of C3 plants at water deficit using ecotypes of Marrubium vulgare L. from high (2,200 m) and low (1,100 m) elevation sites in the Mishou-Dagh Mountains of Iran. Under experimental drought, high-altitude plants showed more tolerance to water stress based on most of the parameters studied as compared to the low-altitude plants. Increased tolerance in high-altitude plants was achieved by lower levels of daytime stomatal conductance (g s) and reduced damaging effect on maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (F v /F m ) coupled with higher levels of carotenoids and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). High-altitude plants exhibited higher water use efficiency (WUE) than that in low-altitude plants depending on the presence of thick leaves and the reduced daytime stomatal conductance. Additionally, we have studied the oscillation in H(+) content and diel gas exchange patterns to determine the occurrence of C3 or weak CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) in M. vulgare through 15 days drought stress. Under water-stressed conditions, low-altitude plants exhibited stomatal conductance and acid fluctuations characteristic of C3 photosynthesis, though high-altitude plants exhibited more pronounced increases in nocturnal acidity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, suggesting photosynthetic flexibility. These results indicated that the regulation of carotenoids, NPQ, stomatal conductance and diel patterns of CO2 exchange presented the larger differences among studied plants at different altitudes and seem to be the protecting mechanisms controlling the photosynthetic performance of M. vulgare plants under drought conditions. PMID:26314352

  13. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Daljit S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  14. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene. PMID:25973508

  15. The cytotoxic effect of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and/or Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerêdo, Geíza Alves de; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO), both singly and in combination at sub-inhibitory concentrations (¼ MIC + ¼ MIC), against Aeromonas hydrophila and to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying these activities. Used singly (OV: 2.5 μL/mL; RO: 20 μL/mL) or in a mixture (OV: 0.625 μL/mL + RO: 5 μL/L), these essential oils led to a significant decrease (pvegetables. PMID:22300224

  16. Uptake and translocation of labelled iodide ion in privet (Ligustrum vulgare L.) as related to its defoliating activity

    OpenAIRE

    S. Marczyński; L. S. Jankiewicz

    2015-01-01

    The 131J- ion applied as KJ solution to lanolin ring on the leaf moved quickly to other parts of the leaf, however, it was transported to the stem and axillary bud in small amount. The 131J- ion from potassium iodide was absorbed very fast by privet (Ligustrum vulgare L.). By 45 min after treatment about half of the applied ion was absorbed. This result was also confirmed In field experiments with non labelled KJ with privet and with Spiraea x bumalda cv. Froebelii during 2 year experiments. ...

  17. EFFECT OF SEAWEED EXTRACT OF SARGASSUM VULGARE ON GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF TWO TOMATOES CULTIVARS (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L UNDER SALT STRESS

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    Elouaer Mohamed Aymen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a major adverse factor that can lower seed germination and seedlings growth, leading to reduced plant growth and ultimately lower crop productivity in arid and semi arid regions of the world. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important crop occupying a large area in both Morocco and Tunisia, where salt stress is the most limiting factor. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the effect of seaweed liquid extract (SWE from Sargassum vulgare at different concentrations on seed germination and seedling growth of two tomatoes cultivars: cv Agatha and cv Nemadore under salt stress.

  18. Characterisation of marrubenol, a diterpene extracted from Marrubium vulgare, as an L-type calcium channel blocker.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bardai, Sanae; Wibo, Maurice; Hamaide, Marie-Christine; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Morel, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of marrubenol, a diterpenoid extracted from Marrubium vulgare. In rat aorta, marrubenol was a more potent inhibitor of the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl (IC50: 11.8+/-0.3 microM, maximum relaxation: 93+/-0.6%) than of the contraction evoked by noradrenaline (maximum relaxation: 30+/-1.5%). 2. In fura-2-loaded aorta, marrubenol simultaneously inhibited the Ca2+ signal and the contraction evoked b...

  19. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC EFFECT OF MARRUBIUM VULGARE AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA EXTRACTS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Fathalla M. Harraz; Salah A. Ghareib; Nagy, Ayman A.; Salah A. Gabr; Suliaman, Mansour I.; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th wee...

  20. Comparative study of the antihypertensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, Sanae; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Wibo, Maurice; Morel, Nicole

    2004-08-01

    Water extract of Marrubium vulgare is widely used as antihypertensive treatment in folk medicine. We have compared the effect of 10-week-long treatment with amlodipine or Marrubium water extract on systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiovascular remodeling and vascular relaxation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both treatments produced similar decrease in SBP. Amlodipine treatment reduced left ventricle, aortic and mesenteric artery weight. Marrubium treatment had a significant antihypertrophic effect in aorta only. Relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) of mesenteric artery was improved by Marrubium but not by amlodipine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in addition to its antihypertensive effect, Marrubium water extract improved the impaired endothelial function in SHR. PMID:15554450

  1. In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Origanum vulgare L. on HCT-116 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Filip Grbović; Stanković, Milan S.; Milena Ćurčić; Nataša Đorđević; Dragana Šeklić; Marina Topuzović; Snežana Marković

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, we examined the cytotoxic effect of methanolic extract from Origanum vulgare on HCT-116 and MDA-MB-231 cell line in vitro. In order to determine the cytotoxic effects we used an MTT viability assay. The results showed that cell growth is significantly lower in extract treated cells compared to untreated control. The effect of inhibition of cell growth was higher in the treatment of HCT-116 cell line than in MDA-MB-231. Based on the results it is determined that O...

  2. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, emociones negativas y apoyo social en pacientes con psoriasis vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Vinaccia, Stefano; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Quiceno, Japcy Margarita; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Martínez, Ángela María; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Arbeláez, Claudia Patricia; Universidad de San Buenaventura

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de la siguiente investigación fue evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y su relación con la ansiedad-depresión y el apoyo social en 55 pacientes con diagnóstico de psoriasis vulgar leve. Para evaluar la calidad de vida se utilizó el Índice de Calidad de Vida en Dermatología; la ansiedad-depresión fue evaluada mediante el cuestionario HAD, y el cuestionario AS se usó para medir apoyo social. En conclusión, se hallaron niveles clínicamente significativos de ansiedad-...

  3. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts. PMID:24825994

  4. Marrubium vulgare extract inhibits human-LDL oxidation and enhances HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Isabelle, Maxim; Cherki, Mounia; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the beneficial properties of aqueous extracts of Marrubium vulgare (AEM) towards cardiovascular disease by protecting human-LDL against lipid peroxidation and promoting HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human-LDL were oxidised by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of increased concentrations of AEM (0-100 microg/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene formation, vitamin E disappearance as well as LDL-electrophoretic mobility. HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux assay was carried out in human THP-1 macrophages. Incubation of LDL with AEM significantly prolonged the lag phase (P=0.014), lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P=0.004), reduced the disappearance of vitamin E and the electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. Also, incubation of HDL with AEM significantly increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages implicating an independent ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) pathways. Our findings suggest that M. vulgare provides a source of natural antioxidants, which inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance reverse cholesterol transport and thus can prevent cardiovascular diseases development. These antioxidant properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL. PMID:17045616

  5. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA pvulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment. PMID:15636168

  6. Acometimento oral no pênfigo vulgar Oral involvement in pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O Pênfigo Vulgar (PV é uma doença vesicobolhosa caracterizada pela presença de auto-anticorpos contra moléculas de adesão intraepidérmicas. OBJETIVO: Identificar as características do PV em cada sexo, formas de apresentação, idade de acometimento, métodos de diagnóstico e tratamento utilizado. FORMA DE ESTUDO: coorte histórica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Pacientes com PV acompanhados no Ambulatório de Otorrinolaringologia do HC-FMUSP entre 1990 e 2001. RESULTADOS: Dos 23 pacientes, 91,3% foram mulheres e 8,7% homens (pPemphigus vulgaris (PV is a bullous disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against intra-epidermal adhesion molecules. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of PV in each gender, forms of clinical presentation, age, diagnosis methods and management. STUDY DESIGN: historical cohort. METHOD: Patients with PV treated in Otolaryngology Department from HC-FMUSP between 1990 and 2001. RESULTS: From 23 patients, 91,3% were women and 8,7% men (p <0,01, proportion of 9:1. The age of diagnosis varied between 26 and 80 years, with average of 53 ± 18,4 years. In males, PV begun 24,6 ± 5,9 years earlier than in females (p=0,026. The most frequently sign in physical examination were bullous lesions in oral mucosa. Biopsy was used in 95% of the cases, direct immunofluorescence in 17,4% and indirect 8,7%. Prednisona was the therapeutic option in 78% of the patients, while deflazacort was used in 22%. Dapsona was associated in 4 cases. We obtained control of the disease in 74% of the cases and loss of the continuation after partial improvement in more 13% of the patients. We observed larger difficulty in disease control in males (p=0,04. CONCLUSIONS: The females prevailed over males. The age of diagnosis was higher in women. The treatment of choice was prednisona. PV was more easily controlled in females.

  7. cDNA Cloning of a Vacuolar H+-Pyrophosphatase and Its Expression in Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link in Response to Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Shi-you; JING Yu-xiang; PANG Xiao-bin; ZHAO Hua-yan; MA Lan-qing; LI Yan-fang

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (V-H+-PPase) was isolated from Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link by using RACE method. Sequence analysis revealed that HbVP1 contained 2 319 nucleotides of open reading frame (ORF) and 420 nucleotides of 3'-untranslated region. Its encoding protein consisted of 773 amino acid residues,which includes 14 transmembrane helices. The predicated molecular mass is 80.4 kDa with pI of 4.90. The V-H+-PPases in higher plants shared low identity (40-55%) with those of protozoa, marine alga and archaebacteria. HbVP1 transcripts accumulated abundantly in roots, shoots and seeds, and it was also strongly induced by salt treatment.

  8. New knowledge for yield, composition and insecticidal activity ofessential oils obtained from the aerial parts or seeds of fennel(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Bednář, Jan; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, may (2016), s. 275-282. ISSN 0926-6690 Grant ostatní: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510160 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : foeniculum vulgare * botanical insecticides * essential oils * medicinal plants * aromatic plants Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.837, year: 2014

  9. Comparison of chemical composition of the essential oil from Marrubium vulgare L. and M. incanum Desr. during the second year of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Zawiślak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Horehound herb (Marrubium vulgare L. is harvested from plantations in Poland. In our country, there are also favorable conditions for M. incanum Desr. growing. The aim of the study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils from M. vulgare L. and M. incanum Desr. in the second year of cultivation. The study revealed the presence of 31 compounds in the essential oil from M. vulgare L. and 24 compounds in the essential oil from M. incanum Desr. Chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds in the essential oil of M. vulgare L. from a two-year plantation were as follows: E-caryophyllene (34.51–36.78%, germacrene D (22.45–27.18%, bicyclogermacrene (9.54–11.12%, δ-amorphene (6.15–8.18%, and carvacrol (4.71–6.64%, whereas the following compounds prevailed in the oil from M. incanum Desr.: germacrene D (28.75–32.14%, E-caryophyllene (23.18–29.57%, α-cadinol (13.59–20.84%, and carvacrol (2.08–7.47%.

  10. The effect of pre-nutrition of hydroalcoholic extractof Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficits in a rat stroke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Foroozandeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stroke is one of the most important factors of mortality and disability in the world. Free radicals are produced following ischemic stroke and they play a central role in breaking the blood-brain barrier and  causing brain edema formation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficit in a rat stroke model. Materials and Methods: In thisexperimental study, 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups.  The first  two groups (control and Sham received distilled water, while three treatment groups received oral Origanum vulgare extract for 30days (50,75and 100 mg/kgdaily, respectively.  Two hours after the last dose of Origanum vulgare extract,each main group underwent  a 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion.  Then, the assessment of blood brain edema, and neurologic deficits analysis were done . Brain edema (brain water content was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA using LSD method and neurologic deficits analysis by means of Mann-Whitney U, and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Origanum vulgare extract reduced brain edema in the experimental groups of 50 (82.49±0.47, 75 (80.89±0.63 and 100 mg/kg/day (80.80±0.66 compared to the control group (84.46±0.67. The neurologic deficit scores in the experimental groups of 75and 100mg/kg/day, compared with control group, but neurologic deficit scores did not affect the group receiving the dose 50 mg/kg. Conclusion:  The obtained data indicate that Origanum vulgar extract via reduction of brain edema and neurologic deficits scorescan have a protective effect on the stroke model.

  11. Dicty_cDB: SFD617 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lgare subsp. vulgare cv.Haruna Nijo cDNA clone:bags18m10, 5' mRNA sequence. 60 5e-05 1 AV924435 |AV924435.1 ...Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare cv.Haruna Nijo cDNA clone:basd14i23, 5' mRNA seque

  12. Origanum vulgar inhaler in the treatment of chronic rhinosinositis, a double blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial

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    K. Rabie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Symptoms of chronic rhinisinositis (CRS are cumbersome and refractory to most systemic medications and even after surgical intervention, the recurrence of symptoms are frequent. In order to study the beneficial effects of Origanum vulgar inhaler in relaxing the symptoms, this study was conducted in Boo Ali Sina Hospital, Sari, Iran.Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial carried out from April to December 2005. The diagnosis of CRS was made by an ENT specialist upon clinical and CT scan findings and or signs during functional endoscopy sinuses surgery (FESS. Patients younger than 15 years old, with a history of allergic eye disease and symptoms of infections were excluded. Patients were randomized in case and control groups (32 in each according to age, sex and disease chronicity. After verbal explanation of the trial, an informed consent form was signed by each patient. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Origanum vulgar was gathered from local mountains (Kojor area, Nour, Mazandaran, Iran, and identified by an experienced botanist. The airial organs of the herb were dried, macerated followed by 75% hydroalcoholic extraction and standardized by Emerson method. The active ingredient and placebo in the same bottles were administered to the patients and they were asked to add 5 ml of the liquid to boiling water and inhale it for 15 minutes, three times a day for two weeks. A telephone contact was made to the patients, to increase the compliance to treatment. A questionnaire was filled in for each patient before and after the intervention by a doctor blind to groups. Chi square test was used for comparing the differences in symptoms and P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Sixty four patients were recruited and allocated equally in case and control groups matched for

  13. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  14. Uptake and translocation of labelled iodide ion in privet (Ligustrum vulgare L.) as related to its defoliating activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 131J- ion applied as KJ solution to lanolin ring on the leaf moved quickly to other parts of the leaf, however, it was transported to the stem and axillary bud in small amount. The 131J- ion from potassium iodide was absorbed very fast by privet (Ligustrum vulgare L.). By 45 min after treatment about half of the applied ion was absorbed. This result was also confirmed in field experiments with non labelled KJ with privet and with SpiraeaXbumalda cv. Froebelii during 2 year experiments. In the conditions of high air humidity (95% r.h.) much more K131J was absorbed than at low air humidity (50% r.h.) at the same temperature (230). Also at a relatively high temperature (230) the uptake was more intensive than at a low temperature (40), at the same air humidity (95% r.h.). (author)

  15. Studies on gamma irradiated medicinal plants and spices (1): Myristica argentea, Myristica fragrans, Coriandrum sativum and Foeniculum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of myristica argentea, myristica fragrans, coriandrum sativum and foeniculum vulgare were stored for 0 and 6 months, with and without gamma irradiation at 5 kGy. No detectable changes were seen in infrared and UV spectra, GLC chromatograms and refraction indeces of steam distilled, essential oils from the irradiated medicinal plants. The same results were also obtained from irradiated samples stored for 6 months at ambient conditions. Storage for 6 months caused significant changes in the gas liquid chromatograms and UV spectra of all samples compared to non-stored samples. The moisture content of all samples packed in polyethylene bags seems to be constant after 6 months of storage. No measurable changes were found in the amount of essential oil content caused by irradiation. (author)

  16. Uptake and translocation of labelled iodide ion in privet (Ligustrum vulgare L. as related to its defoliating activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marczyński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 131J- ion applied as KJ solution to lanolin ring on the leaf moved quickly to other parts of the leaf, however, it was transported to the stem and axillary bud in small amount. The 131J- ion from potassium iodide was absorbed very fast by privet (Ligustrum vulgare L.. By 45 min after treatment about half of the applied ion was absorbed. This result was also confirmed In field experiments with non labelled KJ with privet and with Spiraea x bumalda cv. Froebelii during 2 year experiments. In the conditions of high air humidity (95% r.h. much more K131J was absorbed than at low air humidity (50% r.h. at the same temperature (23°. Also at a relatively high temperature (23° the uptake was more intensive than at a low temperature (4°, at the same air humidity (95% r.h..

  17. Estudio lingüístico de la fitonimia vulgar de las orquídeas en Cuba

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    López Trabanco, Pedro Jesús

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest efforts of modern science has been the symbolic identity and the economy of concepts in the language use at the time of classifying objects. If so, on the one hand, the common names are refused to fulfill the classification objectives. But, on the other hand, the symbolic meanings and functions which are rooted to the popular speech will be thrown over. Names are keys of a sign system or of a determined cosmovision. Thus the study object of this paper is the common orchid names taking into account mainly the naming sources and motivation in order to verify and establish criteria that solve the problem of this part of the Spanish in Cuba.

    Uno de los grandes esfuerzos de la ciencia moderna ha sido la identidad simbólica y la economía de conceptos en el uso del lenguaje a la hora de clasificar los objetos. Si bien, por un lado, el desechar los nombres vulgares cumple el objetivo de clasificación, por el otro, se tiran por la borda los contenidos simbólicos y funciones que estos nombres tienen enraizados en el habla popular. Los nombres son claves de un sistema simbólico o de una cosmovisión determinada. Este trabajo tiene como objeto de estudio los nombres vulgares de las orquídeas fundamentalmente a partir de las fuentes de nominación y la motivación para verificar y establecer criterios que resuelvan la problemática de esta parcela del español en Cuba.

  18. Control of Aspergillus flavus Growth in Tomato Paste by Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils

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    F Kalantary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in culture media and tomato paste. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. Trans- cinnamaldehyde was found to be the main constituent of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO, followed by methyl eugenol, δ- cadinene and γ- cadinene. The major components of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO were limonene, caryophyllene oxide, α-ionone, germacrene– D, γ- terpinene, β- pinene and terpinene-4-ol. For evaluating antifungal activities of CZEO and OVEO, A. flavus PTCC: 5006, was inoculated in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth (SDB and tomato paste, then 0, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm of essential oils were added to each sample and incubated at 25±0.5oC for 30 and 60 days, respectively. The antifungal activity was measured by Agar Dilution method. The EOs at all tested concentrations had inhibitory effect against A. flavus growth. 200 ppm of CZEO and 500 ppm of OVEO completely inhibited A. flavus growth in culture media, while in tomato paste 300 ppm of CZEO and 200 ppm of OVEO had the same effect. Test panel evaluations were carried out in tomato ketchup base and samples with 100 and 200 ppm CZEO were accepted by panelists. The results may suggest the potential replacement of antifungal chemicals by CZEO as natural inhibitor to control A. flavus growth in tomato paste.

  19. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Three Chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link Ietswaart Growing Wild in Campania (Southern Italy

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    Felice Senatore

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained from inflorescences of three Origanum vulgare L.ssp. hirtum (Link Ietswaart samples, growing wild in different locations in Campania (Southern Italy, were analysed. Three chemotypes were found: the first, with a prevalence of carvacrol/thymol; the second, characterized by the prevalence of thymol/α-terpineol; the third, featuring a prevalence of linalyl acetate and linalool. This chemical study attempts to provide a contribution in shedding light on the relationship between chemical composition and biotypes and/or chemotypes in Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. The essential oils were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future view to use the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  20. Tests phytochimiques et l'effet d'extrait hydroalcoolique brut de Marrubium vulgare sur l'activité de l'a-amylase

    OpenAIRE

    NADJARI, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Ce travail porte sur la recherche, in vitro, de l'effet inhibiteur d'enzyme a-amylase par différentes concentrations d'extrait brut hydoalcoolique, préparé par décoction, de la partie aérienne du Marrube blanc (Marrubium vulgare), plante utilisée dans le traitement de diabète sucré. Le travail est initié par une extraction sélective à partir de la partie aérienne du Marrubium vulgare. L'analyse phytochimique a révélé la présence d'alcaloïdes, de coumarines, de sucres rédu...

  1. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

    OpenAIRE

    P.S.R Lucca; L. H. P. NÓBREGA; Alves, L. F. A.; C. T. A. CRUZ-SILVA; F. P. PACHECO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L.) to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.). T...

  2. Genetic, chemical and agro-morphological evaluation of the medicinal plant Origanum vulgare L. for marker assisted improvement of pharmaceutical quality

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Most of commercially used medicinal and aromatic plant species are collected from the wild flora. By bringing medicinal herbs into cultivation, conventional and biotechnological plant breeding techniques can be applied to improve herbage yield and plant uniformity as well as pharmaceutical properties. Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) is a perennial aromatic herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae used as medicinal plant because of the essential oil produced in the aerial parts. The present stu...

  3. Chemical Composition and Acaricidal Effects of Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiales: Apiaceae) and Lavandula angustifolia Miller (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Asgar Ebadollahi; Jalal Jalali Sendi; Alireza Aliakbar; Jabraeil Razmjou

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of synthetic acaricides causes negative side-effects on nontarget organisms and environment and most of the mite species such as two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are becoming resistant to these chemicals. In the present study, essential oils of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., and lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, were hydrodistilled using Clevenger apparatus and chemical composition of these oils was analyzed by GC-MS. Anethole (46.73%), limonene (13.65%...

  4. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    OpenAIRE

    Arora Daljit S; Kaur Gurinder J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory conc...

  5. Marrubium vulgare L. methanolic extract inhibits inflammatory response and prevents cardiomyocyte fibrosis in isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Keyvan Yousefi; Fatemeh Fathiazad; Hamid Soraya; Maryam Rameshrad; Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji; Alireza Garjani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, finding new therapeutic compounds from natural products for treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular disorders is getting a great deal of attention. This approach would result in finding new drugs which are more effective and have fewer side effects than the conventional medicines. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare, a popular traditional m...

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of hydromethanolic extract from Marrubium vulgare Lamiaceae on leukocytes oxidative metabolism: An in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El Abbouyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marrubium vulgare Lamiaceae, known as white horehound, is frequently used in folk medicine to treat many illnesses from ancient times. Aims: The present study is conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanolic extract of the aerial part of M. vulgare. Materials and Methods: The oxygen consumption and the production of superoxide anions, by rat pleural polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by opsonized zymosan, were performed. PMNs were collected after induction of an acute inflammatory reaction by injection, in the rat pleural cavity, of suspension of calcium pyrophosphate crystals. Plant extract was tested at a concentration range 10-100 mg/ml and 100-400 mg/kg/day for in vitro and in vivo assays respectively. Statistical analysis: All values are expressed as mean ΁ standard error. The significance of differences between control and treated samples in vitro was analysed using the Student′s t-test. For in vivo studies, data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Differences with P ≤ 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: Hydromethanolic extract of M. vulgare showed, in vitro a significant anti-inflammatory effect in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, only the high amounts of the plant extract (300 and 400 mg/kg/day exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory effect. The plant extract contains a high amount of polyphenols. Conclusion: Hydromethanolic extract of M. vulgare had an anti-inflammatory effect, which corroborates the usefulness of this plant in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  7. A comparative study on plant morphology, gas exchange parameters, and antioxidant response of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. grown on industrially polluted soil

    OpenAIRE

    STANCHEVA, Ira; GENEVA, Maria; MARKOVSKA, Yuliana; TZVETKOVA, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Cd, Pb, and Zn uptake on plant morphology, photosynthetic parameters, antioxidant potential, and essential oil yield and quality in Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. plants were evaluated. The plants were grown as a pot experiment in soil heavily polluted with Cd and Pb and on unpolluted soil. Both plants accumulated Cd, mainly in the roots, while Pb occurred in the oregano shoots only. The leaf blade thickness of both plants increased when grown in polluted soil. Bas...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditi...

  9. Evaluation of Origanum vulgare essential oil as antimicrobial agent in sausage Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare em linguiça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Busatta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and the time course of the product was evaluated with respect to the action of the different concentrations of essential oil. Sensory analysis were conducted, and results showed that the addition of oregano essential oil to sausage may be a promising route as bacteriostatic effect was verified for oil concentrations lower than the MIC.O presente trabalho reporta resultados referentes à testes de atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de orégano (Origanum vulgare contra várias bactérias em lingüiça. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada para 9 bactérias aeróbicas heterotróficas. Com base no maior valor encontrado da CIM, testou-se a atividade antimicrobiana para distintas concentrações do óleo essencial in lingüiça fresca. Amostras do sistema alimentar escolhido foram inoculadas com Escherichia coli numa determinada concentração e a evolução temporal do produto concernente ao crescimento microbiano foi monitorada avaliando-se o efeito das diferentes concentrações de óleos essencial aplicadas ao produto inoculado. Os resultados das análises microbiológica e sensorial mostraram que a adição do óleo essencial de orégano a linguiça fresca coloca-se como promissora tendo em vista os efeitos bacteriostáticos observados em baixas concentrações do óleo essencial, inferiores a CIM.

  10. Effect of different doses of post-emergence-applied iodosulfuron on weed control and grain yield of malt barley (Hordeum distichum L., under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros José Calado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out over a two year period (2009/2010 and 2012/2013 on an experimental farm in the Alentejo region (Beja, in southern Portugal where rainfed malt barley (Hordeum distichum L. is sown at the end of autumn or beginning of winter (November- December. The aim of this experiment was to study the efficiency of the herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium to control post-emergence broadleaved weeds in this cereal crop. The malt barley crop was established using no-till farming. This technology provides the necessary machine bearing capacity of the soil to assure the post-emergence application of herbicides at two different weed development stages. The herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied at three doses (5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 g a. i. · ha-1 and at two different broadleaved weed development stages (3 to 4 and 6 to 7 pairs of leaves, that also corresponded to two different crop development stages (beginning of tillering and complete tillering. The results indicated that early herbicide application timing provided a significantly higher efficiency for all the applied herbicide doses, but this better weed control was not reflected in a higher crop grain yield. The lack of a higher crop grain yield was probably due to a crop phytotoxicity of the herbicide, when used at an early application timing.

  11. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Tibetan Hulless Barley Germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.var.nudum HK.f.) by SSR Primers%利用SSR引物分析西藏青稞种质资源的遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾兴权; 王玉林; 徐齐君; 原红军; 扎西罗布; 尼玛扎西

    2013-01-01

    为了评价西藏青稞种质资源的遗传多样性,用260对SSR引物对来自青藏高原主要农区的75份青稞育成品种、17份野生大麦、39份青稞地方品种和44份国外大麦材料的遗传多样性进行了分析.结果表明,从260对SSR引物中筛选出23对多态性高的引物,占筛选引物的8.1%.23对SSR引物在西藏野生大麦中共扩增出稳定、清晰的条带92条,多态性条带为81条,其比例为88.04%;在西藏青稞地方品种中共扩增出稳定、清晰的条带89条,多态性条带为78条,其比例为87.6%;在青稞育成品种中共扩增出稳定、清晰的条带109条,多态性条带98条,其比例为89.9%;在引进材料中共扩增出稳定、清晰的条带64条,多态性条带53条,其比例为82.8%.遗传多样性分析结果为青稞育成品种(0.9882)>西藏野生大麦(0.8033)>西藏青稞地方品种(0.5820)>国外大麦材料(0.4218).聚类与主坐标分析表明,实验材料可以清楚的分为4类,西藏野生大麦分在两个类群,西藏青稞地方品种分在两个类群,引进大麦材料分在一个类群,青稞育成品种分在四个类群.同一来源地区的青稞育成品种遗传基础较为狭窄,不同地区间的青稞育成品种遗传差异较大.以上结果说明,在西藏青稞新品种选育和遗传改良中,在发掘和利用西藏野生大麦资源、西藏青稞地方品种资源的同时,更应该加强不同地区青稞育成品种资源的交换和配合使用.

  12. Genetic Diversity and Geographical Differentiation of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet Using Microsatellite Markers%应用微卫星标记研究西藏野生二棱大麦的遗传多样性及地理分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宗云; 张义正

    2003-01-01

    用来自大麦7个连锁群不同位置的35个SSR标记研究了西藏不同地区的50份野生二棱大麦(H. spontaneum)的遗传多样性及地理分化.结果表明:SSR的多态性高,其多态性DNA片段比例达97.44%;每个SSR位点检测到1~14个等位变异(4.04个/位点);西藏山南地区的遗传多样性和等位变异数最高,分别为0.4933和3.35.变异的1.08%~37.54%(平均为13.09%)是由于地区的差异引起,表现出一定程度的地理分化.最后,讨论了SSR引物的选择及SSR标记的可靠性和西藏野生大麦的起源问题.推测西藏山南地区可能是西藏野生二棱大麦的起源中心,也是西藏野生大麦和中国栽培大麦的起源中心.

  13. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Mithun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.

  14. Antifungal Activity of Some Constituents of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil Against Postharvest Disease of Peach Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Hazem S; Mancini, Emilia; Sakr, Shimaa; De Martino, Laura; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; De Feo, Vincenzo; Camele, Ippolito

    2015-08-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) can potentially replace synthetic fungicides in the management of postharvest fruit and vegetable diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of thymol, carvacrol, linalool, and trans-caryophyllene, single constituents of the EO of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum against Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola, which are important phytopathogens and causal agents of brown rot of pome and stone fruits in pre- and postharvest. Moreover, the possible phytotoxic activity of these constituents was assessed and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. In vitro experiment indicated that thymol and carvacrol possess the highest antifungal activity. Results of in vivo trials confirmed the strong efficacy of thymol and carvacrol against brown rot of peach fruits. The thymol MIC resulted to be 0.16 μg/μL against M. laxa and M. fructigena and 0.12 μg/μL against M. fructicola, whereas for carvacrol they were 0.02 μg/μL against the first two Monilinia species and 0.03 μg/μL against the third. Results of this study indicated that thymol and carvacrol could be used after suitable formulation for controlling postharvest fruit diseases caused by the three studied Monilinia species. PMID:25599273

  15. Combination of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and lactic acid to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus in meat broth and meat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson C. de Barros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC index and cell viability in meat broth and meat model. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of the oil was 0.6 and 1.25 µL.mL-1, respectively. Lactic acid showed MIC and MBC of 2.5 and 5µL.mL-1, respectively. FIC indices of the combined application of the oil and lactic acid were 0.5 showing a synergic interaction. The essential oil and lactic acid showed similar (p>0.05 anti-S. aureus effect in meat broth over 96 h of exposure. Treatment with essential oil or lactic acid presented a smaller anti-staphylococcal effect in meat in comparison to meat broth. No significant difference (p>0.05 was found for the microbial counts in meat treated with each antimicrobial alone or in mixture. These results could arise as an interesting approach for the improvement of food preservation using more natural procedures, considering the current demand of consumer and sensory quality of foods.

  16. Characterisation of marrubenol, a diterpene extracted from Marrubium vulgare, as an L-type calcium channel blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bardai, Sanae; Wibo, Maurice; Hamaide, Marie-Christine; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Morel, Nicole

    2003-12-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of marrubenol, a diterpenoid extracted from Marrubium vulgare. In rat aorta, marrubenol was a more potent inhibitor of the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl (IC50: 11.8+/-0.3 microM, maximum relaxation: 93+/-0.6%) than of the contraction evoked by noradrenaline (maximum relaxation: 30+/-1.5%). 2. In fura-2-loaded aorta, marrubenol simultaneously inhibited the Ca2+ signal and the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl, and decreased the quenching rate of fura-2 fluorescence by Mn2+. 3. Patch-clamp data obtained in aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) indicated that marrubenol inhibited Ba2+ inward current in a voltage-dependent manner (KD: 8+/-2 and 40+/-6 microM at holding potentials of -50 and -100 mV, respectively). 4. These results showed that marrubenol inhibits smooth muscle contraction by blocking L-type calcium channels. PMID:14597602

  17. Combination Studies of Oreganum Vulgare Extract Fractions and Volatile Oil along with Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole against Common Fish Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Singh Dhuhan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study is aimed at finding new antibiotic therapy for aquaculture due to potential of bacteria to develop resistance to the existing therapies. Use of large quantities of synthetic antibiotics in aquaculture thus has the potential to be detrimental to fish health, to the environment and wildlife and to human health. Methods: Antimicrobial potential of volatile oil and fractions of chloroform extract of Oreganum vulgare was evaluated alone and in the presence of standard antimicrobials against common fish pathogens by disc-diffusion, agar well assay and two fold microdilution method by nanodrop spectrophotometric method. Results: The best results were represented by volatile oil followed by phenolic fraction by disc-diffusion, agar well and microdilution assays (Minimum inhibitory concentration. By the interaction studies, it was observed that the volatile oil and phenolic fraction were able to inhibit the pathogens at very low concentration compared to standard drugs. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI was calculated and volatile oil and phenolic fractions were found to be synergistic against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. Conclusion: The experimental data suggests the use of volatile oil and phenolic fraction in combination with standard antimicrobials to maintain healthy aquaculture with lesser adverse effects as compared to synthetic antibiotic therapy.

  18. Effects of Phosphorus Nutrient on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) Seedling Roots Under Water Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-Ping SHANGGUAN; Ting-Wu LEI; Ming-An SHAO; Qing-Wu XUE

    2005-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted in a growth chamber and changes in the hydraulic conductivity of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) roots (Lpr) at the three-leaf stage were measured using the pressure chamber method. Water deficiency was imposed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and the phosphorus (P) levels were controlled by complete Hoagland solution with and without P nutrient. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of P nutrition on root Lpr under water deficiency. The results showed that the Lpr in P deficiency treatments decreased markedly, but the Lpr recovered to the same value as that of control when sufficient P was supplied for 4-24 h. Water deficiency decreased Lpr, but the hydraulic conductivity of the roots with sufficient P supply was still higher than that of plants without P supply. When resuming water supply, the Lpr of the water-deficient plants under P supply recovered faster than that of plants without P supply, which indicates that plants with sufficient P nutrient are more drought tolerant and have a greater ability to recover after drought. The treatment of HgCl2 indicated that P nutrient could regulate the Lpr by affecting the activity and the expression levels of aquaporins.

  19. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective. PMID:27455176

  20. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Karine M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT, measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2 in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1 during the placebo treatment (p Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00872430

  1. Chromosomal characterization of the three subgenomes in the polyploids of Hordeum murinum L.: new insight into the evolution of this complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Cuadrado

    Full Text Available Hordeum murinum L. is a species complex composed of related taxa, including the subspecies glaucum, murinum and leporinum. However, the phylogenetic relationships between the different taxa and their cytotypes, and the origin of the polyploid forms, remain points of controversy. The present work reports a comparative karyotype analysis of seven accessions of the H. murinum complex representing all subspecies and cytotypes. The karyotypes were determined by examining the distribution of the repetitive Triticeae DNA sequences pTa71, pTa794, pSc119.2, pAs1 and pHch950, the simple sequence repeats (SSRs (AG10, (AAC5, (AAG5, (ACT5, (ATC5, and (CCCTAAA3 via in situ hybridization. The chromosomes of the three subgenomes involved in the polyploids were identified. All tetraploids of all subspecies shared the same two subgenomes (thus suggesting them to in fact belong to the same taxon, the result of hybridization between two diploid ancestors. One of the subgenomes present in all tetraploids of all subspecies was found to be very similar (though not identical to the chromosome complement of the diploid glaucum. The hexaploid form of leporinum came about through a cross between a tetraploid and a third diploid form. Exclusively bivalent associations among homologous chromosomes were observed when analyzing pollen mother cells of tetraploid taxa. In conclusion, the present results identify all the individual chromosomes within the H. murinum complex, reveal its genome structure and phylogeny, and explain the appearance of the different cytotypes. Three cryptic species are proposed according to ploidy level that may deserve full taxonomic recognition.

  2. Raising the level of radioresistance of cultivated plants seeds by using natural antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations showed possibility of raising radioresistance and viability (Liupinus angustifolius, Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum) seeds by using natural antioxidant (aqueous solution of extraction of Urtica Dioica) which inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein protection

  3. Gibberellic Acid-Induced Aleurone Layers Responding to Heat Shock or Tunicamycin Provide Insight into the N-Glycoproteome, Protein Secretion, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Hägglund, Per;

    2014-01-01

    The growing relevance of plants for the production of recombinant proteins makes understanding the secretory machinery, including the identification of glycosylation sites in secreted proteins, an important goal of plant proteomics. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone layers maintained in vitro res...

  4. Application of low doses of ionizing radiation in the Brazilian fruit tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.); Aplicacao de baixas doses de radiacao ionizante no fruto brasileiro tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Araujo, Leandro Moreira, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.b, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gody, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; Pacheco, Sidney, E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.b, E-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos (CTAA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.) is a native fruit of Amazonia, occurring mainly in the state of Para, but also found in the Brazilian northeast states and in the Brazilian central-western states. The tucuma is considered an excellent source of carotenoids with a very high concentration of {beta}-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A. In addition to carotenoids it is an important source of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in fruits. This study aimed to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on the nutritional value of tucuma. The fruits were irradiated at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy irradiator with a source of cesium 137. The carotenoids were determined by spectrophotometry. The analysis of {alpha} and {beta}-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The {beta}-carotene accounts for 80% of total carotenoids in tucuma, and with a dose of 2 kGy, it showed the highest reduction of {beta}-carotene, about 7.5% in relation to the control. The tucuma fruit showed high levels of riboflavin from 0.183 to 0.222 {mu}g 100 g{sup -1}, and maintained stability after the gamma radiation process. However, it had low levels of thiamine from 0.050 to 0.033 {mu}g 100 g{sup -1}, and irradiated at a dose of 2 kGy showed significant reductions of thiamine, about 34% in relation to the control. (author)

  5. Treatment of experimental pythiosis with essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita singly, in association and in combination with immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Anelise O S; Pereira, Daniela I B; Botton, Sônia A; Pötter, Luciana; Sallis, Elisa S V; Júnior, Sérgio F V; Filho, Fernando S M; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Maroneze, Beatriz P; Valente, Julia S S; Baptista, Cristiane T; Braga, Caroline Q; Ben, Vanessa Dal; Meireles, Mario C A

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the in vivo antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita both singly, associated and in combination with immunotherapy to treat experimental pythiosis. The disease was reproduced in 18 rabbits divided into six groups (n=3): group 1, control; group 2, treated with essential oil of Mentha piperita; group 3, treated with essential oil of Origanum vulgare; group 4, treated with commercial immunotherapic; group 5, treated with a association of oils of M. piperita and O. vulgare and group 6, treated with a combination of both oils plus immunotherapy. Essential oils were added in a topical cream base formula, and lesions were treated daily for 45 days. The animals in groups 4 and 6 received a dose of immunotherapeutic agent every 14 days. The results revealed that the evolution of lesions in groups 5 and 6 did not differ from one another but differed from the other groups. The lesions of group 5 increased 3.16 times every measurement, while those of group 6 increased 1.83 times, indicating that the smallest growth of the lesions occurred when the combination of therapies were used. A rabbit from group 5 showed clinical cure at day 20 of treatment. This research is the pioneer in the treatment of experimental pythiosis using essential oils from medicinal plants and a combination of therapies. This study demonstrated that the use of essential oils can be a viable alternative treatment to cutaneous pythiosis, particularly when used in association or combination with immunotherapy. PMID:26036789

  6. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko [Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Faculty of Life and Environment, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Neffati, Mohamed [Arid Zone Research Institute (IRA), Médenine 4119 (Tunisia); Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro [Nippon Shinyaku CO., LTD., Kyoto 601-8550 (Japan); Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nagao, Masaya, E-mail: mnagao@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  7. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. PMID:26850541

  8. The Effects of Some Pesticides on Spore Germination and Gametophyte Differentiation in Athyrium filix-femina (L. Roth. and Polypodium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina SOARE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a fungicide (copper hydroxide with 50% metallic copper (Co and of an insecticide (bifenthrin 100 g/l (B on spore germination and gametophyte development in the fern species Athyrium filix-femina (L. Schott. and Polypodium vulgare L. The experimental variants were: V1Co: 0.1 gr fungicide/100 ml Knop solution, V2Co: 0.2 gr fungicide/100 ml Knop solution, V3Co: 3 gr fungicide/100 ml Knop solution, V1B: 0.01 ml insecticide/100 ml Knop solution, V2B: 0.02 ml insecticide/100 ml Knop solution, V3B: 0.04 ml insecticide/100 ml Knop solution and Control (C: 100 ml Knop solution. Co inhibited spore germination in all the experimental variants tested on the species Athyrium filix-femina. In the V3Co variant, after 24 days, no spore germinated. B also inhibited spore germination in all the experimental variants. In Polypodium vulgare, Co significantly inhibited spore germination. In the experimental variants containing B, only in the V3B variant the germination is significantly inhibited. Calculations showed a significant negative correlation between the germination percentage and the concentration of pesticides. The fungicide also affected gametophyte differentiation, which happened much more slowly in both species. The rhizoids of the gametophytes of Polypodium vulgare showed modifications in their differentiation and morphology that could also be related to alterations in their biochemical composition. The experimental variants with the highest concentration of insecticide resulted in the differentiation of abnormal gametophytes growing in a tridimensional cellular mass with callus morphology. The responses of plants to the induced stress produced during the testing period may be used as biomarkers of environmental pollution caused by pesticides.

  9. Effect of aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare and Melilotus officinalis onproduction of nitric oxide (NO in cultured vascular endothelial cells (mouse endothelioma F-2 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ansari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: During recent years, nitric oxide (NO has been considered as a molecule involved in migraine headaches. This free radical involves in initiation of migraine headaches via NO/cGMP signaling pathway and vascular relaxation specially big intracranial arteries. Therefore, we studied the effects of aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare and Melilotus officinalis prescribed in migraine treatment in traditional & modern medicine, on NO level in cultured endothelial cells.Materials and Methods: Each crude herb (25g was mixed with 200 ml distilled water. End extract obtained after filtering and drying. Endothelial cells propagated in DMEM medium containing 10% FCS and 1-2% penicillin-streptomycin. The nitrite concentration was measured as an indicator of nitric oxide production according to the Griess reaction and with ELISA in 540 nm.Results: Concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 g/ml of Origanum vulgare, reduced NO levels compared with control to 13.1 % (p<0.05, 25.8% (p<0.01 and 33.9% (p<0.001 respectively. However, despite our expectation melilotus officinalis increased NO level. The concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 g/ml of the herb, increased NO levels to 12.7 (p<0.05, 36.5% (p<0.001 & 72.9% (p<0.001 respectively.Conclusion: We concluded that aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare probably decreases migraine headaches by reducing NO and aqueous extract of Melilotus officinalis does not act through this mechanism.

  10. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists

  11. Importance of diet in the growth, survivorship and reproduction of the no-tillage pest Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda Importancia de la dieta en el crecimiento, la supervivencia y la reproducción de Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda plaga en siembra directa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIEL J FABERI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Armadillidium vulgare as pest are virtually null worldwide. However under no-tillage systems this species has found an adequate environment for its development and it has become an important pest in some crops in Argentina. It has been shown that the composition of vegetables affects the isopods biology. Our hypothesis was that soybean leaf litter has high nutritive value which allows A. vulgare to grow faster, survive longer, and have higher fecundity favoring the population increase and turning it into a crop pest. Growth and survivorship of juveniles and adults, egg incubation period, offspring number per female and offspring mean body weight were determined in individuals fed with leaf litter of soybean, sunflower, wheat and pasture. The growth rate coefficient, k, in juveniles was higher for soybean, intermediate for pasture and lower for sunflower. Adult growth was faster under the soybean diet. Survivorship under soybean and pasture was longer than under sunflower and wheat in both juveniles and adults. The reproductive parameters were similar in all diets, food did not generate any change in the reproductive aspects of A. vulgare. Results of the present study represent a source of information about the A. vulgare biology under different diets of agricultural origin to establish the basis for Integrated Management of this species as pest. Under soybean litter provision A. vulgare found the best conditions for faster growth, longer survival and relatively higher fecundity. In fields with soybean as preceding crop or in systems with high frequency of soybean in the crop rotation a more abundant population of A. vulgare would be found as well as with larger individuals which could cause more damage to the following crop in the rotation.Los estudios sobre Armadillidium vulgare como plaga son virtualmente nulos a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, en los sistemas bajo siembra directa esta especie ha encontrado un ambiente adecuado para

  12. Main: 1LQ2 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1LQ2 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. Beta-D-Glucan Exohydrolase Isoenzyme Exoi. Hordeum Vulgare M ... hydrolase Isoenzyme Exo1) M.Hrmova, R.De Gori, B.J.Smith , A.Vasella, J.N.Varghese, G.B.Fincher M.Hrmova, R. ... De Gori, B.J.Smith , A.Vasella, J.N.Varghese, G.B.Fincher Three-Dimens ...

  13. Main: 1IEW [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1IEW 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. Beta-D-Glucan Exohydrolase Isoenzyme Exoi. Hordeum Vulgare M ... oenzyme Exo1) M.Hrmova, R.Degori, G.B.Fincher, B.J.Smith , J.N.Varghese M.Hrmova, J.N.Varghese, R.Degori, B. ... J.Smith , H.Driguez, G.B.Fincher Catalytic Mechanisms And R ...

  14. Evaluación de la calidad funcional y sensorial en cultivares de Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare y ssp. spelta en cultivo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Kostiuk, María Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha estudiado la influencia del cultivar sobre el comportamiento reológico y panadero de cinco cultivares de trigo sembrados en el mismo año y en el mismo ambiente, en condiciones de cultivo ecológico. Tres de ellos eran de trigo panadero (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), ‘Bonpain’, ‘Craklin’ y ‘Sensas’ y los otros dos de trigo espelta (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta), ‘Espelta Álava’ y ‘Espelta Navarra’. Actualmente, el alohexaploide trigo panadero (2n=6x=42 genomio A...

  15. Estudio de las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos sobre Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae y Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae en la región central de Santa Fe, Argentina Study of the associations of aphids-entomophagous in Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae and Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae in the central region of Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina G. Manfrino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos en Foeniculum vulgare (Miller y Conyza bonariensis L, a fin de implementar el Control Biológico Conservativo (CBC en agroecosistemas de la región central de la provincia de Santa Fe. Se realizaron estudios, a campo, de la entomofauna presente mediante la observación directa de las plantas; las mismas se llevaron a cabo con una frecuencia semanal. En invernáculo, se procedió a la identificación de las especies cuando esta no fue posible a campo. La especie de áfido encontrada fue Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Homoptera: Aphididae, colonizando a F. vulgare y se destacó Uroleucon (Lambersius sp. (Homoptera: Aphididae enC. bonariensis. Entre los enemigos naturales, se destacaron los parasitoides y depredadores en F. vulgare y C. bonariensis, respectivamente. Para el estudio de las relaciones áfidos - enemigos naturales, se calcularon los coeficientes de correlación; los valores indicaron una relación entre H. foeniculi y Diaretiella rapae (M'Intosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae (0,63 y entre Uroleucon (Lambersius sp. y coccinélidos (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae (0,43. Las especies vegetales estudiadas son muy importantes para mantener los distintos grupos de entomófagos en los agroecosistemas y su utilización en programas de CBC de pulgones plaga es posible, contribuyendo así a reducir las aplicaciones de insecticidas en cultivos.The objective of this work was to study the aphids-entomophagous associations in Foeniculum vulgare (Miller and Conyza bonariensis L. in order to implement Conservative Biological Control (CBC in agroecosystems of the central region of Santa Fe Province. Direct observation on plants was conducted on a weekly basis, from February to May 2008. The identification of species was carried out in the greenhouse when it was not possible to do it in the field. The aphid species identified on F. vulgare was Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini

  16. Main: 1AMY [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AMY 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. Alpha-Amylase Type B Isozyme Precursor Name=Amy1.2; Hordeum ... ; X-ray; @=25-427.|InterPro; IPR006047; Alpha_amyl_cat .|InterPro; IPR006589; Alp_amyl_cat _sub.|InterPro; ...

  17. On the Brand Culture and the Vulgarity of the Era%谈品牌文化与时代恶俗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小波; 王大慧

    2011-01-01

    Brand culture and contemporary social culture are closely related. In this consuming society, the vulgarity becomes the Era Malady. Some brand cultures add fuel to the flame by emphasizing fashion, wealth, comparison excessively, or using some vulgar form of publicity. Thus the adverse social impact is caused, and the brand culture is facing the severe test of dissemination and the identity in the cultural reform.%品牌文化与当代社会文化有密切的关系,在快速消费的商品经济时代,恶俗成为时代诟病。某些品牌推波助澜,过度宣扬时尚、财富、攀比等强调物质的恶俗文化,或者以完全不讲创意的恶俗形式宣传,造成不良社会影响,这使得品牌文化的传播与认同在文化体制改革中面临考验。

  18. Improved method for extraction and LC-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in honey: application to Echium vulgare honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betteridge, Keith; Cao, Yu; Colegate, Steven M

    2005-03-23

    A method for analyzing honey samples was developed that enabled the simultaneous detection and identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides. Honey samples were treated with methanol or dilute sulfuric acid and then centrifuged to remove insoluble material. Subsequent strong cation exchange, solid-phase extraction of the supernatant provided a fraction that was analyzed for the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The procedure was validated using extracts of Echium plantagineum and authenticated standards of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides from other plant sources. Of several variations of the solid-phase extraction method assessed in this study, the best combination for generic use involved the dilution of honey with 0.05 M sulfuric acid and the subsequent application of the centrifuged solution to solid-phase extraction columns at the rate of a maximum of 10 g of honey per solid-phase extraction column. The method was applied to the analysis of nine floral honeys, five of which were attributed by the apiarist to Echium vulgare. Seven of the honey samples were positive for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and N-oxides characteristic of E. vulgare. PMID:15769110

  19. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists. PMID:24025677

  20. La boda de penalty: el romance de Los primos romeros o la resolución poética de un conflicto vulgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltanás, Enrique

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Although superficially the romance of Los primos romeros could be interpreted since a surrealist, anticlerical and incestuous perspective, here it is offered a lecture coherent with most of the romancistic oral texts: a conflict so familiar and vulgar as the "wedding by penalty", viewed since a poetic and inclosed indulgent perspective. For the purpose of this romance, theoretical questions as the role of the transmitter ¿author or reader? and the nature of oral texts are examined at once.Aunque a simple vista el romance de Los primos romeros pueda entenderse desde una perspectiva surrealista, anticlerical o incestuosa, aquí se propone una lectura coherente con la mayoría de los textos romancísticos orales modernos: un conflicto tan familiar y vulgar como la "boda de penalty", visto desde una perspectiva poética e incluso indulgente. Al mismo tiempo, y a propósito de este romance, se dilucidan algunas cuestiones teóricas como el papel del transmisor (¿autor o lector? y la propia naturaleza del texto oral.

  1. Effects of the exotic Crustacean, .i.Armadillidium vulgare./i. (Isopoda), and other macrofauna on organic matter dynamics in soil microcosms in a hardwood forest in central Florida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Lobinske, R.J.; Kalčík, Jiří; Ali, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2008), s. 328-331. ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Armadillidium vulgare * organic matter dynamics * hardwood forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2008

  2. Reemplazo de la Cama de Broiler por Granos de Cereales y Leguminosas en Raciones de Engorda Invernal de Novillos Replacement of Broiler Litter by Vereal and Legume Grains in Winter Steer Finishing Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rojas G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA ubicado en Temuco, se realizó un estudio durante 86 días de la temporada invernal de 2003, para lo cual se utilizaron 35 novillos Overo Colorado, de 19 a 20 meses de edad y 367 kg de peso vivo inicial, con el objetivo de evaluar el reemplazo de la cama de broiler por fuentes proteicas vegetales en raciones de engorda de novillos. Los tratamientos correspondieron a: T1: ensilaje pradera, cama de broiler y grano de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L. molido; T2: ensilaje pradera, granos de avena (Avena sativa L. y de cebada molidos; T3: ensilaje pradera, grano de lupino (Lupinus albus L. entero y avena entera; T4: ensilaje pradera, grano de avena molido y urea; y T5: ensilaje pradera, grano de cebada molido y urea. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completos al azar, con siete repeticiones, usando el factor bloque para peso. Los resultados indicaron ganancias diarias de peso vivo (PV (kg d-1 de 1,0 bc; 0,916 cd; 0,825 d; 1,05 ab y 1,141 a (P ≤ 0,05, para los tratamientos 1 al 5, respectivamente. Los consumos diarios de materia seca (kg d-1 correspondieron a 8,7; 7,2; 7,3; 8,0 y 7,9; la conversión de alimentos (kg alimento kg-1 de incremento de PV-1 fue 8,7; 7,9; 8,8; 7,6 y 6,9 y los costos de las raciones ($ kg-1 PV-1 fueron de 533; 575; 545; 434 y 522 para cada uno de los tratamientos, respectivamente. Se concluyó que la ración con ensilaje de pradera más avena molida y urea y la ración con ensilaje de pradera más cebada molida y urea pueden reemplazar la cama de broiler con ventajas productivas y económicas en raciones de engorda de novillos.In the Carillanca Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute located in Temuco, for 86 days during the 2003 winter season a study, which used 35 Overo Colorado steers, of 19 to 20 months of age and 367 kg initial liveweight, was conducted in order to evaluate the

  3. fRNAdb Summary: FR141366 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FR141366 AC074232,AC092750,AC099402,AC112514,AC122148,AC136521,AE017082,AE017114,AF072710,AF1757 ... sa paniculata,Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare,Inula britannica ,Podachaenium eminens,Rojasianthe superba,Squamopap ...

  4. Caracterização da produtividade do funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. no sertão de Sergipe Characterization of the of fennel's (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. yield semi-arid areas of Sergipe state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e qualidade do funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. produzido nas condições edafoclimáticas de Sergipe, foi conduzido cultivo orgânico de funcho em Frei Paulo-SE. Em junho de 2008 e de 2009, início do período de chuvas, foram instalados plantios por meio de mudas. Adicionalmente, em dezembro de 2010 foi realizada colheita de frutos a partir de plantas obtidas após poda drástica e rebrota. Foi realizada colheita de frutos e determinação da produtividade de dezembro a janeiro de 2008, 2009 e em dezembro de 2010. Verificou-se produtividade de 720 Kg.ha-1, no primeiro plantio e de 349 Kg.ha-1 no plantio de 2009. As plantas obtidas por rebrota em 2010 resultaram em produtividade de 589 Kg.ha-1. Sugere-se que a maior produtividade verificada no primeiro ano seja decorrente da maior precipitação média e conseqüente maior disponibilidade de água. A produtividade verificada nas plantas que rebrotaram em 2010 foi também superior a verificada em 2009, o que pode ser explicado tanto em função da maior precipitação, quanto em função do provável maior desenvolvimento das raízes e maior número de ramos após poda, devido à quebra da dominância apical. Esses dados sugerem importância da disponibilidade hídrica na determinação da produtividade na região e explicam a variação na produtividade verificada. A massa seca dos frutos (5, 29 g para 1000 frutos e o alto teor de óleo essencial verificado (3,2%, assim como a composição do óleo, revelam a alta qualidade dos frutos produzidos na região.Aiming to evaluate the productivity and quality of fennel fruits produced in the countryside of Sergipe, with no irrigation, they were evaluated organic crops in Frei Paulo-SE. They were installed crops in 2008 and 2009 from seeds, on beginning rainy time. Seedlings obtained from seeds were transplanted in June 2008 and 2009. Besides, after the last harvest of the plants, grown in 2009, it was done a

  5. Estudio de las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos sobre Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) y Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) en la región central de Santa Fe, Argentina Study of the associations of aphids-entomophagous in Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) and Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) in the central region of Santa Fe, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Romina G. Manfrino; César E. Salto; Leticia Zumoffen

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos en Foeniculum vulgare (Miller) y Conyza bonariensis L, a fin de implementar el Control Biológico Conservativo (CBC) en agroecosistemas de la región central de la provincia de Santa Fe. Se realizaron estudios, a campo, de la entomofauna presente mediante la observación directa de las plantas; las mismas se llevaron a cabo con una frecuencia semanal. En invernáculo, se procedió a la identificación de las especies ...

  6. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417

  7. Évaluation de l’activité hémostatique in vitro de l’extrait aqueux des feuilles de Marrubium vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil GHEDADBA; Leila HAMBABA; M. C. ABERKANE; S. M. Oueld-Mokhtar; Nassima FERCHA; Houas BOUSSELSELA

    2016-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer in vitro l’activité hémostatique des métabolites secondaires des feuilles de Marrubium vulgare. L’analyse qualitative de l’extrait aqueux (EAQ) par la chromatographie sur couche mince a révélé la présence de la quercétine, la rutine et le kaempférol. La quantification des phénols totaux par la méthode de Folin Ciocalteu et des flavonoïdes par la méthode AlCl3 a donné des valeurs élevées avec l’EAQ : 175 ± 0,80 mg EAG/100g de MS, 23,86 ± 0,36 mg EQ/100g ...

  8. Influence of phenological stages on yield and quality of oregano (Origanum vulgare l. under the agroclimatic condition of doon valley (uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, in order to determine the effects of phenological stages on herbage yield and quality of oil in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.. Plants were harvested in five phenological stages, i.e. early vegetative, late vegetative, flower initiation, full bloom, and fruit set stages. Results showed the significant effects of phenological stages on herbage, yield, and quality of oregano. Harvesting at full bloom stage showed better results in terms of herbage and oil yield. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC/MS. Thymol content was rich in all the stages (46.90-62.26% followed by g-terpinene (1.11-11.75% and p-cymene (3.11-5.32%.

  9. Chemical Composition and Acaricidal Effects of Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiales: Apiaceae and Lavandula angustifolia Miller (Lamiales: Lamiaceae against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of synthetic acaricides causes negative side-effects on nontarget organisms and environment and most of the mite species such as two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are becoming resistant to these chemicals. In the present study, essential oils of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., and lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, were hydrodistilled using Clevenger apparatus and chemical composition of these oils was analyzed by GC-MS. Anethole (46.73%, limonene (13.65%, and α-fenchone (8.27% in the fennel essential oil and linalool (28.63%, 1,8-cineole (18.65%, and 1-borneol (15.94% in the lavender essential oil were found as main components. Contact and fumigant toxicity of essential oils was assessed against adult females of T. urticae after 24 h exposure time. The essential oils revealed strong toxicity in both contact and fumigant bioassays and the activity dependeds on essential oil concentrations. Lethal concentration 50% for the population of mite (LC50 was found as 0.557% (0.445–0.716 and 0.792% (0.598–1.091 in the contact toxicity and 1.876 μL/L air (1.786–1.982 and 1.971 μL/L air (1.628–2.478 in the fumigant toxicity for fennel and lavender oils, respectively. Results indicated that F. vulgare and L. angustifolia essential oils might be useful for managing of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae.

  10. Proposta de reconhecimento de padrão de conforto em clientes com pênfigo vulgar utilizando a Lógica Fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzeli da Silva Brandao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Propuesta de reconocimiento del estándar de comodidad en clientes con pénfigo vulgar utilizando la Lógica Fuzzy O objetivo é propor a Lógica Fuzzy para reconhecimento de padrões de conforto de pessoas submetidas a uma tecnologia de cuidar em Enfermagem por apresentarem pênfigo vulgar, uma doença cutâneo-mucosa rara que acomete principalmente adultos. A proposta aplicável em métodos experimentais com sujeitos submetidos à comparação quali-quantitativa (taxonomia/pertinência do padrão de conforto antes e depois da intervenção. Requer o registro em escala cromática correspondente à intensidade de cada atributo: dor; mobilidade e comprometimento da autoimagem. As regras Fuzzy estabelecidas pela máquina de inferência definem o padrão de conforto em desconforto máximo, mediano e mínimo, traduzindo a eficácia dos cuidados de Enfermagem. Apesar de pouco utilizada na área de Enfermagem, essa lógica viabiliza pesquisas sem dimensionamento a priori do número de sujeitos em função da estimação de parâmetros populacionais. Espera-se avaliação do padrão de conforto do cliente com pênfigo diante da tecnologia aplicada de forma personalizada, conduzindo a avaliação global.

  11. Isolation of Aspergillus flavus from stored food commodities and Thymus vulgaris (L.) essential oil used as a safe plant based preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar Singh; Chandrabhan Seniya; Shriram Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Grain samples of Cicer arietinum (Chickpea), Zea mays (Maize), Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea), Hordeum vulgare (Barley), Oryza sativa (Rice) and Sorghum vulgare (Millet) were procured from various retailers of market were subjected to their mould profile. During mycoflora analysis, 1297 fungal isolates were recorded from the food commodities. The least number of fungal isolates (189) were detected from H. vulgare while highest (244) from Z. mays. The genus Aspergillus was found to be most dominan...

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in the seeds of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart and Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erecevit, P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined some biological compounds (fatty acids, vitamins, sterols and flavonoids, radical scavenging capacity and antimicrobial activity of two Origanum L. species of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart and Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.. Ietswaart. Linolenic acid was found to be the main fatty acid in both species, which was followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1 n9, linoleic acid (C18:2 n6 and stearidonic acid (C18:4. In addition, the two Origanum species were recorded as containing high levels of stigmasterol. It was also found that Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart had a high β-sitosterol content (152.8±2.6 µg/g; high amounts of D3 (33.1±0.8 µg/g, K1 (29.4±0.8 µg/g, K2 (26.0±0.8 µg/g vitamins; and low amounts of α-tocopherol (7.8±0.2 µg/g and D2 (1.8±0.1 µg/g, while Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart contained high amounts of D2 (42.9±1.5 µg/g vitamin; and low amounts of D3 (2.9±0.1 µg/g, α-tocopherol (3.1±0.1 µg/g, r-tocopherol (3.5±0.2 µg/g, K2 (1.3±0.1 µg/g, retinol (1.3±0.2 µg/g and retinol acetate (1.2±0.1 µg/g vitamins. The present study showed that Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart and Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart contained the lowest amount of flavonoid. Furthermore, methanol extracts were recorded to be the most effective agent against the DPPH radical in both Origanum L. species examined. Experimental results showed that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts of both Origanum L. species were effective in the inhibition of the growth of the tested microorganisms at varying levels.En el presente estudio se han determinado algunos compuestos biológicos (ácidos grasos, vitaminas, esteroles y flavonoides, la capacidad de secuestrar radicales libres y la actividad antimicrobiana de dos especies de orégano, Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart y

  13. Interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae essential oil Interferência do aquecimento sobre a atividade antimicrobiana e composição química do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Origanum vulgare L. (oregano, Lamiaceae, essential oil has a variety of biological properties and its antimicrobial activity has received a renewed interest for use in food conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of O. vulgare essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil kept at room temperature and exposed to different heating temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120 °C during 1 hour was evaluated by observing antimicrobial effectiveness at absolute concentration and determining MIC values by the solid medium diffusion procedure. The essential oil chemical composition analysis was performed by GC-MS. O. vulgare essential oil showed interesting antimicrobial activity on all assayed microbial strains (Candida albicans, C.krusei, C. tropicalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcencens, noted by large growth inhibition zones (30-42 mm. Heating treatment showed no significant interference (p O óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae (orégano apresenta variadas propriedades biológicas, de modo que seu potencial antimicrobiano tem despertado interesse para uso na conservação de alimentos. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a interferência de diferentes tratamentos térmicos (60, 80, 100 e 120 °C/1 hora sobre a efetividade antimicrobiana e composição química do óleo essencial de O. vulgare. A efetividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial exposto aos diferentes tratamentos térmicos foi avaliada através da observação de sua atividade antimicrobiana em concentração absoluta e através da determinação da sua CIM utilizando-se a técnica de difusão em meio sólido. O estudo da composição do óleo essencial foi realizado através de GC-MS. O óleo essencial apresentou intensa atividade antimicrobiana sobre todas as amostras microbianas ensaiadas

  14. Technologie pěstování a hnojení ječmene (Hordeum) s cílem maximální kvality produktu a jeho využití pro výrobu doplňku stravy "zeleného ječmene"

    OpenAIRE

    DARDOVÁ, Magdaléna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the technology of cultivation and fertilization of barley (Hordeum) for the manufacture of food supplements' green barley ". The main active ingredients in green barley enzymes are superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, cytochrome oxidase and transhydrogenase. Other ingredients are flavonoids saponarin, glykosylisovitexin and lutonarin. In producing research was determined the best technology for cultivation and fertilization of green barley. Most subs...

  15. Plant invasion, insect herbivory and competition: insights into the ecological interactions between invasive goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) and native tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated how adaptation and insect herbivory affect competitive interactions between native and invasive plants. Solidago canadensis and Tanacetum vulgare were used as model system as they show a reciprocal invasion. The general view that invasive species are competitively superior could not be confirmed. Instead, coexistence of two competing species was observed when intraspecific competition over rules interspecific competition or when natives evolve tolerance to the invasive plant.

  16. Évaluation de l’activité hémostatique in vitro de l’extrait aqueux des feuilles de Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil GHEDADBA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer in vitro l’activité hémostatique des métabolites secondaires des feuilles de Marrubium vulgare. L’analyse qualitative de l’extrait aqueux (EAQ par la chromatographie sur couche mince a révélé la présence de la quercétine, la rutine et le kaempférol. La quantification des phénols totaux par la méthode de Folin Ciocalteu et des flavonoïdes par la méthode AlCl3 a donné des valeurs élevées avec l’EAQ : 175 ± 0,80 mg EAG/100g de MS, 23,86 ± 0,36 mg EQ/100g de MS. De plus, le dosage des tanins condensés par la méthode de la vanilline a montré que l’EAQ contient la valeur la plus élevée : 16,55 ± 0,03 mg E-Catéchine/100g de MS. L’évaluation de l’activité hémostatique par la méthode de recalcification du plasma décalcifié nous a permis de découvrir l’effet anticoagulant de l’EAQ lyophilisé des feuilles de M. vulgare. Une corrélation linéaire positive entre les deux paramètres étudiés (la teneur en tanins condensés et l’activité hémostatique (r = 0,96 ont permis de mettre en évidence un rôle probable de ces composés qui sont des vaso-constricteurs puissants dans l’activité hémostatique.

  17. 野大麦盐胁迫rbcS基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Hordeum brevisubulatum rbcS Gene under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳海燕; 尹剑锐; 闫守庆; 冯宇隆; 张莲姬; 郭建强; 李怀亮; 丁雪梅; 沈景林

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to study the cloning and sequence analysis of Hordeum brevisubulatum rbcS gene under salt stress. [ Method] The tender leaf blade of Hordeum brevisubulatum under salt stress was taken as the experimental materials. The primers were designed according to the homology of rscS gene sequences of wheat and barely published by Genbank; then PCR amplification, recovery, ligation, transformation and sequencing of rbcS gene were carrieo out. [ Result] Two rbcS genes including rbcS1 and rbcS2 with the length of 1 252 bp and 908 bp respectively were cloned from the barely genome. rbcSl and rbcS2 were both composed by two exons and one intron. The exons length of the two genes was the same of 525 bp, encoding 174 amino acids, and the homology between them was 96%; however, the intron length of rbcSl and rbcS2 was 448 and 107 bp respectively.%[目的]对野大麦盐胁迫rbcS基因进行克隆及序列分析.[方法]以盐胁迫下的野大麦幼嫩叶片为试材,根据GenBank中小麦和大麦rbcS基因核酸序列的同源性设计引物,对野大麦基因组DNA进行PCR扩增、回收、连接、转化及测序.[结果]在野大麦的基因组中克隆了2个大小不同的rbcS基因序列rbcS1和rbcS2,长度分别为1 252和908 bp.rbcS1和rbcS2均由2个外显子和1个内含子组成,外显子长度相等,编码序列为525 bp,同源性为96%,编码174个氨基酸;rbcS1和rbcS2内含子大小不同,分别为448 和107 bp.[结论]为进一步探讨rbcS基因在野大麦耐盐机制中的分子机制奠定了基础.

  18. Molecular identification of Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants by ITS2 sequence%ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其常见混伪品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义梅; 罗焜; 陈科力; 陈士林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨基于ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其混伪品的新方法.方法 对小茴香4份样品的ITS2序列进行PCR扩增和测序,同时从GenBank上下载小茴香及其常见混伪品共6个物种42个样本.用MEGA4.1计算其种间、种内的K-2-P距离,并分析各物种间ITS2序列二级结构的差异,最后利用ITS2序列构建其系统发育树.结果 小茴香种内最大K-2-P距离为0.0307,与混伪品的种间最小K-2-P距离为0.0405;小茴香及其混伪品的ITS2二级结构存在明显差异;构建的系统发育树显示小茴香的不同来源样本聚在一支,能很好与混伪品区分.结论 ITS2序列能够成功鉴定小茴香及其易混伪品,可以作为小茴香及其混伪品的分子鉴定方法.%Objective To explore the new method of discriminating Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants by using ITS2 sequence. Method DNA samples were extracted from Foeniculum vulgare.ITS2 sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced hidirectionally. Sequences were assembled hy CodonCode Aligner. The intra-specific and inter-specific K-2P distances of Foeniculum vulgare ancl its adulterants were calculated. and NJ tree was constructed by MEGA V 4. 1. ITS2 and secondary structure were predicted by the web tool established by Schultz etc. Results The maximum intra-specific K-2P distance was0. 0307 . while the minimum inter-specific K-2P distance was 0. 0405. Different samples of Foeniculum vulgare were gathered together and could be distinguished from its adulterants by NJ tree. And Foeniculum vulgare could he differentiated obviously from its adulterants by their ITS2 secondary structure. Conclusion Our study shows that ITS2 sequence is able to identify Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants successfully and is an efficient molecular identification method for Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants.

  19. Chemical characterization of the Allium sativum and Origanum vulgare essential oils and their inhibition effect on the growth of some food pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.T. Mallet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate the chemical composition of the Allium sativum and Origanum vulgare essential oils and their effect on the growth inhibition of microorganisms, such as P. aeruginosa, S. Choleraesuis, A. flavus, A. niger and P. simplicissimum, important food contaminants. The main constituents of the oregano essential oil were 4-terpineol (27.03%, γ-terpinene (20.04%, and β-cymene (6.34%, and the main constituents of the garlic essential oil were diallyl trisulfide (38, 81%, diallyl disulfide (25.23%, and methyl allyl trisulfide (12.52%. Inhibition zones were formed in in vitro tests on the bacteria S. Choleraesuis and P. aeruginosa, except for A. sativum against P. aeruginosa. The inhibition of mycelial growth caused by the oregano essential oil occurred with the concentrations of 0.10, 0.03 and 0.05 mg mL-1 for the A. flavus, A. niger and P. simplicissimum fungi, respectively. The CMI for the garlic oil began at the 0.03 mg mL-1 concentration for all species of fungi. The oils presented an inhibitory effect against the microorganisms studied and constitute an alternative for microbiological control in food.

  20. 小茴香根皮化学成分研究%On the chemical constituents from the root barks of Foeniculum vulgare Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林健博; 古丽娜·沙比尔

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析新疆小茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Mill)根皮中的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱层析法反复分离纯化技术,通过质谱分析、核磁共振等现代波谱技术对新疆小茴香根皮中的化学成分进行结构鉴定.结果 从新疆小茴香中分离得到6种化合物:7-羟基-6-甲氧基香豆素(Scopoletin,Ⅰ).5-羟甲基糠(5-Hydroxymethylfurfural,Ⅱ)、焦谷氨酸乙酯(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid;(±)-form,ET ester,Ⅲ)、胡萝卜苷(Daucosterol,Ⅳ)、β-谷甾醇(β-Sitosterol,V)、蔗糖(Sucrose,Ⅵ).结论 化合物Ⅰ~Ⅲ为首次从茴香属植物中分离得到,为进一步研究新疆小茴香的化学成分提供理论依据.

  1. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adassa Gama Tavares

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl, potassium chloride (KCl, lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO. The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation.

  2. Elegance and Vulgarity of Time-Travel Historic Novels%试论历史穿越小说的雅与俗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘澍

    2014-01-01

    Time-travel novel is one of the most popular internet novels. It describes in the form of novel a series of activities that the protagonist is invovled in after time travel. The time-travel historic novels are typical. The vulgarity in these novels are common while the elegance reflects Chinese traditional culture.The protagonist wants to change history because of historical trend and their existence, undoubtedly making the works add kind of elegance and innovation in at least a few classic works.%穿越小说是当下网络小说最热门题材的一种,比较优秀的大多是历史穿越小说。小说本是俗物,穿越小说中的俗是毫不避讳的;而穿越小说的高雅,在于小说中体现了中国传统文化。而主人翁由于历史走向和对自身生存问题的思考碰撞而产生的种种想要改变历史的想法,都无疑使得作品在通俗的基础上增添了几分雅致与创新,至少在几部经典作品里都有体现。

  3. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. R. LUCCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., anise (Pimpinella anisum L. and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.. The treatments were: fennel, anise, cloves extracts at 10%; fennel, anise, cloves oils at 1% and control with distilled water. The mortality tests were carried out with aphids in laboratory, with three replications, after 1, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. During laboratory trials , it was found out that fennel oil at 1% showed the best rate of mortality on aphid nymphs (70% at 72 h, followed by clove extract at 10% with 37% mortality. Tests in pots were only carried out only with cloves extracts at 10% and fennel oil at 1% treatment, in which such efficiency was alsoindicated on aphid nymphs.

  4. Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano. PMID:25177730

  5. RAPD Analysis of Elymus dahuricus, Hordeum brevisubulatum, Their Hybrid F1 and BC1%披碱草和野大麦及其杂种F1与BC1代的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李造哲; 云锦凤; 尹俊

    2005-01-01

    应用RAPD技术对披碱草Elymus dahuricus和野大麦Hordeum brevisubulatum及其杂种F1与BC1代的遗传差异性进行了研究.结果表明,各供试材料基因组DNA具有很高的多态性;依据遗传相似系数,亲本披碱草和野大麦之间的遗传差异较大,正、反交杂种F1均偏向披碱草遗传,正、反交F1间的遗传差异不显著,BC1代偏向轮回亲本野大麦遗传,不同株系间存在遗传差异.RAPD技术可用于禾草远缘杂种鉴定及目标性状植株检测的遗传标记.

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Mitigation on Methane and Ammonia Production by Using Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oils on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Cobellis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of increasing concentrations of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essentials oil (EO on ruminal gas emissions were tested in vitro using 50 mL serum bottles. Each bottle contained a 200 mg substrate (alfalfa hay and corn meal 1:1 and a 20 mL solution composed of a buffered medium and rumen fluid (1:2. The percentage of ruminal fermentation products was quantified by an infrared analyzer. The reduction of total gas production was 6% and 9% respectively when using the 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO measurements. The reduction of methane production was 55%, 72% and 71% respectively with regard to the 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO doses, while rosemary EO (2.0 g/L reduced the methane production by 9%. The production of ammonia was significantly reduced (59%–78% by all treatments with the exception of rosemary EO at the lowest dose. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability was reduced by most of the treatments (respectively 4%–9% and 8%–24%. The total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration was markedly decreased by oregano EO and was not affected by rosemary EO. Both EOs mitigated rumen fermentations, but oregano EO gave rise to the highest reduction in methane and ammonia production. However, further research is needed to evaluate the use of these essential oils as dietary supplements by taking into account the negative effects on feed degradability.

  7. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80t/ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  8. Efecto de la adición de las hojas frescas de orégano (origanum vulgare en el rendimiento productivo de pollos de engorde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid González

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, desde 1984, se permite el empleo de antibióticos promotoresde crecimiento (APC, como mecanismo para mejorar el rendimiento productivode la avicultura, pero el uso de APC a niveles subterapéuticos favorece la aparición de factores de resistencia a estos medicamentos, causando un problema de salud pública, por el surgimiento de bacterias resistentes. De ahí, que el uso de extractos vegetales es una alternativa fitogénetica al uso de los APC. Entre varios, el de orégano ha sido comúnmente usado en la alimentación animal por sus efectos antioxidantes y bacteriostáticos permitiendo el mejoramiento del rendimiento productivo de pollos de engorde. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el efecto de la adición de hojas frescas de orégano (O. vulgare en la ganancia de peso, eficiencia y conversión alimenticia en pollos de la línea Cobb. Para esto se realizó un estudio con un modelo experimental aleatorio con una duración de 32 días; 8 de los cuales fueron de adaptación a las hojas de dicha planta. Se emplearon tres tratamientos, cada uno con 30 pollos de la línea Cobb con registros independientes y alimentados con un concentrado comercial. El T3 denominado control, sin inclusión de hojas de orégano; en los tratamientos T1 y T2 se adicionó a la dieta comercialel 1 y 5% de hojas frescas de orégano respectivamente. Se observó que no hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p≥0.05 para la ganancia de peso, pero sí para la eficiencia y conversión alimenticia (p≤ 0.05 con respecto al tratamiento control (T3.

  9. ASİDİK YAGIŞLARIN TRİTİCUM VULGARE ( BUGDAY ve ZEA • • • • • MA YS SACCHARA TA (MISIR BITKILERINE ETKILERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVİN YALÇIN

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, asidik yağışların Triticum Vulgare (Buğday ve Zea Mays Saccbarata ( Mısır bitkile rine et ki leri incel enmiştir. Bu a1naçla, 24 adet 20x20x30 cn1 boyutundaki teneke saksı lara ekilen tohumlar pH 1 � 2, 3, 4. 5, 6 olan HN03 ve H2S04 ç özel til e ri ile bir ay bo yunc a sulanmışlar dır.T. Vulgar e ve Z.M. Saccharata yap r a k lar ı n d a k loroz i s (sa r arma ve flecking (benekleşme görülmüştür.Büyüme, 15. g ünde n sonra durınuştur. pH s ı düşük olan çö zel t i l er ile sulanan bitkilerde boyca enge llennıe görülmüş, çürüme daha önce b aş ! an1ış tı r . Ayrıca as i di k çöz elti lerl e sulamanın tohum çim l e n m es i ni gec i ktirdi ğ i gözlenıniştir. Biyomas değ e r lerinde de k ayıpla r kaydedilıniştir. Düşük pH derecelerinde ka yıp l arı n daha fazla olduğu b eli r le nnı i ş t ir. Her iki bit k inin kök ve gövdelerinin anatemisinde bir bozulına görülmeıniştir. ABSTRACT In this study, the effects of acid rains on Triticum Vu l g a re (\\Vheat and Zea Mays Saccharata (Com were investigated. For this purpose, seeds were sowed to 24 tin pots at diı n ensions of 20x20x30 cm and they were vvatered with HN03 and H2S04 solutions which to be pH L 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 for o ne month. T.Vulgare and Z.M. Saccharata leavcs showed chlorosis and flecking. The growing stopped after 15 days. At solutions with low pH, p I ant l e ngt h s w ere n1easured shorter and rotting w as begun earlier than otlıers. It also inhibited seed gennination by de lay ing the same. The bi o mass values alsa s h owe d a loss and this was the h i g hest at the low pH degree s . The root and stern defo rmat i ons in each the two s p c ci es were not seemed . I. GİRİŞ Atmosferin kirl errmesi sonucu rneydana gelen asit yağmurlar1 veya asit ç ö k e J n 1 es i sanayinin, termik santr allerin , ulaşun araçlan n ın ve fosil yakıtların yaydığı SOx , kükürt oksit ve NOx , azot oksit

  10. Evaluación de aceites esenciales de tomillo (thymus vulgaris) y orégano (origanum vulgare) como microbicidas y conservantes en mazorcas tiernas de maíz (zea mays l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Velasco, July Alexandra; Vanega Mahecha, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Durante el almacenamiento de mazorcas tiernas de maíz intervienen microorganismos que ocasionan pérdidas y deterioran su calidad. Los aceites esenciales presentan bioactividades notables (Henao et al., 2010). Contienen compuestos que poseen actividad microbicida como timol y el carvacrol (Guiza y Rincón, 2007). El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el efecto microbicida y conservante de los aceites esenciales de tomillo (Thymus vulgaris) y orégano (Origanum vulgare) en mazorcas de maíz tiern...

  11. STUDY ON THE FERTILITY OF Elymus dahuricus, Hordeum brevisubulatum AND THEIR HYBRID F1 AND BC1%披碱草和野大麦杂种F1及BC1代育性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李造哲; 于卓; 云锦凤; 马青枝

    2003-01-01

    本文对披碱草(Elymus dahuricus Turcz.)和野大麦(Hordeum brevisubulatum Link)杂种F1及BC1代的花粉可育率和结实率进行了测定.结果表明,亲本披碱草和野大麦的花粉可育率较高,分别为87.1%和89.2%,开放授粉的自然结实率分别为39.4%和34.8%.正、反交杂种F1代高度不育,花粉可育率分别为2.2%和1.1%,在开放授粉情况下均不结实.BC1代的花粉可育率和结实性有不同程度的恢复和提高,各株系间的花粉可育率和结实率有较大的变异,有的株系花粉可育率和结实率仍很低,花粉可育率只有0.3%,开放授粉不结实;有的株系花粉可育率和结实率较F1代有大幅度的提高,花粉可育率可达74.9%,自然结实率可达14.6%.回交是克服杂种F1不育的有效途径.

  12. Organic Versus Conventional Methods of Fertilization and Weed Control in a Long Term Rotation of Cereals in Semiarid Spain Comparación de Métodos Convencionales y Orgánicos de Fertilización y Control de Malezas en una Rotación de Larga Duración de Cereales en Secano, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pardo

    2011-06-01

    malezas -ecológicos y convencionales- sobre la producción. Para ello se diseñó una rotación compatible con las técnicas de agricultura ecológica: barbecho- cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.- veza (Vicia sativa L. como abono verde-trigo duro (Triticum durum Desf.. En las parcelas destinadas al cereal se estudiaron tres niveles de fertilización: testigo sin fertilizar, fertilización orgánica y química. Además, se aplicaron tres niveles de control de malas hierbas: testigo sin desmalezar, grada de varillas flexibles, y aplicación convencional de herbicidas. Los resultados mostraron que ni el tipo de fertilizante ni el control de malezas tuvieron efectos sobre los rendimientos, por lo que para estas áreas la agricultura orgánica puede ser una solución viable.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE PLANTAS con propiedades NEMATICIDAS EN EL CONTROL DE Xiphinema index EN VID DE MESA CV. THOMPSON SEEDLESS EN LA ZONA CENTRAL DE CHILE Evaluation of plants with nematicidal properties in the control of Xiphinema index on table grapes cv. Thompson Seedless in the central zone of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Aballay E.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen es un nemátodo ectoparásito económicamente importante en la vid ( Vitis vinifera L. en Chile, como patógeno de las raíces y como vector del "virus de la hoja en abanico" (GFLV en vides. El control tradicional se ha hecho básicamente con productos químicos, de efectos erráticos y muy cuestionados por sus efectos ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar en vides cv. Thompson Seedless el efecto nematicida de ocho plantas antagónicas en el control de Xiphinema index. Las plantas antagónicas se cultivaron en la líneas de plantación y se incorporaron como abono verde. Las especies ensayadas fueron: raps (Brassica napus L., caléndula (Calendula officinalis L., cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus Cav., gaillardia (Gaillardia picta L., lupino (Lupinus albus L., clavelón (Tagetes patula L., tomillo (Thymus vulgaris L., zinia (Zinnia elegans Jacq.. El efecto de estas especies se comparó con tres testigos: testigo absoluto (sólo vides; testigo químico (Fenamiphos, 4 kg i.a. ha-1 ; y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L. testigo planta sin antecedentes nematicidas. La acción nematicida de las especies ensayadas se evaluó determinando las densidades poblacionales del nemátodo en 250 cm³ de suelo en: 1 antes del establecimiento de los cultivos; 2 previo a su incorporación al suelo, a los dos meses del establecimiento; 3 3 meses después de la incorporación. El mejor resultado se obtuvo con el establecimiento e incorporación del raps (Brassica napus, el cual redujo significativamente las poblaciones de X. index (PThe ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen is economically important in grapes (Vitis vinifera L. in Chile, both as a root parasite and as a vector for grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV. The traditional methods for nematode control are based on chemical nematicides, which are erratic and very questionable for their environment effects. The objective of this research was to evaluate the

  14. Introducción de cultivos de cobertura en la rotación soja-maíz: efecto sobre algunas propiedades del suelo Inclusion of cover crops in a soybean-corn rotation: effect on some soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Beatriz Restovich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco limosos de la Pampa Ondulada bajo siembra directa (SD con predominio de soja y, secundariamente maíz, registran una progresiva disminución de su fertilidad física y química. La introducción de cultivos de cobertura (CC en sistemas agrícolas cada vez menos diversificados podría constituir una herramienta agronómica para mitigar esta degradación edáfica. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: 1 evaluar el efecto de diferentes CC sobre algunas propiedades del suelo (porosidad, distribución de tamaño de poros, estabilidad estructural, densidad aparente, carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, carbono lábil y 2 analizar la evolución de las propiedades edáficas durante la introducción de CC en la secuencia soja-maíz bajo SD. En 2005, se instaló un ensayo sobre un Argiudol típico (franco limoso con diferentes especies de ciclo otoño-invernal, utilizadas como CC. Las especies fueron: cebada forrajera (Hordeum vulgare L., ray grass (Lolium multiflorum L., avena (Avena sativa L., cebadilla (Brumus unioloides L., vicia (Vicia sativa L., colza (Brassica napus L., nabo forrajero (Raphanus sativus L., una consociación de vicia y avena y un testigo sin CC. Los cambios en las propiedades edáficas producidos durante la introducción de CC fueron: aumento de la macroporosidad y de su estabilidad y aumento del COS y de su fracción lábil. Estos cambios fueron de mediana a baja magnitud, se registraron principalmente próximos a la superficie (0-5 cm, estuvieron asociados a los momentos en los que se realizaron aportes importantes de C y fueron fáciles de revertir en asociación con períodos de lluvias intensas. El efecto acumulado de la rotación mostró mayor aporte de COS al sistema en presencia de CC. De los CC probados, se destacó el nabo forrajero como generador de porosidad y la avena como estabilizadora del sistema poroso.Silt loam soils of the Rolling Pampas cultivated with soybean and, secondarily, corn under no

  15. How Specific is Non-Hypersensitive Host and Nonhost Resistance of Barley to Rust and Mildew Fungi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niks R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full nonhost resistance can be deifned as immunity, displayed by an entire plant species against all genotypes of a plant pathogen. Interesting biological questions are, whether the genes responsible for the nonhost status of a plant species have a general or a specific effectiveness to heterologous (“nonhost”) pathogens? Is the nonhost resistance to pathogens of plant species that are related to the nonhost based onR-genes or on other types of genes?We study this question in barley (Hordeum vulgareL.), which is a near-nonhost to several rusts (Puccinia) of cereals and grasses. By crosses and selection we accumulated susceptibility and developed an experimental line, SusPtrit, with high susceptibility to at least nine different heterologous rust taxa such as the wheat andAgropyron leaf rusts (P. triticina andP. persistens, respectively). At the microscopic level there is also some variation among barley accessions in the degree that the heterologous wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminisf.sp.tritici) is able to form haustoria in epidermal cells. So, also the genetics of the variation in level of nonhost resistance to heterologous mildew fungi can be studied in barley. Our data obtained on mapping populations involving three regular nonhost-immune accessions (Vada, Cebada Capa and Golden Promise) suggest that nonhost resistance is the joined effect of multiple, quantitative genes (QTLs) and very occasionally a major gene (R-gene?) is involved. Most QTLs have effect to only one or two heterologous rusts, but some have a wider spectrum. This was conifrmed in a set of QTL-NILs. Those QTL-NILs are used to ifne-map the effective genes. In some cases, a QTL region with effectiveness to several heterologous rusts might be a cluster of genes with a more narrow spectrum of effectiveness. Our evidence suggests that nonhost resistance in barley to rust and powdery mildew fungi of related Gramineae is not due toR-genes, but to pathogen species-speciifc quantitative

  16. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Background Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage

  17. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare, sage (Salvia officinalis, and thyme (Thymus vulgaris against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fournomiti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oregano (Origanum vulgare, sage (Salvia officinalis, and thyme (Thymus vulgaris are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods: Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27, Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16 strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results: Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for

  18. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly......A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse...

  19. Main: 1GHR [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GHR 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. Lichenase Ii Precursor Hordeum Vulgare 1,3-1,4-Be... T.P.J.Garrett J.N.Varghese, T.P.J.Garrett, P.M.Colman, L.Chen, P.J.Hoj, G.B.Fincher The Three-Dimensional S...cities Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.Usa V. 91 2785 1994 EMBL; M13237; AAA32962.1; -.|PIR; A25455; A25455.|PDB; 1AQ0; X-...YGYQNLFDTTVDAFYTAMGKHGGSSVKLVVSESGWPSGGGTAATPANARFYNQHLINHVGRGTPRHPGAIETYIFAMFNENQKDSGVEQNWGLFYPNMQHVYPINF barley_1GHR.jpg ...

  20. Molecular Phylogeography of Domesticated Barley Traces Expansion of Agriculture in the Old World

    OpenAIRE

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided...