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Sample records for cebada hordeum vulgare

  1. Control de avena negra (Avena fatua L.) con aplicación de trifluralina en cultivos de cebada cervecera (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Scursoni, Julio Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    p.149-156 Con el objetivo de estudiar los efectos de la trifluraina en: (i) el control de avena negra y (ii) el establecimiento y rendimiento de cultivares de cebada, se realizaron dos experimentos de campo y dos en condiciones controladas. A campo, se evaluaron tres dosis del herbicida trifluraina (576, 768 y 1.056 g i.a/ha) en el cultivar Quilmes Alfa y el efecto de una sola dosis (528 g i.a/ha) en diferentes sistemas de siembra y dosis de fertilización fosforada, en los cultivares Q.Alf...

  2. DETERMINACIÓN DEL POTENCIAL NUTRITIVO Y FUNCIONAL DE GALLETAS Y COMPOTAS PREPARADOS A BASE DE CHOCHO (Lupinus bogotensis, CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare Y ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Sanaguano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto nutricional de las combinaciones  de chocho, cebada y zanahoria a través de análisis de minerales como: potasio calcio, fósforo y hierro; así como  el  análisis de proteína, cenizas,  sólidos totales y  vitamina A. Considerando de esta manera, la interacción de los componentes del alimento para cada uno de los tratamientos. Se aprovechó estos productos  agrícolas debido a que son muy cultivados en la provincia de Bolívar, la experimentación se la realizó en los laboratorios de Biología Molecular ubicados en el campus Agropecuario Laguacoto II, mediante análisis de minerales, bromatológicos, vitamina A. Se determinó que la combinación del tratamiento 7 (T7 es el mejor debido a que cumple con las especificaciones de comparación  nutrición infantil de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Como es el caso del potasio, proteína y vitamina A. Sensorialmente este tratamiento es el más aceptado por niños, recalcando que los resultados fueron tabulados  y su comparación de significancia fue de (p>0.05

  3. Estudio reológico de las mezclas de harinas: trigo (Triticum vulgare, cebada (Hordeum vulgare y papas (Solanum tuberosum para la utilización en la elaboración de pan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con las harinas de trigo importado, el trigo nacional y los cereales que se producen en el país, y el tubérculo papa, se realizó un estudio reológico para determinar las proporciones más convenientes de sustitución de harina de trigo importado con éstas últimas y su factibilidad para la elaboración de pan. Se trabajó en mezclas de harinas, de trigo CWRS#1 (trigo rojo de primavera del oeste de Canadá, de cebada Cañicapa, trigo Cojitambo y papa Gabriela, provenientes de cultivos ecuatorianos, en proporciones de 10, 20 y 30% (p/p. Las masas provenientes de las mezclas de harinas fueron analizadas en un Farinógrafo Brabender, con la finalidad de determinar la absorción de agua, el tiempo de desarrollo, la estabilidad e índice de tolerancia, con el objeto de seleccionar las mezclas de harinas que tuvieran un comportamiento similar a la harina de trigo CWRS#1. Las mejores mezclas encontradas fueron: harina de trigo CWRS#1 sustituida con el 10, 20 y 30% de harina de cebada Cañicapa; y la mezcla de harina de trigo CWRS#1 con harina de trigo Cojitambo en un 30%. Estas mezclas de harinas seleccionadas fueron también sometidas al análisis reológico de sus masas utilizando un equipo MIXOLAB. La utilización de las harinas seleccionadas en la elaboración de pan fue evaluado a través de un análisis sensorial. Los panes más aceptados por los consumidores fueron aquellos que contenían 20 y 30% de cebada; seguido del grupo de los elaborados con trigo importado con 30% de trigo Cojitambo, y los que contenían el 10% de harina de cebada.

  4. VOLÁTILES DE MAÍZ (lea mays, CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare Y CAFE (Coffea arábica TOSTADOS. INFLUENCIA DE LA ADICIÓN DE ESTOS CEREALES EN EL AROMA DEL CAFÉ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Duarte Ruiz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los volátiles de café a dos grados de torrefacción, como también los del maíz y los de cebada tostados, fueron extraídos por "Headspace" dinámico. La composición de los volátiles fue determinada por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CGAREM. Los constituyentes mayoritarios del café torrefactado a 230 "C durante 8 minutos fueron el furfural 2-metil-3 dihidrofuranona y 2,3- pentadiona mientras que a230"Cy 10 minutos fueron el 2-furanmetanol, 3 metilpirazina, la 1,6-dimetilpirazina y acetato de 2-furanmetanol. Los constituyentes de mayor concentración en el maíz fueron el furfural y el 5-metilfurfuraI y en la cebada el 2-metilbutanal, el 3 metilbutanal y el furano. El análisis sensorial del café y mezclas de café con maiz y cebada permitió detectar adulteración a partir de 20% de cereal en un café torrefactado durante 8 min., pero cuando la torrefacción se realizó por 10 min. fue muy difícil percibir el aroma a cereal, principalmente cuando éste es cebada. Los resultados fueron utilizados como indicadores de la adulteración del café con cereales y como un criterio de evaluación para garantizar la pureza del café Colombiano.

  5. [ Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup] of Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Importance of loose Smut [ Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup] of Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in western Amhara Region, Ethiopia. ... with selected fungicides need to be promoted to tackle loose smut and to sustain barley production. Keywords: Barley; Hordeum vulgare; Loose Smut; Seed Treatment; Ustilago nuda ...

  6. Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum Vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum. Vulgare L.) landraces based on microsatellite markers. El-Awady A. M. Mohamed 1,2 and El-Tarras A. E. Adel1,2. 1Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Research Unit, Scientific Research Center, College of Medicine, Taif.

  7. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  8. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing at Wollo Highland areas by using hordein and agro-morphological traits. Twenty (20) varieties were laid down in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with three replications; they were ...

  9. Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene. Promoter and Using Sequencing Analaysis. For The Identification of Conserved Regulatory. Elements By Bioinformatic Tools. Kobra Nalbandi1, Bahram Baghban Kohnehrouz2*, Khalil Alami Saeed1 and Ashraf. Gholizadeh3. 1Ramin Agricultural ...

  10. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned...

  11. Homology Modeling and Functional Characterization of PR-1a Protein of Hordeum vulgare subsp. Vulgare

    OpenAIRE

    Aslanzadeh, Vahid; Ghaderian, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related protein 1a of Hordeum vulgare subsp. Vulgare (HvPR-1a) is induced by various pathogens and stress related factors. It plays important roles in plant defense system. Since the discovery of HvPR-1a a great deal of research has been focused on its isolation and characterization. However, three dimensional structure of HvPR-1a is still unknown. 3D structure can be used for determining protein function, and identifying novel protein folds and potential targets for regulation. ...

  12. Volátiles De Maíz {lea mays, cebada (Hordeum vulgare y café (Coffea arábica tostados. influencia de la adición de estos cereales en el aroma del café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margoth Suárez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los volátiles de café a dos grados de torrefacción, como también los del maíz y los de cebada tostados, fueron extraídos por "Headspace" dinámico. La composición de los volátiles fue determinada por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CGAREM. Los constituyentes mayoritarios del café torrefactado a 230 "C durante 8 minutos fueron el furfural 2-metil-3-dihidrofuranona y 2,3- pentadiona mientras que a230"Cy 10 minutos fueron el 2-furanmetanol, 3-metilpirazina, la 1,6-dimetilpirazina y acetato de 2-furanmetanol. Los constituyentes de mayor concentración en el maíz fueron el furfural y el 5-metilfurfuraI y en la cebada el 2-metilbutanal, el 3-metilbutanal y el furano. El análisis sensorial del café y mezclas de café con maiz y cebada permitió detectar adulteración a partir de 20% de cereal en un café torrefactado durante 8 min., pero cuando la torrefacción se realizó por 10 min. fue muy difícil percibir el aroma a cereal, principalmente cuando éste es cebada. Los resultados fueron utilizados como indicadores de la adulteración del café con cereales y como un criterio de evaluación para garantizar la pureza del café Colombiano.

  13. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.

    1989-01-01

    A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jabatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent......' and 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high...... crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri .times. H. brevisubulatum) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 27-30) and (H. jubatum .times. H. lechleri) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 20-22). The first combination...

  14. Evaluación del efecto del Biol a diferentes concentraciones en la producción de cebada (Hordeum vulgare) y maíz (Zea mays) hidropónico como una alternativa de aprovisionamiento de forraje para cuyes (Cavia porcellus) en las etapas de desarrollo y engorde. Guayllabamba - Ecuador 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Jumbo Chuquimarca, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    En la parroquia de Guayllabamba, cantón Quito, provincia de Pichincha a 2139 m.s.n.m., se evaluó el efecto de cinco concentraciones de biol en un sistema de riego en la producción de cebada y maíz hidropónico en un primer ensayo, y posteriormente en un segundo se determinó el efecto del forraje hidropónico obtenido con el biol en la alimentación en las etapas de desarrollo y engorde de cuyes. En la investigación se utilizó un DCA. En la primera fase se utilizó cinco tratamientos (0%, 30%, ...

  15. Cytogenetisch en embryologisch onderzoek aan kruisingen tussen Hordeum vulgare en H. bulbosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, W.

    1969-01-01

    Crosses between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bulbous barleygrass ( H.bulbosum) could be valuable for the transfer of such properties as resistance to cold or diseases from H. bulbosum to H. vulgare. From the literature it was known that difficulties arose in the cross: seed abortion necessitating

  16. Haploid Barley from the Intergeneric Cross Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1984-01-01

    The intergeneric hybrid Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis was fairly easily obtained. During each growing season the intermediate, perennial hybrid yielded haploid tillers of H. vulgare. Late in one season few, hybrid tillers headed. The morphology, cytology and enzymatic patterns...... of hybrid and haploid tillers were investigated....

  17. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  18. Homology Modeling and Functional Characterization of PR-1a Protein of Hordeum vulgare subsp. Vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Vahid; Ghaderian, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related protein 1a of Hordeum vulgare subsp. Vulgare (HvPR-1a) is induced by various pathogens and stress related factors. It plays important roles in plant defense system. Since the discovery of HvPR-1a a great deal of research has been focused on its isolation and characterization. However, three dimensional structure of HvPR-1a is still unknown. 3D structure can be used for determining protein function, and identifying novel protein folds and potential targets for regulation. The protein model was developed using MODELLER 9v10. Physicochemical characterization and functional annotation of the model carried out with Expasy's ProtParam server and three different conserved domain finding programs including InterProScan, Proteins Families Database (Pfam), and NCBI Conserved Domains Database (NCBI-CDD). Applying validation programs revealed that the model has good quality and the RMSD value is 0.7. The predicted model submitted in Protein Model Database, PMDB for public use. This model will be used in wide range of studies for functional analysis and improvement activity of the protein.

  19. Separate Location of Parental Chromosomes in Squashed Metaphases of Hybrid between Hordeum vulgare L. and Four Polyploid, Alien Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    In 38 squashed, somatic metaphases of four hybrids between diploid Hordeum vulgare and two tetra-and two hexaploid alien species, each of the H. vulgare chromosomes was identifed, and differentiated from the chromosomes of the other parental species, by its Giemsa C-banding pattern. The H. vulgare...

  20. Productos naturales para el control de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en cebada

    OpenAIRE

    Iribarne, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    La cebada es una planta monocotiledónea, perteneciente a la familia de las Poáceas (gramíneas) y al género Hordeum vulgare var. Distichum. Es un cultivo de gran difusión en el mundo, ya que ocupa el cuarto lugar en superficie sembrada. La cebada está expuesta desde la siembra hasta la cosecha al ataque de diferentes plagas, siendo los áfidos uno de los principales problemas en toda la región pampeana. Los pulgones generan daños directos, producidos por el aparato picador suctor e indirectos...

  1. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most o...

  2. Geography of genetic differentiation in the barley wild relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity require knowledge of the distribution and structure of genetic variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic...

  3. Comparison of selection efficiency for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under organic and conventional farming conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokare, Aina; Legzdina, Linda; Maliepaard, Chris; Niks, Rients E.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze whether selection under conventional conditions (indirect selection) is as effective as selection under organic conditions (direct selection) to develop varieties suitable for organic farming systems. Two F3 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations

  4. Variabilidad espacial de la materia orgánica en un suelo dedicado al cultivo de cebada maltera (Hordeum distichum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prieto Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de materia orgánica (MO en suelos es una de las propiedades de mayor interés debido a su papel en la estructura y a su reconocida influencia en la dinámica de solutos. Su caracterización es por tanto, un aspecto de gran interés. Los contenidos de MO en suelos dedicados al cultivo de cebada maltera ( Hordeum distichum L. son relativamente bajos, por lo que la incertidumbre y posibles errores del método analítico pueden condicionar estudios de variabilidad espacial. En este trabajo se elaboró y validó un método de análisis de la MO de acuerdo con los criterios de la Norma ISO-17025 y se diseñó un control de calidad, incluyendo un estudio de la variabilidad que la metodología introduce en los resultados. Con la metodología desarrollada se ha llevado a cabo un muestreo previo y un muestreo final de 39 y 248 muestras representativas de una parcela dedicada al cultivo de cebada maltera del municipio de Apan, al sur del estado de Hidalgo, México, cuyo fin fue evaluar el número de muestras necesarias que han de tomarse para caracterizar este suelo y esta propiedad (MO. El trabajo se completó con un estudio geoestadístico de los valores de MO, con lo que pueden extraerse conclusiones para planes de muestreo futuros, desarrollo de modelos de simulación a escala de campo y aplicación práctica de problemas de fertilización.

  5. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive se...

  6. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.

    2001-01-01

    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting

  7. A high-throughput RNA extraction for sprouted single-seed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rich in polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the exces...

  8. Biosynthesis of the leucine derived α-, β- and γ-hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces five leucine-derived hydroxynitrile glucosides (HNGs), of which only epiheterodendrin is a cyanogenic glucoside. The four non-cyanogenic HNGs are the β-HNG epidermin and the γ-HNGs osmaronin, dihydroosmaronin and sutherlandin. By analyzing 247 spring barley...

  9. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  10. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    yielding cereal crops are generated. In cereals, the process of leaf senescence is of utmost relevance when discussing yield. It is during the senescence process that all nutrients are transported from the withering leaf to the developing grains. Furthermore, the timing of senescence determines...... the photosynthetically productive period of the crop plant. Improving the process of senescence by genetic means rather than by increasing the amount of fertiliser is one potential approach towards a higher sustainable productivity. In several species of plants, the NAC transcription factors have been shown to regulate...... parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  11. Desarrollo radical y rendimiento en diferentes variedades de trigo, cebada y triticale bajo condiciones limitantes de humedad del suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eduardo Miranda Domínguez; Cándido López Castañeda; Ignacio Benítez Riquelme; José Apolinar Mejía Contreras

    2016-01-01

    El trigo (Triticum aestivum L.), triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.), se cultivan en México bajo riego y temporal o secano. En condiciones de secano se cultivan en la temporada de lluvias en verano-otoño y otoño-invierno con humedad residual, después de la temporada de lluvias, aunque con severos problemas de sequía terminal. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el rendimiento de grano (RG) y sus componentes, y la densidad radical (DR) bajo condiciones ...

  12. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoying; Sela, Hanan; Jiao, Genlin; Li, Chao; Wang, Aidong; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Weiner, Dmitry; Sakuma, Shun; Krugman, Tamar; Nevo, Eviatar; Komatsuda, Takao; Korol, Abraham; Chen, Guoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populatio...

  13. Auxin effects on somaclonal variation and plant regeneration from mature embryo of barley (hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, M.; Taspinar, M. S.; Arslan, E.; Sigmaz, B.; Agar, G.

    2015-01-01

    Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), immature embryos are the most commonly used as explant source for In vitro regeneration and genetic transformation but, mature embryos are alternative to immature embryo due to the fact that they have advantages such as easy storage and ready availability throughout the year. The effects of different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/l) of three auxins (2,4-D, dicamba and picloram) were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Calli, embryogenic calli and regenerated plants were observed in all of the studied auxins. The MS (Murashige and Skoog basal medium) containing 12 mg/l dicamba was found to be the most effective for embryogenic callus, responded embryogenic callus and regeneration efficiency. Plant tissue culture can bring about genetic changes that are known as somaclonal variation. Genetic and epigenetic changes were examined by RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and CRED-RA (Coupled Restriction Enzyme Digestion-Random Amplification) techniques, respectively. Increased auxin concentration led to the decrease in the GTS (Genomic Template Stability) value. DNA hypermethylation occurred in higher concentrations of 2,4-D and picloram, while DNA hypomethylation was observed in dicamba. (author)

  14. Evaluation of barley (hordeum vulgare l.) germplasm for high forage production under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Qurainy, F.A.; Akram, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    To explore high biomass producing salt tolerant cultivars of a potential forage crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), 30-day old plants of 105 different accessions from different origin were subjected to saline and non-saline (control) conditions for 45 days. Salinity stress (150 mM NaCl) markedly suppressed plant growth (shoot and/or root fresh and dry weights), chlorophyll pigments (a and b), internal CO/sub 2/ concentration, stomatal conductance, rate of transpiration and photosynthesis, while a considerable salt-induced increase was observed in all fluorescence related attributes including efficiency of photosystem-II (Fv/Fm), co-efficient of non-photochemical quenching (QN), photochemical quenching (QP), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in all 105 accessions of barley. The response of all 105 barley accessions to salt stress varied significantly for all the morpho-physiological attributes determined in the present study. Overall, on the basis of shoot and root dry weights, accessions, 4050, 4053, 4056, 4163, 4228, 4229, 4244, 4245, 4290, 4414, 4415, 4427, 4452, Mahali, Jesto, 4165, 4229, 4249, 4405, 4409, 4426, 4456, and Giza 123 were found superior while accessions, 4245, 4158, 4166, 4246, 4406, 4423, 4441, 4442 4447, 4453 and 4458 inferior under saline conditions. (author)

  15. Characterization and partial purification of beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Hejgaard, J.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma membrane bound beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase. assumed to be involved in the resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei), was partially purified from a microsomal fraction of green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plasma membranes were enriched...... by aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning of the microsomal fraction.in a polyethylene glycol 3350/Dextran T-500 system. The plasma membrane bound callose synthase was dependent on uridine 5' diphosphate (UDP)-glucose (K(m) 0.39 mM) and was activated by Ca2+, digitonin, cellobiose and polyamines. The enzyme...

  16. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Sallam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99 pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt and one isolate (92-MN-90 of the rye stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. secalis, Pgs. Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley.

  17. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Aquaporin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyararo M Hove

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare. The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

  18. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Runyararo M; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  19. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  20. Characterization of Gene Candidates for Vacuolar Sodium Transport from Hordeum Vulgare

    KAUST Repository

    Scheu, Arne Hagen August

    2017-05-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress for land plants, and multiple mechanisms of salt tolerance have evolved. Tissue tolerance is one of these mechanisms, which involves the sequestration of sodium into the vacuole to retain low cytosolic sodium concentrations. This enables the plant to maintain cellular functions, and ultimately maintain growth and yield. However, the molecular components involved in tissue tolerance remain elusive. Several candidate genes for vacuolar sodium sequestration have recently been identified by proteome analysis of vacuolar membranes purified from the salt-tolerant cereal Hordeum vulgare (barley). In this study, I aimed to characterize these candidates in more detail. I successfully cloned coding sequences for the majority of candidate genes with primers designed based on the barley reference genome sequence. During the course of this study a newer genome sequence with improved annotations was published, to which I also compared my observations. To study the candidate genes, I used the heterologous expression system Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). I used several salt sensitive yeast strains (deficient in intrinsic sodium transporters) to test whether the candidate genes would affect their salt tolerance by mediating the sequestration of sodium into the yeast vacuole. I observed a reduction in growth upon expression for several of the gene candidate under salt-stress conditions. However, confocal microscopy suggests that most gene products are subject to degradation, and did not localize to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). Therefore, growth effects cannot be linked to protein function without further evidence. Various potential causes are discussed, including inaccuracies in the genome resource used as reference for primer design and issues inherent to the model system. Finally, I make suggestions on how to proceed to further characterize the candidate genes and hopefully identify novel sodium transporters from barley.

  1. Multielement analysis of pakistani barley (hordeum vulgare l) varieties by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Shar, L.A.; Kazi, T. G.; Arain, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) is widely known due to its nutritional potential, in Pakistan it is only grown at a few agricultural experimental stations. There is no published data about the chemical composition of Pakistani barley varieties; however, research laboratories have studied their agronomical characteristics. The mineral concentration of five Pakistani barley varieties and their soil were studied, namely Sadabahar, Bajawar -2000, Frontier-87, Sonober-96, Soorab-96 and the soil of two agricultural plots, namely Wheat Research Institute Faisalabad and National Agriculture Research Centre Islamabad. The analysis included: 15 macro and micronutrients and they varied in concentration from 0.22-8285.1 mg kg-1 in barley seed and soil concentration in both of above plots varies from 1.63-14719.8 mg kg-1. Among all the varieties; Sadabahar showed the highest Mg, Zn and Cr content (2686.6, 39.19, 1.22 mg kg-1) respectively. Bajawar -2000, showed the highest Na, K, Ca, Fe, and Ni content (1768.0, 8285.1, 891.0, 937.02, and 4.56 mg kg-1) respectively. Frontier-87 showed the highest Ba content (18.58 mg kg-1), Sonober-96 showed the highest Co, Pb and Cd content (4.41, 1.45, 0.29 mg kg-1), Sorab-96 showed the highest Al content 39.50 mg/kg. Since all varieties were grown under two environmental conditions i.e. Wheat Research Institute, Faisalabad and National Agriculture Research Centre Islamabad. These results may be useful in the food industry for the selection of hull barley varieties for human consumption and to produce substantially mineral contents. (author)

  2. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmad H; Tyagi, Priyanka; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Hulse, Alex; Steffenson, Brian J

    2017-10-05

    Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1 , losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB) and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99) pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum ) for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC) of the wheat stem rust pathogen ( Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici , Pgt ) and one isolate (92-MN-90) of the rye stem rust pathogen ( P. graminis f. sp. secalis , Pgs ). Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley. Copyright © 2017 Sallam et al.

  3. Expression of resistance to Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici in 'Chinese Spring' wheat addition lines containing chromosomes from Hordeum vulgare and H. chilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, D; Carver, T W; Martín, A

    2001-01-01

    Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (syn. Erysiphe graminis f.sp. tritici) causes an important disease of wheat (powdery mildew) to which Hordeum vulgare and H. chilense are resistant. The study of chromosomal addition lines of H. vulgare and H. chilense in wheat showed that they possessed resistance to wheat powdery mildew. This was expressed as a reduction of disease severity but it was not associated with increased macroscopically visible necrosis. The resistance is of broad genetic basis, conferred by gene(s) present on different chromosomes of both H. vulgare and H. chilense. The feasibility of transferring this resistance to wheat is discussed.

  4. Broadly conserved fungal effector BEC1019 suppresses host cell death and enhances pathogen virulence in powdery mildew of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, is an ideal model to address fundamental questions in host resistance and susceptibility. Effector proteins secreted by B. graminis act to inhibit, induce, or accelerate host pr...

  5. Physiological and biochemical reactions of Hordeum vulgare seedlings to the action of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Khromykh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrical indexes, and spectrophotometrically measured protein and glutathione (GSH, GSSG contents and activity of peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7, glutathione-reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST, EС 2.5.1.18 were examined in Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings after 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l AgNPs treatment during 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that the action of nanoparticles has a stressful effect on the physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings. Growth of roots was inhibited and fresh weight decreased by 29% and 21% under low and high concentrations respectively. Conversely, leaf growth was intensified, and leaf length (16% and 18% and fresh weight (35% and 44% increased at low and high concentrations respectively. POD activity in roots increased by 26% and 7%, and decreased in leaves to 57% and 81% of control at low and high concentrations respectively. GSH content changed insignificantly, but GSSG content increased in roots (2 and 2.5-fold and in leaves (13% and 30% at both AgNPs concentrations. GSH/GSSG-ratio decreased in roots (1.9 and 2.6-fold and in leaves (1.1 and 1.3-fold at low and high concentrations respectively. GR activity decreased at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (7% in roots and 17% in leaves respectively and increased at 0.1 mg/l (52% in roots and 6% in leaves. GST activity increased in leaves (52% and 78% at low and high concentrations but decreased by 17% in roots under high concentration of nanosilver. Thus, the action of AgNPs on barley seedlings had a dose-dependent and organ-specific character. The various directions of changes in growth, metabolic processes and activity of antioxidant defense systems appear to be a stress response of barley seedlings to the impact of AgNPs, which underlines the necessity of detailed study of plant intracellular processes exposed to the action of nanomaterial.

  6. Detection of QTLs for seedling characteristics in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under hydroponic culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qifei; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Du, Binbin; Li, Chengdao; Sun, Dongfa

    2017-11-07

    Seedling characteristics play significant roles in the growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including stable stand establishment, water and nutrients uptake, biotic resistance and abiotic stresses, and can influence yield and quality. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling characteristics in barley are largely unknown and little research has been done. In the present work, 21 seedling-related characteristics are assessed in a barley double haploid (DH) population, grown under hydroponic conditions. Of them, leaf age (LAG), shoot height (SH), maximum root length (MRL), main root number (MRN) and seedling fresh weight (SFW) were investigated at the 13th, 20th, 27th, and 34th day after germination. The objectives were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying these seedling characteristics using a high-density linkage map and to reveal the QTL expression pattern by comparing the QTLs among four different seedling growth stages. A total of 70 QTLs were distributed over all chromosomes except 4H, and, individually, accounted for 5.01%-77.78% of phenotypic variation. Out of the 70 detected QTLs, 23 showed a major effect on 14 seedling-related characteristics. Ten co-localized chromosomal regions on 2H (five regions), 3H (two regions) and 7H (three regions) involved 39 QTLs (55.71%), each simultaneously influenced more than one trait. Meanwhile, 9 co-localized genomic regions involving 22 QTLs for five seedling characteristics (LAG, SH, MRL, MRN and SFW) at the 13th, 20th, 27th and 34th day-old seedling were common for two or more growth stages of seedling. QTL in the vicinity of Vrs1 locus on chromosome 2H with the favorable alleles from Huadamai 6 was found to have the largest main effects on multiple seedling-related traits. Six QTL cluster regions associated with 16 seedling-related characteristics were observed on chromosome 2H, 3H and 7H. The majority of the 29 regions identified for five seedling characteristics were

  7. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Bengtsson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012–2014 in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis. The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley.

  8. The Mystery of Spot Blotch Disease Caused by the Fungal Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana on Barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjendal, Nele

    was investigated. In this PhD work it could be shown that light dependent disease symptoms were associated with less fungal colonization, while suppressing the rate of photosynthesis by keeping plants in darkness made them super-susceptible to B. sorokiniana colonization. Likewise, partial suppression......The fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana causes a wide spectrum of diseases including spot blotch disease. To achieve a better understanding of the biology of the fungus, the interaction of B. sorokiniana with the host barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and the resulting disease spot blotch...... of photosynthesis with DCMU (3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) reduced the formation of necrosis after infection and led to increased susceptibility, strongly implying that active photosynthesis is involved in disease symptom formation and that these symptoms negatively affect fungal colonization...

  9. Nitrogen uptake by Azospirillum brasilense inoculated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as influenced by N and P fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, Mahima; Tilak, K.V.B.R.; Sachdev, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a sandy-loam soil under potted conditions revealed that application of nitrogen and phosphorus increased the population of Azospirillium in the barley rhizosphere. A two fold increase was observed in the Azospirillium population at 80 days compared to that at 40 days of plant growth. The unsterilized inoculated roots had more population than the surface sterilized inoculated roots. Increased drymatter production of barley was obtained in A. brasilense inoculated N 0 P 1 (0 kg N and 30 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) treatment than uninoculated control. Also N and P uptake was higher in A. brasilense inoculated plants in the presence of both N and P fertilizers. The 15 N data revealed that at harvest nearly 36 per cent of the total N uptake was from the nitrogen fixed by A. brasilense irrespective of P treatment. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Quantitative Trait Loci and Maternal Effects Affecting the Strong Grain Dormancy of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Nakamura

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum has strong grain dormancy, a trait that may enhance its survival in non-cultivated environments; by contrast, cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare has weaker dormancy, allowing uniform germination in cultivation. Malting barley cultivars have been bred for especially weak dormancy to optimize their use in malt production. Here, we analyzed the genetic mechanism of this difference in seed dormancy, using recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between the wild barley accession ‘H602’ and the malting barley cultivar ‘Kanto Nakate Gold (KNG’. Grains of H602 and KNG harvested at physiological maturity and dried at 30°C for 7 days had germination of approximately 0 and 100%, respectively. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting grain dormancy identified the well-known major dormancy QTL SD1 and SD2 (located near the centromeric region and at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 5H, respectively, and QTL at the end of the long arm of chromosome 4H and in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 5H. We designated these four QTL Qsd1-OK, Qsd2-OK, Qsdw-4H, and Qsdw-5H, and they explained approximately 6, 38, 3, and 13% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. RILs carrying H602 alleles showed increased dormancy levels for all QTL. The QTL acted additively and did not show epistasis or QTL–environment interactions. Comparison of QTL locations indicated that all QTL except Qsdw-5H are likely the same as the QTL previously detected in the doubled haploid population from a cross between the malting cultivar ‘Haruna Nijo’ and ‘H602.’ We further examined Qsd2-OK and Qsdw-5H by analyzing the segregation of phenotypes and genotypes of F2 progenies derived from crosses between RILs carrying specific segments of chromosome 5H from H602 in the KNG background. This analysis confirmed that the two genomic regions corresponding to these QTL are involved in

  11. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  12. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and its effect on selected physiological and morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriama Kopernická

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and other toxic elements in the environment, mainly located in soil and groundwater, have a significant effect on plant and its productivity that has a huge attention in recent years. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil cause toxicity to plants, and contaminate the food chain. The industrial areas, as well as developing countries have been contaminated with high concentration of heavy metals. Main sources of contamination are mining and other industrial processes, as well as military and or lanfills, sludge dumps or waste disposal sites. The heavy metals are very dangerous to environment and pose serious danger to public health by entering throught the food chain or into drinking water. Phytoextraction is one way how to remove the contaminants from soil by plants. Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a technology that has been studied for several years. It is more ecological and cheaper way how to clean our environment.Several plant species are known becauce they hyperaccumulate a high contents of metals from the soil. The accumulators are mainly herbaceous species, crops and nowadays angiosperm trees with a high growth such as poplars or willows. We have focused on the determination of some morphological (lenght and weight of roots and biomass and physiological (contents of dry mass and number of lief stomata characteristics and the determination of the bioaccumulation factor and the translocation factor of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Imprints of leaves were evaluated using an optical microscope Axiostar Plus, Carl Zeiss, lens CP Achromat 40x/0.65, eyepiece PI 10x / 18, Canon Utilities Software Zoom Browser EX 4.6 and hardware Acer Travel Mate 4600, Canon Power Shot A95. The density of stomata was evaluated on an area of 1 mm2. Samples of the dried plants (leaves and roots were mineralized by acid digestion using microwave digestion device MARS X - press 5. The end of determination to obtain the cadmium content was

  13. Changes in growth and 14CO2 fixation of Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris induced by UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Increased UV-B radiation on the earth's surface due to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is one of the changes of current climate-change pattern. A field experiment was concluded to study the effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on growth parameters, photosynthetic efficiency (14CO2-fixation) and biochemical characteristics of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Plants grown under ambient UV-B radiation were compared with those grown without UV-B by excluding ambient UV-B radiation. To exclude solar ambient UV-B radiation, the sunlight was filtered through a polyester film that selectively absorbed UV-B. For ambient UV-B effects, plants were grown under polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters that transmitted the complete light spectrum. The results indicated increased shoot length, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, leaf area ratio and specific leaf weight in plants of both the crops grown without UV-B compared with those grown under ambient UV-B. Similarly, the rate of photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content, nitrates reductase (NR) enzyme activity and sugar content. The effect of UV-B exclusion was clearer in common bean compared with that in barley. We conclude that monocot species may be less sensitive to increased solar UV-B due to ozone depletion than with dicots

  14. Production and meiotic pairing behaviour of new hybrids of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Láng, M; Linc, G; Logojan, A; Sutka, J

    2000-12-01

    New winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hybrids produced using cultivated varieties (wheat 'Martonvásári 9 krl'(Mv9 krl) x barley 'Igri', Mv9 krl x 'Osnova', 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas') were multiplied in tissue culture because of the high degree of sterility and then pollinated with wheat to obtain backcross progenies. Meiotic analysis of the hybrids Mv9 krl x 'Igri' and 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and their in vitro regenerated progenies with the Feulgen method revealed 1.59 chromosome arm associations per cell in both initial hybrids. The number of chromosome arm associations increased after in vitro culture to 4.72 and 2.67, respectively, in the two combinations. According to the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis, wheat-barley chromosome arm associations made up 3.6% of the total in the initial Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrid and 6.6% and 16.5% of the total in in vitro regenerated progenies of the 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrids, respectively. The demonstration by GISH of wheat-barley chromosome pairing in the hybrids and especially in their in vitro regenerated progenies proves the possibility of producing recombinants between these two genera, and thus of transferring useful characters from barley into wheat. In vitro conditions caused an increase in chromosome arm association frequency in both combinations and in fertility in some regenerants.

  15. The Effect of Trichoderma harzianum and Cadmium on Tolerance Index and Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum, as a bioabsorbant to ameliorate the harmful effects of cadmium (Cd on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety ‘Sahra’, a factorial pot experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was conducted. Trichoderma harzianum withtwo levels (with and without inoculation and cadmium nitrate with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg.L-1 were the treatments. Results of ANOVA revealed that there was a significant interaction between Trichoderma and cadmium nitrate in terms of biological yield, straw yield, harvest index, spike number per plant and seed number per spike. Mean comparisons showed that Trichoderma inoculation at all Cd levels significantly improved both biological and straw yields. Trichoderma at 50 and 100 mg.L-1 of Cd also increased the spike number per plant (up to 120 and 66%, respectively significantly. Increasing Cd levels decreased seed yield (19%, 1000 seed weight (18%, partitioning coefficient (57% and tolerance index (23% significantly. Inoculation of Trichoderma into growth medium had a significant effect on seed yield and tolerance index (up to 17 and 22%, respectively. In conclusion, Trichoderma harzianum inoculation at lower concentrations of Cd (50 and 100 mg.L-1 could be effective to improve growth parameters of barley plant.

  16. Genetic Transformation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with the Gus Color Marker, the Bar Herbicide Resistance, and the Barley (Hordeum vulgare HVA1 Drought Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingdom Kwapata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties including “Condor,” “Matterhorn,” “Sedona,” “Olathe,” and “Montcalm” were genetically transformed via the Biolistic bombardment of the apical shoot meristem primordium. Transgenes included gus color marker which visually confirmed transgenic events, the bar herbicide resistance selectable marker used for in vitro selection of transgenic cultures and which confirmed Liberty herbicide resistant plants, and the barley (Hordeum vulgare late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 which conferred drought tolerance with a corresponding increase in root length of transgenic plants. Research presented here might assist in production of better P. vulgaris germplasm.

  17. Variability in Proline-Accumulating Ability of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars Induced by Vapor Pressure Deficit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Bodapati P.; Aspinall, Donald; Paleg, Leslie G.

    1992-01-01

    This work was undertaken in an effort to reconcile the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Excelsior and Proctor, reported by Singh et al. (1972) and Hanson et al. (1976). It deals with the effects of different vapor pressure deficits (VPD) during growth and subsequent drought stress on several barley cultivars. A higher VPD (1.2 kilopascals) during Clipper seedling growth resulted in higher solute-accumulating ability, seemingly independently of leaf water potential, than a lower VPD (0.12 kilopascals). The higher VPD during stress also resulted in higher solute contents, and this response may be more closely related to leaf water potential. When the responses of Excelsior and Proctor were examined in detail, it was found that the relative proline-accumulating ability of the two cultivars was dependent upon the VPD under which they were grown. At low VPD, Proctor accumulated significantly more proline than did Excelsior; whereas at higher VPD, Excelsior accumulated more proline than did Proctor. The crossover occurred at a VPD of about 0.72 kilopascals. This reversal of cultivar response was enhanced by multiplying seed under the two VPD extremes. Glycinebetaine accumulation did not demonstrate the crossover effect, although the concentration of this compound in all cultivars also depended on the VPD prevailing during growth and/or stress. Solute levels, in general, were more closely related to the decrease in relative water content than to a decrease in leaf water potential. It is concluded that the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of Excelsior and Proctor could be explained by these findings. PMID:16668700

  18. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Kernels

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    Filip Pošćić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2 and titanium oxide (nTiO2 nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively. Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production.

  19. A flavonoid mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exhibits increased sensitivity to UV-B radiation in the primary leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuber, S.; Bornman, J.F.; Weissenböck, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to define the role of soluble flavonoids as UV-B protectants in the primary leaf of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). For this purpose we used a mutant line (Ant 287) from the Carlsberg collection of proanthocyanidin-free barley containing only 7% of total extractable flavonoids in the primary leaf as compared to the mother variety (Hiege 550/75). Seven-day-old leaves from plants grown under high visible light with or without supplementary UV-B radiation were used for the determination of UV-B sensitivity. UV-B-induced changes were assessed from parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem II, including initial and maximum fluorescence, apparent quantum yield, and photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. A quartz fibre-optic microprobe was used to evaluate the amount of potentially harmful UV-B (310 nm radiation) penetrating into the leaf as a direct consequence of flavonoid deficiency. Our data indicate an essential role of flavonoids in UV-B protection of barley primary leaves. In leaves of the mutant line grown under supplementary UV-B, an increase in 310nm radiation in the mesophyll and a strong decrease in the quantum yield of photosynthesis were observed as compared to the corresponding mother variety. Primary leaves of liege responded to supplementary UV-B radiation with a 30% increase in the major flavonoid saponarin and a 500% increase in the minor compound lutonarin. This is assumed to be an efficient protective response since no changes in variable chlorophyll fluorescence were apparent. In addition, a further reduction in UV-B penetration into the mesophyll was recorded in these leaves

  20. Sink-source proximity affecting photosynthate distributive pattern in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath-Kothiala, Neeta; Mishra, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    Yielding ability of cereals is an interplay of source-sink capacities and is controlled presumably by physiological events at different growth stages. The translocation of 14 C-sucrose from the flag leaf to the ears and other plant parts of the main tiller of barley (H. vulgare L. cv 292) were studied at its appearance (I), maturation (II) and senescence initiation (III) stages. At every stage, there was preferentially higher 14 C-translocation from the flag leaf to the ears in comparison to other plant parts, indicating thereby the crucial role played by sink-source proximity in PHS'ate(photosynthate) Partg(partitioning). In order to ascertain such Partg behaviour of the different leaves on the main tiller at stage-II, the leaves starting basipetally, from flag to the fifth leaf, were labelled with 14 C-sucrose and their relative translocation to the ears and roots were determined. There was a differential 14 C-translocation to the sinks due to the change in the sink-source proximity, viz. >90% 14 C were translocated to the ears from flag leaf, which declined to ≤5% only from the fifth leaf, the reverse being true for the roots. Further, spikelet's central grains preferentially accumulated more 14 C-assimilates than the peripheral ones, probably due to being in close proximity to the unloading points. Thus, the distributive pattern of photoassimilates showed stage-specific quantitative changes and that the sink-source proximity played a crucial role in the PHS'ate Partg. (author). 3 figs., 29 refs

  1. Olive mill waste water spreading in southern Tunisia: effects on a barley crop: (Hordeum Vulgare. L

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    Raja Dakhli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to assess the impact of different concentrations of Olive Mill Waste Water (OMWW on the phenological behavior of a local barley variety (Arthaoui: Hordem vulgare L. during three consecutive crop years. For developing this work, a complete randomized block design was installed with four amounts of OMWW equivalent to 0 m³/ha (T0, 15 m³/ha (T1, 30 m³/ha (T2 and 45 m³/ha (T3, a local barley variety (Arthaoui and 3 replications. The results showed a highly significant reduction as well as of the tiller and ears number compared to the control according to the increase of OMWW concentration especially for the highest amounts either T2 and T3 respectively 30 m³/ha and 45 m³/ha. This reduction was although observed but it was less accentuated for the treatment with an amount of 15 m³/ha compared to the other rates. In addition, barley yield components were negatively affected by “OMWW” in particular yields plots that received higher doses as 30 m³/ha and 45 m³/ ha. Obviously, the straw and seed yield are catastrophically affected with relatively different degrees depending on the dose applied but also on the cumulative effect of successive applications during the three years of study. Indeed, richness of these effluents on salts especially in sodium and chlorides, on polyphenols and other compounds with variable toxicity is causing physiological disturbances that are negatively reflected at different phenological stages of barley as tillering, stem elongation and heading giving the catastrophic results in terms of seed yield. Keywords: OMWW, Barley, tiller number, ear number.

  2. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoying; Sela, Hanan; Jiao, Genlin; Li, Chao; Wang, Aidong; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Weiner, Dmitry; Sakuma, Shun; Krugman, Tamar; Nevo, Eviatar; Komatsuda, Takao; Korol, Abraham; Chen, Guoxiong

    2012-09-24

    The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric 'African Slope' of "Evolution Canyon") formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121-128 and 121-134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123-128,125-128, and 123-125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed sequence variation of HvABCG31 promoter. Abiotic

  3. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xiaoying

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71 from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon” formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22 were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2% than among populations (45.8%. Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin, Dof (DNA binding with one finger, and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important

  4. Desarrollo radical y rendimiento en diferentes variedades de trigo, cebada y triticale bajo condiciones limitantes de humedad del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Miranda Domínguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El trigo (Triticum aestivum L., triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L., se cultivan en México bajo riego y temporal o secano. En condiciones de secano se cultivan en la temporada de lluvias en verano-otoño y otoño-invierno con humedad residual, después de la temporada de lluvias, aunque con severos problemas de sequía terminal. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el rendimiento de grano (RG y sus componentes, y la densidad radical (DR bajo condiciones de humedad residual en Oaxaca, México, durante el periodo otoño-invierno 2013-2014. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones; la unidad experimental fue de cuatro surcos de 4 ×0.4 m. Se sembró el 5 de octubre de 2013 con una densidad de siembra de 100 kg ha-1 y se fertilizó con la dosis 40-40-00. La cebada produjo mayor RG que el trigo y el triticale; el alto RG estuvo acompañado de un alto índice de cosecha (IC, peso del grano (PG y DR, y menor estatura de planta y ciclo biológico (CB más corto. El trigo y el triticale tuvieron un RG similar, sin embargo, el trigo ‘Venturero’ tuvo mayor RG que la mayoría de los genotipos de trigo y triticale con alto número de espigas m-2 (E M-2 y PG, y el más alto peso hectolitrico, la mayor DR y el CB más largo. Más del 50% de las raíces se concentraron cerca de la superficie del suelo (20 cm en todos los genotipos y se observó que el trigo tuvo mayor DR que la cebada y el triticale en los estratos de 20-100 cm, y el trigo ‘Venturero’ produjo más raíces que los demás genotipos desde la superficie del suelo hasta los 100 cm. Los genotipos de cebada y trigo con mayor DR produjeron mayor RG, confirmando su mayor resistencia a sequía.

  5. A Spectrophotometric Assay for Robust Viability Testing of Seed Batches Using 2,3,5-Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride: Using Hordeum vulgare L. as a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lopez Del Egido

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis was carried out of published methods to assess seed viability using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC based assays of seed batches. The tests were carried out on seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Optic as a model. We established that 10% [w/v] trichloroacetic acid (TCA/methanol is superior to the acetone and methanol-only based methods: allowing the highest recovery of formazan and the lowest background optical density (OD readings, across seed lots comprising different ratios of viable and dead seeds. The method allowed a linear-model to accurately capture the statistically significant relationship between the quantity of formazan that could be extracted using the method we developed and the seed temperature-response, and seed viability as a function of artificially aged seed lots. Other quality control steps are defined to help ensure the assay is robust and these are reported in a Standard Operating Procedure.

  6. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grando, S.; Baum, M.; Ceccarelli, S.

    2005-01-01

    , difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between...... a Hordeum vulgare cultivar (`Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including...... neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were...

  7. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

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    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  8. Localisation of genes for resistance against ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ and ¤Puccinia graminis¤ in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ ssp. ¤spontaneum¤) line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, G.; Madsen, L.H.; Jaiser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley...

  9. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye...

  10. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural Equation Model as a Tool to Assess the Relationship Between Grain Yield Per Plant and Yield Components in Doubled Haploid Spring Barley Lines (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mańkowski Dariusz R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and characterize the relationships between yielding factors and grain yield per doubled haploid (DH plant of spring barley as well as relation between yield components and duration of each stage of plant development. To describe these relations structure equation modeling was used. The study included plants of doubled haploid spring barley lines (Hordeum vulgare L. derived from two-rowed form of Scarlett cultivar. The SAS® system was used to analyze the model of relationships between grain yield per plant and yield components. Our results indicate that the number of spikes per plant and grain yield per spike had a direct and decisive influence on the grain yield of the investigated DH plants of spring barley. Based on the path model analysis it was found that the most important factor determining grain yield per DH plants of spring barley was the number of spikes per plant and the duration of tillering and shooting stages.

  12. SELECTION MULTI-CARACTERES POUR AMELIORER LE NIVEAU ET LA STABILITE DU RENDEMENT DE L’ORGE (Hordeum vulgare L. EN ZONE SEMI-ARIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BENMAHAMMED

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude a été conduite sur le site expérimental de la Station de la Recherche Agronomique ITGC de Sétif (Algérie, au cours des campagnes agricoles 1996/97 et 1997/98. L'objectif est de sélectionner sur la base de plus d'un caractère pour tenter de réduire la variation inter-environnementale des rendements en grains et d'en améliorer le niveau chez l'orge (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivée en zone semi-aride. Plusieurs combinaisons de caractères, intervenants par niveau indépendant, ont été comparées relativement à la sélection mono- caractère sur la base de la biomasse aérienne. Les résultats indiquent que la sélection sur la base de la combinaison faisant intervenir la hauteur des plantes, le nombre d'épis/m² et l'indice de récolte s'est révélée en mesure de contrôler efficacement la variation inter-annuelle du rendements en grains,  tout en gardant la productivité à un niveau acceptable.

  13. [Cold induced cDNA library construction of highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hk. f.) using suppression subtractive hybridization technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Jia, Jing Fen

    2008-12-01

    Cold-induced genes of highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hk. f.) were studied using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. The cDNA from the materials treated with 4 degrees C was used as "tester", and that from the materials growing in green house (20+/-2 degrees C) as "driver". A subtractive library of highland barley including 640 cDNA clones was constructed in this study. Enzyme digestion of 32 clones chosen randomly from the library indicated that 87.5% of them contained inserts. The cDNA inserts of 16 clones were sequenced. Blast search analyses showed that these cDNAs were homologies to genes encoding the following proteins: metallothionein, protein kinase, ethylene signal transcription factor, bZIP transcription factor, zing finger transcription factor, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, ribosomal protein, sodium: hydrogen antiporter, catalase, NADPH-cytochrome reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, DNA binding protein, and sugar transporter-like protein. These results indicated that the cDNA clones in the library were related to cold-induced genes, and suggested that the cold-tolerant mechanism of highland barley might be a complicated, interactive system involving multiple approaches and genes. Construction of subtractive cDNA library provided an advantage for further studies to isolate and clone cold-induced genes in highland barley.

  14. Cultivate In Vitro Of Anthers Of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Vars. UNAGRO V-PM6 And DISSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquinez Casas, Xavier

    1994-01-01

    The barley is a autonomous cereal originated of the wild subspecies H. vulgare L. Only at the end of last century it acquired commercial importance with the establishment of the industry brewer (Chaparro and Moreno 1894); at the moment its national production is far from supplying the demand of the market. The Andean area is the most appropriate region for its cultivation in Colombia, mainly between 1800 and 3200 meters on the level of the sea, in the Boyaca, Cundinamarca and Narino departments. Their production is dedicated in a 80 at 85 for the industry brewer and malt industry and of the 15 at 20 for seeds, human food and animal

  15. Exogenous silicon (Si) increases antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipid peroxidation in roots of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongchao; Chen, Qin; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Wenhua; Ding, Ruixing

    2003-10-01

    Two contrasting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, i.e. Kepin No.7 (salt sensitive) and Jian 4 (salt tolerant), were grown hydroponically to study the effect of exogenous silicon (Si) on time dependent changes of the activities of major antioxidant enzymes and of lipid peroxidation in roots under salt stress. Enzymes included: superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR). Three treatments with three replicates were investigated consisting of a control (basal nutrients with neither NaCl nor Si added), 120 mmol/L-1 NaCl, and 120 mmol/L-1 NaCl +1.0 mmol/L-1 Si. Plant roots were harvested 2, 4 and 6 days after treatment and assayed for activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and electrolytic leakage percentage (ELP). The activities of SOD, POD and CAT in roots of salt-stressed plants were significantly stimulated at Day 2 compared to control plants, but considerably decreased at Day 4 and onward. GR activity in roots of salt-stressed plants remained unchanged at Day 2, but significantly decreased at Day 4 and onward. However, exogenous Si significantly enhanced these enzyme activities in roots of salt-stressed plants compared to Si-deprived salt treatments. This Si effect was time-dependent and became stronger as the experiments continued. The tendency of change in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of GSH coincided with the concentration of MDA, the end product of lipid peroxidation, and the ELP. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, and higher concentration of GSH, but lower concentration of MDA and lower ELP were noted in cultivar Jian 4 compared to Kepin No. 7, implying genotypic differences with Jian 4 being less susceptible to stress-dependent membrane lipid peroxidation. The effects of Si-enhanced salt tolerance are discussed with respect to cell membrane integrity, stability and function in barley.

  16. A Substantial Fraction of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Low Phytic Acid Mutations Have Little or No Effect on Yield across Diverse Production Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Raboy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits of the low phytic acid (lpa seed trait for human and animal nutrition, and for phosphorus management in non-ruminant animal production, are well documented. However, in many cases the lpa trait is associated with impaired seed or plant performance, resulting in reduced yield. This has given rise to the perception that the lpa trait is tightly correlated with reduced yield in diverse crop species. Here we report a powerful test of this correlation. We measured grain yield in lines homozygous for each of six barley (Hordeum vulgare L. lpa mutations that greatly differ in their seed phytic acid levels. Performance comparisons were between sibling wild-type and mutant lines obtained following backcrossing, and across two years in five Idaho (USA locations that greatly differ in crop yield potential. We found that one lpa mutation (Hvlpa1-1 had no detectable effect on yield and a second (Hvlpa4-1 resulted in yield losses of only 3.5%, across all locations. When comparing yields in three relatively non-stressful production environments, at least three lpa mutations (Hvlpa1-1, Hvlpa3-1, and Hvlpa4-1 typically had yields similar to or within 5% of the wild-type sibling isoline. Therefore in the case of barley, lpa mutations can be readily identified that when simply incorporated into a cultivar result in adequately performing lines, even with no additional breeding for performance within the lpa line. In conclusion, while some barley lpa mutations do impact field performance, a substantial fraction appears to have little or no effect on yield.

  17. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  18. The inter-relationship between processing-induced molecular structure features and metabolic and digestive characteristics in hulled and hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains with altered carbohydrate traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Fangyu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the microwave irradiation (MIR)-induced changes in protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains in relation to the truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. Samples from hulled and hulless cultivars of barley, harvested in consecutive years from four replicate plots, were evaluated. The samples were either kept raw or were irradiated with microwaves for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). The truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems was evaluated using the DVE/OEB system (DVE, truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; OEB, degraded protein balance). Molecular structure changes as a result of processing were revealed by vibrational molecular spectroscopy in the mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation region. Compared to the raw samples, MIR processing decreased (P < 0.05) the truly absorbable microbial crude protein and increased (P < 0.05) the truly absorbable rumen undegraded protein and endogenous protein supply without affecting the total truly absorbed protein supply to the small intestine (DVE) and degraded protein balance (OEB) in ruminant livestock systems. Changes in protein molecular structure (spectral intensities) were highly correlated with the changes in the truly absorbed protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. The results of the present study show that the changes in protein molecular structure as a result of MIR feed processing were associated with the truly absorbed protein supply to ruminant livestock systems. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. An evaluation of the impact of the endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica on some traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghabouli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial endophytes, which make one of the most important classes of soil microorganisms, induce genetic, physiological and ecological alterations in their host plant and thus increase its yield and enable its cultivation in saline or dry soils or in climates facing biotic and abiotic stresses. The endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica exhibits a high effect in plant growth and increased resistance against environmental tensions like drought and salinity, as well as against phytopathogens. This work was intended to study the potential of P. indica in enhancing growth and elevating drought resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. during 2010. A greenhouse trial of completely randomized design with two fungal treatments (inoculated vs. non-inoculated and three drought levels (F.C., 50% F.C. and 25% F.C. with four repeats was conducted in greenhouse of Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute (Isfahan. The results indicate that the fungus P. indica has accompanied biomass increments of both shoot and root parts in the inoculated plant compared to the control, as in inoculated plant, total shoot dry weight and root dry weight were increased by 39 and 46 percent, respectively. Also, in stress conditions RWC in inoculated plant was greater. In addition to the growth increasing activity, the effective role of the fungus in enhancing barley growth and yield under drought conditions (especially at the 25% F.C. level is evident. According to the results, and to the fact that the fungus can be cultured on artificial (host-plant-free growth medium, this fungus can be contemplated as making a growth stimulating agent and in producing biological fertilizer for use in crops; and it might take a significant role toward a sustainable agriculture. The application of this fungus can also be beneficial in increasing growth and production of crops such as barley and wheat under the dry conditions widely encountered in Iran.

  20. Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. yield in different density and mixture intercropping via competition indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Eslami Khalili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications at Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University during 2009. The first factor was two seed ratios include D1: 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (optimum seed ratio and D2: 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (high seed ratio and the second factor consisted of different planting ratio, P1: sole cropping of faba bean, P2: 50% faba bean + 50 % barley, P3: 75% faba bean + 25% barley, P4: 25% faba bean + 75% barley, P5: sole cropping of barley. Land equivalent ratio (LER indicated that intercropping of 25% faba bean + 75% barley was better than 50% faba bean + 50% barley. According to significant interaction effects of density and intercropping ratio in terms of seed yield and some competitive indices for both crop species, the highest barley and faba bean yield (3306.66 and 4884.56 kg.ha-1, respectively were observed in sole cropping with high density. In this experiment, the 75 % faba bean + 25 % mixture with high density was recorded highest intercropping yield, barley aggressivity value and 27% yield increases of barley in mix-proportion compared to sole crops. Also, the most of faba bean aggressivity value and faba bean yield increases in mix-proportion compared to sole crop were obtained when 25% faba bean + 75% barley mixture with optimum density was used. Furthermore the 75% faba bean + 25% barley treatment plus optimum seed ratio had highest system productivity index.

  1. A native QTL for Fusarium head blight resistance in North American barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) independent of height, maturity, and spike type loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G T; Franckowiak, J D; Neate, S M; Zhang, B; Horsley, R D

    2010-02-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch), is one of the major diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in eastern China, the Upper Midwest of the USA, and the eastern Prairie Provinces of Canada. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling FHB resistance, a recombinant inbred line population (F6:7) was developed from the cross Zhenongda 7/PI 643302. The population was phenotyped for resistance to FHB in two experiments in China and four experiments in North Dakota. Accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol was determined in one experiment in China and two in North Dakota. Simplified composite interval mapping was performed on the whole genome level using the software MQTL. The QTL FHB-2 from PI 643302 for FHB resistance was found on the distal portion of chromosome 2HL in all six FHB screening environments. This QTL accounted for 14% of phenotypic variation over six environments and was not associated with heading date or plant height. The FHB resistance QTL FHB-2 detected near the end of chromosome 2HL is in a different location from those found previously and is therefore probably unique. Because the QTL was not contributed by the Chinese cultivar Zhenongda 7, it is likely a native QTL present in North American barley. The QTL FHB-2 represents the first reported QTL for native FHB resistance in North American germ plasm and has been given the provisional name Qrgz-2H-14. This QTL should be considered for pyramiding with other FHB QTL previously mapped.

  2. Localisation of genes for resistance against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei and Puccinia graminis in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, G; Madsen, L H; Jaiser, H; Stougaard, J; Herz, M; Mohler, V; Jahoor, A

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line "1B-87" originating from Israel. The population consisted of 121 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance against leaf rust and powdery mildew was tested on detached leaves. The leaf rust isolate "I-80" and the powdery mildew isolate "Va-4", respectively, were used for the infection in this experiment. Moreover, powdery mildew disease severity was observed in the field at two different epidemic stages. In addition to other DNA markers, the map included 13 RGA (resistance gene analog) loci. The structure of the data demanded a non-parametric QTL-analysis. For each of the four observations, two QTLs with very high significance were localised. QTLs for resistance against powdery mildew were detected on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H and 7H. QTLs for resistance against leaf rust were localised on 2H and 6H. Only one QTL was common for two of the powdery mildew related traits. Three of the seven QTLs were localised at the positions of the RGA-loci. Three of the five powdery mildew related QTLs are sharing their chromosomal position with known qualitative resistance genes. All detected QTLs behaved additively. Possible sources of the distorted segregation observed, the differences between the results for the different powdery mildew related traits and the relation between qualitative and quantitative resistance are discussed.

  3. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  4. Efeitos de potenciais de água no solo, em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. Effects of soil water potentials at different phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Urchei

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de défices hídricos, em três estádios fonológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L., foi conduzido experimento em vasos, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Foram utilizados nove tratamentos decorrentes da combinação dos potenciais mínimos de água no solo de -0,05, -0,20 e -1,50 MPa, com os estádios fenológicos de máximo perfilhamento, florescimento e grão leitoso, permanecendo uniformizados durante o restante do ciclo, entre os potenciais de -0,01 a -0,05 MPa. Os resultados de produção, peso e teor de proteína dos grãos, tamanho de espigas, número total e número de espigas chochas, mostraram que os efeitos de défices hídricos variaram com a intensidade, duração e estádio fenológico da cultura, onde o estádio de florescimento mostrou-se mais sensível ao défice de água. A ocorrência de défice hídrico intenso, em cada um dos estádios, bem como ciclos repetidos de défices moderados ou intensos, levaram à diminuições significativas na produção de grãos, além de ocorrer tendência ao aumento do teor de protema dos grãos. O manejo da irrigação na cultura da cevada, quando se busca a máxima eficiência no uso da água, deve levar em conta os diferentes estádios fenológicos.The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effects of water deficits in three phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.. Pots were arranged in a randomized block design with nine treatments. They originated from the combination of minimum soil water potentials of -0,05, -0,20 and -1,50 MPa, with the phenological phases of maximum tillering, flowering and milky grain, having been hold uniformly along the rest of the cycle, between -0,01 and -0,05 MPa potentials. Weight of grain, protein content, spike sizes, spike total number and number of hollow spikes, showed that water deficit effects varied with the intensity, duration and

  5. Giemsa C-banding in two polyploid, South American Hordeum species, H. tetraploidum and H. lechleri, and their aneuploid hybrids with H. vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von

    1986-01-01

    American taxa of the same sections suggest a rather close relationship and support that the biological basis for their classification with different sections is questionable. C-banding patterns identified the chromosomes of parental genomes in interspecific hybrids between the two species and H. vulgare....... The hybrids were stably aneuploid. Both had lost and acquired H. vulgare chromosomes. Thus, somatic elimination of chromosomes was combined with multiplication of chromosomes. The observations of stably aneuploid hybrids have implications for the exploitation of alien germplasm. The activity of non-H. vulgare...

  6. Desarrollo de líneas mutantes dobles haploides de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) mediante el cultivo "in vitro" de anteras y su evaluación en condiciones de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Dávalos, Jorge Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Mejoramiento Genético de Plantas La técnica de producción de Dobles Haploides (DH), está siendo utilizada en muchas áreas del mejoramiento genético y la investigación. Esta técnica proporciona dos ventajas importantes, la reducción del tiempo en el proceso de desarrollo de una variedad mejorada y permite mejorar la eficiencia de la selección. La homocigosidad de los individuos heterocigotas que ocurre en la primera ge...

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...

  8. Direct Effects of Physcion, Chrysophanol, Emodin, and Pachybasin on Germination and Appressorium Formation of the Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) Powdery Mildew Fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (DC.) Speer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Marsell, Alexander; Riederer, Markus

    2018-04-04

    Several anthraquinone derivatives are active components of fungicidal formulations particularly effective against powdery mildew fungi. The antimildew effect of compounds such as physcion and chrysophanol is largely attributed to host plant defense induction. However, so far a direct fungistatic/fungicidal effect of anthraquinone derivatives on powdery mildew fungi has not been unequivocally demonstrated. By applying a Formvar-based in vitro system we demonstrate a direct, dose-dependent effect of physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, and pachybasin on conidial germination and appressorium formation of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (DC.) Speer, the causative agent of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) powdery mildew. Physcion was the most effective among the tested compounds. At higher doses, physcion mainly inhibited conidial germination. At lower rates, however, a distinct interference with appressorium formation became discernible. Physcion and others may act by modulating both the infection capacity of the powdery mildew pathogen and host plant defense. Our results suggest a specific arrangement of substituents at the anthraquinone backbone structure being crucial for the direct antimildew effect.

  9. Development and Validation of a Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Indole-3-Pyruvic Acid, and Abscisic Acid in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakurte, Ilva; Keisa, Anete; Rostoks, Nils

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, precise, and specific reverse HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of plant hormones in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The method includes extraction in aqueous organic solvent followed by solid-phase extraction, sample evaporation, and reversed-phase HPLC analysis in a general purpose UV-visible (abscisic acid (ABA)) and fluorescence detection (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA)), high-performance liquid chromatography system. The separation was carried out on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 column (150  ×  4.6  mm I.D) with a mobile phase composed of methanol and 1% acetic acid (60 : 40 v/v) in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1). The detection was monitored at 270 nm (ABA) and at 282 nm (Ex) and 360 nm (Em) (IAA, IPA). The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and robustness. The determined validation parameters are in the commonly acceptable ranges for that kind of analysis.

  10. Population genetic structure analysis in endangered Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lower correlation between the Euclidean distance matrices based on morphological and molecular data suggests that both data are comparably important to generate an unbiased picture of differentiation trends. Our findings support the required setting up of conservation strategies for Hordeum vulgare L. landraces ...

  11. [Effect of rye Secale cereale L. chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony expression in hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and wheat T. aestivum L.-rye S. cereale L. substitution lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Silkova, O G; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2007-07-01

    The effect of rye chromosomes on polyembryony was studied for reciprocal hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and five wheat T. aestivum L. (cultivar Saratovskaya 29)-rye Secale cereale L. (cultivar Onokhoiskaya) substitution lines: IR(1D), 2R(2D), 3R(3B), 5R(5A), and 6R(6A), and for direct hybrid combinations between the [H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (H. geniculatum All.)]-T. aestivum alloplasmic recombinant line and the wheat-rye substitution lines 1R (1A), 1R (1D), and 3R(3B). Chromosomes 1R and 3R of rye cultivar Onokhoiskaya proved to affect the expression of polyembryony in the hybrid combinations that involved the alloplasmic recombinant lines of common wheat as maternal genotypes. Based on this finding, polyembryony was regarded as a phenotypic expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions where an important role is played by rye chromosomes 1R and 3R and the H. vulgare cytoplasm. Consideration is given to the association between the effect of rye chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony in the [(Hordeum)-T. aestivum x wheat-rye substitution lines] hybrid combinations and their stimulating effect on the development on angrogenic embryoids in isolated anther cultures of the wheat-rye substitution lines.

  12. A study on the qualitative and quantitative traits of barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the qualitative and quantitative traits of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) and narbon vetch ( Vicia narbonensis L.) in intercropping and sole cropping system under the interference and control of weeds in dry land farming...

  13. Radiosensitivity study of cultured barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-07-01

    For studying the radioactivity, forty seven varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with various doses (0 ∼ 400 Gy) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The results showed that the dose-effects relations of seedling growth inhibition could be fitted by an equation of F(D) = 1 - (1 - e -a 1 D ) N , and the dose-effects of cell-nucleus, the frequency of root tip cell with chromosome aberations and peroxidase isoenzyme band could be expressed by a linear regression equation Y = A + B · X. The radioactivity of naked barley was much higher than of covered barley. According to different radiosensitivities the varieties studied could be divided into five types i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive, and extreme sensitive. The results also showed that there was close relationship between the DNA content of cell-nucleus, peroxidase isoenzyme zymogram and radioactivity. The radiosensitivty was proportional to the DNA content. The volume of cell-nucleus varied inversly as D 50 of nucleus volume and no obvious correlation with the D 50 of seedling growth inhibition

  14. Comparative Germination of Barley Seeds (Hordeum Vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where-as the rate of germination for the solutions of NaOH and NaHCO3 remained the same as that of the water. The influence in length of rootlets was also examined as a function of the nature of the soaking solutions. Sharp increase in the length was observed in case of Mg (OH)2 and KOH while in NaOH, Ca(OH)2 and ...

  15. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hassan, S.W.; Abid, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  16. Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) recombinant inbred lines intercropped with oat ( Avena sativa L.) weeds. ... Furthermore, the commonly used herbicide price is soaring from time to time and out of the reach of the poor farmers in the developing countries. Therefore, this method is an ...

  17. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to assess interrelationship among these measures and to identify high-yield and stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars in 11 environments during 2001 - 2003 in the central Black Sea region of Turkey. Significant differences were observed among barley cultivars for grain yield, ...

  18. Effects of Soil Aluminum on Early Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Wheat an Barley Cultivars Growing in an Andisol Efecto del Aluminio del Suelo en la Colonización Temprana por Micorrizas Arbusculares en Cultivares de Trigo y Cebada Creciendo en un Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Seguel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phytotoxicity in acid soils is an important environmental stress that negatively affects crop production, but arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi performance would allow plants to better withstand this environmental condition. This study aimed to analyze the effect of soil Al on early AM colonization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars. Near-isogenic Crac, Invento, and Porfiado wheat cultivars and Sebastián and Aurora barley cultivars were sown in pots in an acid soil at three Al saturation levels (60, 34, and 11%. At 20 d after sowing (DAS 'Crac' presented higher AM colonization (27% than other cultivars. However, 'Invento' had the fastest colonization at 41 DAS, which was inhibited in short term at lower Al-saturation. Moreover, roots of 'Aurora' were colonized 28 and 51% at 20 and 66 DAS, respectively, and also decreased at lower Al-saturation. In soil with 60% Al-saturation a great spore production was observed at 41 DAS, 'Aurora' had the highest spore density at 66 DAS. At 20 DAS a negative relationship (r = -0.37; p La fitotoxicidad por Al en suelos ácidos es un importante estrés que afecta negativamente la producción de cultivos, pero la actividad de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (MA permitiría que las plantas soporten mejor esta condición ambiental. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el efecto del Al en la colonización MA temprana de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.. Cultivares de trigo Crac, Invento, y Porfiado, y de cebada Sebastián y Aurora fueron sembrados en macetas en un suelo ácido con tres niveles de saturación de Al (60, 34, y 11%. A los 20 días después de la siembra (DDS 'Crac' presentó la mayor colonización MA (27%; sin embargo, 'Invento' tuvo la más rápida colonización a los 41 DDS, la cual fue inhibida a corto plazo a una menor saturación de Al. Por otra parte, las raíces de 'Aurora' fueron colonizadas 28 y 51% a los

  19. [Specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic lines obtained based on hybridization of self-fertilized offspring of barley-wheat (Hordeum vulgare L. x Triticum aestivum L.) amphiploid with common wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 and Pyrotrix 28].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Trubacheeva, N V; Kravtsova, L A; Dobrovol'skaia, O B

    2012-12-01

    The problems of fertility restoration in the progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. vulgare x T. aestivum) are explained by incompatibility between the cytoplasm of cultivated barley and the nuclear genome of common wheat. Suitable models for studying these problems are alloplasmic lines that combine the cytoplasm of barley and the nuclear genome of wheat. In this work, the specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic common wheat lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum were studied depending on the influence of wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 (Sar29) and Pyrotrix 28 (Pyr28) used to produce these lines. The alloplasmic lines were created using hybrids between the 48-chromosome offspring (Amph1) of the barley-wheat amphiploid H. vulgare (ya-319) x T. aestivum (Sar29) and these wheat varieties. Backcrossing of the Amph1 (2n = 48) x Sar29 hybrid with the wheat variety Sar29 resulted in the complete sterility in the (H. vulgare)-Sar29 line, which suggests the incompatibility of the nuclear genome of the common wheat variety Sar29 with the cytoplasm of H. vulgare. Crossing of Amph1 (2n = 48) with Pyr28 resulted in the restoration of self-fertility in the hybrid with 2n = 44. In the alloplasmic lines (2n = 42) formed based on plants of the self-fertilized generations of this hybrid, the barley chromosomes were eliminated, and recombination between the nuclear genomes of the parental wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28 took place. Alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with different levels of fertility were isolated. As was shown by the SSR analysis, differences in the fertility traits between these lines are determined by variations in the content of the genetic material from the wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28. The complete restoration of fertility in these alloplasmic recombinant lines is accompanied by the formation of a nuclear genome in which the genetic material of Pyr28 significantly prevails. The conclusion is made that the common wheat variety

  20. Effects of INH, DNP, 2, 4-D and CMU on the sugar content of the barley and maize leaves; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 3-D y CMU) sobre el contenido en azucares de hohas de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Sancho, P.

    1979-07-01

    1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solution was absorbed by barley and maize roots during 24 and 48 hours in dark or light conditioners in order to determine the best conditions. for the obtention of labelled sugars with high specific activity. Results show that the highest specific activity was obtained In maize plants treated with DNP for 24 hours in dark conditions. (Author) 51 refs.

  1. Comparative study of the inhibition produced by CMU (3-p-chlorophenyl-1. 1-dimethyl-urea) in barley leaves, on the photophosphorilation, photocarboxilation and hill reaction; Estudio comparativo de la inhibicion que produce el CMU sobre la fotogosforilacion, totocarboxilacion y reaccion de hill en cebada. (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Sancho, C.

    1977-07-01

    The effect of different concentrations of CMU (from 10 {sup -}8 M to 10{sup -}3 H) on the photophosphorilation, photocarboxilation and Hill reaction was studied. CMU (Carbon-H labelled) was utilized to determine the concentration of CMU in leaf parenchyma. Photocarboxilation and photophosphorolation was sensible to concentrations less than 10{sup -}7 M. Hill reaction in isolated chloroplasts was sensible from concentrations of the order of 10{sup -}8 M. (Author) 50 refs.

  2. Effects of INH, DNP, 2,4-D and CMU on the photosynthetic activity of barley and maize plants; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 4-D y CMU) sobre la actividad fotosintetica de plantular de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Prieto, M. P.

    1979-07-01

    Determinations of the rate of photosynthesis were made in barley and maize leaves treated with INH, DNP, 2,4-D or CMU. 1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solutions was absorbed by roots during 24 or 48 hours in both dark and light conditions. After this period, photosynthetic activity, compensation point and 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilation were determined. Results show that INH increases the rate of photosynthesis, DNP and 2,4-D do not alter it sensibly and CMU acts as a strong inhibitor of photosynthesis. Some possible applications for ths obtention of labelled compounds by biosynthesis are discussed. (Author) 87 refs.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum. Southern blot hybridization revealed different levels of polymorphism among barley species and the RFLP data were used to generate a phylogenetic tree for the genus Hordeum. Our data are in a good...... agreement with the classification system which suggests the division of the genus into four major groups, containing the genomes I, X, Y, and H. However, our investigation also supports previous molecular studies of barley species where the unique position of H. bulbosum has been pointed out. In our...... experiments, H. bulbosum generally had hybridization patterns different from those of H. vulgare, although both carry the I genome. Based on our results we present a hypothesis concerning the possible origin and phylogeny of the polyploid barley species H. secalinum, H. depressum and the H. brachyantherum...

  4. Vulgar Music and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Rock music, rap, and heavy metal are all forms of vulgar music. Vulgarity refers to actions and communication that are "common, noisy, and gross," and are "untranscendent." A technological society is a vulgar society in its base of materialism and exclusive concern with power. Its excessive rationality produces a need for escape, for ecstasy, for…

  5. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, PB 1177, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia; Department of Plant Breeding, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 287, Zahlé, Lebanon; Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, The Lebanese University, Dekwaneh, Beirut, Leba; International Centre for Agricultural Research in ...

  6. comparison of the frost resistance of barley (hordeum vulgare l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley is the most important crop in the highlands of Ethiopia at altitudes above 2600 m, where its productivity is limited by cold stress. We studied 25 Ethiopian barley landraces in order to identify cold tolerant types and to describe characteristics and acclimation potentials of these landraces to cold stress. Barley plants ...

  7. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Barley, genotype x environment interaction, parametric and nonparametric measures, dynamic and static stability. INTRODUCTION ... evaluated in multi-environment trials (METs) to test their performance over different ...... (2) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and pea (Pisum sativum. L.). Adugna and ...

  8. Genetic Variability in Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective ex situ and in situ germplasm conservation strategies. Evaluation of genetic diversity levels among ..... comparable magnitude in protein variability did not reveal high differentiation among lines. On the other hand SDS-PAGE .... broad segregation of the characters concerned. Figure 1. Frequency (%) distribution of ...

  9. Determination of Local Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) Crop Coefficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    , 0.88 and. 0.68 kg m. -3 ... irrigated barley fields. This could be due to lack of information on water requirement of local barley. General crop coefficient values for various crops including for barley are available in ..... Soil salinity and barley.

  10. Genetic variability in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 44 barley landraces comprising collections and farmers' cultivars from north Shewa, Ethiopia were studied for variability in morphological characters and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seed storage proteins. The phenotypic frequencies of morphological characters ...

  11. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biotechnology of bread making: unravelling and manipulating the multi-protein gluten complex. Biotechnology 13, 1185–1190. Shewry P. R. 1995 Plant storage proteins. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 70, 375–426. Sipahi H., Akar T., Yildiz M. A. and Sayim I. 2010 Determina- tion of genetic variation and relationship in ...

  12. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Akdeniz H, Keskin B, Yılmaz I, Oral E (2004). A Research on yield and yield components of some barley cultivars. J. Agric. Sci. 14:119-125. Alemayehu F, Parlevliet JE (1997). Variation between and within. Ethiopian barley landraces Euphytica 94:183-189. Asfaw Z (1988). Variation in the morphology of the ...

  13. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1173. NEPZ,. N. WPZ. (IR). Saline soils. BYT. -LRA-. 3. (1994-95). /. NDB. 217. Hulled,. 6 row. 65–75. Semi erect. NW. FB. 44.25. MR. MR. MS. 7. B. HS. 169. NHZ. (RF). Kailash. ×. Briggs. Hulled,. 6 row. 92–100. Droop. W. F. B. 48.00. R. S. S. 8. S onu. HP. (RF). EB. 233. ×. Giza. 117. Hulled,. 6 row. 100–105. Non- droop. W.

  14. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SDS-PAGE was performed to separate the extracted pro- teins by using 12% separating and 5% stacking gels with a. Mini Protean System from Bio-Rad according to Laemmli modified method (Laemmli 1970). In this study, we adopted constant current electrophoresis instead of constant voltage. The loading of sample was ...

  15. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This method is thought to be often influenced by environmental conditions .... traits such as plant height, ear attitude, waxiness, purpose of cultivation ... Disease resistance. Region and. M ajor. Height. Ear. F eed. /malt. 1000. Y ellow. S pot. No. Genotype sowing condition. P edigree characteristics. (cm) attitude. W axiness.

  16. Registration of Food Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Variety HB 1307 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six-rowed food type barley, HB 1307, was developed by Holetta Agricultural Research Center (HARC) from a cross between a landrace line and exotic germplasm (Awra gebs-1 x IBON93/91) and released in 2006 for mid and high altitude areas. The three consecutive years\\' (2002-2004) tests proved its superiority in grain ...

  17. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, PB 1177, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia; Department of Plant Breeding, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 287, Zahlé, Lebanon; Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, The Lebanese University, Dekwaneh, Beirut, Leba; International Centre for Agricultural Research in ...

  18. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  19. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    During germination of barley seeds, the mobilization of protein is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the...

  20. Determination of Local Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) Crop Coefficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average economic water productivity (EWP) of barley for the very wet, wet, normal, dry and very dry seasons scenario were 0.99, 0.7, 0.65, 0.57, and 0.44 USD m-3, respectively, whereas the corresponding crop water productivity (CWP) values for grain were 1.53, 1.08, 1.0, 0.88 and 0.68 kg m-3, respectively. The EWP ...

  1. Isolating Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoters play the most important role in determining the temporal and spatial expression pattern and transcript level of a gene. Some strong constitutive promoters, such as cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter, are widely used in plant genetic engineering research. However, the expression levels of the foreign genes in ...

  2. Influencia del pastoreo invernal sobre la producción de cebada grano. Incidencia del abonado

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrábano, J.; Delgado, I.

    2011-01-01

    Se estudia la respuesta a dos abonados nitrogenados de fondo (80 y 40 U de N/Ha.) y dos de cobertera (100 y 50 U de N/Ha.) sobre la producción de forraje y grano de un cultivo de cebada en regadío pastoreado en invierno, en relación con un manejo tradicional del cultivo. ha producción de MS de forraje aumentó significativamente (P

  3. Relationships in the barley genus (Hordeum): An electrophoretic examination of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The relationships between all known Hordeum species except H. guatemalense were inferred from the electrophoresis of the six enzyme systems Got, 6-Pgd, Mdh, Idh, .alpha.- and.beta.- amylases. A total of eleven loci were scored for in these systems. Maximum likelihood clusters and Wagner networks ...... originated as alloploids. Phylogenetic links between diploid and polyploid taxa are suggested from the enzyme phenotypes. An evolutionary theory for the genus Hordeum is proposed, with two centres of differentiation, in South-West Asia and South America, respectively....... calculated from the electrophoretic data divided the genus into three groups, viz. the "H. vulgare group", the "H. marinum group" and the "H. pubiflorum group". Only one of these groups was recognized in the morphological sectioning of the genus. Most of the polyploid cytotypes in the genus seemed to have...

  4. Cereales menores de invierno : Mejoramiento genético de avena, cebada cervecera, centeno y cebada forrajera: producción y utilización en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaso, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Se conoce como cereales menores de invierno a una serie de cultivos como los de avena, centeno, cebada cervecera, cebada forrajera, triticale y trigo candeal. Estos cultivos en forma separada tienen una relevancia económica menor que el trigo pero, en conjunto, resultan importantes tanto por la superficie cultivada como por su valor económico. En esta charla yo me voy a referir a aquellos cereales de invierno en los que yo he trabajado durante todos estos años que llevo en...

  5. Estudio de adaptibilidad de variedades promisorias de cebada en los departamentos de cundinamarca y boyacá en 1983

    OpenAIRE

    Castiblanco G., Luis E.; Martínez W., Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Es objeto del presente trabajo determinar el comportamiento de doce variedades promisorias de cebada y cuatro testigos comerciales a la interacción genotipo por localidad, en varios ambientes representativos de las áreas de producción de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Boyacá.

  6. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  7. Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in Hordeum germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes, non-choke inducing endosymbiotic fungi of the genus Neotyphodium that systemically infect grasses, in eighteen Hordeum species from the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System was examined using light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Seventeen plant inventory accessions...

  8. Endophytic Fungi in a Hordeum Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; S.L. Clement; W.J. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in a Hordeum spp. germplasm collection is reported. The potential application of endophytes as biocontrol agents against pests of cereal crops is recognized. Suggestions are proposed to modify existing germplasm maintenance procedures to ensure that both seed viability and endophyte viability...

  9. Adaptability and stability of yield of hulless barley (Hordeum vulgar L. in moderate areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram bahrami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the stability and determine the highest yielding variety, 20 genotypes of hulless barley were studied in this research. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replication in six locations (Karaj, Esfahan, Nyshaboor, Yazd, Birjand, Zarghan for two years (2001-2003. Simple and combined analysis of variances showed that there were significant different between genotypes, In order to evaluate interactions and determine the adaptation of genotypes study in cluding: Environment variance, Environmental coefficient of variation, Eberhart and Russell’s regression method, Lin and Binn’s years within location mean squares method, the years within location environmental coefficient of variation and Non-parametric methods of deviation from rank and yield index. The obtained results through all these methods were nearly analogous. ICNB93-328 and ALELI/4/MOLA/2 genotypes were identified as stable genotypes. GLORIA genotype was recognized specially for the unpropitious weak areas.

  10. Desenvolvimento de uma bebida por infusão à base de cevada (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mourinho, Mara Rita Pina Palma

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Tecnologia e segurança alimentar Os alimentos funcionais têm tido um crescente interesse pelos consumidores, em parte devido ao aumento do conhecimento dos benefícios do seu consumo. O café, embora possua características funcionais, é rejeitado por alguns grupos de consumidores, principalmente pelo seu teor de cafeína. A cevada é o cereal mais utilizado como substituto de café e apresenta alguns compostos na sua constituição com acção benéf...

  11. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  12. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    the supernatant were performed by Ni2+-affininty chromatography. The purified fractions were analyzed via SDS-PAGE, western blotting for confirming the presence of HvEPB2 and via activity assaying. Incubation of purified HvEPB2 with Osborne fractionated barley seed storage proteins for 12 hrs revealed after SDS-PAGE...

  13. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve...... the N use efficiency in barley, we are developing a new generation of genetically modified plants based on the concept of cisgenesis. In this approach, plants are transformed only with their own genetic material. The genes encoding the cytosolic isoform of the glutamine synthetase (GS1...... into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  14. Induced androgenesis in vitro in mutated populations of barley, Hordeum vulgare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vagera, Jiří; Novotný, J.; Ohnoutková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2004), s. 55-61 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF4133; GA ČR GA521/03/0113; GA MZe QE1093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : anther culture * chlorophyll mutations * enhanced embryogenesis Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 1.028, year: 2004

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation (60CO) on quatitative characters of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, T.C.; Gonzalez, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Seeds od f a barley line were irradiated with doses ranging from O to 64 Kr of gamma radiation for three consecutive generations (R1,R2 and R3). From these, several mutant generations were obtained in the field, planting at a commercial density and without selection. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Identification of traits and QTLs contributing to salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.

    2012-01-01

     Salinity is the most severe abiotic stress perceived by plants and affects about 800 million hectares of land worldwide, including 20% of the world’s highly productive irrigated land. Significant crop yield losses are observed due to salinity. Salinization is increasing because of poor

  17. Identification of quantitative trait loci for ion homeostasis and salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.; Ribot, S.A.; Dolstra, O.; Niks, R.E.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Ion homeostasis is considered to be one of the most important mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance. We used the Steptoe × Morex barley doubled haploid population to screen for genetic variation in response to salinity stress at an early development stage in a hydroponics system, focusing on

  18. Identification of traits and QTLs contributing to salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.

    2012-01-01

     Salinity is the most severe abiotic stress perceived by plants and affects about 800 million hectares of land worldwide, including 20% of the world’s highly productive irrigated land. Significant crop yield losses are observed due to salinity. Salinization is increasing because of poor irrigation management and climate change. Improving salt tolerance in crops is for these reasons an important target for plant breeding in the near future. However, salinity tolerance in plants is n...

  19. Mycoflora Of Barley Hordeum Vulgare L. At Different Locations In Hail Area- Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 400 grain samples collected from barley fields in Hail area at the northern part of Saudi Arabia was used for this study. Isolation and identification of seed-borne fungi were conducted according to standard tests described by the International Seed Testing Association ISTA using YGCA medium. A total of 265 of external mycoflora and 517 of internal mycoflora were grouped into five fungal genera namely Aspergillus Alternaria Penillium Fusarium and Ulocladium spp. were isolated. Comparsion between frequencies and relative densities of external and internal mycoflora was carried out among the species of the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger reaveled high Fr. and RD of external mycoflora A. flavus Fr.60.9 - 40.5 RD 48.3 - 40.9and A. niger Fr. 52.7- 48.6- and RD 38.7- 41.9 as external internal mycoflora mycoflora respectively. All the species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were predominant as internal mycoflora .The most predominant species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were U. atrium Fr 89 -75.5and RD -79- 62.5 as internal external mycoflora respectively and Alternaria alternate Fr. 60 - 46.6 and RD. 55-32.3as externalinternal mycoflora respectively.

  20. [Hordein locus polymorphism in near eastern local populations of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2008-06-01

    Electrophoresis in starch gel has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by loci Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F in 140 local barley populations from the Near East, including 60, 34, 33, 8, and 5 populations from Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Palestine, and Israel, respectively. Fifty-seven Hrd A, 87 Hrd B, and 5 Hrd F alleles have been found. The alleles of these loci considerably differ in frequencies and distribution in populations from different Near Eastern countries. Cluster analysis of the matrix of the frequencies of hordein locus alleles in barley populations from the Near East, North Africa, Ethiopia, and South Arabia has yielded two clusters. The first cluster includes barley populations from Israel, Palestine, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Egypt; the second cluster, populations from Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Yemen, and Ethiopia.

  1. Introgression of LTP2 gene through marker assisted backcross in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Mikołajczak

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: BC6 lines developed in this study can serve as a unique and adequate plant material to dissect the role of LTP2 gene. Due to its role in lipid transfer, the LTP2 may be crucial in lipidome modification in response to abiotic stress.

  2. Construction of a map-based reference genome sequence for barley, Hordeum vulgare L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beier, S.; Himmelbach, A.; Colmsee, C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Barrero, R. A.; Hastie, A.; Šimková, Hana; Staňková, Helena; Vrána, Jan; Chan, S.; Zhou, G.; Poland, J.; Bellgard, M. I.; Houben, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ayling, S.; Lonardi, S.; Scholz, U.; Stein, N.; Mascher, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, APR 27 (2017), č. článku 170044. ISSN 2052-4463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOMES * PHYSICAL MAP * LIBRARIES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.836, year: 2016

  3. Transformation of Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) by Agrobacterium tumefasciens Infection of In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transform...

  4. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas Michel René; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  5. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  6. Growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers were applied under three water regimes to 'Sasa' barley variety using split - split plot design with three replications ..... (1999) on maize. Increasing the dosage of both fertilizers was not necessarily increase grain yield of the crop though significant increase was obtained over the ...

  7. Expression of dehydrin 5 during the development of frost tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Holková, L.; Prášil, I.T.; Prášilová, P.; Bradáčová, M.; Vítámvás, P.; Čapková, Věra

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 11 (2008), s. 1142-1151 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3191; GA MZe 1G57060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cold acclimation * Dehydrin 5 * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2008

  8. Responses to iron limitation in Hordeum vulgare L. as affected by the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S; Rothe, A; Kania, A; Wasaki, J; Römheld, V; Engels, C; Kandeler, E; Neumann, G

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 treatments stimulated biomass production in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley plants, both in hydroponics and in soil culture. Root/shoot biomass ratio was increased in severely Fe-deficient plants grown in hydroponics but not under moderate Fe limitation in soil culture. Significantly increased biomass production in high CO2 treatments, even under severe Fe deficiency in hydroponic culture, indicates an improved internal Fe utilization. Iron deficiency-induced secretion of PS in 0.5 to 2.5 cm sub-apical root zones was increased by 74% in response to elevated CO2 treatments of barley plants in hydroponics but no PS were detectable in root exudates collected from soil-grown plants. This may be attributed to suppression of PS release by internal Fe concentrations above the critical level for Fe deficiency, determined at final harvest for soil-grown barley plants, even without additional Fe supply. However, extremely low concentrations of easily plant-available Fe in the investigated soil and low Fe seed reserves suggest a contribution of PS-mediated Fe mobilization from sparingly soluble Fe sources to Fe acquisition of the soil-grown barley plants during the preceding culture period. Higher Fe contents in shoots (+52%) of plants grown in soil culture without Fe supply under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may indicate an increased efficiency for Fe acquisition. No significant influence on diversity and function of rhizosphere-bacterial communities was detectable in the outer rhizosphere soil (0-3 mm distance from the root surface) by DGGE of 16S rRNA gene fragments and analysis of marker enzyme activities for C-, N-, and P-cycles.

  9. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  10. Identification of traits and QTLs contributing to salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is the most severe abiotic stress perceived by plants and affects about 800 million hectares of land worldwide, including 20% of the world’s highly productive irrigated land. Significant crop yield losses are observed due to salinity. Salinization is increasing because of poor

  11. Colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) with Salmonella enterica and Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutter, Stefan; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Colonization of barley plants by the food-borne pathogens Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and three Listeria spp. (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. innocua) was investigated in a monoxenic system. Herbaspirillum sp. N3 was used as a positive control and Escherichia coli HB101 as a negative control for endophytic root colonization. Colonization of the plants was tested 1-4 weeks after inoculation by determination of CFU, specific PCR assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Both S. enterica strains were found as endophytic colonizers of barley roots and reached up to 2.3 x 10(6) CFU per g root fresh weight after surface sterilization. The three Listeria strains had 10-fold fewer cell numbers after surface sterilization on the roots and therefore were similar to the results of nonendophytic colonizers, such as E. coli HB101. The FISH/CSLM approach demonstrated not only high-density colonization of the root hairs and the root surface by S. enterica but also a spreading to subjacent rhizodermis layers and the inner root cortex. By contrast, the inoculated Listeria spp. colonized the root hair zone but did not colonize other parts of the root surface. Endophytic colonization of Listeria spp. was not observed. Finally, a systemic spreading of S. enterica to the plant shoot (stems and leaves) was demonstrated using a specific PCR analysis and plate count technique.

  12. Analysis of chlorophyll mutations induced by γ-rays in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-06-01

    Thirty varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with 137 Cs γ-rays. Dose-effect relations of chlorophyll mutation frequency in M 2 seedling and differences resulting from cultured types or radiosensitive types were investigated. Experimental results show that the relations between chlorophyll mutation frequency and doses can be fitted by a linear regression equation Y = A + BX. According to analysis of covariance, there is no considerable difference in various cultured types, but the difference of five different radiosensitive types is remarkable. The sensitive and intermediate types need much lower doses than other types to induce maximum chlorophyll mutation

  13. Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (hordeum vulgare L. subs. simpatina) germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, K.; Park, M.R.; Lee, H.J.; Lee, C.A.; Rehman, S.; Steffenson, B.; Lee, K.J.; Yun, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a poly house and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1(54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley. (author)

  14. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.

    1988-01-01

    mixoploid with respect to alien chromosomes (19-22). In one combination, chromosome no. 7 was duplicated. Meiosis in triple hybrids showed low, but variable pairing (1.3-5.5 chiasmata per cell). The syndesis probably did not include the barley chromosomes. Direct backcrosses to di- and tetraploid......-chromosomic plant in which the male parental genome was absent. We suspect that this plant may have arisen through parthenogenetic development of a reduced female gemete. The other cross with a diploid line ('9208/9') resulted in plant with 2n = 51-53. The most likely explanation for this second plant...... is that an unreduced gamete from the amphiploid was fertilized by a normal gamete from the backcross parent, and during early embryo development, some chromosomes were eliminated....

  15. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation on barley's (Hordeum Vulgare L.) susceptibility to cochliobolus sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawher, M.; Arabi, I. E.

    1998-03-01

    Two barley genotypes (Tadmor, W12291), and one promising line selected in AECS (76) were exposed to 60 cobalt gamma radiation. The doses used were: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. Susceptibility assessments were scored using a rating scale extending from 1 (highly resistant) to 5 (very susceptible) according to the percentage of infected area at subcrown interodes. In general, doses of 10, 15, 20 and 30 Gy increased the resistance to the pathogen Cochliobolus sativus by 56.29%, 58.29%, 54.57% and 49.71% respectively. The genotypes did not response similarly to the irradiation. The best response was obtained with c.v Tadmor. (author)

  16. Microarray Analysis of Late Response to Boron Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, M.T.; Yilmaz, R.; Eyidogan, F.; Graaff, de L.H.; Yucel, M.; Oktem, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays, being high-density and high-throughput, allow quantitative analyses of thousands of genes and their expression patterns in parallel. In this study, Barley1 GereChip was used to investigate transcriptome changes associated with boron (B) toxicity in a sensitive barley cultivar

  17. Durable resistance to net blotch and agronomic performance in some barley mutants [Hordeum vulgare L.; Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds from the net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) susceptible cultivar Thibaut were treated by gamma ray radiation and subsequently evaluated for reaction to the pathogen in the M2-M5 generations. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of putative mutants were compared with Thibaut in two different locations. Genetic variation among some mutant lines/cv Thibaut was estimated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Sixteen mutant lines and their mother cultivar Thibaut were analyzed with 14 EcoR1-Mse1 primer combinations. A total number of 504 AFLP bands were analyzed for each pair mutant/Thibaut. Narrow genetic variation among all genotypes was detected with an average of genetic similarity of 0.96. Cluster analysis with the entire AFLP data divided all genotypes into two major groups. The resistant mutant lines were grouped in one subcluster with 0.98 similarity index. Some resistant mutant lines to net blotch with good agronomic performances were produced [it

  18. Cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis of malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality results from the different steps of the malting process. Malting uses internal changes of the seed occurring during germination, such as enzymes synthesis, to obtain a good hydrolysis process and the components required. Among the three main hydrolytic events observed, that are namely starch degradation, cell wall breakdown and protein hydrolysis, an efficient cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is an essential condition for a final product of quality. Indeed, because of the physical barrier of the cell wall, cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is one of the first steps expected from the process to gain access to the cell components. Moreover, viscosity problem and haze formation in malting industry are related to their presence during the process when inefficient degradation occurs, leading to increased production time and cost. Understanding the key elements in cell wall degradation is important for a better control. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans and arabinoxylans are the main constituents of cell wall. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans are unbranched chains of β-D-glucopyranose residues with β-(1,3 linkages and β-(1,4 linkages. Arabinoxylan consists in a backbone of D-xylanopyranosyl units linked by β-(1-4 bonds connected to single L-arabinofuranose by α-(1→2 or α-(1→3-linkages. Degradation of (1-3,1-4-β-glucans is processed by the (1-3,1-4-β-glucanases, the β-glucosidases and the β-glucane exohydrolases. It seems that the (1-3-β-glucanases are also involved. Arabinoxylans are mainly decomposed by (1-4-β-xylan endohydrolase, arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.

  19. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propiconazole) spray intervals (7, 14, 21 day) and no spray control were arranged in a RCBD in 4 replications to assess net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) effect on malt quality. The varieties were grown at Holetta agricultural research center in 2005, ...

  20. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. yield with normal and coated urea in Pintag, Quito, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Lema-Aguirre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the response of barley production to nitrogenized fertilization (NF and its impact on the protein content of the grain and the availability of nutrients on the soil. The study was carried out in two sites in Hacienda Valencia, in Pintag, Quito, Ecuador, between March 2014 and February 2015. A variety of INIAP Cañicapa 2003 was used, and the NF was done with normal urea and polymerized (urea + tiophosphate of N-nbutiltriamida. An experimental design of randomized full blocks in four repetitions of divided lots [the urea (normal and polymerized was used in the main lot and the NF (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, y 150 kg N/ha in the sub-lot]. 110 kg/ha of seed was used; 50% of the NF was applied three weeks after planting (broadcast and 50% eight weeks after. The type of urea did not affect the production (p>0,10, although the average was different between two sites (4,33 y 2,08 t/ha for sites 1 and 2, respectively. Excess of rain could have limit the effect on the urea type. On average a cuadratic response to NF was obtined, with an optimum dose of N (DON of 90 kg N/ha and a production of 3,41 t/ ha. This DON was similar to the dose of N recomended for barley in Ecuador. The NF augmented the protein content up to 14,50% (p<0,01 and acidi ed the ground, because the urea nitri cation produces H+.

  1. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  2. Effect of herbicide clomazone on photosynthetic processes in primary barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, R.; Špundová, M.; Ilík, P.; Lazár, D.; Klem, K.; Tomek, P.; Nauš, J.; Prášil, Ondřej

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2004), s. 161-170 ISSN 0048-3575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/00/1274; GA ČR GP522/01/P098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : clomazone * herbicide * photosynthesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2004

  3. The effect of irradiating barley seeds (Hordeum Vulgare) on plantlet growth and net blotch resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Barley seeds of two cultivars (Smash and Thibaut) and one line (74-F-6) with water contents adjusted between 12.8 and 13.3%, were irradiated with various doses (1-sup 1 sup 6 sup 0 Gy) of sup 6 sup 0 Co γ rays. Doses of 1-sup 4 sup 0 Gy favored an increases length of the first leaf. In general, doses of 15 and sup 2 sup 0 Gy decreased barley susceptibility to Drechrlera teres f. maculata by 25 and 21%, respectively. This reduction was a function of the line or cultivar used. The best response was obtained with cv. Smash. Seedling growth stimulation and host susceptibility to D. teres were significantly correlated (r= -0.68). The stimulatory effect of γ rays on growth could be used at low levels, to provide adequate field resistance to net blotch caused by D. teres f. maculata. (author). 28 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... (TKMWL) was 11 to 13% and is in the range for desirably modified barley grain on malting. The varieties ... Key words: Diastatic tendency, malt extract, FAN, malt barley qualities, net blotch, propiconazole, starch flour pasting. ... phate was applied at the rate of 100 kg/ha (blanket recommen- dation). Weeds ...

  5. Cell size and cell number in dwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonstein, A.D.; Gale, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen height mutants, induced by sodium azide treatment of the two-rowed barley variety Proctor, have been used to investigate the relationship between the extent and nature of stem shortening with alterations in cell size and cell number, and the pleiotropic effects of dwarfing genes on vegetative development and agronomic performance. The studies on epidermal cell number and cell length in the developmentally earliest and latest elongated vegetative tissues - the coleoptile and peduncle resprectively - suggest that cell number may be the primary determinant of plant height. One semi-prostrate and one erectoides mutant are used to illustrate different cell number/cell size strategies and their relationships with gibberellin sensitivity, growth rate and lodging resistance are discussed. (author)

  6. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  7. CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL MEXICO: IMPACT ON BARLEY PRODUCTION (Hordeum vulgare IN TLAXCALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel O. Calderón-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical production of barley for ten years (2003-2012 as well as under climate change scenarios for near future (2015-2039 and for near future (2075-2099 in Calpulalpan, Tlaxcala was evaluated. An assessment of suitable regions for production was performed as well as historical performance and barley considering future climate change scenarios through the model AquaCrop (FAO also was estimated. Finally, the average production costs in the region were estimated through surveys with barley producers. The results show that over 70% of the area of the municipality has some degree of aptitude for producing barley. Climate change scenarios indicate increases proficiency in 2% of the surface and reductions of up to 16%. The production model shows very close results with those obtained by farmers in the municipality yields (2.53 t/ha, thus estimated future changes show a decline in yields of about 5% up to 100% depending on the future horizon. Considering current production costs, the benefit-cost relationship could be reduced from 1.4 and to 0.0 in the future. This will certainly affect the economy of the producers in the region.

  8. Some Root Traits of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. as Affected by Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bayani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal symbiosis on the colonization, root and leaf phosphorous content, root and leaf phosphatase activity, root volume and area as well as shoot dry weight of a variety of hulless barley were evaluated using a completely randomized experimental design (CRD with 3 replications. Treatments were three levels of drought stress of 30, 60 and 90% field capacity and two levels of mycorrhizal with and without inoculation. According to the results, the highest value of leaf phosphorous (1.54 mg/g was observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis against severe drought treatment. Root phosphatase activity was highest (297.9 OD min -1 FW-1 at severe drought stress with mycorrhizal symbiosis which in comparison with mild stress in the presence of mycorrhiza showed 16.6 fold increasing. The control and non-mycorrhizal symbiosis treatments had highest root dry weight (0.091 g. The lowest root volume (0.016 cm2 observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis × severe drought treatment. Generally, Inoculation of barley seed with mycorrhiza at severe water stress could transport more phosphorous to shoot, especially leaf via inducing of leaf and root phosphatase activity. Also, in addition to supply of nutrient sources especially phosphorous for plant, mycorrhizal symbiosis could play an important role in withstanding water stress in plant via increasing of root dry weight and area.

  9. Caracterización de patrones de hordeínas en variedades mexicanas de cebada maltera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Salgado-Albarra\\u0301n

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de proteínas de almacenamiento muy abundantes en la semilla de cereales son las prolaminas que se caracterizan por contener muchos residuos de prolina en su secuencia. En cebada, las prolaminas son denominadas hordeínas. El propósito de este estudio fue obtener los patrones proteicos de bandeo mediante la técnica de electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida bajo condiciones desnaturalizantes para, hordeínas de semilla seca de cinco variedades mexicanas de cebada. Asimismo, se obtuvieron los patrones de hordeínas en malta procesada a partir de cuatro variedades mexicanas y una variedad canadiense (Metcalfe. A continuación, algunas de las bandas diferenciales fueron identificadas mediante espectrometría de masas (EM utilizando distintos protocolos de digestión. En los patrones de semilla seca se encontraron diferencias entre las variedades mexicanas para las bandas correspondientes a un peso molecular de 100 kDa, 65 kDa y algunas de 37-45 kDa. En el caso de la malta, los patrones de las variedades mexicanas fueron muy contrastantes entre sí, así como con el observado en Metcalfe, lo que sugiere que el procesamiento de hordeínas durante la germinación y el secado de la malta depende de cada variedad. Finalmente, en la identificación por EM se demostró que el uso de digestión con tripsina es adecuado para distinguir hordeínas B y γ en malta, mientras que el uso de digestión secuencial con quimotripsina y tripsina favorece la identificación de hordeínas C en semilla seca.

  10. Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Umbelliferae) Attenuates Stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-stress and memory-enhancing properties of F. vulgare extract in experimental rats. Methods: F. vulgare plant extract was obtained using Soxhlet extraction technique. The extract, at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, was administered orally with an orogastric tube. Urinary levels of ...

  11. Single and combined toxicity of copper and cadmium to H. vulgare growth and heavy metal bioaccumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaltauskaitė J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The single and combined effects of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd (0.1-10 mg L−1 in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plants grown in hydroponics are investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of the binary mixture of Cu and Cd to the growth of H. vulgare and accumulation of these metals by the plants. Single and combined metal treatment led to major effects in the growth of roots and shoots and dry weight of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. It was observed that combined effects of heavy metals to plants are endpoint and concentration depending. The binary mixture Cu+Cd exhibited additive or less than additive interaction for dry weight, root length and shoot height. Analysis of tissue metal concentrations showed that Cu and Cd were mainly accumulated in the roots and the combination of Cu+Cd had less than additive response of metal bioaccumulation in the leaves and roots.

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci and Maternal Effects Affecting the Strong Grain Dormancy of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgaressp.spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Sameri, Mohammad; Sato, Kazuhiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Wild barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum ) has strong grain dormancy, a trait that may enhance its survival in non-cultivated environments; by contrast, cultivated barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare ) has weaker dormancy, allowing uniform germination in cultivation. Malting barley cultivars have been bred for especially weak dormancy to optimize their use in malt production. Here, we analyzed the genetic mechanism of this difference in seed dormancy, using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between the wild barley accession 'H602' and the malting barley cultivar 'Kanto Nakate Gold (KNG)'. Grains of H602 and KNG harvested at physiological maturity and dried at 30°C for 7 days had germination of approximately 0 and 100%, respectively. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting grain dormancy identified the well-known major dormancy QTL SD1 and SD2 (located near the centromeric region and at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 5H, respectively), and QTL at the end of the long arm of chromosome 4H and in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 5H. We designated these four QTL Qsd1-OK , Qsd2-OK , Qsdw-4H , and Qsdw-5H , and they explained approximately 6, 38, 3, and 13% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. RILs carrying H602 alleles showed increased dormancy levels for all QTL. The QTL acted additively and did not show epistasis or QTL-environment interactions. Comparison of QTL locations indicated that all QTL except Qsdw-5H are likely the same as the QTL previously detected in the doubled haploid population from a cross between the malting cultivar 'Haruna Nijo' and 'H602.' We further examined Qsd2-OK and Qsdw-5H by analyzing the segregation of phenotypes and genotypes of F 2 progenies derived from crosses between RILs carrying specific segments of chromosome 5H from H602 in the KNG background. This analysis confirmed that the two genomic regions corresponding to these QTL are involved in the regulation of

  13. Descripción de la gestion de agua de riego de las comunidades de Cebada Jich'ana y Damy Rancho pertenecientes al sistema de riego Totora Qhocha

    OpenAIRE

    Botello, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Este docuumento de trabajo ofrece un descripción de la situacion de derechos al agua, repartos de agua, y la ley de agua en Cebada Jich'ana y Damy Ranchero. LTRA-3 (Watershed-based NRM for Small-scale Agriculture)

  14. Propiedades reológicas y de adsorción de agua de harina extrudida de arroz y bagazo de cebada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El bagazo de cebada procedente de la industria cervecera se utiliza comúnmente en la alimentación animal, pero por medio de un proceso adecuado puede servir como alternativa en las formulaciones de productos alimentares ricos en fibra y proteína. La combinación de bagazo de cebada y arroz (82:18 fue procesada por extrusión para obtener la harina mixta extrudida de bagazo y arroz, de la cual se determinaron las propiedades reológicas y de adsorción de agua, cuyos valores fueron comparados con la harina de arroz cruda. Los modelos matemáticos de Oswin, Smith, Peleg (1988 y Peleg (1993 fueron utilizados para explicar las propiedades de absorción en diferentes temperatura (25, 30, 35 y 45 ºC y actividades de agua (0.11 a 0.97. Peleg (1993 fue el modelo que mejor describe las curvas de absorción de agua. El perfil de viscosidad aparente de la harina extrudida es similar al de harina de arroz crudo; no presenta viscosidad inicial pero se caracteriza por tener menor temperatura de pasta, quiebra de viscosidad y tendencia a la retrogradación.

  15. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  16. Environmental adaptibility of tansy ( Tanacetum vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological role of essential oils is reflected in the interaction of plants with environmental factors. Environmental adaptability of the plants can be assumed from essential oil contents. Essential oils are agents, which communicate with the plant environment. Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) was selected for laboratory research ...

  17. Environmental adaptibility of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Ecological role of essential oils is reflected in the interaction of plants with environmental factors. Environmental adaptability of the plants can be assumed from essential oil contents. Essential oils are agents, which communicate with the plant environment. Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) was selected for.

  18. Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Umbelliferae) Attenuates Stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-stress and memory-enhancing properties of F. vulgare extract in ... Stress effects brain function, impairs memory and disrupts cognitive skills leading to the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases [2]. Extreme stress builds up ... impart flavor, color and nutritional values in food.

  19. Genomic restructuring in F1 Hordeum chilense × durum wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genomic restructuring in F1 Hordeum chilense × durum wheat hybrids and corresponding hexaploid tritordeum lines revealed by DNA fingerprinting analyses. ANDREIA DELGADO ANA CARVALHO AZAHARA CARMEN MARTÍN ANTONIO MARTÍN JOSÉ EDUARDO LIMA-BRITO. Online Resource Volume 96 Online ...

  20. Taxonomy, Variation, and Relationships in the Hordeum parodii Group (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Jacobsen, N.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The Hordeum parodii group contains three species, viz. H. parodii Covas (6x), H. tetraploidum Covas (4x), and H. fuegianum Bothmer, Jacobsen, et Jorgensen, sp. nov. (4x). The former two species mainly occur in C and S Argentina, while H. fuegianum is native to Tierra del Fuego. All three species...

  1. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Malik, Al I.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds...

  2. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping showed that both anthocyanin compounds were the interactive products of two loci, one located on chromosome arm 2HL and the other on 7HS. However, the two different anthocyanin components seem to be controlled by different interactions between the two loci. The effects of the 7HS locus on P3G and C3G were difficult to detect without removing the effect of the 2HL locus. At least one copy of the 2HL alleles from the purple pericarp parent was required for the synthesis of P3G. This does not seem to be the case for the production of C3G which was produced in each of all the different allele combinations between the two loci. Typical maternal effect was also observed in the inheritance of purple pericarp grains in barley. The varied values of different compounds, coupled with their different genetic controls, highlight the need for targeting individual anthocyanins in crop breeding and food processing.

  3. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anjali, E-mail: joshianjali1982@gmail.com; Sharma, Arti [Centre For Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Nayyar, Harsh [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Verma, Gaurav [Dr. SS Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  4. Weed infestation of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. depending on the cover crop and weed control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this 3-year field study was to evaluate the effect of some stubble crops and weed control methods on the species composition, number and air-dry weight of weeds in a spring barley crop grown in short-term monoculture. The study was conducted in the period 2009–2011 at the Uhrusk Experimental Farm, on mixed rendzina soil classified as very good rye soil complex. It included stubble crops which were ploughed under in each year (control treatment without cover crop, white mustard, lacy phacelia, a mixture of legumes – narrow-leaf lupin + field pea and 3 weed control methods used in spring barley crops (mechanical, mechanical and chemical, chemical weed control. Veronica persica was the weed species that occurred in greatest numbers in the spring barley crop sown after stubble crops. All cover crops reduced the numbers of Avena fatua which was the dominant species in the control treatment. Chemical as well as chemical and mechanical weed control significantly reduced the numbers of Avena fatua compared to the treatment where only double harrowing was used for weed control. The stubble crops did not reduce weed infestation of spring barley. Compared to the control treatment, the ploughing-in of white mustard and the mixture of legumes reduced the dry weight of weeds by 49.1 and 22.7%, respectively. Mechanical weed management proved to be less effective in reducing the number and dry weight of weeds compared to the other weed control methods. A significant negative correlation was found between the dry weight of weeds in the spring barley crop and the dry weight of the ploughed-in white mustard cover crop under the conditions of chemical weed control as well as in the case of the mixture of legumes when complete mechanical and chemical weed control was used.

  5. Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Luxor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Hynek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600–700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and “enhanced disease susceptibility 1” in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley.

  6. Effect of caffeine on peroxidase activity and gamma-ray-induced oxic and anoxic damage in Hordeum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, R.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of caffeine during and after gamma radiation of barley seeds was studied using seedling injury and peroxidase activity as parameters. The radiation-induced stimulation of peroxidase activity is evident in eight-day only seedlings but not in embryos (i.e. immediately after irradiation). Caffeine present during irradiation of seeds soaked in oxygenated water diminishes seedling injury and also reduces the peroxidase activity to the level observed in eight-day old seedlings of unirradiated seeds. Caffeine, however, produces just the opposite effect (i.e. enhances the seedling injury and peroxidase activity of eight-day old seedlings) when applied during irradiation of seeds soaked in oxygen-free water. There is no evidence that caffeine effects enzyme activity under in vitro conditions. (author)

  7. Environmental influence on the effect of gamma irradiation on proximate chemical composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Farhatullah; Khan, S.; Iqbal, M.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of 10, 20 and 30 krad gamma rays on Ash, Moisture, Crude protein, Crude fat, Crude fibre and Nitrogen free extract contents of barely variety, C-63 sown on 5th and 20th November and 5th December were observed. Sowing dates had significant effects for all characters except moisture percentage and carbohydrates. Ash, moisture and carbohydrates percentages had increased due to early sowing, while crude protein, fat and fibre percentages had decreased due to late sowing. Radiation effects were highly significant for all characters except moisture percentage. The severity of stimulatory or inhibitory effect, in general, was dependent upon the intensity of radiation doses and time of sowing for all characters studied. Maximum stimulatory effects were due to 30 krad which were 6.23, 32.78, 4.92 and 29.07% for Ash, Protein, fat and fibre, respectively than their respective controls. The retarding effects of 14.57 and 8.20% for moisture and carbohydrate were also found due to 30 krad, as compared with their respective controls

  8. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yu-Ming; Liu, Chunji

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping showed that both anthocyanin compounds were the interactive products of two loci, one located on chromosome arm 2HL and the other on 7HS. However, the two different anthocyanin components seem to be controlled by different interactions between the two loci. The effects of the 7HS locus on P3G and C3G were difficult to detect without removing the effect of the 2HL locus. At least one copy of the 2HL alleles from the purple pericarp parent was required for the synthesis of P3G. This does not seem to be the case for the production of C3G which was produced in each of all the different allele combinations between the two loci. Typical maternal effect was also observed in the inheritance of purple pericarp grains in barley. The varied values of different compounds, coupled with their different genetic controls, highlight the need for targeting individual anthocyanins in crop breeding and food processing.

  9. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hordeum secalinum, H. capense and their interspecific hybrids with H. vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    The European H. secalinum (2n = 4x = 48) and the South African H. capense (2n = 4x = 28) had similar karyotypes with ten pairs of metacentrics, three of submetacentrics, and one of SAT-chromosomes. The C-banded karyotypes of H. secalinum from northern Europe were characterized by banding patterns...... reproductive system. No banding pattern polymorphism was present within plants of H. secalinum from Spain and H. capense, suggesting self-pollination. In both species banding pattern polymorphism was prevalent among plants. Together with other evidence the fairly similar basic C-banded karyotypes of the two...

  10. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  11. Do root hydraulic properties change during the early vegetative stage of plant development in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suku, Shimi; Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2014-02-01

    As annual crops develop, transpirational water loss increases substantially. This increase has to be matched by an increase in water uptake through the root system. The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of changes in intrinsic root hydraulic conductivity (Lp, water uptake per unit root surface area, driving force and time), driving force and root surface area to developmental increases in root water uptake. Hydroponically grown barley plants were analysed during four windows of their vegetative stage of development, when they were 9-13, 14-18, 19-23 and 24-28 d old. Hydraulic conductivity was determined for individual roots (Lp) and for entire root systems (Lp(r)). Osmotic Lp of individual seminal and adventitious roots and osmotic Lp(r) of the root system were determined in exudation experiments. Hydrostatic Lp of individual roots was determined by root pressure probe analyses, and hydrostatic Lp(r) of the root system was derived from analyses of transpiring plants. Although osmotic and hydrostatic Lp and Lp(r) values increased initially during development and were correlated positively with plant transpiration rate, their overall developmental increases (about 2-fold) were small compared with increases in transpirational water loss and root surface area (about 10- to 40-fold). The water potential gradient driving water uptake in transpiring plants more than doubled during development, and potentially contributed to the increases in plant water flow. Osmotic Lp(r) of entire root systems and hydrostatic Lp(r) of transpiring plants were similar, suggesting that the main radial transport path in roots was the cell-to-cell path at all developmental stages. Increase in the surface area of root system, and not changes in intrinsic root hydraulic properties, is the main means through which barley plants grown hydroponically sustain an increase in transpirational water loss during their vegetative development.

  12. Luteibacter rhizovicinus gen. nov., sp nov., a yellow-pigmented gammaproteobacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jens E.; Binnerup, Svend J.; Kroer, Niels

    2005-01-01

    ) had a DNA G+C content of 64.3 mol% and the major fatty acids were 15:0 iso (23.4%), 17: 1 iso omega 9c (25.5%) and 17 :0 iso (18.1 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the three strains showed 96 % sequence similarity to Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus LMG 18385(T), 95...... % to Frateuria aurantia DSM 6220(T) and 96 % to Fulvimonas soli LMG 19981(T). Using LJ96(T) DNA as probe, DNA-DNA hybridizations documented the relationship of the three strains to a single species (87.4-98.7% relatedness) and showed less than 30% relatedness to Frateuria aurantia DSM 62207 and Fulvimonas soli...

  13. Transformation of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , and compared that to the data for the model cultivar, Golden Promise. Subsequently, we analyzed the transformation efficiencies of the four cultivars using the protocol for Agrobacterium infection of ovules, previously developed for Golden Promise. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL0, carrying the binary...

  14. Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) for Improving Manganese Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lizhi

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a nutritional problem, causing significant reductions in crop yields and in severe cases resulting in complete loss of crops during winter time. Different plant species and genotypes within the same species vary in their tolerance with respect to growth in soils with ...

  15. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  16. Overexpression of Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise) Fundamentally Affects Morphology and Fertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mřížová, K.; Jiskrová, E.; Vyroubalová, Š.; Novák, Ondřej; Ohnoutková, L.; Pospíšilová, H.; Frébort, I.; Harwood, W.A.; Galuszka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : MASS-SPECTROMETRY * TRANSGENIC BARLEY * ARABIDOPSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  17. Identification and isoforms specificity of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain proteinaceous inhibitors of commercial feed protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    fractionated by affinity or ion exchange chromatography. Inhibitory fractions have been identified qualitatively/quantitatively by mass spectrometry. Ten different recombinant isoforms of potato type I chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI-1/2), three different serpins, two monomeric alpha amylase/trypsin inhibitors...

  18. Biochemical characterization of protein composition of high-lysine mutant ML-109 of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapala, A.; Yankoulov, M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present studies was to determine the biochemical basis of a high lysine content in the mutant ML-109. The protein composition of kernels of high-lysine mutant of winter barley and its initial breeding line were analysed. The portion of individual fractions differing by their solubility in total proteins as well as amino acid composition of kernel protein and separated main protein fractions were also determined. The performed studies showed that a high lysine content in the kernels of the analysed mutant results from a decrease in the hordein level and from an increase in the portion of salt soluble proteins - albumins and globulins. Besides that, the obtained results indicate that the amino acid composition of the main protein fractions of the analysed mutant was advantageously changed; these fractions contained more lysine and other exogenic amino acids. (author). 15 refs, 6 tabs

  19. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte

    2010-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was conducted to map the events during the initial stages of the interaction between the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley cultivar Scarlett. Quantification of fungal DNA demonstrated a sharp increase in fungal biomass in barley spikelets at 3 days...... function was identified. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed a correlation between high gene expression and detection of the corresponding proteins. Fungal genes encoding alkaline protease and endothiapepsin were expressed during 1-3 days after inoculation, making them...

  20. SiO2 nanomaterial as a tool to improve Hordeum vulgare L. tolerance to nano-NiO stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Cristiano; Branco-Neves, Simão; de Sousa, Alexandra; Azenha, Manuel; Cunha, Ana; Pereira, Ruth; Fidalgo, Fernanda

    2018-05-01

    This work was designed to assess the potential role of silicon dioxide nanomaterial (nano-SiO 2 ) in enhancing barley's tolerance to nickel oxide nanomaterial (nano-NiO). For this purpose, plants were grown for 14days under nano-NiO (120mgkg -1 ) single and co-exposure with nano-SiO 2 (3mgkg -1 ). The exposure of barley to nano-NiO caused a significant decrease in growth-related parameters and induced a negative response on the photosynthetic apparatus. However, upon nano-SiO 2 co-exposure, the inhibitory effects of nano-NiO were partially reduced, with lower reductions in fresh and dry biomass, and with the recovery of the photosynthesis-related parameters. Plants growing under nano-NiO stress showed an overproduction of superoxide anion (O 2 .- ), which favored the occurrence of oxidative stress and the enhancement of lipid peroxidation (LP), but the co-treatment with nano-SiO 2 reverted this tendency, generally lowering or maintaining the levels of LP and stimulating the redox pathway of thiols. The evaluation of the antioxidant (AOX) system revealed that nano-NiO induced the accumulation of proline, along with a decrease in ascorbate in leaves. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly enhanced and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) seemed to have a pivotal role in H 2 O 2 detoxification in leaves and roots, respectively. The response of the AOX system was even more prominent upon nano-SiO 2 co-exposure, reinforcing the ameliorating functions of this nanomaterial. Overall, the present study highlighted the protective role of nano-SiO 2 in barley plants under nano-NiO stress, possibly due to the Si-mediated protection against oxidative stress, by a more proactive performance of the plant AOX system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CINETIQUE D’ACCUMULATION ET DE REPARTITION DE LA BIOMASSE CHEZ DES GENOTYPES CONTRASTES D’ORGE (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H BOUZERZOUR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La capacité de produire une biomasse aérienne acceptable à maturité est une caractéristique désirable en zones semi-arides où la culture de l’orge est associée à la pratique de l’élevage ovin. Cette capacité est la résultante de la contribution des différentes parties de la plante. L’étude de la cinétique d’accumulation et de répartition de la matière sèche des parties aériennes de trois génotypes d’orge contrastés a été entreprise à la station de la recherche agronomique de Sétif. Les résultats montrent qu’une vitesse élevée de production de la matière sèche en début de cycle est indépendante de la précocité au stade début montée. La sélection de génotypes produisant plus de biomasse en début du cycle et qui sont assez tardifs à la montée pour éviter le gel de printemps est donc possible. La vitesse d’accumulation de la matière sèche au cours de la phase "levée - épi 1cm" peut servir comme critère de sélection pour identifier de tels génotypes.

  2. Can barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) adapt to fast climate changes? A controlled selection experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemayehu, Fikadu Reta; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon

    2013-01-01

    to environmental change needs to be explored in order to select the most productive genotypes. Presently, it is unknown whether cereal crops like spring barley can adapt to climate stressors over relatively few generations. To evaluate if strong selection pressures could change the performance of barley......The projected future climate will affect the global agricultural production negatively, however, to keep abreast of the expected increase in global population, the agricultural production must increase. Therefore, to safeguard the future crop yield and quality, the adaptive potential of crops......] and temperature, contrary to previous results from oilseed rape. The two barley accessions analyzed presented almost the same response pattern in a given treatment, though the modern cultivar had the highest yield in the climate scenarios, while the landrace was superior in yield under present day climate...

  3. Competition between spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. under different water supply conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wanic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment with an additive design and three series was conducted to test competition between spring barley and Italian ryegrass under different soil moisture conditions. The experimental factors were as follows: 1. type of sowing – mixed sowing and pure sowing; 2. water supply – plants supplied with water to meet their full requirements and 50% water supply reduction. The study covered five phenological development stages (BBCH of spring barley: emergence (10–13, tillering (22–25, stem elongation (33–37, heading (52–55, and ripening (87–91. The competitive effects were evaluated based on relative yield (RY, relative yield total (RYT, competitive balance (CB, and relative efficiency index (REI. Spring barley and Italian ryegrass competed for resources throughout the growing season. Competition intensity was found to increase until the heading stage, and it decreased towards the end of the growth cycle. More intense competition was observed under reduced water supply. Spring barley dominated over Italian ryegrass from the tillering stage to the ripening stage. In mixed populations, Italian ryegrass captured the available resources more effectively than spring barley from the stem elongation stage until the end of the growing season, particularly in the treatment with optimal water supply.

  4. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  5. Localising QTLs for leaf rust resistance and agronomic traits in barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicherer, S.; Backes, G.; Walther, U.

    2000-01-01

    to leaf rust by means of artificial infection, heading date, plant height and Kernel weight were assessed. For leaf rust resistance, 4 QTLs were localised, that explained 96.1% of the genetic variation. One QTL on chromosome 4H confirmed a position found in another genetic background and one mapped...

  6. The 'Green Revolution' dwarfing genes play a role in disease resistance in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, R J; Gosman, N; Burt, C J; Makepeace, J; Steed, A; Corbitt, M; Chandler, E; Brown, J K M; Boulton, M I; Nicholson, P

    2012-02-01

    The Green Revolution dwarfing genes, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, encode mutant forms of DELLA proteins and are present in most modern wheat varieties. DELLA proteins have been implicated in the response to biotic stress in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Using defined wheat Rht near-isogenic lines and barley Sln1 gain of function (GoF) and loss of function (LoF) lines, the role of DELLA in response to biotic stress was investigated in pathosystems representing contrasting trophic styles (biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic). GoF mutant alleles in wheat and barley confer a resistance trade-off with increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens and increased resistance to necrotrophic pathogens whilst the converse was conferred by a LoF mutant allele. The polyploid nature of the wheat genome buffered the effect of single Rht GoF mutations relative to barley (diploid), particularly in respect of increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens. A role for DELLA in controlling cell death responses is proposed. Similar to Arabidopsis, a resistance trade-off to pathogens with contrasting pathogenic lifestyles has been identified in monocotyledonous cereal species. Appreciation of the pleiotropic role of DELLA in biotic stress responses in cereals has implications for plant breeding.

  7. EFICIÊNCIA E FITOTOXICIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE Drechslera teres EM SEMENTES DE CEVADA (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silveiro Balardin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência e fitotoxicidade de cinco fungicidas aplicados no tratamento de sementes para o controle de Drechslera teres, agente causal da mancha reticulada em cevada. A produtividade da cultura foi afetada pelos fungicidas testados. Os fungicidas tebuconazole e triadimenol reduziram a altura das plântulas. enquanto que o difenoconazole reduziu significativamente a matéria seca (30g/100kg de sementes. O efeito dos fungicidas sobre a emergência mostrou que difenoconazole (30g/100kg de sementes e iprodine + thiram possibilitaram as maiores percentagens. Os fungicidas reduziram a incidência da Drechslera teres, o comprimento do coleóptilo e das radículas.

  8. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds

  9. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.I.; Silva, J.A.T.D

    2012-01-01

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  11. On the allopolyploid origin and genome structure of the closely related species Hordeum secalinum and Hordeum capense inferred by molecular karyotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Ángeles; de Bustos, Alfredo; Jouve, Nicolás

    2017-08-01

    To provide additional information to the many phylogenetic analyses conducted within Hordeum , here the origin and interspecific affinities of the allotetraploids Hordeum secalinum and Hordeum capense were analysed by molecular karyotyping. Karyotypes were determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to distinguish the sub-genomes and , plus fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/non-denaturing (ND)-FISH to determine the distribution of ten tandem repetitive DNA sequences and thus provide chromosome markers. Each chromosome pair in the six accessions analysed was identified, allowing the establishment of homologous and putative homeologous relationships. The low-level polymorphism observed among the H. secalinum accessions contrasted with the divergence recorded for the sub-genome of the H. capense accessions. Although accession H335 carries an intergenomic translocation, its chromosome structure was indistinguishable from that of H. secalinum . Hordeum secalinum and H. capense accession H335 share a hybrid origin involving Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum as the genome donor and an unidentified genome progenitor. Hordeum capense accession BCC2062 either diverged, with remodelling of the sub-genome, or its genome was donated by a now extinct ancestor. A scheme of probable evolution shows the intricate pattern of relationships among the Hordeum species carrying the genome (including all H. marinum taxa and the hexaploid Hordeum brachyantherum ). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Marrubium vulgare L.: A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Santram Lodhi; Gautam Prakash Vadnere; Vimal Kant Sharma; Md. Rageeb Usman

    2017-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare L. (family: Lamiaceae), also known as white horehound, is widely used as herbal remedy for chronic coughs and colds. It is used in various disorders related to skin, liver, gastric, heart and immune system. This review abridges phytochemical, pharmacological studies and medicinal uses of M. vulgare and provides scientific proof for various ethnobotanical claims in order to identify gaps, which will give impulsion for novel research on M. vulgare based herbal medicines. This ...

  13. Mitigación de la erosión de suelos en plantaciones de almendro por cubiertas vegetales: implicaciones para la agricultura sostenible de montaña (SE España)

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Hugo Durán Zuazo; José Ramón Francia Martínez; Iván García Tejero; Lorenzo Arroyo Panadero; Armando Martínez Raya

    2012-01-01

    La conservación y gestión sostenible de los recursos suelo y agua constituyen uno de los mayoresretos de los sistemas agrícolas de secano. Durante dos años hidrológicos se han estudiado lastasas de erosión y escorrentía de un suelo de cultivo en ladera con tres tipos de cubierta vegetal:cebada (Hordeum vulgare), veza (Vicia sativa), y tomillo (Thymbra capitata) en una plantaciónextensiva de almendros (Prunus amygdalus). El ensayo se realizó en Lanjarón (Granada, SE España)con parcelas cerrada...

  14. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE QUEROSENO EN LA RIZÓSFERA DE GRAMÍNEAS EN CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth García; Ronald Ferrera; Juan José Almaráz; Refugio Rodríguez; Edelmira García

    2013-01-01

    El queroseno afecta de manera negativa la actividad biológica del suelo, así como el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas. Para analizar lo anterior, se evaluó este contaminante en avena (Avena sativa), cebada (Hordeum vulgare), pasto (Chloris gayana) y trigo (Triticum aestivum), en las poblaciones microbianas de la rizósfera y el rizoplano, así como el porcentaje de degradación del contaminante en suelo rizosférico. Se empleó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con un arreglo fac...

  15. T* reatment of vulgar and plantar warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Khlebnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on clinical forms of warts associated with different types of human papillomavirus. The authors analyze the following wart treatment methods: excision, chemical and immune. Based on literature sources, the authors assess the efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of well-known treatment methods. The authors describe their own experience of treating primary and recurrent vulgar and plantar warts with an up-to-date chemical destruction drug - Mardil Zinc Max, a solution containing a complex compound of 1.5% zinc 2-chloropropionate in 2-chloropropionic acid. The efficacy of treatment of vulgar warts was 100%, and that of plantar ones - 62.5%. Clinical recovery was observed both in case of primary and recurrent processes. The treatment had no adverse effects or complications and was characterized by a low injury rate, good tolerance and full tissue recovery without any cosmetic defects.

  16. Genomic restructuring in Hordeum chilense durum wheat hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ANDREIA DELGADO

    [Delgado A., Carvalho A., Martín A. C., Martín A. and Lima-Brito J. 2017 Genomic restructuring in F1 Hordeum chilense × durum wheat hybrids and corresponding hexaploid tritordeum lines revealed by DNA fingerprinting analyses. J. Genet. 96, e13–e24. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/96/e13.pdf ].

  17. Remoción de nutrientes por cebada en seis suelos de Cundinamarca y Boyacá - Colombia Nutrient uptake by barley in six Colombian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amézquita Edgar

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la producción de cereales como la cebada está restringida por variados factores entre los que destacan lluvias irregulares, heladas, acidez del suelo, infertilidad y enfermedades, inadecuado manejo del suelo, además de escaso germoplasma adaptado. Una alternativa para enfrentar parte del problema está en la selección de líneas en diferentes terrenos, tendiente a desarrollar variedades adaptables aún a suelos de baja productividad. Para llegar a una apropiada recomendación a los agricultores se consideró la cantidad de nutrientes removidos por las plantas en madurez fisiológica. La cebada comercial 124 mostró preferencias por suelos de moderada fertilidad pero tuvo una relativa menor eficiencia en la conversión de nutrientes a grano frente al trigo Bonza. Sus requerimientos nutricionales para alcanzar rendimientos cercanos a 2.5 t/ha sin riego se definieron así: Macronutrientes (kg/ha: 30N, 8P, 45K, 8Ca, 2.5 Mg; Micronutrientes (g/ha: 140 Mn, 40 Zn, 24 Cu, 340 Fe. La más alta eficiencia nutricional para varias líneas promisorias de cebada sembradas en terrenos ondulados se dió en el suelo más productivo pero arcilloso (Vertic Tropudalf, una respuesta intermedia se halló en uno humífero ácido poco profundo (Paralithic Humitropept y una muy baja eficiencia se reportó en el de menos retención de humedad e infértil (Ustic Dystropept. Se seleccionaron dos líneas con baja adaptación a los tres terrenos mencionados, una rindió bien en el ambiente más difícil, y tres líneas exhibieron alta adaptación a todos los terrenos escogidos.

    In Colombia, the increase of barley production is restricted by such factors as irregular rainfall, low temperatures, soil acidity, low fertility and disease, associated with improper soil management and scarse improve germoplasm, A suitable use of fertilizers is an alternative to face part of the problem by means of plant breeding in different terrain, tend to develop of low

  18. Fertilización nitrogenada y balance de nutrientes en cebada cervecera Nitrogen fertilization and nutrients balance in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Landriscini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La difusión de cebada cervecera (CC con alto potencial de rendimiento aumenta los requerimientos de nutrientes, por ello el déficit y el desbalance nutricional serán limitantes de la producción. El Sistema DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System utiliza relaciones entre nutrientes foliares e indica el orden en que los nutrientes están limitando el rendimiento. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: a establecer el orden de requerimientos nutricionales de los principales macronutrientes para CC; b evaluar la sensibilidad de la metodología DRIS para detectar posibles respuestas a la fertilización nitrogenada, y c determinar si el manejo de la fertilización nitrogenada mejora el balance de nutrientes en la planta. Se utilizaron plantas de CC provenientes de 8 ensayos de fertilización realizados en los años 1999 y 2000 y muestreadas durante los estadíos de macollaje y espigazón. En macollaje, las parcelas testigo y las fertilizadas mostraron al N como el nutriente más deficiente, y al S en los casos de mayor aporte de N (cuando se fertilizó con 30 o 60 kg N ha-1. En este estadio se observó un leve desbalance nutricional, reflejado por el «Índice de Balance Nutricional» (IBN y la relación N:S. En espigazón la CC mostró deficiencias importantes de N, seguidas en muchos casos por el S, las cuales afectaron directamente el rendimiento. El P y el K mostraron índices adecuados no evidenciándose deficiencias en los suelos. En 1999, los rendimientos fueron bajos y con respuesta a la fertilización, excepto en un sitio donde hubo alta disponibilidad de nitratos y rendimientos elevados. En 2000, la mayor disponibilidad hídrica produjo mayores rendimientos con marcadas deficiencias de N debidas a la escasez de N disponible a la siembra. El S alternó con el N en el orden de requerimientos y el IBN mostró valores decrecientes al incrementarse el aporte de N. La correlación de este índice con los rendimientos de las parcelas

  19. Marrubium vulgare L.: A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram Lodhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L. (family: Lamiaceae, also known as white horehound, is widely used as herbal remedy for chronic coughs and colds. It is used in various disorders related to skin, liver, gastric, heart and immune system. This review abridges phytochemical, pharmacological studies and medicinal uses of M. vulgare and provides scientific proof for various ethnobotanical claims in order to identify gaps, which will give impulsion for novel research on M. vulgare based herbal medicines. This review summarizes selected scientific evidence on phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of M. vulgare over the past 48 years (1968 to 2016. The work reported on M. vulgare was reviewed from various sources like books, internet source i.e. google search engine, pubmed, sciencedirect and chemical abstract. The exhaustive literature was studied and critical analysis was done according to their phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Phytochemical investigations on different parts of M. vulgare have been reported the presence of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and volatile oils (0.05%. The aerial parts contain marrubiin, together with ursolic acid and choline. Pharmacological activities like, anti-nociceptive, anti-spasmodic, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-hepatotoxic activity have been reported. M. vulgare has therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, liver disorders, pain, cardiovascular, gastric and diabetic conditions. Aerial parts of M. vulgare is a good source of labdane type diterpene especially marrubiin which is present in high concentrations. However, further scientific studies are needed to explore clinical efficacy, toxicity and to explore the therapeutic effect of major secondary metabolites like diterpenes, phenylpropanoid and phenylethanoid glycosides of M. vulgare. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6

  20. Evaluación de la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae en cebada Assessment of resistance against Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F. Tocho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El pulgón verde de los cereales, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, es una de las principales plagas de estos cultivos en el mundo y también presente en Argentina. Si bien el control químico es la práctica más utilizada, el uso de variedades resistentes (uno de los componentes principales del MIP es la estrategia más efectiva y ambientalmente más amigable para el control de plagas. Dado que las plantas presentan distintos mecanismos que les permiten defenderse de los insectos, el objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum en una población de líneas recombinantes de cebada, e identificar aquellas con mejores características, portadoras de genes de resistencia a este insecto. La antixenosis fue analizada por la prueba de libre selección de hospederos. La antibiosis se evaluó por los parámetros del ciclo y el desarrollo del áfido y la tolerancia por características de crecimiento de las plantas bajo infestación. Al menos ocho líneas antibióticas fueron más tolerantes que sus testigos, presentando similares pesos secos, área foliar y contenido de clorofila bajo infestación. Estas líneas portadoras de genes de resistencia pueden ser de utilidad en los planes de mejora de la cebada.Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani is one of the major pests of cereals around the world that is present in Argentina. Chemical control is the most widely used practice; however, the use of resistant varieties, one of the main components in IPM, is the most effective and environmentally sustainable strategy of control. Since plants have different types of insect resistance that allow them to defend against pests, the aim of the current study was to characterize the resistance to Schizaphis graminum in a population of recombinant inbred lines of barley and to identify lines with improved characteristics that enable the development of commercial cultivars. Antixenosis was studied by the host free choice test. Antibiosis

  1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  2. Variabilidad genética de Fusarium graminearum, potencial producción de toxinas y sus implicancias en la calidad de los granos de cebada

    OpenAIRE

    Castañares, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos de la tesis: - Aportar conocimientos básicos sobre uno de los patógenos fúngicos de interés agro-alimenticio más importante como generador de mermas en el rendimiento de los cultivos y como productor de toxinas nocivas para la salud humana y de los animales. - Evaluar la variabilidad genética de aislamientos de Fusarium graminearum obtenidos de granos de cebada. - Determinar la potencialidad en la producción de toxinas: nivalenol, deoxinivalen...

  3. Hume e as teorias morais vulgares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Oliveira de Azevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Which are the vulgar moral systems criticized by Hume in the famous Treatise’s is-ought passage? Which are their representatives? Is this essay, I will deal with some differences between Hume and Hutcheson that can illuminate an answer. Hume, contrary to Hutcheson, fought all kinds of divisions of human nature in natural and divine components. The concept of sympathy has an essential function in his approach. There are good evidences that the young Hume adopted in Treatise an open strategic criticism to all influential moral theories of his time: the contractual voluntarism, the rationalistic ethicists, and the religious conceptions under the influence of the dogmatic Scottish evangelism. In this way, Hume has got some distance from Hutcheson, yet his criticism included the approaches influenced by the natural law theories with reference in the divine providence. The is-ought passage signalizes this strategy. Nevertheless, his juvenile impetuosity resulted in a lot of personal misfortunes. It will make Hume to mitigate his philosophical aggressiveness in his maturity, adopting in his posterior writings a more balanced stance.

  4. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are very complex mixture of components and their composition may vary in different species or varieties or even within the same variety. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare is one of the most distributed subspecies within the genus Origanum and has been found to be a poor-oil, categorized in cymyl, bornane or sabinyl chemotypes with higher proportion of sesquiterpenes. In this experiment, the Iranian sample was studied for the chemical composition of the oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC/MS for determination of components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging ability (DPPH method and reducing power (FRAP assay. Results: The sample belonged to “thymol” chemotype with the main components as thymol (37.13%, gama-terpinene (9.67%, carvacrol (9.57%, carvacrol methyl ether (6.88, cis-alpha-bisabolene (6.80%, eucalyptol (3.82%, p-cymene (3.58% and elemol (2.04%. The oil of plant showed very strong antioxidant activity (IC50=2.5 µg/mL in DPPH method, which was stronger than the standard antioxidants (Vit E and BHA, p

  5. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, S; Lyoussi, B; Wibo, M; Morel, N

    2001-05-01

    The hypotensive effects of the water extract of Marrubium vulgare L. and Foeniculum vulgare L. were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Oral administration of Marrubium or Foeniculum extract lowered the systolic blood pressure of SHR but not of WKY. In SHR, Foeniculum but not Marrubium treatment increased water, sodium and potassium excretion. Ex vivo as well as in vitro, Marrubium extract inhibited the contractile responses of rat aorta to noradrenaline and to KCl (100 mM). Inhibition was greater in aorta from SHR compared to WKY and was not affected by the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine. Vascular effects of Foeniculum extract were less pronounced than those of Marrubium and were blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine. These results indicate that hypotensive activity of Marrubium and Foeniculum extracts seems to be mediated through different pathways: Foeniculum appeared to act mainly as a diuretic and a natriuretic while Marrubium displayed vascular relaxant activity.

  6. Teratogenic effects of Origanum Vulgare extract in mice fetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Ragerdi Kashani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on reproduction have mentioned Origanum Vulgare extract’s ability to reduce mortality rates and improve fertility rates. However, other studies have suggested that it is possible to use Origanum Vulgare extract to induce abortion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of Origanum Vulgare on embryo survival and macroscopic abnormalities in mice.Methods: In this study, 24 mice Balb/c female weighting approximately 25-30 g were divided into 4 groups. Origanum Vulgare extract was prepared; different concentrations (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg in 0.25 ml distilled water were administered, by oral gavage, to three experimental groups of mice between day 6 (starting gastrulation until day 15 of pregnancy (end of organogenesis. The control group consisted of six mice that received 0.25 ml of distilled water daily. On day 16 of study, pregnant mice were anesthetized by chloroform and fetuses were removed and stained with Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red s and microwave irradiation. Morphological and skeletal abnormalities were investigated by light and stereomicroscopes.Results: The results of this study showed that high doses of the Origanum Vulgare extract significantly decreased the mean number of embryos (100.5, P>0.05, mean number of live embryos (70.5, P>0.05 in each mouse and resulted in significant reduction in mean weight(11848 mg, P>0.05 and crown-rump length(11.90.23 mm, P>0.05 and the overall size of fetuses compared to control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the groups receiving low dose of Origanum Vulgare extract with control group. In addition, under the effect of the Origanum Vulgare extract the subcutaneous bleeding seemed (20.1, P>0.05 significantly more frequent compared to the control group. Conclusion: Origanum Vulgare extract did not have any positive effect on fetal development; and high dosages led to an increased incidence rate of

  7. Marruboside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside from Marrubium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, François

    2002-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  8. The vasorelaxant activity of marrubenol and marrubiin from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, Sanae; Morel, Nicole; Wibo, Maurice; Fabre, Nicolas; Llabres, Gabriel; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2003-01-01

    Crude extracts of the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare show a potent in vitro inhibition of KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta. Bio-guided fractionations, spectroscopic analysis and chemical derivatization revealed the furanic labdane diterpenes marrubenol and marrubiin as the most active compounds.

  9. Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil (OEO) on broiler performance, cecal microflora and serum antioxidant activity. One hundred and eighty (180) 1-day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups. Group I was kept as normal control and ...

  10. 108-110 Registration of Guta Barley (Hordeium vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adoption potential by the local farmers. Keywords: Guta; Barley (Hordeium vulgare L); Yield ... evaluated along with Aruso and Shage as the local and standard variety, respectively at altitudinal range of 2400- ... 6. Farmers Evaluation of the Variety. To evaluate the perception and preferences of the local farmers, farmers' ...

  11. Antibacterial activity of whole plant extract of Marrubium vulgare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-26

    Nov 26, 2007 ... has been kept in the herbarium of Jamia Hamdard for future reference. Whole plant of M. vulgare was dried in shade and crushed to fine powder. The dried powder of the plant (200 g) was extracted in. Soxhlet apparatus with methanol. The extract was evaporated to dryness by evaporation on a water bath.

  12. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  13. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Methods: Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radic...

  14. Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Garbacki, Nancy; Tits, Monique; Bailleul, Francois

    2002-03-01

    The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity are reported for the first time. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of these five compounds on cyclooxygenase (Cox) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis activity. Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1. These results are of interest, as Cox-2 is mainly associated with inflammation and the Cox-1 inhibition with adverse side effects often observed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The occurrence of these phenylpropanoid esters could also explain some other pharmacological properties of M. vulgare.

  15. Geotrichum vulgare sp. nov., a novel asexual arthroconidial yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuczkowski, Michael; Bond, Chris; Prillinger, Hansjörg

    2006-01-01

    Two strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from different habitats, from soil in an alluvial zone national park in Austria and from a drain in a Turkish soft drinks factory. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the D1/D2 region of their large-subunit rDNAs and PCR fingerprints show that the strains are members of the same species, described as Geotrichum vulgare sp. nov. Analysis of nucleotide sequences showed that this species is related to the ascogenous genus Galactomyces. The closest phylogenetic relative is Geotrichum silvicola, a recently described species. The type strain of Geotrichum vulgare is HA1379T (= CBS 10073T = NRRL Y-27915T).

  16. Pénfigo vulgar: Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Lauro Gilberto Nunes R; Raquel Moresco V; G Marley; Cristina da Silva B; P Matesanz Pérez

    2005-01-01

    El pénfigo vulgar es una enfermedad auto-inmune ampollosa, muco cutánea, de carácter crónico, donde las lesiones de la mucosa bucal pueden anteceder las lesiones cutáneas. Así, el odontólogo asume papel importante en la identificación de las lesiones, debiendo realizar el diagnóstico por la historia clínica i exámenes complementares adecuados. Este artículo relata un caso de pénfigo vulgar acometiendo un paciente del sexo masculino, 47 años, con lesiones en la mucosa bucal y piel.Pemphigus vu...

  17. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2016-03-01

    In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the methanol extract were quantified, spectrophotometrically. The amount of marrubiin was calculated as 156 mg/g of M. vulgare extract. The antioxidant assay revealed a strong radical scavenging activity for the M. vulgare methanol extract with RC50 value of 8.24μg/mL. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents for M. vulgare were determined as 60.4 mg gallic acid equivalent and 12.05 mg quercetin equivalent per each gram of the extract, correspondingly. The presented fingerprint of marrubiin in M. vulgare extract developed by HPTLC densitometry afforded a detailed chemical profile, which might be useful in the identification as well as quality evaluation of herbal medications based on M. vulgare. Besides, the considerable antioxidant activity of M. vulgare was associated with the presence of marrubiin along with phenolics and flavonoids exerting a synergistic effect.

  18. Detection of duplicates among repatriated Nordic spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) accessions using agronomic and morphological descriptors and microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birgitte; Ortiz, Rodomiro; von Bothmer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Duplicate accessions in gene banks may be increasing while funding resources to maintain them are not always available. This research investigated the ability of agronomic and morphological descriptors for detecting duplicates among 138 repatriated putative Nordic barley germplasm and compared...... their use with results from previous research with microsatellite markers. These accessions were initially grouped into 36 potential duplicates according to passport data but further analysis with microsatellites reduce them to 22 genetically homogeneous groups. The analysis with 26 agronomic...... and morphological descriptors of putative Nordic spring barley accessions from nine gene banks was compared with a previous study with microsatellites. Each agronomic and morphological descriptor was weighed relative to its genetic determination with the aim of reducing the effect of environmental errors on genetic...

  19. Quantitative trait loci for yield and grain plumpness relative to maturity in three populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown in a low rain-fall environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulti Tesso Obsa

    Full Text Available Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF, Commander x WI4304 (CW, and Fleet x WI4304 (FW developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness. QTL for grain plumpness and yield were analysed using genetic linkage maps made of genotyping-by-sequencing markers and major phenology genes, and field trials at three drought prone environments for two growing seasons. Seventeen QTL were detected for grain plumpness. Eighteen yield QTL explaining from 1.2% to 25.0% of the phenotypic variation were found across populations and environments. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed for all grain plumpness and yield QTL, except QPlum.FW-4H.1 and QYld.FW-2H.1. Unlike previous yield QTL studies in barley, none of the major developmental genes, including Ppd-H1, Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3, that drive barley adaption significantly affected grain plumpness and yield here. Twenty-two QTL controlled yield or grain plumpness independently of known maturity QTL or genes. Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se.

  20. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th–10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter–gatherer economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergusheva, Elena A.; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N.; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440–890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter–gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early–Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the “Satsumon type” barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the “Okhotsk type” spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly existed ca. 600–1000 cal yr AD across the island region. Despite a large body of studies and numerous theoretical and conceptual debates, the question of how to differentiate between hunter–gatherer and farming economies persists reflecting the wide range of dynamic subsistence strategies used by humans through the Holocene. Our current study contributes to the ongoing discussion of this important issue. PMID:28355249

  1. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly existed ca. 600-1000 cal yr AD across the island region. Despite a large body of studies and numerous theoretical and conceptual debates, the question of how to differentiate between hunter-gatherer and farming economies persists reflecting the wide range of dynamic subsistence strategies used by humans through the Holocene. Our current study contributes to the ongoing discussion of this important issue.

  2. Barley (Hordeum vulgare in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leipe

    Full Text Available This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island, the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly existed ca. 600-1000 cal yr AD across the island region. Despite a large body of studies and numerous theoretical and conceptual debates, the question of how to differentiate between hunter-gatherer and farming economies persists reflecting the wide range of dynamic subsistence strategies used by humans through the Holocene. Our current study contributes to the ongoing discussion of this important issue.

  3. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    .3. Solubilized and degraded proteins evaluated by biuret, SDS-PAGE, and differential proteomics revealed that pH 4.3 had the greatest impact on both solubilization and degradation. In order to boost proteolysis, the recombinant barley endoprotease B2 (rec-HvEP-B2) was included after 8 h using the pH 4.3 regime....... Proteolysis evaluated by SDS-PAGE and differential proteomics confirmed a powerful effect of adding rec-HvEP-B2 to the soaked barley, regardless of the genotype. Our study addresses the use of rec-HvEP-B2 as an effective feed enzyme protease. HvEP-B2 has the potential to increase the digestibility of protein...

  4. Comparing the effect of visceral fat and barley seed ash (hordeum vulgare L) with silversulfadiazine on burn wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Mohammad; Foruozandeh, Hossein; Karami, Leila; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohamadreza; Kalantar, Mojtaba; Gudarzi, Mehdi; Pirouzi, Aliyar

    2015-02-01

    Skin burn is one of the most common complications and remains a major public health issue worldwide. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of traditional medicine (Visceral Fat and Barely Seed Ash) compared with silversulfadiazine (SSD) cream on healing burn wounds in rats. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of equal numbers; each group consisted of 15 animals. After sedation, type II of skin burn with 1.5 cm diameter circle was created on the back of rats with a heated metal in boiling water. Group one was not treated and considered as control. The burned areas in the second, third and fourth groups were applied twice a day with normal saline, SSD cream and traditional preparation, respectively. Percentage of the burn wound concentration and histopathological examinations were used as parameters of our study on days 4, 9and 14. Obtained data were compared between the groups and days. SSD cream and traditional preparation had better effects on burnt wound healing compared with control group. Furthermore, on the final day of study, the average percentage of wound concentration in traditional medicine group was significantly greater than other groups (P < 0.05). This finding was supported and confirmed by histological examination as well. Traditional preparation significantly decreased inflammation and accelerated wound healing in treated rats. Furthermore, the findings of this study can be applied clinically in the future.

  5. Effect of cadmium on free amino acid, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations in two barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in cadmium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei-Bo; Chen, Fei; Wei, Kang; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2004-11-01

    Hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of three Cd levels on glutathione (GSH), free amino acids (FAA), and ascorbic acid (ASA) concentration in the different tissues of 2 barley cultivars with different Cd tolerance. Cadmium concentration in both roots and shoots increased with external Cd level, while biomass and ASA concentration declined, and Wumaoliuling, a Cd-sensitive genotype was more affected than ZAU 3, a Cd-tolerant genotype. The effect of Cd on GSH concentration was dose- and time-dependent. In the 5 d exposure, root GSH concentration increased in 0.5 microM Cd treatment compared with control, but decreased significantly in 5 microM Cd treatment, irrespective of genotypes. However, in the 10 d exposure, GSH concentration in all plant tissues decreased with increasing Cd levels in the culture medium, and Wumaoliuling was much more affected than ZAU 3. Cadmium treatment greatly altered FAA concentration and composition in plants. The effect of Cd on glutathione (Glu) concentration in roots varied with genotypes. ZAU 3 showed a steady increase in root Glu concentration in both 0.5 and 5 microM Cd treatments, while Wumaoliuling was decreased by 38.0% in 5 microM Cd treatment, compared with the control. The results indicate that GSH and ASA are attributed to Cd tolerance in barley plants, and the relative less reduction in GSH concentration in ZAU 3 under Cd stress relative to the control may account for its higher Cd tolerance.

  6. Estimation of essential macro-nutrients in sixteen barley cultivars (hordeum vulgare l.) and its soil, grown at wheat research station Tandojam, Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Arain, S.A.; Kazi, T.G.; Sahito, S.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of macro nutrients accumulation in soil and barley cultivars grown at wheat Research Station Tandojam, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The samples of different varieties of barely as well as soil samples of agricultural plot where all these varieties of barely were grown, They all are treated with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide followed by dissolution in deionized water. The great range of each elements were observed in (mg/kg). The sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium determined in barley cultivars were found to be in the range of 892.86-2312.45 (Na), 4718.89-9514.51(K), 6.42-122.45 (Ca), and 1157.42-2570.97(Mg), in B-1 to B-16 respectively. The concentration in (mg/kg) of the specific plot was observed 4424.1 +- 291.12 (Na), 14181.0 +- 556.5 (K), 3404.4 +- 327.0 (Ca), and 3975.2 +- 3847.8 (Mg). The validity of acid digestion method was checked by employing certified reference sample of Spinach NBS-1570. The measured values of elements are in closed agreement with certified values. A study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of macro nutrients accumulation in soil and barley cultivars grown at wheat Research Station Tandojam, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The samples of different varieties of barely as well as soil samples of agricultural plot where all these varieties of barely were grown , They all are treated with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide followed by dissolution in deionized water. The great range of each elements were observed in (mg/kg). The sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium determined in barley cultivars were found to be in the range of 892.86-2312.45 (Na), 4718.89-9514.51 (K), 6.42-122.45 (Ca), and 1157.42-2570.97(Mg), in B-1 to B-16 respectively. The concentration in (mg/kg) of the specific plot was observed 4424.1 +- 291.12 (Na), 14181.0 556.5 (K), 3404.4 +- 327.0 (Ca), and 3975.2 +- 3847.8 (Mg). The validity of acid digestion method was checked by employing certified reference sample of Spinach NBS-1570. The measured values of elements are in closed agreement with certified values. (author)

  7. HorTILLUS—A Rich and Renewable Source of Induced Mutations for Forward/Reverse Genetics and Pre-breeding Programs in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Szurman-Zubrzycka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a strategy used for functional analysis of genes that combines the classical mutagenesis and a rapid, high-throughput identification of mutations within a gene of interest. TILLING has been initially developed as a discovery platform for functional genomics, but soon it has become a valuable tool in development of desired alleles for crop breeding, alternative to transgenic approach. Here we present the HorTILLUS (Hordeum—TILLING—University of Silesia population created for spring barley cultivar “Sebastian” after double-treatment of seeds with two chemical mutagens: sodium azide (NaN3 and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU. The population comprises more than 9,600 M2 plants from which DNA was isolated, seeds harvested, vacuum-packed, and deposited in seed bank. M3 progeny of 3,481 M2 individuals was grown in the field and phenotyped. The screening for mutations was performed for 32 genes related to different aspects of plant growth and development. For each gene fragment, 3,072–6,912 M2 plants were used for mutation identification using LI-COR sequencer. In total, 382 mutations were found in 182.2 Mb screened. The average mutation density in the HorTILLUS, estimated as 1 mutation per 477 kb, is among the highest mutation densities reported for barley. The majority of mutations were G/C to A/T transitions, however about 8% transversions were also detected. Sixty-one percent of mutations found in coding regions were missense, 37.5% silent and 1.1% nonsense. In each gene, the missense mutations with a potential effect on protein function were identified. The HorTILLUS platform is the largest of the TILLING populations reported for barley and best characterized. The population proved to be a useful tool, both in functional genomic studies and in forward selection of barley mutants with required phenotypic changes. We are constantly renewing the HorTILLUS population, which makes it a permanent source of new mutations. We offer the usage of this valuable resource to the interested barley researchers on cooperative basis.

  8. Identification of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Autophagy Genes and Their Expression Levels during Leaf Senescence, Chronic Nitrogen Limitation and in Response to Dark Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Avila-Ospina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a cereal of primary importance for forage and human nutrition, and is a useful model for wheat. Autophagy genes first described in yeast have been subsequently isolated in mammals and Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis and maize it was recently shown that autophagy machinery participates in nitrogen remobilization for grain filling. In rice, autophagy is also important for nitrogen recycling at the vegetative stage. In this study, HvATGs, HvNBR1 and HvATI1 sequences were identified from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC, complementary DNA (cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. The gene models were subsequently determined from alignments between genome and transcript sequences. Essential amino acids were identified from the protein sequences in order to estimate their functionality. A total of twenty-four barley HvATG genes, one HvNBR1 gene and one HvATI1 gene were identified. Except for HvATG5, all the genomic sequences found completely matched their cDNA sequences. The HvATG5 gene sequence presents a gap that cannot be sequenced due to its high GC content. The HvATG5 coding DNA sequence (CDS, when over-expressed in the Arabidopsis atg5 mutant, complemented the plant phenotype. The HvATG transcript levels were increased globally by leaf senescence, nitrogen starvation and dark-treatment. The induction of HvATG5 during senescence was mainly observed in the flag leaves, while it remained surprisingly stable in the seedling leaves, irrespective of the leaf age during stress treatment.

  9. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of significant 1% and 5%. Results and discussion There was significant difference between minimum and maximum dry weight of weeds, the results showed that barley have important role in weed control wild safflower. Therefore, weed control efficiency in 15 plant in m2 was higher than two 10 and 20 plant in m2. The lowest WCE (161.27% was found at 15-35-65 treatment, but, the highest WCE (51.99 was obtained from 15-65-35 (Wild safflower-common vetch-barley treatment. Computes showed that WCE, in 15 plants of wild safflower/m2, was more than 10 and 20 p/m2. The reduction in weed population and biomass in intercropping systems with barley may be attributed to shading effect and competition stress created by the canopy. Thus, result showed that reduction rate of common vetch in intercropping, with bearing compatibility power to weeds reduced LER. CR for common vetch intercropping component in comparison with barley in total treatments was>1. The highest CR, for vetch obtained from treatment 45-55-control (2.64 and for barley from seed ratio 65-35-control (1.83. Conclusion The results in this study showed various seed rate had noticeable effect on forage yield, LER and weed control. In this experiment changing seed rate in two tested plants (barly- commen vetch changed the number and weed species, as a result noticeable changing was created in their competitive power. Result showed that seed rate (35% barley-65% common vetch was better than other treatment, not only in use efficiency of environment, but also it had more dry forage yield. Also, former seed rate had effective role in decreasing the weed biomass. This important result was related to reduced light penetrate at the bottom of cover crop and probably lack of competition in access to environmental resources was also affected. So using this seed density for mentioned area is recommended for reducing weed competition and improving the quality and quantity of dry forage. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the teachers of College of Agriculture of Lorestan University, for their critical review of the manuscript.

  10. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-04

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM.

  11. Isparta Ekolojik Koşullarında Bazı Arpa (Hordeum vulgare L. Çeşitlerinin Verim ve Kalite Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmren ÇÖKEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma Isparta ilinde 2013-2014 yetiştirme sezonunda yürütülmüştür. Araştırma tesadüf blokları deneme desenine göre 3 tekerrürlü olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada 13 arpa çeşidi (Larende, Ünver, Özdemir-05, İnce-04, Özen, Akar, Zeynelağa, Altıkat, Samyeli, Kendal, Bolayır, Martı, Harman kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada bitki boyu 73.6 (Samyeli-89.6 (Özdemir-05; metrekarede başak sayısı 200.0 (Akar-340.0 (Samyeli; başakta tane sayısı 22.6 (Bolayır-67.3 (Altıkat; başak uzunluğu 7.4 (Martı-9.5 (Akar; bin tane ağırlığı 43.4 (Martı-56.4 (Larende; dekara tane verim 169.6 (Martı-363.0 (Zeynelağa; hasat indeks 15.5 (Martı-30.1 (Bolayır; hektolitre ağırlığı 66.2 (Kendal-76.3 (Larende; biyolojik verim 749.4 (İnce-04-1366.1 (Akar; protein % 9.6 (Altıkat-16.3 (Larende; azot oranı % 1.5 (Altıkat-3.2 (Larende arasında değişmiştir.

  12. Iron Stress and Pyoverdin Production by a Fluorescent Pseudomonad in the Rhizosphere of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, P; Crowley, D E

    1997-01-01

    Induction of high-affinity iron transport during root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) was examined in lupine and barley growing in microcosms. P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) contains a plasmid carrying pvd-inaZ; thus, in this strain, ice nucleation activity is regulated by pyoverdin production. Lupine or barley plants were grown for 18 or 8 days, respectively, in soil amended with 2% calcium carbonate and inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) at a density of 4 x 10(sup8) CFU g (dry weight) of soil(sup-1). A filter paper blotting technique was used to sample cells from the rhizosphere in different root zones, and then the cells were resuspended for enumeration and measurement of ice nucleation activity. The population density of P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere decreased by one order of magnitude in both lupine and barley over time. The ice nucleation activity ranged from -3.4 to -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for lupine and -3.0 to -2.8 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for barley, was similar in all root zones, and did not change over time. An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production in P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). An ice nucleation activity of approximately -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) was measured in the in vitro experiment at 25 to 50 (mu)M FeCl(inf3). By using the regression between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production determined in vitro and assuming a P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) population density of 10(sup8) CFU g of root(sup-1), the maximum possible pyoverdin accumulation by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0.5 and 0.8 nmol g of root(sup-1) for lupine and barley, respectively. The low ice nucleation activity measured in the rhizosphere suggests that nutritional competition for iron in the rhizosphere may not be a major factor influencing root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ).

  13. Cell-type-specific H+-ATPase activity in root tissues enables K+ retention and mediates acclimation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; Zhang, Jingyi; Pottosin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    While the importance of cell type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal the physiological mechanisms confe...

  14. Protective effect of young green barley leaf (Hordeum vulgare L.) on restraint stress-induced decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Tanaka, Riho; Bi, Yuanyuan; Fukata, Hideki; Oishi, Nobuo; Sato, Hiromi; Mori, Chisato; Ueno, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    Many health experts support the hypothesis that stressful lifestyles are the leading cause of illness, like depression. Therefore, from the standpoint of preventive medicine, it is important to reduce stress. Young green barley leaves are a good natural source of vitamins and minerals, and their juice is widely consumed as a functional food for health reasons in Japan. This study investigated the protective effect of young green barley leaves for stress control. ICR outbred mice were exposed to 3-h sessions of restraint stress. Young green barley leaves (400 and 1,000 mg/kg) were administered orally 1 h before the sessions for 5 days. To analyze voluntary behavior, wheel-running activity was monitored during the dark period. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the whole hippocampus was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Restraint stress resulted in a significant decrease in voluntary wheel-running behavior, but this decrease was ameliorated by the administration of young green barley leaves. The leaves also enhanced the decreased levels of BDNF mRNA induced by restraint stress; in particular, a significant protective effect was shown in the exon IV variant as compared to vehicle control mice. The findings suggest that young green barley leaves have potent anti-stress properties, as evidenced by preventing decreases in the levels of voluntary wheel-running activity and hippocampal BDNF mRNA in response to restraint stress. Our findings support the possibility that supplementation with young green barley leaves might be beneficial for preventing stress-related psychiatric disorders like depression.

  15. [Polymorphism of hordein-coding loci in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations from the countries of East Asia (China, Nepal, Pakistan, India)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2012-08-01

    In this study, starch gel electrophoresis was used to examine polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd Floci in 201 accessions of barley landraces from China (including Tibet), Nepal, Pakistan, and India. Altogether, 50 alleles with the frequencies of 0.001-0.2269 were determined for the Hrd A locus, 65 alleles with the frequencies of 0.001-0.1612 were determined for the Hrd B locus, and five alleles with the frequencies of 0.001-0.4537 were determined for the Hrd Flocus. In barley populations from these countries, irregular distribution of alleles and allele frequencies was observed. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies in populations from known sampling sites revealed cluster structure of local barley populations within each country. Local populations formed five differently sized clusters in Nepal, four such clusters in India, three clusters in China, and three clusters, in Pakistan. These results suggest that variation and allele frequency distribution of the hordein-coding loci in the countries of East Asia resulted from the introduction and spreading of barley forms through the husbandmen migrations.

  16. Phytotoxicity of Chitosan and SiO2 Nanoparticles to Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride BEHBOUDI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants such as wheat and barley that are strategically important crops need to be considered to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles (NPs. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan and SiO2 NPs on wheat and barley plants. Two factorial experiments (seeds priming and direct exposure were performed based on a completely randomized design in four replications. Results showed that the seeds priming with the NPs had not significant effect on germination parameters such as Germination Percentage (GP, Germination Rate (GR, Germination Value (GV, Mean Germination Time (MGT, Pick Value (PV and Mean Daily Germination (MDG. In contrast, exposure of the seeds to the NPs had significant effects on these parameters. In both experiments, treatments had significant effects on shoot, seedling, root length, fresh and dry weight, as well as vigor indexes as compared to the control. In most traits, the best concentration of NPs was 30 ppm, whereas applications of the NPs with 90 ppm displayed adverse effects on majority of the studied traits. According to these results, selectivity in applications of NPs with suitable concentration and method is essential for different plant species.

  17. Competition and niche differentiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) mixtures under rainfed conditions in the Central Highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.; Bastiaans, L.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Barley and wheat mixtures were grown in the field using additive and replacement ratios at two locations (Halhale and Mendefera) in Eritrea during the 1997 and 1998 seasons. The aim was to assess yield advantage and to analyse competition and niche differentiation using a hyperbolic regression

  18. Quantitative Trait Loci for Salinity Tolerance Identified under Drained and Waterlogged Conditions and Their Association with Flowering Time in Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Ma

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting crop production via adverse effects of osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity, and stress-related nutritional disorders. Detrimental effects of salinity are also often exacerbated by low oxygen availability when plants are grown under waterlogged conditions. Developing salinity-tolerant varieties is critical to overcome these problems, and molecular marker assisted selection can make breeding programs more effective.In this study, a double haploid (DH population consisting of 175 lines, derived from a cross between a Chinese barley variety Yangsimai 1 (YSM1 and an Australian malting barley variety Gairdner, was used to construct a high density molecular map which contained more than 8,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Salinity tolerance of parental and DH lines was evaluated under drained (SalinityD and waterlogged (SalinityW conditions at two different sowing times.Three quantitative trait loci (QTL located on chromosome 1H, single QTL located on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 5H and 7H, were identified to be responsible for salinity tolerance under different environments. Waterlogging stress, daylight length and temperature showed significant effects on barley salinity tolerance. The QTL for salinity tolerance mapped on chromosomes 4H and 7H, QSlwd.YG.4H, QSlwd.YG.7H and QSlww.YG.7H were only identified in winter trials, while the QTL on chromosome 2H QSlsd.YG.2H and QSlsw.YG.2H were only detected in summer trials. Genes associated with flowering time were found to pose significant effects on the salinity QTL mapped on chromosomes 2H and 5H in summer trials. Given the fact that the QTL for salinity tolerance QSlsd.YG.1H and QSlww.YG.1H-1 reported here have never been considered in the literature, this warrants further investigation and evaluation for suitability to be used in breeding programs.

  19. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Götz, C.; Fekete, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Forczek, Sándor; Fuksová, Květoslava; Li, X.; Englmann, M.; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, A.; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 5 (2007), s. 1447-1457 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : UPLC * FTICR-MS * tritium autoradiography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.867, year: 2007

  20. Development of mutants of local barley bakur (T. Hordeum vulgare. c v Bakkur L.) with good quantitative and qualitative traits under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A. A.; Al-Shamiri, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Seeds of local barley bakur were exposed to 150 Gy of gamma rays from cobalt 60 source irradiated seeds were planted in rows as M1.From M1 magnetized population plants , the main spike of each plants were collected, threshed and planted head to row method in 2008 winter season as M2. Evaluation of mutants was done for the increase in long spike and level of resistance to loading in compare with mother variety (untreated) resulted in selecting fifty mutated plants. These plants were planted as plant/ row method along with the mother variety and evaluated for grain yield and level of resistance for lodging which consequent y resulted in selecting of twenty four mutant lines which were varied in plant height long spike and yield. These lines were planted in the research farm during 2009 and the research farm during 2009 and 2011 winter season as M4 and M5 for two consecutive season resulted in selecting eight mutant lines which were distinguished of others in respect of level of resistance and increase of yield. These mutant lines were planted in plots in Kawkban and Bani-Mater locations during 2010 and 2011 seasons along with mother variety and improved variety Kawkban-1 which dominated in the region. Data were collected from the trail analyzed them separate y over each location. Results showed that the mutant line Al-e rra-B-008-15 was the best in grain yield and early maturity followed by Al-erra-B-008-20 and Al-erra-B-008-20. In the meantime these mutant line showed resistance to loading compare with other including the mother variety. There fore it can be recommended to register these mutants as a new varieties for Kawkaban Bain-Mater regions as well as for similar areas in the central and northern regions. This research summarizing results obtained from the trail conducted in both research farm and in farmer fields at Kawkaban and Bani-Mater locations. (Author)

  1. [The influence of root excretions of germinating barley seed (Hordeum vulgare L.) on qualitative and quantitative composition of soil organic components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, O I

    2010-01-01

    The data from scientific publications on excretory activity of herbs root endings were analyzed, along with the data on the role of polyvalent metals cations in stabilization of humus substances (HS) of soil organic mineral complex. On the base of the analysis a working hypothesis was proposed considering root endings influence on fractional composition of soil organic components. To detect the changes taking place in soil HS, the chromatographic fractionation method was chosen. The soil aggregates stuck to root endings of germinating barley seed were washed off, and the washouts were used as the samples for the analysis. The soil from the weighed portion was dissolved directly with extenuating concentrations of LiCl and Li2SO4 alkaline solution. The fractionation was carried out in a chromatographic column. Some changes were detected in optical density of chernozem and dark-grey forest soil leached out after 1-2 days of barley seeds germination. Besides, the experiment showed that the content of organic carbon in HS changes as well.

  2. The intensity of competitive interactions between spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori et. Paol and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. under different fertilisation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Treder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitive interactions between spring wheat and spring barley were traced based on a pot experiment. In the years 2003-2004, three cycles of the experiment were carried out in a greenhouse. Two spring cereals - wheat and barley, sown in a mixture and in a monoculture, with different mineral fertilisation levels, were the object of evaluation and comparison. The experiment was set up according to the additive scheme, determining dry weight values for both species in 5 growth stages (emergence, tillering, shooting, heading and ripening. Results were used to determine relative yields and competition ratios. It was demonstrated that competition between the cereals started already from the emergence stage and lasted till the end of vegetation, manifesting itself with the greatest strength at the heading stage, but thereafter it weakened in the NPK poorer environment. Access to a larger pool of macroelements resulted in the intensification of competitive interactions. Spring barley used the limited growth factors better than wheat from shooting till the ripening period, and a reverse relation was exhibited only at the tillering stage.

  3. Evaluation of recurrent radiation with Cobalt 60 gamma rays on agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) in the R2M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega G, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of recurrent radiation on agronomic traits in two barley varieties. The research was carried out at experimental fields pertaining to the Instituto de Investigacion Agropecuaria, Acuicola y Forestal of the Estado de Mexico (ICAMEX). The biological material was irradiated in the Gamma Cell 220 at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The experimental design was divided plots in the randomized blocks, with four replications. The factor varieties (Cerro Prieto and Puebla) was assigned to the big plots mean while in the factor doses was assignated to the small plots (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 krad of gamma rays). The variables under study were: germination, number of shoots, plant height, incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, spike length and yield. The analysis of variance exhibited no significant differences between varieties for all the studied variables. Regarding to dose, most of the studied variables exhibited significant differences, except for incidence of Puccinia striiformis and days to flowering. The interaction variety x doses showed significance only for the variable days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. The mean separation by Tukey test at 0.05 and the regression analysis showed that the variables: germination, number of shoots, plant height, spike length and yield decreased as the dose increased. On the other hand in the variables incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering and days to physiological maturity exhibited a direct relationship with the dose. (Author)

  4. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  5. Evaluation of the mature grain phytase candidate HvPAPhy_a gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger B; Wendt, Toni; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Deleuran, Lise C; Starker, Colby G; Voytas, Daniel F; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a enzyme as the main contributor of the mature grain phytase activity (MGPA), as well as validating the importance of a specific promoter region of the PAPhy_a gene which contains three overlapping cis-acting regulatory elements (GCN4, Skn1 and the RY-element) known to be involved in gene expression during grain filling. The results confirm that the barley PAPhy_a enzyme is the main contributor to the MGPA as grains of knock-out lines show very low MGPA. Additionally, the analysis of the HvPAPhy_a promoter region containing the GCN4/Skn1/RY motif highlights its importance for HvPAPhy_a expression as the MGPA in grains of plant lines with mutations within this motif is significantly reduced. Interestingly, lines with deletions located downstream of the motif show even lower MGPA levels, indicating that the GCN4/SKn1/RY motif is not the only element responsible for the level of PAPhy_a expression during grain maturation. Mutant grains with very low MPGA showed delayed germination as compared to grains of wild type barley. As grains with high levels of preformed phytases would provide more readily available phosphorous needed for a fast germination, this indicates that faster germination may be implicated in the positive selection of the ancient PAPhy gene duplication that lead to the creation of the PAPhy_a gene.

  6. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    -terminal sequence (24 residues) this enzyme was identified as the previously described beta-1,3-endoglucanase GII from germinating barley grain. The results suggest that secretion of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase from the embryogenic cell suspensions of barley corresponds to accumulation of the same enzymes...... chromatography. Two of the chitinases were identified as the previously described endochitinases T and C from barley grain. The third and novel chitinase, designated K, was the major basic chitinase in the medium constituting 4% of the soluble protein. Chitinase K was found to be a 33-kDa endochitinase with p......I at 8.7. Further analysis showed that this enzyme is also expressed in barley grain. The amino acid composition and five partial amino acid sequences covering 93 residues of chitinase K were determined. A high similarity was found between chitinase K and barley chitinase T and C as well as basic...

  7. Genetic Study of the Manganese Use Efficiency Trait in Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Genome- Wide Association and Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leplat, Florian Jean Victor

    efficiency remained elusive. This PhD study aimed to understand better the genetic determination of the trait and propose new insights for plant breeding purposes. Two genome-wide approaches were used in a winter barley collection to characterize the genetic control of the trait. First, a Genome...... functionality in Mn dependent pathways and processes. In a the second step, a genuine statistical method to assist breeding programs in selecting new varieties, named Genomic Selection (GS), was applied. It was demonstrated that GS is an effective tool to be used in breeding programs for selecting more...

  8. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water.

  9. Effects of Nitrogen and Different Intercropping Arrangements of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Pea (Pisum sativum L. on Forage Yield and Competitive Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nakhzari Moghaddam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping, the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time, is an old and commonly used cropping practice which aims to match efficiently crop demands to the available growth resources (Agegnehu et al., 2006; Dhima et al., 2007. Intercropping of chickpea with linseed reduced the chickpea yield by 60.3%, although linseed occupied only 33% of the total area. The loss of chickpea yield was compensated by the additional yield of linseed, and thus the system productivity of chickpea + linseed intercropping was increased by 43.4% compared with sole chickpea (Ahlawat & Gangaiah, 2010. The objectives of the present study were to study the competition indices of barley and pea intercropping and effects of nitrogen and different intercropping arrangements on forage yield. Materials and methods In order to evaluate effects of nitrogen and different intercropping arrangements of barley and pea on yield and competitive indices, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications on farm research on Gonbad Kavous University (37°26’N, 55°21’E, and 45m above sea level in 2011-2012. Different intercropping arrangement levels were a sole crop of barley, intercropping of one line barley and one line pea, intercropping of two lines of barley and two lines of pea, intercropping of three lines of barley and three lines of pea and sole crop of pea and nitrogen consumption was in four levels of none application of nitrogen and application of 25, 50 and 75 kg.ha-1. Seed planting was done during the first week of December 2011. Sowing was performed manually by planting twice more seeds of pea than the expected plant density. Sole barley (cv. Sahra planted at the rate of 160 kg.ha-1 and sole pea (cv. Sungro planted at the rate of 500000 plants.ha-1. Row spacing was 20 cm. The experimental plots for a sole crop of barley, a sole crop of pea and one row of barley + one row of pea were 4 rows and for two rows of barley + two rows of pea and three rows of barley + three rows of pea were 6 and 8 rows, respectively. 50% of urea was applied during sowing. The other 50% of urea was side banded when the barley plants were at flowering stage. Weed control was performed manually. Forage yield was determined by harvesting each crop from 2, 4 and 6 rows. Barley was harvested at soft drought and the pea was harvested at seed filling stage in 3 May 2012. Data were analyzed using SAS software. Analysis of variance was performed for the forage yield and Equal Yield of barley. Results and discussion The results showed the effects of different intercropping arrangements, nitrogen application and interaction of different intercropping arrangements × nitrogen application on forage yield and Equivalent Yield of barley was significant (α= 1%. The high forage yield and Equivalent Yield of barley belonged to a sole crop of barley with application of 75 and 50 kg Nha-1 with 14.51 and 14.3 tonha-1, respectively. The minimum dry weight and Equivalent Yield of barley was obtained from the sole crop of pea without consumption of nitrogen with 3.76 and 4.7 tha-1, respectively. Increasing the pea and barley rows in intercropping treatments decreased forage yield because of lower yield of pea. Land Equivalent Ratio in intercropping treatments was less than 1. This index in barley was greater than pea (0.643, 0.588 and 0.543 for barley and 0.198, 0.247 and 0.362 for pea in 1, 2 and 3 rows, respectively. Other indices (Relative Crowding Coefficient, Aggressivity, Competitive Ratio, Actual Yield addition, Intercropping Advantage and Equivalent Yield of barley in barley were also greater than pea in intercropping. Barley was the dominant crop in this study. Conclusion Forage dry weight and Equivalent Yield of barley in a sole crop of barley with consumption of 75 and 50 kgN.ha-1 was the maximum and in sole crop of pea with non-consumption of N was minimum. All indices in barley in this study were greater than pea. This indicated that barley was the dominant crop.

  10. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of significant 1% and 5%. Results and discussion There was significant difference between minimum and maximum dry weight of weeds, the results showed that barley have important role in weed control wild safflower. Therefore, weed control efficiency in 15 plant in m2 was higher than two 10 and 20 plant in m2. The lowest WCE (161.27% was found at 15-35-65 treatment, but, the highest WCE (51.99 was obtained from 15-65-35 (Wild safflower-common vetch-barley treatment. Computes showed that WCE, in 15 plants of wild safflower/m2, was more than 10 and 20 p/m2. The reduction in weed population and biomass in intercropping systems with barley may be attributed to shading effect and competition stress created by the canopy. Thus, result showed that reduction rate of common vetch in intercropping, with bearing compatibility power to weeds reduced LER. CR for common vetch intercropping component in comparison with barley in total treatments was>1. The highest CR, for vetch obtained from treatment 45-55-control (2.64 and for barley from seed ratio 65-35-control (1.83. Conclusion The results in this study showed various seed rate had noticeable effect on forage yield, LER and weed control. In this experiment changing seed rate in two tested plants (barly- commen vetch changed the number and weed species, as a result noticeable changing was created in their competitive power. Result showed that seed rate (35% barley-65% common vetch was better than other treatment, not only in use efficiency of environment, but also it had more dry forage yield. Also, former seed rate had effective role in decreasing the weed biomass. This important result was related to reduced light penetrate at the bottom of cover crop and probably lack of competition in access to environmental resources was also affected. So using this seed density for mentioned area is recommended for reducing weed competition and improving the quality and quantity of dry forage. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the teachers of College of Agriculture of Lorestan University, for their critical review of the manuscript.

  11. Engineering of the aspartate family biosynthetic pathway in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by transformation with heterologous genes encoding feed-back-insensitive aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, H.; Galili, G.; Sørensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In order to modify the flux through the aspartate family pathway in barley and enhance......, no differences were observed in the composition of total amino acids. The introduced genes were inherited in the T1 generation where enzymic activities revealed a 2.3-fold increase of AK activity and a 4.0-9.5-fold increase for DHPS. T1 seeds of DHPS transformants showed the same changes in free amino acids...... as observed in T0 seeds. It is concluded that the aspartate family pathway may be genetically engineered by the introduction of genes coding for feed-back-insensitive enzymes, preferentially giving elevated levels of lysine and methionine....

  12. The interaction of 2,4-D application and mannitol pretreatment in anther and microspore culture of Hordeum vulgare L. cv. igri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, S.; Bergen, S. van; Brouwershaven, I.R. van; Schilperoort, R.A.; Heidekamp, F.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on embryo-like structures (ELS) and plant development from barley microspores was determined. Microspores cultured on filters enabled simple modification of growth regulator concentrations. Regeneration frequencies obtained with 2,4- D as

  13. DNA binding sites recognised in vitro by a knotted class 1 homeodomain protein encoded by the hooded gene, k, in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusell, L; Rasmussen, I; Gausing, K

    1997-01-01

    of knotted1 from maize was isolated from barley seedlings and expressed as a maltose binding protein fusion in E. coli. The purified HvH21-fusion protein selected DNA fragments with 1-3 copies of the sequence TGAC. Gel shift experiments showed that the TGAC element was required for binding and the results...

  14. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control containing levamisole hydrochloride (0.2 mg/mL, distilled water and 70 ºGL grain alcohol at the same concentration of the extracts. Test results showed that the different O. vulgare extracts inhibited egg hatch of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes at a percentage that varied from 8.8 to 100%; dye and hydroalcoholic extract were the most promising inhibitors. In view of this ovicidal property, O. vulgare may be an important source of viable antiparasitic compounds for nematodiosis control in ruminants.

  15. Tick repellent substances in the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, Katinka; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Baeckström, Peter; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2008-01-01

    The repellent effect of the essential oils of flower heads of the aromatic plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae), originating from Sweden, was tested against host-seeking nymphs of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation (SD) and by using an online solvent extraction separation setup. Further fractionations of the SD oils were obtained by medium-pressure liquid chromatography on silica gel. The volatiles of the essential oils and the fractions that exhibited strong tick repellency (90-100%) were collected by solid phase microextraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical analyses of the oils show that the populations of T. vulgare from Uppsala and Stockholm may represent different chemotypes, but that they exhibited similar tick repellency. Main volatiles detected from oils of T. vulgare collected at Uppsala were alpha-pinene (27%), beta-pinene (11%), pinocamphone (11%), 1,3,3-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-4-carboxaldehyde (11%), and 1,8-cineole (10%). In the sample collected in Stockholm, the main components were beta-thujone (39%) and camphor (23%) followed by alpha-thujone (11%) and 1,8-cineole (8%). When constituents in the oils, e.g., alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, alpha+beta-thujone, 1,8-cineol, verbenol, and verbenone, were tested separately (each diluted 0.5%, vol:vol), 64-72% tick repellency was obtained.

  16. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Giemsa C-Banding in Asiactic Taxa of Hordeum Section Stenostachys with Notes on Chromosome Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1980-01-01

    C-banding patterns of eight cytotypes of six Asiatic taxa of Hordeum sect. Stenostachys were characterized by (1) the small size of most centromeric bands, (2) the paucity and generally small size of the intercalary bands and of the bands at the secondary constrictions, and (3) the existence...

  18. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hordeum taxa from North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding patterns of Hordeum pusillum, H. intercedens, H. brachyantherum (2x, 4x, 6x), H. jubatum, H. arizonicum, and H. depressum (2x and 4x) were rather similar, with mostly small to very small bands with no preferential disposition. The use of C-banding patterns did not improve the lev...

  19. The genetics and mechanism of avoidance of rust infection in Hordeum chilense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a perennial species occurring in Chile and Argentina. This wild barley species shows a very wide range of variation of morphological and agronomic characters and crosses easily with other members of the Triticeae

  20. Patterns of Evolutionary Trajectories and Domestication History within the Genus Hordeum Assessed by REMAP Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchev, Georgi; Dusinský, Roman; Hauptvogel, Pavol; Švec, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    The patterns of genetic diversity related to the taxonomy and domestication history of 85 accessions representing the main four species of the genus Hordeum were examined by retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers based on the retrotransposon BARE-1. A substantial level of genetic polymorphisms at among- and within-species level was observed showing that this retrotransposon family and its adjacent genomic regions has been a target for genome dynamics during the evolution and domestication of barley. The obtained data are consistent with the current taxonomic status within the genus Hordeum. Similar level of genetic diversity was observed between the wild and the domesticated barley accessions suggesting that transposable elements` activity and accumulation may counteract the decrease of genome-wide diversity following domestication. In addition, eco-geographical sub-genome pools of the cultivated barley were identified in support to the theory of multiple origins of domestication within the genus Hordeum. We also provide conclusions about the relationship between accessions of different species and the putative routes of barley domestication. In conclusion, the retrotransposon BARE-1 stands as a reliable and perspective DNA marker for the assessment of the phylogenetic and domestication history in the genus Hordeum and other crop species.

  1. Prospects for exploitation of disease resistance from Hordeum chilense in cultivated cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubiales, D.; Niks, R.E.; Carver, T.L.W.; Ballesteros, J.; Martin, A.

    2001-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a South American wild barley with high potential for cereal breeding given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae. In the present paper we consider the resistance of H. chilense to several fungal diseases and the prospects for its transference to cultivated

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica De Falco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  3. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Roja; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2013-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (F. vulgare), commonly known as Fennel, is a popular medicinal plant with various pharmacological activities mentioned in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) and modern phytotherapy such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, bronchodilatory, estrogenic, diuretic, lithontripic, galactogogue, emmenagogue, antithrombotic, hypotensive, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, memory enhancing, and antimutagenic activities. No serious adverse events were recorded after ingestion of F. vulgare except some cases of allergic reactions. The estrogenic activity of F. vulgare brings some side effects such as decrease in protein concentration and acid and alkaline phosphatase in male genital organs, increase in weight of mammary glands and reproductive organs in women and premature thelarche in girls. However, no evidence of teratogenicity was recorded, it is better not to use F. vulgare during pregnancy due to its estrogenic activity. Because of inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs mainly metabolized by this isozyme may be affected by F. vulgare. In addition, a significant interaction between cyprofloxacin and F. vulgare was demonstrated. The aim of current paper is to review pharmacological properties, toxicity and adverse events, and drug interactions of vulgare and brings conclusive results about the use of this plant in men, women and during pregnancy.

  4. Analgesic profile of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M M; de Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Schlemper, V

    1998-04-01

    Marrubium vulgare L. is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to cure a variety of diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that a hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed significant, nonspecific antispasmodic effects on isolated smooth muscle. In this report, we have investigated the possible analgesic effects of the same hydroalcoholic extract in different models of pain in mice. The results suggest that this extract exhibits significant analgesic activity, antagonizing chemically-induced acute pain. Such effects may be related to the presence of steroids and terpenes, which were detected by TLC analysis. Copyright © 1998 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

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    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  6. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  7. Untangling nucleotide diversity and evolution of the H genome in polyploid Hordeum and Elymus species based on the single copy of nuclear gene DMC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfa Sun

    Full Text Available Numerous hybrid and polypoid species are found within the Triticeae. It has been suggested that the H subgenome of allopolyploid Elymus (wheatgrass species originated from diploid Hordeum (barley species, but the role of hybridization between polyploid Elymus and Hordeum has not been studied. It is not clear whether gene flow across polyploid Hordeum and Elymus species has occurred following polyploid speciation. Answering these questions will provide new insights into the formation of these polyploid species, and the potential role of gene flow among polyploid species during polyploid evolution. In order to address these questions, disrupted meiotic cDNA1 (DMC1 data from the allopolyploid StH Elymus are analyzed together with diploid and polyploid Hordeum species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some Elymus are very close to the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some polyploid Hordeum species, indicating either that the H genome in theses Elymus and polyploid Hordeum species originated from same diploid donor or that gene flow has occurred among them. Our analysis also suggested that the H genomes in Elymus species originated from limited gene pool, while H genomes in Hordeum polyploids have originated from broad gene pools. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences on H genome from polyploid species (π = 0.02083 in Elymus, π = 0.01680 in polyploid Hordeum is higher than that in diploid Hordeum (π = 0.01488. The estimates of Tajima's D were significantly departure from the equilibrium neutral model at this locus in diploid Hordeum species (P<0.05, suggesting an excess of rare variants in diploid species which may not contribute to the origination of polyploids. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences in Elymus polyploid species (π = 0.02083 is higher than that in polyploid Hordeum (π = 0.01680, suggesting that the degree of relationships between two parents of a polyploid might be a factor

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity of allelopathic plants Adonis vernalis L. Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Vanya; Dragoeva, Asya; Stoyanova, Zheni; Yordanova, Zhenia; Ali, Selime; Uzunov, Nikolay M.; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Rosato, Antonio; Enchev, Dobromir D.

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal plants produce various secondary metabolites as a part of their chemical defence and survival in nature. These compounds have a wide range of biological activities. Nowadays, medicinal plants are used as source of allelochemicals and new effective anticancer agents. Our previous studies revealed allelopathic potential of water extracts of Adonis vernalis L. (Ranunculaceae), Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda (Lamiaceae). Present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the same extracts in vitro on human hepatoma cell line SK-HEP-1. Cell proliferation/viability was assessed using Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent. Adonis water extract (1.83mg/ml) had notable negative influence on cancer cell line tested. Oregano (3.5 mg/ml) also exerted negative effect, but to a lesser degree. On the contrary, nepeta water extract (6.59 mg/ml) had an opposite effect, stimulating cell proliferation. One possible explanation could be the type of extraction: after treatment with nepeta methanol extract (6.59 mg/ml) cell viability was significantly reduced. In conclusion, Adonis vernalis and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda possess metabolites with growth inhibitory effect on human hepatoma cell line SK-HEP-1. Further research is needed to clarify biological activity of lower concentrations which are appropriate to enable the design of new anticancer drugs.

  9. Carlos Jansen and the literary vulgarization for the youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Araujo Miranda Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the translations of Carlos Jansen for the youth, age group corresponding approximately to the contemporary concepts of preadolescence and adolescence, made at the end of the 19th century. Jansen was a pioneer in translating into Brazilian Portuguese works for the youth among which novels by Swift, Defoe, and Cervantes. His widely adapted versions had a pedagogical goal, serving as a reading material for children and adolescents attending schools. For this reason he was called a "vulgarizer" by critics of that period. The research encompassed the analysis of newspapers published between 1880 and 1899, available at the National Library's Hemeroteca Digital Brasileira, which provide data on the advertising and reception of his works. We intend to enrich historical research on children's literature in Brazil and analyse to what degree Jansen's pedagogical project has governed his translation practice.

  10. Decision-Making and Turn Alternation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium Vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-01-01

    Twelve pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Cmstacean) were examined in 200 successive T-mazes. When obstacles are present, A. vulgare tend to move by means of turn alternation, which is generally considered an innate adaptive behavior. With a decrease in air moisture, the bugs have a tendency to increase their turn alternation rate. However, in such long successive T-mazes as in this study, continued turn alternation should actually accelerate the bugs' desiccation. This fact implies t...

  11. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH Foeniculum vulgare Mill PADA SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN BOBOT UTERUS TIKUS PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa'roni Sa'roni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill (adas secara tradisional untuk obat dan campuran jamu pengatur haid. Diduga buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill mempunyai pengaruh pada sistem reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan penelitian pengaruh infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill pada siklus estrus dan bobot uterus tikus putih.Infus diberikan secara oral sekali sehari selama 12 hari dengan dosis setara dengan 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan. Selama pemberian bahan, siklus estrus diperiksa setiap hari dan pada hari ke-13 diotopsi dan ditimbang bobot uterusnya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menghambat fase estrus (masa subur. Infus setara dengan serbuk 7 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan kelihatan dapat menghambat fase estrus yang sangat nyata dibandingkan dengan akuades. Infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menurunkan bobot uterus, tetapi secara statistik tidak berbeda nyata dengan akuades. Kata kunci: Obat tradisional; Foeniculum vulgare Mill; Sistem Reproduksi

  12. Biological invasion of oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) in North America: Pre-adaptation, post-introduction evolution, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Sonja; Mráz, Patrik; Hinz, Hariet L; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2018-01-01

    Species may become invasive after introduction to a new range because phenotypic traits pre-adapt them to spread and become dominant. In addition, adaptation to novel selection pressures in the introduced range may further increase their potential to become invasive. The diploid Leucanthemum vulgare and the tetraploid L. ircutianum are native to Eurasia and have been introduced to North America, but only L. vulgare has become invasive. To investigate whether phenotypic differences between the two species in Eurasia could explain the higher abundance of L. vulgare in North America and whether rapid evolution in the introduced range may have contributed to its invasion success, we grew 20 L. vulgare and 21 L. ircutianum populations from Eurasia and 21 L. vulgare populations from North America under standardized conditions and recorded performance and functional traits. In addition, we recorded morphological traits to investigate whether the two closely related species can be clearly distinguished by morphological means and to what extent morphological traits have changed in L. vulgare post-introduction. We found pronounced phenotypic differences between L. vulgare and L. ircutianum from the native range as well as between L. vulgare from the native and introduced ranges. The two species differed significantly in morphology but only moderately in functional or performance traits that could have explained the higher invasion success of L. vulgare in North America. In contrast, leaf morphology was similar between L. vulgare from the native and introduced range, but plants from North America flowered later, were larger and had more and larger flower heads than those from Eurasia. In summary, we found litte evidence that specific traits of L. vulgare may have pre-adapted this species to become more invasive than L. ircutianum, but our results indicate that rapid evolution in the introduced range likely contributed to the invasion success of L. vulgare.

  13. Proteomic analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under glutathione reveals high demand for thiamin transport and antioxidant protection.

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    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4-6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM. To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare.

  14. The Hordeum Toolbox: The Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project Genotype and Phenotype Resource

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    Victoria C. Blake

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of DNA markers in public sector plant breeding is now the norm. Such markers are common across breeding programs and this commonality enables and enhances collaboration. Therefore, large collaborative research projects that measure several phenotypes across multiple environments coupled with the expanding amount of genotype data attainable with current marker technologies are on the rise and these projects demand efficient data delivery. However, development of computational tools for advanced data integration, visualization, and analysis is still a bottleneck, even though these resources have the greatest potential impact for users who are extracting and developing hypothesis-based solutions. The Hordeum Toolbox (THT was developed as a data resource for the Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP with the novel capability of constructing user-defined downloadable sets of phenotype and/or genotype data for downstream analysis. Internal tools in THT enable users to create clusters of a selected group of lines based on genotype data, parse pedigrees, and select germplasm based on haplotype, phenotype, and agronomic properties. The Hordeum Toolbox can be adapted to breeding programs or collaborations to assist researchers in germplasm selection, genotype data visualization, and the integration of complex data sets for statistical analysis.

  15. Chromosomal organization of repetitive DNAs in Hordeum bogdanii and H. brevisubulatum (Poaceae

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    Quanwen Dou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular karyotypes of H. bogdanii Wilensky, 1918 (2n = 14, and H. brevisubulatum Link, 1844 ssp. brevisubulatum (2n = 28, were characterized by physical mapping of several repetitive sequences. A total of 18 repeats, including all possible di- or trinucleotide SSR (simple sequence repeat motifs and satellite DNAs, such as pAs1, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and pSc119.2, were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on root-tip metaphase chromosomes. Except for the SSR motifs AG, AT and GC, all the repeats we examined produced detectable hybridization signals on chromosomes of both species. A detailed molecular karyotype of the I genome of H. bogdanii is described for the first time, and each repetitive sequence is physically mapped. A high degree of chromosome variation, including aneuploidy and structural changes, was observed in H. brevisubulatum. Although the distribution of repeats in the chromosomes of H. brevisubulatum is different from that of H. bogdanii, similar patterns between the two species imply that the autopolyploid origin of H. brevisubulatum is from a Hordeum species with an I genome. A comparison of the I genome and the other Hordeum genomes, H, Xa and Xu, shows that colocalization of motifs AAC, ACT and CAT and colocalization of motifs AAG and AGG are characteristic of the I genome. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary significance of repeats in the genome during genome differentiation.

  16. Antiviral Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs from the Brazilian Brown Seaweed Sargassum vulgare

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    Erwan Plouguerné

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and methanol. The fraction eluted with methanol, presented a strong orcinol-positive band characteristic of the presence of sulfatides when examined by TLC. This fraction was then purified by two successive silica gel column chromatography giving rise to fractions F4I86 and F4II90 that exhibited strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. The chemical structures present in both fractions were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis HSQC fingerprints based on their tandem–MS behavior as Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols  (SQDGs. The main SQDG present in both fractions and responsible for the anti-herpes activity observed was identified as 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol.

  17. Antioedematogenic effect of marrubiin obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

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    Stulzer, Hellen K; Tagliari, Monika P; Zampirolo, Julio A; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Schlemper, Valfredo

    2006-12-06

    This paper describes the antioedematogenic profile of marrubiin (1), the main constituent of Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine of several countries to treat different pathologies. Compound (1) was analyzed in a model of microvascular leakage in mice ears. The results show that it exhibits significant and dose-related antioedematogenic effects. The results obtained for ID50 values (mg/kg, i.p.) and maximal inhibition (%) for the different phlogistic agents used were as follows: histamine (HIS, 13.84 mg/kg and 73.7%); (BK, 18.82 mg/kg and 70.0%); carrageenan (CAR, 13.61 mg/kg and 63.0%). The other phlogistic agonists, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), caused inhibition of less than 50%. In addition, (1) (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the OVO-induced allergic edema in actively sensitized animals (maximal inhibition 67.6+/-4%). Our results demonstrate that the systemic administration of marrubiin exerts a non-specific inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory agent-induced microvascular extravasation of Evans blue in mouse ear.

  18. Antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L.

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    Stanojević, Lj.P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare L. by Clevenger-type hydrodistillation and hydromodulus 1:10 m/v during 180 minutes, has been investigated in this work. Qualitative and quantitative composition of the oil was determined by GC-MS and GC-FID spectrometry. Antioxidant activity of the obtained oil was examined spectrophotometrically by DPPH test (after 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes of incubation and TBA-MDA assay. The yield of essential oil was 4.1 mL/100 g of plant material. Seven components were identified: α-thujene, myrcene, α-terpinene, o-cymene, γ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol. The major components were thymol (45% and carvacrol (37.4%. Oil incubated for 60 minutes has shown the best antioxidant activity according to DPPH test. The concentrations of essential oil, required for neutralization of 50% of initial DPPH radical concentration (EC50, were 0.761, 0.590, 0.360 and 0.326 mg/mL, after 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes of incubation, respectively. Lipid peroxidation inhibition of 92.3% was achieved by 1.35 mg/mL essential oil concentration. The results obtained indicate that oregano essential oil is a good source of natural antioxidants with potential application in food and pharmaceutical industries, as a safer alternative to the synthetic antioxidants.

  19. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

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    P. E. Pensel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis.

  1. Antiviral activity of plant extract from Tanacetum vulgare against Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Potato Virus Y

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    Nikolay Petrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY have been described among the top five important viruses infecting vegetable species worldwide. They cause severe damages in fruits and cultivated plants. There is currently no available effective pesticide to control these viral diseases. Higher plants contain a wide spectrum of secondary metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids, quinones, tannins, essential oils, alkaloids, saponins, sterols and others. Extracts prepared from different plants have been reported to have a variety of properties including antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties against pathogens. Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has many horticultural and pharmacological qualities. T. vulgare is principally used in traditional Asian and North African medicine as an antihelminthic, antispasmodic, stimulant to abdominal viscera, tonic, antidiabetic and diuretic, and it is antihypertensive. In our research we established antiviral effect of methanol extract from T. vulgare against CMV and PVY in tomato plants.

  2. Antimicrobial Effects Of The Ethanolic Extracts And Essential Oils Of Tanacetum Vulgare L From Romania

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    Mureşan Maria Lucia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of the extracts and essential oil of wildgrowing Tanacetum vulgare L on: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacilus subtilis, using the diffusion disc method. The essential oils but also the ethanolic extracts tested exhibited moderate action on Staphilococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and low action on E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The moderate antimicrobial activity is related to the amount of some chemical components of the essential oil of T. vulgare flos. Thus, this paper presents also the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the essential oils of T. vulgare harvested from two different habitats. The essential oils obtained by steam-distillation were analysed by gas-cromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  3. Phytochemical Analysis, Antibacterial Activity of Marrubium vulgare L against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

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    Saeide Saeidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicines are the major remedy in traditional medical systems and made a great contribution in maintaining human health and in preventing many infectious diseases. The present study was carried out to determine the potential antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts and essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. against Staphylococcus aureus which is antibiotic resistant. Materials and Methods: All 17 strains of S. aureus isolated from nose and throat sample from 160 healthy subjects, hospital staffs and inpatient in the city of Zabol (Amir Al-Momenin hospital, Zabol, south-eastern Iran were screened during years 2010-2011. In this study, the essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS in order to determine their chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil and extract. Results: Thirty-one components in the oil of Marrubium vulgare were identified. The results demonstrated that the major components of the essential oil were γ-Eudesmol (11%, Germacrene (10%, D-Citronelly formate (10%, β-Citronellol (8%, Geranyl tiglate (7.1%, Geranyl formate (6.02%. The least MIC value of extract M. vulgare was 2.5 mg/mL and the highest MIC value of essential oil M. vulgare was 2.5 mg/mL. Conclusion: This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil and extract has a potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil and extract as antibacterial agent. Further research is required to evaluate the practical values of therapeutic applications.

  4. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

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    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  5. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  6. Atividade in vitro do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare frente à Sporothrix Schenckii In vitro activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare against Sporothrix schenckii

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    M.B. Cleff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro activity of the essential oil Origanum vulgare against Sporothrix schenckii was determined by the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. For this, seven samples of S. schenckii were studied, two isolated from two cases of human sporotrichosis and five isolated from cats. Analysis of the essential oil was carried out in a gas chromatograph (GC/FID for the identification and quantification of thymol and carvacrol (antifungal agents. MIC was obtained based on the microdilution method according to the adapted document NCCLS-M 27A2 for fitopharmacy. All the isolates presented sensibility to the essential oil. S. schenckii was inhibited in a concentration of 0.25% (250m l/ml. Chromatographic analysis showed that thymol concentration was bigger than carvacrol. The antifungal activity demonstrated by the essential oil of O. vulgare against S. Schenckii stimulates the accomplishment of more studies, including in vivo studies.

  7. Optimization of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid extraction from oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskaitė, Justė; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Kopustinskienė, Dalia M; Drakšienė, Gailutė; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the extraction efficiency of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid from the different species of oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.). Various extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, heat-reflux, continuous stirring, maceration, percolation) and extraction conditions (different solvent, material:solvent ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) were used, and the active substances were determined by HPLC. The lowest content of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid was obtained by percolation. During heat-reflux extraction, the content of active substances depended on the solvent used: ethanol/non-aqueous solvent (glycerol or propylene glycol) mixture was more effective compared with ethanol alone. The results showed that for each species of oregano the most optimal extraction method should be selected to maximize the content of biologically active substances in the extracts.

  8. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Maha M; Taher, Eman E; El-Bahy, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare), composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98%) and thymol (32.82%) in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55%) in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens.

  9. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal Activities of the Essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

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    Maha M. Salama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare, composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98% and thymol (32.82% in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55% in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens.

  10. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Salido, S.; Waard, de P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier screening of Lithuanian plants, horehound (Marrubium vulgare) showed good antioxidant activity and as this species is used in herbal teas and cough pastilles it was selected for further investigation. Some fractions of the aerial parts were strong scavengers of the model free radicals

  11. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

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    Manzoor A. Rather

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Its seeds are used as flavourings in baked goods, meat and fish dishes, ice cream, alcoholic beverages and herb mixtures. Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of F. vulgare to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its therapeutic uses. Phenolic compounds isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be responsible for its antioxidant activity while the volatile aroma compounds make it an excellent flavouring agent. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and safety of F. vulgare.

  12. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

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    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  13. In Vitro Screening of Antibacterial Properties of Rhus coriaria and Origanum vulgare Against Some Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Hêro F.S. Akrayi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the antibacterial property of Rhus coriaria (Sumac and Origanum vulgare (Jatra aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27835. Results confirm the resistance of the bacterial isolates against more than three antibiotics. The aqueous extract of R. coriaria showed the highest activity as an inhibitor against tested bacteria, while the aqueous extract of O. vulgare shows low effect against the above mentioned bacteria. MIC for R. coriaria and O. vulgare aqueous extracts were determined for four bacterial isolates. The MIC of O. vulgare against tested bacteria was >12%, while the MIC of R. coriaria was 4% for E. coli, <0.025% for both K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis and 2% for P. aeruginosa. The phytochemical groups of both plants extract were analyzed; the results indicated both plants contain tannins, phenols and saponins, flavonoid, alkaloid, and phlobatanin. The antimitotic effect of both plants extracts were investigated on Allium cepa, and the extracts showed inhibitory role in the root growth in contrast to the control when grown in the tap water for 5 days. In addition, the 24 hours treatment of grown roots in tap water with both extracts resulted in significant decrease in mitotic index.

  14. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H.

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  15. Effects of the hydro-ethanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouni, Rim; Ben Attia, Mossadok; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Bibi-Derbel, Amina; Haouari, Mustapha

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of ethanol-water (80:20) extract of Marrubium vulgare (M. vulgare) on the hematological parameters, macroscopic and histological aspects of the uterus and fetus in non-pregnant and pregnant rats. Female rats were divided into 4 equal groups (n = 9), group N (normal rats) and group G (pregnant rats) considered as control groups, group NE (normal rats treated with the ethanol-water (80:20, v/v) extract of M. vulgare) and group GE (pregnant rats treated with the extract). The ethanol-water (80:20) plant extract was administered in a single daily dose 1 g/kg at the morning, during 19 d. On the 19 day of the experiment, animals were sacrificed, the uterus and fetuses were removed for the morphological and histological studies and the blood was collected in EDTA tubes for the measurement of hematological parameters with the use of an automate 'HORIBA ABX Micros 60 Hematology Analyzer'. Our results showed, in group NE and GE, a significant decrease on hematological parameters: red blood cells (NE: 18.6%; GE: 38.4%), hematocrit (NE: 13.8%; GE: 20.4%), hemoglobin (NE: 12.1%; GE: 8.3%) and mean corpuscular volume (NE: 6.4%; GE: 2%) with P more less a 0.05. Indeed, the extract of M. vulgare caused a significant decrease on the mean implantations of fetuses (82.5%, P vulgare. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Héloïse; Boucher, Marie-Anne; Pichette, André; Legault, Jean

    2017-05-25

    Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean), Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Coté

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean, Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  18. Aspectos anatômicos de plântulas Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Anatomical aspects of the Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-doce, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, é uma erva entouceirada, aromática que apresenta propriedades condimentares e medicinais; tem origem Européia e é amplamente cultivada em todo o Brasil. Devido à deficiência de informações relativas à organização estrutural de plântulas de espécies medicinais, o presente estudo teve como objetivo fornecer informações sobre a anatomia e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de F. vulgare. As sementes de erva-doce foram semeadas em areia e mantidas em casa de vegetação por 25 dias, sendo realizadas regas diárias. Foram selecionadas plântulas normais e de padrão uniforme, que tiveram raiz, zona de transição, caule, cotilédones e primeiras folhas seccionados à mão livre. Este material foi corado e montado em lâminas com glicerina para observação em microscópio. Em todos os órgãos da plântula de erva-doce a epiderme é unisseriada, cuticularizada e com estômatos; sendo que as duas últimas estruturas não são encontradas na raiz, porém esta apresenta pêlos unicelulares e cônicos. Os cotilédones e as folhas apresentam funções fotossintéticas e nutricionais, indicadas pela presença de grande quantidade de estômatos, cloroplastos e amido. A caracterização anatômica de plântulas de F. vulgare auxilia na identificação da espécie e no conhecimento da organização celular, fornecendo informações que auxiliam em estudos fisiológicos, taxonômicos e ecológicos.Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, is a forming clumps herb and presents aromatic, medicinal and condimental properties. It has European origin and is widely cultivated and used in Brazil. Due to lack of information concerning the structural organization of seedlings of medicinal species, this study aimed to provide information about the anatomy and development of F. vulgare seedlings. The seeds fennel was sowed in sand and maintained in greenhouse for 25 days, with daily waterings. Were selected

  19. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  20. Binding of paraquat to cell walls of paraquat resistant and susceptible biotypes of Hordeum glaucum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, H.M.; Preston, C.; Powles, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Paraquat is a widely used, non-selective, light activated contact herbicide acting as a photosystem electron acceptor. Resistance to paraquat in weed species has occurred in Australia and world-wide following extensive use of this herbicide. The mechanism of resistance to paraquat in 'Hordeum glaucum' is correlated with reduced herbicide translocation and may be due to sequestration of herbicide away from its site of action by either binding to cell walls or other means. We measured paraquat binding to a cell wall fraction in resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum to determine whether differences in binding of paraquat to cell walls could explain herbicide resistance. The cell wall fraction was isolated from leaves of resistant and susceptible biotypes and incubated with 14 C-labelled paraquat. Of the total paraquat - absorbed by a cell wall preparation, about 80% remains strongly bind to the cell wall and doesn't readily exchange with solution in the absence of divalent cations. Divalent cations (Ca 2+ ,putrescine and paraquat) can competitively exchange for paraquat tightly bound to the cell wall. From kinetic experiments it seems that there are two types of binding sites in the cell wall with different affinities for paraquat. No significant differences between cell wall, characteristics of resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum have been found in any of our experiments. Therefore, increased binding of paraquat to the cell wall appears not to be a mechanism for exclusion of paraquat in resistant biotype

  1. Comparison of chemical composition of the essential oil from Marrubium vulgare L. and M. incanum Desr. during the second year of cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Grażyna Zawiślak

    2015-01-01

    Horehound herb (Marrubium vulgare L.) is harvested from plantations in Poland. In our country, there are also favorable conditions for M. incanum Desr. growing. The aim of the study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils from M. vulgare L. and M. incanum Desr. in the second year of cultivation. The study revealed the presence of 31 compounds in the essential oil from M. vulgare L. and 24 compounds in the essential oil from M. incanum Desr. Chromatographic analysis revealed ...

  2. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  3. Antispasmodic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Marrubium vulgare on isolated tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemper, V; Ribas, A; Nicolau, M; Cechinel Filho, V

    1996-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare is a medicinal plant used in Brazil and in many countries in folk medicine against several diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the roots and aerial parts of M. vulgare in several smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The results showed that this extract exert a significant antispasmodic activity which inhibits the action of some neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, bradykinin, prostaglandin E(2), histamine and oxytocin, with putative selectivity for cholinergic contractions. These findings support the popular use in folk medicine of this plant as an antispasmodic. Copyright © 1996 Gustav Fischer Verlag · Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Análisis lingüístico de los piropos vulgares

    OpenAIRE

    Lopera Medina, Sergio Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Los piropos vulgares se ubican en el plano de la descortesía y estos invaden la imagen de la mujer. En este artículo se reporta el análisis lingüístico de los piropos vulgares en una población universitaria en Medellín-Colombia. Se siguió el método cualitativo de investigación y como instrumento de recolección de información se aplicó un cuestionario de hábitos sociales (Discourse Completion Test –DCT). Se utilizó el programa lingüístico computacional Cratilo para el análisi...

  5. Gastroprotective activity of methanol extract and marrubiin obtained from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula de Oliveira, Ana; Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Couto, Angélica Garcia; Meyre da Silva Bittencourt, Christiane; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Faloni de Andrade, Sérgio

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the gastroprotective properties of the methanol extract and the diterpene marrubiin obtained from the leaves of M. vulgare.   Assays were performed using different protocols in mice. Studies focusing on mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken. In the model of ethanol-induced ulcers, we observed a significant reduction in all the parameters analysed; the curative ratios obtained were 49.31±0.57, 74.31±0.91 and 79.86±0.59 for the groups treated with 50 and 100mg/kg of extract of M. vulgare and omeprazole (30mg/kg), respectively. For indomethacin-induced ulcers, the percentages of ulcer inhibition were 50.32±5.60, 66.24±4.30, 82.17±04.09 and 67.52±4.38, for the groups treated with 25, 50 and 100mg/kg M. vulgare and positive control (cimetidine), respectively. In both models, the marrubiin (25mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in all the parameters when compared with the control group (Pvulgare extract and marubiin. The results also demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by the extract and marubiin is related to the activity of nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls, which are important gastroprotective factors. The results of this study show that the extract of M. vulgare and marrubiin displays antiulcer activity and that this effect can be partly attributed to the isolated diterpene. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitruk M.; Haratym W.

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biolog...

  7. Susceptibility of Two Sitophilus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to Essential Oils from Foeniculum vulgare and Satureja hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, and Summer savory, Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae, against two stored-product insects. Essential oils from two species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and their fumigant toxicities were tested against adults of the wheat weevil, Sitophilus granarius and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae. The mortality was determined after 24 and 48 hrs from beginning of exposure. LC50 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. Fumigation bioassays revealed that essential oils from two plants had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. LC50 values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than S. oryzae to essential oils at the exposure time 24 and 48 hrs. The mortality effect of S. hortensis oil was lower than F. vulgare oil. The LC50 values decreased with the duration of exposure to the essential oil concentrations. In all case, responses varied according to plant material, concentration, and exposure time. These results indicated that essential oils from S. hortensis and F. vulgare could be applicable to the management of stored product insects to decrease ecologically detrimental effects of utilization synthetic insecticides.

  8. Biosynthesis of the labdane diterpene marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare via a non-mevalonate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Reuter, B; Zapp, J

    1997-09-01

    The biosynthesis of the furanic labdane diterpene marrubiin has been studied in plantlets and shoot cultures of Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae). The use of [2-14C]acetate, [2-14C]pyruvate, [2-14C]mevalonic acid and [U-14C]glucose incorporation experiments showed that the labelling of sterols in etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare was in accordance with their biosynthesis via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. In contrast, the incorporation rates of these precursors into the diterpene marrubiin could not be explained by biosynthesis of this compound via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. Cultivation of etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare on medium containing [1-13C]glucose and subsequent 13C-NMR spectroscopy of marrubiin led to the conclusion that the biosynthesis of marrubiin follows a non-mevalonate pathway. All isoprenic units of 13C-labelled marrubiin were enriched in those carbons that correspond to positions 1 and 5 of a putative precursor isopentenyl diphosphate. This labelling pattern from [1-13C]glucose is consistent with an alternative pathway via trioses, which has already been shown to occur in Eubacteria and Gymnospermae. The labdane skeleton is a precursor of many other skeletal types of diterpenes. Therefore it becomes obvious that in connection with the few known examples of a non-mevalonate pathway to isoprenoids the formation of some isoprenoids in plants via a non-mevalonate pathway might be quite common.

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill PADA Vibrio harveyi DAN Vibrio alginolyticus Antibacterial Activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Extract on Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2015-10-01

    Pada penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak air dari buah adas untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus dengan menggunakan metode uji Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC dan difusi cakram kertas. Hasil yang diperoleh pada uji MIC, konsentrasi terkecil untuk menghambat pertumbuhan adalah 0,060 g/ml, untuk kedua spesies bakteri. Variasi perlakuan pada uji cakram kertas yaitu konsentrasi A (0,065 g/ml, B (0,070 g/ml, C (0,075 g/ml, D (0,080 g/ml, E (0,085 g/ml, F (0,090 g/ml dan kontrol (0,000 g/ml, hasil yang diperoleh adalah konsentrasi 0,090 g/ml memiliki diameter zona hambat tertinggi sebesar 11,17 ± 0,5 mm (V. harveyi dan 12,53 ± 1,14 mm (V. alginolyticus, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa buah adas (F. vulgare Mill memiliki peranan ekologi yang sangat penting sebagai bahan pengobatan alternatif dalam pengendalian penyebaran penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh V. harveyi dan V. alginolyticus. Kata kunci: Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, uji MIC dan difusi cakram kertas

  10. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley.

  11. The effect of fast neutrons, as compared with X-rays upon mutation spectrum and mutation frequency in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Hordeum vulgare L. in relation to evaluation of the BARN-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellaert, L.M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Explanations were sought for the 'saturation' in mutant frequency, observed after relatively high irradiation doses (fast neutrons and X-rays) in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, when scoring for mutants is done in the siliques (Mueller's embryotest) of the 'main' inflorescence of M 1 -plants. Studies have been carried out on the effect of the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) during irradiation, on fast neutron and X-ray induced M 1 -ovule sterility, M 2 -embryonic lethals, M 2 -chlorophyll mutants and M 2 -viable mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was found that DTT provides considerable protection against both fast neutron and X-ray induced genetic damage. (Auth.)

  12. Genotype-Dependent Effect of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Cd-induced Changes in Antioxidative Metabolism, Ultrastructure, and Photosynthetic Performance in Barley Seedlings (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Fang; Sun, Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse hydroponic experiment was performed using Cd-sensitive (cv. Dong 17) and Cd-tolerant (Weisuobuzhi) barley seedlings to evaluate how different genotypes responded to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Results showed that 5 μ...

  13. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stanovení důležitých ječných (Hordeum vulgare) proteinů pomocí separačních a hmotnostně spektrometrických metod

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2010), s. 79-82 ISSN 0023-5830 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : malt * MALDI-TOF MS * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  15. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cellulose synthase-like D2 gene (HvCslD2) mediates penetration resistance to host-adapted and nonhost isolates of the powdery mildew fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douchkov, Dimitar; Lueck, Stefanie; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Johrde, Annika; Doblin, Monika S.; Beahan, Cherie T.; Kopischke, Michaela; Fuchs, René; Lipka, Volker; Niks, Rients E.; Bulone, Vincent; Chowdhury, Jamil; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A.; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls and cellular turgor pressure shape and suspend the bodies of all vascular plants. In response to attack by fungal and oomycete pathogens, which usually breach their host's cell walls by mechanical force or by secreting lytic enzymes, plants often form local cell wall appositions

  16. Predicting Changes of Rainfed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Farming Calendar using Downscaling LARS-WG and HadCM3 Models in Lorestan Province in 2011-2030 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The results of climate change studies in recent years confirm this phenomenon occurrence in Iran. The climatic characteristics (potential and limitations of climate are considered in the long run, to determine the pattern of cultivation and distribution of different plant species. Unfortunately, the agricultural sector due to the low speed and power compliance, will suffer the greatest impact of climate change. General circulation models provide accurate tools to predict future climatic conditions, and the necessary data for the implementation of simulation models and the development of crops under climate change conditions. The study of the effects of climate change on the agricultural sector seems to be necessary due to increase the demand for agricultural production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of climate change on the rainfed barley farming calendar in Lorestan province as an effective pole in cereal cultivation in Iran. Materials and methods In order to study the effects of climate change on the rainfed barley farming calendar, outputs from the HadCM3 model simulations were used. After evaluating the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator model using performance indicators and ensure the suitability of the model, this model was applied to downscale HadCM3 model outputs. A2 scenario was chosen to evaluate climate impacts for the period 2011–2030. In this study, due to the suitable temperature for germination in the region, has been emphasized only on the precipitation to find the most suitable time for barley cultivation. Planting date was calculated by Weibull probability with 50 and 75% confidence intervals. Growing degree days (GDD were used to calculate the phenological stages. For the forecast period, the same method was used to determine the farming calendar. Results Discussion The results showed that in the observation period, the earliest planting date was observed in northern province in Borujerd and Aleshtar cities, and as we go south, the planting date postponed. The beginning of the cultivation is a function of temperature, so that the latest planting date was observed in Poldokhtar city as the warmest region of the province. In the observation period, the latest harvesting date was observed in Aligoodarz and Aleshtar cities and the earliest harvesting date was observed in Poldokhtar city. In the forecast period, the beginning of crop cultivation did not change much and remained constant for less than 10 days compared to the observation period. However, many changes occurred in the harvesting date. So that the most changes with 60 days earlier occurred at the Poldokhtar city. The duration of the growth period reduced at all the stations. The greatest reduction in the duration of the growth period was observed at the Aligudarz city with 62 days. The decreasing duration of the growth period was due to changes in temperature and precipitation. This shows that the fall precipitation, which is related to the cold season, does not change much, but the precipitation of the warm season decreases. One of the limitations of rainfed barley cultivation in Lorestan province is temperature in the tillering stage. This restriction will continue in future. In the observation period, temperature of flowering and grain filling period was in optimal conditions, but in the forecast period, with increasing temperature, we will encounter high temperature stress in these two stages. The adaptation strategies are different depending on the type of farming and the climate change scenario. Among these strategies we can mention changes in planting date and crop rotation, use of resistant varieties to the warm conditions and irrigation management. Conclusion The results showed that at all stations, the planting date will be earlier and the duration of the growth period will decrease in the period 2011–2030.

  17. Assessment of CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Danish Beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest and an adjacent N-fertilised barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, J.M.; Prieme, A.

    2001-01-01

    emissions immediately following soil applications of digested sewage sludge. Cumulated values for CH4 emissions over the course of 328 days after sludge applications indicated a small net source in sludge treated plots (7.6 mg C m(-2)) whereas sludge-free soil constituted a small sink (-0.9 mg C m(-2...... and independent of drainage status. Methane oxidation was observed all-year round in the forest cumulating to -225 mg C m(-2) and -84 mg C m(-2) in dry and wet areas. In a model experiment with incubated soil cores, nitrogen amendment (NH4Cl) and perturbation significantly reduced CH4 oxidation in the forest soil......, presumably as a result of increased nitrification activity. Sludge also induced net CH4 production in the otherwise strong CH4 oxidising forest soil. This emphasises the potential for CH4 emissions from sewage sludge applications onto land. The study shows, however, that emissions of N2O and CH4 induced...

  18. Development and Validation of a Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Indole-3-Pyruvic Acid, and Abscisic Acid in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilva Nakurte

    2012-01-01

     mm I.D with a mobile phase composed of methanol and 1% acetic acid (60 : 40 v/v in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1 ml min-1. The detection was monitored at 270 nm (ABA and at 282 nm (Ex and 360 nm (Em (IAA, IPA. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and robustness. The determined validation parameters are in the commonly acceptable ranges for that kind of analysis.

  19. A laser ablation ICP-MS based method for multiplexed immunoblot analysis: applications to manganese-dependent protein dynamics of photosystem II in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Pedas, Pai Rosager

    2015-01-01

    analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which allowed selective and relative quantitative analysis via the different lanthanides. The method was evaluated against established liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC...

  20. Content of amino acids in dense extracts from raw material of Echium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mashtaler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Echium vulgare L. of Boraginaceae family is a biennial rigidly pubescent plant with a spindle-shaped root, which is rather widespread in Ukraine. Above-ground and underground part of the plant is used in folk medicine as a blood purifying agent and anticonvulsant, herb decoctions – as expectorant and calming agent for cough of various etiology. Owing to shikonin and its ethers presence, extracts from Echium vulgare L. have high antibacterial activity and stable fungistatic effect against yeast fungi. In addition, these substances also exibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and regenerative activity. Echium vulgare L., as most representatives of Boraginaceae, is not sufficiently studied. Continuing to study this species, we have determined amino acid composition of its aqueous extracts. This group of biologically active substances is present in easy-to-digest complexes and in biologically available concentrations; it demonstrates a number of biological actions, such as hepatoprotective, lipotropic, cardiotropic, regenerative, wound-healing, calming, etc. The objective of our work was to study qualitative composition and quantitative content of amino acids in dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Objects of our study were dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Roots were harvested in autumn, at the end of vegetation period (October – November 2009; herb was collected during the phase of mass flowering (June 2009 in Kharkov region. Well-known methods were used to obtain dense extracts (extraction agent: purified water. Output of root dense extract was 22,7%, and herb dense extract was 23,5%. Amino acid composition of dense extracts was studied with amino acid analyzer AAA-339 (Czech Republic after hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. There have been identified 16 amino acids, 7 of which are essential, 3 semiessential ones and the rest – nonessential amino acids. Qualitative composition and

  1. under water stress conditio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Thameur

    2012-05-17

    adjustment trait variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theor. Appl. Genet., 96: 688-698. Thameur A, Ferchichi A, López-Carbonell M (2011). Quantification of free and conjugated abscisic acid in five genotypes of barley. (Hordeum ...

  2. Binary and Tertiary Mixtures of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils as Potent Antimicrobial Agents Against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Natasa; Orcic, Dejan; Franciskovic, Marina; Knezevic, Petar; Beara, Ivana; Aleksic, Verica; Svircev, Emilija; Buzas, Krisztina; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity, even against multiresistant Helicobacter pylori. Available therapies against H. pylori infection have multiple disadvantages, indicating a great need for a development of new therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to develop a potent natural product based anti-H. pylori formulation. First, anti-H. pylori activity of nine essential oils was determined, after which the most active oils were mixed in various ratios for further testing. Satureja hortensis, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils expressed the highest activity (MIC = 2 μL mL(-1)). Their binary and ternary mixtures exhibited notably higher antimicrobial activity (MIC ≤ 2 μL mL(-1)). The most active was the mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum oils in volume ratio 2:1, which expressed 4 times higher activity than individual oils (MIC = 0.5 μL mL(-1)). According to GC-MS, both oils in the mixture were characterized by high content of phenols (48-73%), with carvacrol as the main carrier of antimicrobial activity. Presented in vitro study pointed out binary mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils in volume ratio 2:1 as promising candidate for further in vivo studies targeting H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Development of a minimal chemically defined medium for Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH001 based on its genome-scale metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shicun; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zou, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Commercial production of 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG), the immediate precursor of l-ascorbic acid, is by Ketogulonicigenium vulgare in co-culture with Bacillus megaterium. We used flux balance analysis (FBA) to study a genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) of K. vulgare, iWZ663, and found that K. vulgare is deficient in nutrient biosynthetic pathways. Individually omitting l-glycine, l-cysteine, l-methionine, l-tryptophan, adenine, thymine, thiamine and pantothenate from complete chemically defined medium (CDM), caused biomass formation of K. vulgare to decrease to 1%, 21%, 16%, 1%, 26%, 57%, 73% and 24%, respectively. Based on these results and FBA, a minimal chemically defined medium (MCDM) was developed that supported monoculture of K. vulgare (0.28OD600) and 2-KLG production (3.59g/L), which were similar to those in complete CDM or corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) medium. This study demonstrated the potential of using GSMM and FBA to characterize nutrient requirements, optimize CDM, and study interactions in co-culture. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Validação do índice de comprometimento cutaneomucoso do pênfigo vulgar para a avaliação clínica de pacientes com pênfigo vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Sávio Reder de; Azulay-Abulafia,Luna; Nascimento,Leninha Valério do

    2011-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: O pênfigo vulgar é uma bulose grave, produzida pela destruição autoimune dos desmossomos, o que resulta na formação de bolhas intraepidérmicas, afetando pele e mucosas, com mortalidade de 5 a 10%. Os efeitos colaterais da terapêutica contribuíram para aumentar a morbidade da doença, respondendo por parte considerável das causas imediatas de morte por pênfigo vulgar atualmente. Não há nenhuma sistematização reprodutível para a avaliação clínica dos pacientes de pênfigo vulgar, tor...

  5. As construções perifrásticas adverbiais com mente no latim clássico e vulgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Monteiro Gondim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we analyze constructions diachronically in mind, the varieties classical and vulgar Latin, in order to evaluate the change process and verify that these constructions in Latin, unlike what happens in Portuguese, there is greater consistency between behavior and thus grammarians assert that about her. For this, we used the classical grammarians to evaluate the treatment devoted to adverbs. Furthermore, we analyze the periphrastic locutions adverbial in mind with Latin texts of the Vulgate, representatives of the variety vulgar Latin and the works of Ovid and Virgil, representatives of Classical Latin. The conclusions reached were that, despite the use of neglected buildings adverviais in mind, the main considerations that such grammarians wove about adverbs can also be applied to instances adverbial phrases that treat both the classic mode as in vulgar Latin.

  6. Instrumental neutron activities analysis of Marrubium vulgare L., a valuable medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    Twenty two chemical elements were identified by Instrumental neutron activation analysis in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) a traditional medicine plant, used indigenously in Mediterranean basin to cure several diseases. The precision of the results was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material GBW 07605 (GSV-4) Tea leaves. Results showed that K was the dominant chemical element in studied plant (4.40%). The Ca and Fe mass fractions were also relatively high. However potential toxic elements in this Lamiaceae plant were within the safety limits suggested by WHO/FAO.

  7. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to...

  8. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Fathy M.; Shehata, Afaf H.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Ezzat, Shahera M.

    2002-01-01

    An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl)-rhamnoside (1) was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside) (2), quercitrin (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), rutin (6), and miquelianin (quercetin-3...

  9. Instrumental neutron activities analysis of Marrubium vulgare L., a valuable medicinal herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid; Beladel, Brahim

    2016-01-01

    Twenty two chemical elements were identified by Instrumental neutron activation analysis in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) a traditional medicine plant, used indigenously in Mediterranean basin to cure several diseases. The precision of the results was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material GBW 07605 (GSV-4) Tea leaves. Results showed that K was the dominant chemical element in studied plant (4.40%). The Ca and Fe mass fractions were also relatively high. However potential toxic elements in this Lamiaceae plant were within the safety limits suggested by WHO/FAO.

  10. The use of the oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and hydrosol in green olive fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Musa Özcan; Derya Arslan; Ali Osman Aydar

    2008-01-01

    The effect of oregano the (Origanum vulgare L.) oil at the levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3% and oregano hydrosol on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the green olive (Edremit variety) fermentation was investigated. The initial pH of the oregano oil added samples were higher than the other treatments, which were above 5.8. The highest final acidity was observed in the hydrosol+brine combination (0.53%). The initial LAB population on the first day of the fermentati...

  11. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  12. Presentación de un caso de Pénfigo Vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Zully Ballesteros Zárate; Julio Cesar Mantilla Hernández; Álvaro Sanabria Naranjo

    2012-01-01

    El pénfigo es una enfermedad vesículo-ampollosa autoinmune de la piel y mucosas, que puede comprometer grandes extensiones; los tipos vulgar y foliáceo son los más frecuentes, con diferencias inmunopatológicas entre ellas. El pénfigo es tratado con corticoides y Azatioprina pero en los últimos años se incluyeron nuevos medicamentos como inmunoglobulinas, Rituximab (anticuerpo monoclonal quimérico anti-CD20) entre otros, Mostramos un caso de pénfigo hiperpigmentado atípico, y revisamos el tema...

  13. Preliminar toxicological assesement of Ruta graveolens, Origanum vulgare and Persea americana on the preimplantational mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in natural medicine makes it necessary to study plant properties as well as their possible secondary effects. In recent years the toxic effects of many medicinal plants on the preimplantational mouse embryo development have been studied. Many of them produce malformations and alterations in the embryonic development. Ruta graveolens "ruda", Origanum vulgare "oregano" and Persea americana "palta" are used in rural areas to menstrual colic and to provoke abortion (estrella, 1995. This study is aimed at assessing "in vivd'the effect of extracts of "oregano", "ruda" and "palta" to 20% on the morphology and growth of preimplantational mouse embryos.

  14. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five...... in vitro and in vivo with three different prenyl diphosphate substrates forming the marrubiin precursor 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene, as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, manoyl oxide and miltiradiene. MvELS fills a central position in the biosynthetic system that forms the foundation...

  15. Evaluation of agronomical and qualitative characteristics of Greek Oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum germplasm for breeding purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarrou, Eirini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oregano (Origanum vulgare is one of the most commercially valued species with remarkable biological properties, while its world trade and consumption is steadily increased. In order to identify a standardized plant material of Greek Oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, sixteen native populations collected from different regions of Greece, were evaluated for their essential oil yield and composition. A breeding program was initiated for the most effective populations, concerning the most desirable biochemical, agronomic and morphological characteristics, using pedigree method and honeycomb design for plant selection.

  16. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Henchiri, Cherifa; Siracusa, Laura; Sari, Madani; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Algeria. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusion revealed the presence of fifteen metabolites, all belonging to the class of polyphenols. Particularly, seven flavonoids have been detected, together with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid in small amounts; the extract is dominated by the presence of a series of complex molecules, characterized as verbascoside (acteoside) derivatives. Concerning the anti-diabetic effectiveness a series of in vivo experiments were carried out on albinos Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxane; they were treated twice a day with aqueous extract from aerial part infusion (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract the Marrubium vulgare induced an significant effect antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic (dose-dependent effect). A decrease in blood glucose by 50% for the dose 100 mg/kg and more than 60% for doses 200 and 300 mg/kg, as well as a significant lowering of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in treated animals, compared with diabetic controls group (p<0.001), have been observed. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Wound healing activity of Origanum vulgare engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Wistar Albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Renu; Dhivya, Ravishankar; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-07-01

    The titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2·NPs) were synthesized utilizing Origanum vulgare under room temperature. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs excitation was confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 320 nm. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed TiO2·NPs are spherical in shape and connected with one another. Dynamic light scattering analysis results specified high stability in nanoparticles, with an average particle size of 341 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy peaks revealed the presence of bioactive functional groups in Origanum vulgare aqueous leaf extract much needed for the TiO2·NPs formation. X-ray diffraction spectra showed the TiO2·NPs are amorphous in nature. Furthermore, the green synthesized TiO2·NPs wound healing activity was examined in the excision wound model by measuring wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling, revealed significant wound healing activity in Albino rats. In conclusion, our results bared TiO2·NPs have delivered a novel therapeutic route for wound treatment in clinical practice.

  18. Individual variation in the seasonal reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Nasri, Karima; Mocquard, Jean-Pierre; Juchault, Pierre

    1998-08-01

    Under particular conditions of photoperiod and temperature, Armadillidium vulgare females, originating from a single population, might exhibit individual differences in the onset of reproduction and duration of the breeding period. In a population issued from a strain from middle latitudes, some females underwent only one parturial moult (northern tendency) and others three parturial moults (southern tendency). Females with an atypical northern phenology are the most numerous and tend to be found near the Danish population. In the latter, there is an asymmetrical response to laboratory selection (favourable to females with a longer breeding period). The asymmetrical variation in atypical individuals acts as a safety device against the unpredictability of the environment. The adaptation of this species, originally from the Mediterranean periphery, to a northern environment has led to a reduction in its capacity to breed over long periods of time. Populations from middle latitudes can undergo one or several parturial moults which enables the species to successfully colonize even far-away countries. These intrapopulation differences have an essential role and explain why Armadillidium vulgare is one of the most widely distributed species among Oniscidea.

  19. Analysis of the antinociceptive properties of marrubiin isolated from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V

    2000-04-01

    We have shown previously that Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant employed frequently in folk medicine to treat a variety of ailments, exhibits antispasmodic and antinociceptive effects in different experimental models. This work describes the antinociceptive profile of marrubiin, the main constituent of this plant, which was analysed in some models of nociception in mice. The results showed that marrubiin exhibits potent and dose-related antinociceptive effects, whose calculated ID50 values (micromol/kg, i.p.) were the following: 2.2 in the writhing test, 6.6 (first phase) and 6.3 (second phase) in the formalin-induced pain test and 28.8 when evaluated in the capsaicin test. It was more potent than some well-known analgesic drugs. The antinociception produced by the marrubiin was not reversed by naloxone when analyzed against the writhing test. In the hot-plate test, marrubiin did not increase the latency period of pain induced by the thermal stimuli. Its exact mechanism of action remains to be determined, but the results suggest that marrubiin, like hydroalcoholic extract of M. vulgare, does not interact with opioid systems.

  20. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen.

  1. Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Marrubium vulgare L. Methanol Extract on Carrageenan- Induced Paw Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fathiazad, Maryam Rameshrad, Samira Asghari, Sanaz Hamedeyazdan, Alireza Garjani, Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The upward desire in using traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of different diseases has led the scientists to be thoughtful on plants as alternative sources of conventional drugs. Methods: Herein, anti-inflammatory effects of Marrubium vulgare methanolic extract was evaluated in carrageenan- induced paw edema in rats through examining paw thickness, histological studies and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO. The antioxidant activity of M. vulgare extract and its phenolic and flavonoids content were evaluated by folin-Ciocalteau, and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, separately. Results: The results showed that M. vulgare alleviated paw inflammation as indexed by reduction paw thickness (p<0.001 as well as MPO activity (p<0.001, which was associated with a marked decrease in tissue edema. Moreover, the extract RC50 value for DPPH and nitric oxide antioxidant activity was 177 µg/mL and 370.5 µg/ml, besides, the total phenolic and flavonoids were as 625 mg gallic acid equivalent and 1.62 g quercetin equivalent per 100 g of dried plant material. Conclusion: In the main, the observed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of M. vulgare could be attributed to the high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid content identified in the extract.

  2. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  3. The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Zied; Kadri, Adel; Ben Chobba, Ines; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Bekir, Ahmed; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Gharsallah, Néji

    2011-09-21

    In order to validate its antiseptic and anticancer properties with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time the antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of M. vulgare essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M. vulgare essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against the different tested microorganisms. The present results results showed a significant activity against microorganisms especially Gram (+) bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 6.6-25.2 mm and 1120-2600 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram (-) bacteria exhibited a higher resistance. As far as the antifungal activity, among four strains tested, Botrytis cinerea exhibited the strongest activity with inhibition zones of 12.6 mm. However, Fusarium solani, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger were less sensitive to M. vulgare essential oil. About the citotoxicity assay, this finding indicate the capability of this essential oil to inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell lines under some conditions with IC50 value of 0.258 μg/ml. This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+) pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil as anticancer agent. Further research is required

  4. The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia

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    Mejdoub Hafedh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to validate its antiseptic and anticancer properties with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time the antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of M. vulgare essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50 were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M. vulgare essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against the different tested microorganisms. The present results results showed a significant activity against microorganisms especially Gram (+ bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 6.6-25.2 mm and 1120-2600 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram (- bacteria exhibited a higher resistance. As far as the antifungal activity, among four strains tested, Botrytis cinerea exhibited the strongest activity with inhibition zones of 12.6 mm. However, Fusarium solani, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger were less sensitive to M. vulgare essential oil. About the citotoxicity assay, this finding indicate the capability of this essential oil to inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell lines under some conditions with IC50 value of 0.258 μg/ml. Conclusion This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+ pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi. The present studies confirm the use of this

  5. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

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    Nan Jia

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  6. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare.

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    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Starks, Courtney; Hamberger, Björn; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five different candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs) of the TPS-c and TPS-e/f clades. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the M. vulgare diTPS family. In addition to MvEKS ent-kaurene synthase of general metabolism, we identified three diTPSs of specialized metabolism: MvCPS3 (+)-copalyl diphosphate synthase, and the functional diTPS pair MvCPS1 and MvELS. In a sequential reaction, MvCPS1 and MvELS produce a unique oxygenated diterpene scaffold 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene en route to marrubiin and an array of related compounds. In contrast with previously known diTPSs that introduce a hydroxyl group at carbon C-8 of the labdane backbone, the MvCPS1-catalyzed reaction proceeds via oxygenation of an intermediate carbocation at C-9, yielding the bicyclic peregrinol diphosphate. MvELS belongs to a subgroup of the diTPS TPS-e/f clade with unusual βα-domain architecture. MvELS is active in vitro and in vivo with three different prenyl diphosphate substrates forming the marrubiin precursor 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene, as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, manoyl oxide and miltiradiene. MvELS fills a central position in the biosynthetic system that forms the foundation for the diverse repertoire of Marrubium diterpenoids. Co-expression of MvCPS1 and MvELS in engineered E. coli and Nicotiana benthamiana offers opportunities for producing precursors for an array of biologically active diterpenoids. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Investigation on antibacterial synergism of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris essential oils

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    Stojković D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are well known as strong antimicrobial agents of plant origin. In spite of this, the antimicrobial synergism of essential oils isolated from different plant species is poorly investigated. The following study examines the synergism of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus vulgaris L against pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. First, the antibacterial effect of the oils was tested, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of both oils were determined using the microdilution method. To test whether the oils act synergistically, every possible combination of essential oil concentrations was used in a dynamic checkerboard method. The results indicated that the oils indeed acted synergistically with fractional inhibitory concentration indexes of 0.45 and 0.50. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  8. Trace elements and essential oil composition in chemotypes of the aromatic plant Origanum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Trace elements, essential oil yield and its percentage composition were determined by neutron activation analysis, hydrodistillation and gas chromatography in two chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. cultivated in the same field. Statistical tests such as analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, t-test, and multiple correlation were applied. The results showed that the samples contain the highest recorded oil yield for aromatic plants. Also, there is a statistically significant difference between the chemotypes of the plant not only in the predominant compound but in a number of other components. Iron, chromium and scandium showed a negative significant correlation with carvacrol and a positive one with thymol. Europium shows characteristic correlations with chromium, cobalt, iron and scandium within each chemotype of the plant. These correlations could make probable a role of this element in the biosynthesis of the predominant compounds. (author)

  9. Presentación de un caso de Pénfigo Vulgar

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    Zully Ballesteros Zárate

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El pénfigo es una enfermedad vesículo-ampollosa autoinmune de la piel y mucosas, que puede comprometer grandes extensiones; los tipos vulgar y foliáceo son los más frecuentes, con diferencias inmunopatológicas entre ellas. El pénfigo es tratado con corticoides y Azatioprina pero en los últimos años se incluyeron nuevos medicamentos como inmunoglobulinas, Rituximab (anticuerpo monoclonal quimérico anti-CD20 entre otros, Mostramos un caso de pénfigo hiperpigmentado atípico, y revisamos el tema en especial sobre el tratamiento. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (3: 49-55

  10. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation.

  11. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

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    Shahera M. Ezzat

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl-rhamnoside (1 was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, quercitrin (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4, isoquercitrin (5, rutin (6, and miquelianin (quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (7. Structure elucidation of the above mentioned flavonoids was achieved by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC and EI-MS.

  12. Floral volatiles ofTanacetum vulgare L. attractive toLobesia botrana den. et schiff. females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D; Suchy, V; Marion-Poll, F; Hradsky, P; Farkas, P

    1992-05-01

    The European grapevine moth (EGVM),Lobesia botrana, is a major pest of grapes in Europe. Females are attracted to a nonhost plant: tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), which is a common weed in Slovakian vineyards. A steam distillate extract of tansy flowers was analyzed by means of a GC-EAG technique to screen constituents detected by the olfactory receptors of EGVM females. From more than 200 GC peaks, nine peaks corresponding to monoterpenoids released an EAG response in more than 70% of the females (N=15):p-cymene,d-limonene,α-thujene,α-thujone,β-thujone, thujyl alcohol, terpinene-4-ol, (Z)-verbenol, and piperitone. The steam distillate of tansy as well as a synthetic blend of identified compounds released consistent attraction in a field cage. The use of nonhost plants and host plant odors in integrated pest management is discussed.

  13. The use of the oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and hydrosol in green olive fermentation

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    M. Musa Özcan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oregano the (Origanum vulgare L. oil at the levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3% and oregano hydrosol on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the green olive (Edremit variety fermentation was investigated. The initial pH of the oregano oil added samples were higher than the other treatments, which were above 5.8. The highest final acidity was observed in the hydrosol+brine combination (0.53%. The initial LAB population on the first day of the fermentation was high in the diluted hydrosol (8.89 log cfu ml-1 and control (8.47 log cfu ml-1 samples. But a significant difference was not observed between the LAB counts of the treatments on the 40th day of fermentation. The control and brine+oregano hydrosol samples had the highest sensory scores.

  14. A new monoterpene acid from Marrubium vulgare with potential antihepatotoxic activity.

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    Ahmed, Bahar; Masoodi, Mubashir H; Siddique, Anwarul H; Khan, Shamshir

    2010-11-01

    The whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. afforded a new terpenoid, characterised as p-menthane-5,6-dihydroxy-3-carboxylic acid (1), which has been designated as marrubic acid. Its structure has been elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical analyses. The compound (1) also exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) by 40.16%, serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) by 35.06%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 30.51%. On the other hand, total protein (TP) levels were increased by 34.07%, as compared to the standard drug silymarin, which decreased SGOT by 53.04%, SGPT by 55.96%, ALP by 35.87% and increased TP levels by 59.59%. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by histopathological examinations of liver sections.

  15. Analgesic potential of marrubiin derivatives, a bioactive diterpene present in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyre-Silva, C; Yunes, R A; Schlemper, V; Campos-Buzzi, F; Cechinel-Filho, V

    2005-04-01

    Marrubiin, a furane labdane diterpene, is the main analgesic compound present in Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in Brazil and other countries to treat several ailments. Considering its important pharmacological action, as well as its high yield, some structural modifications were performed in order to obtain more active compounds. Success was obtained in reducing the lactonic function, in the formation of marrubiinic acid and two esterified derivatives, which exhibited significant analgesic effect against the writhing test in mice. Marrubiinic acid showed better activity and excellent yield, and its analgesic effect was confirmed in other experimental models of pain in mice, suggesting its possible use as a model to obtain new and potent analgesic agents.

  16. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised.

  17. Chemical constituents of Marrubium vulgare as potential inhibitors of nitric oxide and respiratory burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Farzana; Rasoola, Shagufta; Shah, Zafar Ali; Soomro, Samreen; Jabeen, Almas; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L., led to the isolation of three new secondary metabolites, 11-oxomarrubiin (1), vulgarcoside A (2) and 3-hydroxyapigenin-4'-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with four known constituents 4-7 from the polar fractions of the methanolic extract. The structures of all compounds were deduced on the basis of NMR data and HRESI-MS measurements. The new constituents 1-3 exhibited moderate to low level of inhibition on nitric oxide (NO.) production. The compound 2 also showed a moderate inhibition on pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. The new constituents 1-3 showed no inhibitory effect on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production.

  18. Atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare frente a Malassezia pachydermatis

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    R. Santin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a atividade antifúngica in vitro do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare frente a isolados clínicos de Malassezia pachydermatis. As folhas secas de O. vulgare foram adquiridas de distribuidor comercial com certificado de qualidade e origem e encaminhadas para extração do óleo essencial e cromatografia. Para realização do teste in vitro, foi utilizada a técnica de microdiluição em caldo (CLSI M27A3 com modificações para fitofármacos e M. pachydermatis. O óleo essencial de orégano foi testado nas concentrações de 28 a 0,87mg/mL diluído em caldo Sabouraud com 1% de tween 80. Todos os isolados foram testados em duplicata. Na análise cromatográfica do óleo essencial, foram identificados 12 compostos, sendo timol, a-terpineno e 4-terpineol os compostos majoritários. A CIM e a CFM dos 42 isolados de M. pachydermatis variaram de <0,87 a 7mg/mL, com valores de CIM50 e CIM90 de 1,18 e 3,28mg/mL, respectivamente. Com este estudo foi possível concluir que M. pachydermatis é sensível ao óleo essencial de orégano mesmo em concentrações baixas. Dessa maneira, o óleo essencial de orégano apresenta-se como promissor na bioprospecção de novos fármacos para o tratamento das otites e dermatites na clínica de pequenos animais.

  19. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifungal activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis against three Candida albicans strains

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    Delić Dafina N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to general growing resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs nowadays, there have been many studies reported on the use of herbal essential oils as antifungal agents in recent years. In this study, essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae were examined for their in vitro antifungal activity against three Candida albicans strains (laboratory - CAL, human pulmonary - CAH, and reference ATCC10231-CAR in comparison to Nystatin (0.30 mg/ml and Fluconazole (2 mg/ml as standard antifungal agents. The antifungal activity was evaluated by comparing inhibition zone diameters obtained both by disc-and well-diffusion assays, as well as by comparing MIC and MBC values detected by microdilution assay. Diffusion test results revealed stronger antifungal effect of O. vulgare against all analyzed C. albicans strains identifying CAL strain as the most susceptible one. Inhibition zones ranged from 12.65 to 25.10 mm depending on the concentrations applied. The highest concentrations of Rosemary essential oil (5.00 mg/ml demonstrated activity against two strains: CAL and CAR ATCC 10231 in both diffusion assays applied, while no antifungal activity was recorded against CAH isolate. Microdilution assay showed that both oils demonstrated the same MIC values for all tested strains (0.11 mg/ml, except MIC value against ATCC strain (0.23 mg/ml obtained for Rosemary essential oil. The obtained results indicated that oregano and rosemary essential oils might be highly effective in the natural prevention treatment of candidiasis, although toxicity assays should be previously preformed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  1. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil in the diet of broilers as balancing the intestinal microbiota

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    Giselle Eler Amorim Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dias G.E.A., de Carvalho B.O., Medeiros, P.T. deM., Sousa F.D.deR., Gomes A.V.daC., de Souza M.M.S. & de Lima C.A.R. [Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil in the diet of broilers as balancing the intestinal microbiota.] Óleo essencial de orégano (Origanum vulgare L. na dieta de frangos de corte como equilibrador da microbiota intestinal. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:108-114, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: giselleeler@gmail.com The effectiveness of the use of oregano essential oil as an zootechnical additive in broiler diets was evaluated. 300 male broiler chickens were distributed in delineation in blocks at random, five treatments and six repetitions of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of oregano essential oil (300, 600 and 900 mg/kg ration, a negative control (with no antimicrobial and a positive control with the antibiotic colistin sulfate. Samples were collected from the ileum at 40 days of age with the objective of determining the count of total coliform and identifying enterobacteria. The digestibility assay was constituted of 8 adaptation days to the diet and 4 days for collecting. There was reduction (P<0.05 at the count of total coliform in chickens treated with antibiotic or oregano. There were no differences between treatments in dry matter apparent metabolization coefficients, apparent metabolizable energy and apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance. The treatment with higher level of oregano resulted at a higher nitrogen apparent metabolization coefficient. The oregano essential oil may be utilized in diets of broilers as zootechnical additive balancing the intestinal microbiota.

  2. When GIS zooms in: spatio-genetic maps of multipaternity in Armadillidium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Nicolas; Depeux, Charlotte; Durand, Sylvine; Debenest, Catherine; Lafitte, Alexandra; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) tools are designed to illustrate, analyse and integrate geographic or spatial data, usually on a macroscopic scale. By contrast, genetic tools focus on a microscopic scale. Because in reality, landscapes have no predefined scale, our original study aims to develop a new approach, combining both cartographic and genetic approaches to explore microscopic landscapes. For this, we focused on Armadillidium vulgare, a terrestrial isopod model in which evolutionary pressures imposed by terrestrial life have led to the development of internal fertilisation and, consequently, to associated physiological changes. Among these, the emergence of internal receptacles, found in many taxa ranging from mammals to arthropods, allowed females to store sperm from several partners, enabling multipaternity. Among arthropods, terrestrial isopods like the polygynandrous A. vulgare present a female structure, the marsupium, in which fertilised eggs migrate and develop into mancae (larval stage). To test our innovative combined approach, we proposed different males to four independent females, and at the end of incubation in the marsupium, we mapped (using GIS methods) and genotyped (using 12 microsatellite markers) all the incubated mancae. This methodology permitted to obtain spatio-genetic maps describing heterozygosity and spatial distribution of mancae and of multipaternity within the marsupial landscape. We discussed the interest of this kind of multidisciplinary approach which could improve in this case our understanding of sexual selection mechanisms in this terrestrial crustacean. Beyond the interesting model-focused insights, the main challenge of this study was the transfer of GIS techniques to a microscopic scale and our results appear so as pioneers rendering GIS tools available for studies involving imagery whatever their study scale.

  3. A Reassessment of the Marrubium Vulgare L. Herb’s Potential Role in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: First Results Guide the Investigation toward New Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Rodríguez Villanueva; Jorge Martín Esteban; Laura Rodríguez Villanueva

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide variety of pharmacological activities described for the Marrubium vulgare L. herb, amazingly, only one clinical trial can be found in scientific literature. It was designed for the evaluation of its antidiabetic activity. Worse, the outcomes of this trial were contradictory to what previous in vivo mice assays had concluded. Therefore, should Marrubium vulgare be ruled out due to its lack of therapeutic potential in diabetes? The authors suggest a reevaluation of the clinical...

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of hydromethanolic extract from Marrubium vulgare Lamiaceae on leukocytes oxidative metabolism: An in vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed El Abbouyi; Said El Khyari; Rabia Eddoha; Najoie Filali-Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Marrubium vulgare Lamiaceae, known as white horehound, is frequently used in folk medicine to treat many illnesses from ancient times. Aims: The present study is conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanolic extract of the aerial part of M. vulgare. Materials and Methods: The oxygen consumption and the production of superoxide anions, by rat pleural polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by opsonized zymosan, were performed. PMNs were collected after ind...

  5. Avaliação biológica de Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae Biological evaluation of Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Araujo R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill. é espécie herbácea da família Umbelliferae, nativa da região do Mediterrâneo e da Ásia Menor, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro. É conhecida popularmente como funcho ou erva-doce e usada na medicina como analgésico, digestivo, carminativo, diurético, expectorante, lactígeno, anti-inflamatório, e antiespasmódico. O extrato bruto etanólico para a verificação das atividades biológicas foi preparado a partir de sementes compradas no comércio. Para a realização do perfil fitoquímico foi utilizada a cromatografia em camada delgada analítica; a atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo teste de difusão em disco de papel e da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM; a atividade antinociceptiva foi realizada pelo método de contorções abdominais em cobaias. Os micro-organismos testados foram isolados clínicos multirresistentes obtidos do Setor de Bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Pernambuco. O estudo fitoquímico identificou a maioria dos compostos secundários presentes na fração metanólica das sementes, sendo eles: triterpenos, glicosídeos de flavanóides, terpenos menores (monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenóide e diterpenóides, e açúcares redutores. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o extrato etanólico apresentou maior atividade frente à Micrococcus spp. (CIM=250µg/mL. Os resultados da avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva demonstraram que apenas a dosagem de 298 mg/Kg quando comparado com o padrão indometacina conseguiu uma redução significativa no número de contorções abdominais dos animais. Estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados para a identificação e isolamento de alguns compostos secundários, bem como a realização de outros protocolos de analgesia.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae is a herbaceous plant of the family Umbelliferae, native to the Mediterranean and Asia Minor region and widely distributed all over the Brazilian

  6. Evaluation of Origanum vulgare essential oil as antimicrobial agent in sausage Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare em linguiça

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiano Busatta; Altemir José Mossi; Maria Regina Alves Rodrigues; Rogério Luis Cansian; José Vladimir de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and ...

  7. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  8. An Insight into a Blockbuster Phytomedicine; Marrubium vulgare L. Herb. More of a Myth than a Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Villanueva, Javier; Martín Esteban, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Aerial parts and the root of Marrubium vulgare L. (white horehound) have been traditionally used in Europe and in southern and eastern Mediterranean countries. During colonization, the plant was introduced in America to great levels of popularity because of the simplicity of its growing; it was especially popular in Mexico and Brazil, where it has been known as 'maromba', 'marroio' or 'marroio-branco'. Ethnopharmacological uses of M. vulgare include treating respiratory diseases such as acute or chronic bronchitis, colds and asthma. The plant is also used in cases where there is a lack of appetite or dyspepsia and for diagnosed type II diabetes. It has even been used for antihypertensive therapy. For decades, scientists have carried out extensive research trying to explain these and other pharmacologic actions. It is time to systematize and critically analyse the quality of results found to date. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrefozalayi, Somayyeh; Farokhi, Farah

    2014-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare) is an herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF) in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control, was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml) of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.). In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV) (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil). The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw) with the same route. The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw). After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (pPCOS and PCOS rats treated with high dose of AEF. Moreover, histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable in PCOS rats with respect to treated groups with AEF. Aqueous extract of fennel seed showed the beneficial effect (especially at dose of 150 mg/kg b.w.) on renal function in PCOS rats.

  10. Comparative studies on the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. essential oil and methanol extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Devrnja, Nina; Anđelković, Boban; Aranđelović, Sandra; Radulović, Siniša; Soković, Marina; Krstić Milošević, Dijana; Ristić, Mihailo; Ćalić, Dušica

    2017-01-01

    Chemical composition of essential oil (EO) and methanol extracts (MEs) from different parts of Tanacetum vulgare L. plant was analyzed and investigated for potential biological activities and correlated with the main constituents detected in EO and MEs. The EO was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with trans-chrysanthenyl acetate as major compound. All MEs were characterized by neochlorogenic, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic and caffeoylquinic acids. High phenolic content in M...

  11. Spatial relationships between seed bank and seedling populations of Hordeum spontaneum and Cardaria draba in saffron (Crocus sativus L. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan makariyan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geostatistical techniques were used to characterize the spatial relationship between Hordeum spontaneum and Cardaria draba seedling and seed bank over the course of one growing season (2004-2005 in three saffron fields, located in Southern Khorasan, Iran. The density and spatial distribution of weeds varied widely with fields. The emergence percentage was higher for Cardaria draba than for H. spontaneum in all fields. Semivariograms showed spatial autocorrelation in seed bank and seedling populations of H. spontaneum and C. draba in all fields. Cross-semivariograms showed moderate to strong (63.3 to 94.7% and strong spatial continuity (78.4 to 95.4 %. between seed bank and seedling population densities of H. spontaneum and C. draba, respectively. Grey-scale field maps of C. draba seed banks corresponded visually to maps of seedling populations and could have been used to target control efforts, but visual correspondence between H. spontaneum seed bank and seedling maps was poor. Seed bank and seedling mapping may be useful for site-specific management, but additional information is needed to understand variation in the relationships between these two populations over time and space.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Physalis alkekengi L., Alcea rosea L., Bunium persicum B. Fedtsch. and Marrubium vulgare L. on Mushroom Tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Jahangiri, Alireza; Azemi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Arkian, Elaheh; Mousavi, Hamideh

    2015-02-01

    The key enzyme in the process of melanin biosynthesis is tyrosinase. Skin hyperpigmentation and browning of foods are undesirable phenomena which tyrosinase represents. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors have been used increasingly for medicinal and cosmetic products. In this study, inhibitory effects of four plants including: physalis alkekengi L., Alcea rosea L., Bunium persicum B. Fedtsch. and Marrubium vulgare L. on diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase were evaluated. The inhibitory activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of plants against oxidation of L-Dopa (as a substrate) by mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. The hydroalcoholic extract of P. alkekengi showed the most tyrosinase inhibitory effect with IC50 of 0.09 mg/mL vs. 0.38, 0.38 and 2.82 mg/mL of B. persicum, A. rosea and M. vulgare, respectively. M. vulgare exhibited uncompetitive inhibition and other plants showed mixed type inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase. All plants could inhibit mushroom tyrosinase, but more investigations on human tyrosinase and clinical studies are needed.

  13. Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare L. on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Soraya, Hamid; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khorrami, Arash; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2013-08-01

    Isoproterenol injection (100 mg/kg; sc) produced changes in ECG pattern including ST-segment elevation and suppressed R-amplitude. The methanolic extract of M. vulgare at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg significantly amended the ECG changes. A severe myocardial necrosis and edematous along with a sharp reduction in the arterial blood pressure, left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dt(max or min)), but a marked increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were seen in the isoproterenol group. All parameters were significantly improved by the extract treatment. The extract (10 mg/kg) strongly increased LVdP/dt(max). Similarly, treatment with 40 mg/kg of M. vulgare lowered the elevated LVEDP and the heart to body weight ratio. In addition to in vitro antioxidant activity, the extract suppressed markedly the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in serum and in myocardium. The results demonstrate that M. vulgare protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and suggest that the effects could be related to antioxidant activities.

  14. Antibacterial Effects of Origanum vulgare Essence Against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated From Selected Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection due to Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant challenge to modern healthcare systems. The rapid emergence and global dissemination of A. baumannii as a major nosocomial pathogen is remarkable and it demonstrates its successful adaptation to the 21st century hospital environment. Recent studies have discussed about essential oil of Origanum vulgare against a range of bacteria, including various species of Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia coli. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects O. vulgare essence against multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of A. baumannii from selected hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods This oil was obtained using the hydrodistillation method and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrography (GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity against MDR isolates was achieved using disc diffusion method and macro-broth dilution assay. Results Analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of pulegone (68.59% piperitone (7.8%, piperitenone (7.8%, 1, 8-cineole (1.3%, and carvacrol (1.6% as the major components. The results showed a significant activity against MDR A. baumannii with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the ranges of 7-15 mm and 20-35 µL/mL respectively. Conclusions This investigation showed that the essence oil of O. vulgare had a potent antimicrobial activity against MDR A. baumannii. Further research is required to evaluate the practical values of therapeutic applications.

  15. Can glandular hair density be a breeding marker for Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum with high essential oil content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Krisztina; Sárosi, Szilvia; Cserháti, Beatrix; Ferenczy, Antal

    2010-09-01

    Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart is an essential oil rich plant traditionally used as oregano. Based on the interest of the essential oil producing sector, in 2000 we have started a breeding program of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. Plant material for our breeding work consists of 6 progeny. Individual evaluation of the plant material was carried out in 2008-2009 with the primary aim of finding mother plants with appropriate morphological features, high essential oil content (> 7%) and with carvacrol as the main essential oil component. Among the survey of morphological characteristics special attention was given to glandular hair density in order to test the usability of it as a morphological marker for screening progeny for high essential oil content. The characteristics of the progeny can be described with high variability ensuring the possibility of a good selection base. Evaluating the morphology, essential oil content and constitution of the individuals, 20 plants were selected on the grounds of their high (7-8.6%) essential oil content, high ratio (70-93%) of carvacrol in the essential oil and typical morphological features of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. From the results of glandular hair density it can be stated that the correlation between glandular hair density of the upper, middle and lower leaves either on vegetative or generative shoots and essential oil content was never strong enough (correlation coefficient < or = 0.5) to use it exclusively as a morphological marker for individual selection.

  16. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  17. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R Descamps

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0, mean generation time (T, doubling time (DT, and finite rate of increase (λ of the bird cherry-oat aphid on the different cereal crops were estimated. Differences in fertility life table parameters of R. padi among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by Jackknife re-sampling. Results indicated that beer barley might be the most suitable food for R. padi due to greater adult longevity (20.88 d, higher fecundity (41 nymphs female-1, higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.309 females female-1 d-1, lower doubling time (2.24, and lower nymphal mortality (22.2%. Therefore, it can be concluded from the present study that R. padi prefers beer barley for fast and healthy development over other cereal crops.El áfido Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae es una de las principales plagas de numerosos cultivos de la región semiárida pampeana de Argentina. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes cereales incluidos Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L. and Secale cereale L. sobre los parámetros biológicos de R. padi en laboratorio. Se estimaron longevidad, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (R0, tiempo generacional medio (T, tiempo de duplicación (TD, y tasa finita de incremento (λ del pulgón de la avena en diferentes cereales. Las diferencias de

  18. Efficacy of essential oils of aromatic plants as larvicide for the management of filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae with special reference to Foeniculum vulgare

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    Inder Singh Rana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils derived from ten aromatic plants with special reference to Foeniculum vulgare (F. vulgare against early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from plant materials through hydro distillation and efficacy was determined through bioassay method. Two of the effective oils were evaluated further for the determination of their LC 50 and LT50 values based on Probit analysis.Essential oils of one plant was analyzed through TLC and HPLC. Results: Most of the essential oils caused 100% mortality within 120 min at 250 ppm. Oil of Tagetes patula (T. patula and F. vulgare gave more than 90% mortality within 40 min. LC 50 values calculated after 60 min of treatment were (84.80 暲 7.65 and (24.69 暲 1.24 ppm for T. patula and F. vulgare respectively. At the same exposure period positive control temephos yielded (22.13暲2.39 ppm LC50 value. At 50 ppm T. patula, F. vulgare and temephos exhibited LT 50 values (113.71 暲 10.29, (11.02 暲 3.31 and (38.15 暲 5.90 mins respectively. Presence of high quantity of trans anethole in the essential oils of F. vulgare was confirmed by TLC and HPLC results. Conclusions: Present study indicates that essential oils of spices/aromatic medicinal plants particularly F. vulgare and T. patula carry huge potential as a mosquito larvicide. This potential could be exploited for the development of safer and effective botanical mosquito larvicidal tool for the management of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  19. Effect of Quantity and Distribution of Rainfalls on Hordeum murinum L. Growth and Development Efecto de la Cantidad y Distribución de las Precipitaciones en el Crecimiento y Desarrollo de Hordeum murinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Johnston B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of Hordeum murinum L. seeds growing with extreme pluviometric regimes in cool greenhouse conditions were evaluated. Seven treatments according to quantity and distribution of real rainfalls of the semiarid zone of the Metropolitan Region, Chile were applied: rainy-late, normal-late, dry-early, rainy-normal, normal-early and dry-late, plus a reference without water stress, at 2/3 field capacity. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with five replicate pots. Seeds produced in the last year were sown in pots with disinfected soil leaving the more uniform plants after emergence. Evaluations were made of phytomass production, spearing shoots of roots, the quantity of floral stems and seeds, their total weight and the proportion of seed annex structures, and the viability and germination capacity of seeds. The life cycle of dry years was shortest and with the least dry shoot matter production, the rainy-normal and normal-late years had similar dry root matter production, therefore the most important factor was rainfall distribution. All the reproductive growth values were lower than the reference. There was no seed production in both distributions of dry years and in the normal-early. There were only differences in late distributions, there were no differences among treatments in seed quality. Thus, H. murinum uses its resources principally for seed production and late distributions determined seed production.Se evaluó el desarrollo de plantas de Hordeum murinum sometidas a regímenes pluviométricos simulados en invernadero frío. En un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cinco repeticiones, se establecieron tratamientos según cantidad y distribución de las precipitaciones reales del secano de la Región Metropolitana, Chile: lluvioso-tardío, normal-tardío, seco-temprano, lluvioso-normal, normal-temprano, seco-tardío y uno de referencia sin restricción hídrica. Se sembraron semillas del a

  20. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-08-06

    Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20-80 mg/ml and 5-15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 - 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 - 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 - 27.77% tannins, 0.55-0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Essential Oil Attenuates some Biochemical Disorders Induced by ?-irradiation in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.S.; Amin, N.E.; Ahmed, O.M.; Abdel-Reheim, E.S.; Ali, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma-rays-induced biochemical changes in rats. To achieve the ultimate goal of this study, 32 rats were used, divided into 4 groups. Control group, Irradiated group with a single dose (6.5 Gy), and sacrificed after 7 days of irradiation, group 3 received FEO (250 mg/kg b.wt) for 28 successive days by gavages and group 4 received treatment of FEO for 21 days, then was exposed to gamma-rays (6.5 Gy), followed by treatment with FEO 7 days later to be 28 days. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. Transaminases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin, lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides), proteins profile (total protein, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio) as well as levels of urea, creatinine and testosterone were determined in serum. Rats exposed to gamma-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALP, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels and lipid abnormalities. Noticeable drop in serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Rats treated with FEO before and after whole body gamma-rays showed significant modulation in AST and ALT, ALP, bilirubin, urea, creatinine and lipids and noticeable improvement in the protein profile levels. It could be concluded that FEO has a beneficial protective potentials against radiation-induced some oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations

  2. Treatment of patients with vulgar psoriasis through electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista Romagosa, Maritza; Soriano Gonzalez, Blanca Ines; Bergues Cabrales, Luis Enrique

    2012-01-01

    A controlled and randomized clinical therapeutical assay in phase III was carried out in 52 patients with vulgar psoriasis, who were assisted in the Dermatology department of 'Dr Joaquin Castillo Duany' Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from 2005 to 2010 who were divided into 2 groups (26 members each): the active group which was conventionally treated with 20% cade ointment; and the experimental group, to which the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field was applied, with the objective of determining the effectiveness of this field in those affected during the periods of crisis and intercrisis. The studied population was clinically characterized by means of a frequency analysis, while the hypothesis tests were used for the evaluation of proportions which null hypothesis were accepted with 5 % as maximum error. In the series the used field was effective to treat the disorder during crisis and more effective than the cade ointment to prolong the intercrisis stage, without causing adverse reactions, so that it constituted a new alternative therapy that can be generalized in the dermatological services of the country, in order to improve the life quality of those who suffer that dermatosis

  3. Application of low doses of ionizing radiation in the Brazilian fruit tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Araujo, Leandro Moreira; Gody, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; Pacheco, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    The tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.) is a native fruit of Amazonia, occurring mainly in the state of Para, but also found in the Brazilian northeast states and in the Brazilian central-western states. The tucuma is considered an excellent source of carotenoids with a very high concentration of β-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A. In addition to carotenoids it is an important source of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in fruits. This study aimed to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on the nutritional value of tucuma. The fruits were irradiated at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy irradiator with a source of cesium 137. The carotenoids were determined by spectrophotometry. The analysis of α and β-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The β-carotene accounts for 80% of total carotenoids in tucuma, and with a dose of 2 kGy, it showed the highest reduction of β-carotene, about 7.5% in relation to the control. The tucuma fruit showed high levels of riboflavin from 0.183 to 0.222 μg 100 g -1 , and maintained stability after the gamma radiation process. However, it had low levels of thiamine from 0.050 to 0.033 μg 100 g -1 , and irradiated at a dose of 2 kGy showed significant reductions of thiamine, about 34% in relation to the control. (author)

  4. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

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    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  5. Biochemical and Physiological Studies on the Effects of Senescence Leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Pal Khaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticum vulgare (Wheat based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar. During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed’s germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  6. Effect of Addition of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. on the Quality of Protein Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Ahmad Bouchra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. is an aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae family widely cultivated elsewhere for its strongly flavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel seeds are of particular interest as a rich source of both vegetable and essential oils with high amounts of valuable components. However, residual cakes after oil extraction were typically considered as byproducts, in the present framework, the potential added value of these cakes was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of fennel cake and seeds to protein bread quality. In the current research, a single-screw extruder, which is a solvent-free technique, was used for fennel seed oil extraction. For the protein bread making, fennel seed and cake flour in concentrations from 1 to 6% were used. Moisture, colour L*a*b*, hardness, total phenolic concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and nutritional value of protein bread were determined. The addition of fennel cake and seeds had significant (p < 0.05 effect on bread crumb colour and hardness attribute, whereby the bread became darker and harder in texture than the control. Moreover, higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration were observed for both protein breads enriched with fennel cake and seed flour. The overall results showed that addition of fennel cake and seed had beneficial effects on phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and quality of protein bread. This result suggests also that added value of fennel seeds oil by-products could be increased by their utilisation in bread production.

  7. Evaluation of hypolipidemic Marrubium vulgare effect in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Elsayed, Ahmed A A; Omer, Elsayed A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic activities of four Marrbium vulgare herb extracts using Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Hyperlipidemia was developed by intraperitoneal injection of Triton (200 mg/kg body weight). The animals were divided into main four groups of eight mice each: normal control group, hyperlipidemic control group, hyperlipidemic plus tween-40 control and treated group. The fourth one was divided into four subgroups, petroleum ether extract group, chloroform extract group, ethyl acetate extract group and methanol extract treated group each of them contains two sub-sub group for treating animals with two doses at 0.1 and 0.25 LD50. After 7 h and 24 h of treatment, the intragastric administration of all extracts caused a significant decrease of plasma total cholesterol. Triglyceride levels were also significantly lowered by all extracts while petroleum ether produced the lowest decreasing level. Similar results were observed for LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, more polar extracts (methanol and ethyl acetate)-soluble fractions showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index (AI) and LDL/HDL-C ratios, while these atherogenic markers were not statistically suppressed by the chloroform and petroleum ether-soluble extract. The findings indicated that Marrubium may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Marrubium vulgare L. Leave Extract: Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Wound Healing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Bédis; Martino, Emanuela; Vitulo, Francesca; Corana, Federica; Kaâb, Leila Bettaieb-Ben; Rui, Marta; Rossi, Daniela; Mori, Michela; Rossi, Silvia; Collina, Simona

    2017-10-28

    Several factors contribute in wound generation, e.g., accidental traumas or surgery, and in certain cases, this dermal injury may have a devastating outcome. When skin damage occurs, the human body puts in place a sophisticated choreography, which involves numerous repairing processes to restore physiological conditions. Nevertheless, natural healing mechanisms are ineffective towards chronic or non-healing wounds and thus, therapeutic strategies may represent the only beneficial alternative to counteract these tissue insults. Over the years, numerous studies showed the great potential of plants in promoting wound healing, by virtue of their high contents in antioxidant species. These compounds trigger a molecular cascade that collimate into the promotion of reparative processes. In this article, we report on the potential effect on wound healing of Marrubium vulgare L., a medicinal plant well known for several pharmaceutical activities. To this aim, the methanolic extract was prepared and subjected to a phytochemical investigation, quantifying the amount of marrubiin via NMR and drawing the phytochemical fingerprint via high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet/photodiode-array detection-electrospray/mass (HPLC-UV/PAD-ESI/MS) analysis. Lastly, the antioxidant properties and wound healing potential have been evaluated.

  9. Marrubium vulgare L. Leave Extract: Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Wound Healing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bédis Amri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several factors contribute in wound generation, e.g., accidental traumas or surgery, and in certain cases, this dermal injury may have a devastating outcome. When skin damage occurs, the human body puts in place a sophisticated choreography, which involves numerous repairing processes to restore physiological conditions. Nevertheless, natural healing mechanisms are ineffective towards chronic or non-healing wounds and thus, therapeutic strategies may represent the only beneficial alternative to counteract these tissue insults. Over the years, numerous studies showed the great potential of plants in promoting wound healing, by virtue of their high contents in antioxidant species. These compounds trigger a molecular cascade that collimate into the promotion of reparative processes. In this article, we report on the potential effect on wound healing of Marrubium vulgare L., a medicinal plant well known for several pharmaceutical activities. To this aim, the methanolic extract was prepared and subjected to a phytochemical investigation, quantifying the amount of marrubiin via NMR and drawing the phytochemical fingerprint via high performance liquid chromatography—ultra violet/photodiode-array detection-electrospray/mass (HPLC-UV/PAD-ESI/MS analysis. Lastly, the antioxidant properties and wound healing potential have been evaluated.

  10. Activity of ladanein on leukemia cell lines and its occurrence in Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Racha; Joha, Sami; Cheok, Meyling; Roumy, Vincent; Idziorek, Thierry; Preudhomme, Claude; Quesnel, Bruno; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François; Hennebelle, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Three methoxylated flavones isolated from Marrubium peregrinum - ladanein, scutellarein-5,7,4'-trimethyl ether, and scutellarein-5,6,7,4'-tetramethyl ether - were assayed for their cytotoxicity towards a recently developed dasatinib-resistant murine leukemia cell line (DA1-3b/M2 (BCR-ABL)), together with the structurally related non-methylated flavone scutellarein. The most active compound, ladanein, was looked for in 20 common Lamiaceae species by a quick HPLC screening. Among the possible positive results, the most interesting source was found to be Marrubium vulgare, which led to the isolation and identification of ladanein for the first time in this species. Ladanein also displayed moderate (20-40 microM) activities against K562, K562R (imatinib-resistant), and 697 human leukemia cell lines but was toxic neither to MOLM13 nor to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This work provides a common natural source for the hemi-synthesis of future ladanein-derived flavones and the study of their antileukemic activity. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  11. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Origanum vulgare L. Extract and Their Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Ali, Zuhur Jameel Qandeel; Khan, Mujeeb; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Assal, Mohamed E; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq

    2017-01-19

    The synthesis of Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles by green methods has attracted remarkable attention in recent years because of its superiority above chemical approaches, owing to its low cost and ecological compatibility. In this present work, we describe a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) using an aqueous extract of aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OV) as a bioreductant. This plant is available in many parts of the world as well as in Saudi Arabia and is known to be a rich source of phenolic components, a feature we fruitfully utilized in the synthesis of Pd NPs, using various concentrations of plant extracts. Moreover, the OV extract phytomolecules are not only accountable for the reduction and progression of nanoparticles, but they also act as stabilizing agents, which was confirmed by several characterization methods. The as-synthesized Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Further, FT-IR study has proven that the OV not merely represents a bioreductant but also functionalizes the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the green synthesized metallic Pd NPs were successfully applied as catalysts for selective oxidation of alcohols.

  12. Effects of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil compounds, fenchone and limonene, on experimental wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, I; Gunal, Y; Ayla, S; Kolbasi, B; Sakul, A; Kilic, U; Gok, O; Koroglu, K; Ozbek, H

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the wound healing efficacy of the Foeniculum vulgare compounds, fenchone and limonene, using an excisional cutaneous wound model in rats. An excision wound was made on the back of the rat and fenchone and limonene were applied topically to the wounds once daily, separately or together, for 10 days. Tissue sections from the wounds were evaluated for histopathology. The healing potential was assessed by comparison to an untreated control group and an olive oil treated sham group. We scored wound healing based on epidermal regeneration, granulation tissue thickness and angiogenesis. After day 6, wound contraction with limonene was significantly better than for the control group. Ten days after treatment, a significant increase was observed in wound contraction and re-epithelialization in both fenchone and limonene oil treated groups compared to the sham group. Groups treated with fenchone and with fenchone + limonene scored significantly higher than the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant compared to the olive oil treated group. Our findings support the beneficial effects of fenchone and limonene for augmenting wound healing. The anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of fenchone and limonene oil increased collagen synthesis and decreased the number of inflammatory cells during wound healing and may be useful for treating skin wounds.

  13. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Origanum vulgare L. Extract and Their Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rafi Shaik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Palladium (Pd nanoparticles by green methods has attracted remarkable attention in recent years because of its superiority above chemical approaches, owing to its low cost and ecological compatibility. In this present work, we describe a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs using an aqueous extract of aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OV as a bioreductant. This plant is available in many parts of the world as well as in Saudi Arabia and is known to be a rich source of phenolic components, a feature we fruitfully utilized in the synthesis of Pd NPs, using various concentrations of plant extracts. Moreover, the OV extract phytomolecules are not only accountable for the reduction and progression of nanoparticles, but they also act as stabilizing agents, which was confirmed by several characterization methods. The as-synthesized Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Further, FT-IR study has proven that the OV not merely represents a bioreductant but also functionalizes the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the green synthesized metallic Pd NPs were successfully applied as catalysts for selective oxidation of alcohols.

  14. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent.

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIRADICALS ACTIVITY OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. AND THYMUS VULGARIS ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study were antioxidant properties of oregano and thyme essential oil by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities and antibacterial activities against one Gram-positive strain (Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960; Escherichia coli CCM 3988 was also performed. The thyme EOs showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli CCM 3988 in 0.75 and 0.375 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. Very strong antibacterial activity was found in thyme and oregano EOs against Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 in 0.75, 0.375, 0.188 and 0.094 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. In comparison to BHT (5.60 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.82 µg.ml-1 after 60 min and ascorbic acid (7.48 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 4.79 µg.ml-1 after 60 min, O. vulgare oil shows significantly higher DPPH activity (2.99 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.02 µl.ml-1 after 60 min. From the other side, T. vulgaris essential (9.69 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 5.84 µl.ml-1 after 60 min oil shows lower antiradical activity in comparison to BHT, and higher activity in comparison to ascorbic acid.

  16. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Ligustrum vulgare L. as an Individual Treatment and in Combination with Palladium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana D. Marković

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the growth inhibitory effects of methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of L. vulgare on HCT-116 cells over different time periods and their synergistic effect with a Pd(apox complex. The antiproliferative activity of plant extracts alone or in combination with the Pd(apox complex was determined using MTT cell viability assay, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter of cytotoxicity. Results show that antiproliferative effects of L. vulgare extracts increase with extension of exposure time, with decreasing IC50 values, except for 72 h where the IC50 values for methanolic leaf extract were lower than for the fruit extract. The Pd(apox complex alone had a weak antiproliferative effect, but combination with L. vulgare extracts caused stronger effects with lower IC50 values than with L. vulgare extracts alone. The type of cell death was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridin orange/ethidium bromide method. Treatments with plant extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HCT-116 cells and co-treatments with Pd(apox complex caused higher levels of apoptotic cells than treatment with plant extracts alone. The results indicate that L. vulgare is a considerable source of natural bioactive substances with antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 cells and which have a substantial synergistic effect with the Pd(apox complex.

  17. Allelic variation, alternative splicing and expression analysis of Psy1 gene in Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult.

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    Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wild barley Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult. is a valuable source of genes for increasing carotenoid content in wheat. Tritordeums, the amphiploids derived from durum or common wheat and H. chilense, systematically show higher values of yellow pigment colour and carotenoid content than durum wheat. Phytoene synthase 1 gene (Psy1 is considered a key step limiting the carotenoid biosynthesis, and the correlation of Psy1 transcripts accumulation and endosperm carotenoid content has been demonstrated in the main grass species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze the variability of Psy1 alleles in three lines of H. chilense (H1, H7 and H16 representing the three ecotypes described in this species. Moreover, we analyze Psy1 expression in leaves and in two seed developing stages of H1 and H7, showing mRNA accumulation patterns similar to those of wheat. Finally, we identify thirty-six different transcripts forms originated by alternative splicing of the 5' UTR and/or exons 1 to 5 of Psy1 gene. Transcripts function is tested in a heterologous complementation assay, revealing that from the sixteen different predicted proteins only four types (those of 432, 370, 364 and 271 amino acids, are functional in the bacterial system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large number of transcripts originated by alternative splicing of Psy1, and the coexistence of functional and non functional forms, suggest a fine regulation of PSY activity in H. chilense. This work is the first analysis of H. chilense Psy1 gene and the results reported here are the bases for its potential use in carotenoid enhancement in durum wheat.

  18. STABILITAS OKSIDATIF MINYAK BIJI KENARI (Canarium indicum DAN Canarium vulgare SELAMA PENYIMPANAN PADA SUHU 30 DAN 40°C [Oxidative Stability of Canarium Nut (Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare Oil during Storage at 30 and 40°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartati Djarkasi1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study the effect of temperature and storage on the oxidative stability of crude and refined canarium nut oil extracted from the seeds of Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare. The experiment was designed to include storage of two type of canarium nut oil at two different temperatures for up to 35 days. The oils (crude and refined used had the similar condition. Parameter used for oxidative deterioration indicators were two peroxide value, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and free fatty acid value. The result showed that refining oil can decrease component natural antioxidant of canarium oil cause more sensitive to the oxidation. Increased storage temperature can raise oxidation of crude and refined oils from both species Canarium. The peroxide values of crude and refined oils both Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored at 30 °C were 2.17, 4.35, 3.36 and 3.77 meq O2/kg oil, respectively. When they were stored at 4C the similar results were 6.21, 19.09, 8.12 and 17.23 meq O2/kg oil. Furthermore, TBARS value of crude and refined oils both for Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored 30C were 4.55, 7.78, 5.70 and 6.58 µmol MDA/kg oil. When they were stored at 40 °C the similar results were 9.99, 55.46, 12.46 and 43.62 µmol MDA/kg oil.

  19. The Possible Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Radiation-Induced Certain Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation

  20. An investigation on cardioprotective potential of Marrubium vulgare aqueous fraction against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garjani, A; Tila, D; Hamedeyazdan, S; Vaez, H; Rameshrad, M; Pashaii, M; Fathiazad, F

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of aqueous fraction of Marrubium vulgare hydroalcoholic extract on cardiac parameters in ischaemic-reperfused isolated rat hearts. The aerial parts of the plant were extracted with methanol 70% by maceration. The water-soluble portion of the total hydroalcoholic extract was prepared with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Afterwards, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids content of the aqueous fraction were determined. In order to evaluate the effects of the aqueous fraction on cardiac parameters and ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, the Langendroff method was used on male Wistar rats. Harvested hearts were cannulated immediately to the Langendroff apparatus and subjected into 30 min regional ischaemia and 2 h reperfusion, either by a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB) solution or enriched KHB solution with plant extract (10, 20, 40 μg/mL). The aqueous fraction was found to be a scavenger of DPPH radical with RC50 value of 47 μg/mL. The total phenolic and flavonoids content of the fraction was 6.05 g gallic acid equivalent and 36.13 mg quercetin equivalent per 100 g of dry plant material. In addition, 40 μg/mL of Marrubium vulgare aqueous fraction significantly decreased infarct size in comparison to control group. All doses considerably reduced the total ventricular ectopic beats during 30 min of ischaemia. The extract at dose of 40 μg/mL noticeably decreased the arrhythmias during the first 30 min of reperfusion. The results of the study indicated aqueous fraction of Marrubium vulgare possesses a protective effect against I/R injuries in isolated rat hearts.

  1. The effect of drought on photosynthetic plasticity in Marrubium vulgare plants growing at low and high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ghader; Ajory, Neda

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is a biological process most affected by water deficit. Plants have various photosynthetic mechanisms that are matched to specific climatic zones. We studied the photosynthetic plasticity of C3 plants at water deficit using ecotypes of Marrubium vulgare L. from high (2,200 m) and low (1,100 m) elevation sites in the Mishou-Dagh Mountains of Iran. Under experimental drought, high-altitude plants showed more tolerance to water stress based on most of the parameters studied as compared to the low-altitude plants. Increased tolerance in high-altitude plants was achieved by lower levels of daytime stomatal conductance (g s) and reduced damaging effect on maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (F v /F m ) coupled with higher levels of carotenoids and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). High-altitude plants exhibited higher water use efficiency (WUE) than that in low-altitude plants depending on the presence of thick leaves and the reduced daytime stomatal conductance. Additionally, we have studied the oscillation in H(+) content and diel gas exchange patterns to determine the occurrence of C3 or weak CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) in M. vulgare through 15 days drought stress. Under water-stressed conditions, low-altitude plants exhibited stomatal conductance and acid fluctuations characteristic of C3 photosynthesis, though high-altitude plants exhibited more pronounced increases in nocturnal acidity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, suggesting photosynthetic flexibility. These results indicated that the regulation of carotenoids, NPQ, stomatal conductance and diel patterns of CO2 exchange presented the larger differences among studied plants at different altitudes and seem to be the protecting mechanisms controlling the photosynthetic performance of M. vulgare plants under drought conditions.

  2. Organic fertilization on phytomass production and essential oil content and quality of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) under protected cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, R.M; Pinto, J.E.B.P; Reis, E.S; Costa, L.C.B; Alves, P.B; Niculan, E.S; Brant, R.S

    2010-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L., conhecida como orégano, é considerada planta condimentar largamente usada na culinária. No Brasil poucas são as pesquisas com esta espécie visando maximização das técnicas de cultivo. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses dos adubos orgânicos bovino e aves no crescimento de plantas, teor de clorofila, teor, rendimento e qualidade do óleo essencial de orégano cultivado sob estufa. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios, sendo um com esterco bovino e o outro com esterc...

  3. Phenolic acids in extracts obtained from the flowering herbs of Cirsium vulgare (Savi Ten. growing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kozyra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work the phenolic acids in the methanol extract from the flowering herbs of Cirsium vulgare (Savi Ten. growing in Poland were isolated and identified. The samples containing free phenolic acids and those released after acid and alkaline hydrolyses were investigated by 2D TLC on cellulose. After purification by SPE, samples were also analyzed by RP-HPLC. Six phenolic acids such as gallic, protokatechuic, gentisic, hydrobenzoic, vanillic and caffeic acids were detected in the fraction of free phenolic acids of the methanol extract, irrespectively of the method used.

  4. Comparative study of the antihypertensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, Sanae; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Wibo, Maurice; Morel, Nicole

    2004-08-01

    Water extract of Marrubium vulgare is widely used as antihypertensive treatment in folk medicine. We have compared the effect of 10-week-long treatment with amlodipine or Marrubium water extract on systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiovascular remodeling and vascular relaxation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both treatments produced similar decrease in SBP. Amlodipine treatment reduced left ventricle, aortic and mesenteric artery weight. Marrubium treatment had a significant antihypertrophic effect in aorta only. Relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) of mesenteric artery was improved by Marrubium but not by amlodipine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in addition to its antihypertensive effect, Marrubium water extract improved the impaired endothelial function in SHR.

  5. Pénfigo vulgar: presentación de catorce casos y revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Alonso, Fabio; López Jornet, María Pía; Bermejo Fenoll, Ambrosio

    2005-01-01

    El pénfigo vulgar (PV) es una enfermedad mucocutánea crónica de tipo vesículo-ampollares que casi siempre produce manifestaciones orales. El hecho de que en ocasiones sean las ampollas en la mucosa oral la primera manifestación de este desorden implica que los odontólogos deben conocer suficientemente las claves clínicas con el fin de realizar un diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una serie de 14 casos diagnosticados clínica e histopatológicamente de ...

  6. Biosynthesis of the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone, the sesquiterpene germacrene D and other isoprenoids in Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umlauf, Dirk; Zapp, Josef; Becker, Hans; Adam, Klaus Peter

    2004-09-01

    The incorporation of [1-13C]-labeled glucose into the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone, the regular monoterpenes camphor and beta-thujone, the sesquiterpene germacrene D, the diterpene trans-phytol and beta-sitosterol and isofucosterol has been studied in axenic cultures of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae). Quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis of the resulting labeling patterns showed that the isoprene units of the monoterpenes and the diterpene are formed via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas the isoprene building blocks of the sesquiterpene and the sterols originate from the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A Reassessment of the Marrubium Vulgare L. Herb’s Potential Role in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: First Results Guide the Investigation toward New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Esteban, Jorge; Rodríguez Villanueva, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide variety of pharmacological activities described for the Marrubium vulgare L. herb, amazingly, only one clinical trial can be found in scientific literature. It was designed for the evaluation of its antidiabetic activity. Worse, the outcomes of this trial were contradictory to what previous in vivo mice assays had concluded. Therefore, should Marrubium vulgare be ruled out due to its lack of therapeutic potential in diabetes? The authors suggest a reevaluation of the clinical trial methodology to establish valid and final results. PMID:28930271

  8. A Reassessment of the Marrubium Vulgare L. Herb's Potential Role in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: First Results Guide the Investigation toward New Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Villanueva, Javier; Martín Esteban, Jorge; Rodríguez Villanueva, Laura

    2017-08-02

    Despite the wide variety of pharmacological activities described for the Marrubium vulgare L. herb, amazingly, only one clinical trial can be found in scientific literature. It was designed for the evaluation of its antidiabetic activity. Worse, the outcomes of this trial were contradictory to what previous in vivo mice assays had concluded. Therefore, should Marrubium vulgare be ruled out due to its lack of therapeutic potential in diabetes? The authors suggest a reevaluation of the clinical trial methodology to establish valid and final results.

  9. A Reassessment of the Marrubium Vulgare L. Herb’s Potential Role in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: First Results Guide the Investigation toward New Horizons

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    Javier Rodríguez Villanueva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide variety of pharmacological activities described for the Marrubium vulgare L. herb, amazingly, only one clinical trial can be found in scientific literature. It was designed for the evaluation of its antidiabetic activity. Worse, the outcomes of this trial were contradictory to what previous in vivo mice assays had concluded. Therefore, should Marrubium vulgare be ruled out due to its lack of therapeutic potential in diabetes? The authors suggest a reevaluation of the clinical trial methodology to establish valid and final results.

  10. Differential effects of copper nanoparticles/microparticles in agronomic and physiological parameters of oregano (Origanum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenchao; Tan, Wenjuan; Yin, Ying; Ji, Rong; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Guo, Hongyan; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2018-03-15

    The effects of metallic copper nanoparticles (nCu) in plants are not well understood. In this study, soil grown oregano (Origanum vulgare) was exposed for 60days to nCu and Cu microparticles (μCu) at 0-200mgCu/kg. At harvest, Cu accumulation, biomass production, nutrient composition, and Cu fractions in soil were measured. Except for μCu at 50mg/kg, both nCu and μCu increased root Cu (28.4-116.0%) and shoot Cu (83.0-163.0% and 225.4-652.5%, respectively), compared with control. Copper accumulation from μCu increased as the external μCu increased. nCu and μCu did not affect shoot length, malondialdehyde, or chlorophyll, but increased water content (6.9-12.5%) and reduced shoot biomass (21.6-58.5%), compared with control. In addition, at 50mg/kg, μCu decreased root biomass and length (48.6% and 20.5%, respectively) and water content (1.8% and 3.9% at 100 and 200mg/kg, respectively). All treatments modified root and shoot Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn (p≤0.05). Additionally, all Cu treatments decreased starch (33.9-58.5%), total sugar (39.5-55.7%), and reducing sugar (13.6-33.9%) in leaves. Results showed that metallic Cu nanoparticles/microparticles affected agronomical and physiological parameters in oregano, which could impact human nutrition. However, smaller size particles do not necessarily imply greater toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

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    Arora Daljit S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  12. Anti-equine arteritis virus activity of ethanolic extract and compounds from Origanum vulgare

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    Daiane Einhardt Blank

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The equine arteritis virus (EAV is responsible by an important respiratory and reproductive disease in equine populations and there is no specific antiviral treatment available. The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of an ethanolic crude extract of Origanum vulgare (EEO and of isolated compound caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, quercetin, luteolin, carnosol, carnosic acid, kaempferol and apigenin against EAV. The assays were performed using non-cytotoxic concentrations. The antiviral activity was monitored initially by cytopathic effect inhibition (CPE assay in RK13 cells in the presence or absence of EEO. Pre-incubated cells with EEO were also examined to show prophylactic effect. Direct viral inactivation by EEO and isolated compounds was evaluated by incubation at 37°C or 20°C. After the incubation period, the infectivity was immediately determined by virus titrations on cell cultures and expressed as 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/100 µL. There was significant virucidal activity of EEO and of the compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, carnosic acid and kaempferol. When EEO was added after infection, EEO inhibited the virus growth in infected cells, as evidenced by significant reduction of the viral titre. The results provide evidence that the EEO exhibit an inhibitory effect anti-EAV. Among the main compounds evaluated, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, carnosic acid, kaempferol and mainly quercetin, contributed to the activity of EEO. EEO may represent a good prototype for the development of a new antiviral agent, presenting promising for combating arteriviruses infections.

  13. Comparing the effects of aerobic exercise and Foeniculum vulgare on pre-menstrual syndrome

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    Hassan Pazoki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS has been identified by a number of psychological and physical symptoms which occur cyclically in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The present study has been carried out to compare the effects of regular exercise and Foeniculum vulgare extract (fennel together and separately on PMS in high school girls. Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial 48 students aged 16–18 years were selected by filling the daily record of severity of problem questionnaire (DRSP-Q. The participants were divided into four equal groups: the first group received fennel, the second group had aerobic exercise, the third group received fennel along with exercise and the last group was control group without fennel and exercise. Participants filled DRSP-Q three times: the first menstrual cycle before the intervention, the first menstrual cycle after four weeks and finally the first menstrual cycle after eight weeks of intervention. Results: After 8 weeks of intervention the severity of PMS symptoms reduced significantly in experimental groups (fennel, exercise and fennel + exercise compared to control group (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, there were not any significant differences in age, body mass index, age at menarche, age at dysmenorrhea onset and duration of menstruation among the four groups. Discussions: The result of this study indicated that fennels and exercise could reduce the severity of premenstrual syndrome. In addition, fennel extract and exercise together seem to be more effective on symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with using them alone.

  14. Study of Foeniculum vulgare Effect on Folliculogenesis in Female Mice Kermanshah, Iran

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    Mohammad Rasool Khazaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foeniculum vulgare (FVE is used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, palliativeand anti-inflammatory effects. Traditionally, FVE is utilized for treating female infertility. The presentstudy aims to investigate the effects of FVE extract on folliculogenesis in female albino mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 20 female albino mice were divided into fourgroups. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental received FVE alcoholic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg bodyweight (BW/day for five days. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and group 4 (positive controlwas administered normal saline, in the same doses as the experimental groups. Animals in all groups weresacrificed on the sixth day of the study; their ovaries were dissected out and prepared for histologicalexaminations. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained microscopic slides were evaluated and the numbersof ovarian follicles were compared between groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA.Results: The total follicle numbers were 26.5 ± 5.24 for group 1 (100 mg/kg FVE, 27.2 ± 4.1for group 2 (200 mg/kg FVE, 10.1 ± 2.53 for group 3 (ethanol control and 17.2 ± 3.9 for thesaline control group (group 4. The numbers of graffian, antral and multilaminar follicles increasedsignificantly in both experimental groups when compared with the control groups (p<0.05,however there were no significant differences in follicle numbers among the experimental groups.The number of unilaminar primary follicles did not significantly change between all groups. GCMSanalysis of FVE extract identified the presence of diosgenin, an estrogenic compound.Conclusion: FVE induced folliculogenesis in female mice ovary and increased the number ofgrowing ovarian follicles. The estrogenic component of FVE, diosgenin, may exert this effect.

  15. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  16. Marrubium vulgare ethanolic extract induces proliferation block, apoptosis, and cytoprotective autophagy in cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunovic, V; Kosic, M; Djordjevic, S; Zugic, A; Djalinac, N; Gasic, U; Trajkovic, V; Harhaji-Trajkovic, J

    2016-09-30

    Marrubium vulgare is a European medicinal plant with numerous beneficial effects on human health. The aim of the study was to isolate the plant ethanolic extract (MVE) and to investigate its anti-melanoma and anti-glioma effects. MVE was prepared by the modified pharmacopoeial percolation method and characterized by UHPLC-LTQ OrbiTrap MS. MVE dose-dependently reduced viability of melanoma (B16) and glioma (U251) cells, but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It arrested cell cycle in S+G2/M phase, which was associated with the activation of MAP kinase p38 and up-regulation of antiproliferative genes p53, p21 and p27. MVE induced oxidative stress, while antioxidants abrogated its antitumor effect. Furthermore, MVE induced mitochondrial depolarization, activation of caspase-9 and -3, Parp cleavage, phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was associated with the up-regulation of proapoptotic genes Pten, Bak1, Apaf1, and Puma and down-regulation of antiapoptotic genes survivin and Xiap. MVE also stimulated the expression of autophagy-related genes Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin-1, Gabarab and Sqstm1, as well as LC3-I conversion to the autophagosome associated LC3-II, while autophagy inhibitors exacerbated its cytotoxicity. Finally, the most abundant phenolic components of MVE, ferulic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids, did not exert a profound effect on viability of tumor cells, suggesting that other components individually or in concert are the mediators of the extracts' cytotoxicity. By demonstrating the ability of MVE to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and cytoprotective autophagy, our results suggest that MVE, alone or combined with autophagy inhibitors, could be a good candidate for anti-melanoma and anti-glioma therapy.

  17. Origanum vulgare leaf extract protects mice bone marrow cells against ionizing radiation

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    Reza Ghasemnezhad Targhi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ionizing radiation produces free radicals which induce DNA damage and cell death. Origanum vulgare leaf extract (OVLE is a natural compound and its capability of scavenging free radicals and its antioxidant activity have been demonstrated by many researchers. In this study, using micronucleus assay, radioprotective effect of OVLE against clastogenic and cytotoxic effect of gamma irradiation has been investigated in mice bone marrow cells. Materials and Methods: OVLE was injected intraperitoneally to the BALB/c mice 1hr prior to gamma irradiation (3Gy at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Twenty four hours after irradiation or treatment, animals were killed and smears were prepared from the bone marrow cells. The slides were stained with May Grunwald–Giemsa method and analyzed microscopically. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs, micronucleated normochromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs and cell proliferation ratio PCE/PCE+NCE (polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte were calculated. Results: The results showed that gamma irradiation (3Gy increased the frequency of MnPCEs, MnNCEs and  reduced the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in mice bone marrow compared to the non-irradiated control group (p< 0.0001. Injection of OVLE significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs (p< 0.0001 and MnNCEs (p< 0.05 and increased the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio as compared to the irradiated control group (p< 0.05. Conclusion: It seems that OVLE with its antioxidant properties and its capability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species can reduce the cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation in mice bone marrow cells.

  18. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  19. Iron absorption from maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, D P; Bothwell, T H; Torrance, J D; Bezwoda, W R; MacPhail, A P; Kew, M C; Sayers, M H; Disler, P B; Charlton, R W

    1980-03-01

    1. Iron absorption from maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) beer was more than twelve-fold greater than from a gruel made from the constituents used to prepare the beer. 2. The effect of changes occurring during brewing were investigated. These changes include a decrease in the solid content, and the formation of 30 ml ethanol/1 and 5 ml lactic acid/1. 3. The presence of solid material was found to inhibit Fe absorption markedly, especially when the solid content was 100 g/l or more. 4. The presence of ethanol potentiated Fe absorption but the effect was only modest in gruels with a high solid content. 5. Fe absorption from a 2 ml lactic acid/l solution was four-fold greater than from a hydrochloric acid solution of the same pH. When lactic acid was added to a gruel containing 200 g solids/l the mean absorbtion rose from 0.4 to 1.2 %. 6. In a direct comparison, Fe absorption from beer was significantly better than from a gruel of similar pH containing lactic acid. 7. The results suggest that at least three factors are responsible for the enhanced Fe absorption from maize and sorghum beer. These include the removal of solids during fermentation and the presence of ethanol and of lactic acid in the final brew. 8. In order to reproduce the way in which beer is brewed domestically in Fe containers, a study was done in which beer was prepared in the presence of Fe wire. Under such circumstances Fe was rapidly dissolved and the final Fe concentration of the brew was 89 mg/l. However, the nature of the Fe-containing compound or compounds was not elucidated.

  20. Development of T. aestivum L.-H. californicum alien chromosome lines and assignment of homoeologous groups of Hordeum californicum chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuhui; Yuan, Jingya; Wang, Zhangjun; Wang, Haiyan; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhixi; Zhang, Ruiqi; Qi, Zengjun; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Wang, Xiu-E

    2014-08-20

    Hordeum californicum (2n = 2x = 14, HH) is resistant to several wheat diseases and tolerant to lower nitrogen. In this study, a molecular karyotype of H. californicum chromosomes in the Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring (CS)-H. californicum amphidiploid (2n = 6x = 56, AABBDDHH) was established. By genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive DNA clones (pTa71, pTa794 and pSc119.2) as probes, the H. californicum chromosomes could be differentiated from each other and from the wheat chromosomes unequivocally. Based on molecular karyotype and marker analyses, 12 wheat-alien chromosome lines, including four disomic addition lines (DAH1, DAH3, DAH5 and DAH6), five telosomic addition lines (MtH7L, MtH1S, MtH1L, DtH6S and DtH6L), one multiple addition line involving H. californicum chromosome H2, one disomic substitution line (DSH4) and one translocation line (TH7S/1BL), were identified from the progenies derived from the crosses of CS-H. californicum amphidiploid with common wheat varieties. A total of 482 EST (expressed sequence tag) or SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers specific for individual H. californicum chromosomes were identified, and 47, 50, 45, 49, 21, 51 and 40 markers were assigned to chromosomes H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6 and H7, respectively. According to the chromosome allocation of these markers, chromosomes H2, H3, H4, H5, and H7 of H. californicum have relationship with wheat homoeologous groups 5, 2, 6, 3, and 1, and hence could be designated as 5H(c), 2H(c), 6H(c), 3H(c) and 1H(c), respectively. The chromosomes H1 and H6 were designated as 7H(c) and 4H(c), respectively, by referring to SSR markers located on rye chromosomes. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare essential oils on virulence factors of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carezzano, M E; Sotelo, J P; Primo, E; Reinoso, E B; Paletti Rovey, M F; Demo, M S; Giordano, W F; Oliva, M de Las M

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in leaves during the colonisation process. The damage is associated with production of many virulence factors, such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have been demonstrated to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on production of virulence factors of phytopathogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities. The broth microdilution method was used for determination of MIC and biofilm inhibition assays. Coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were pheno- and genotypically evaluated. Both oils showed good inhibitory activity against P. syringae, with MIC values from 1.43 to 11.5 mg·ml -1 for thyme and 5.8 to 11.6 mg·ml -1 for oregano. Biofilm formation, production of coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were inhibited by thyme and oregano essential oil in most strains. The results presented here are promising, demonstrating the bactericidal activity and reduction of virulence factor production after treatment with thyme and oregano oil, providing insight into how they exert their antibacterial activity. These natural products could be considered in the future for the control of diseases caused by P. syringae. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21(st) day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model.

  3. Analysis and evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activities of the essential oil isolated from Foeniculum vulgare from Hamedan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, Maryam; Kord, Reza; Jafari Nodooshan, Saeedeh; Hamedi, Sepideh

    2018-01-07

    In this study, biological properties of the essential oil isolated from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare (F. vulgare) were evaluated. GC-MS analysis revealed Trans-Anethole (80.63%), L-Fenchone (11.57%), Estragole (3.67%) and Limonene (2.68%) were the major compounds of the essential oil. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains was studied using disc diffusion and micro-well dilution assays. Essential oil exhibited the antibacterial activity against three Gram-negative strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Shigella dysenteriae. The preliminary study on toxicity of seed oil was performed using Brine Shrimp lethality test (BSLT). Results indicated the high toxicity effect of essential oil (LC50 = 10 μg/mL). In vitro anticancer activity of seed oil was investigated against human breast cancer (MDA-Mb) and cervical epithelioid carcinoma (Hela) cell lines by MTT assay. Results showed the seed oil behave as a very potent anticancer agent with IC50 of lower than 10 μg/mL in both cases.

  4. In vivo ion fluxes across the eggs of Armadillidium vulgare (Oniscidea: Isopoda): the role of the dorsal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jonathan C; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The thin-walled, lecithotrophic eggs of land isopods (suborder Oniscidea) are brooded in a fluid-filled maternal marsupium until a few days following the second embryonic molt. Eggs of Armadillidium vulgare possess a well-developed dorsal organ underlying a broad silver-staining saddle on the vitelline membrane. Based on its chloride permeability and known transport functions in planktotrophic crustaceans, we hypothesized that the dorsal organ functions in passive or active ion movements. To study this, we employed the automated scanning electrode technique with self-referencing ion-selective microelectrodes to measure ion fluxes across the dorsal organ and adjacent egg poles. Stage 1 (chorionated) eggs revealed only small ion fluxes, indicating low permeability. Early stage 2 eggs--between the first embryonic molt and blastokinesis--showed evidence for active uptake of Ca(2+) and Cl(-) and possibly Na(+) against low bathing concentrations, and uptake fluxes were predominantly localized over the dorsal organ. Late stage 2 eggs revealed no capacity for ion uptake, consistent with the atrophy of the dorsal organ at blastokinesis, but high ion permeability. In all stages, the silver-staining saddle showed a sustained outward proton flux indicating that it is the primary site for metabolic acid/CO(2) excretion. The emerging picture is that the embryo dorsal organ in A. vulgare serves important functions in ion regulation, calcium provisioning, and acid excretion.

  5. Contact and fumigant activities of constituents of Foeniculum vulgare fruit against three coleopteran stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Ahn, Y J

    2001-03-01

    The insecticidal activities of materials derived from the fruit of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, against adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Callosobruchus chinensis and Lasioderma serricorne were examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as the phenylpropenes (E)-anethole and estragole, and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone, by spectroscopic analysis. Responses varied with insect species, compound, dose and exposure time. In a filter paper diffusion test, estragole at 0.168 mg cm-2 caused 91% mortality to S oryzae adults within 1 day after treatment (DAT), whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 DAT, respectively. Against C chinensis adults, all test compounds revealed potent insecticidal activities at 0.021 mg cm-2 at 2 DAT. Against L serricorne adults at 0.105 mg cm-2, (E)-anethole gave 100% mortality at 1 DAT, whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 DAT was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone, respectively. In a fumigation test, the compounds were much more effective against adults of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the F vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne.

  6. Marrubium vulgare extract inhibits human-LDL oxidation and enhances HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Isabelle, Maxim; Cherki, Mounia; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the beneficial properties of aqueous extracts of Marrubium vulgare (AEM) towards cardiovascular disease by protecting human-LDL against lipid peroxidation and promoting HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human-LDL were oxidised by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of increased concentrations of AEM (0-100 microg/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene formation, vitamin E disappearance as well as LDL-electrophoretic mobility. HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux assay was carried out in human THP-1 macrophages. Incubation of LDL with AEM significantly prolonged the lag phase (P=0.014), lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P=0.004), reduced the disappearance of vitamin E and the electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. Also, incubation of HDL with AEM significantly increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages implicating an independent ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) pathways. Our findings suggest that M. vulgare provides a source of natural antioxidants, which inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance reverse cholesterol transport and thus can prevent cardiovascular diseases development. These antioxidant properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL.

  7. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA pvulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment.

  8. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts.

  9. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl

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    MOHAMED A. BAKHETA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bakheta MA, Hussein MM. 2014. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 39-44. Pot experiments were carried out during two growth seasons 2010 / 2011 under greenhouse conditions of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to investigate the response of barley plants (Hordium vulgare L grown under salinity stress (2500 or 5000 ppm to spraying with solutions of uniconazole at 150 or 200 ppm. The obtained results showed that irrigation with saline solutions caused increases in the amounts of abscisic acid (ABA, crude protein, total soluble-protein and proline contents. The results showed that spraying barley plants grown under saline solutions with uniconazole increased endogenous hormone contents of ABA, cytokinins, crude protein, total soluble protein and proline but caused decreases in the amounts of endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. High protection of abscisic acid in treating plants with uniconazole and under salt stress (interaction effect increases proline, proteins and soluble protein which has been proposed to act as compatible solutes that adjust the osmotic potential in the cytoplasm. Thus, these biochemical characters can be used as a metabolic marker in relation to salinity stress.

  10. New knowledge for yield, composition and insecticidal activity ofessential oils obtained from the aerial parts or seeds of fennel(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Bednář, Jan; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, may (2016), s. 275-282 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510160 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : foeniculum vulgare * botanical insecticides * essential oils * medicinal plants * aromatic plants Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  11. Comparison of chemical composition of the essential oil from Marrubium vulgare L. and M. incanum Desr. during the second year of cultivation

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    Grażyna Zawiślak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Horehound herb (Marrubium vulgare L. is harvested from plantations in Poland. In our country, there are also favorable conditions for M. incanum Desr. growing. The aim of the study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils from M. vulgare L. and M. incanum Desr. in the second year of cultivation. The study revealed the presence of 31 compounds in the essential oil from M. vulgare L. and 24 compounds in the essential oil from M. incanum Desr. Chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds in the essential oil of M. vulgare L. from a two-year plantation were as follows: E-caryophyllene (34.51–36.78%, germacrene D (22.45–27.18%, bicyclogermacrene (9.54–11.12%, δ-amorphene (6.15–8.18%, and carvacrol (4.71–6.64%, whereas the following compounds prevailed in the oil from M. incanum Desr.: germacrene D (28.75–32.14%, E-caryophyllene (23.18–29.57%, α-cadinol (13.59–20.84%, and carvacrol (2.08–7.47%.

  12. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

  13. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  14. Performance of yeast-baited traps with Triatoma sordida, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and Panstrongylus megistus in laboratory assays Rendimiento de trampas cebadas con levaduras en la captura de Triatoma sordida, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata y Panstrongylus megistus en experimentos de laboratorio

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    Herton H. R. Pires

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a trap for triatomines baited with yeast cultures has been previously demonstrated for Triatoma infestans in laboratory assays. We report here results from laboratory assays testing yeast traps for Triatoma sordida, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and Panstrongylus megistus. All assays were conducted in an open experimental arena 100 cm X 100 cm, with two traps placed at opposite sides of the arena. One of the traps contained a yeast culture, and the other trap contained a saccharose solution as a control. Two series of experiments were done, one without a refuge for the insects and one with a refuge. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that the yeast-baited traps were effective in the laboratory in capturing both T. sordida and P. megistus. For T. sordida, yeast-baited traps captured significantly more bugs than did the control traps (t test P value = 0.03. For P. megistus, when a refuge was provided during the assay, yeast-baited traps also captured significantly more bugs than did the control traps (t test P value = 0.006. In the experiments with T. brasiliensis and T. pseudomaculata, both traps captured some insects, but the yeast traps captured many fewer bugs than was true with the T. sordida and P. megistus bugs. These results indicate that, in the laboratory, yeast traps can capture considerable numbers of T. sordida and P. megistus in one night. We discuss the potential use of yeast traps for detecting and capturing both triatomine species.Con anterioridad se ha demostrado la eficacia de las trampas cebadas con cultivos de levaduras (TCL para capturar Triatoma infestans en experimentos de laboratorio. En el presente estudio se describen los resultados obtenidos con estas trampas para capturar T. sordida, T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata y Panstrongylus megistus, también en experimentos de laboratorio. Todos los experimentos fueron realizados en un recinto experimental abierto de 100 cm por

  15. The effect of pre-nutrition of hydroalcoholic extractof Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficits in a rat stroke model

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    Meysam Foroozandeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stroke is one of the most important factors of mortality and disability in the world. Free radicals are produced following ischemic stroke and they play a central role in breaking the blood-brain barrier and  causing brain edema formation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficit in a rat stroke model. Materials and Methods: In thisexperimental study, 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups.  The first  two groups (control and Sham received distilled water, while three treatment groups received oral Origanum vulgare extract for 30days (50,75and 100 mg/kgdaily, respectively.  Two hours after the last dose of Origanum vulgare extract,each main group underwent  a 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion.  Then, the assessment of blood brain edema, and neurologic deficits analysis were done . Brain edema (brain water content was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA using LSD method and neurologic deficits analysis by means of Mann-Whitney U, and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Origanum vulgare extract reduced brain edema in the experimental groups of 50 (82.49±0.47, 75 (80.89±0.63 and 100 mg/kg/day (80.80±0.66 compared to the control group (84.46±0.67. The neurologic deficit scores in the experimental groups of 75and 100mg/kg/day, compared with control group, but neurologic deficit scores did not affect the group receiving the dose 50 mg/kg. Conclusion:  The obtained data indicate that Origanum vulgar extract via reduction of brain edema and neurologic deficits scorescan have a protective effect on the stroke model.

  16. Studies on gamma irradiated medicinal plants and spices (1): Myristica argentea, Myristica fragrans, Coriandrum sativum and Foeniculum vulgare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N.; Chosdu, R.; Sudiro, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakartc (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre); Syuib, F. (Bandung Inst. of Tech. (Indonesia). Pharmacy Dept.)

    1981-10-01

    Medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of myristica argentea, myristica fragrans, coriandrum sativum and foeniculum vulgare were stored for 0 and 6 months, with and without gamma irradiation at 5 kGy. No detectable changes were seen in infrared and UV spectra, GLC chromatograms and refraction indices of steam distilled, essential oils from the irradiated medicinal plants. The same results were also obtained from irradiated samples stored for 6 months at ambient conditions. Storage for 6 months caused significant changes in the gas liquid chromatograms and UV spectra of all samples compared to non-stored samples. The moisture content of all samples packed in polyethylene bags seems to be constant after 6 months of storage. No measurable changes were found in the amount of essential oil content caused by irradiation.

  17. Species reassignment of Geotrichum bryndzae, Geotrichum phurueaensis, Geotrichum silvicola and Geotrichum vulgare based on phylogenetic analyses and mating compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Coutinho, Teresa; Smith, Maudy Th; van der Walt, J P

    2012-12-01

    The present classification of Galactomyces and its anamorph, Geotrichum, is based on various studies that used morphology, ecology, biochemistry, DNA-DNA reassociation comparisons and gene sequencing. In this study, the identities of strains of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures yeast culture collection, as well as seven strains from South Africa, were examined by analyses of the nucleotide divergence in the internal transcribed spacer regions of the nuclear rRNA gene (nrRNA) operon, the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and partial actin gene sequences as well as compatibility studies. The South African strains were assigned to species in the genus Galactomyces. The phylogenetic analyses and mating studies revealed that Geotrichum silvicola and Geotrichum bryndzae are synonyms of Galactomyces candidus and that Geotrichum vulgare is a synonym of Galactomyces pseudocandidus.

  18. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective.

  19. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  20. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species.

  1. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negero Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species.

  2. Feminization of the Isopod Cylisticus convexus after Transinfection of the wVulC Wolbachia Strain of Armadillidium vulgare.

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    Myriam Badawi

    Full Text Available Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts by inducing parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility or feminization of genetic males. Despite extensive studies, no underlying molecular mechanism has been described to date. The goal of this study was to establish a system with a single Wolbachia strain that feminizes two different isopod species to enable comparative analyses aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of feminization. It was previously suggested that Wolbachia wVulC, which naturally induces feminization in Armadillidium vulgare, induces the development of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected Cylisticus convexus adult males. However, this does not demonstrate that wVulC induces feminization in C. convexus since feminization is the conversion of genetic males into functional females that occurs during development. Nevertheless, it suggests that C. convexus may represent a feminization model suitable for further development. Knowledge about C. convexus sexual differentiation is also essential for comparative analyses, as feminization is thought to take place just before or during sexual differentiation. Consequently, we first described gonad morphological differentiation of C. convexus and compared it with that of A. vulgare. Then, wVulC was injected into male and female C. convexus adult individuals. The feminizing effect was demonstrated by the combined appearance of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected adult males, as well as the presence of intersexes and female biases in progenies in which wVulC was vertically transmitted from transinfected mothers. The establishment of a new model of feminization of a Wolbachia strain in a heterologous host constitutes a useful tool towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of feminization.

  3. Estudio lingüístico de la fitonimia vulgar de las orquídeas en Cuba

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    López Trabanco, Pedro Jesús

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest efforts of modern science has been the symbolic identity and the economy of concepts in the language use at the time of classifying objects. If so, on the one hand, the common names are refused to fulfill the classification objectives. But, on the other hand, the symbolic meanings and functions which are rooted to the popular speech will be thrown over. Names are keys of a sign system or of a determined cosmovision. Thus the study object of this paper is the common orchid names taking into account mainly the naming sources and motivation in order to verify and establish criteria that solve the problem of this part of the Spanish in Cuba.

    Uno de los grandes esfuerzos de la ciencia moderna ha sido la identidad simbólica y la economía de conceptos en el uso del lenguaje a la hora de clasificar los objetos. Si bien, por un lado, el desechar los nombres vulgares cumple el objetivo de clasificación, por el otro, se tiran por la borda los contenidos simbólicos y funciones que estos nombres tienen enraizados en el habla popular. Los nombres son claves de un sistema simbólico o de una cosmovisión determinada. Este trabajo tiene como objeto de estudio los nombres vulgares de las orquídeas fundamentalmente a partir de las fuentes de nominación y la motivación para verificar y establecer criterios que resuelvan la problemática de esta parcela del español en Cuba.

  4. Composición química y efecto antibacteriano in vitro de extractos de larrea tridentata, origanum vulgare, artemisa ludoviciana y ruta graveolens

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    Lucía Delgadillo Ruíz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción . Los extractos de algunas plantas han demostrado tener propiedades antimicr o bianas relacionadas a ciertos compuestos químicos como son el timol, carvacrol, limoneno, linalol y terpineno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la concentración de estos compue s tos en los extractos de Larrea tridentata , Origanum vulgare , Artemisa ludoviciana y Ruta graveolens ; así como evaluar su efecto antimicrobiano en Escherichia coli , Acinetoba c ter baumanii , Pseudomona sp y Staphyloc o ccus aureus . Método . Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación simple empleando alcohol etílico como solvente, la composición química se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gases. La actividad antimicrobia na de cada uno de los extractos de plantas se realizó por los métodos difusión en pozo y difusión en disco. Resultados . Las bacterias mostraron diferentes grados de sensibilidad a los extractos, prese n tando inhibición de crecimiento S. aureus con el extra cto de O. vulgare y R. graveolens , mientras que la bacteria Pseudomona sp. , con los extracto s de A. ludoviciana, L. tridentata y O. vulgare . Discusión . La mayor concentración de timol y carvacrol se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y L. tridentata . El compuesto linalol se encontró en una proporción mayor en O. vulgare y en menor proporción en A. ludoviciana . Limoneno se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y R. graveolens . De las cuatro plantas evaluadas, el extracto de L. tridentata fue mejor , de bido a que presenta la mayor inhibición en comparación con los otros extractos; y con un efecto similar a los aceites empleados como control. La técnica de dif u sión en disco, permitió observar mejor los efectos inhibitorios de los extra c tos y los aceites s obre cada una de las bacterias empleadas en comparación con el método de difusión en pozo.

  5. Formulaciones con combinación de ingredientes activos para el control de Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda, plaga en el cultivo de colza

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    LÓPEZ, A.N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa colza (Brassica napus, B. campestris en siembra directa (SD representa una alternativa en los sistemas de rotación actuales. Armadillidium vulgare es una de las plagas principales de los cultivos en SD. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar cebos de acción combinada como estrategia alternativa de control de dicha especie.Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio y de campo con los siguientes tratamientos: testigo sin tratamiento químico; testigo químico (4 kg/ha de Carbaryl 8%, MataBiBos Acay; 3, 4 y 5 kg/ha de cebo de acción combinada (Carbaryl 8% + Metaldehído 4%, Dual Acay. Se evaluó el número de individuos de A. vulgare muertos, de plantas dañadas y de plantas sanas. En el laboratorio, a los 2, 3, 7 y 9 días después de la aplicación de los cebos, los tratamientos químicos se diferenciaron del testigo y no mostraron diferencias significativas entre ellos. Los tratamientos con aplicaciones de cebos presentaron un número de plantas sanas y totales mayorcon respecto al testigo. En el campo, se detectaron diferencias en el número de individuos muertos entre los tratamientos químicos y el testigo. No se observaron diferencias en la proporción de individuos muertos ni de plantas dañadas entre los tratamiento químicos, sí respecto al testigo. La presencia del molusquicida en el cebo de acción combinada no interfirió en el control de A. vulgare. Se concluye que el cebo de acción combinada representa una alternativa de control de A. vulgare eficaz, que permite la protección del cultivo de colza. AbstractOilseed rape (Brassica napus, B. campestris under No-Tillage (NT represents an alternative in the current crop rotation systems. Armadillidium vulgare is a principal pest in crops under NT. The aim of this study was to evaluate combined action baits as alternative strategy in the control of that species. Laboratory and fields traits were carried out with five treatments: control treatment without chemicals, positive

  6. [Does the sampling locality influence on the antifungal activity of the flavonoids of Marrubium vulgare against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouterfas, K; Mehdadi, Z; Aouad, L; Elaoufi, M M; Khaled, M B; Latreche, A; Benchiha, W

    2016-09-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of the sampling locality on the antifungal activity of the flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Marrubium vulgare L. against two fungal strains; Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The leaves were collected from three different sampling localities belonging northwest Algeria: Tessala mount, M'sila forest and Ain Skhouna. The flavonoid extraction was carried out by using organic solvents with increasing polarity. A phytochemical screening was performed by staining test tubes. The inhibition diameters were measured by solid medium diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by dilution method on solid medium. The antifungal activity varied significantly (PMarrubium vulgare leaves influenced on the antifungal activity of flavonoids. These have proven very good fungistatic and worth valuing in pharmacology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Tests phytochimiques et l'effet d'extrait hydroalcoolique brut de Marrubium vulgare sur l'activité de l'a-amylase

    OpenAIRE

    NADJARI, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Ce travail porte sur la recherche, in vitro, de l'effet inhibiteur d'enzyme a-amylase par différentes concentrations d'extrait brut hydoalcoolique, préparé par décoction, de la partie aérienne du Marrube blanc (Marrubium vulgare), plante utilisée dans le traitement de diabète sucré. Le travail est initié par une extraction sélective à partir de la partie aérienne du Marrubium vulgare. L'analyse phytochimique a révélé la présence d'alcaloïdes, de coumarines, de sucres rédu...

  8. Varroacidal efficacies of essential oils extracted from Lavandula officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Laurus nobilis in naturally infested honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies

    OpenAIRE

    KÜTÜKOĞLU, Figen; GİRİŞGİN, Ahmet Onur; AYDIN, Levent

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the efficacies of Lavandula officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Laurus nobilis essential oils on the control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), the most common parasite of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Experimental colonies from the province of Bursa, Turkey, were divided into 5 homogeneous groups of 8 hives each. The 3 essential oils plus thymol (Thymovar®, an essential oil-based drug with known efficacy that was used for comparison) were applied...

  9. A biogenic approach for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of Foeniculum vulgare and its activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHITAL BONDE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bonde S. 2011. A biogenic approach for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of Foeniculum vulgare and its activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 59-63. We report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, saunf. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was detected by changing color from green to brown after treatment with AgNO3 (1mM and the UV-visible spectrophotometer analysis showed the absorbance peak at about 427 nm, which indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticle Tracking and Analysis (NTA by LM-20 was used for multi-parameter analysis, allowing for characterization of particle size and particle distribution of silver nanoparticles synthesized from extract of F. vulgare. NTA revealed the polydispersed nanoparticles in the range of 18-83 nm. Phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923 and Escherichia coli (ATCC-39403. The silver nanoparticles also demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activity against two human pathogenic bacteria when used in combination with commercially available antibiotics. The bactericidal activity of the standard antibiotics was significantly enhanced in presence of silver nanoparticles against pathogenic bacteria, viz. E. coli-JM-103 (ATCC-39403 and S. aureus (ATCC-25923. Silver nanoparticles in combination with vancomycin showed maximum activity against E. coli (increase in fold area 5.76. and followed by S. aureus (1.08 and Gentamicin showed the maximum activity S. aureus (2.6 while E. coli (0.96. The approach of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using F. vulgare appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of synthesis.

  10. A comparative study on plant morphology, gas exchange parameters, and antioxidant response of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. grown on industrially polluted soil

    OpenAIRE

    STANCHEVA, Ira; GENEVA, Maria; MARKOVSKA, Yuliana; TZVETKOVA, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Cd, Pb, and Zn uptake on plant morphology, photosynthetic parameters, antioxidant potential, and essential oil yield and quality in Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. plants were evaluated. The plants were grown as a pot experiment in soil heavily polluted with Cd and Pb and on unpolluted soil. Both plants accumulated Cd, mainly in the roots, while Pb occurred in the oregano shoots only. The leaf blade thickness of both plants increased when grown in polluted soil. Bas...

  11. The dynamics driving the invasion of Brassica nigra and Foeniculum vulgare in California : the interaction of competition, herbivory, and seed source

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Victoria Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are highly detrimental to economies and to ecosystems. To counter the negative effects of invasive plant species, a better understanding of the mechanisms driving their dominance and success is necessary. The factors of competition, herbivory, and seed source were examined using two plant species invasive to California- Brassica nigra and Foeniculum vulgare. It was found that B. nigra is affected by each factor individually but not by any interactions between the factors. F. ...

  12. Presencia de Phomopsis sp., agente causal del tizón del orégano (Origanum vulgare en Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOSSEN, V

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El orégano (Origanum vulgare L. ocupa el primer lugar en la producción de especias en la Argentina. Se cultiva principalmente en las provincias de Córdoba, Mendoza, San Juan y San Luis (COFECYT, 2009. El Valle de Traslasierra, ubicado al oeste de Córdoba, es la principal zona de producción y comercialización de hierbas aromáticas y medicinales.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fournomiti; Athanasios Kimbaris; Ioanna Mantzourani; Stavros Plessas; Irene Theodoridou; Virginia Papaemmanouil; Ioannis Kapsiotis; Maria Panopoulou; Elisavet Stavropoulou; Eugenia E. Bezirtzoglou; Athanasios Alexopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditi...

  14. A biomimetic synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles derived from aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds and evaluation of their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-10-01

    A facile biomimetic approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using aqueous extract of fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare) seeds have been reported in this article. The seeds of F. vulgare are rich in various plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) such as polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and saponins. The phytochemicals of F. vulgare seeds play dual role of reducing and stabilizing agents. The formation of gold nanoparticles was evidenced from the appearance of intense purple color at room temperature with λ max around 550 nm in the UV-Vis absorption spectra. The stable AuNPs were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles were observed to be polydispersed, spherical and ranged from 10 to 30 nm with an average size of 20 ± 2 nm, as obtained from TEM images. The catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles was investigated by studying the reduction of anthropogenic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh-B) with sodium borohydride. Results showed the possible applications of biogenic AuNPs in environment related problems.

  15. Foeniculum vulgare essential oil ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Motamed, Saeed Mohammadi; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Chamanara, Mohsen; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Rashidian, Amir

    2017-10-24

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on intestinal inflammation through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway in acetic acid-induced rat colitis. Acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2 mL of diluted acetic acid (4%) solution. Two hours after the induction of colitis, 0.2% tween 80 in normal saline, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) and F. vulgare essential oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) were administered to the animals by oral gavage and continued for 5 consecutive days. Assessment of macroscopic and microscopic lesions was done. MPO activity was evaluated by biochemical method. Furthermore, TNF-α activity was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the expression level of p-NF-kB p65 protein was measured by western blot analysis. Dexamethasone and F. vulgare essential oil (200, 400 mg/kg) reduced the macroscopic and microscopic lesions compared to the acetic acid group (p acetic acid group. Furthermore, they inhibited acetic acid-induced expression of p-NF-kB p65 protein (p acetic acid-induced colitis in rats may involve the inhibition of NF-kB pathway.

  16. Biorremediation of soil polluted by 75000 ppm of waste motor oil applying biostimulation and phytoremediation with Sorghum vulgare and Bacillus cereus or Burkholderia cepacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balderas-León Iván

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste motor oil (WMO pollutes soil and causing lost soil fertility. An alternative to solve this problem its bioremediation (BR by double and following biostimulation (BS with mineral solution (MS and a legume as green manure (GM then using phytoremediation (PR with growth promoting vegetal bacteria (GPVB like Bacillus cereus and Burkholderia cepacia to minimize remaining WMO. The aims of this research were: a bioremediation of polluted soil by 75000 ppm of WMO by biostimulation and then b Its phytoremediation for remaining WMO by Sorghum vulgare inoculated with B. cereus and B. cepacia. Soil polluted by high concentration WMO was biostimulated with MS, and then Phaseolus vulgaris treated by GPVB was incorporated as GM, finally to apply PR to eliminate WMO with S. vulgare with GPVB. Results indicate that soil bioremediated by biostimulation with MS, WMO decreased at 32500 ppm/30 days, and then with GM, WMO was reduced at 10100 ppm after/90 days. Finally, to apply phytoremediation using S. vulgare and GPVB at flowering, WMO was reduced from 2500 ppm to 800 ppm. For recovering soil impacted by high concentration WMO to apply both techniques double and following BS and PR are the best option than each technique separately.

  17. Evaluation of Origanum vulgare essential oil as antimicrobial agent in sausage Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare em linguiça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Busatta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and the time course of the product was evaluated with respect to the action of the different concentrations of essential oil. Sensory analysis were conducted, and results showed that the addition of oregano essential oil to sausage may be a promising route as bacteriostatic effect was verified for oil concentrations lower than the MIC.O presente trabalho reporta resultados referentes à testes de atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de orégano (Origanum vulgare contra várias bactérias em lingüiça. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada para 9 bactérias aeróbicas heterotróficas. Com base no maior valor encontrado da CIM, testou-se a atividade antimicrobiana para distintas concentrações do óleo essencial in lingüiça fresca. Amostras do sistema alimentar escolhido foram inoculadas com Escherichia coli numa determinada concentração e a evolução temporal do produto concernente ao crescimento microbiano foi monitorada avaliando-se o efeito das diferentes concentrações de óleos essencial aplicadas ao produto inoculado. Os resultados das análises microbiológica e sensorial mostraram que a adição do óleo essencial de orégano a linguiça fresca coloca-se como promissora tendo em vista os efeitos bacteriostáticos observados em baixas concentrações do óleo essencial, inferiores a CIM.

  18. Effect of combined application of organic and mineral nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of combined application of organic and mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on soil physico-chemical properties and grain yield of food barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ) in Kaffa Zone, South-western Ethiopia.

  19. some studies on gender and smoking patterns among university of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    Hordeum vulgare) and broad beans (Vicia faba) had been grown on the soils in pots. Soil samples were analysed for water-soluble salts, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, pH, organic matter, sodium, potassium and phosphorus.

  20. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pdf. Jaiswal S. K., Pandey S. P., Sharma S., Prasad R., Prasad L. C., Verma R. P. S. and Joshi A. K. 2010 Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using microsatellite markers.

  1. Haplotype divergence and multiple candidate genes at Rphq2, a partial resistance QTL of barley to Puccinia hordei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yeo, F. K. S.; Wang, Y.; Vozábová, Tereza; Huneau, C.; LeRoy, P.; Chalhoub, B.; Qi, X. Q.; Niks, R. E.; Marcel, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 2 (2016), s. 289-304 ISSN 0040-5752 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cartial resistance genes * cloning * Hordeum vulgare Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.132, year: 2016

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of two single-copy nuclear genes revealed origin and complex relationships of polyploid species of Hordeum in Triticeae (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qianni; Sun, Genlou

    2017-06-01

    Two single-copy nuclear genes, the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) and thioredoxin-like gene (HTL), were used to explore the phylogeny and origin of polyploid species in Hordeum. Our results were partly in accord with previous studies, but disclosed additional complexity. Both RPB2 and HTL trees confirmed the presence of Xa genome in H. capense and H. secalinum, and that H. depressum originated from H. californicum together with other American diploids, either H. intercedens or H. pusillum. American diploids solely contributed to the origin of H. depressum. The Asian diploids, either H. bogdanii or H. brevisubulatum, contributed to the formation of American polyploids except H. depressum. RPB2 and HTL sequences showed that H. roshevitzii did not contribute to the origin of American tetraploids. Our data showed a close relationship between the hexaploids H. procerum and H. parodii and the tetraploids H. brachyantherum, H. fuegianum, H. guatemalense, H. jubatum, and H. tetraploidum. The involvement of the diploid H. pusillum and the tetraploid H. jubatum in the formation of H. arizonicum was also indicated in the HTL phylogeny. Our results suggested a possible gene introgression of W- and P-genome species into the tetraploid H. jubatum and the hexaploid H. procerum.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on phytopathogenic strains isolated from soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M de las M; Carezzano, M E; Giuliano, M; Daghero, J; Zygadlo, J; Bogino, P; Giordano, W; Demo, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species isolated from soybean. Strains with characteristics of P. syringae were isolated from leaves of soybean plants with blight symptoms. Ten of these could be identified in Group Ia of LOPAT as P. syringae. Six of these were confirmed as P. syringae using 16S rRNA, indicating the presence of these phytopathogenic bacteria in east and central Argentina. All the phytopathogenic bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the infected plants. MIC values for thyme were 11.5 and 5.7 mg·ml(-1) on P. syringae strains, while oregano showed variability in the inhibitory activity. Both essential oils inhibited all P. syringae strains, with better inhibitory activity than the antibiotic streptomycin. The oils were not bactericidal for all pseudomonads. Both oils contained high carvacrol (29.5% and 19.7%, respectively) and low thymol (1.5%). Natural products obtained from aromatic plants represent potential sources of molecules with biological activity that could be used as new alternatives for the treatment of phytopathogenic bacteria infections. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Study of anticancer and antibacterial activities of Foeniculum vulgare, Justicia adhatoda and Urtica dioica as natural curatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, R; Salahuddin, H; Mahmood, T; Ismail, M

    2017-09-30

    High-throughput technologies, such as synthetic biology and genomics have paved new paths for discovery and utility of medicinally beneficial plants. Bioactive molecules isolated from different plants have significantly higher biological activities. The present study was done to analyze antibacterial potential of some medicinal plants against multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens and anticancer effect against MCF-7 cell line. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method against six MDR bacterial strains and for cytotoxicity evaluation by MTT assay. Ethanolic extracts of the three tested plants exhibited growth inhibitory effect against Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more resistant to all extracts as its growth was least inhibited by the extracts of all tested plants. Ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited significant inhibition of cancer cells proliferation. Methanol extract of Justicia adhatoda also showed considerable inhibition of cancer cells. Future studies must converge on detailed investigation of modes of action of extracts of tested plants.

  5. Effect of cycocel on photosynthetic activity and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important and most common environmental stresses that limit plant growth. Photosynthesis is the main determinant of plant growth and its retention ability under environmental stress condition is important for preservation of growth stability. To study the effect of spraying CCC on photosynthesis activity and essential oil content on 'Foeniculum vulgare', an experiment was done in split plot design based on complete block with four replications in research field of University of Zanjan in 2011. Levels of drought stress included, control, soft stress (when 30% of available water was out of soil, severe stress (when 90% of available water was out of soil, and three concentration of CCC 0, 1500 and 3000 mg/L. The results showed that between rates foliar application on physiologic characteristics as photosynthesis rate, transpiration severity, RWC and TΔ intercellular (Ci, stomata conductivity, mesophyll conductivity and essential oil content was significant. By spraying 3000 mg/L CCC, balanced the plant position against drought stress and could reduce negative effect. Foliar application of CCC caused significant increase in photosynthesis rate, mesophyll conductivity and significant decrease stomata conductivity, transpiration severity under drought stress and could increase essential oil content under soft stress. In this study, foliar application of CCC to content 3000 mg/L had the highest effect on this characters.

  6. Characterisation of marrubenol, a diterpene extracted from Marrubium vulgare, as an L-type calcium channel blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bardai, Sanae; Wibo, Maurice; Hamaide, Marie-Christine; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Morel, Nicole

    2003-12-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of marrubenol, a diterpenoid extracted from Marrubium vulgare. In rat aorta, marrubenol was a more potent inhibitor of the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl (IC50: 11.8+/-0.3 microM, maximum relaxation: 93+/-0.6%) than of the contraction evoked by noradrenaline (maximum relaxation: 30+/-1.5%). 2. In fura-2-loaded aorta, marrubenol simultaneously inhibited the Ca2+ signal and the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl, and decreased the quenching rate of fura-2 fluorescence by Mn2+. 3. Patch-clamp data obtained in aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) indicated that marrubenol inhibited Ba2+ inward current in a voltage-dependent manner (KD: 8+/-2 and 40+/-6 microM at holding potentials of -50 and -100 mV, respectively). 4. These results showed that marrubenol inhibits smooth muscle contraction by blocking L-type calcium channels.

  7. Pre- and postnatal evaluation of offspring rats exposed to Origanum vulgare essential oil during mating, gestation and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Boemler Hollenbach

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Despite the increasing use of oregano ( Origanum vulgare L. essential oil for therapeutic purposes, pre- and postnatal development of animals offspring exposed to this oil has not yet been evaluated. In line with previous concerns of genotoxicity, in this study adult rats were exposed to different doses of oregano essential oil (3, 9 and 27% vol/vol during pre-mating, mating, gestation and lactation. Prenatal screening included fetal development and uterine inspection, where the reproductive rate of females such as breeding, pregnancy, delivery, viability and post-implantation loss rate were measured. Postnatal evaluation of rat offspring included motor development, neuroendocrine and behavioral assessment. Body weight of rat dams and signs of dystocia were evaluated daily. Development of physic characteristics and reflex tests of puppies were also assessed. Additionally, these rats, when adults, were submitted to sexual and open field behavioral tests. The main differences among the groups were observed in the indices of mating, pregnancy and post-implantation loss (P<0.01. Results demonstrated that the treatment of parental generation with oregano essential oil has the potential to affect the developing fetuses at the highest dose used, but without causing maternal toxicity and changes in general behavior and development of the progeny.

  8. Tolerance response of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains to habituation to Origanum vulgare L essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eMonte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from human outbreaks or from poultry origin were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl, potassium chloride (KCl, lactic acid (LA, acetic acid (AA and ciprofloxacin (CIP after habituation in subinhibitory amounts (½ of the minimum inhibitory concentration - ½ MIC and ¼ of the minimum inhibitory concentration - ¼ MIC of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO at different time intervals. The habituation of S. enterica to OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by the modulation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values. However, cells habituated to OVEO maintained or increased susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials agents, with up to four-fold double dilution decrease from previously determined MIC values. This study reports for the first time the non-inductive effect of OVEO on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in multidrug-resistant S. enterica strains to antimicrobial agents that are largely used in food preservation, as well as to CIP, the therapeutic drug of salmonellosis.

  9. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae against bacterial multiresistant strains isolated from nosocomial patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Coelho da Costa

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are considered the main therapeutic option to treat bacterial infections; however, there is the disadvantage of increasing bacterial resistance. Thus, the research of antimicrobials of plant origin has been an important alternative. This work aimed at determining the in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae on multiresistant bacteria isolated from biological materials. 24 strains of nosocomial bacteria were used and divided into six different species that were inhibited by the essential oil in the preliminary "screening" which was accomplished by the diffusion technique in agar. MIC was determined by the microdilution method, beginning with solutions with the final concentrations: 8 up to 0.125% with the following results: The four samples (100% of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and MRSA were inhibited by the essential oil at the concentration of 0.125%. Three samples (75% of Acinetobacter baumannii at 0.125% and a sample (25% at 0.5%; Klebsiella pneumoniae (75% at 0.125% and 25% at 0.25%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (75% at 0.5% and 25% at 0.25%. MIC varied from 78 to 83%. It was concluded through the obtained data that there was not difference in the minimum bactericidal concentration (0.5% of the referred oil for Gram positive as well for Gram negative microorganisms.

  10. Combination of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and lactic acid to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus in meat broth and meat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson C. de Barros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC index and cell viability in meat broth and meat model. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of the oil was 0.6 and 1.25 µL.mL-1, respectively. Lactic acid showed MIC and MBC of 2.5 and 5µL.mL-1, respectively. FIC indices of the combined application of the oil and lactic acid were 0.5 showing a synergic interaction. The essential oil and lactic acid showed similar (p>0.05 anti-S. aureus effect in meat broth over 96 h of exposure. Treatment with essential oil or lactic acid presented a smaller anti-staphylococcal effect in meat in comparison to meat broth. No significant difference (p>0.05 was found for the microbial counts in meat treated with each antimicrobial alone or in mixture. These results could arise as an interesting approach for the improvement of food preservation using more natural procedures, considering the current demand of consumer and sensory quality of foods.

  11. Anti-oxidant studies and anti-microbial effect of Origanum vulgare Linn in combination with standard antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Kumar, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Origanum is one of the over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), and this genus includes culinary, fragrant, and medicinal properties. The plant is reported to contain anti-microbial properties, but it lacks combination studies with that of synthetic antibiotics. To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial interaction studies of Origanum vulgare with standard drugs against Bacillus species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger. The anti-oxidant properties of phenolic, non-phenolic fractions of chloroform extract and volatile oil were evaluated by free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical-scavenging assay, reducing power, and metal chelating assays. The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined which demonstrates the behavior of volatile oil, phenolic, and non-phenolic fractions of volatile oil with that of ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. The IC50 value for volatile oil was found to be 15, 30, and 30 μg/ml and that of phenolic fraction was 60, 120, and 120 μg/ml for free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging, and metal chelating assays respectively. Non-phenolic fraction was found to act antagonistically along with ciprofloxacin against B. cereus and B. subtilis, while the phenolic fraction exhibited indifferent activity along with ciprofloxacin against both the bacterial strains. This combination of drug therapy will not only prove effective in antibiotic resistance, but these natural constituents will also help in preventing body from harmful radicals which lead to fatal diseases.

  12. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Mithun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.

  13. Application of low doses of ionizing radiation in the Brazilian fruit tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.); Aplicacao de baixas doses de radiacao ionizante no fruto brasileiro tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Araujo, Leandro Moreira, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.b, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gody, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; Pacheco, Sidney, E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.b, E-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos (CTAA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.) is a native fruit of Amazonia, occurring mainly in the state of Para, but also found in the Brazilian northeast states and in the Brazilian central-western states. The tucuma is considered an excellent source of carotenoids with a very high concentration of {beta}-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A. In addition to carotenoids it is an important source of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in fruits. This study aimed to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on the nutritional value of tucuma. The fruits were irradiated at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy irradiator with a source of cesium 137. The carotenoids were determined by spectrophotometry. The analysis of {alpha} and {beta}-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The {beta}-carotene accounts for 80% of total carotenoids in tucuma, and with a dose of 2 kGy, it showed the highest reduction of {beta}-carotene, about 7.5% in relation to the control. The tucuma fruit showed high levels of riboflavin from 0.183 to 0.222 {mu}g 100 g{sup -1}, and maintained stability after the gamma radiation process. However, it had low levels of thiamine from 0.050 to 0.033 {mu}g 100 g{sup -1}, and irradiated at a dose of 2 kGy showed significant reductions of thiamine, about 34% in relation to the control. (author)

  14. Importance of diet in the growth, survivorship and reproduction of the no-tillage pest Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda Importancia de la dieta en el crecimiento, la supervivencia y la reproducción de Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda plaga en siembra directa

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    ARIEL J FABERI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Armadillidium vulgare as pest are virtually null worldwide. However under no-tillage systems this species has found an adequate environment for its development and it has become an important pest in some crops in Argentina. It has been shown that the composition of vegetables affects the isopods biology. Our hypothesis was that soybean leaf litter has high nutritive value which allows A. vulgare to grow faster, survive longer, and have higher fecundity favoring the population increase and turning it into a crop pest. Growth and survivorship of juveniles and adults, egg incubation period, offspring number per female and offspring mean body weight were determined in individuals fed with leaf litter of soybean, sunflower, wheat and pasture. The growth rate coefficient, k, in juveniles was higher for soybean, intermediate for pasture and lower for sunflower. Adult growth was faster under the soybean diet. Survivorship under soybean and pasture was longer than under sunflower and wheat in both juveniles and adults. The reproductive parameters were similar in all diets, food did not generate any change in the reproductive aspects of A. vulgare. Results of the present study represent a source of information about the A. vulgare biology under different diets of agricultural origin to establish the basis for Integrated Management of this species as pest. Under soybean litter provision A. vulgare found the best conditions for faster growth, longer survival and relatively higher fecundity. In fields with soybean as preceding crop or in systems with high frequency of soybean in the crop rotation a more abundant population of A. vulgare would be found as well as with larger individuals which could cause more damage to the following crop in the rotation.Los estudios sobre Armadillidium vulgare como plaga son virtualmente nulos a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, en los sistemas bajo siembra directa esta especie ha encontrado un ambiente adecuado para

  15. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel Seed Extracts

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    Nandini Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel. The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%, AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L, and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Intensification of marrubiin concentration by optimization of microwave-assisted (low CO2 yielding) extraction process for Marrubium vulgare using central composite design and antioxidant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vineet; Nanda, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Marrubium vulgare Linn (Lamiaceae) was generally extracted by conventional methods with low yield of marrubiin; these processes were not considered environment friendly. This study extracts the whole plant of M. vulgare by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and optimizes the effect of various extraction parameters on the marrubiin yield by using Central Composite Design (CCD). The selected medicinal plant was extracted using ethanol: water (1:1) as solvent by MAE. The plant material was also extracted using a Soxhlet and the various extracts were analyzed by HPTLC to quantify the marrubiin concentration. The optimized conditions for the microwave-assisted extraction of selected medicinal plant was microwave power of 539 W, irradiation time of 373 s and solvent to drug ratio, 32 mL per g of the drug. The marrubiin concentration in MAE almost doubled relative to the traditional method (0.69 ± 0.08 to 1.35 ± 0.04%). The IC 50 for DPPH was reduced to 66.28 ± 0.6 μg/mL as compared to conventional extract (84.14 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The scanning electron micrographs of the treated and untreated drug samples further support the results. The CCD can be successfully applied to optimize the extraction parameters (MAE) for M. vulgare. Moreover, in terms of environmental impact, the MAE technique could be assumed as a 'Green approach' because the MAE approach for extraction of plant released only 92.3 g of CO 2 as compared to 3207.6 g CO 2 using the Soxhlet method of extraction.

  18. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists

  19. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko [Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Faculty of Life and Environment, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Neffati, Mohamed [Arid Zone Research Institute (IRA), Médenine 4119 (Tunisia); Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro [Nippon Shinyaku CO., LTD., Kyoto 601-8550 (Japan); Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nagao, Masaya, E-mail: mnagao@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  20. Chromosomal characterization of the three subgenomes in the polyploids of Hordeum murinum L.: new insight into the evolution of this complex.

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    Ángeles Cuadrado

    Full Text Available Hordeum murinum L. is a species complex composed of related taxa, including the subspecies glaucum, murinum and leporinum. However, the phylogenetic relationships between the different taxa and their cytotypes, and the origin of the polyploid forms, remain points of controversy. The present work reports a comparative karyotype analysis of seven accessions of the H. murinum complex representing all subspecies and cytotypes. The karyotypes were determined by examining the distribution of the repetitive Triticeae DNA sequences pTa71, pTa794, pSc119.2, pAs1 and pHch950, the simple sequence repeats (SSRs (AG10, (AAC5, (AAG5, (ACT5, (ATC5, and (CCCTAAA3 via in situ hybridization. The chromosomes of the three subgenomes involved in the polyploids were identified. All tetraploids of all subspecies shared the same two subgenomes (thus suggesting them to in fact belong to the same taxon, the result of hybridization between two diploid ancestors. One of the subgenomes present in all tetraploids of all subspecies was found to be very similar (though not identical to the chromosome complement of the diploid glaucum. The hexaploid form of leporinum came about through a cross between a tetraploid and a third diploid form. Exclusively bivalent associations among homologous chromosomes were observed when analyzing pollen mother cells of tetraploid taxa. In conclusion, the present results identify all the individual chromosomes within the H. murinum complex, reveal its genome structure and phylogeny, and explain the appearance of the different cytotypes. Three cryptic species are proposed according to ploidy level that may deserve full taxonomic recognition.