Sample records for cea-adl dual alkali process

  1. Process for recovering alkali metals and sulfur from alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier


    Alkali metals and sulfur may be recovered from alkali monosulfide and polysulfides in an electrolytic process that utilizes an electrolytic cell having an alkali ion conductive membrane. An anolyte solution includes an alkali monosulfide, an alkali polysulfide, or a mixture thereof and a solvent that dissolves elemental sulfur. A catholyte includes molten alkali metal. Applying an electric current oxidizes sulfide and polysulfide in the anolyte compartment, causes alkali metal ions to pass through the alkali ion conductive membrane to the catholyte compartment, and reduces the alkali metal ions in the catholyte compartment. Liquid sulfur separates from the anolyte solution and may be recovered. The electrolytic cell is operated at a temperature where the formed alkali metal and sulfur are molten.

  2. Multi-photon processes in alkali metal vapors (United States)

    Gai, Baodong; Hu, Shu; Li, Hui; Shi, Zhe; Cai, Xianglong; Guo, Jingwei; Tan, Yannan; Liu, Wanfa; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting


    Achieving population inversion through multi-photon cascade pumping is almost always difficult, and most laser medium work under 1-photon excitation mechanism. But for alkali atoms such as cesium, relatively large absorption cross sections of several low, cascading energy levels enable them properties such as up conversion. Here we carried out research on two-photon excitation alkali fluorescence. Two photons of near infrared region are used to excite alkali atoms to n 2 D5/2, n 2 D3/2 or higher energy levels, then the blue fluorescence of (n+1) 2 P3/2,(n+1) 2 P1/2-->n 2 S1/2 are observed. Different pumping paths are tried and by the recorded spectra, transition routes of cesium are deducted and concluded. Finally the possibility of two-photon style DPALs (diode pumped alkali laser) are discussed, such alkali lasers can give output wavelengths in the shorter end of visual spectroscopy (400-460 nm) and are expected to get application in underwater communication and material laser processing.

  3. Alkali and heavy metal emissions of the PCFB-process; Alkali- ja raskasmetallipaeaestoet PCFB-prosessista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Lehtonen, P. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)


    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula R and D Center since 1986. As part of the development, 10 MW PCFB test facility was built in 1989. The test facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1995 in order to gain data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The main object of the project was to measure vapor phase Na and K concentrations in the PCFB flue gas after hot gas filter and investigate the effects of process conditions and sorbents on alkali release. The measurements were performed using plasma assisted method of TUT Laboratory of Plasma Technology and wet absorption method of VTT Energy. The measurements were carried out during three test campaigns at PCFB Test Facility in Karhula. In autumn 1995 both VTT and TUT methods were used. The measurements of the following test period in spring 1996 were performed by VTT, and during the last test segment in autumn 1996 TUT method was in use. During the last test period, the TUT instrument was used as semi-continuous (3 values/minute) alkali analyzer for part of the time. The measured Na concentrations were below 30 ppb(w) in all measured data points. The results of K were below 10 ppb(w). The accuracies of the both methods are about +50 % at this concentration range. The scatter of the data covers the effects of different process variables on the alkali emission. The measured emissions are at the same order of magnitude as the guideline emission limits estimated by gas turbine manufacturers

  4. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors (United States)

    Norman, Geoff


    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  5. Formation of alkali-metal nanoparticles in alkali-silicate glasses under electron irradiation and thermal processing (United States)

    Bochkareva, E. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Ignat'ev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Podsvirov, O. A.


    Experiments and numerical simulation show that the irradiation of alkali-containing glasses using electrons at an energy of 35 keV and the subsequent thermal processing at a temperature above the vitrification point lead to the formation of spherical metal (lithium, sodium, and potassium) nanoparticles with oxide sheaths that exhibit plasmon resonances in the visible spectral range. Glasses containing two alkali metals exhibit mutual effect of metals on the formation of nanoparticles with two compositions due to the difference of ion radii and mobilities of metal ions.

  6. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue (United States)

    Sharp, David W.


    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  7. A new mechanism for radiation damage processes in alkali halides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den


    We present a theory of radiation damage formation in alkali halides based on a new mechanism of dislocation climb, which involves the production of VF centers (self-trapped hole neighboring a cation vacancy) as a result of the absorption of H centers of dislocation lines. We consider the evolution o

  8. Economic assessment of biodiesel production: Comparison of alkali and biocatalyst processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, Kenthorai Raman [Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology and Health sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641114 (India); Eng-Seng, Chan; Ravindra, Pogaku [Centre of Materials and Minerals, School of Engineering and Information Technology, University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kotakinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)


    This study deals with the economic assessment of biodiesel production using three catalytic processes (1) alkali (2) soluble enzyme and (3) immobilized enzyme. All the processes were considered to be operated at batch mode with a production capacity of 10{sup 3} tonne. Biodiesel production cost using alkali catalyst process was found to be lowest ($ 1166.67/tonne) compared to soluble lipase catalyst ($ 7821.37/tonne) and immobilized lipase catalyst ($ 2414.63/tonne) process. The higher production cost was due to the higher cost of the enzyme and the higher reaction time of enzymatic process. However, reuse of immobilized catalyst decreased the production cost drastically unlike soluble enzyme catalyst. (author)

  9. Demonstration of a Dual Alkali Rb/Cs Atomic Fountain Clock

    CERN Document Server

    Guéna, J; Laurent, Ph; Abgrall, M; Rovera, D; Lours, M; Santarelli, G; Tobar, M E; Bize, S; Clairon, A; 10.1109/TUFFC.2010.1461


    We report the operation of a dual Rb/Cs atomic fountain clock. 133Cs and 87Rb atoms are cooled, launched, and detected simultaneously in LNE-SYRTE's FO2 double fountain. The dual clock operation occurs with no degradation of either the stability or the accuracy. We describe the key features for achieving such a simultaneous operation. We also report on the results of the first Rb/Cs frequency measurement campaign performed with FO2 in this dual atom clock configuration, including a new determination of the absolute 87Rb hyperfine frequency.

  10. Dissolution Process of Palladium in Hydrochloric Acid: A Route via Alkali Metal Palladates (United States)

    Kasuya, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Tai, Yutaka


    To improve the safety of the Pd recovery processes that use toxic oxidizers, dissolution of Pd in hydrochloric acid with alkali metal palladates was investigated. Alkali metal palladates were prepared by calcining a mixture of Pd black and alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) carbonates in air. Almost the entire amount of Pd was converted into Li2PdO2 after calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Li2CO3. In contrast, PdO was obtained by calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Na and K carbonates. Our results indicated that Li2CO3 is the most active reagent among the examined alkali metal carbonates for the formation of palladates. In addition, dissolution of the resulting Li2PdO2 in HCl solutions was evaluated under various conditions. In particular, Li2PdO2 rapidly dissolved in diluted (0.1 M) HCl at ambient temperature. Solubility of Pd of Li2PdO2 was found to be 99 pct or larger after dissolution treatment at 353 K (80 °C) for 5 minutes; in contrast, PdO hardly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl. The dissolution mechanism of Li2PdO2 in HCl was also elucidated by analysis of crystal structures and particulate properties. Since our process is completely free from toxic oxidizers, the dissolution process via alkali metal palladates is much safer than currently employed methods.

  11. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics


    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. During the reporting period the alkali measuring device has been tested under pressurized conditions at VTT Energy, DMT, Foster-Wheeler Energia and ABB Carbon. Measurements in Delft will be performed during 1996 after installation of the hot gas filter. The original plan for measurements in Delft has been postponed due to schedule delays in Delft. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. This will be the first test of the plasma assisted measurement method in a gasification process. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)

  12. Solidification/stabilization of chromite ore processing residue using alkali-activated composite cementitious materials. (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Zhuang, RanLiang; Muhammad, Faheem; Yu, Lin; Shiau, YanChyuan; Li, Dongwei


    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) produced in chromium salt production process causes a great health and environmental risk with Cr(VI) leaching. The solidification/stabilization (S/S) of COPR using alkali-activated blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash (FA) based cementitious material was investigated in this study. The optimum percentage of BFS and FA for preparing the alkali-activated BFS-FA binder had been studied. COPR was used to replace the amount of BFS-FA or ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for the preparation of the cementitious materials, respectively. The immobilization effect of the alkali-activated BFS-FA binder on COPR was much better than that of OPC based cementitious material. The potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material was evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) analysis indicated that COPR had been effectively immobilized. The solidification mechanism is the combined effect of reduction, ion exchange, precipitation, adsorption and physical fixation in the alkali-activated composite cementitious material.

  13. Alkali and heavy metal emissions of the PCFB-process; Alkalipaeaestoet PCFB-prosessissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Lehtonen, P. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)


    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula R and D Center since 1986. As a part of the development, 10 MW PCFB Test Facility was built in 1989. The Test Facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1995 in order to gain data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The project Y44 `Alkali and heavy metal emissions of the PCFB-process` was part of national LIEKKI 2 research program. The main object of the project was to measure vapor phase Na and K concentrations in the PCFB flue gas after hot gas filter and investigate the effects of process conditions and sorbents on alkali release. The measurements were performed using plasma assisted method by TUT Laboratory of Plasma Technology and wet absorption method of VTT Energy. The measured Na concentrations were below 30 ppb(w) in all measured data points. The results of K were below 10 ppb(w). The accuracies of the both methods are about + 50 % at this concentration range. The scatter of the data covers the effects of different process variables on the alkali emission. The measured emissions are at the same order of magnitude as the guideline emission limits estimated by gas turbine manufacturers. The measurements and development of the analyses methods are planned to be continued during PCFB test runs in spring 1996 for example within Joule II research program. (author)

  14. A Computational Dual-Process Model of Social Interaction (United States)


    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2014-0123       A COMPUTATIONAL DUAL- PROCESS MODEL OF SOCIAL INTERACTION Stephen Deutsch BBN Technologies 10 Moulton...From – To) 01 January 2012 – 01 January 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Computational Dual- Process Model of Social Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...88ABW-2014-5663; Cleared 3 December 2014 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Dual- process models postulate two distinct modes of information processing

  15. Effect of alkali cations on heterogeneous photo-Fenton process mediated by Prussian blue colloids. (United States)

    Liu, Shou-Qing; Cheng, Shi; Feng, Lian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Zhi-Gang


    This article evaluates Prussian blue (iron hexacyanoferrate) colloids as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The emphasis is laid on the effects of alkali metal cations on the photo-Fenton process. The facts show that alkali cations strongly affect the degradation rate of organic species. The degradation rates of Rhodamine B, Malachite Green, and Methyl Orange in the presence of KCl, KNO(3), and K(2)SO(4), respectively, are faster than their degradation rates in the presence of the corresponding sodium salts. The average degradation rates of Rhodamine B in 0.2 M KCl, NaCl, RbCl, and CsCl solution, decline in sequence, and the rate in KCl solution is greater than that without any salt added deliberately. Thus, potassium ions accelerate the degradation rate, but sodium, rubidium, and cesium ions slow the rate. The order of the rates is R(K)>R>R(Na)>R(Rb)>R(Cs), which is consistent with that of the voltammetric oxidation currents of Prussian blue in the corresponding cation solutions. This phenomenon is attributed to the molecular recognition of the microstructure in Prussian blue nanoparticles to the alkali cations. The reaction mechanism of the photo-Fenton process has also been explored.

  16. Selectivity between Oxygen and Chlorine Evolution in the Chlor-Alkali and Chlorate Processes. (United States)

    Karlsson, Rasmus K B; Cornell, Ann


    Chlorine gas and sodium chlorate are two base chemicals produced through electrolysis of sodium chloride brine which find uses in many areas of industrial chemistry. Although the industrial production of these chemicals started over 100 years ago, there are still factors that limit the energy efficiencies of the processes. This review focuses on the unwanted production of oxygen gas, which decreases the charge yield by up to 5%. Understanding the factors that control the rate of oxygen production requires understanding of both chemical reactions occurring in the electrolyte, as well as surface reactions occurring on the anodes. The dominant anode material used in chlorate and chlor-alkali production is the dimensionally stable anode (DSA), Ti coated by a mixed oxide of RuO2 and TiO2. Although the selectivity for chlorine evolution on DSA is high, the fundamental reasons for this high selectivity are just now becoming elucidated. This review summarizes the research, since the early 1900s until today, concerning the selectivity between chlorine and oxygen evolution in chlorate and chlor-alkali production. It covers experimental as well as theoretical studies and highlights the relationships between process conditions, electrolyte composition, the material properties of the anode, and the selectivity for oxygen formation.

  17. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Maki; Zhang, Zilian; Tokuyasu, Ken [National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, NARO, Shinsei, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0081 (Japan)


    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 C, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production. (author)

  18. Optimizing the Dyeing Process of Alkali-Treated Polyester Fabric with Dolu Natural Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Shahin


    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to optimize the process of dyeing polyester (PET fabric with natural dyes. Polyester has been first treated with NaOH solution in order to study its impact on the dyeability to the natural dye. The required and used colour component was extracted from a natural plant, namely: Rhubarb; Rheum officinale. The chemical structure of the used colouring matter is observed to have all the characteristics of a typical disperse dye. The colour strength of PET fabric was noticed to increase as a result of alkali treatment which may be attributed to the alteration in the hydrophobicity of polyester fibre. The most effective parameters that may affect the dye uptake of the natural dye on alkali-treated PET fabric and the final dyeing properties including dye bath pH, dyeing temperature and time were studied in details. The behaviour of the selected and used natural dye was found to be similar to that of disperse dyes. Addition of salicylic acid to the dye bath accelerated the rate of dyeing and subsequently higher colour strength was attained. Non- ionic dispersing agent was also used to ensure better dyeing uniformity and higher dispersion stability of dye liquor.

  19. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition. (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T


    This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two architecturally (and evolutionarily) distinct cognitive systems underlying these dual-process accounts. However, it emerges that (a) there are multiple kinds of implicit processes described by different theorists and (b) not all of the proposed attributes of the two kinds of processing can be sensibly mapped on to two systems as currently conceived. It is suggested that while some dual-process theories are concerned with parallel competing processes involving explicit and implicit knowledge systems, others are concerned with the influence of preconscious processes that contextualize and shape deliberative reasoning and decision-making.

  20. Integrated process and dual-function catalyst for olefin epoxidation (United States)

    Zhou, Bing; Rueter, Michael


    The invention discloses a dual-functional catalyst composition and an integrated process for production of olefin epoxides including propylene oxide by catalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen with olefin feeds such as propylene. The epoxides and hydrogen peroxide are preferably produced simultaneously in situ. The dual-functional catalyst comprises noble metal crystallites with dimensions on the nanometer scale (on the order of olefin oxides such as propylene oxide without formation of undesired co-products.

  1. Conflict Monitoring in Dual Process Theories of Thinking (United States)

    De Neys, Wim; Glumicic, Tamara


    Popular dual process theories have characterized human thinking as an interplay between an intuitive-heuristic and demanding-analytic reasoning process. Although monitoring the output of the two systems for conflict is crucial to avoid decision making errors there are some widely different views on the efficiency of the process. Kahneman…

  2. Reasoning on the Autism Spectrum: A Dual Process Theory Account (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Lewton, Marcus; Ashwin, Chris


    Dual process theory proposes two distinct reasoning processes in humans, an intuitive style that is rapid and automatic and a deliberative style that is more effortful. However, no study to date has specifically examined these reasoning styles in relation to the autism spectrum. The present studies investigated deliberative and intuitive reasoning…

  3. Ethanol Production from High Solids Loading of Alkali-Pretreated Sugarcane Bagasse with an SSF Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueshu Gao


    Full Text Available A fed-batch process and high-temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process were investigated to obtain high sugar yield and ethanol concentration. Different amounts of alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse were added during the first 24 h. For the highest final dry matter (DM content of 25% (w/v, a maximal glucose and total sugar concentration of 79.53 g/L and 135.39 g/L, respectively, were achieved with 8.3 FPU/g substrate after 120 h of hydrolysis. Based on the hydrolysis experiment, two processes for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, were also compared using S. cerevisiae. The results indicated that ethanol concentration and yield in the SHF were higher, while ethanol productivity (gram per unit volume and over time was lower. For 25% substrate loading, the ethanol productivity and ethanol concentration could reach 0.38 g.L-1.h-1 and 36.25 g/L SSF in 96 h, respectively, while that of SHF could reach 0.32 g.L-1.h-1, with an ethanol concentration of 47.95 g/L in 152 h for SHF. When high-temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process was performed by using Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 587 at 42 °C, 42.21 g/L ethanol (with an ethanol productivity of 0.44 g.L-1.h-1 was produced with 25% dry matter content and 8.3 FPU cellulase/g substrate, which meant 16.4% more ethanol when compared with SSF of S. cerevisiae.

  4. Bioethanol Production from Paper Fibre Residue Using Diluted Alkali Hydrolysis and the Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathya Geetha


    Full Text Available The state of art for the bioethanol production from paper fibre residue using diluted alkali hydrolysis and fermentation processes was evaluated. Hydrolysis of paper fibre residue with diluted sodium hydroxide at various time period, temperature and concentration were investigated. The paper fibre residue was pre-steamed, impregnated with diluted NaOH (0 to 25% and subsequently hydrolyzed in a reactor at temperatures that ranged between 30 to 50 oC, for reaction time between 30 minutes to 150 minutes. The highest yield of monosaccharide (indicating the efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemi cellulose was found at a temperature of 35 oC for a reaction time of 90 minutes. Fermentability of hemicelluloses hydrolysate was tested using monosaccharide fermenting microorganism Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cereviacea. The fermentability of the hydrolysate decreased strongly for hydrolysate produced at temperature higher than 50 oC. The ethanol concentration of monosaccharide hydrolysate was found to be 34.06 g/L and the ethanol yield was 0.097 g/g.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jianfeng; Li Daojing; Wu Yirong


    Based on dual-frequencies dual-apertures spaceborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), a new SAR system with four receiving channels and two operation modes is presented in this paper. SAR imaging and Moving Target Indication (MTI) are studied in this system. High resolution imaging with wide swath is implemented by the Mode I, and MTI is completed by the Mode II. High azimuth resolution is achieved by the Displaced Phase Center (DPC) multibeam technique. And the Coherent Accumulation (CA) method, which combines dual channels data of different carrier frequency, is used to enhance the range resolution. For the data of different carrier frequency, the two aperture interferometric processing is executed to implement clutter cancellation, respectively. And the couple of clutter suppressed data are employed to implement Dual Carrier Frequency Conjugate Processing (DCFCP), then both slow and fast moving targets detection can be completed, followed by moving target imaging. The simulation results show the validity of the signal processing method of this new SAR system.

  6. Dual Transport Process for Targeted Delivery in Porous Media (United States)

    Deng, W.; Fan, J.


    The targeted delivery in porous media is a promising technology to encapsulate the solute (i.e., the cargo) in colloid-like microcapsules (i.e., the carriers), transport the microcapsules in the targeted location in porous media, and then release the solute. While extensive literatures and applications about the drug delivery in human and animal bodies exist, the targeted delivery using similar delivery carriers in subsurface porous media is not well understood. The dual transport process study is an explorative study for the targeted delivery in porous media. While the colloid transport is dominated by the advection process and the solute transport is dominated by the advection-dispersion, the dual transport process is the process with the first step of carrier transport, which is dominated by advection, and then after the release of cargo, the transport of cargo is dominated by advection-dispersion. By applying the random walk particle tracking (RWPT) approach, we investigate how the carriers transport in porous media and how the cargo release mechanisms affect the cargo distribution for the targeted delivery in various patterns of porous media. The RWPT numerical model will be verified against the experimental results of dual transport process in packed-disk 2D micromodels. The understanding of the mechanism of dual transport process is crucial to achieve the potential applications of targeted delivery in improved oil and gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, environmental remediation, and soil biomediation.

  7. Direct social perception and dual process theories of mindreading. (United States)

    Herschbach, Mitchell


    The direct social perception (DSP) thesis claims that we can directly perceive some mental states of other people. The direct perception of mental states has been formulated phenomenologically and psychologically, and typically restricted to the mental state types of intentions and emotions. I will compare DSP to another account of mindreading: dual process accounts that posit a fast, automatic "Type 1" form of mindreading and a slow, effortful "Type 2" form. I will here analyze whether dual process accounts' Type 1 mindreading serves as a rival to DSP or whether some Type 1 mindreading can be perceptual. I will focus on Apperly and Butterfill's dual process account of mindreading epistemic states such as perception, knowledge, and belief. This account posits a minimal form of Type 1 mindreading of belief-like states called registrations. I will argue that general dual process theories fit well with a modular view of perception that is considered a kind of Type 1 process. I will show that this modular view of perception challenges and has significant advantages over DSP's phenomenological and psychological theses. Finally, I will argue that if such a modular view of perception is accepted, there is significant reason for thinking Type 1 mindreading of belief-like states is perceptual in nature. This would mean extending the scope of DSP to at least one type of epistemic state.

  8. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurised combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    In this project the continuous alkali measurement method plasma excited alkali resonance line spectroscopy (PEARLS) was developed, tested and demonstrated in pressurised combustion facilities. The PEARLS method has been developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT). During 1994-1996 the PEARLS method was developed from the laboratory level to an industrial prototype. The alkali measuring instrument has been tested and used for regular measurements in four different pressurised combustion installations ranging up to industrial pilot scale. The installations are: (1) a pressurised entrained flow reactor (PEFR) at VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae, Finland (2) a pressurised fluidised bed combustion facility, called FRED, at DMT in Essen, Germany. (3) a 10 MW pressurised circulating fluidised bed combustion pilot plant at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Karhula, Finland (4) PFBC Research Facility at ABB Carbon in Finspaang, Sweden

  9. Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning: The Test of Development (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre


    Dual-process theories have become increasingly influential in the psychology of reasoning. Though the distinction they introduced between intuitive and reflective thinking should have strong developmental implications, the developmental approach has rarely been used to refine or test these theories. In this article, I review several contemporary…

  10. Direct Evidence for a Dual Process Model of Deductive Inference (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brunet, Marie-Laurence; Thompson, Valerie; Brisson, Janie


    In 2 experiments, we tested a strong version of a dual process theory of conditional inference (cf. Verschueren et al., 2005a, 2005b) that assumes that most reasoners have 2 strategies available, the choice of which is determined by situational variables, cognitive capacity, and metacognitive control. The statistical strategy evaluates inferences…

  11. Reasoning on the Autism Spectrum: A Dual Process Theory Account. (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Lewton, Marcus; Ashwin, Chris


    Dual process theory proposes two distinct reasoning processes in humans, an intuitive style that is rapid and automatic and a deliberative style that is more effortful. However, no study to date has specifically examined these reasoning styles in relation to the autism spectrum. The present studies investigated deliberative and intuitive reasoning profiles in: (1) a non-clinical sample from the general population with varying degrees of autism traits (n = 95), and (2) males diagnosed with ASD (n = 17) versus comparisons (n = 18). Taken together, the results suggest reasoning on the autism spectrum is compatible with the processes proposed by Dual Process Theory and that higher autism traits and ASD are characterised by a consistent bias towards deliberative reasoning (and potentially away from intuition).

  12. Commercial Test of Flexible Dual-Riser Catalytic Cracking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Haitao; Wang Longyan; Wang Guoliang; Zhang Lixin; Wei Jialu; Chen Zhenghong; Teng Tiancan; Sun Zhonghang


    The technical features and commercial test results of flexible dual-riser fluidized catalytic cracking(FDFCC) process are presented for refiners to choose an efficient process to upgrade FCC naphtha and boostpropylene production in a RFCC unit. The commercial test results indicate that the olefin content of catalyti-25% and RON increased by 0.5-2 units in a RFCC unit. In addition, propylene yield and the production ratioof diesel to gasoline can also be remarkably enhanced in the RFCC unit.

  13. Nonword reading: comparing dual-route cascaded and connectionist dual-process models with human data. (United States)

    Pritchard, Stephen C; Coltheart, Max; Palethorpe, Sallyanne; Castles, Anne


    Two prominent dual-route computational models of reading aloud are the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model, and the connectionist dual-process plus (CDP+) model. While sharing similarly designed lexical routes, the two models differ greatly in their respective nonlexical route architecture, such that they often differ on nonword pronunciation. Neither model has been appropriately tested for nonword reading pronunciation accuracy to date. We argue that empirical data on the nonword reading pronunciation of people is the ideal benchmark for testing. Data were gathered from 45 Australian-English-speaking psychology undergraduates reading aloud 412 nonwords. To provide contrast between the models, the nonwords were chosen specifically because DRC and CDP+ disagree on their pronunciation. Both models failed to accurately match the experiment data, and both have deficiencies in nonword reading performance. However, the CDP+ model performed significantly worse than the DRC model. CDP++, the recent successor to CDP+, had improved performance over CDP+, but was also significantly worse than DRC. In addition to highlighting performance shortcomings in each model, the variety of nonword responses given by participants points to a need for models that can account for this variety.

  14. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2 (United States)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.


    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  15. Structural and Magnetic Diversity in Alkali-Metal Manganate Chemistry: Evaluating Donor and Alkali-Metal Effects in Co-complexation Processes. (United States)

    Uzelac, Marina; Borilovic, Ivana; Amores, Marco; Cadenbach, Thomas; Kennedy, Alan R; Aromí, Guillem; Hevia, Eva


    By exploring co-complexation reactions between the manganese alkyl Mn(CH2SiMe3)2 and the heavier alkali-metal alkyls M(CH2SiMe3) (M=Na, K) in a benzene/hexane solvent mixture and in some cases adding Lewis donors (bidentate TMEDA, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2] octane (DABCO)) has produced a new family of alkali-metal tris(alkyl) manganates. The influences that the alkali metal and the donor solvent impose on the structures and magnetic properties of these ates have been assessed by a combination of X-ray, SQUID magnetization measurements, and EPR spectroscopy. These studies uncover a diverse structural chemistry ranging from discrete monomers [(TMEDA)2 MMn(CH2SiMe3)3] (M=Na, 3; M=K, 4) to dimers [{KMn(CH2SiMe3)3 ⋅C6 H6}2] (2) and [{NaMn(CH2SiMe3)3}2 (dioxane)7] (5); and to more complex supramolecular networks [{NaMn(CH2SiMe3)3}∞] (1) and [{Na2Mn2 (CH2SiMe3)6 (DABCO)2}∞] (7)). Interestingly, the identity of the alkali metal exerts a significant effect in the reactions of 1 and 2 with 1,4-dioxane, as 1 produces coordination adduct 5, while 2 forms heteroleptic [{(dioxane)6K2Mn2 (CH2SiMe3)4(O(CH2)2OCH=CH2)2}∞] (6) containing two alkoxide-vinyl anions resulting from α-metalation and ring opening of dioxane. Compounds 6 and 7, containing two spin carriers, exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling of their S=5/2 moments with varying intensity depending on the nature of the exchange pathways.

  16. Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.


    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinc


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  18. Biodiesel synthesis combining pre-esterification with alkali catalyzed process from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Ling; Yan, Yunjun [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)


    A two-step technique combining pre-esterification catalyzed by cation exchange resin with transesterification catalyzed by base alkali was developed to produce biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RDOD). The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the feedstock were converted to methyl esters in the pre-esterification step using a column reactor packed with cation exchange resin. The acid value of oil was reduced from the initial 97.60 mg-KOH g{sup -1} oil to 1.12 mg-KOH g{sup -1} oil under the conditions of cation exchange resin D002 catalyst packed dosage 18 wt.% (based on oil weight), oil to methanol molar ratio 1:9, reaction temperature 60 C, and reaction time 4 h. The biodiesel yield by transesterification was 97.4% in 1.5 h using 0.8 wt.% KOH as catalyst and a molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:4 at 60 C. The properties of RDOD biodiesel production in a packed column reactor followed by KOH catalyzed transesterification were measured up the standards of EN14214 and ASTM6751-03. (author)

  19. When parsimony is not enough: considering dual processes and dual levels of influence in sexual decision making. (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon


    The literature on sexual decision making that has been used to understand behaviors relevant to HIV and STI risk has relied primarily on cognitive antecedents of behavior. In contrast, several prominent models of decision making outside of the sexual behavior literature rely on dual process models, in which both affective and cognitive processing are considered as important precursors to behavior. Moreover, much of the literature on sexual behavior utilizes individual-level traits and characteristics to predict aggregated sexual behavior, despite decision making itself being a situational or event-level process. This article proposes a framework for understanding sexual decision making as the result of dual processes (affective and cognitive) operating at dual level of influence (individual and situational). Finally, this article ends with a discussion of the conceptual and methodological benefits and challenges to its use and future directions for research.

  20. Tuning indium tin oxide work function with solution-processed alkali carbonate interfacial layers for high-efficiency inverted organic photovoltaic cells. (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Wang, Yixin; Huang, Xun; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei


    Selective electron collection by an interfacial layer modified indium tin oxide cathode is critically important for achieving high-efficiency inverted structure organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Here, we demonstrate that solution-processed alkali carbonates, such as Li2CO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3, Rb2CO3, Cs2CO3, are good interfacial layer materials. Both carbonate concentration and annealing conditions can affect cathode work function and surface roughness. By proper optimization, different alkali carbonates can be almost equally effective as the cathode interfacial layer. Furthermore, good device performance can be achieved at a low annealing temperature (cells on plastic substrates. This work indicates that alkali carbonates, not just cesium carbonate, are valid choices as the cathode interlayer in inverted OPV devices.

  1. Development and testing of on-line analytical instrumentation for alkali and heavy metal release in pressurised conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V.; Oikari, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    The purpose of the project is to demonstrate in industrial conditions and further develop the continuous alkali measurement method plasma excited alkali resonance line spectroscopy (PEARLS) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT). The demonstration takes place in joint measuring campaigns, where two other continuous alkali measurement methods, ELIF and surface ionisation, are being simultaneously demonstrated. A modification of PEARLS will also be developed for the continuous measurement of heavy metal concentrations. A market study of continuous measuring techniques for alkali and heavy metals is further part of the project. The method will be demonstrated in two pressurised fluidised bed combustion facilities. One of these is the 10 MW PCFB of Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Karhula. The second one is yet to be decided. The first measuring campaign is scheduled for the spring of 1997 in Karhula. In 1996 the group at TUT participated in the performance of a market study regarding continuous measuring techniques for alkali and heavy metal concentrations. A draft report was submitted to and approved by the EC. Development work on PEARLS in 1996 has centered around the construction of a calibration device for alkali measurements. The device can be used by all three measuring techniques in the project to check readings against a known alkali concentration at controlled and known conditions. In 1996 PEARLS was applied for alkali measurement at several pressurised combustion installations of laboratory and industrial pilot scale

  2. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  3. Infants' understanding of everyday social interactions: a dual process account. (United States)

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Melinder, Annika


    Six- and 12-month-old infant's eye movements were recorded as they observed feeding actions being performed in a rational or non-rational manner. Twelve-month-olds fixated the goal of these actions before the food arrived (anticipation); the latency of these gaze shifts being dependent (r=.69) on infants life experience being feed. In addition, 6- and 12-month-olds dilated their pupil during observation of non-rational feeding actions. This effect could not be attributed to light differences or differences in familiarity, but was interpreted to reflect sympathetic-like activity and arousal caused by a violation of infant's expectations about rationality. We argue that evaluation of rationality requires less experience than anticipations of action goals, suggesting a dual process account of preverbal infants' everyday action understanding.

  4. Dual Control with Active Learning using Gaussian Process Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Alpcan, Tansu


    In many real world problems, control decisions have to be made with limited information. The controller may have no a priori (or even posteriori) data on the nonlinear system, except from a limited number of points that are obtained over time. This is either due to high cost of observation or the highly non-stationary nature of the system. The resulting conflict between information collection (identification, exploration) and control (optimization, exploitation) necessitates an active learning approach for iteratively selecting the control actions which concurrently provide the data points for system identification. This paper presents a dual control approach where the information acquired at each control step is quantified using the entropy measure from information theory and serves as the training input to a state-of-the-art Gaussian process regression (Bayesian learning) method. The explicit quantification of the information obtained from each data point allows for iterative optimization of both identifica...

  5. Effect of Na3PO4 on the Hydration Process of Alkali-Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kalina


    Full Text Available In recent years, the utilization of different non-traditional cements and composites has been increasing. Alkali-activated cementitious materials, especially those based on the alkali activation of blast furnace slag, have considerable potential for utilization in the building industry. However, alkali-slag cements exhibit very rapid setting times, which are too short in some circumstances, and these materials cannot be used for some applications. Therefore, it is necessary to find a suitable retarding admixture. It was shown that the sodium phosphate additive has a strong effect on the heat evolution during alkali activation and effectively retards the hydration reaction of alkali-activated blast furnace slag. The aim of the work is the suggestion of a reaction mechanism of retardation mainly based on Raman and X‑ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  6. A dual-route approach to orthographic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGrainger


    Full Text Available In the present theoretical note we examine how different learning constraints, thought to be involved in optimizing the mapping of print to meaning during reading acquisition, might shape the nature of the orthographic code involved in skilled reading. On the one hand, optimization is hypothesized to involve selecting combinations of letters that are the most informative with respect to word identity (diagnosticity constraint, and on the other hand to involve the detection of letter combinations that correspond to pre-existing sublexical phonological and morphological representations (chunking constraint. These two constraints give rise to two different kinds of prelexical orthographic code, a coarse-grained and a fine-grained code, associated with the two routes of a dual-route architecture. Processing along the coarse-grained route optimizes fast access to semantics by using minimal subsets of letters that maximize information with respect to word identity, while coding for approximate within-word letter position independently of letter contiguity. Processing along the fined-grained route, on the other hand, is sensitive to the precise ordering of letters, as well as to position with respect to word beginnings and endings. This enables the chunking of frequently co-occurring contiguous letter combinations that form relevant units for morpho-orthographic processing (prefixes and suffixes and for the sublexical translation of print to sound (multi-letter graphemes.

  7. Improvements on water washing and alkali washing process for chlorobenzene production%氯化苯生产装置水碱洗工艺改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    对氯化苯生产装置水碱洗工艺进行改造:将原一级水洗改为二级水洗,使水洗过程最大幅度地萃取出氯化液中的氯化氢、FeCl 3,减少碱洗过程耗碱量;在每一洗涤泵出口增加管道静态混合器,加强水碱洗混合分离效果;水碱洗废水循环利用,回收水洗废酸水中的FeCl3作为氯化反应催化剂,减少装置运行成本。%Water washing and alkali washing process for chlorobenzene production was improved .The original one-step water washing process was changed into a two-step process in order to extract the hydro-gen chloride and ferric trichloride to the greatest extent from chlorination liquor and in order to reduce al-kali consumption during alkali washing .Pipe static mixers were installed at the outlets of every washing pump to strengthen the mixing and separating effects during water washing and alkali washing .The waste water from water washing and alkali washing was used repeatedly , and ferric trichloride contained in waste acidic water formed during water washing was recovered and used as catalyst for chlorination to re -duce operation cost.

  8. Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E.; Tornos, J.


    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.

  9. 高温低碱工艺的探讨%Discussion on high temperature and low alkali process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    就活性染料在常规染棉织物工艺中纯碱用量过多的的问题,通过实验分析得出:高温低碱活性染料所需纯碱用量较少,仅为传统活性染料染色时纯碱用量的10-15%,有利于提高染色一次成功率和染色后的皂洗,有效降低了染色用水和污水处理量;提高染色织物的得色量,缩短了染色时间,提高了染色效率。%On the reactive dyes in the conventional dyeing process of cotton fabric in soda ash content of many problems, through experimental analysis shows that high temperature low alkali reactive dye required less quantity of soda ash, only for the traditional dyeing with reactive dyes of soda consumption 10-15%, is conducive to improve the dyeing after a successful rate and dyeing soaping, effectively reducing the staining of water and sewage treatment capacity;increase the amount of dye dyed fabrics, shorten the dyeing time, improves the efficiency of dyeing process.

  10. Spatially distributed fiber sensor with dual processed outputs (United States)

    Xu, X.; Spillman, William B., Jr.; Claus, Richard O.; Meissner, K. E.; Chen, K.


    Given the rapid aging of the world"s population, improvements in technology for automation of patient care and documentation are badly needed. We have previously demonstrated a 'smart bed' that can non-intrusively monitor a patient in bed and determine a patient's respiration, heart rate and movement without intrusive or restrictive medical measurements. This is an application of spatially distributed integrating fiber optic sensors. The basic concept is that any patient movement that also moves an optical fiber within a specified area will produce a change in the optical signal. Two modal modulation approaches were considered, a statistical mode (STM) sensor and a high order mode excitation (HOME) sensor. The present design includes an STM sensor combined with a HOME sensor, using both modal modulation approaches. A special lens system allows only the high order modes of the optical fiber to be excited and coupled into the sensor. For handling output from the dual STM-HOME sensor, computer processing methods are discussed that offer comprehensive perturbation analysis for more reliable patient monitoring.

  11. Concepts, Perception and the Dual Process Theories of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Frixione


    Full Text Available In this article we argue that the problem of the relationships between concepts and perception in cognitive science is blurred by the fact that the very notion of concept is rather confused. Since it is not always clear exactly what concepts are, it is not easy to say, for example, whether and in what measure concept possession involves entertaining and manipulating perceptual representations, whether concepts are entirely different from perceptual representations, and so on. As a paradigmatic example of this state of affairs, we will start by taking into consideration the distinction between conceptual and nonconceptual content. The analysis of such a distinction will lead us to the conclusion that concept is a heterogeneous notion. Then we shall take into account the so called dual process theories of mind; this approach also points to concepts being a heterogeneous phenomenon: different aspects of conceptual competence are likely to be ascribed to different types of systems. We conclude that without a clear specification of what concepts are, the problem of the relationships between concepts and perception is somewhat ill-posed.

  12. Synthesis of crystalline perovskite-structured SrTiO3 nanoparticles using an alkali hydrothermal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.K.N. Din; T.H.T. Aziz; M.M. Salleh; A.A. Umar


    We report an experimental route for synthesizing perovskite-structured strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanocubes using an alkali hydrothermal process at low temperatures without further heating. Furthermore, we studied the influence of heating time (at 180°C) on the crystallinity, morphology, and perovskite phase formation of SrTiO3. The SrTiO3 powder, which is formed via nanocube agglomeration, transforms into cubic particles with a particle size of 120–150 nm after 6 h of hydrothermal sintering. The crystallinity and percentage of the perovskite phase in the product increased with heating time. The cubic particles contained 31.24at% anatase TiO2 that originated from the precursor. By varying the weight ratio of anatase TiO2 used to react with the strontium salt precursor, we reduced the anatase-TiO2 content to 18.8at%. However, the average particle size increased when the anatase-TiO2 content decreased.

  13. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard


    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  14. Optimizing the Dyeing Process of Alkali-Treated Polyester Fabric with Dolu Natural Dye


    M. F. Shahin; Ahmed, R. M.


    An attempt has been made to optimize the process of dyeing polyester (PET) fabric with natural dyes. Polyester has been first treated with NaOH solution in order to study its impact on the dyeability to the natural dye. The required and used colour component was extracted from a natural plant, namely: Rhubarb; Rheum officinale. The chemical structure of the used colouring matter is observed to have all the characteristics of a typical disperse dye. The colour strength of PE...

  15. Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Waste Soya bean Cooking Oil by Alkali Trans-esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya Dipak Deshpande*,


    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, clean-burning, non-toxic, renewable, high-quality, and cheap diesel fuel made primarily from waste vegetable oil which can be used without any alterations in engine design. The paper is concerned with the extraction and quality evaluation of the biodiesel fuels synthesized from waste soya bean cooking oil. Waste soya bean cooking oil had high amount of free fatty acid. Thus, single step transesterification process with the aid of homogeneous catalyst as 1% potassium hydroxide were implemented in this experiment. Methanol was chosen as alcohol solvent. In the transesterification process, the triglycerides in waste cooking oil was reacted with a methanol to form esters and glycerol as by product.The biodiesel were extracted for different oil to methanol ratio as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. The highest biodiesel yield of 76% was obtained at 1:3 volumetric ratio for 60 ºC reaction temperature and 1250 rpm stirring speed. Results show that the optimal methyl ester yield of 90% occurred at methanol: oil volume ratio of 3:1. The product met the ASTM fuel standards for relative density, acid value, relative density, calorific value, flash point and kinematic viscosity.

  16. Application of the dual reciprocity boundary element method for numerical modelling of solidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak


    Full Text Available The dual reciprocity boundary element method is applied for numerical modelling of solidification process. This variant of the BEM is connected with the transformation of the domain integral to the boundary integrals. In the paper the details of the dual reciprocity boundary element method are presented and the usefulness of this approach to solidification process modelling is demonstrated. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  17. Coherent multiscale image processing using dual-tree quaternion wavelets. (United States)

    Chan, Wai Lam; Choi, Hyeokho; Baraniuk, Richard G


    The dual-tree quaternion wavelet transform (QWT) is a new multiscale analysis tool for geometric image features. The QWT is a near shift-invariant tight frame representation whose coefficients sport a magnitude and three phases: two phases encode local image shifts while the third contains image texture information. The QWT is based on an alternative theory for the 2-D Hilbert transform and can be computed using a dual-tree filter bank with linear computational complexity. To demonstrate the properties of the QWT's coherent magnitude/phase representation, we develop an efficient and accurate procedure for estimating the local geometrical structure of an image. We also develop a new multiscale algorithm for estimating the disparity between a pair of images that is promising for image registration and flow estimation applications. The algorithm features multiscale phase unwrapping, linear complexity, and sub-pixel estimation accuracy.

  18. Expanded Industrial Experiments of Free-alkali Recovery from Sodium Tungstate Solution by the Membrane Electrolysis Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉岭; 古海云; 檀柏梅; 桑建新


    The expanded industrial experiments were conducted with practical industrial liquor to separate free alkali from sodium tungstate solution by electrolysis with cation-exchange membrane. Experimental results show that on the condition that the temperature is 50-55 ℃ and the current:density is 1000 A/m2, the single electrolysis cell is operated stably and 80% free-alkali in mass fraction is separated from the anode feed liquor of sodium tungstate, with electric ef ficiency up to more than 88% and the unit energy consumption E lower than 1900 kWh/t; while three electrolysis cells in series are operated, under the condition that the temperature is 60-65 ℃ and the current density is 1000 A/m2, the elec tric efficiency can reach higher than 88% and the unit energy consumption E can be lower than 2250 kWh/t.

  19. Photoionization in alkali lasers. (United States)

    Knize, R J; Zhdanov, B V; Shaffer, M K


    We have calculated photoionization rates in alkali lasers. The photoionization of alkali atoms in the gain medium of alkali lasers can significantly degrade the laser performance by reducing the neutral alkali density and with it the gain. For a ten atmosphere Rb laser and a Cs exciplex laser, the photoionization induced alkali atom loss rates are greater than 10(5) sec(-1). These high loss rates will quickly deplete the neutral alkali density, reducing gain, and may require fast, possibly, supersonic flow rates to sufficiently replenish the neutral medium for CW operation.

  20. Milk-alkali syndrome (United States)

    ... this page: // Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  1. An analysis of clinical reasoning through a recent and comprehensive approach: the dual-process theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Pelaccia


    Full Text Available Context. Clinical reasoning plays a major role in the ability of doctors to make diagnoses and decisions. It is considered as the physician's most critical competence, and has been widely studied by physicians, educationalists, psychologists and sociologists. Since the 1970s, many theories about clinical reasoning in medicine have been put forward.Purpose. This paper aims at exploring a comprehensive approach: the “dual-process theory”, a model developed by cognitive psychologists over the last few years.Discussion. After 40 years of sometimes contradictory studies on clinical reasoning, the dual-process theory gives us many answers on how doctors think while making diagnoses and decisions. It highlights the importance of physicians’ intuition and the high level of interaction between analytical and non-analytical processes. However, it has not received much attention in the medical education literature. The implications of dual-process models of reasoning in terms of medical education will be discussed.

  2. Dual Systems Competence [Image Omitted] Procedural Processing: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach to Reasoning (United States)

    Ricco, Robert B.; Overton, Willis F.


    Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence [image omitted] Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory…

  3. Using Dual-Task Methodology to Dissociate Automatic from Nonautomatic Processes Involved in Artificial Grammar Learning (United States)

    Hendricks, Michelle A.; Conway, Christopher M.; Kellogg, Ronald T.


    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and…

  4. Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning: Contemporary Issues and Developmental Applications (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.


    In this paper, I discuss the current state of theorising about dual processes in adult performance on reasoning and decision making tasks, in which Type 1 intuitive processing is distinguished from Type 2 reflective thinking. I show that there are many types of theory some of which distinguish modes rather than types of thinking and that…

  5. Dual Weighted Markov Branching Processes%对偶加权Markov分支过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雨; 李扬荣


    研究对偶加权Markov分支过程的正则性、唯一性、单调性和Feller性, 得到了判断这些性质的充要以及充分或必要条件.%This paper focuses on discussing some basic properties of the dual weighted Markov branching processes which are by definition of a Siegmund's pre-dual of some weighted Markov branching processes. The regularity and uniqueness criteria, which are very easy to verify, are established. And the Feller property and monotonicity are obtained.

  6. Application of alternative alkali M-231P to airflow dyeing process%代用碱M-231P在气流染色工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    代用碱M-231P是由多种碱剂和缓冲剂组成的缓冲体系,介绍了其在活性染料固色中的应用性能.优化应用工艺为:预加纯碱0.8~2.0g/L,电解质用量较传统纯碱工艺增加8%,M-231P用量为纯碱的1/6~1/8.该工艺能达到传统碱固色工艺的得色量和色牢度要求,且节省水和时间.%Substitute alkali M-231P is a buffer system composed of several kinds of alkali and buffer agents.The fixation performance of substitute alkali in airflow dyeing with reactive dyes is introduced, and the process is optimized as follows: preadding 0.8 ~ 2.0 g/L soda, the amount of electrolyte increased by 8% compared with that of conventional alkali method, M231P dosage is 1/6 ~ 1/8 of soda.Color yield and color fastness of the dyeings with substitute alkali are similar to those with conventional process, but the former features low water consumption and shortened processing time.

  7. Electron emission yield and charging process of alkali-silicate glass submitted to an electron beam under the varying temperature condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M., E-mail: [ONERA - French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Tondu, T.; Inguimbert, V. [ONERA - French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Elsafi, B.; Fakhfakh, S. [LaMaCop, Faculte des Sciences de SFAX, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 1171, C.P 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Jbara, O., E-mail: [GRESPI/Materiaux Fonctionnels, UFR Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)


    The electron emission due to electron impact of alkali-silicate glasses is measured with a technique based on the use of a Kelvin probe (KP method) and a pulsed electron beam. The KP method, allows a clear discrimination between the external and internal effects of charging process. The effect of the incident charge fluence, incident charge fluency and the temperature on the yield curve is investigated. It was found that, at room temperature as well as at 80 Degree-Sign C, electron emission varies with charge fluence. The effects of the temperature on charging mechanisms and charge transport characteristics of alkali-silicate glasses where also studied using the measurement of displacement and leakage currents under continuous electron irradiation in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results clearly establish a correlation between charge carriers mobility and secondary electron emission yield. The enhancement of charge carrier mobility with increasing the temperature prevents the formation of a positive space charge (i.e. creation of positive ions and/or holes) that internally reduces the secondary electron (SE) emission. The higher is the temperature and the higher is the electron emission yield (EEY).

  8. Role of parietal regions in episodic memory retrieval: The dual attentional processes hypothesis


    Cabeza, Roberto


    Although parietal cortex is frequently activated during episodic memory retrieval, damage to this region does not markedly impair episodic memory. To account for these and other findings, a new dual attentional processes (DAP) hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) contributes top-down attentional processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) contributes bottom-up attentional processes captured by the retrieval output. C...

  9. Dual Processes in Decision Making and Developmental Neuroscience: A Fuzzy-Trace Model (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.


    From Piaget to the present, traditional and dual-process theories have predicted improvement in reasoning from childhood to adulthood, and improvement has been observed. However, developmental reversals--that reasoning biases emerge with development--have also been observed in a growing list of paradigms. We explain how fuzzy-trace theory predicts…

  10. Cross-training workers in dual resource constrained systems with heterogeneous processing times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J. A. C.; Gaalman, G. J. C.


    In this paper, we explore the effect of cross-training workers in Dual Resource Constrained (DRC) systems with machines having different mean processing times. By means of queuing and simulation analysis, we show that the detrimental effects of pooling (cross-training) previously found in single res

  11. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking (United States)

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.


    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  12. A Dual Process Motivational Model of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender Differences in Romantic Partner Preferences (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.


    We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…

  13. Dual phase high-temperature membranes for CO2 separation - performance assessment in post- and pre-combustion processes. (United States)

    Anantharaman, Rahul; Peters, Thijs; Xing, Wen; Fontaine, Marie-Laure; Bredesen, Rune


    Dual phase membranes are highly CO2-selective membranes with an operating temperature above 400 °C. The focus of this work is to quantify the potential of dual phase membranes in pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture processes. The process evaluations show that the dual phase membranes integrated with an NGCC power plant for CO2 capture are not competitive with the MEA process for post-combustion capture. However, dual phase membrane concepts outperform the reference Selexol technology for pre-combustion CO2 capture in an IGCC process. The two processes evaluated in this work, post-combustion NGCC and pre-combustion IGCC, represent extremes in CO2 partial pressure fed to the separation unit. Based on the evaluations it is expected that dual phase membranes could be competitive for post-combustion capture from a pulverized coal fired power plant (PCC) and pre-combustion capture from an Integrated Reforming Cycle (IRCC).

  14. Electroporation of DC-3F cells is a dual process. (United States)

    Wegner, Lars H; Frey, Wolfgang; Silve, Aude


    Treatment of biological material by pulsed electric fields is a versatile technique in biotechnology and biomedicine used, for example, in delivering DNA into cells (transfection), ablation of tumors, and food processing. Field exposure is associated with a membrane permeability increase usually ascribed to electroporation, i.e., formation of aqueous membrane pores. Knowledge of the underlying processes at the membrane level is predominantly built on theoretical considerations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. However, experimental data needed to monitor these processes with sufficient temporal resolution are scarce. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effect of millisecond pulsed electric fields on DC-3F cells. Cellular membrane permeabilization was monitored by a conductance increase. For the first time, to our knowledge, it could be established experimentally that electroporation consists of two clearly separate processes: a rapid membrane poration (transient electroporation) that occurs while the membrane is depolarized or hyperpolarized to voltages beyond so-called threshold potentials (here, +201 mV and -231 mV, respectively) and is reversible within ∼100 ms after the pulse, and a long-term, or persistent, permeabilization covering the whole voltage range. The latter prevailed after the pulse for at least 40 min, the postpulse time span tested experimentally. With mildly depolarizing or hyperpolarizing pulses just above threshold potentials, the two processes could be separated, since persistent (but not transient) permeabilization required repetitive pulse exposure. Conductance increased stepwise and gradually with depolarizing and hyperpolarizing pulses, respectively. Persistent permeabilization could also be elicited by single depolarizing/hyperpolarizing pulses of very high field strength. Experimental measurements of propidium iodide uptake provided evidence of a real membrane phenomenon, rather than a mere

  15. Modification of Banding in Dual-Phase Steels via Thermal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Thomas, L. S.; Bos, C.


    The potential to utilize controlled thermal processing to minimize banding in a DP780 steel with 2 wt pct Mn was evaluated on samples processed on a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical processing simulator. All processing histories were selected to result in final dual-phase steel microstructures...... simulating microstructures achievable during annealing of initially cold rolled sheet. Strip samples were processed to evaluate the effects of heating rate, annealing time, annealing temperature, and cooling rate. The degree of banding in the final microstructures was evaluated with standard light optical...

  16. 双碱配合提取啤酒厂剩余污泥蛋白质的研究%Research on Extracting Protein with Dual-alkali from Brewery Excess Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽丽; 祁小丹; 周迟骏


    [Objective] The paper aimed to improve the extraction rate of protein from brewery excess sludge. [ Method] Hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time,NaOH or Ca(OH)2 dosing ratio were selected as influence factors respectively,and the extraction rate of protein as evaluation value for the orthogonal experiment. Dual-alkali hydrolyzing method was used to optimize the sludge hydrolysis technology conditions based on these factors. [Result] The optimum conditions were as follows:NaOH dosing ratio(ratio of NaOH to the total dry sludge mass) 8% ,Ca(OH)2 dosing ratio 15% ,hydrolysis temperature 80 ℃ ,hydrolysis time 7 h. Under these conditions,pH value of the reaction system was 13 and extraction rate of protein could reach 60.03%. [Conclusion] The research provided a scientific basis for resource utilization of brewery excess sludge.%[目的]提高啤酒厂剩余污泥中蛋白质的提取率.[方法]分别选取水解温度、水解时间、NaOH或Ca(OH)2投加率为影响因素,以蛋白质提取率为评价指标,进行正交试验,并以此为依据采用双碱法优化污泥水解的工艺条件.[结果]双碱配合水解污泥提取蛋白质的最佳条件为NaOH投加率(占干污泥的质量分数)8%,Ca(OH)2投加率15%,水解温度80℃,水解时间7h,此时反应体系pH为13.在最优条件下,蛋白质提取率可达60.03%.[结论]该研究可为啤酒厂污泥的资源化利用提供科学依据.

  17. Polyester fabric alkali peeling and dyeing with disperse dyes in one-bath process%涤纶织物分散染料减染一浴法染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    传统的涤纶织物碱减量和染色都是在两浴条件下进行,不仅浪费能源,而且工艺繁琐。为此,选用耐碱性分散染料对涤纶织物按照3种染色工艺流程进行碱减量和染色一浴法试验,探讨了加入促进剂对减量效果的影响。结果表明:工艺流程2适合碱减量和染色一步法,染色织物的牢度在4级以上,重现性达到4~5级;染色过程中加入促进剂可提高减量效果,减少了烧碱的使用,实现了节能环保。%The traditional process of alkali peeling and dyeing was carried out in two bath process, which is not only waste of energy but also complicated. According to three kinds of dyeing processes, polyester fabric alkali peeling and dyeing with alkaline stable disperse dye were tested in one-bath process, and the influence on alkali peeling through adding accelerator was discussed. The result shows that process 2 is suitable for alkali peeling and dyeing, the color fastness of the dyed fabrics reaches 4 scale or above, reproducibility reaches 4~5 scale. The effect of alkali peeling can be improved by adding accelerator, the use of caustic soda is reduced and realize eco-environmental.

  18. Immediate Survival Focus: Synthesizing Life History Theory and Dual Process Models to Explain Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson


    Full Text Available Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  19. A new effective process for production of curdlan oligosaccharides based on alkali-neutralization treatment and acid hydrolysis of curdlan particles in water suspension. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zong, Yu; Li, Wei-Jiang


    Biologically active β-1,3-oligosaccharides with rapidly growing biomedical applications are produced from hydrolysis of curdlan polysaccharide. The water-insoluble curdlan impedes its hydrolysis efficiency which is enhanced by our newly developed alkali-neutralization treatment process to increase the stability of curdlan suspension to more than 20 days, while the untreated control settled within 5 min. A putative double-layer structure model comprising of a compact core and a hydrated outer layer was proposed to describe the treated curdlan particles based on sedimentation and scanning electron microscopy observation. This model was verified by single- and two-step acid hydrolysis, indicative of the reduced susceptibility to hydrolysis when close to the compact core. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography analyses, and effective HPLC procedure led to the development of improved process to produce purified individual β-1,3-oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization from 2 to 10 and potential for biomedical applications from curdlan hydrolyzate. Our new curdlan oligosaccharide production process offers an even better alternative to the previously published processes.

  20. DualBeam metrology: a new technique for optimizing 0.13-um photo processes (United States)

    Berger, Steven D.; Desloge, Denis; Virgalla, Robert J.; Davis, Todd; Paxton, Ted A.; Witko, David


    A DualBeam Metrology system was investigated for the application of obtaining 3-dimensional (3D) characterization of a 130 nm ground rule KrF photolithography process. Integrated circuit devices are 3-dimensional in structure and, hence, should be best characterized using 3-dimensional techniques to ensure adherence to the design architecture and the desired process window for manufacturing. The need for 3D metrology is further required for the characterization and monitoring of critical layer processes and equipment performance. The metrology used in this investigation is a novel technique for critical feature cross sectioning. The process for DualBeam metrology uses a focused ion beam (FIB) for milling or cutting the cross section through the photoresist or process film. An integrated scanning electron microscope (SEM) provides high-resolution imaging of the features, and a flexible automated metrology package collects and analyzes the data. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique, critical dimension (CD) data and sidewall angle (SWA) measurements were captured from 130 nm lines and 150 nm contacts at 1:1 densities. The critical criteria for the characterization of the photolithography process window are CD control, depth of focus (DOF), exposure latitude, and feature sidewall angle or profile. Using the DualBeam technique, 2D and 3D data are captured on a single machine platform using a cut, look, and measure routine. A further benefit is the availability of high-resolution cross-sectional SEM images that can be used qualitatively to validate the quantitative data. The results presented here show the performance of this 130 nm ground rule process and the benefits of utilizing this efficient characterization technique.

  1. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings Through Dual-Cure Processes: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic (O/I coatings obtained through the exploitation of dual-cure processes, which involve a photo-induced polymerization followed by a thermal treatment: this latter allows the occurrence of sol-gel reactions of suitable alkoxy precursors already embedded in the UV-curable system. After a brief introduction on hybrid organic-inorganic coatings, the first part of the review is focused on the design and feasibility issues provided by the dual-cure method, emphasizing the possibility of tuning the structure of the final hybrid network on the basis of the composition of the starting liquid mixture. Then, some recent examples of hybrid organic-inorganic networks are thoroughly described, showing their potential advances and the application fields to which they can be addressed.

  2. Dual process theory and intermediate effect: are faculty and residents' performance on multiple-choice, licensing exam questions different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, T.; Durning, S.J.; Artino, A.R.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Holmboe, E.; Lipner, R.; Schuwirth, L.


    BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning is essential for the practice of medicine. Dual process theory conceptualizes reasoning as falling into two general categories: nonanalytic reasoning (pattern recognition) and analytic reasoning (active comparing and contrasting of alternatives). The debate continues r

  3. Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system (United States)

    Lu, Jue; Okeke, Benedict


    The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

  4. Development of an i-line attenuated phase shift process for dual inlay interconnect lithography (United States)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Ho, Benjamin C. P.; Geiszler, Vincent C.; Herrick, Matthew T.; King, Charles F.; Carter, Russell L.; Roman, Bernard J.; Litt, Lloyd C.; Smith, Brad; Strozewski, Kirk J.


    The transition from aluminum/oxide to copper/low-k dielectric interconnect technology involves a variety of fundamental changes in the back-end manufacturing process. The most attractive patterning strategy involves the use of a so-called dual inlay approach, which offers lower fabrication costs by the elimination of one inter-level dielectric (ILD) deposition and polish sequence per metal layer. In this paper, the lithographic challenges for dual inlay, including thin-film interference effect, resist bulk effect, and optical proximity effects are reviewed. The use of attenuated phase shift (aPSM) reticles for patterning vias and trenches was investigated, and shown to provide adequate process margin by optimizing the photoresist and exposure tool parameters. Our results indicate that using appropriately sized attenuated phase shift technique increases the photospeed considerably and simultaneously improves the common process window with sufficient sidelobe suppression margin. The cost of ownership tradeoffs between an attenuated PSM I-Line process and a DUV binary process are discussed.

  5. Optimization of CO2 Laser Cutting Process using Taguchi and Dual Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madić


    Full Text Available Selection of optimal cutting parameter settings for obtaining high cut quality in CO2 laser cutting process is of great importance. Among various analytical and experimental optimization methods, the application of Taguchi and response surface methodology is one of most commonly used for laser cutting process optimization. Although the concept of dual response surface methodology for process optimization has been used with success, till date, no experimental study has been reported in the field of laser cutting. In this paper an approach for optimization of CO2 laser cutting process using Taguchi and dual response surface methodology is presented. The goal was to determine the near optimal laser cutting parameter values in order to ensure robust condition for minimization of average surface roughness. To obtain experimental database for development of response surface models, Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. Three cutting parameters, the cutting speed (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 m/min, the laser power (0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 kW, and the assist gas pressure (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 bar, were used in the experiment. To obtain near optimal cutting parameters settings, multi-stage Monte Carlo simulation procedure was performed on the developed response surface models.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad T.KHASAWNEH; Shannon R.BOWLING; Byung Rae CHO


    This paper studies a production system where products are produced continuously and whose specification limits are specified for screening inspection.In this paper,we consider dual quality characteristics and different costs associated with each quality characteristic that falls below a lower specification limit or above an upper specification limit.Due to these different costs,the expected total profit will greatly depend on the process parameters,especially a process mean.This paper develops a Markovian.based model for determining the optimum process means with the consideration of dual quality characteristics in a single-stage system.The proposed model is then illustrated through a numerical example and sensitivity analysis is performed to validate the model.The results showed that the optimum process mean for both quality characteristics have a significant effect on the performance of tlle system.Since the literature survey shows that dealing with multi-quality characteristics is extremely limited,the proposed model,coupled with the Markovian approach,provides a unique contribution to this field.

  7. Reduction of implantation shadowing effect by dual-wavelength exposure photo process

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Yiming; Lee Sang Yun; Roche, William; Sturtevant, John


    As transistor engineering continues to well below 100 nm length devices, ion implantation process tolerances are making these formerly "non-critical" lithography levels more and more difficult. In order to minimize the channeling effect and to obtain a controllable profile of dopant, an angle implantation is often required. However, a shadow area of resist pattern is always accompanied with an angle implantation. This shadowing effect consumes silicon real estate, and reduces the line edge placement (LEP) tolerances. Therefore, methodologies to reduce the shadowing effect in angled implantation become a critical consideration not only for device engineering but also for photolithography. Based on the model analysis, simulation and experiments, this paper presents an effective novel process utilizing dual-wavelength exposure (DWE) to reduce the shadowing effect. The DWE process is realized by two consecutive exposures for an I-line resist with a DUV stepper/scanner and an I-line stepper. The process leverages ...

  8. A two-dimensional dual-modality tomography technique for a radioactive waste separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattle, Brian A. [Nexia Solutions Limited, Hinton House, Risley, Warrington WA3 6AS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; West, Robert M. [Nexia Solutions University Research Alliance, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)


    The monitoring of a waste separation process in the nuclear power industry is considered. Recent advances in gamma ray emission and electrical impedance tomography mean that it is now feasible to unite these two modalities into a novel dual-modality monitoring method. This paper considers a simple model problem for the identification of a boundary between two distinct waste streams in a semi-continuous rotation separator. The simplicity of the problem affords the opportunity to demonstrate the general feasibility of the approach whilst avoiding unnecessary complications.

  9. Behavioural investigations into uncertainty perception in service exchanges: Lessons from dual-processing theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie


    by experience and knowledge. Based on dual-processing theory, this paper proposes an analysis method for assessing both explicit and implicit uncertainty perception depending on the individual’s use of tacit or explicit knowledge. Analysing two industrial case studies of service relationships, this paper...... contributes to the literature in three major areas: First, showing the relative importance of the three uncertainty types in inter-organisational relationships complements the literature as existing approaches tend to focus on one uncertainty type such as environmental uncertainty. Second, the different...

  10. Beyond inhibition: a dual-process perspective to renew the exploration of binge drinking. (United States)

    Lannoy, Séverine; Billieux, Joël; Maurage, Pierre


    Binge drinking is a widespread alcohol-consumption pattern in youth and is linked to cognitive consequences, mostly for executive functions. However, other crucial factors remain less explored in binge drinking and notably the emotional-automatic processes. Dual-process model postulates that addictive disorders are not only due to impaired reflective system (involved in deliberate behaviors), but rather to an imbalance between under-activated reflective system and over-activated affective-automatic one (involved in impulsive behaviors). This proposal has been confirmed in alcohol-dependence, but has not been tested in binge drinking. The observation of comparable impairments in binge drinking and alcohol-dependence led to the "continuum hypothesis," suggesting similar deficits across different alcohol-related disorders. In this perspective, applying the dual-process model to binge drinking might renew the understanding of this continuum hypothesis. A three-axes research agenda will be proposed, exploring: (1) the affective-automatic system in binge drinking; (2) the systems' interactions and imbalance in binge drinking; (3) the evolution of this imbalance in the transition between binge drinking and alcohol-dependence.

  11. Beyond inhibition: A dual-process perspective to renew the exploration of binge drinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severine eLannoy


    Full Text Available Binge drinking is a widespread alcohol-consumption pattern in youth and is linked to cognitive consequences, mostly for executive functions. However, other crucial factors remain less explored in binge drinking and notably the emotional-automatic processes. Dual-process model postulates that addictive disorders are not only due to impaired reflective system (involved in deliberate behaviours, but rather to an imbalance between under-activated reflective system and over-activated affective-automatic one (involved in impulsive behaviours. This proposal has been confirmed in alcohol-dependence, but has not been tested in binge drinking. The observation of comparable impairments in binge-drinking and alcohol-dependence led to the continuum hypothesis, suggesting similar deficits across different alcohol-related disorders. In this perspective, applying the dual-process model to binge drinking might renew the understanding of this continuum hypothesis. A three-axes research agenda will be proposed, exploring: (1 the affective-automatic system in binge drinking; (2 the systems’ interactions and imbalance in binge drinking; (3 the evolution of this imbalance in the transition between binge drinking and alcohol-dependence.

  12. More evidence for a dual-process model of conditional reasoning. (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Forgues, Hugues Lortie; Brunet, Marie-Laurence


    Many studies have shown that the deductive inferences that people make have global properties that reflect the statistical information implicit in the premises. This suggests that such reasoning can be explained by a single, underlying probabilistic model. In contrast, the dual process model of conditional reasoning (Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle, 2005b) proposes that people can use either a logical, counterexample-based strategy or a probabilistic one. In two studies, we presented reasoners with sequences of affirmation-of-the-consequent inferences that differed with respect to the statistical properties of the premises, either explicitly or implicitly. As predicted by the dual-process model, an analysis of individual response patterns showed the presence of two distinct strategies, with use of the counterexample strategy being associated with higher levels of abstract-reasoning competence. Use of the counterexample strategy was facilitated by the explicit presentation of counterexample information. In a further study, we then examined explicitly probabilistic inferences. This study showed that although most reasoners made statistically appropriate inferences, the ability to make more-accurate inferences was associated with higher levels of abstract reasoning competence. These results show that deductive inferential reasoning cannot be explained by a single, unitary process and that any analysis of reasoning must consider individual differences in strategy use.

  13. Environmental influences on energy balance-related behaviors: A dual-process view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the impact of the 'obesogenic' environment have often used non-theoretical approaches. In this journal's debate and in other papers authors have argued the necessity of formulating conceptual models for differentiating the causal role of environmental influences on behavior. Discussion The present paper aims to contribute to the debate by presenting a dual-process view on the environment – behavior relationship. This view is conceptualized in the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention. In the framework, behavior is postulated to be the result of a simultaneous influence of conscious and unconscious processes. Environmental influences are hypothesized to influence behavior both indirectly and directly. The indirect causal mechanism reflects the mediating role of behavior-specific cognitions in the influence of the environment on behavior. A direct influence reflects the automatic, unconscious, influence of the environment on behavior. Specific personal and behavioral factors are postulated to moderate the causal path (i.e., inducing either the automatic or the cognitively mediated environment – behavior relation. In addition, the EnRG framework applies an energy balance-approach, stimulating the integrated study of determinants of diet and physical activity. Conclusion The application of a dual-process view may guide research towards causal mechanisms linking specific environmental features with energy balance-related behaviors in distinct populations. The present paper is hoped to contribute to the evolution of a paradigm that may help to disentangle the role of 'obesogenic' environmental factors.

  14. Precision measurements of cross-sections for inelastic processes in collisions of alkali metal ions with atoms of rare gases (United States)

    Lomsadze, R. A.; Gochitashvili, M. R.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.


    A multifaceted experimental study of collisions of Na+ and K+ ions in the energy range of 0.5-10 keV with He and Ar atoms is presented. Absolute cross-sections for charge-exchange, ionization, stripping and excitation processes were measured using a refined version of the transfer electric field method, angle- and energy-dependent collection of product ions, energy loss and optical spectroscopy methods. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are employed to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes.

  15. Role of parietal regions in episodic memory retrieval: the dual attentional processes hypothesis. (United States)

    Cabeza, Roberto


    Although parietal cortex is frequently activated during episodic memory retrieval, damage to this region does not markedly impair episodic memory. To account for these and other findings, a new dual attentional processes (DAP) hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) contributes top-down attentional processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) contributes bottom-up attentional processes captured by the retrieval output. Consistent with this hypothesis, DPC activity increases with retrieval effort whereas VPC activity increases with confidence in old and new responses. The DAP hypothesis can also account for the overlap of parietal activations across different cognitive domains and for opposing effects of parietal activity on encoding vs. retrieval. Finally, the DAP hypothesis explains why VPC lesions yield a memory neglect syndrome: a deficit in spontaneously reporting relevant memory details but not in accessing the same details when guided by specific questions.

  16. Estimation of torque transmitted by clutch during shifting process for dry dual clutch transmission (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; He, Lu; Yang, Yunyun; Wu, Chaochun; Li, Xueyan; Karl Hedrick, J.


    The key toward realizing no-impact gear shifting for dual clutch transmission (DCT) lies in the coordination control between the engine and dual clutches, as well as the accurate closed-loop control of torque transmitted by each clutch and the output torque of the engine. However, the implementation and control precision of closed-loop control are completely dependent on the effective measurement or estimation of the instant transmission torque of the clutch. This study analyzes the DCT shifting process, and builds a three-dimensional (3D) clutch model and mathematical model of a DCT vehicle powertrain system. The torque transmitted by a twin clutch during the upshifting process is estimated by applying the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. Then, the torque estimation algorithm is verified using a DCT prototype vehicle installed with a torque sensor on the drive half-shaft. The experimental results show that the designed UKF torque estimation algorithm can estimate the transmission torques of two clutches in real time; further, it can be directly used for DCT shift control and improving the shifting quality.

  17. Dual damascene BEOL processing using multilevel step and flash imprint lithography (United States)

    Chao, Brook H.; Palmieri, Frank; Jen, Wei-Lun; McMichael, D. Hale; Willson, C. Grant; Owens, Jordan; Berger, Rich; Sotoodeh, Ken; Wilks, Bruce; Pham, Joseph; Carpio, Ronald; LaBelle, Ed; Wetzel, Jeff


    Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL®) in conjunction with Sacrificial Imprint Materials (SIM) shows promise as a cost effective solution to patterning sub 45nm features and is capable of simultaneously patterning two levels of interconnect structures, which provides a high throughput and low cost BEOL process. This paper describes the integration of S-FIL into an industry standard Cu/low-k dual damascene process that is being practiced in the ATDF at Sematech in Austin. The pattern transferring reactive ion etching (RIE) process is the most critical step and was extensively explored in this study. In addition to successful process development, the results provide useful insight into the optimal design of multilevel templates which must take into account the characteristics of both the imaging material and the dielectric layer. The template used in this study incorporates both the via and trench levels of an M2 (Metal 2) test vehicle that incorporates via chains with varying via dimensions, Kelvin test structures, serpentines, etc. The smallest vias on the template are 120nm vias with an aspect ratio of 2.0 and the smallest dense lines are 125nm/175nm with an aspect ratio of 2.9. Two inter-level dielectrics (ILD), Coral® and Black Diamond® were studied. No trench etch stop was incorporated in the ILD film stack. A multi-step, in-situ etching scheme was developed that achieves faithful pattern transfer from the sacrificial imprint material (SIM) into the underlying low k ILD with surprisingly wide process latitude. This multi-step scheme includes the following etch steps: a residual layer open, a via etch, a trench descum, a trench etch, and an SIM removal ash. Among these steps, the trench etch was found to be the most challenging to develop and it holds the key to producing high aspect ratio dual damascene features. An etching chemistry based on two fluorocarbon gases, CF 4 and C 4F 8, was found to be very effective in delivering the desired etch profiles

  18. Precision measurements of cross sections of inelastic processes realized in collisions of alkali metal ions with atoms of rare gases

    CERN Document Server

    Lomsadze, R A; Mosulishvili, N O; Kezerashvili, R Ya


    This work presents a multifaceted experimental study of collisions of Na$^{+}$ and K$^{+}$ ions in the energy range 0.5 -- 10 keV with He and Ar atoms. Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization, stripping and excitation were measured using a refined version of the transfer electric field method, angle- and energy-dependent collection of product ions, energy loss, and optical spectroscopy. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams have been employed to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes.

  19. Changes of the surface structure of corn stalk in the cooking process with active oxygen and MgO-based solid alkali as a pretreatment of its biomass conversion. (United States)

    Pang, Chunsheng; Xie, Tujun; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Liu, Ying; Shi, Jianbin; Yang, Qiulin


    This study presents a novel, efficient and environmentally friendly process for the cooking of corn stalk that uses active oxygen (O2 and H2O2) and a recoverable solid alkali (MgO). The structural changes on the surface of corn stalk before and after cooking were characterized by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results showed that lignin and extractives were effectively removed, especially those on the surface of corn stalk. Additionally, the changes included becoming fibrillar, the exposure of cellulose and hemi-cellulose and the pitting corrosion on the surface, etc. The results also showed that the removal reaction is from outside to inside, but the main reaction is possibly on the surface. Furthermore, the results of active oxygen cooking with a solid alkali are compared with those of alkaline cooking in the paper.

  20. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process. (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan


    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiqing XIAO; Fenli ZHENG; Wenyi YAO


    Soil erosion at the hilly-gully region of the Loess Plateau has obvious vertical erosion zonation from watershed boundary to gully edge. Meanwhile, upslope runoff and sediment have a significant impact on the downslope erosion process. But due to the limits of research methods, there is not much data available to quantify the effects of upslope runoff and sediment on the downslope erosion process under different conditions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of upslope runoff and sediment on the downslope erosion process using a dual-box system with a 15° gradient consisting of a 2 m-long feeder box and a 5 m-long test box under different runoff rates and sediment concentrations in upslope runoff, rainfall intensities and soil surface conditions. The results showed that the sediment regime was detachment-transport dominant at steep hillslopes. The net sediment delivery S caused by upslope runoff was controlled by sediment concentration in upslope runoff, especially by interaction of the rainfall intensity, runoff rate, surface condition and dominant erosion process. The net sediment delivery S accounted for the total sediment delivery Sft at downslope 31.7% to 97.3% and 27.8 to 89.7% for both loose and compact surface treatments, respectively. Rainfall intensity, slope gradient, surface condition, and rill erosion development had important influences on the downslope erosion process.

  2. Process and system - A dual definition, revisited with consequences in metrology (United States)

    Ruhm, K. H.


    Lets assert that metrology life could be easier scientifically as well as technologically, if we, intentionally, would make an explicit distinction between two outstanding domains, namely the given, really existent domain of processes and the just virtually existent domain of systems, the latter of which is designed and used by the human mind. The abstract domain of models, by which we map the manifold reality of processes, is itself part of the domain of systems. Models support comprehension and communication, although they are normally extreme simplifications of properties and behaviour of a concrete reality. So, systems and signals represent processes and quantities, which are described by means of Signal and System Theory as well as by Stochastics and Statistics. The following presentation of this new, demanding and somehow irritating definition of the terms process and system as a dual pair is unusual indeed, but it opens the door widely to a better and more consistent discussion and understanding of manifold scientific tools in many areas. Metrology [4] is one of the important fields of concern due to many reasons: One group of the soft and hard links between the domain of processes and the domain of systems is realised by concepts of measurement science on the one hand and by instrumental tools of measurement technology on the other hand.

  3. Processing of low Carbon steel by dual rolls equal channel extrusion (United States)

    Rusz, S.; Cizek, L.; Salajka, M.; Kedron, J.; Tylsar, S.


    This paper introduces a new method of forming for achievement of grain structure refinement by processing in DRECE (Dual Rolls Equal Channel Extrusion) equipment. The DRECE device was developed at the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava. It allows grain refinement in strip plate with dimensions of 58 mm (width) × 2 mm (thickness) × 1000 mm (length). The influence of the number of passes on the mechanical properties and related structure refinement was examined experimentally. The effect of a heat treatment (500 °C/1 h/steady air) on the grain refinement of low carbon steel after severe plastic deformation is analysed. Through this novel technique, the grain structure can be converted into a submicron grain structure.

  4. The influence of dispositional mindfulness on safety behaviors: a dual process perspective. (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Changxu


    Based on the dual process model of human cognition, this study investigated the influence of dispositional mindfulness on operators' safety behaviors and its boundary conditions. In a sample of 212 nuclear power plant control room operators, it was found that both safety compliance and safety participation behaviors were positively influenced by dispositional mindfulness as measured by the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. This effect was still positive after controlling for age, intelligence, work experience and conscientiousness. Moreover, two boundary conditions were identified: the impact of dispositional mindfulness of safety behaviors was stronger among operators who were either more experienced or more intelligent. Theoretically, the framework we used to understand the benefit of mindfulness on safety behaviors has been proved to be useful. Practically, it provides a new and valid criterion that could be used in operators' selection and training program to improve organizational safety.

  5. Interaction between semantic and phonological processes in stuttering Evidence from the dual-task paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luping Song; Danling Peng; Ning Ning


    Stuttering is a common neurological deficit and its underlying cognitive mechanisms are a matter of debate,with evidence suggesting abnormal modulation between speech encoding and other cognitive components.Previous studies have mainly used single task experiments to investigate the disturbance of language production.It is unclear whether there is abnormal interaction between the three language tasks(orthographic,phonological and semantic judgment)in stuttering patients.This study used dual tasks and manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony(SOA)between tasks 1and 2 and the nature of the second task,including orthographic,phonological,and semantic judgments.The results showed that the performance records of orthographic judgment,phonological judgment,and semantic judgment were significantly reduced between the patient and control groups with short SOA(P 0.05).These results indicated that the interaction mechanism between semantic processing and phonological encoding might be an underlying cause for stuttering.

  6. Dual Processes in Decision Making and Developmental Neuroscience: A Fuzzy-Trace Model. (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Brainerd, Charles J


    From Piaget to the present, traditional and dual-process theories have predicted improvement in reasoning from childhood to adulthood, and improvement has been observed. However, developmental reversals-that reasoning biases emerge with development -have also been observed in a growing list of paradigms. We explain how fuzzy-trace theory predicts both improvement and developmental reversals in reasoning and decision making. Drawing on research on logical and quantitative reasoning, as well as on risky decision making in the laboratory and in life, we illustrate how the same small set of theoretical principles apply to typical neurodevelopment, encompassing childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and to neurological conditions such as autism and Alzheimer's disease. For example, framing effects-that risk preferences shift when the same decisions are phrases in terms of gains versus losses-emerge in early adolescence as gist-based intuition develops. In autistic individuals, who rely less on gist-based intuition and more on verbatim-based analysis, framing biases are attenuated (i.e., they outperform typically developing control subjects). In adults, simple manipulations based on fuzzy-trace theory can make framing effects appear and disappear depending on whether gist-based intuition or verbatim-based analysis is induced. These theoretical principles are summarized and integrated in a new mathematical model that specifies how dual modes of reasoning combine to produce predictable variability in performance. In particular, we show how the most popular and extensively studied model of decision making-prospect theory-can be derived from fuzzy-trace theory by combining analytical (verbatim-based) and intuitive (gist-based) processes.

  7. 芳纶1414纱线碱/酸改性的染色工艺%Dyeing process of aramid 1414 yarns modified with acid/alkali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春梅; 李朝晖; 季涛


    In this paper, proper dyes, modification methods and dyeing methods are selected to dye the aramid 1414 yarns. Factors exerting influence on dyeing behaviors are studied, such as modification conditions, types and dosages of dyes, pH value of dye bath, dyeing temperature and time. The optimum dyeing process of alkali-modifying aramid with disperse dyes is determined as follows: the dosage of dyes less than 5 % (omf), pH value 5, dyeing at 130 ℃. For 60 min. The color fastness to washing of the dyeings is up to grade 4 ~5 and the color fastness to sublimation is dependent on dye properties. The optimum dyeing process of acid-modifying aramid with cationic dyes is determined as follows; the dosage of dyes less than 5% (omf), pH value 4 ~5, dyeing at 120 ℃ for 60 min. The color fastness to soaping is up to grade 4-5 and the color fastness to sublimation is up to grade 4.%通过选择合适的染料、纤维改性方法及染色方法,对芳纶1414纱线进行染色,探讨改性条件、染料种类和用量、染浴pH值、染色湿度、染色时间等对染色性能的影响.结果表明,经碱改性的芳纶用分散染料染色的最佳工艺为:染料质量分数不超过5%(omf),染液pH值5,在l30℃染色60 min;碱改性染色芳纶纱线的耐皂洗色牢度4~5级,耐升华色牢度与染料品种有较大关系.经酸改性的芳纶用阳离子染料染色的最佳工艺为:染料质量分数不超过5% (omf),染液pH值4~5,在120℃染色60 min;酸改性染色芳纶纱线的耐皂洗色牢度达到4~5级,耐升华色牢度达到4级.

  8. 碱熔融法合成粉煤灰沸石%Synthesis of Zeolite from Fly Ash by Alkali Melting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶; 张雪峰; 林忠; 吕保义; 王曦


    Zeolite was synthesized from fly ash by alkali melting process. The expenimental results show that the affecting factors follow the order of calcination temperature>m(NaOH): m(coal fly ash)>calcination time. The optimum process conditions are as follows: calcination temperature 650 ℃, calcination time 60 min, m(NaOH): m(coal fly ash)=1.2. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate on the zeolite synthesized from fly ash under these conditions is 69.3%. The XRD and SEM results show that: After melting, the crystal structure of the original inert materials such as quartz and mullite are effectively destructed and the activity of fly ash is improved; The melted coal fly ash lost its original spherical shape and took the form of dispersive fly ash clinker.%采用碱熔融法合成粉煤灰沸石.正交实验结果表明:影响粉煤灰沸石吸附氨氮性能的各因素大小顺序为煅烧温度>m(氢氧化钠):m(粉煤灰)>煅烧时间;最佳工艺条件为煅烧温度650℃,煅烧时间60 min,m(氢氧化钠):m(粉煤灰)=1.2;在此最佳条件下合成的粉煤灰沸石对氨氮的去除率为69.3%.XRD仪和SEM表征结果表明:粉煤灰经碱熔融后,原有的惰性物质(石英和莫来石)的晶体结构被有效破坏,粉煤灰的活性得到了提高;经碱熔融后的粉煤灰失去原有的球状形态,形成分散的粉煤灰熟料.

  9. Post-Processing Enhancement of Reverberation-Noise Suppression in Dual-Frequency SURF Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Nasholm, Sven Peter; Angelsen, Bjørn A J; 10.1109/TUFFC.2011.1811


    A post-processing adjustment technique which aims for enhancement of dual-frequency SURF (Second order UltRasound Field) reverberation-noise suppression imaging in medical ultrasound is analyzed. Two variant methods are investigated through numerical simulations. They both solely involve post-processing of the propagated high-frequency (HF) imaging wave fields, which in real-time imaging corresponds to post-processing of the beamformed receive radio-frequency signals. Hence the transmit pulse complexes are the same as for the previously published SURF reverberation-suppression imaging method. The adjustment technique is tested on simulated data from propagation of SURF pulse complexes consisting of a 3.5 MHz HF imaging pulse added to a 0.5 low-frequency sound-speed manipulation pulse. Imaging transmit beams are constructed with and without adjustment. The post-processing involves filtering, e.g., by a time-shift, in order to equalize the two SURF HF pulses at a chosen depth. This depth is typically chosen to ...

  10. What makes us think? A three-stage dual-process model of analytic engagement. (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Koehler, Derek J


    The distinction between intuitive and analytic thinking is common in psychology. However, while often being quite clear on the characteristics of the two processes ('Type 1' processes are fast, autonomous, intuitive, etc. and 'Type 2' processes are slow, deliberative, analytic, etc.), dual-process theorists have been heavily criticized for being unclear on the factors that determine when an individual will think analytically or rely on their intuition. We address this issue by introducing a three-stage model that elucidates the bottom-up factors that cause individuals to engage Type 2 processing. According to the model, multiple Type 1 processes may be cued by a stimulus (Stage 1), leading to the potential for conflict detection (Stage 2). If successful, conflict detection leads to Type 2 processing (Stage 3), which may take the form of rationalization (i.e., the Type 1 output is verified post hoc) or decoupling (i.e., the Type 1 output is falsified). We tested key aspects of the model using a novel base-rate task where stereotypes and base-rate probabilities cued the same (non-conflict problems) or different (conflict problems) responses about group membership. Our results support two key predictions derived from the model: (1) conflict detection and decoupling are dissociable sources of Type 2 processing and (2) conflict detection sometimes fails. We argue that considering the potential stages of reasoning allows us to distinguish early (conflict detection) and late (decoupling) sources of analytic thought. Errors may occur at both stages and, as a consequence, bias arises from both conflict monitoring and decoupling failures.

  11. Positronium impact ionization of Alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, D


    Target ionization processes of alkali atoms by Positronium impact are investigated. Calculations are performed in the frame work of model potential formalism using the Coulomb distorted eikonal approximation. Interesting qualitative features are noted both in the scattered Ps and the ejected electron distributions in differential as well as double differential levels of the collision cross sections.

  12. Implementation science: a role for parallel dual processing models of reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Paddy A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better theoretical base for understanding professional behaviour change is needed to support evidence-based changes in medical practice. Traditionally strategies to encourage changes in clinical practices have been guided empirically, without explicit consideration of underlying theoretical rationales for such strategies. This paper considers a theoretical framework for reasoning from within psychology for identifying individual differences in cognitive processing between doctors that could moderate the decision to incorporate new evidence into their clinical decision-making. Discussion Parallel dual processing models of reasoning posit two cognitive modes of information processing that are in constant operation as humans reason. One mode has been described as experiential, fast and heuristic; the other as rational, conscious and rule based. Within such models, the uptake of new research evidence can be represented by the latter mode; it is reflective, explicit and intentional. On the other hand, well practiced clinical judgments can be positioned in the experiential mode, being automatic, reflexive and swift. Research suggests that individual differences between people in both cognitive capacity (e.g., intelligence and cognitive processing (e.g., thinking styles influence how both reasoning modes interact. This being so, it is proposed that these same differences between doctors may moderate the uptake of new research evidence. Such dispositional characteristics have largely been ignored in research investigating effective strategies in implementing research evidence. Whilst medical decision-making occurs in a complex social environment with multiple influences and decision makers, it remains true that an individual doctor's judgment still retains a key position in terms of diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients. This paper argues therefore, that individual differences between doctors in terms of

  13. Laser Spectroscopy of bi-alkali molecules (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Altaf, A.; Lorenz, J.; Elliott, D.; Chen, Yong


    We report a study of laser spectroscopy of bi-alkali molecules, such as Li2, Rb2 and LiRb (work is in progress). We have constructed a dual-species (Li/Rb) heat pipe oven with a side viewport. The molecular fluorescence is excited by a dye laser with Rh6G dye (operating between 564 nm and 610 nm) and various home-made diode lasers (operating near 635 nm and 665 nm). The fluorescence is recorded using a .5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex4 m monochromator with a 0.1 nm (˜ 3 cm-1) spectral resolution. Transitions to the X^1σg^+ in Li2 and Rb2 have been measured and studies on LiRb are in progress. Molecular parameters, such as force constant, may be obtained from the analysis of the data (which agree with previously known values to within ˜ 3%). Using the known values of dissociation energy De and harmonic frequency φe for the alkali dimers, we also demonstrate that simple calculations with Morse potential approximation can be used to estimate the molecular transition wavelengths to within a few (1-3) nanometers from the experimentally measured values. Such information will aid in creating cold molecules via photoassociation in a dual species magneto-optical trap (LiRb in our case).

  14. (abstract) Fundamental Mechanisms of Electrode Kinetics and Alkali Metal Atom Transport at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S. K.


    The mechanisms of electrode kinetics and mass transport of alkali metal oxidation and alkali metal cation reduction at the solid electrolyte/porous electrode boundary as well as alkali metal transport through porous metal electrodes has important applications in optimizing device performance in alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) cells which are high temperature, high current density electrochemical cells. Basic studies of these processes also affords the opportunity to investigate a very basic electrochemical reaction over a wide range of conditions; and a variety of mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. The temperature range of these investigations covers 700K to 1240K; the alkali metal vapor pressures range from about 10(sup -2) to 10(sup 2) Pa; and electrodes studied have included Mo, W, Mo/Na(sub 2)MoO(sub 4), W/Na(sub 2)WO(sub 4), WPt(sub x), and WRh(sub x) (1.0 alkali metal vapor and alkali metal vapor/solid electrolyte/vapor cells have been used to characterize the reaction and transport processes. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes.

  15. Rethinking of the heuristic-analytic dual process theory: a comment on Wada and Nittono (2004) and the reasoning process in the Wason selection task. (United States)

    Cardaci, Maurizio; Misuraca, Raffaella


    This paper raises some methodological problems in the dual process explanation provided by Wada and Nittono for their 2004 results using the Wason selection task. We maintain that the Nittono rethinking approach is weak and that it should be refined to grasp better the evidence of analytic processes.

  16. Applying Convolution-Based Processing Methods To A Dual-Channel, Large Array Artificial Olfactory Mucosa (United States)

    Taylor, J. E.; Che Harun, F. K.; Covington, J. A.; Gardner, J. W.


    Our understanding of the human olfactory system, particularly with respect to the phenomenon of nasal chromatography, has led us to develop a new generation of novel odour-sensitive instruments (or electronic noses). This novel instrument is in need of new approaches to data processing so that the information rich signals can be fully exploited; here, we apply a novel time-series based technique for processing such data. The dual-channel, large array artificial olfactory mucosa consists of 3 arrays of 300 sensors each. The sensors are divided into 24 groups, with each group made from a particular type of polymer. The first array is connected to the other two arrays by a pair of retentive columns. One channel is coated with Carbowax 20 M, and the other with OV-1. This configuration partly mimics the nasal chromatography effect, and partly augments it by utilizing not only polar (mucus layer) but also non-polar (artificial) coatings. Such a device presents several challenges to multi-variate data processing: a large, redundant dataset, spatio-temporal output, and small sample space. By applying a novel convolution approach to this problem, it has been demonstrated that these problems can be overcome. The artificial mucosa signals have been classified using a probabilistic neural network and gave an accuracy of 85%. Even better results should be possible through the selection of other sensors with lower correlation.

  17. A nonlinear dynamical systems theory perspective on dual-processing accounts of decision-making under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.M.J.W. van; Favela, L.H.


    Dual-processing accounts of reasoning have gained renewed attention in the past decade, particularly in the fields of social judgment, learning, and decision-making under uncertainty. Although the various accounts differ, the common thread is the distinction between two qualitatively different types

  18. Activation and Binding in Verbal Working Memory: A Dual-Process Model for the Recognition of Nonwords (United States)

    Oberauer, Klauss; Lange, Elke B.


    The article presents a mathematical model of short-term recognition based on dual-process models and the three-component theory of working memory [Oberauer, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory: Exploring the focus of attention. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28", 411-421]. Familiarity arises…

  19. The Development of Recollection and Familiarity in Childhood and Adolescence: Evidence from the Dual-Process Signal Detection Model (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Angelini, Laura


    Two experiments examined the development of recollection (recalling qualitative details about an event) and familiarity (recognizing the event) using the dual-process signal detection model. In Experiment 1 (n = 117; ages 6, 8, 10, 14, and 18 years), recollection improved from childhood to adolescence after semantic encoding but not after…

  20. The Dual Language Process in Young Children. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 1, No. 4. (United States)

    Thonis, Eleanor

    A review of available research supports the observation that the young child who lives and grows in the midst of dual language opportunities may enjoy benefits of mental flexibility or may suffer burdens of mental confusion. Further research must explore the language-thought relationship, consider the effects of dual language learning on cognitive…

  1. Output Position and Word Relatedness Effects in a DRM Paradigm: Support for a Dual-Retrieval Process Theory of Free Recall and False Memories (United States)

    Barnhardt, T. M.; Choi, H.; Gerkens, D. R.; Smith, S. M.


    Five experiments investigated predictions--derived from a dual-retrieval process approach to free recall (Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V. F., & Payne, D. G. (2002). Dual-retrieval processes in free and associative recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 120-152.)--about false memories in a DRM-like paradigm. In all the experiments, the…

  2. Can dual processing theory explain physics students' performance on the Force Concept Inventory? (United States)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy


    According to dual processing theory there are two types, or modes, of thinking: system 1, which involves intuitive and nonreflective thinking, and system 2, which is more deliberate and requires conscious effort and thought. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a widely used and robust three item instrument that measures the tendency to override system 1 thinking and to engage in reflective, system 2 thinking. Each item on the CRT has an intuitive (but wrong) answer that must be rejected in order to answer the item correctly. We therefore hypothesized that performance on the CRT may give useful insights into the cognitive processes involved in learning physics, where success involves rejecting the common, intuitive ideas about the world (often called misconceptions) and instead carefully applying physical concepts. This paper presents initial results from an ongoing study examining the relationship between students' CRT scores and their performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), which tests students' understanding of Newtonian mechanics. We find that a higher CRT score predicts a higher FCI score for both precourse and postcourse tests. However, we also find that the FCI normalized gain is independent of CRT score. The implications of these results are discussed.

  3. A Dual-Organic-Transistor-Based Tactile-Perception System with Signal-Processing Functionality. (United States)

    Zang, Yaping; Shen, Hongguang; Huang, Dazhen; Di, Chong-An; Zhu, Daoben


    Organic-device-based tactile-perception systems can open up new opportunities for the next generation of intelligent products. To meet the critical requirements of artificial perception systems, the efficient construction of organic smart elements with integrated sensing and signal processing functionalities is highly desired, but remains a challenge. This study presents a dual-organic-transistor-based tactile-perception element (DOT-TPE) with biomimetic functionality by the construction of organic synaptic transistors with integrated sensing transistors. The unique geometry of the DOT-TPE permits instantaneous sensing of pressure stimuli and synapse-like processing of an electric signal in a single element. More importantly, these organic-transistor-based tactile-perception elements can be built into arrays to serve as bionic tactile-perception systems. The combined biomimetic functionality of tactile-perception systems, together with their promising features of flexibility and large-area fabrication, makes this work represent a step forward toward novel e-skin devices for artificial intelligence.

  4. Development of Signal Processing Circuit for Side-absorber of Dual-mode Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hoon; Kim, Young Su; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Hahn; Lee, Chun Sik [Dept. of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In the present study, a gamma-ray detector and associated signal processing circuit was developed for a side-absorber of a dual-mode Compton camera. The gamma-ray detector was made by optically coupling a CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal to a silicon photodiode. The developed signal processing circuit consists of two parts, i.e., the slow part for energy measurement and the fast part for timing measurement. In the fast part, there are three components: (1) fast shaper, (2) leading-edge discriminator, and (3) TTL-to-NIM logic converter. AC coupling configuration between the detector and front-end electronics (FEE) was used. Because the noise properties of FEE can significantly affect the overall performance of the detection system, some design criteria were presented. The performance of the developed system was evaluated in terms of energy and timing resolutions. The evaluated energy resolution was 12.0% and 15.6% FWHM for 662 and 511 keV peaks, respectively. The evaluated timing resolution was 59.0 ns. In the conclusion, the methods to improve the performance were discussed because the developed gamma-ray detection system showed the performance that could be applicable but not satisfactory in Compton camera application.

  5. Design of a coincidence processing board for a dual-head PET scanner for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.D. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, University Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail:; Toledo, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, University Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia (Spain); Esteve, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, University Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia (Spain); Sebastia, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, University Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia (Spain); Mora, F.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, University Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia (Spain); Benlloch, J.M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-UV, Valencia (Spain); Fernandez, M.M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-UV, Valencia (Spain); Gimenez, M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-UV, Valencia (Spain); Gimenez, E.N. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-UV, Valencia (Spain); Lerche, Ch.W. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-UV, Valencia (Spain); Pavon, N. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-UV, Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, F. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-UV, Valencia (Spain)


    This paper describes the design of a coincidence processing board for a dual-head Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner for breast imaging. The proposed block-oriented data acquisition system relies on a high-speed DSP processor for fully digital trigger and on-line event processing that surpasses the performance of traditional analog coincidence detection systems. A mixed-signal board has been designed and manufactured. The analog section comprises 12 coaxial inputs (six per head) which are digitized by means of two 8-channel 12-bit 40-MHz ADCs in order to acquire the scintillation pulse, the charge division signals and the depth of interaction within the scintillator. At the digital section, a state-of-the-art FPGA is used as deserializer and also implements the DMA interface to the DSP processor by storing each digitized channel into a fast embedded FIFO memory. The system incorporates a high-speed USB 2.0 interface to the host computer.

  6. Engineering aesthetics and aesthetic ergonomics: theoretical foundations and a dual-process research methodology. (United States)

    Liu, Yili

    Although industrial and product designers are keenly aware of the importance of design aesthetics, they make aesthetic design decisions largely on the basis of their intuitive judgments and "educated guesses". Whilst ergonomics and human factors researchers have made great contributions to the safety, productivity, ease-of-use, and comfort of human-machine-environment systems, aesthetics is largely ignored as a topic of systematic scientific research in human factors and ergonomics. This article discusses the need for incorporating the aesthetics dimension in ergonomics and proposes the establishment of a new scientific and engineering discipline that we can call "engineering aesthetics". This discipline addresses two major questions: How do we use engineering and scientific methods to study aesthetics concepts in general and design aesthetics in particular? How do we incorporate engineering and scientific methods in the aesthetic design and evaluation process? This article identifies two special features that distinguish aesthetic appraisal of products and system designs from aesthetic appreciation of art, and lays out a theoretical foundation as well as a dual-process research methodology for "engineering aesthetics". Sample applications of this methodology are also described.

  7. A Study of Impedance Relationships in Dual Frequency PECVD Process Plasma (United States)

    Keil, Douglas; Augustyniak, Edward; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Pecvd/Ald Team


    Commercial plasma process reactors are commonly operated with a very limited suite of on-board plasma diagnostics. However, as process demands advance so has the need for detailed plasma monitoring and diagnosis. The VI probe is one of the few instruments commonly available for this task. We present a study of voltage, current, impedance and phase trends acquired by off-the-shelf VI probes in Dual Frequency (DF) 400 kHz/13.56MHz capacitively-coupled plasma (CCP) as typically used for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). These plasmas typically operate at pressures from 1 to 5 Torr and at RF power levels of 3 W/cm2. Interpretation of DF VI probe impedance trends is challenging. Non-linear interactions are known to exist in plasma impedance scaling with low and high frequency RF power. Simple capacitive sheath models typically do not simultaneously reproduce the impedance observed at each drive frequency. This work will compare VI probe observed DF CCP impedance tends with plasma fluid simulation. Also explored is the agreement seen with sheath models presently available in the literature. Prospects for the creation of useful equivalent circuit models is also discussed.

  8. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald


    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  9. The calcium-alkali syndrome


    Arroyo, Mariangeli; Fenves, Andrew Z.; Emmett, Michael


    The milk-alkali syndrome was a common cause of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal failure in the early 20th century. It was caused by the ingestion of large quantities of milk and absorbable alkali to treat peptic ulcer disease. The syndrome virtually vanished after introduction of histamine-2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors. More recently, a similar condition called the calcium-alkali syndrome has emerged as a common cause of hypercalcemia and alkalosis. It is usually caused b...

  10. Novel Materials, Processing, and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K. V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; Vendra, V. K.; Woodbury, C.; Hari, P.; Roberts, K. P.; Jones, A. D., Jr.


    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be re-purposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual

  11. Teaching dual-process diagnostic reasoning to doctor of nursing practice students: problem-based learning and the illness script. (United States)

    Durham, Catherine O; Fowler, Terri; Kennedy, Sally


    Accelerating the development of diagnostic reasoning skills for nurse practitioner students is high on the wish list of many faculty. The purpose of this article is to describe how the teaching strategy of problem-based learning (PBL) that drills the hypothetico-deductive or analytic reasoning process when combined with an assignment that fosters pattern recognition (a nonanalytic process) teaches and reinforces the dual process of diagnostic reasoning. In an online Doctor of Nursing Practice program, four PBL cases that start with the same symptom unfold over 2 weeks. These four cases follow different paths as they unfold leading to different diagnoses. Culminating each PBL case, a unique assignment called an illness script was developed to foster the development of pattern recognition. When combined with hypothetico-deductive reasoning drilled during the PBL case, students experience the dual process approach to diagnostic reasoning used by clinicians.

  12. Fuzzy-trace theory: dual processes in memory, reasoning, and cognitive neuroscience. (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F


    Fuzzy-trace theory has evolved in response to counterintuitive data on how memory development influences the development of reasoning. The two traditional perspectives on memory-reasoning relations--the necessity and constructivist hypotheses--stipulate that the accuracy of children's memory for problem information and the accuracy of their reasoning are closely intertwined, albeit for different reasons. However, contrary to necessity, correlational and experimental dissociations have been found between children's memory for problem information that is determinative in solving certain problems and their solutions of those problems. In these same tasks, age changes in memory for problem information appear to be dissociated from age changes in reasoning. Contrary to constructivism, correlational and experimental dissociations also have been found between children's performance on memory tests for actual experience and memory tests for the meaning of experience. As in memory-reasoning studies, age changes in one type of memory performance do not seem to be closely connected to age changes in the other type of performance. Subsequent experiments have led to dual-process accounts in both the memory and reasoning spheres. The account of memory development features four other principles: parallel verbatim-gist storage, dissociated verbatim-gist retrieval, memorial bases of conscious recollection, and identity/similarity processes. The account of the development of reasoning features three principles: gist extraction, fuzzy-to-verbatim continua, and fuzzy-processing preferences. The fuzzy-processing preference is a particularly important notion because it implies that gist-based intuitive reasoning often suffices to deliver "logical" solutions and that such reasoning confers multiple cognitive advantages that enhance accuracy. The explanation of memory-reasoning dissociations in cognitive development then falls out of fuzzy-trace theory's dual-process models of memory and

  13. Alkali-activated cementitious materials: Mechanisms, microstructure and properties (United States)

    Jiang, Weimin

    The goal of this study was to examine the activation reaction, microstructure, properties, identify the mechanisms of activation, and achieve an enhanced understanding of activation processes occurring during the synthesis of alkali activated cementitious materials (AAC). The discussions classify the following categories. (1) alkali activated slag cement; (2) alkali activated portland-slag cement; (3) alkali activated fly ash-slag cement; (4) alkali activated pozzolana-lime cement; (5) alkali activated pozzolana cement. The activators involved are NaOH, KOH; Nasb2SOsb4;\\ Nasb2COsb3;\\ CaSOsb4, and soluble silicate of sodium and potassium. The effect of alkali activation on the microstructure of these materials were analyzed at the micro-nanometer scale by SEM, EDS, ESEM, and TEM. Also sp{29}Si and sp{27}Al MAS-NMR, IR, Raman, TGA, and DTA were performed to characterize the phase in these systems. Slag, fly ash, silica fume, as well as blended cements containing mixtures of these and other components were characterized. A set of ordinary portland cement paste samples served as a control. This study confirmed that AAC materials have great potential because they could generate very early high strength, greater durability and high performance. Among the benefits to be derived from this research is a better understanding of the factors that control concrete properties when using AAC materials, and by controlling the chemistry and processing to produce desired microstructures and properties, as well as their durability.

  14. Application of a Dual-Arm Robot in Complex Sample Preparation and Measurement Processes. (United States)

    Fleischer, Heidi; Drews, Robert Ralf; Janson, Jessica; Chinna Patlolla, Bharath Reddy; Chu, Xianghua; Klos, Michael; Thurow, Kerstin


    Automation systems with applied robotics have already been established in industrial applications for many years. In the field of life sciences, a comparable high level of automation can be found in the areas of bioscreening and high-throughput screening. Strong deficits still exist in the development of flexible and universal fully automated systems in the field of analytical measurement. Reasons are the heterogeneous processes with complex structures, which include sample preparation and transport, analytical measurements using complex sensor systems, and suitable data analysis and evaluation. Furthermore, the use of nonstandard sample vessels with various shapes and volumes results in an increased complexity. The direct use of existing automation solutions from bioscreening applications is not possible. A flexible automation system for sample preparation, analysis, and data evaluation is presented in this article. It is applied for the determination of cholesterol in biliary endoprosthesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A dual-arm robot performs both transport and active manipulation tasks to ensure human-like operation. This general robotic concept also enables the use of manual laboratory devices and equipment and is thus suitable in areas with a high standardization grade.

  15. Reasoning, biases and dual processes: The lasting impact of Wason (1960). (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T


    Wason (1960) published a relatively short experimental paper, in which he introduced the 2-4-6 problem as a test of inductive reasoning. This paper became one of the most highly cited to be published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology and is significant for a number of reasons. First, the 2-4-6 task itself was ingenious and yielded evidence of error and bias in the intelligent participants who attempted it. Research on the 2-4-6 problem continues to the present day. More importantly, it was Wason's first paper on reasoning and one which made strong claims for bias and irrationality in a period dominated by rationalist writers like Piaget. It set in motion the study of cognitive biases in thinking and reasoning, well before the start of Tversky and Kahneman's famous heuristics and biases research programme. I also show here something for which Wason has received insufficient credit. It was Wason's work on this task and his later studies of his four card selection task that led to the first development of the dual process theory of reasoning which is so dominant in the current literature on the topic more than half a century later.

  16. Testing a Dual Process Model of Gender-Based Violence: A Laboratory Examination. (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos


    The dire impact of gender-based violence on society compels development of models comprehensive enough to capture the diversity of its forms. Research has established hostile sexism (HS) as a robust predictor of gender-based violence. However, to date, research has yet to link men's benevolent sexism (BS) to physical aggression toward women, despite correlations between BS and HS and between BS and victim blaming. One model, the opposing process model of benevolent sexism (Sibley & Perry, 2010), suggests that, for men, BS acts indirectly through HS to predict acceptance of hierarchy-enhancing social policy as an expression of a preference for in-group dominance (i. e., social dominance orientation [SDO]). The extent to which this model applies to gender-based violence remains untested. Therefore, in this study, 168 undergraduate men in a U. S. university participated in a competitive reaction time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible female opponent as a measure of gender-based violence. Results of multiple-mediation path analyses indicated dual pathways potentiating gender-based violence and highlight SDO as a particularly potent mechanism of this violence. Findings are discussed in terms of group dynamics and norm-based violence prevention.

  17. Self-adaptive optimal control of dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) during starting process (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; He, Lu; Zheng, Zhengxing; Yang, Yunyun; Wu, Chaochun


    An optimal control based on the minimum principle is proposed to solve the problems with the starting process of the self-developed five-speed dry dual clutch transmission (DCT). For the slipping phase, the minimum principle and improved engine constant speed control are adopted to obtain the optimal clutch and engine torques and their rotating speeds, with the minimum jerk intensity and friction work as optimization indices. For the stable running phase, the engine torque is converted to the driver's level of demand. The Matlab/Simulink software platform was used to simulate the DCT vehicle in the starting stage. The simulation and related analysis were conducted for different engine speeds and intentions of the driver. The results showed that the proposed clutch starting control strategy not only reduces the level of jerk and the frictional energy loss but also follows the different starting intentions of the driver. The optimum clutch engagement principle was transformed into the clutch position principle, and a test was carried out on the test bench to validate the effectiveness of the optimum clutch position curve.

  18. Alkali Aggregate Reaction in Alkali Slag Cement Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    By means of "Mortar Bar Method",the ratio of cement to aggregate was kept as a constant 1∶2.25,the water-cement ratio of the mixture was 0.40,and six prism specimens were prepared for each batch of mixing proportions with dimensions of 10×10×60mm3 at 38±2℃ and RH≥95%, the influences of content and particle size of active aggregate, sort and content of alkali component and type of slag on the expansion ratios of alkali-activated slag cement(ASC) mortars due to alkali aggregate reaction(AAR) were studied. According to atomic absorption spectrometry,the amount of free alkali was measured in ASC mortars at 90d.The results show above factors affect AAR remarkably,but no dangerous AAR will occur in ASC system when the amount of active aggregate is below 15% and the mass fraction of alkali is not more than 5% (Na2O).Alkali participated in reaction as an independent component, and some hydrates containing alkali cations were produced, free alkalis in ASC system can be reduced enormously.Moreover,slag is an effective inhibitor, the possibility of generating dangerous AAR in ASC system is much lower at same conditions than that in ordinary Portland cement system.

  19. Natural Alkali Shifts to the Methanol Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Inner Mongolia Yuanxing Natural Alkali Co., Ltd. (Natural Alkali SZ: 000683) established in 1997 is a large chemical enterprise with new energy as its leading business and natural gas chemicals and natural alkali chemicals as the supplement business.

  20. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges


    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  1. A numerical study on combustion process in a small compression ignition engine run dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas) (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Widodo, T. I.; Nasution, D. M.


    In order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel of a compression ignition (CI) engines which is usually used in transportation and heavy machineries, it can be operated in dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas). However, the literature reviews show that the thermal efficiency is lower due to incomplete combustion process. In order to increase the efficiency, the combustion process in the combustion chamber need to be explored. Here, a commercial CFD code is used to explore the combustion process of a small CI engine run on dual fuel mode (diesel-biogas). The turbulent governing equations are solved based on finite volume method. A simulation of compression and expansions strokes at an engine speed and load of 1000 rpm and 2500W, respectively has been carried out. The pressure and temperature distributions and streamlines are plotted. The simulation results show that at engine power of 732.27 Watt the thermal efficiency is 9.05%. The experiment and simulation results show a good agreement. The method developed in this study can be used to investigate the combustion process of CI engine run on dual-fuel mode.

  2. Development of a near-infrared/mid-infrared dual-region spectrometer for online process analysis. (United States)

    Genkawa, Takuma; Watari, Masahiro; Nishii, Takashi; Ozaki, Yukihiro


    A near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) dual-region spectrometer having two immersion probes, a transmission probe for NIR, and an attenuated total reflection (ATR) probe for mid-IR has been developed for highly reliable process monitoring and deep process understanding. This spectrometer facilitates sequential acquisition of both NIR (10,000-4000 cm(-1)) and mid-IR (5000-1200 cm(-1)) spectra by switching the light path leading to the probes without the need for probe replacement. The use of a single light source and a single beam splitter enables achievement of a permanent alignment of the optical system and sequential data acquisition. The transmission NIR and ATR mid-IR probes designed and developed in the present study facilitate the acquisition of NIR/mid-IR spectra with optimized absorption intensities in both regions by simply placing the probes into a sample solution. The performance of the developed spectrometer was demonstrated in monitoring the ethanol fermentation process. NIR/mid-IR spectra of the fermentation solution with multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) represent the relative changes in the concentrations of glucose and ethanol in both regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the MSC-treated spectra in the regions 6300-5650 cm(-1), 4850-4300 cm(-1), and 3500-2880 cm(-1) to detect the end-point of the fermentation as an example of process monitoring. For all the regions, the score plot of the first principal component (PC) indicates that the fermentation progresses with the fermentation time and stops after 210 minutes and thus the end-point of the fermentation exists at around 210 minutes. The loading plot indicates that all of the first PCs are the relative changes in the concentrations of glucose and ethanol. This result reveals that the same chemical changes are observed in both transmission NIR and ATR mid-IR spectra. Multiple and simultaneous analysis was also performed, and intensity change in light

  3. Comparison Between Different Processing Schedules for the Development of Ultrafine-Grained Dual-Phase Steel (United States)

    Karmakar, Anish; Sivaprasad, S.; Nath, S. K.; Misra, R. D. K.; Chakrabarti, Debalay


    A comparative study was carried out on the development of ultrafine-grained dual-phase (DP) (ferrite-martensite) structures in a low-carbon microalloyed steel processed using two thermomechanical processing routes, (i) intercritical deformation and (ii) warm-deformation and intercritical annealing. The samples were deformed using Gleeble3500® simulator, maintaining a constant total strain ( ɛ = 1) and strain rate ( = 1/s). Evolution of microstructure and micro-texture was investigated by SEM, TEM, and EBSD. Ultrafine-grained DP structures could be formed by careful selection of deformation temperature, T def (for intercritical deformation) or annealing temperature, T anneal (for warm-deformation and annealing). Overall, the ferrite grain sizes ranged from 1.5 to 4.0 μm, and the sizes and fractions of the uniformly distributed fine-martensitic islands ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 μm and 15 to 45 pct, respectively. Dynamic strain-induced austenite-to-ferrite transformation followed by continuous (dynamic) recrystallization of the ferrite dictated the grain refinement during intercritical deformation, while, continuous (static) recrystallization by pronounced recovery dictated the grain refinement during the warm-deformation and the annealing. Regarding intercritical deformation, the samples cooled to T def indicated finer grain size compared with the samples heated to T def, which are explained in terms of the effects of strain partitioning on the ferrite and the heating during deformation. Alpha-fiber components dominated the texture in all the samples, and the fraction of high-angle boundaries (with >15 deg misorientation) increased with the increasing T def or T anneal, depending on the processing schedule. Fine carbide particles, microalloyed precipitates and austenitic islands played important roles in defining the mechanism of grain refinement that involved retarding conventional ferrite recrystallization and ferrite grain growth. With regard to the intercritical

  4. Processing and fusion for human body terahertz dual-band passive image (United States)

    Tian, Li; Shen, Yanchun; Jin, Weiqi; Zhao, Guozhong; Cai, Yi


    Compared with microwave, THz has higher resolution, and compared with infrared, THz has better penetrability. Human body radiate THz also, its photon energy is low, it is harmless to human body. So THz has great potential applications in the body searching system. Dual-band images may contain different information for the same scene, so THz dual-band imaging have been a significant research subject of THz technology. Base on the dual-band THz passive imaging system which is composed of a 94GHz and a 250GHz cell detector, this paper researched the preprocessing and fusion algorithm for THz dual-band images. Firstly, THz images have such problems: large noise, low SNR, low contrast, low details. Secondly, the stability problem of the optical mechanical scanning system makes the images less repetitive, obvious stripes and low definition. Aiming at these situations, this paper used the BM3D de-noising algorithm to filter noise and correct the scanning problem. Furthermore, translation, rotation and scaling exist between the two images, after registered by the intensity-base registration algorithm, and enhanced by the adaptive histogram equalization algorithm, the images are fused by image fusion algorithm based on wavelet. This effectively reduced the image noise, scan distortion and matching error, improved the details, enhanced the contrast. It is helpful to improve the detection efficiency of hidden objects too. Method in this paper has a substantial effect for improving the dual-band THz passive imaging system's performance and promoting technology practical.

  5. Denoising performance of modified dual-tree complex wavelet transform for processing quadrature embolic Doppler signals. (United States)

    Serbes, Gorkem; Aydin, Nizamettin


    Quadrature signals are dual-channel signals obtained from the systems employing quadrature demodulation. Embolic Doppler ultrasound signals obtained from stroke-prone patients by using Doppler ultrasound systems are quadrature signals caused by emboli, which are particles bigger than red blood cells within circulatory system. Detection of emboli is an important step in diagnosing stroke. Most widely used parameter in detection of emboli is embolic signal-to-background signal ratio. Therefore, in order to increase this ratio, denoising techniques are employed in detection systems. Discrete wavelet transform has been used for denoising of embolic signals, but it lacks shift invariance property. Instead, dual-tree complex wavelet transform having near-shift invariance property can be used. However, it is computationally expensive as two wavelet trees are required. Recently proposed modified dual-tree complex wavelet transform, which reduces the computational complexity, can also be used. In this study, the denoising performance of this method is extensively evaluated and compared with the others by using simulated and real quadrature signals. The quantitative results demonstrated that the modified dual-tree-complex-wavelet-transform-based denoising outperforms the conventional discrete wavelet transform with the same level of computational complexity and exhibits almost equal performance to the dual-tree complex wavelet transform with almost half computational cost.

  6. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.


    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  7. Dual cure low-VOC coating process. Final technical report, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzer, K.E.


    US EPA is implementing increasingly stringent environmental regulations on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which amount to about 7 {times} 10{sup 9} lb/year, largely from paints and other coating systems in industry. Objective of this project is to develop Dual Cure Photocatalyst coating technology for aerospace topcoats (urethane/acrylate), aerospace primers (epoxy/acrylate), and solventless tape backings. Some problems (moisture etc.) were encountered in the primer area. Cost, economic, and energy analyses were conducted. The dual cure technology has already been commercialized in 3M`s flexible diamond resin products. Tabs.

  8. Pedestrians' intention to jaywalk: Automatic or planned? A study based on a dual-process model in China. (United States)

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Zhang, Feng


    The present study investigates the determining factors of Chinese pedestrians' intention to violate traffic laws using a dual-process model. This model divides the cognitive processes of intention formation into controlled analytical processes and automatic associative processes. Specifically, the process explained by the augmented theory of planned behavior (TPB) is controlled, whereas the process based on past behavior is automatic. The results of a survey conducted on 323 adult pedestrian respondents showed that the two added TPB variables had different effects on the intention to violate, i.e., personal norms were significantly related to traffic violation intention, whereas descriptive norms were non-significant predictors. Past behavior significantly but uniquely predicted the intention to violate: the results of the relative weight analysis indicated that the largest percentage of variance in pedestrians' intention to violate was explained by past behavior (42%). According to the dual-process model, therefore, pedestrians' intention formation relies more on habit than on cognitive TPB components and social norms. The implications of these findings for the development of intervention programs are discussed.

  9. Logical Reasoning versus Information Processing in the Dual-Strategy Model of Reasoning (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc


    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model, proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b), which suggests that people might have access to both…

  10. A Novel Eco-Alkali Chemistry in Newspaper Flotation Deinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plazonic


    Full Text Available Performance and efficiency of fresh offset-printed daily Croatian newspaper deinked by novel chemistry, named Eco-alkali, were investigated in this study. Eco-alkali is naturally gained alkali prepared from domestic by-product wood fly ash collected after hardwood ignition. Brightness, opacity and effective residual ink concentration (ERIC as optical properties were evaluated for the deinked pulp before and after flotation. Lingering ink particles and their total surface area were measured by image analysis method. Experimental results are compared to the pulp deinked with worldwide accepted method INGEDE Method 11 using identical steps through the whole deinking process. The findings obtained from present work, especially removing particle efficiency results before flotation, indicated that eco-alkali have potential to be used in flotation deinking of newspapers.

  11. 响应曲面法优化麒麟菜卡拉胶碱处理工艺%Optimization technology of alkali processing of Eucheuma carrageenan by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚勃; 李来好; 杨贤庆; 陈胜军; 刘刚; 李占东


    采用响应曲面法研究了碱液质量浓度、浸泡时间和浸泡温度对麒麟菜( Eucheuma)卡拉胶的凝胶强度和产率的影响.在单因素试验基础上采用Box-Benhnken中心组合试验,以碱液质量浓度、浸泡时间和浸泡温度为影响因素,以凝胶强度和产率为响应值建立二次回归方程,通过响应面分析得到优化组合.结果显示,碱处理优化工艺参数为碱液质量浓度250 g·L-1、浸泡时间3.5d和浸泡温度25℃,在此条件下提取的麒麟菜卡拉胶凝胶强度为721 g·cm-2(质量浓度10 g·L-1),产率为35.17%.%We studied the influence of 3 factors including alkali concentration, soaking time and temperature on gel strength (CS) and yield of Eucheuma carrgeenan by response surface methodology ( RSM). On the basis of single-factor investigation, Box-Benhnken central composite experiments were carried out to build the quadratic regression models for GS and yield with the above 3 factors, and the alkali processing technology was optimized by response surface analysis. The optimizing process parameters are; alkali concentration 250 g·L-1, soaking time 3. 5 d, soaking temperature 25 ℃. Under the optimal processing condition, the GS and yield of carrgeenan were 721 g·cm-2 (under concentration of 10 g·L-1 ) and 35. 17% , respectively.

  12. Considering Process Nonlinearity in Dual-Point Composition Control of a High-Purity Ideal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Dual-point composition control for a high-purity ideal heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is addressed in this work. Three measures are suggested and combined for overcoming process inherent nonlinearities:(1) variable scaling; (2) multi-model representation of process dynamics and (3) feedforward compensation. These strategies can offer the developed control systems with several distinct advantages: (1) capability of dealing with severe disturbances; (2) tight tuning of controller parameters and (3) high robustness with respect to variation of operating conditions. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  13. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J., E-mail: [Molecular Materials and Nanosystems and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gomes, Henrique L. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); De Leeuw, Dago M. [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany and King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics.

  14. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard


    A method for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock. The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  15. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N Wong


    Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.

  16. Petrological processes in mantle plume heads: Evidence from study of mantle xenoliths in the late Cenozoic alkali Fe-Ti basalts in Western Syria (United States)

    Sharkov, Evgenii


    It is consensus now that within-plate magmatism is considered with ascending of mantle plumes and adiabatic melting of their head. At the same time composition of the plumes' matter and conditions of its adiabatic melting are unclear yet. The major source of objective information about it can be mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts and basanites which represent fragments of material of the plume heads above magma-generation zone. They are not represent material in melting zone, however, carry important information about material of modern mantle plumes, its phase composition and components, involved in melting. Populations of mantle xenoliths in basalts are characterized by surprising sameness in the world and represented by two major types: (1) dominated rocks of ``green'' series, and (2) more rare rocks of ``black'' series, which formed veins in the ``green'' series matrix. It can evidence about common composition of plume material in global scale. In other words, the both series of xenoliths represent two types of material of thermochemical mantle plumes, ascended from core-mantle boundary (Maruyama, 1994; Dobretsov et al., 2001). The same types of xenoliths are found in basalts and basanites of Western Syria (Sharkov et al., 1996). Rocks of ``green'' series are represented by Sp peridotites with cataclastic and protogranular structures and vary in composition from dominated spinel lherzolites to spinel harzburgites and rare spinel pyroxenites (websterites). It is probably evidence about incomplete homogenizing of the plume head matter, where material, underwent by partial melting, adjoins with more fertile material. Such heterogeneity was survived due to quick cooling of upper rim of the plume head in contact with relatively cold lithosphere. Essential role among xenoliths of the ``black'' series play Al-Ti-augite and water-bearing phases like hornblende (kaersutute) and Ti-phlogopite. Rocks of this series are represented by wehrlite, clinopyroxenite, amphibole

  17. A dual-process model of diversity outcomes: The case South African police service in the Pretoria area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T.B. Jackson


    Full Text Available Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation.Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a positive (work-related stream that links positive diversity conditions through active coping to work outcomes and a relatively independent health related stream of negative antecedents, mediating passive coping skills and ill-health related outcomes.Motivation for the study: To test the viability of a dual-process model to understand diversity outcomes in the workplace.Research design, approach and methods: A convenience sample (n= 158 was recruited from members of the SAPS in Gauteng, using a cross-sectional design. Instruments used in previous acculturation research were adapted to measure contextual factors, coping and diversity outcomes.Main findings: A very good fit for the proposed hypothetical model was found. Approach coping partially mediated the relationship between positive acculturation conditions and the subjective experience of work success whereas avoidance coping fully mediated the relationship between discrimination, and ill-health symptoms are related to ill-health symptoms.Practical/managerial implications: Mainstream-facilitating conditions and discrimination influence individual coping styles, which in turn impact on ill-health and the subjective experience of work success. In addition, ill-health also impacts negatively on work-success experiences amongst the sampled SAPS members. It would thus make sense for the SAPS to sanction discrimination.Contribution/value added: A variation of the mediated dual-process model for diversity (Jackson & Van de Vijver, in press, using coping strategies as mediators was supported. The model adds new insights in diversity in organisations.

  18. Cancel and rethink in the Wason selection task: further evidence for the heuristic-analytic dual process theory. (United States)

    Wada, Kazushige; Nittono, Hiroshi


    The reasoning process in the Wason selection task was examined by measuring card inspection times in the letter-number and drinking-age problems. 24 students were asked to solve the problems presented on a computer screen. Only the card touched with a mouse pointer was visible, and the total exposure time of each card was measured. Participants were allowed to cancel their previous selections at any time. Although rethinking was encouraged, the cards once selected were rarely cancelled (10% of the total selections). Moreover, most of the cancelled cards were reselected (89% of the total cancellations). Consistent with previous findings, inspection times were longer for selected cards than for nonselected cards. These results suggest that card selections are determined largely by initial heuristic processes and rarely reversed by subsequent analytic processes. The present study gives further support for the heuristic-analytic dual process theory.

  19. Temporal dynamics of interference in Simon and Eriksen tasks considered within the context of a dual-process model. (United States)

    Mansfield, Karen L; van der Molen, Maurits W; Falkenstein, Michael; van Boxtel, Geert J M


    Behavioral and brain potential measures were employed to compare interference in Eriksen and Simon tasks. Assuming a dual-process model of interference elicited in speeded response tasks, we hypothesized that only lateralized stimuli in the Simon task induce fast S-R priming via direct unconditional processes, while Eriksen interference effects are induced later via indirect conditional processes. Delays to responses for incongruent trials were indeed larger in the Eriksen than in the Simon task. Only lateralized stimuli in the Simon task elicited early S-R priming, maximal at parietal areas. Incongruent flankers in the Eriksen task elicited interference later, visible as a lateralized N2. Eriksen interference also elicited an additional component (N350), which accounted for the larger behavioral interference effects in the Eriksen task. The findings suggest that interference and its resolution involve different processes for Simon and Eriksen tasks.

  20. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers (United States)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong


    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  1. Does the Butcher-on-the-Bus Phenomenon Require a Dual-Process Explanation? A Signal Detection Analysis. (United States)

    Tunney, Richard J; Mullett, Timothy L; Moross, Claudia J; Gardner, Anna


    The butcher-on-the-bus is a rhetorical device or hypothetical phenomenon that is often used to illustrate how recognition decisions can be based on different memory processes (Mandler, 1980). The phenomenon describes a scenario in which a person is recognized but the recognition is accompanied by a sense of familiarity or knowing characterized by an absence of contextual details such as the person's identity. We report two recognition memory experiments that use signal detection analyses to determine whether this phenomenon is evidence for a recollection plus familiarity model of recognition or is better explained by a univariate signal detection model. We conclude that there is an interaction between confidence estimates and remember-know judgments which is not explained fully by either single-process signal detection or traditional dual-process models.

  2. Insights into the hierarchical structure and digestion rate of alkali-modulated starches with different amylose contents. (United States)

    Qiao, Dongling; Yu, Long; Liu, Hongsheng; Zou, Wei; Xie, Fengwei; Simon, George; Petinakis, Eustathios; Shen, Zhiqi; Chen, Ling


    Combined analytical techniques were used to explore the effects of alkali treatment on the multi-scale structure and digestion behavior of starches with different amylose/amylopectin ratios. Alkali treatment disrupted the amorphous matrix, and partial lamellae and crystallites, which weakened starch molecular packing and eventually enhanced the susceptibility of starch to alkali. Stronger alkali treatment (0.5% w/w) made this effect more prominent and even transformed the dual-phase digestion of starch into a triple-phase pattern. Compared with high-amylose starch, regular maize starch, which possesses some unique structure characteristics typically as pores and crystallite weak points, showed evident changes of hierarchical structure and in digestion rate. Thus, alkali treatment has been demonstrated as a simple method to modulate starch hierarchical structure and thus to realize the rational development of starch-based food products with desired digestibility.

  3. Modeling dual-scale epidemic dynamics on complex networks with reaction diffusion processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-gang JIN; Yong MIN


    The frequent outbreak of severe foodborne diseases (e.g., haemolytic uraemic syndrome and Listeriosis) in 2011 warns of a potential threat that world trade could spread fatal pathogens (e.g., enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli). The epidemic potential from trade involves both intra-proliferation and inter-diffusion. Here, we present a worldwide vegetable trade network and a stochastic computational model to simulate global trade-mediated epidemics by considering the weighted nodes and edges of the network and the dual-scale dynamics of epidemics. We address two basic issues of network structural impact in global epi-demic patterns:(1) in contrast to the prediction of heterogeneous network models, the broad variability of node degree and edge weights of the vegetable trade network do not determine the threshold of global epidemics;(2) a‘penetration effect’, by which community structures do not restrict propagation at the global scale, quickly facilitates bridging the edges between communities, and leads to synchronized diffusion throughout the entire network. We have also defined an appropriate metric that combines dual-scale behavior and enables quantification of the critical role of bridging edges in disease diffusion from widespread trading. The unusual structure mechanisms of the trade network model may be useful in producing strategies for adaptive immunity and reducing international trade frictions.

  4. Specifying social cognitive processes with a social dual-task paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman eLiepelt


    Full Text Available Automatic imitation tasks measuring motor priming effects showed that we directly map observed actions of other agents onto our own motor repertoire (direct matching. A recent joint-action study using a social dual-task paradigm provided evidence for task monitoring. In the present study, we aimed to test a if automatic imitation is disturbed during joint action and b if task monitoring is content or time dependent. We used a social dual task that was made of an automatic imitation task (Person 1: Task 1 and a two-choice number task (Person 2: Task 2. Each participant performed one of the two tasks, which were given with a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, in an individual and a joint condition. We found a regular motor priming effect in individual and joint conditions. Under joint conditions, we replicated the previous finding of an increase of reaction times for Person 2 with decreasing SOA. The latter effect was not related to the specific responses performed by both persons. Further, we did not find evidence for a representation of the other’s specific S-R mappings. Our findings suggest that a automatic imitation is not disturbed during joint action and b task monitoring is time dependent.

  5. A dual-process perspective on fluency-based aesthetics: the pleasure-interest model of aesthetic liking. (United States)

    Graf, Laura K M; Landwehr, Jan R


    In this article, we develop an account of how aesthetic preferences can be formed as a result of two hierarchical, fluency-based processes. Our model suggests that processing performed immediately upon encountering an aesthetic object is stimulus driven, and aesthetic preferences that accrue from this processing reflect aesthetic evaluations of pleasure or displeasure. When sufficient processing motivation is provided by a perceiver's need for cognitive enrichment and/or the stimulus' processing affordance, elaborate perceiver-driven processing can emerge, which gives rise to fluency-based aesthetic evaluations of interest, boredom, or confusion. Because the positive outcomes in our model are pleasure and interest, we call it the Pleasure-Interest Model of Aesthetic Liking (PIA Model). Theoretically, this model integrates a dual-process perspective and ideas from lay epistemology into processing fluency theory, and it provides a parsimonious framework to embed and unite a wealth of aesthetic phenomena, including contradictory preference patterns for easy versus difficult-to-process aesthetic stimuli.

  6. 氯碱废水处理工艺选择及回用途径%Process selection for treatment of wastewater from chlor-alkali production and reuse approaches thereof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The process selections for the treatment of wastewater from different units of chlor-alkali produc‐tion includes: calcium carbide PVC centrifugal mother liquor wastewater; sodium hypochlorite wastewater; salt-containing wastewater, mercury-containing wastewater and domestic sewage, were discussed with the reuse ap‐proaches pointed out at the same time. Different process flows of the mentioned kinds of wastewater treatment as well as their resue measures were elaborated in which the technologies and processes for centrifugal mother liquor wastewater and sodium hypochlorite wastewater treatment introduced emphatically. It was indicated that, selecting proper treatment process and rational reuse measures could ensure qualified effluent water, increase wastewater recovery rate, and gain good economic and environmental benefit also, which had certain reference significance for the development of comprehensive treatment of wastewater from chlor-alkali production and en‐ergy conservation and emission reduction work.%探讨了氯碱生产中电石法聚氯乙烯离心母液废水﹑次氯酸钠废水﹑含盐废水﹑含汞废水﹑生活污水的工艺选择及回用途径,并具体阐述了各自的处理工艺及回用措施,其中对离心母液废水﹑次氯酸钠废水处理技术的选择及处理工艺进行了着重介绍。通过选择合适的工艺﹑合理的回用,确保了各类废水出水水质,提高了废水的回收利用率,收到了良好的经济效益及环境效益,对于氯碱生产过程中废水的综合治理及节能减排工作的开展具有一定的借鉴意义。

  7. 环己酮生产中皂化废碱液处理新工艺%A Novel Treatment Process of the Saponification Waste Alkali Liquor in Cyclohexanone Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文岗; 陈志斌


    This paper presents a novel treatment process.chemical method,which utilizes comprehensively the saponification waste alkali liquor in cyclohexanone production.The treatments of waste water,waste gas and waste solid generated during the treating process are introduced as well.As compared with burning method,the existing industrial process,the chemical method is better both in economy and in environment-protecting and is worth to be applied widely,for it has less investment,pollution degree and operation cost with recovery of the valuable products.%介绍了一种综合利用环己酮生产中皂化废碱液的新工艺(化学法)及其处理过程中废水、废气及废渣的处理方法,与现有工业处理方法(焚烧法)相比,该方法投资省、污染小、运营费用低、回收物价值高,无论在经济方面还是在环保方面,均具有明显优势,值得推广.同时,指出了需要完善和改进的地方.

  8. Nanoindentation study of ferrite–martensite dual phase steels developed by a new thermomechanical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaheri, Yousef, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, Ahmad; Najafizadeh, Abbas [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Dual phase (DP) steels consisting different volume fractions of ferrite and martensite and different ferrite grain size were produced by a new route utilizing cold-rolling and subsequent intercritical annealing of ferrite/martensite duplex starting structure at 770 °C for different times. Scanning electron microscopy has been supplemented by nanoindentation and tensile test to follow microstructural changes and their correlations to the variation in phase's hardness and mechanical properties. The results showed that longer holding times resulted in coarser and softer ferrite grains in DP microstructures. Martensite nanohardness variation with holding time is related to change in its carbon content. Mechanical properties such as strength, elongation and toughness are well correlated with the martensite/ferrite hardness ratio.

  9. Effect of Alkali Stress on Soluble Sugar, Antioxidant Enzymes and Yield of Oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jian-hui; LIU Jing-hui; ZHANG Na; YANG Jun-heng; SA Ru-la; WU Lan


    Alkali stress can cause severe crop damage and reduce production. However, physiological processes involved in alkali stress in oat seedlings are not well understood. In this study, physiological responses and yield of oat to alkali stress were studied using the alkali-tolerant oat genotype Vao-9 and the alkali-sensitive oat genotype Baiyan 5. The results were:(i) low concentrations of alkali stress (25 and 50 mmol L-1) significantly reduced the yield and grain weight while increased the oat grain number per spike. A negative correlation between yield and malondialdehyde (MDA) content at the jointing and grain filling stages and positive correlations between yield on one hand and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) activities on the other at the jointing stage were observed. There was a positive correlation between MDA and soluble sugar at the grain filling stage;(ii) soluble sugar content was increased at the jointing and grain filling stages and decreased at the heading stage by alkali stress;(iii) alkali stress increased the SOD activity during the heading and grain filling stages, and increased the POD activity at the heading stage. As compared to the control, the increase of MDA contents in alkali-treated oat was observed, during the jointing, heading and grain filling stages;(iv) under alkali stress, the oat genotype Vao-9 showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower soluble sugar contents during the heading stage, and lower MDA contents than those in the oat genotype Baiyan 5 under alkali stress. The result suggested that the high ROS scavenging capacity and soluble sugar levels might play roles in oat response to alkali stress.

  10. On the use of the dual process Langmuir model for predicting unary and binary isosteric heats of adsorption. (United States)

    Bhadra, Shubhra J; Ebner, Armin D; Ritter, James A


    Analytic expressions for unary and binary isosteric heats of adsorption as a function of the adsorbed phase loading were derived from the dual process Langmuir (DPL) model using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Unary isosteric heats of adsorption predicted from these expressions for several adsorbate-adsorbent systems were compared to values in the literature predicted from the well-accepted graphical approach using Toth and unilan models (Adsorption Equilibrium Data Handbook; Prentice Hall: NJ, 1989). Predictions from the DPL model were also compared to rare experimental unary and binary isosteric heats of adsorption in the literature for another adsorbate-adsorbent system. In all cases, very good agreement was obtained, showing that the DPL model can be used in adsorption process modeling for accurately predicting not only ideal and nonideal mixed-gas adsorption equilibria (Langmuir 2011, 27, 4700), but also unary and even binary isosteric heats of adsorption.

  11. Dual mode adaptive fractional order PI controller with feedforward controller based on variable parameter model for quadruple tank process. (United States)

    Roy, Prasanta; Roy, Binoy Krishna


    The Quadruple Tank Process (QTP) is a well-known benchmark of a nonlinear coupled complex MIMO process having both minimum and nonminimum phase characteristics. This paper presents a novel self tuning type Dual Mode Adaptive Fractional Order PI controller along with an Adaptive Feedforward controller for the QTP. The controllers are designed based on a novel Variable Parameter Transfer Function model. The effectiveness of the proposed model and controllers is tested through numerical simulation and experimentation. Results reveal that the proposed controllers work successfully to track the reference signals in all ranges of output. A brief comparison with some of the earlier reported similar works is presented to show that the proposed control scheme has some advantages and better performances than several other similar works.

  12. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van


    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  13. Alkali binding in hydrated Portland cement paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Brouwers, H.J.H.


    The alkali-binding capacity of C–S–H in hydrated Portland cement pastes is addressed in this study. The amount of bound alkalis in C–S–H is computed based on the alkali partition theories firstly proposed by Taylor (1987) and later further developed by Brouwers and Van Eijk (2003). Experimental data

  14. Self-Enhancement on a Self-Categorization Leash: Evidence for a Dual-Process Model of First-and Third-Person Perceptions (United States)

    Zhang, Jinguang


    Research suggests that first- and third-person perceptions are driven by the motive to self-enhance and cognitive processes involving the perception of social norms. This article proposes and tests a dual-process model that predicts an interaction between cognition and motivation. Consistent with the model, Experiment 1 (N = 112) showed that…

  15. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems (United States)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.


    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  16. Pathways of birnessite formation in alkali medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xionghan; TAN Wenfeng; LIU Fan; HUANG Qiaoyun; LIU Xiangwen


    Birnessite is a common weathering and oxidation product of manganese-bearing rocks. An O2 oxidation procedure of Mn(OH)2 in the alkali medium has been used to synthesize birnessite. Fast and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), energy dispersed X-ray analysis (EDAX), infrared spectroscopy (IR) techniques and chemical composition analysis, Eh-pH equilibrium diagram approaches were employed to investigate the reaction process and pathways of birnessite formation. Results showed that the process of the birnessite formation could be divided into four stages: (1) formation stage for hausmannite and feitknechtite, (2) stage of transformation of hausmannite and feitknechtite to buserite, (3) buserite crystal growing stage, and (4) stage of conversion of buserite into birnessite. Mn(OH)2 was mainly present as amorphous state only for a short initial time of oxidation reaction. In the oxidation process, buserite formed following two pathways by recrystallization after dissolution of the intermediates, and the transformations of the minerals depended on the Eh determined by the dissolved O2 concentration on their surfaces. The results are fundamental in further exploration on the mechanism of birnessite formation in the alkali medium. A great practical significance would also be expected with respect to the areas of material sciences.

  17. Identification of isomers and control of ionization and dissociation processes using dual-mass-spectrometer scheme and genetic algorithm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洲; 佟秋男; 张丛丛; 胡湛


    Identification of acetone and its two isomers, and the control of their ionization and dissociation processes are per-formed using a dual-mass-spectrometer scheme. The scheme employs two sets of time of flight mass spectrometers to simultaneously acquire the mass spectra of two different molecules under the irradiation of identically shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The optimal laser pulses are found using closed-loop learning method based on a genetic algorithm. Com-pared with the mass spectra of the two isomers that are obtained with the transform limited pulse, those obtained under the irradiation of the optimal laser pulse show large differences and the various reaction pathways of the two molecules are selectively controlled. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is quite effective and useful in studies of two molecules having common mass peaks, which makes a traditional single mass spectrometer unfeasible.

  18. Big-five personality, social worldviews, and ideological attitudes: further tests of a dual process cognitive-motivational model. (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G; Duckitt, John


    In this study, we extended the Dual Process Model of Ideology and Prejudice by incorporating the Five-Factor Model of Personality (N = 924). Disagreeable people tended to view the social world as competitive, which in turn predicted heightened motivations for group-based dominance and superiority (Social Dominance Orientation or SDO), whereas people low in Openness to Experience and high in Conscientiousness directly expressed heightened security-cohesion motivations (Right-Wing Authoritarianism or RWA). Other personality dimensions were weakly associated with RWA, and these effects were mediated by dangerous worldview. Multiple distinct aspects of personality predict SDO and RWA both directly and indirectly through worldviews, but we found little evidence for the possibility that personality alters the extent to which worldviews (once formed) predict SDO and RWA.

  19. Orbital Feshbach Resonance in Alkali-Earth Atoms. (United States)

    Zhang, Ren; Cheng, Yanting; Zhai, Hui; Zhang, Peng


    For a mixture of alkali-earth atomic gas in the long-lived excited state ^{3}P_{0} and the ground state ^{1}S_{0}, in addition to nuclear spin, another "orbital" index is introduced to distinguish these two internal states. In this Letter we propose a mechanism to induce Feshbach resonance between two atoms with different orbital and nuclear spin quantum numbers. Two essential ingredients are the interorbital spin-exchange process and orbital dependence of the Landé g factors. Here the orbital degrees of freedom plays a similar role as the electron spin degree of freedom in magnetic Feshbach resonance in alkali-metal atoms. This resonance is particularly accessible for the ^{173}Yb system. The BCS-BEC crossover in this system requires two fermion pairing order parameters, and displays a significant difference compared to that in an alkali-metal system.

  20. Formation and Stability of High-Spin Alkali Clusters (United States)

    Schulz, C. P.; Claas, P.; Schumacher, D.; Stienkemeier, F.


    Helium nanodroplet isolation has been applied to agglomerate alkali clusters at temperatures of 380mK. The very weak binding to the surface of the droplets allows a selection of only weakly bound, high-spin states. Here we show that larger clusters of alkali atoms in high-spin states can be formed. The lack of strong bonds from pairing electrons makes these systems nonmetallic, vanderWaals like complexes of metal atoms. We find that sodium and potassium readily form such clusters containing up to 25atoms. In contrast, this process is suppressed for rubidium and cesium. Apparently, for these heavy alkalis, larger high-spin aggregates are not stable and depolarize spontaneously upon cluster formation.

  1. Behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds in coal gasification; Kaasumaisten alkaliyhdisteiden kaeyttaeytyminen kivihiilien kaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykaenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds emitting from CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}- and airblown gasification are studied. This research project is closely connected to an EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali emissions from a 1.6 MW pilot plant will be measured. The results from those measurements will be compared with the calculations performed in this LIEKKI 2 project. The equilibrium calculations show that the major gaseous alkali compounds emitting from combustion and gasification are chlorides and hydroxides. This applies both to air- and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-blown processes. In all the cases studied the concentration of gaseous alkali compounds is determined mainly by the amount of chlorides. The key parameters, with respect to alkali behaviour, are the temperature of the process and chlorine content of the coal. By cooling the gases down to 600 deg C prior to a ceramic filter the alkali concentration can be kept about at 100 ppbv. In combustion, the addition of calcium carbonate increases the amount of gaseous alkali compounds by decreasing the amount of alkali sulphates. In the case of gasification the importance of limestone is negligible. The difference between air- and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-blown processes, in terms of gaseous alkali emissions, is small. This is because CO{sub 2} concentration of the gas does not have a strong impact on alkali chlorides. Furthermore, the effect of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-ratio of the recirculation process is negligible. (orig.)

  2. Dual psychological processes underlying public stigma and the implications for reducing stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Pryor


    Full Text Available People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g, shame and lowered self-esteem or public stigma (e.g, the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized. This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative processes are quick and relatively automatic whereas rule-based processes take longer to manifest themselves and involve deliberate thinking. Associative and rule-based thinking require different assessment instruments, follow a different time course and lead to different effects (e.g, stigma-by-association vs attributional processing that results in blame. Of greatest importance is the fact that each process may require a different stigma-prevention strategy.

  3. New process of low-temperature methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/H2 based on dual-catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new process of low-temperature methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/H2 based on dual-catalysis has been developed. Some alcohols, especially 2-alcohol, were found to have high cata-lytic promoting effect on the synthesis of methanol from CO hydrogenation. At 443 K and 5 MPa, the synthesis of methanol could process high effectively, resulting from the synergic catalysis of Cu/ZnO solid catalyst and 2-alcohol solvent catalyst. The primary results showed that when 2-butanol was used as reaction solvent, the one-pass average yield and the selectivity of methanol, in 40 h con-tinuous reaction at temperature as low as 443 K and 5 MPa, were high up to 46.51% and 98.94% respectively. The catalytic activity was stable and the reaction temperature was 80 K or so lower than that in current industry synthesis process. This new process hopefully will become a practical method for methanol synthesis at low temperature.

  4. New process of low-temperature methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/H2 based on dual-catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾健青; TSUBAKINoritatsu; FUJIMOTOKaoru


    A new process of low-temperature methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/H2 based on dual-catalysis has been developed. Some alcohols, especially 2-alcohol, were found to have high catalytic promoting effect on the synthesis of methanol from CO hydrogenation. At 443 K and 5 MPa, the synthesis of methanol could process high effectively, resulting from the synergic catalysis of Cu/ZnO solid catalyst and 2-alcohol solvent catalyst. The primary results showed that when 2-butanol was used as reaction solvent, the one-pass average yield and the selectivity of methanol, in 40 h continuous reaction at temperature as low as 443 K and 5 MPa, were high up to 46.51% and 98.94% respectively. The catalytic activity was stable and the reaction temperature was 80 K or so lower than that in current industry synthesis process. This new process hopefully will become a practical method for methanol synthesis at low temperature.

  5. Chlor-Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach (United States)

    Sanchez-Sanchez, C. M.; Exposito, E.; Frias-Ferrer, A.; Gonzalez-Garaia, J.; Monthiel, V.; Aldaz, A.


    A laboratory experiment for students in the last year of degree program in chemical engineering, chemistry, or industrial chemistry is presented. It models the chlor-alkali process, one of the most important industrial applications of electrochemical technology and the second largest industrial consumer of electricity after aluminium industry.

  6. Influence of temperature on alkali stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes cells may induce alkali stress adaptation when exposed to sublethal concentrations of alkaline cleaners and sanitizers that may be frequently used in the food processing environment. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the induction and the stability of such alk...

  7. Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk. (United States)

    Walshe, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Matthew R; Commins, Seán; Roche, Richard A P


    The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. In particular, higher-level executive functions are suggested to play a key role in gait and fall-risk, but the specific underlying neurocognitive processes remain unclear. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and falls. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task (DT) paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task) in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation) on gait. All DTs elicited changes in gait for both young and older adults, relative to baseline walking. Significantly greater DT costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group. Experiment 2 compared normal walking gait, seated cognitive performances and concurrent event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in healthy young and older adults, to older adult fallers. No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers. However, an initial late-positivity, considered a potential early P3a, was evident on the Stroop task for older non-fallers, which was notably absent in older fallers. We argue that executive control functions play a prominent role in walking and gait, but the use of neurocognitive processes as a predictor of fall-risk needs further investigation.

  8. Transient combustion process of an IDI diesel engine with dual-throat jet at cold-starting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Zhu, X.; He, X.; Peng, L.


    The dual-throat jet technique has been successfully used to improve cold-starting of the swirl-type IDI diesel engines. It has been proven that, with the aid of the second throat connecting the swirl chamber and the main combustion chamber, the cold-starting process was more stable, quieter and cleaner. An intensive fundamental experimental investigation of the transient process of the ignition and combustion at cold-starting has-been conducted on a swirl-chamber IDI diesel engine with the help of high-speed photography. Based on the results of this investigation, the following conclusions have been made: (1) there exist three types of heat release rate pattern at the cold-starting, different patterns will result in different engine behavior; (2) the secondary throat has two effects on the engine starting characteristics: (a) improvement of the ignition conditions in the main chamber by directly delivering pilot fuel; (b) improvement of the fuel/air mixing process by intensifying turbulence in the swirl chamber, which depends on the geometrical shape and orientation of the throat; (3) the counter stream of air against the fuel spray accelerates dispersion and atomization of the fuel spray in the swirl chamber. It plays the primary role in assisting the cold starting of the engine.

  9. Illustration of alkali corrosion mechanisms in high temperature thermal insulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneziris, C.G.; Fischer, U.; Schlegel, E. [Technical Univ. of Freiberg (Germany)


    Alkali attack is a chronic problem in the most popular high temperature applications such as blast furnaces, gasifiers, glass furnaces and cement kilns. Especially in the last years the problem of alkali corrosion is dramatically increased due to the waste burning and the combustion of the so called secondary fuels in kilns at high temperature processes. The German cement industry uses up to 100 percent of secondary fuels - a little or no coal, oil or gas- but mainly burnable waste. According to the literature destruction of the refractory can occur by the formation of low-melting low-viscosity liquids, or, more usually by the formation of dry expansive alkali-aluminosilicate compounds that result to chemical spalling. This work explores due to laboratory experiments supported partially by post mortem industrial trials the chemical interactions between alkali species and established refractory materials and illustrates four main alkali corrosion mechanisms. (orig.)

  10. Positron-alkali atom scattering (United States)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.


    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  11. Alkali control of high-grade metamorphism and granitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov


    Full Text Available We review petrologic observations of reaction textures from high-grade rocks that suggest the passage of fluids with variable alkali activities. Development of these reaction textures is accompanied by regular compositional variations in plagioclase, pyroxenes, biotite, amphibole and garnet. The textures are interpreted in terms of exchange and net-transfer reactions controlled by the K and Na activities in the fluids. On the regional scale, these reactions operate in granitized, charnockitized, syenitized etc. shear zones within high-grade complexes. Thermodynamic calculations in simple chemical systems show that changes in mineral assemblages, including the transition from the hydrous to the anhydrous ones, may occur at constant pressure and temperature due only to variations in the H2O and the alkali activities. A simple procedure for estimating the activity of the two major alkali oxides, K2O and Na2O, is implemented in the TWQ software. Examples of calculations are presented for well-documented dehydration zones from South Africa, southern India, and Sri Lanka. The calculations have revealed two end-member regimes of alkalis during specific metamorphic processes: rock buffered, which is characteristic for the precursor rocks containing two feldspars, and fluid-buffered for the precursor rocks without K-feldspar. The observed reaction textures and the results of thermodynamic modeling are compared with the results of available experimental studies on the interaction of the alkali chloride and carbonate-bearing fluids with metamorphic rocks at mid-crustal conditions. The experiments show the complex effect of alkali activities in the fluid phase on the mineral assemblages. Both thermodynamic calculations and experiments closely reproduce paragenetic relations theoretically predicted by D.S. Korzhinskii in the 1940s.

  12. A new look at emotional intelligence: a dual-process framework. (United States)

    Fiori, Marina


    In this article, the author provides a framework to guide research in emotional intelligence. Studies conducted up to the present bear on a conception of emotional intelligence as pertaining to the domain of consciousness and investigate the construct with a correlational approach. As an alternative, the author explores processes underlying emotional intelligence, introducing the distinction between conscious and automatic processing as a potential source of variability in emotionally intelligent behavior. Empirical literature is reviewed to support the central hypothesis that individual differences in emotional intelligence may be best understood by considering the way individuals automatically process emotional stimuli. Providing directions for research, the author encourages the integration of experimental investigation of processes underlying emotional intelligence with correlational analysis of individual differences and fosters the exploration of the automaticity component of emotional intelligence.

  13. Neural Correlates of Confidence during Item Recognition and Source Memory Retrieval: Evidence for Both Dual-Process and Strength Memory Theories (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M.; Buchler, Norbou; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James; Cabeza, Roberto


    Although the medial-temporal lobes (MTL), PFC, and parietal cortex are considered primary nodes in the episodic memory network, there is much debate regarding the contributions of MTL, PFC, and parietal subregions to recollection versus familiarity (dual-process theory) and the feasibility of accounts on the basis of a single memory strength…

  14. Facile Precursor for Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Alkali Treated Maize Starch (United States)

    El-Rafie, M. H.; Ahmed, Hanan B.; Zahran, M. K.


    Silver nanoparticles were prepared by using alkali treated maize starch which plays a dual role as reducer for AgNO3 and stabilizer for the produced AgNPs. The redox reaction which takes a place between AgNO3 and alkali treated starch was followed up and controlled in order to obtain spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with mean size 4–6 nm. The redox potentials confirmed the principle role of alkali treatment in increasing the reducibility of starch macromolecules. The measurements of reducing sugars at the end of reaction using dinitrosalicylic acid reagent (DNS) were carried out in order to control the chemical reduction reaction. The UV/Vis spectra show that an absorption peak, occurring due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), exists at 410 nm, which is characteristic to yellow color of silver nanoparticles solution. The samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which reveal the nanonature of the particles. PMID:27433508

  15. Dual Rubrics and the Process of Writing: Assessment and Best Practices in a Developmental English Course (United States)

    Pireh, Diane Flanegan


    This article presents strategies for using two types of essay-writing rubrics in a developmental English class of students transitioning into college-level writing. One checklist rubric is student-facing, designed to serve as a guide for students throughout the writing process and as a self-assessment tool. The other checklist rubric is…

  16. Dual daughter strand incision is processive and increases the efficiency of DNA mismatch repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hermans (Nicolaas); C. Laffeber; M. Cristovao (Michele); Artola-Borán, M. (Mariela); Mardenborough, Y. (Yannicka); P. Ikpa (Pauline); Jaddoe, A. (Aruna); H.H.K. Winterwerp (Herrie); C. Wyman (Claire); J. Jiricny (Josef); R. Kanaar (Roland); P. Friedhoff (Peter); J.H.G. Lebbink (Joyce)


    textabstractDNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily-conserved process responsible for the repair of replication errors. In Escherichia coli, MMR is initiated by MutS and MutL, which activate MutH to incise transiently-hemimethylated GATC sites. MMR efficiency depends on the distribution of th

  17. Study on process parameters for activating fly ash with alkali by calcination%加碱煅烧活化粉煤灰工艺参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勇勇; 周勇敏; 张苏伊


    The calcination process for activating fly ash with Na2CO3 as accessory ingredient was investigated.The concenta-tions of Si and A1 in the fly ash activated under different calcination conditions (calcination temperature and calcination time), that dissolved in the sodium hydroxide solution were measured by titering process.The phase composition of fly ash obtained under different calcination conditions (mass ratio of fly ash and sodium carbonate ) was characterized by XRD.The best process parameters were obtained as follows: calcination temperature was 875 X. .holding time was 1.5 h,and mass ratio of fly ash and sodium carbonate was 1:0.87.The products after calcination were mainly made up of soluble NaAlSiO4 and Na2SiO3,and the quartz and mullitein in the raw fly ash both almost disappeared.Therefore, the fly ash was activated adequately.%研究了以碳酸钠为助剂活化粉煤灰的煅烧工艺.采用滴定法测定不同煅烧条件(煅烧温度和煅烧时间)所得活化粉煤灰溶解在氢氧化钠溶液中的硅、铝浓度,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)表征不同煅烧条件(灰碱质量比)所得活化粉煤灰的物相组成,得出粉煤灰较佳煅烧工艺参数:煅烧温度为875℃,保温时间为1.5 h,粉煤灰与碳酸钠的质量比为1∶0.87.煅烧后的产物主要以可溶性的硅铝酸钠(NaAlSiO4)和硅酸钠(Na2SiO3)为主,原粉煤灰中的石英、莫来石基本消失,粉煤灰得到充分活化.

  18. Performance characterization of rigid polyurethane foam with refined alkali lignin and modified alkali lignin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-ming; YU Fei; FANG Gui-zhen; YANG Hui-jun


    The two kinds of rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared with respectively adding the refined alkali lignin and alkali lignin modified by 3-chloro-1,2-epoxypropane to be instead of 15% of the polyether glycol in weight. The indexes of mechanical performance, apparent density, thermal stability and aging resistance were separately tested for the prepared PU foams. The results show that the mechanical property, thermal insulation and thermal stability for PU foam with modified alkali lignin are excellent among two kinds of PU foams and control samples. The additions of the refined alkali lignin and modified alkali lignin to PU foam have little effect on the natural aging or heat aging resistance except for decreasing hot alkali resistance apparently. Additionally, the thermal conductivity of modified alkali lignin PU foam is lowest among two kinds of PU foams and control samples. The alkali lignin PU foam modified by 3-chloro-1,2-epoxypropane could be applied in the heat preservation field.

  19. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)


    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc

  20. The Alkali/Surfactant/ Polymer Process: Effects of Slug Size, Core Length and a Chase Polymer Le procédé alkali/surfactant/polymère : effets de la taille du bouchon, de la longueur de la carotte et d'un polymère de déplacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green K. A.


    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of slug size, core length, and a chase polymer on the effectiveness of the alkali/surfactant/polymer (A/S/P process in recovering waterflood residual oil. Core flood experiments were conducted with unfired linear Berea sandstone cores. The tertiary oil recovery, oil cut, pressure drop, and chemical propagation were measured for each flood. Tertiary oil recovery significantly increased with the slug size up to 0. 5 of a pore volume. Increasing the slug size further resulted in a smaller incremental increase in oil recovery. A slight increase in tertiary oil recovery was obtained when small size A/S/P slugs were followed with achase polymer having a viscosity higher than the slug. The lack of oil recovery with small A/S/P slugs was due to the consumption and dilution of the injected chemicals, especially the synthetic surfactant, due to adsorption and dispersion. Increasing the core length by a factor of 4. 5 (from 9 to 40. 6 cm had no significant effect on tertiary oil recovery. Chemical propagation was found to be a function of core length (i. e. , core Peclet number and the size of the chase polymer slug. Increasing core length and employing a chase polymer maintained the integrity of the A/S/P slug by decreasing the effect of dispersion and minimizing the influence of viscous fingering at the tail of the A/S/P slug. Une étude expérimentale a été effectuée pour examiner les effets de la taille du bouchon, de la longueur de la carotte et de l'emploi d'un polymère de déplacement sur l'efficacité du procédé A/S/P (alkali/surfactant/polymère dans la récupération d'huile résiduelle par injection d'eau. Les expériences d'injection ont été faites avec des carottes rectilignes en grès de Berea vert. La récupération tertiaire du pétrole, la présence d'eau, la perte de charge et la propagation chimique ont été mesurées pour chaque injection. La récupération tertiaire du

  1. Dual mechanisms in the perceptual processing of click train temporal regularity. (United States)

    Phillips, Dennis P; Dingle, Rachel N; Hall, Susan E; Jang, Moragh


    Two experiments measured human sensitivity to temporal jitter in 25-click trains with inter-click intervals (ICIs) between 5 and 100 ms. In a naturalistic experiment using wideband clicks, jitter thresholds were a nonmonotonic function of ICI, peaking for ICIs near 40-60 ms. In a subsequent experiment, clicks were high-passed and presented against a low-frequency noise masker. Jitter threshold vs ICI functions lost the positive slope over short ICIs but retained the negative slope at long ICIs. The same behavior was seen in click rate discrimination tasks. Different processes mediate regularity analysis for click trains with ICIs above and below 40-60 ms.

  2. Antiparallel Aspects of Airborne Dual-antenna InSAR Data Processing and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fang-fang


    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR is a powerful technique for precise topographic mapping. However, owing to the side-looking SAR imaging geometry, geometry distortions appear in mountainous scenarios. Because of phase discontinuities or the absence of a valid phase, it is difficult to recover accurate DEM in such areas with single-aspect InSAR data. Fusion of two or more different aspects of InSAR data can deal with this problem in practice. Experiments using two antiparallel aspects of airborne InSAR data are carried out based on this idea. To decrease the processing error in single-aspect data and fuse them seamlessly, a MOtion COmpensation (MOCO method using iterative DEM is used to reduce the MOCO error. Besides, phase-unwrapping methods based on terrain characteristics are proposed to avoid phase-unwrapping error owing to phase discontinuities in areas of shadow and layover. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the processing methods.

  3. Dual processing of sulfated steroids in the olfactory system of an anuran amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eSansone


    Full Text Available Chemical communication is widespread in amphibians, but if compared to later diverging tetrapods the available functional data is limited. The existing information on the vomeronasal system of anurans is particularly sparse. Amphibians represent a transitional stage in the evolution of the olfactory system. Most species have anatomically separated main and vomeronasal systems, but recent studies have shown that in anurans their molecular separation is still underway. Sulfated steroids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey and have recently been identified as natural vomeronasal stimuli in rodents. Here we identified sulfated steroids as the first known class of vomeronasal stimuli in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. We show that sulfated steroids are detected and concurrently processed by the two distinct olfactory subsystems of larval Xenopus laevis, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system. Our data revealed a similar but partially different processing of steroid-induced responses in the two systems. Differences of detection thresholds suggest that the two information channels are not just redundant, but rather signal different information. Furthermore, we found that larval and adult animals excrete multiple sulfated compounds with physical properties consistent with sulfated steroids. Breeding tadpole and frog water including these compounds activated a large subset of sensory neurons

  4. When Challenging Art Gets Liked: Evidences for a Dual Preference Formation Process for Fluent and Non-Fluent Portraits. (United States)

    Belke, Benno; Leder, Helmut; Carbon, Claus-Christian


    line with a dual-process view of human preference formation with art. Theoretical implications and boundary conditions are discussed.

  5. Boundary coupled dual-equation numerical simulation on mass transfer in the Process of laser cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanlu Huang; Yongqiang Yang; Guoqiang Wei; Wenqing Shi; Yibin Li


    The coupled numerical simulation on fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer in the process of laser cladding is undertaken on the basis of the continuum model.In the simulation of mass transfer in the laser molten pool, the concentration distribution in the regions on different sides of the interface between cladding layer and substrate is calculated separately and coupled at the co-boundary.The non-equilibrium solute partition coefficient is obtained from equilibrium solute partition coefficient according to the Sobolev model.By using the developed software which is based on the commercial software PHOENICS 1.4, the distribution of Fe in laser molten pool in an experiment of cladding Stellite 6 on 12CrMoV is calculated.The obtained results well coincide with the experimental ones.

  6. Using dual-process theory and analogical transfer to explain facilitation on a hypothetico-deductive reasoning task. (United States)

    Koenig, Cynthia S; Platt, Richard D; Griggs, Richard A


    Using the analogical transfer paradigm, the present study investigated the competing explanations of Girotto and Legrenzi (Psychological Research 51: 129-135, 1993) and Griggs, Platt, Newstead, and Jackson (Thinking and Reasoning 4: 1-14, 1998) for facilitation on the SARS version of the THOG problem, a hypothetico-deductive reasoning task. Girotto and Legrenzi argue that facilitation is based on logical analysis of the task [System 2 reasoning in Evans's (Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7: 454-459, 2003) dual-process account of reasoning] while Griggs et al. maintain that facilitation is due to an attentional heuristic produced by the wording of the problem (System 1 reasoning). If Girotto and Legrenzi are correct, then System 2 reasoning, which is volitional and responsible for deductive reasoning, should be elicited, and participants should comprehend the solution principle of the THOG task and exhibit analogical transfer. However, if Griggs et al. are correct, then System 1 reasoning, which is responsible for heuristic problem solving strategies such as an attentional heuristic, should occur, and participants should not abstract the solution principle and transfer should not occur. Significant facilitation (68 and 82% correct) was only observed for the two SARS source problems, but significant analogical transfer did not occur. This lack of transfer suggests that System 1 reasoning was responsible for the facilitation observed in the SARS problem, supporting Griggs et al.'s attentional heuristic explanation. The present results also underscore the explanatory value of using analogical transfer rather than facilitation as the criterion for problem understanding.

  7. Dual Targeting of a Processing Peptidase into Both Endosymbiotic Organelles Mediated by a Transport Signal of Unusual Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bianca Baudisch; Ralf Bernd Kl(o)sgen


    As a result of the endosymbiotic gene transfer,the majority of proteins of mitochondria and chloroplasts are encoded in the nucleus and synthesized in the cytosol as precursor proteins carrying N-terminal transport signals for the 're-import' into the respective target organelle.Most of these transport signals are monospecific,although some of them have dual targeting properties,that is,they are recognized both by mitochondria and by chloroplasts as target organelles.We have identified alpha-MPP2,one of the two isoforms of the substrate binding subunit of mitochondrial processing peptidase ofArabidopsis thaliana,as a novel member of this class of nuclear-encoded organelle proteins.As demonstrated by in organello transport experiments with isolated organelles and by in vivo localization studies employing fluorescent chimeric reporter proteins,the N-terminal region of the alpha-MPP2 precursor comprises transport signals for the import into mitochondria as well as into chloroplasts.Both signals are found within the N-terminal 79 residues of the precursor protein,where they occupy partly separated and partly overlapping regions.Deletion mapping combined with in organello and in vivo protein transport studies demonstrate an unusual architecture of this transport signal,suggesting a composition of three functionally separated domains.

  8. Category-boundary effects and speeded sorting with a harmonic musical-interval continuum: evidence for dual processing. (United States)

    Zatorre, R J


    In the first experiment, a continuum of 10 harmonic musical intervals was constructed from a minor to a major third. Four pairs of stimuli with constant physical distances were presented to seven musicians in a two-interval forced-choice discrimination task. Either silence, an interfering tone, or a noise burst was interposed between the two stimuli in a pair. Unbiased discriminability was found to be consistently higher for pairs straddling the boundary between two categories than for the endpoint pairs. The interfering tone lowered overall discrimination but left the shape of the function unchanged, whereas the noise burst had no effect. Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm, but the continuum consisted of the single tone that had cued the minor-major distinction for intervals. Discrimination of this series did not show consistent changes as a function of continuum position. In Experiment 3, triads that varied in either interval or overall pitch were presented to musicians for sorting according to one dimension or another. The result was that there were much longer latencies to sort according to interval when pitch varied irrelevantly than vice versa. These results demonstrate that there are changes in discriminability associated with learned categories and suggest that there may be two hierarchically organized stages. A dual-processing model is discussed in which the listener has available both auditory and categorical information.

  9. Torque coordinating robust control of shifting process for dry dual clutch transmission equipped in a hybrid car (United States)

    Zhao, Z.-G.; Chen, H.-J.; Yang, Y.-Y.; He, L.


    For a hybrid car equipped with dual clutch transmission (DCT), the coordination control problems of clutches and power sources are investigated while taking full advantage of the integrated starter generator motor's fast response speed and high accuracy (speed and torque). First, a dynamic model of the shifting process is established, the vehicle acceleration is quantified according to the intentions of the driver, and the torque transmitted by clutches is calculated based on the designed disengaging principle during the torque phase. Next, a robust H∞ controller is designed to ensure speed synchronisation despite the existence of model uncertainties, measurement noise, and engine torque lag. The engine torque lag and measurement noise are used as external disturbances to initially modify the output torque of the power source. Additionally, during the torque switch phase, the torque of the power sources is smoothly transitioned to the driver's demanded torque. Finally, the torque of the power sources is further distributed based on the optimisation of system efficiency, and the throttle opening of the engine is constrained to avoid sharp torque variations. The simulation results verify that the proposed control strategies effectively address the problem of coordinating control of clutches and power sources, establishing a foundation for the application of DCT in hybrid cars.

  10. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model. (United States)

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui


    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. An Overview of Dual-Phase Steels: Advances in Microstructure-Oriented Processing and Micromechanically Guided Design (United States)

    Tasan, C. C.; Diehl, M.; Yan, D.; Bechtold, M.; Roters, F.; Schemmann, L.; Zheng, C.; Peranio, N.; Ponge, D.; Koyama, M.; Tsuzaki, K.; Raabe, D.


    Dual-phase (DP) steel is the flagship of advanced high-strength steels, which were the first among various candidate alloy systems to find application in weight-reduced automotive components. On the one hand, this is a metallurgical success story: Lean alloying and simple thermomechanical treatment enable use of less material to accomplish more performance while complying with demanding environmental and economic constraints. On the other hand, the enormous literature on DP steels demonstrates the immense complexity of microstructure physics in multiphase alloys: Roughly 50 years after the first reports on ferrite-martensite steels, there are still various open scientific questions. Fortunately, the last decades witnessed enormous advances in the development of enabling experimental and simulation techniques, significantly improving the understanding of DP steels. This review provides a detailed account of these improvements, focusing specifically on (a) microstructure evolution during processing, (b) experimental characterization of micromechanical behavior, and (c) the simulation of mechanical behavior, to highlight the critical unresolved issues and to guide future research efforts.

  12. Alkali and Halogen Chemistry in Volcanic Gases on Io

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, L


    We use chemical equilibrium calculations to model the speciation of alkalis and halogens in volcanic gases emitted on Io. The calculations cover wide temperature (500-2000 K) and pressure (10^-6 to 10^+1 bars) ranges, which overlap the nominal conditions at Pele (T = 1760 K, P = 0.01 bars). About 230 compounds of 11 elements (O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, I) are considered. We predict the major alkali and halogen species in a Pele-like volcanic gas and the major alklai and halogen condensates. We also model disequilibrium chemistry of the alkalis and halogens in the volcanic plume. Based on this work and our prior modeling for Na, K, and Cl in a volcanic plume, we predict the major loss processes for the alkali halide gases are photolysis and/or condensation onto grains. On the basis of elemental abundances and photochemical lifetimes, we recommend searching for gaseous KCl, NaF, LiF, LiCl, RbF, RbCl, CsF, and CsCl around volcanic vents during eruptions. Based on abundance considerations and observation...

  13. Stochastic parametrization of multiscale processes using a dual-grid approach. (United States)

    Shutts, Glenn; Allen, Thomas; Berner, Judith


    Some speculative proposals are made for extending current stochastic sub-gridscale parametrization methods using the techniques adopted from the field of computer graphics and flow visualization. The idea is to emulate sub-filter-scale physical process organization and time evolution on a fine grid and couple the implied coarse-grained tendencies with a forecast model. A two-way interaction is envisaged so that fine-grid physics (e.g. deep convective clouds) responds to forecast model fields. The fine-grid model may be as simple as a two-dimensional cellular automaton or as computationally demanding as a cloud-resolving model similar to the coupling strategy envisaged in 'super-parametrization'. Computer codes used in computer games and visualization software illustrate the potential for cheap but realistic simulation where emphasis is placed on algorithmic stability and visual realism rather than pointwise accuracy in a predictive sense. In an ensemble prediction context, a computationally cheap technique would be essential and some possibilities are outlined. An idealized proof-of-concept simulation is described, which highlights technical problems such as the nature of the coupling.

  14. Tunable hierarchical macro/mesoporous gold microwires fabricated by dual-templating and dealloying processes. (United States)

    Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Gu, Yonge; Kaufmann, Kevin; Minteer, Shelley; Polsky, Ronen; Wang, Joseph


    Tailor-made highly ordered macro/mesoporous hierarchical metal architectures have been created by combining sphere lithography, membrane template electrodeposition and alloy-etching processes. The new double-template preparation route involves the electrodeposition of Au/Ag alloy within the interstitial (void) spaces of polystyrene (PS) microspheres which are closely packed within the micropores of a polycarbonate membrane (PC), followed by dealloying of the Ag component and dissolution of the microsphere and membrane templates. The net results of combining such sphere lithography and silver etching is the creation of highly regular three-dimensional macro/mesoporous gold architecture with well-controlled sizes and shapes. The morphology and porosity of the new hierarchical porous structures can be tailored by controlling the preparation conditions, such as the composition of the metal mixture plating solution, the size of the microspheres template, or the dealloying time. Such tunable macro/mesoporous hierarchical structures offer control of the electrochemical reactivity and of the fuel mass transport, as illustrated for the enhanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen-peroxide detection. The new double templated electrodeposition method provides an attractive route for preparing highly controllable multiscale porous materials and diverse morphologies based on different materials and hence holds considerable promise for designing electrocatalytic or bioelectrocatalytic surfaces for a variety sensing and energy applications.

  15. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

  16. Trace Element Geochemistry of Hannuoba Ultramafic Inclusion—bearing Alkali Basalts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Presented in this paper are the trace element abundances of 16 samples of Hannuoba ultramafic inclusion-bearing aldali basalts,which were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.The Petrogenesis of the alkali basalt suite has been modeled by batch partial melting and and Rayleigh fractional crystallization processes,The geochemical characteristics of the mantle source from where alkali basalts were derived are described in terms of variations in trace element abundances of the alkali basalt suite.

  17. Interleukin-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the osteoclastogenic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Huixian [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Shi, Zhenqi [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Qiao, Ping [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Norman Bethune Medical College, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); McCoy, Erin M. [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Mao, Ping [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Xu, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Feng, Xu [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Wang, Shunqing, E-mail: [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China)


    Highlights: •IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generates a population of hematopoietic cells. •IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. •Osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are functional. •IL-3 promotes the development of osteoclast progenitors. •IL-3 inhibits the osteoclastogenic process. -- Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-3, a multilineage hematopoietic growth factor, is implicated in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. However, the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis remains controversial; whereas early studies showed that IL-3 stimulates osteoclastogenesis, recent investigations demonstrated that IL-3 inhibits osteoclast formation. The objective of this work is to further address the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis. We found that IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generated a population of cells capable of differentiating into osteoclasts in tissue culture dishes in response to the stimulation of the monocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). The IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were able to further proliferate and differentiate in response to M-CSF stimulation and the resulting cells were also capable of forming osteoclasts with M-CSF and RANKL treatment. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits M-CSF-/RANKL-induced differentiation of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells into osteoclasts. The flow cytometry analysis indicates that while IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells slightly affected the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the surviving populations, it considerably increased the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the populations after subsequent M-CSF treatment. Moreover, osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were fully functional. Thus, we conclude that IL-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the

  18. 蓝宝石晶体的双面研磨加工%Dual-lapping process for sapphire crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文东辉; 洪滔; 张克华; 鲁聪达


    In order to achieve high efficiency and low damaged layers during a sapphire crystal lapping process,an experimental research on the rougness,lapping uniformity and sub-surface damaged layer were studied in this paper.The sapphire with (0001) orientation was lapped by 280 mesh boron carbide abrasive grits.The effects of lapping time on the material removal rates and surface roughness were investigated,and the processing remainders by the dual-lapping were determined in accordance with the surface states of the sapphire.Then micro-surface uniformity of the sapphire was also presented by using WYKO laser equipment.Finally,a nano-indentation test was carried out to measure the depth of damaged layer according to the hardness or modulus variances.Experimental results show that the sapphire crystal can offer the R,in 0.523 μm,R,<6.0 μm,the depth of heavy damaged layer of 460 nm,and the depth of sub-surface damaged layer no more than 1 μm,after it is lapped by the abrasive with 280 mesh boron carbide grits in 120 min.%为了实现对蓝宝石晶体的高效低损伤研磨加工,对蓝宝石晶体的双面研磨加工表面粗糙度、研磨均匀性和亚表面损伤层的深度进行实验研究.采用280min的双面研磨加工后可以获得Ra为0.523 μm,Rt<6.0 μm的表面;其深度损伤层约为460 nm,亚表面损伤层<1 μm.

  19. Data acquisition and processing platform in the real-time distance measurement system with dual-comb lasers (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Wang, Lanlan; Zhou, Qian; Li, Xinghui; Dong, Hao; Wang, Xiaohao


    The real-time distance measurement system with dual femtosecond comb lasers combines time-of-flight and interferometric measurement. It has advantages of wide-range, high-accuracy and fast speed at the rate about 10000 pts/s. Such a distance measurement system needs dedicated higher performance of the data acquisition and processing hardware platform to support. This paper introduces the dedicated platform of the developed absolute distance measurement system. This platform is divided into three parts according to their respective functions. First part is the data acquisition module, which function is mainly to realize the A/D conversion. In this part we designed a sampling clock adjustment module to assist the A/D conversion module to sample accurately. The sampling clock adjustment module accept a 250MHz maximum reference clock input, which from the same femtosecond laser source as the optical measurement system, then generate an output clock for the A/D converter that can be delayed up to 20ns with a resolution of 714ps. This data acquisition module can convert the analog laser pulse signal to digital signal with a 14 bits resolution and a 250 MSPS maximum sample rate. Second is the data processing and storage module consists of FPGA and DDR3 modules. The FPGA module calculates the test distance by the 16 bits digital sampling signal from the front data acquisition module. The DDR3 module implements sampling data caching. Finally part is the data transmission and peripheral interfaces module based on three DB9 and USB2.0. We can easily debug the platform in the PC and implement communication with upper machine. We tested our system used dedicate test bench in real-time. The scope of the measurement system range is 0 to 3 meters and the measurement deviation is less than 10um.

  20. Saline-alkali land in the Yellow River Delta:amelioration zonation based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Soil salinization is one of the major land degradation types andhas greatly influenced sustainable agricultural development. Zonation of saline-alkali land is the precondition for effective amelioration. The present situation of saline-alkali land is monitored by remote sensing image processing. Causes for land salinization are analyzed, especially the two key factors, ground water depth and its mineralization degree, are analyzed by using long-term observation data. Previously,zonation of saline-alkali soil was made descriptively and artificially. Based on the present situation of saline-alkali land, ground water depth and ground water mineralization degree, the zonation of salinealkali land for amelioration in the Yellow River Delta was completed quantitatively. Four different ypes of saline-alkali land amelioration zones are delineated, namely, easy ameliorated zone,elatively difficult ameliorated zone, difficult ameliorated zone and unfavorable ameliorated zone.Countermeasures for ameliorating saline-alkali soils are put forward according to ecological conditions of different saline-alkali land zones.

  1. In defense of the personal/impersonal distinction in moral psychology research: Cross-cultural validation of the dual process model of moral judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Moore


    Full Text Available The dual process model of moral judgment (DPM; Greene et al., 2004 argues that such judgments are influenced by both emotion-laden intuition and controlled reasoning. These influences are associated with distinct neural circuitries and different response tendencies. After reanalyzing data from an earlier study, McGuire et al. (2009 questioned the level of support for the dual process model and asserted that the distinction between emotion evoking moral dilemmas (personal dilemmas and those that do not trigger such intuitions (impersonal dilemmas is spurious. Using similar reanalysis methods on data reported by Moore, Clark, and Kane (2008, we show that the personal/impersonal distinction is reliable. Furthermore, new data show that this distinction is fundamental to moral judgment across widely different cultures (U.S. and China and supports claims made by the DPM.

  2. 双口RAM在图像处理系统中的应用研究%Application Research on Dual-port RAM in Image Processing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    基于图像处理系统实时性和大数据量冲突的问题,提出了在图像处理系统中使用双口RAM的方法。介绍了双口RAM的功能和特点,以IDT70V09芯片为例给出了图像处理系统中应用双口RAM的系统架构设计、硬件接口设计、系统软件设计以及FPGA和DSP对双口RAM操作软件的详细设计,并针对双口RAM的端口争用问题与解决方法进行了详细讨论,对系统的印制板设计和电路调试提出了建议。最后对图像处理系统进了功能测试,证明了采用双口RAM设计的系统的稳定性和可行性。%According to the problem between real-time image processing and mass data, dual-port random ac-cess memory (RAM) used in image processing system is presented. The functions and characteristics of dual-port RAM are introduced. Taking IDT70V09 chip as an example, system structure, hardware interface, system software design of dual-port RAM used in image processing system and the detailed design of dual-port RAM operation soft-ware of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and data signal processor (DSP) are given. And the port contention problem of dual-port RAM and the solutions are discussed in detail. The suggestions about printed circuit board de-sign and circuit debugging of the system are proposed. Finally, function test of the image processing system is per-formed to prove the stability and feasibility of the system adopting dual-port RAM design.

  3. Dual-processing altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Pirita Kinnunen


    Full Text Available Altruism refers to an other-benefiting behaviour that is costly but bears no direct profit to oneself. At least three different forms can be distinguished: Help giving, altruistic punishment, and moral courage. We investigated the differential impact of two thinking modes, intuitive (System 1 and rational (System 2, on these three altruistic behaviours. Situational (state-related thinking style was manipulated via experimental instructions, and generally preferred thinking style (trait-related was assessed via questionnaires. We found that of the subjectively preferred thinking styles (trait, faith in intuition (System 1 promoted sharing and altruistic punishment, whereas need for cognition (System 2 promoted volunteering in a situation that required moral courage. By contrast, we did not find a significant effect of situational thinking style (state on any of the altruistic behaviours, although manipulation checks were positive. Results elucidate the affective-motivational underpinnings of different types of altruistic behaviours.

  4. Cold three-body collisions in hydrogen-hydrogen-alkali atomic system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yujun; Esry, B D


    We have studied hydrogen-hydrogen-alkali three-body systems in the adiabatic hyperspherical representation. For the spin-stretched case, there exists a single $X$H molecular state when $X$ is one of the bosonic alkali atoms: $^7$Li, $^{23}$Na, $^{39}$K, $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs. As a result, the {\\em only} recombination process is the one that leads to formation of $X$H molecules, H+H+$X

  5. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard


    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  6. Hydrogen storage over alkali metal hydride and alkali metal hydroxide composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Yu; Yong Shen Chua; Hujun Cao; Zhitao Xiong; Guotao Wu; Ping Chen


    Alkali metal hydroxide and hydride composite systems contain both protic (H bonded with O) and hydridic hydrogen. The interaction of these two types of hydrides produces hydrogen. The enthalpy of dehydrogenation increased with the increase of atomic number of alkali metals, i.e.,-23 kJ/molH2 for LiOH-LiH, 55.34 kJ/molH2 for NaOH-NaH and 222 kJ/molH2 for KOH-KH. These thermodynamic calculation results were consistent with our experimental results. H2 was released from LiOH-LiH system during ball milling. The dehydrogenation temperature of NaOH-NaH system was about 150◦C; whereas KOH and KH did not interact with each other during the heating process. Instead, KH decomposed by itself. In these three systems, NaOH-NaH was the only reversible hydrogen storage system, the enthalpy of dehydrogenation was about 55.65 kJ/molH2 , and the corresponding entropy was ca. 101.23 J/(molH2 ·K), so the temperature for releasing 1.0 bar H2 was as high as 518◦C, showing unfavorable thermodynamic properties. The activation energy for hydrogen desorption of NaOH-NaH was found to be 57.87 kJ/mol, showing good kinetic properties.

  7. Influence of Process Temperatures on Blister Creation in Micro Film Insert Molding of a Dual Layer Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhner, Timo; R. Whiteside, Ben; Tosello, Guido


    In this work the suitability of a dual layer membrane, consisting of a non-woven Polypropylene (PP) support and a membrane layer made out of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) for Micro Film Insert Molding (μFIM) was investigated. The emergence of blisters at the surface of the PET-membrane layer...

  8. Nanosized alkali-metal-doped ethoxotitanate clusters. (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Trzop, Elzbieta; Makal, Anna; Sokolow, Jesse D; Coppens, Philip


    The synthesis and crystallographic characterization of alkali-metal-doped ethoxotitanate clusters with 28 and 29 Ti atoms as well as a new dopant-free Ti28 cluster are presented. The light-metal-doped polyoxotitanate clusters in which the alkali-metal atom is the critical structure-determining component are the largest synthesized so far. Calculations show that doping with light alkali atoms narrows the band gap compared with the nondoped crystals but does not introduce additional energy levels within the band gap.

  9. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimír Živica


    Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali activated cements. A significant factor influencing their properties is alkali activator used. In this paper we present a new high effective alkali activator prepared from silica fume and its effectiveness. According to the results obtained this activator seems to be more effective than currently used activators like natrium hydroxide, natrium carbonate, and water glass.

  10. Fluid Composititon and Carbon & Oxygen Isotope Geochemistry of Cenozoic Alkali Basalts in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭杰; 王先彬; 等


    The fluid compositions of Cenozoic alkali basalts in eastern China have been determined by the pyrolysis-MS method,meanwhile the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of CO2 released from these samples at different heating temperatures have been analyzed by the vacuum step-heating method.The data show the volatiole heterogeneity in upper-mantle sources and different evolution trends of alkali basaltic magmas in eastern China,and these alkali basaltic magmas may be generated in the oxidizing milieu,as compared with mantle-derived xenoliths in these alkali basalts,and exotic volatile components were mixed into these magmas in the process of their formation and development.

  11. Chlorine behavior during co-hydrothermal treatment of high alkali coal and PVC (United States)

    Huang, N.; Zhao, P. T.; Li, Z. Z.; Li, T.


    The hydrothermal treatment (HT) is an effective method to remove chlorine from chlorinated wastes under mild conditions. However, the alkali was required to improve the dechlorination efficiency. Meanwhile, the alkalis contents removed was necessary to realize the clean and highly efficient utilization of coal. This work was trying to investigate the feasibility of simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of PVC and high-alkali coal. The effect of operating conditions including the HT temperature, the holding time and particle sizes of coal on the dechlorination efficiency (DE) of PVC during the HT process was experimentally studied in this work. The results show that the DE increased with the rise of: 1) particle sizes (0.054~0.22mm), 2) holding time (30~90 min) and 3) temperature (240~300 °C). In detail, under 300 °C and 60min of holding time, the 85.18% of DE with first PS was lower than the 93.93% of DE with second PS and 100% of DE with third PS. The organic chlorine mainly transferred into chloridion in aqueous solution in HT process. All the results indicate that it is a prospective way to simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of chlorinated wastes and high-alkali coal.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝冬梅; 王新灵; 朱卫华; 唐小真; 刘成岑; 施凯


    Hollow polymer latex particles were prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization. A seed latex consisting of styrene (St), butyl acrylate(BA) copolymer was first prepared, and seeded terpolymerization of St-BA-MA(methacrylic acid) were then carried out in the absence of surfactant. Final latex was treated by a two-step treatment under alkaline and acidic conditions, thus, the particles with hollow structure were obtained. We discussed the effects of pH value, temperature and time in alkali and acid treatment processes on hollow structure within the polymer latex particles and amount of carboxylic group on particle surface. The results show that the hollow polymer latex particles with the largest hollow size can be obtained under a certain condition (pH12.5, 90°C, 3 h in alkali treatment stage and pH2.5, 85°C, 3 h in acid treatment stage).

  13. Milk Alkali and Hydrochlorothiazide: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Parvez


    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia is a relatively common clinical problem in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Primary pathophysiology is the entry of calcium that exceeds its excretion into urine or deposition in bone into circulation. Among a wide array of causes of hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common, accounting for greater than 90 percent of cases. Concordantly, there has been a resurgence of milk-alkali syndrome associated with the ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali, making it the third leading cause of hypercalcemia (Beall and Scofield, 1995 and Picolos et al., 2005. This paper centers on a case of over-the-counter calcium and alkali ingestion for acid reflux leading to milk alkali with concordant use of thiazide diuretic for hypertension.

  14. Geochemical Trace of Silicon Isotopes of Intrusions and Ore Veins Related to Alkali-rich Porphyry Deposits in Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; WU Dechao; ZHANG Chenjiang; LI Youguo


    Western Yunnan is the well-known polymetallic province in China. It is characterized by copper-gold mineralization related to Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry. This paper analyzes the silicon isotope data obtained from four typical alkali-rich porphyry deposits based on the dynamic fractionation principle of silicon isotope. The study shows that the ore materials should originate mainly from alkali-rich magmas, together with silicon-rich mineralizing fluids.The process of mineralization was completed by auto-metasomatism, i.e. silicon-rich mineralizing fluids (including alkali-rich porphyry and wall-rock strata) replaced and altered the country rocks and contaminated with crustal rocks during the crystallization of alkali-rich magmas. Such a process is essentially the continuance of the metasomatism of mantle fluids in crust's mineralization. This provides important evidence of silicon isotopic geochemistry for better understanding the mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry polymetallic deposits


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The alkali bond in (N, K–A–S–H gels presents an up-to-date insufficiently resolved issue with significant consequences for efflorescence in alkali-activated materials. A series of experiments shows nearly all alkalis are leachable from alkaliactivated fly-ash and metakaolin in excessive amounts of deionized water. A diffusion-based model describes well the alkali leaching process. Negligible changes of the (N, K–A–S–H gel nanostructure indicate that Na,K do not form the gel backbone and H3O+ is probably the easiest substitution for the leached alkalies. Small changes in the long-term compressive strength of leached specimens support this hypothesis.

  16. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.


    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites

  17. Dual-species biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and environmental bacteria isolated from fresh-cut processing facilities. (United States)

    Liu, Nancy T; Nou, Xiangwu; Lefcourt, Alan M; Shelton, Daniel R; Lo, Y Martin


    Biofilm formation is a mechanism adapted by many microorganisms that enhances the survival in stressful environments. In food processing facilities, foodborne bacterial pathogens, which many are poor biofilm formers, could potentially take advantage of this protective mechanism by interacting with other strong biofilm producers. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of bacteria native to fresh produce processing environments on the incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilms. Bacteria strains representing 13 Gram-negative species isolated from two fresh produce processing facilities in a previous study were tested for forming dual-species biofilms with E. coli O157:H7. Strong biofilm producing strains of Burkholderia caryophylli and Ralstonia insidiosa exhibited 180% and 63% increase in biofilm biomass, and significant thickening of the biofilms (B. caryophylli not tested), when co-cultured with E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 populations increased by approximately 1 log in dual-species biofilms formed with B. caryophylli or R. insidiosa. While only a subset of environmental isolates with strong biofilm formation abilities increased the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in biofilms, all tested E. coli O157:H7 exhibited higher incorporation in dual-species biofilms with R. insidiosa. These observations support the notion that E. coli O157:H7 and specific strong biofilm producing bacteria interact synergistically in biofilm formation, and suggest a route for increased survival potential of E. coli O157:H7 in fresh produce processing environments.

  18. Dual Rectangles

    CERN Document Server

    Everest, Graham


    This article has been written for an educational magazine whose target audience consists of students and teachers of mathematics in universities, colleges and schools. It concerns a notion of duality between rectangles. A proof is given that only finitely many integral sided pairs of dual rectangles exist. Then a geometrical group law is shown to hold on the set of all rational self-dual rectangles. Finally, the arithmetic of a cubic surface is used to construct new pairs of rational dual rectangles from old, a technique inspired by the theory of elliptic curves.

  19. pH dependency of hydrogen fermentation from alkali-pretreated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Batch tests were carried out to study the possibility of hydrogen production from alkali-pre- treated sludge without seed and the pH dependency of hydrogen fermentation from alkali-pretreated sludge. Experimental results showed that the sewage sludge with alkali-pretreatment could be successfully applied to biologically producing hydrogen without seed and extra-feed. The results also showed that the initial pH value of sewage sludge was an important factor throughout the hydrogen fermentation of alkali-pretreated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained at initial pH value of 11.0 (14.4 mL·g VS-1). The hydrogen yield of alkali-pretreated sludge at alkaline initial pH value was much higher than that of acidic or neutral initial pH value. The optimal pH value of hydrogen production from alkali- pretreated sludge was approximately 9.5. The consumption of hydrogen could be inhibited when the pH value of sludge was above 8.5. The change of hydrogen yield at various initial pH values was similar to that of sludge SCOD. The change of sludge pH value was slow and acetate was the major component of volatile fatty acids produced in the process of hydrogen production. The yield and the constitution of volatile fatty acids were sensitive to the initial pH value.

  20. Efficiency Enhancement Mechanism for Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)/Silicon Nanowires Hybrid Solar Cells Using Alkali Treatment (United States)

    Jiang, Yurong; Gong, Xiu; Qin, Ruiping; Liu, Hairui; Xia, Congxin; Ma, Heng


    The efficiency enhancement mechanism of the alkali-treated Si nanowire (SiNW) solar cells is discussed and analyzed in detail, which is important to control the useful photovoltaic process. All the results demonstrate that the photovoltaic performance enhancement of alkali-treated SiNW device steps from the formation of the good core-shell heterojunction, which consequently enhances the junction area, promotes fast separating and transporting of electron and hole pairs, and reduces the carrier surface combination. It also indicates that alkali treatment for SiNWs is a promising processing as an economical method for the formation of good core-shell SiNW/polymer heterojunction.

  1. The Application of Dual-process Model in Clinical Thinking%双系统模型在临床思维中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Clinical reasoning plays a major role in the ability of doctors to make diagnoses and decisions. The implications of dual-process models developed by cognitive psychologists solved contradictory studies on clinical reasoning. This paper explored the clinical reasoning process comprehensively through dual-process theory, which formulized the relationship of the heuristic system or analysis system and clinical reasoning, and associated diagnostic errors with the two kinds of reasoning, particularly highlighted the importance of physicians' intuition.%临床推理在医生的诊断和决策中起着关键性的作用,认知心理学领域的双系统模型在临床推理中的应用解决了以往研究中诊断过程的矛盾.本文通过双系统模型全面探讨了临床推理中的加工过程,即阐述了启发式系统和分析系统与临床推理、诊断误差的关系,尤其侧重于直觉系统在临床推理中的作用.

  2. Development of novel CO{sub 2}-stable oxygen permeable dual phase membranes for CO{sub 2} capture in an oxy-fuel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Huixia


    The combustion of fossil fuels in power stations with pure oxygen following the oxy-fuel process allows the Sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The pure oxygen needed can be separated from air by oxygen transporting ceramics like single phase perovskites. However, most of the so far developed single phase perovskites have stability problems in a CO{sub 2} containing atmosphere. Dual phase membranes are micro-scale mixtures of an electron conducting phase and an oxygen ion conducting phase and their compositions can be tailored according to practical requirements, which are considered to be promising substitutes for the single phase perovskite materials. In my thesis the issues of phase stability for perovskite-type material with the common composition Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF) as weil as the development of a series of novel CO{sub 2}-stable dual phase membranes were studied. In Chapter 2, the phase stability and permeation behavior of a dead-end BSCF tube membrane in high-purity oxygen at temperatures below 750 C, were elucidated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). lt was found that parts of the cubic perovskite BSCF transformed into a hexagonal perovskite Ba{sub 0.5{+-}x}Sr{sub 0.5{+-}x}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} (x {approx} 0.1) and a trigonal mixed oxide Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CO{sub 2-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 5{+-}{delta}} (x {approx} 0.15, y {approx} 0.25) in high-purity oxygen at 750 C. On the other hand, it was found that the partial degradation of cubic BSCF perovskite at 750 C was more pronounced under the strongly oxidizing conditions on the oxygen supply (feed) side than on the oxygen release (permeate) side of the membrane. The structural instability of BSCF is attributed to an oxidation of cobalt from Co{sup 2+} to Co{sup 3+} and Co{sup 4+}, which exhibits an ionic radius that is too small to be tolerated by

  3. Development of novel CO{sub 2}-stable oxygen permeable dual phase membranes for CO{sub 2} capture in an oxy-fuel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Huixia


    The combustion of fossil fuels in power stations with pure oxygen following the oxy-fuel process allows the Sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The pure oxygen needed can be separated from air by oxygen transporting ceramics like single phase perovskites. However, most of the so far developed single phase perovskites have stability problems in a CO{sub 2} containing atmosphere. Dual phase membranes are micro-scale mixtures of an electron conducting phase and an oxygen ion conducting phase and their compositions can be tailored according to practical requirements, which are considered to be promising substitutes for the single phase perovskite materials. In my thesis the issues of phase stability for perovskite-type material with the common composition Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF) as weil as the development of a series of novel CO{sub 2}-stable dual phase membranes were studied. In Chapter 2, the phase stability and permeation behavior of a dead-end BSCF tube membrane in high-purity oxygen at temperatures below 750 C, were elucidated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). lt was found that parts of the cubic perovskite BSCF transformed into a hexagonal perovskite Ba{sub 0.5{+-}x}Sr{sub 0.5{+-}x}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} (x {approx} 0.1) and a trigonal mixed oxide Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CO{sub 2-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 5{+-}{delta}} (x {approx} 0.15, y {approx} 0.25) in high-purity oxygen at 750 C. On the other hand, it was found that the partial degradation of cubic BSCF perovskite at 750 C was more pronounced under the strongly oxidizing conditions on the oxygen supply (feed) side than on the oxygen release (permeate) side of the membrane. The structural instability of BSCF is attributed to an oxidation of cobalt from Co{sup 2+} to Co{sup 3+} and Co{sup 4+}, which exhibits an ionic radius that is too small to be tolerated by

  4. Alkalis in Coal and Coal Cleaning Products / Alkalia W Węglu I Productach Jego Wzbogacania (United States)

    Bytnar, Krzysztof; Burmistrz, Piotr


    In the coking process, the prevailing part of the alkalis contained in the coal charge goes to coke. The content of alkalis in coal (and also in coke) is determined mainly by the content of two elements: sodium and potasium. The presence of these elements in coal is connected with their occurrence in the mineral matter and moisture of coal. In the mineral matter and moisture of the coals used for the coke production determinable the content of sodium is 26.6 up to 62. per cent, whereas that of potassium is 37.1 up to 73.4 per cent of the total content of alkalis. Major carriers of alkalis are clay minerals. Occasionally alkalis are found in micas and feldspars. The fraction of alkalis contained in the moisture of the coal used for the production of coke in the total amount of alkalis contained there is 17.8 up to 62.0 per cent. The presence of sodium and potassium in the coal moisture is strictly connected with the presence of the chloride ions. The analysis of the water drained during process of the water-extracting from the flotoconcentrate showed that the Na to K mass ratio in the coal moisture is 20:1. Increased amount of the alkalis in the coal blends results in increased content of the alkalis in coke. This leads to the increase of the reactivity (CRI index), and to the decrease of strength (CSR index) determined with the Nippon Steel Co. method. W procesie koksowania przeważająca część zawartych we wsadzie węglowym alkaliów przechodzi do koksu. Zawartość alkaliów w węglu, a co za tym idzie i w koksie determinowana jest głównie zawartością dwóch pierwiastków: sodu i potasu. Obecność tych pierwiastków w węglu wiąże się z występowaniem ich w substancji mineralnej i wilgoci węgla. W substancji mineralnej oraz wilgoci węgli stosowanych do produkcji koksu, oznaczona zawartość sodu wynosi od 26.6 do 62.9%, a zawartość potasu od 37.1 do 73.4% alkaliów ogółem. Głównymi nośnikami alkaliów w substancji mineralnej są minera

  5. 脱硫石膏改良滨海盐碱土的脱盐过程与效果实验研究%The experimental study on the process and effect to the FGD-gypsum as an improvement in coastal saline-alkali soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程镜润; 陈小华; 刘振鸿; 李小平; 付融冰; 陈泉源


    针对上海滨海盐碱土的特点,借助土柱淋洗试验方法,研究了脱硫石膏改良滨海盐碱土的脱盐过程与效果,分析了不同石膏质量配比条件下(0%,1%,2.5%,5%和10%),土壤团粒结构和水力传导度变化以及盐碱土-脱硫石膏体系中的离子交换过程与效率.研究结果表明:加入脱硫石膏之后,盐碱土团粒结构得到改善,孔隙度变大,水力传导能力增强,平均导水系数是对照组的4~5倍,有效加快脱盐过程;在土柱开始淋洗的前6d 内,离子交换过程表现最活跃,淋洗液的电导率和离子浓度急剧下降.添加脱硫石膏的土柱中钙离子优先置换出钠离子,平均脱钠效率达到对照组的1.8倍.钙钾离子交换和钙镁离子交换也同步发生,但规模明显小于钙钠离子交换.当脱硫石膏质量配比超过1%时,盐碱土的脱盐效果主要取决于原土中的交换性阳离子总量.随着配比增加,盐碱土脱盐的边际效益增加量并不显著.在充分混匀的理想条件下,建议上海滨海盐碱土改良过程中添加脱硫石膏的质量配比高于1%为宜.%Studied the process and efficiency of desalination in FGD-gypsum as an improvement in coastal saline-alkali soil, analyzed the changes of soil’s aggregation and Hydraulic conductivity, and ion exchange process and effect of soil-gypsum system under different gypsum proportions (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) with the testing method of leaching aimed at characteristics of coastal saline-alkali soil in Shanghai. The result showed that soil aggregation has improved obviously, porosity has increased, soil hydraulic conductivity has enhanced, the average water diffusivity of soil was 4-5times than the control and sped the process of desalination effectively;ion exchange exhibited actively and the conductivity of eluent fell sharply as same as the concentration of ions in the beginning of 6days. Calcium ions exchanged sodium ions first in experimental groups, the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang


    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse was delignified with alkali and peracetic acid in a two-stage process to obtain pulps with high yield and low kappa number. The experimental results indicated that alkali pretreatment prior to peracetic acid (PAA delignification could significantly reduce PAA loading by partially removing lignin and swelling the fibers. An optimum condition for the two-stage delignification was obtained for pulping of sugarcane bagasse. The pulps were further characterized by chemical composition analysis, strength property tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA. It was found that the alkali-PAA process could be conducted under milder conditions with resulting higher pulping selectivity, higher degree of polymerization (DP, and superior mechanical properties of pulps, compared to the kraft pulping process. Both kraft pulps and alkali-PAA pulp had similar FTIR spectra, XRD spectra, and TGA (DTG curves. However, further analysis indicated that the alkali-PAA pulp had higher infrared crystallization index and cellulose crystallinity.

  7. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface (United States)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.


    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  8. Optimization on ultrasound-alkali-H2O2 one-bath extraction process of curaua fiber%乌拉草纤维的超声波辅助碱氧-浴法提取工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红; 白肃跃; 马海军; 岳鑫敏; 吴美雅; 于飞


    In order to prepare a new kind of natural fibers and analysis its properties, the curaua fiber was extracted by the method of ultrasound-alkali-H2O2 one-bath technology. The four parameters of ultrasonic time, alkali treatment time, the concentrations of NaOH and H2O2 were optimized by multiple indicator orthogonal experimental method based on the evaluation factors of fibers diameter, breaking strength and moisture regain. The basic physical properties, adiathermic property together with the antibacterial property of curaua fibers were evaluated. Further more, the mechanism of adiathermic property and the antibacterial composition were explored. The results show that the optimal parameters were ultrasonic time of 70 min, alkali-oxygen one bath time of 100 min, alkali weight concentration of 8 g/L, hydrogen peroxide weight concentration of 12 g/L in the solution of 0.75 L. The extracted curaua fibers are 47.19 μm in diameter, 152.59 mm in length, 2.03×10−4 MPa in tensile strength and 15.33% in moisture regain, which are comparable with ramie fibers. The curaua/cotton(70/30) net with the CLO value of 1.316 and the thermal resistance of 0.204 m2·K/W, has certain warmth retention property, which is slightly lower than wool fibers net. In vitro antibacterial test,we found that curaua fiber has excellent antibacterial effect to colibacillus and staphylocccus aureus. In addition, the SEM pictures show that there are lumens in the cross section of the fibers. The filter liquor of curaua fiber has flavonoids of antimicrobial substances, which was tested by the ultraviolet spectroscopy.%  为了提取一种新型植物纤维-乌拉草纤维并研究其性能,采用超声波-碱氧-浴法从乌拉草秸秆中提取乌拉草纤维,用多指标正交试验方法对超声波时间,碱煮时间,碱用量和双氧水用量进行优化设计,并通过对直径,断裂强度,回潮率3个指标的综合分析评价确定最佳提取工艺,对处理后的乌

  9. Study on the Influence of Carbonization Tower Operation on the Total Alkali Content of the Production Process of Baking Soda%小苏打生产工艺之碳化塔运行对总碱量的影响初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    将着重分析对碳化塔的运行控制和碳化工序原理及流程,通过分析碳化工序对小苏打质量、总碱量的稳定和存在问题,并采取针对性的措施,以降低消耗,稳定产品质量,以期提高小苏打产品在市场中的竞争力。%This paper focuses on the analysis of the operation and control of carbonization tower , carbonization technology principle and process. Based on the analysis of the influence of carbonization process on the quality of baking soda, total alkali quantity and the existing problems, this paper takes the measures to reduce consumption, makes the product quality stable to improve product competitiveness in the market of baking soda.

  10. Selection of non-adsorbing alkali components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.


    This project consists of three phases of laboratory experimental study. In phase I (screening), eight candidate materials, 304SS (serves as a base material for comparison), Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy X, Haynes No. 188, Allonized 304SS, Pt-coated 304SS, and ceramic-coated 304SS, will be subjected to atmospheric TGA study under the simulated PFBC (oxidizing) environment with and without alkali vapor doping. Each candidate material will be evaluated for its resistance toward alkali-vapor capture. In addition, a post-test metallographic characterization of the sample will be performed to obtain a better understanding of the alkali capture mechanism and material behavior. The material(s) with little or no alkali-vapor adsorption will be selected as the promising material(s) for the Phase II study. In Phase II, the promising material(s) will be further tested in the TGA under elevated pressure to simulate the PFBC environment (in terms of temperature, pressure, and gas composition). The effect of pressure on the extent of alkali-vapor adsorption will be evaluated, and the test samples will be metallographically characterized. The most promising candidate material(s) will be identified and recommended for further tesfing in the actual PFBC environment. In Phase III, four materials will be selected from the eight candidate materials screened in the PFBC environment and will be evaluated for their alkali-vapor capture by atmospheric TGA under the coal gasification fuel gas (reducing) environment. The tested samples will also be metallographically characterized. The most promising material(s) will be identified and recommended for further testing in the actual coal gasification environment.

  11. Selection of non-adsorbing alkali components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.


    This project consists of three phases of laboratory experimental study. In phase I (screening), eight candidate materials, 304SS (serves as a base material for comparison), Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy X, Haynes No. 188, Allonized 304SS, Pt-coated 304SS, and ceramic-coated 304SS, will be subjected to atmospheric TGA study under the simulated PFBC (oxidizing) environment with and without alkali vapor doping. Each candidate material will be evaluated for its resistance toward alkali-vapor capture. In addition, a post-test metallographic characterization of the sample will be performed to obtain a better understanding of the alkali capture mechanism and material behavior. The material(s) with little or no alkali-vapor adsorption will be selected as the promising material(s) for the Phase II study. In Phase II, the promising material(s) will be further tested in the TGA under elevated pressure to simulate the PFBC environment (in terms of temperature, pressure, and gas composition). The effect of pressure on the extent of alkali-vapor adsorption will be evaluated, and the test samples will be metallographically characterized. The most promising candidate material(s) will be identified and recommended for further tesfing in the actual PFBC environment. In Phase III, four materials will be selected from the eight candidate materials screened in the PFBC environment and will be evaluated for their alkali-vapor capture by atmospheric TGA under the coal gasification fuel gas (reducing) environment. The tested samples will also be metallographically characterized. The most promising material(s) will be identified and recommended for further testing in the actual coal gasification environment.

  12. Shear Fracture of Dual Phase AHSS in the Process of Stamping: Macroscopic Failure Mode and Micro-level Metallographical Observation (United States)

    Wang, Wurong; Wei, Xicheng; Yang, Jun; Shi, Gang


    Due to its excellent strength and formability combinations, dual phase (DP) steels offer the potential to improve the vehicle crashworthiness performance without increasing car body weight and have been increasingly used into new vehicles. However, a new type of crack mode termed as shear fracture is accompanied with the application of these high strength DP steel sheets. With the cup drawing experiment to identify the limit drawing ratio (LDR) of three DP AHSS with strength level from 600 MPa to 1000 MPa, the study compared and categorized the macroscopic failure mode of these three types of materials. The metallographical observation along the direction of crack was conducted for the DP steels to discover the micro-level propagation mechanism of the fracture.

  13. Dual effect of soluble materials in pretreated lignocellulose on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process for the bioethanol production. (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Xia; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Guan, Qi-Man; Zhang, Man-Tong; Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin


    In this study, wash liquors isolated from ethylenediamine and dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover were used to evaluate the effect of soluble materials in pretreated biomass on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for ethanol production, respectively. Both of the wash liquors had different impacts on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzymatic conversions of glucan and xylan monotonically decreased as wash liquor concentration increased. Whereas, with low wash liquor concentrations, xylose consumption rate, cell viability and ethanol yield were maximally stimulated in fermentation without nutrient supplementary. Soluble lignins were found as the key composition which promoted sugars utilization and cell viability without nutrient supplementary. The dual effects of soluble materials on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation resulted in the reduction of ethanol yield as soluble materials increased in SSCF.

  14. Animal study on expression of laminin and fibronectin in cornea during wound healing following alkali burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂秋; 马轶群; 梁涛; 姜涛; 王传富; 张妍霞


    Objective: To observe the expression of laminin and fibronectin in alkali-burned corneas in rats.Methods: A total of 18 normal Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=3 in each group). For each rat, one eye was injured by alkali burn, the other one was taken as the normal control. Then all the corneas were surgically removed and the expression of laminin and fibronectin was observed with immunohistochemistry respectively at 7 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days after alkali burn. Results: Compared with that of the normal controls, the expression of laminin and fibronectin of the burned eyes was dramatically higher at 7 hours, reached peak at 14 days and decreased to the normal level at 28 days after alkali burn. Conclusions: In the process of wound healing after alkali burn, the expression of laminin and fibronectin increases dramatically, which suggests that laminin and fibronectin may participate in the process of corneal wound healing.

  15. Effect of Alkali Treatment of Wheat Straw on Adsorption of Cu(II under Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Guo


    Full Text Available The convenient and feasible pretreatment method of alkali treatment is very common in the degradation process of wheat straw. However, its utilization in the pretreatment of wheat straw as alternative adsorbents for aqueous heavy metals remediation is rarely reported. The present study investigated the removal efficiency of Cu(II ions using wheat straw with alkali pretreatment. The condition of alkali treatment on wheat straw was optimized with the adsorption capacity of Cu(II as indicator using single-factor experiments. The influences of wheat straw dosages, pH values, contact time, and temperatures on adsorption performance for both untreated wheat straw (UWS and alkali-treated wheat straw (AWS were investigated. Results showed that the relatively large removal rate of Cu(II could be obtained, and chemical behavior occurred during the adsorption process. Characteristic analysis found that the major function of alkali treatment to wheat straw was to introduce the hydroxy group, which resulted in the increase of -C-O- group. Although the adsorption capacity is not as high as the one of ligands supported adsorbents, the method is easy to operate and has a wide range of application; at the same time, it could realize both purposes of treating heavy metal pollution and solid wastes.

  16. Spinal dual-energy computed tomography: improved visualisation of spinal tumorous growth with a noise-optimised advanced monoenergetic post-processing algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Mareen; Weiss, Jakob; Selo, Nadja; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Othman, Ahmed E. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of advanced monoenergetic post-processing (MEI+) on the visualisation of spinal growth in contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT (DE-CT). Twenty-six oncologic patients (age, 61 ± 17 years) with spinal tumorous growth were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner. Image acquisition was in dual-energy mode (100/Sn150kV), and scans were initiated 90 s after contrast agent administration. Virtual monoenergetic images (MEI+) were reconstructed at four different kiloelectron volts (keV) levels (40, 60, 80, 100) and compared to the standard blended portal venous computed tomography (CT{sub pv}). Image quality was assessed qualitatively (conspicuity, delineation, sharpness, noise, confidence; two independent readers; 5-point Likert scale; 5 = excellent) and quantitatively by calculating signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNR). For a subgroup of 10 patients with MR imaging within 4 months of the DE-CT, we compared the monoenergetic images to the MRIs qualitatively. Highest contrast of spinal growth was observed in MEI+ at 40 keV, with significant differences to CT{sub pv} and all other keV reconstructions (60, 80, 100; p < 0.01). Highest conspicuity, delineation and sharpness were observed in MEI+ at 40 keV, with significant differences to CT{sub pv} (p < 0.001). Similarly, MEI+ at 40 keV yielded highest diagnostic confidence (4.6 ± 0.6), also with significant differences to CT{sub pv} (3.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) and to high keV reconstructions (80, 100; p ≤ 0.001). Similarly, CNR calculations revealed highest scores for MEI+ at 40 keV followed by 60 keV and CT{sub pv}, with significant differences to high keV MEI+ reconstructions. Qualitative analysis scores peaked for MR images followed by the MEI+ 40-keV reconstructions. MEI+ at low keV levels can significantly improve image quality and delineation of spinal growth in patients with portal

  17. Dual diagnosis



    Dual diagnosis denotes intertwining of intellectual disabilities with mental disorders. With the help of systematic examination of literature, intellectual disabilities are determined (they are characterized by subaverage intellectual activity and difficulties in adaptive skills), along side mental disorders. Their influence is seen in changes of thinking, perception, emotionality, behaviour and cognition. Mental disorders often occur with people with intellectual disabilities (data differs f...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The prepared alkali-activated binders (AAB and composites using suitable latent hydraulic raw materials represent an alternative to materials based on Portland cements. This paper deals with ways how to influence the functional parameters of AAB by setting up mixtures of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and fly ash with selected chemical compositions. In this way the course of hydration process is modified and the phase composition of products of alkali activation is changed as well as their final properties. The amorphous character of the hydration products makes evaluation of the phase composition of hardened AAB difficult and significantly limits the number of experimental techniques suitable to characterise their phase composition. It was observed that measuring the pH of water extracts obtained from the alkali-activated mixtures can give supplementary information about the process of hardening of alkali-activated mixtures of GBFS and fly ash.

  19. An extracellular thermo-alkali-stable laccase from Bacillus tequilensis SN4, with a potential to biobleach softwood pulp


    Sondhi, Sonica; Sharma, Prince; George, Nancy; Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Puri, Neena; Gupta, Naveen


    Degradation of residual lignin in kraft pulp by chemical bleaching is implicated in causing environmental pollution. The use of thermo- and alkali-tolerant bacterial laccases is considered to be important biological alternative to chemical processing. Laccases from Bacillus species have shown promise in this respect but their intracellular/spore bound presence make their industrial application economically unfeasible. We report here on a novel extracellular active thermo-alkali-stable laccase...

  20. Reaction pathway led by silicate structure transformation on decomposition of CaSiO3 in alkali fusion process using NaOH%NaOH碱熔分解CaSiO 3过程中导致硅酸盐结构转变的反应路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昌明; 王国承; 李胜利; 艾新港; 王子睿; 翟玉春


    以NaSiO 3·9H 2 O和CaCl 2为原料,通过化学沉积法合成链状硅酸盐(CaSiO 3)。采用拉曼光谱、X射线衍射和红外光谱研究其在NaOH碱熔过程中的分解机制。结果表明,CaSiO 3在碱熔过程中链状结构的硅氧四面体结构逐渐断裂、转变生成岛状结构的硅氧四面体。CaSiO3分解过程中同时生成3种中间体:Ca2SiO4, Na2CaSiO4和Na2SiO3,最终产物是Ca(OH)2和 Na4SiO4。因此,CaSiO3在NaOH碱熔融反应过程中存在两条反应途径,分别以离子交换和硅酸盐骨架结构改变为主要形式,碱熔过程中硅酸盐结构的变化贯穿于整个反应过程。%The mechanism of decomposition of calcium inosilicate (CaSiO3) synthesized through chemical deposition method using analytical reagent NaSiO3∙9H2O and CaCl2 during the alkali fusion process using NaOH was investigated by Raman spectroscopy in situ, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the tetrahedral silica chains within CaSiO3 are gradually disrupted and transformed into nesosilicate with the isolated SiO4 tetrahedra at the beginning of the alkali fusion process. The three intermediates including Ca2SiO4, Na2CaSiO4 and Na2SiO3 appear simultaneously in the decomposition of CaSiO3, while the final products are Ca(OH)2 and Na4SiO4. It can be concluded that there exist two reaction pathways in the alkali fusion process of CaSiO3: one is ion exchange, the other is in the main form of the framework structure change of silicate. The reaction pathway is led by silicate structure transformation in the alkali fusion process.

  1. Better and Worse: A Dual-Process Model of the Relationship between Core Self-evaluation and Work-Family Conflict. (United States)

    Yu, Kun


    Based on both resource allocation theory (Becker, 1965; Bergeron, 2007) and role theory (Katz and Kahn, 1978), the current study aims to uncover the relationship between core self-evaluation (CSE) and three dimensions of work interference with family (WIF). A dual-process model was proposed, in which both work stress and career resilience mediate the CSE-WIF relationship. The mediation model was tested with a sample of employees from various organizations (N = 561). The results first showed that CSE was negatively related to time-based and strain-based WIF and positively related to behavior-based WIF via the mediation of work stress. Moreover, CSE was positively associated with behavior-based and strain-based WIF via the mediation of career resilience, suggesting that CSE may also have its "dark-side."

  2. Removal of Mercury from chlor-alkali Industry Wastewater using Acetobacter xylinum Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezaee


    Full Text Available In this study, the removal of mercury ions by cellulose of Acetobacter xylinum was investigated in the synthetic and chlor-alkali wastewater. Biofilms of Acetobacter xylinum were grown in laboratory column bioreactors. The biofilms were continuously treated with sterile synthetic model wastewater or nonsterile, neutralized chloralkali wastewater.The extent of adsorption was studied as function of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time. Efficiency of mercury ion removal from chlor-alkali industry wastewater by aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride was also determined. Under acidic condition the adsorption of mercury by cellulose was quite low and increasing processing time more than 10min has no remarkably effect on the adsorption rate. Adsorption capacity of cellulose under dynamic condition for chlor-alkali wastewater was 65mg/µg which was less than the value (80mg/µg that obtained from batch adsorption experiments for synthetic wastewater.

  3. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco


    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...... fixed point. Remarkably this value is identical to the maximum bound predicted in the nonpertubative regime via the all-orders conjectured beta function for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories.......We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANYufang; CHENBingren; 等


    The absorption of free alkali at low concentration by subacid resin was traced with electric conductance method,the effect of temperature on the adsorption,the activation energy of adsorption (Ea) and interaction energy(U) was studied.The result showed that,the process of low concentration alkali adsorption by subacid resin was in accordance with mechanism of monomolecular layer absorption,in addition,with the increasing of temperature,the interaction energy between adsorbate and sorbent increase,so did the surface adsorption rate(k),and linear correlation existed between interaction energy(U) and temperature(T).

  5. Measurement of background gas in paraffin-coated alkali vapor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Sekiguchi, Naota


    We measured the rate of velocity-changing collisions (VCCs) between alkali atoms and background gas in buffer-gas-free anti-spin-relaxation-coated cells. The average VCC rate in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells prepared in this work was $1 \\times 10^{6}$ s$^{-1}$, which corresponds to $\\sim$1 mm in the mean free path of rubidium atoms. This short mean free path indicates that alkali atoms do not travel freely between the cell walls. In addition, we found that a heating process known as "ripening" increases the VCC rate, and also confirmed that ripening improves the anti-relaxation performance of the coatings.

  6. Experimental study on crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspar under high T-P conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the granite-NaF-H2O system, there exists a nucleation lag in the course of alkali feldspar crystallization indicated by experiments on crystallization kinetics. The nucleation lag time is about 18 h at 700℃ and about 6 h at 650℃. Meanwhile, both nucleation rate and crystal-growth rate of alkali feldspar are not constant during the crystallization process, but vary with crystal- lization time. Here we suggest that the lag time should be taken into account in the calculation formula of nucleation rate and crystal-growth rate to obtain more reliable parameters.

  7. Thermodynamic-state and kinetic-process dependent dual ferromagnetic states in high-Si content FeMn(PSi) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guijiang, E-mail: [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Olle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Materials Theory, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Börje [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Materials Theory, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Vitos, Levente [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Materials Theory, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)


    We have found that thermodynamic state and kinetic process co-determine the dual ferromagnetic (FM) orders in high-Si content FeMnP{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} (0.25 < x < 0.5). Alloys undergoing high temperature annealing and quenching process prefer a high magnetic moment FM state in a chemically partial disordered structure with low c/a ratio. This mechanism is suggested to be responsible for the often discussed virgin effect as well. A chemically ordered structure obtained by a slow cooling process from a relatively low annealing temperature and the increase in Si content stabilize a metastable lattice with high c/a ratio and FM order with low magnetic moment. The non-simultaneity of the magnetic and structural transitions can be responsible for the occurrence of FM state in the high c/a range. Thus, a c/a ratio that changes from high to low is physically plausible to stabilize the metastable FM order at low temperature. Our theoretical observations indicate that suitable thermodynamic state and kinetic diffusion process is crucial for optimizing magnetocaloric properties and exploring feasible magnetocaloric materials.

  8. 甲醇/柴油双燃料发动机燃烧过程分析%Combustion process analysis of methanol/diesel dual fuel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠; 李仁春; 张登攀; 李铭迪


    In recent years, environment concerns and depletion in petroleum resources have forced researchers to concentrate on exploiting renewable alternatives fuels. As a renewable and alternative fuel, methanol has gained great attendance. As for the application of methanol on compression ignition engines, researchers have focused on partial replacement of diesel with methanol, either blended with diesel or injected into the air intake. Due to the poor miscibility of diesel and methanol, an additive has to be added to form steady methanol/diesel blends. However, majority of these additives have bad influence on NOX emission. Methanol and diesel can also be applied separately to the engine. Dual injection system is one method, which is difficult and expensive to develop. Compared with other methods, intake premixed methanol is more flexible in operation and has greater potential to applied to practical application. In this paper, the methanol injection system was optimally designed according to the former investigation on air-methanol mixture formation inside internal combustion engine. However, previous research results showed that severe knock would happen at high load with high proportion of methanol. In addition, the intake charge temperature declined, owing to the high level of methanol vaporization latent heat. Thirdly, with the addition of methanol, high temperature and low temperature exothermic reaction were delayed, and the ignition delay of dual fuel was prolonged. The premixed methanol injection was controlled by intake manifold electrically system, and the combustion process of methanol/diesel dual fuel was experimentally investigated. Based on the experimental results, the optimization and application of methanol injection system were proposed, and make sure that the output power of optimized dual engine hardly changed. The experimental research was carried out on 4B26 turbocharged diesel engine. The tests were conducted at four different methanol proportion

  9. The Dual Language Program Planner: A Guide for Designing and Implementing Dual Language Programs. (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Olague, Natalie; Rogers, David

    This guide offers a framework to facilitate the planning process for dual language programs, assuming at least a basic working knowledge of the central characteristics and essential features of dual language models. It provides an overview of the various models that serve linguistically diverse student populations, defining the term dual language…

  10. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps (United States)

    Gavrish, S. V.


    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  11. Local structure of alkalis in mixed-alkali borate glass to elucidate the origin of mixed-alkali effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomei Tokuda


    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium borate crystals and glasses using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. The composition dependence of NMR spectra of the borate was similar to that of the silicate: (1 the peak position of cesium borate crystals shifted to upfield for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers, (2 the MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-3B2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, x + y = 1 glass showed that the average coordination number (CN of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. However, the degree of decrement in borates is much smaller than that in silicates. We have considered that the small difference in CN is due to 4-coordinated B, because it is electrically compensated by the alkali metal ions resulting in the restriction of having various coordinations of O to alkali metal.

  12. Split window resonances for the photoionization of spin-orbit coupled subshell states in alkali atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, M. [Department of Science and Technology, Meisei University, Tokyo 191-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Koike, F. [School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Azuma, Y. [PhotonFactory, IMSS, KEK, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nagata, T. [Department of Science and Technology, Meisei University, Tokyo 191-8656 (Japan)


    We study the origin of dual window-type 3s->4p photoexcitation resonances of potassium atoms that have been observed previously [M. Koide et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 71 (2002) 1676] by means of photoion spectroscopy. We also consider the sub-valence shell photoexcitations of other alkali metal atoms. In potassium 3p photoionizations, the photoion energy levels may be labeled by their total angular momenta, and they are well separated due to the spin-orbit couplings in 3p subshells. The system of a photoion and a photoelectron is therefore a superposition of different total spin states if expressed in terms of the LS-coupling scheme. The ionization continuum may couple with several intermediate discrete states with different total spin quantum numbers, giving a possibility to observe split resonance structures in the spectra of 3s->np photoexcitations and in other alkali-atom photoexcitations. We discuss the dual window-type resonances in potassium, rubidium, and cesium atoms.

  13. Absorbing Markov Chain Models to Determine Optimum Process Target Levels in Production Systems with Dual Correlated Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saber Fallah Nezhad


    Full Text Available For a manufacturing organization to compete effectively in the global marketplace, cutting costs and improving overall efficiency is essential.  A single-stage production system with two independent quality characteristics and different costs associated with each quality characteristic that falls below a lower specification limit (scrap or above an upper specification limit (rework is presented in this paper. The amount of reworks and scraps are assumed to be depending on the process parameters such as process mean and standard deviation thus the expected total profit is significantly dependent on the process parameters. This paper develops a Markovian decision making model for determining the process means. Sensitivity analyzes is performed to validate, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed model. The results showed that the optimal process means extremely effects on the quality characteristics’ parameters.

  14. Response mode, compatibility, and dual-processes in the evaluation of simple gambles: An eye-tracking investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Slovic


    Full Text Available We employed simple gambles to investigate information processing in relation to the compatibility effect. Subjects should be more likely to engage in a deliberative thinking strategy when completing a pricing task rather than a rating task. We used eye-tracking methodology to measure information acquisition and processing in order to test the above hypothesis as well as to show that losses and alternatives with uncertain outcomes are more likely than gains and alternatives with sure outcomes to be processed through a deliberative thinking process. Results showed that pupil dilations, fixation duration and number of fixations increased when subjects evaluated the gambles with a pricing task. Additionally, the number of fixations increased as the gamble outcome became increasingly negative and when the outcome was uncertain (vs. sure. Fixations were also predictive of subjects' final evaluations of the gambles. We discuss our results in light of the cognitive processes underlying different response modes in economic preferences.

  15. 含钛电炉熔分渣碱熔过程中 Ti元素的选择性富集及MgAl2O4的物相转化规律%Selective enrichment of Ti element and phase transformation of MgAl2 O4 in titanium-containing electric furnace molten slag during the alkali fusion process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 李杨; 郭敏; 张梅


    this alkali fusion slag obtained under the optimum conditions as raw materials, potassium hexatitanate nanowhiskers can be successfully synthesized by subsequent processing at 850℃.

  16. Arithmetic expressions optimisation using dual polarity property


    Moraga Claudio; Stanković Radomir S.; Janković Dragan


    A method for optimisation of fixed polarity arithmetic expressions (FPAEs) based on dual polarity is proposed. The method exploits a simple relationship between two FPAEs for dual polarities. It starts from the zero polarity FPAE of the given function and calculates all FPAEs using the dual polarity route. Using one-bit check carries out conversion from one FPAE to another. Each term in an FPAE is processed by the proposed processing rule. Terms, which differ in a single position, can be subs...

  17. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.


    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  18. Infrared spectra of FHF - in alkali halides (United States)

    Chunnilall, C. J.; Sherman, W. F.


    The bifluoride ion, FHF -, has been substitutionally isolated within single crystal samples of several different alkali halides. Infrared spectra of these crystals have been studied for sample temperatures down to 8K when half-bandwidths of less than 1 cm -1 have been observed. (Note that at room temperature ν 3 is observed to have a half-bandwidth of about 40 cm -1). The frequency shifts and half-bandwidth changes caused by cooling are considered together with the frequency shifts caused by pressures up to 10 k bar. The low temperature spectra clearly indicate that FHF - is a linear symmetrical ion when substitutionally isolated within alkali halides of either the NaCl or CsCl structure.

  19. In Situ Measurement of Alkali Metals in an MSW Incinerator Using a Spontaneous Emission Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan


    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations of the in situ diagnosis of the alkali metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW flame of an industrial grade incinerator using flame emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame were obtained using a spectrometer. A linear polynomial fitting method is proposed to uncouple the continuous spectrum and the characteristic line. Based on spectra processing and a non-gray emissivity model, the flame temperature, emissivity, and intensities of the emission of alkali metals were calculated by means of measuring the spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame. Experimental results indicate that the MSW flame contains alkali metals, including Na, K, and even Rb, and it demonstrates non-gray characteristics in a wavelength range from 500 nm to 900 nm. Peak intensities of the emission of the alkali metals were found to increase when the primary air was high, and the measured temperature varied in the same way as the primary air. The temperature and peak intensities of the lines of emission of the alkali metals may be used to adjust the primary airflow and to manage the feeding of the MSW to control the alkali metals in the MSW flame. It was found that the peak intensity of the K emission line had a linear relationship with the peak intensity of the Na emission line; this correlation may be attributed to their similar physicochemical characteristics in the MSW. The variation trend of the emissivity of the MSW flame and the oxygen content in the flue gas were almost opposite because the increased oxygen content suppressed soot formation and decreased soot emissivity. These results prove that the flame emission spectroscopy technique is feasible for monitoring combustion in the MSW incinerator in situ.

  20. Pyrolysis characteristic of kenaf studied with separated tissues, alkali pulp, and alkali li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kojima


    Full Text Available To estimate the potential of kenaf as a new biomass source, analytical pyrolysis was performed using various kenaf tissues, i.e., alkali lignin and alkali pulp. The distribution of the pyrolysis products from the whole kenaf was similar to that obtained from hardwood, with syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, guaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol as the major products. The phenols content in the pyrolysate from the kenaf core was higher than that from the kenaf cuticle, reflecting the higher lignin content of the kenaf core. The ratios of the syringyl and guaiacyl compounds in the pyrolysates from the core and cuticle samples were 2.79 and 6.83, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major pyrolysis product obtained from the kenaf alkali pulp, although glycol aldehyde and acetol were also produced in high yields, as previously observed for other cellulosic materials. Moreover, the pathways for the formation of the major pyrolysis products from alkali lignin and alkali pulp were also described, and new pyrolysis pathways for carbohydrates have been proposed herein. The end groups of carbohydrates bearing hemiacetal groups were subjected to ring opening and then they underwent further reactions, including further thermal degradation or ring reclosing. Variation of the ring-closing position resulted in the production of different compounds, such as furans, furanones, and cyclopentenones.

  1. Sulfate Resistance of Alkali Activated Pozzolans


    Bondar, Dali


    The consequence of sulfate attack on geopolymer concrete, made from an alkali activated natural pozzolan (AANP) has been studied in this paper. Changes in the compressive strength, expansion and capillary water absorption of specimens have been investigated combined with phases determination by means of X-ray diffraction. At the end of present investigation which was to evaluate the performance of natural alumina silica based geopolymer concrete in sodium and magnesium sulfate solution, the l...

  2. Surface modification by alkali and heat treatments in titanium alloys. (United States)

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Do Kim, Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwan Lee, Kyu


    Pure titanium and titanium alloys are normally used for orthopedic and dental prostheses. Nevertheless, their chemical, biological, and mechanical properties still can be improved by the development of new preparation technologies. This has been the limiting factor for these metals to show low affinity to living bone. The purpose of this study is to improve the bone-bonding ability between titanium alloys and living bone through a chemically activated process and a thermally activated one. Two kinds of titanium alloys, a newly designed Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy and a commercially available Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, were used in this study. In this study, surface modification of the titanium alloys by alkali and heat treatments (AHT), alkali treated in 5.0M NaOH solution, and heat treated in vacuum furnace at 600 degrees C, is reported. After AHT, the effects of the AHT on the bone integration property were evaluated in vitro. Surface morphologies of AHT were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical compositional surface changes were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Titanium alloys with surface modification by AHT showed improved bioactive behavior, and the Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy had better bioactivity than the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy in vitro.

  3. Maturing Defense Support of Civil Authorities and the Dual Status Commander Arrangement Through the Lens of Process Improvement (United States)


    Integrated ( CMMI ), among others. Recognizing the importance and utility of these methods , DoD, in 2007, established the Office of Con- tinuous...wasteful practices. Process improvement methods such as LSS and CMMI provide DoD with the necessary tech- niques to diagnose and improve critical...discusses the potential role of process improvement techniques as a method for improving unity of effort between state and federal military forces

  4. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Alkali-Silica Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chengzhi; WANG Aiqin


    The influence of silica fume,slag and fly ash on alkali-silica reaction under the condition of 70℃ is studied.The results show that silica,slag and fly ash may inhibit alkali-silica reaction only under suitable content.When the content is less than 10%,silica fume does not markedly influence the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 15%-20%,silica fume only may delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 30%-70%,slag may only delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction,but cannot inhibit the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 10%,fly ash does not markedly influence the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 20%-30%,fly ash may only delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction,but cannot inhibit the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is over 50%,it is possible that fly ash can inhibit effectively alkali-silica reaction.

  5. Numerical investigation of the impact of gas composition on the combustion process in a dual-fuel compression-ignition engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikulski, M.; Wierzbicki, S.


    This study discusses the model of operation of a dual-fuel compression-ignition engine, powered by gaseous fuel with an initial dose of diesel fuel as the ignition inhibitor. The study used a zero-dimensional multiphase mathematical model of a dual-fuel engine to simulate the impact of enhancing Nat

  6. Ion Pairing in Alkali Nitrate Electrolyte Solutions. (United States)

    Xie, Wen Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Yi Qin


    In this study, we investigate the thermodynamics of alkali nitrate salt solutions, especially the formation of contact ion pairs between alkali cation and nitrate anion. The ion-pairing propensity shows an order of LiNO3 activity coefficients and suggest that the empirical "law of matching water affinity" is followed by these alkali nitrate salt solutions. The spatial patterns of contact ion pairs are different in the three salt solutions studied here: Li(+) forms the contact ion pair with only one oxygen of the nitrate while Na(+) and K(+) can also be shared by two oxygens of the nitrate. In reproducing the salt activity coefficient using Kirkwood-Buff theory, we find that it is essential to include electronic polarization for Li(+) which has a high charge density. The electronic continuum correction for nonpolarizable force field significantly improves the agreement between the calculated activity coefficients and their experimental values. This approach also improves the performance of the force field on salt solubility. From these two aspects, this study suggests that electronic continuum correction can be a promising approach to force-field development for ions with high charge densities.

  7. Dual-Schemata Model (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  8. Dual leadership in a hospital practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thude, Bettina Ravnborg; Thomsen, Svend Erik; Stenager, Egon


    in the hospital context and develops a categorizing tool for being able to distinguish dual leadership teams from each other. It is important to reveal if there are any indicators that can be used for optimising dual leadership teams in the health-care sector and in other organisations......., this study aims to analyse three different dual leadership pairs at a Danish hospital. Furthermore, this study develops a tool to characterize dual leadership teams from each other. Design/methodology/approach This is a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Six leaders were interviewed...... that power balance, personal relations and decision processes are important factors for creating efficient dual leaderships. The study develops a categorizing tool to use for further research or for organizations, to describe and analyse dual leaderships. Originality/value The study describes dual leadership...

  9. Process Optimization of Dual-Laser Beam Welding of Advanced Al-Li Alloys Through Hot Cracking Susceptibility Modeling (United States)

    Tian, Yingtao; Robson, Joseph D.; Riekehr, Stefan; Kashaev, Nikolai; Wang, Li; Lowe, Tristan; Karanika, Alexandra


    Laser welding of advanced Al-Li alloys has been developed to meet the increasing demand for light-weight and high-strength aerospace structures. However, welding of high-strength Al-Li alloys can be problematic due to the tendency for hot cracking. Finding suitable welding parameters and filler material for this combination currently requires extensive and costly trial and error experimentation. The present work describes a novel coupled model to predict hot crack susceptibility (HCS) in Al-Li welds. Such a model can be used to shortcut the weld development process. The coupled model combines finite element process simulation with a two-level HCS model. The finite element process model predicts thermal field data for the subsequent HCS hot cracking prediction. The model can be used to predict the influences of filler wire composition and welding parameters on HCS. The modeling results have been validated by comparing predictions with results from fully instrumented laser welds performed under a range of process parameters and analyzed using high-resolution X-ray tomography to identify weld defects. It is shown that the model is capable of accurately predicting the thermal field around the weld and the trend of HCS as a function of process parameters.

  10. Extreme early solar system chemical fractionation recorded by alkali-rich clasts contained in ordinary chondrite breccias (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Misawa, Keiji; Okano, Osamu; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Simon, Justin I.; Tappa, Michael J.; Yoneda, Shigekazu


    New K-Ca and Rb-Sr isotopic analyses have been performed on alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in the Yamato (Y)-74442 and Bhola LL-chondritic breccias to better understand the extent and timing of alkali enrichments in the early solar system. The Y-74442 fragments yield a K-Ca age of 4.41 ± 0.28 Ga for λ(40K) = 0.5543 Ga-1 with an initial 40Ca/44Ca ratio of 47.1618 ± 0.0032. Studying the same fragments with the Rb-Sr isotope system yields an age of 4.420 ± 0.031 Ga for λ(87Rb) = 0.01402 Ga-1 with an initial ratio of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7203 ± 0.0044. An igneous rock fragment contained in Bhola shows a similar alkali fractionation pattern to those of Y-74442 fragments but does not plot on the K-Ca or Rb-Sr isochron of the Y-74442 fragments. Calcium isotopic compositions of whole-rock samples of angrite and chondrites are primordial, indistinguishable from mantle-derived terrestrial rocks, and here considered to represent the initial composition of bulk silicate Earth. The initial ε40Ca value determined for the source of the alkali clasts in Y-74442 that is ∼0.5 ε-units higher than the solar system value implies an early alkali enrichment. Multi-isotopic studies on these alkali-rich fragments reveal that the source material of Y-74442 fragments had elemental ratios of K/Ca = 0.43 ± 0.18, Rb/Sr = 3.45 ± 0.66 and K/Rb ∼ 170, that may have formed from mixtures of an alkali-rich component (possibly an alkali-enriched gaseous reservoir produced by fractionation of early nebular condensates) and chondritic components that were flash-heated during an impact event on the LL-chondrite parent body ∼4.42 Ga ago. Further enrichments of potassium and rubidium relative to calcium and strontium as well as a mutual alkali-fractionation (K/Rb ∼ 50 and heavier alkali-enrichment) would have likely occurred during subsequent cooling and differentiation of this melt. Alkali fragments in Bhola might have undergone similar solid-vapor fractionation processes to those of Y

  11. Numerical Studies on Controlling Gaseous Fuel Combustion by Managing the Combustion Process of Diesel Pilot Dose in a Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej


    Full Text Available Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.

  12. Applying a dual process model of self-regulation: The association between executive working memory capacity, negative urgency, and negative mood induction on pre-potent response inhibition. (United States)

    Gunn, Rachel L; Finn, Peter R


    This study tested a dual-process model of self-control where the combination of high impulsivity (negative urgency - NU), weak reflective / control processes (low executive working memory capacity - E-WMC), and a cognitive load is associated with increased failures to inhibit pre-potent responses on a cued go/no-go task. Using a within-subjects design, a cognitive load with and without negative emotional load was implemented to consider situational factors. Results suggested that: (1) high NU was associated with low E-WMC; (2) low E-WMC significantly predicted more inhibitory control failures across tasks; and (3) there was a significant interaction of E-WMC and NU, revealing those with low E-WMC and high NU had the highest rates of inhibitory control failures on all conditions of the task. In conclusion, results suggest that while E-WMC is a strong independent predictor of inhibitory control, NU provides additional information for vulnerability to problems associated with self-regulation.

  13. A passive UHF RFID tag chip with a dual-resolution temperature sensor in a 0.18μm standard CMOS process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Peng; Zhang Qi; Wu Nanjian


    This paper presents a passive EPC Gen-2 UHF RFID tag chip with a dual-resolution temperature sensor.The chip tag integrates a temperature sensor,an RF/analog front-end circuit,an NVM memory and a digital baseband in a standard CMOS process.The sensor with a low power sigma-delta (Σ△) ADC is designed to operate in low and high resolution modes.It can not only achieve the target accuracy but also reduce the power consumption and the sensing time.A CMOS-only RF rectifier and a single-poly non-volatile memory (NVM) are designed to realize a low cost tag chip.The 192-bit-NVM tag chip with an area of 1 mm2 is implemented in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS process.The sensitivity of the tag is -10.7 dBm/-8.4 dBm when the sensor is disabled/enabled.It achieves a maximum reading/sensing distance of 4 m/3.1 m at 2 W EIRP.The inaccuracy of the sensor is -0.6 ℃/0.5 ℃ (-1.0 ℃/1.2 ℃) in the operating range from 5 to 15 ℃ in high resolution mode (-30 to 50 ℃ in low resolution mode).The resolution of the sensor achieves 0.02 ℃ (0.18 ℃) in high (low) resolution mode.

  14. Visualization of the dissipation of energy during the cutting process. Presentation of energy value flows by means of dual energy signatures; Energieverschwendung beim Zerspanungsprozess sichtbar machen. Darstellung von Energiewertstroemen mittels dualer Energiesignaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillig, Rainer [Hochschule Aalen (Germany). Professur Fertigungsorganisation und Prozessmanagement; Kalhoefer, Eckehard [Hochschule Aalen (Germany). Stiftungslehrstuhl Spanende Fertigung; Stock, Timo [Hochschule Aalen (Germany). Studiengang Maschinenbau/Produktion und Management


    Lean production systems are the minimization of wastage. Therefore, process steps are divided in value-added and non-value-added process steps. Using the value stream analysis non-value-adding process shares can be identified easily.The main aim usually are the two factors processing time and inventory. By means of a cutting process, the authors of the paper under consideration report on a method which divides the process-related utilization of energy in value-adding and non-value-adding energy use. Due to the dual consideration of energy use, the energy consumption can be easily integrated in the value stream analysis.

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinical Trial of a Dual-Processing Treatment Protocol for Substance-Dependent Adults (United States)

    Matto, Holly C.; Hadjiyane, Maria C.; Kost, Michelle; Marshall, Jennifer; Wiley, Joseph; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Khatiwada, Manish; VanMeter, John W.


    Objectives: Empirical evidence suggests substance dependence creates stress system dysregulation which, in turn, may limit the efficacy of verbal-based treatment interventions, as the recovering brain may not be functionally capable of executive level processing. Treatment models that target implicit functioning are necessary. Methods: An RCT was…

  16. Thermalization of different alkali and alkali-earth elements at the TRI{mu}P facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidling, P.D., E-mail: P.Shidling@rug.n [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O.O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)


    Radioactive isotopes produced by the in-flight method are converted into low-energy ions with a thermal ionizer (TI) ion catcher, the operation of which is based on a hot cavity ion source. The extraction efficiency of the TI for different alkali and alkali-earth elements has been studied and compared to a model based on diffusion only. The model describes the stationary limit, i.e. the extraction efficiency, as well as the dynamic response of the TI output when the primary beam is switched on and off.

  17. (31)P Solid-State NMR study of the chemical setting process of a dual-paste injectable brushite cements. (United States)

    Legrand, A P; Sfihi, H; Lequeux, N; Lemaître, J


    The composition and evolution of a brushite-type calcium phosphate cement was investigated by Solid-State NMR and X-ray during the setting process. The cement is obtained by mixing beta-tricalcium phosphate [Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), beta-TCP] and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H(2)PO(4))(2).H(2)O, MCPM] in presence of water, with formation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate or brushite [CaHPO(2).2H(2)O, DCPD]. Analysis of the initial beta-TCP paste has shown the presence of beta-calcium pyrophosphate [Ca(2)P(2)O(7), beta-CPy] and that of the initial MCPM a mixture of MCPM and dicalcium phosphate [CaHPO(4), DCP]. Follow-up of the chemical composition by (31)P Solid-State NMR enables to show that the chemical setting process appeared to reach an end after 20 min. The constant composition observed at the end of the process was similarly determined.

  18. Edg8/S1P5: an oligodendroglial receptor with dual function on process retraction and cell survival. (United States)

    Jaillard, C; Harrison, S; Stankoff, B; Aigrot, M S; Calver, A R; Duddy, G; Walsh, F S; Pangalos, M N; Arimura, N; Kaibuchi, K; Zalc, B; Lubetzki, C


    Endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) proteins are G-protein-coupled receptors activated by lysophospholipid mediators: sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) or lysophosphatidic acid. We show that in the CNS, expression of Edg8/S1P5, a high-affinity S1P receptor, is restricted to oligodendrocytes and expressed throughout development from the immature stages to the mature myelin-forming cell. S1P activation of Edg8/S1P5 on O4-positive pre-oligodendrocytes induced process retraction via a Rho kinase/collapsin response-mediated protein signaling pathway, whereas no retraction was elicited by S1P on these cells derived from Edg8/S1P5-deficient mice. Edg8/S1P5-mediated process retraction was restricted to immature cells and was no longer observed at later developmental stages. In contrast, S1P activation promoted the survival of mature oligodendrocytes but not of pre-oligodendrocytes. The S1P-induced survival of mature oligodendrocytes was mediated through a pertussis toxin-sensitive, Akt-dependent pathway. Our data demonstrate that Edg8/S1P5 activation on oligodendroglial cells modulates two distinct functional pathways mediating either process retraction or cell survival and that these effects depend on the developmental stage of the cell.

  19. The mechanical properties and microstructures of vanadium bearing high strength dual phase steels processed with continuous galvanizing line simulations (United States)

    Gong, Yu

    For galvanized or galvannealed steels to be commercially successful, they must exhibit several attributes: (i) easy and inexpensive processing in the hot mill, cold mill and on the coating line, (ii) high strength with good formability and spot weldability, and (iii) good corrosion resistance. At the beginning of this thesis, compositions with a common base but containing various additions of V or Nb with or without high N were designed and subjected to Gleeble simulations of different galvanizing(GI), galvannealing(GA) and supercooling processing. The results revealed the phase balance was strongly influenced by the different microalloying additions, while the strengths of each phase were somewhat less affected. Our research revealed that the amount of austenite formed during intercritical annealing can be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature and the pre-annealing conditions of the hot band (coiling temperature) and cold band (% cold reduction). In the late part of this thesis, the base composition was a low carbon steel which would exhibit good spot weldability. To this steel were added two levels of Cr and Mo for strengthening the ferrite and increasing the hardenability of intercritically formed austenite. Also, these steels were produced with and without the addition of vanadium in an effort to further increase the strength. Since earlier studies revealed a relationship between the nature of the starting cold rolled microstructure and the response to CGL processing, the variables of hot band coiling temperature and level of cold reduction prior to annealing were also studied. Finally, in an effort to increase strength and ductility of both the final sheet (general formability) and the sheared edges of cold punched holes (local formability), a new thermal path was developed that replaced the conventional GI ferrite-martensite microstructure with a new ferrite-martensite-tempered martensite and retained austenite microstructure. The new

  20. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes. (United States)

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J


    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  1. Magnetic control of electrochemical processes at electrode surface using iron-rich graphene materials with dual functionality (United States)

    Lim, Chee Shan; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin


    Metal-doped graphene hybrid materials demonstrate promising capabilities in catalysis and various sensing applications. There also exists great interest for on-demand control of the selectivity of many electrochemical processes. In this work, an iron-doped thermally reduced graphene oxide (Fe-TRGO) was prepared and used to investigate the possibility of a reproducible, magnetically controlled method to modulate electrochemical reactivities through a scalable method. We made use of the presence of both magnetic and electrocatalytic properties in the Fe-TRGOs to induce attraction and removal of the Fe-TRGO material onto and off the working electrode surfaces magnetically, thereby controlling the electrochemical oxidation and reduction processes. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the Fe-TRGO material was evident, with enhanced current signals and lower peak potentials observed upon magnetic activation. Reversible and reproducible cycles of activation and deactivation were obtained as the peak heights and peak potentials remained relatively consistent with no apparent carryover between every step. Both components of Fe-TRGO play an electrocatalytic role in the electrochemical sensing. In the cases of the oxygen reduction reaction and reduction of cumene hydroperoxide, the iron oxide plays the role of an electrocatalyst, while in the cases of ascorbic acid, the enhanced electroactivity originates from the high surface area of the graphene portion in the Fe-TRGO hybrid material. The feasibility of this magnetically switchable method for on-demand sensing and energy production thus brings about potential developments for future electrochemical applications.

  2. Past tense in the brain's time: neurophysiological evidence for dual-route processing of past-tense verbs. (United States)

    Bakker, Iske; Macgregor, Lucy J; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury


    A controversial issue in neuro- and psycholinguistics is whether regular past-tense forms of verbs are stored lexically or generated productively by the application of abstract combinatorial schemas, for example affixation rules. The success or failure of models in accounting for this particular issue can be used to draw more general conclusions about cognition and the degree to which abstract, symbolic representations and rules are psychologically and neurobiologically real. This debate can potentially be resolved using a neurophysiological paradigm, in which alternative predictions of the brain response patterns for lexical and syntactic processing are put to the test. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record neural responses to spoken monomorphemic words ('hide'), pseudowords ('smide'), regular past-tense forms ('cried') and ungrammatical (overregularised) past-tense forms ('flied') in a passive listening oddball paradigm, in which lexically and syntactically modulated stimuli are known to elicit distinct patterns of the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response. We observed an enhanced ('lexical') MMN to monomorphemic words relative to pseudowords, but a reversed ('syntactic') MMN to ungrammatically inflected past tenses relative to grammatical forms. This dissociation between responses to monomorphemic and bimorphemic stimuli indicates that regular past tenses are processed more similarly to syntactic sequences than to lexically stored monomorphemic words, suggesting that regular past tenses are generated productively by the application of a combinatorial scheme to their separately represented stems and affixes. We suggest discrete combinatorial neuronal assemblies, which bind classes of sequentially occurring lexical elements into morphologically complex units, as the neurobiological basis of regular past tense inflection.

  3. Simultaneous recording of EEG and fNIRS during visuo-spatial and facial expression processing in a dual task paradigm. (United States)

    Herrmann, Martin J; Neueder, Dorothea; Troeller, Anna K; Schulz, Stefan M


    Emotional processing is probably the most crucial tool for orienting oneself in our everyday social life and has been considered to be highly automatic for a long time. Dual task (DT) research shows that information competing for working memory resources impairs the identification of emotional facial expressions. Effects of cognitive load in DT paradigms have been confirmed in numerous neuroimaging studies. However, interference occurring during a DT comprised of decoding emotional facial expressions and a visuo-spatial working memory task has yet to be visualized. To investigate the DT interference effect on brain areas associated not only with working memory, but also emotional and visuo-spatial processing, we recorded brain activation within the prefrontal cortex and parietal-occipital sensory areas using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) simultaneously. Our study consisted of N = 36 participants (27 female) performing the following tasks: a) Corsi blocks, b) identification of emotional facial expressions or c) DT comprising of tasks a) and b). We predicted higher activation of the prefrontal cortex during DT and corresponding reduced P100 and P300 amplitudes. As expected, fNIRS measurements revealed significantly higher neuronal activation within the prefrontal cortex in the DT condition. When comparing DT to the single tasks, the P100 amplitude was reduced, but the P300 amplitude did not show the expected reduction. Our findings underline that at least some aspects of emotional processing are not entirely automatic, but depend on prefrontal control and are therefore affected by cognitive load, in particular visuo-spatial working memory resources.

  4. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process. (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Hong


    The present study is focused on the application of recovered coagulant (RC) by acidification from drinking water treatment residuals for both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in electrocoagulation. To do this, real cotton textile wastewater was used as a target pollutant, and decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were monitored. A preliminary test indicated that a stainless steel electrode combined with RC significantly accelerated decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, by about 52% and 56%, respectively, even at an operating time of 5 min. A single electrocoagulation system meanwhile requires at least 40 min to attain the similar removal performances. Subsequently, the interactive effect of three independent variables (applied voltage, initial pH, and reaction time) on the response variables (decolorization and COD removal) was evaluated, and these parameters were statistically optimized using the response surface methodology. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination values (decolorization, R(2) = 0.9925 and COD removal, R(2) = 0.9973) and satisfactory prediction second-order polynomial quadratic regression models. Average decolorization and COD removal of 89.52% and 94.14%, respectively, were achieved, corresponding to 97.8% and 98.1% of the predicted values under statistically optimized conditions. The results suggest that the RC effectively played a dual role of both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in the electrocoagulation process.

  5. Dual learning processes underlying human decision-making in reversal learning tasks: Functional significance and evidence from the model fit to human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eBai


    Full Text Available Humans are capable of correcting their actions based on actions performed in the past, and this ability enables them to adapt to a changing environment. The computational field of reinforcement learning (RL has provided a powerful explanation for understanding such processes. Recently, the dual learning system, modeled as a hybrid model that incorporates value update based on reward-prediction error and learning rate modulation based on the surprise signal, has gained attention as a model for explaining various neural signals. However, the functional significance of the hybrid model has not been established. In the present study, we used computer simulation in a reversal learning task to address functional significance. The hybrid model was found to perform better than the standard RL model in a large parameter setting. These results suggest that the hybrid model is more robust against mistuning of parameters compared to the standard RL model when decision makers continue to learn stimulus-reward contingencies, which make an abrupt changes. The parameter fitting results also indicated that the hybrid model fit better than the standard RL model for more than 50% of the participants, which suggests that the hybrid model has more explanatory power for the behavioral data than the standard RL model.

  6. Structural evolution, thermomechanical recrystallization and electrochemical corrosion properties of Ni-Cu-Mg amorphous coating on mild steel fabricated by dual-anode electrolytic processing (United States)

    Abdulwahab, M.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Popoola, A. P. I.


    The electrolytic Ni-Cu based alloy coating with admixed interfacial blend of Mg have been successfully prepared on mild steel substrate by dual anode electroplating processes over a range of applied current density and dwell time. The electrocodeposition of Ni-Cu-Mg coating was investigated in the presence of other bath additives. The influence of deposition current on surface morphology, adhesion behavior, preferred crystal orientation, surface topography and electrochemical activity of Ni-Cu-Mg alloy coating on mild steel were systematically examined. The thermal stability of the developed composite materials was examined via isothermal treatment. Scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS, X-ray diffraction, Atomic force microscope, micro-hardness tester and 3 μmetrohm Potentiostat/galvanostat were used to compare untreated and isothermally treated electrocodeposited composite. The induced activity of the Ni-Cu-Mg alloy changed the surface modification and results to crystal precipitation within the structural interface by the formation of Cu, Ni2Mg3 phase. The obtained results showed that the introduction of Mg particles in the plating bath generally modified the surface and brings an increase in the hardness and corrosion resistance of Ni-Cu-Mg layers fabricated. Equally, isothermally treated composites demonstrated an improved properties indicating 45% increase in the micro-hardness and 79.6% corrosion resistance which further showed that the developed composite is thermally stable.

  7. 红外双波段点目标双色比分析与处理%Analysis and processing of infrared dual waveband radiation ratio based point target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文博; 王英瑞


    Infrared dual waveband radiation ratio can denote the blackbody’s temperature information, and can be used for temperature measurement. When using infrared dual waveband radiation ratio to measure the temperature of point target, it is difficult to achieve high-accuracy because of various kinds of noises. The recurrence plot theory was used to analyze the non-station of infrared dual waveband radiation ratio. According to the non-station of infrared dual waveband radiation ratio, the target’s response signal in IR single waveband was processed by moving average filter. The IR dual waveband radiation ratio was processed by wavelet soft-threshold filter. Experimental result indicate that, when the SNR>12, 1 K temperature accuracy can be achieved with above processing method for static point target, and 2 K temperature accuracy can be achieved for slow moving point target.%红外双色比能够表征目标的温度信息,但点目标双色比受噪声、探测器盲闪元以及跨像元因素干扰,难以准确测量,影响测温精度。应用递归图法定性分析和判断了点目标双色比的非平稳性。针对这一特性,先对点目标信号应用移动平均滤波做预处理,再通过小波软阈值去噪对双色比进行降噪处理。试验结果表明,在信噪比大于12的条件下,该方法可以实现静态点目标1 K温度分辨率,慢速动态点目标2K温度分辨率。

  8. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part I: characterisation of the catalytic activity and surface structure

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.078208jes


    A new dual plasma coating process to produce platinum-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in a fuel cell is introduced. The catalysts thus produced were analysed with various methods. Electrochemical characterisation was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring- and rotating ring-disk electrode. The surface porosity of the different catalysts thus obtained was characterised with the nitrogen gas adsorption technique and scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the growth mechanisms of the films. It is shown that catalytically active compounds can be produced with this dual plasma process. Furthermore, the catalytic activity can be varied significantly by changing the plasma process parameters. The amount of H$_2$O$_2$ produced was calculated and shows that a 2 electron mechanism is predominant. The plasma coating mechanism does not significantly change the surface BET area and pore size distribution of the carbon support used. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy pictures o...

  9. Pretreatment of corn stover by combining ionic liquid dissolution with alkali extraction. (United States)

    Geng, Xinglian; Henderson, Wesley A


    Pretreatment plays an important role in the efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuels. A highly effective pretreatment method is reported for corn stover which combines mild alkali-extraction followed by ionic liquid (IL) dissolution of the polysaccharides and regeneration (recovery of the polysaccharides as solids). Air-dried, knife-milled corn stover was soaked in 1% NaOH at a moderate condition (90°C, 1 h) and then thoroughly washed with hot deionized (DI) water. The alkali extraction solublized 75% of the lignin and 37% of the hemicellulose. The corn stover fibers became softer and smoother after the alkali extraction. Unextracted and extracted corn stover samples were separately dissolved in an IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C(4) mimCl), at 130°C for 2 h and then regenerated with DI water. The IL dissolution process did not significantly change the chemical composition of the materials, but did alter their structural features. Untreated and treated corn stover samples were hydrolyzed with commercial enzyme preparations including cellulases and hemicellulases at 50°C. The glucose yield from the corn stover sample that was both alkali-extracted and IL-dissolved was 96% in 5 h of hydrolysis. This is a highly effective methodology for minimizing the enzymatic loading for biomass hydrolysis and/or maximizing the conversion of biomass polysaccharides into sugars.

  10. Mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated fly ash geopolymers. (United States)

    Komljenović, M; Bascarević, Z; Bradić, V


    This paper investigates the properties of geopolymer obtained by alkali-activation of fly ash (FA), i.e. the influence of characteristics of the representative group of FA (class F) from Serbia, as well as that of the nature and concentration of various activators on mechanical and microstructural properties of geopolymers. Aqueous solutions of Ca(OH)(2), NaOH, NaOH+Na(2)CO(3), KOH and sodium silicate (water glass) of various concentrations were used as alkali activators. It was established that the nature and concentration of the activator was the most dominant parameter in the alkali-activation process. In respect of physical characteristics of FA, the key parameter was fineness. The geopolymer based on FA with the highest content of fine particles (<43 microm), showed the highest compressive strength in all cases. Regardless of FA characteristics, nature and concentration of the activator, the alkali-activation products were mainly amorphous. The formation of crystalline phases (zeolites) occurred in some cases, depending on the reaction conditions. The highest compressive strength was obtained using sodium silicate. Together with the increase of sodium silicate SiO(2)/Na(2)O mass ratio, the atomic Si/Al ratio in the reaction products was also increased. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, high strength was directly related to the high Si/Al ratio.

  11. Microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell for acid and alkali production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping


    A new type of bioelectrochemical system, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell (MRCC), was developed to produce acid and alkali using energy derived from organic matter (acetate) and salinity gradients (NaCl solutions representative of seawater and river water). A bipolar membrane (BPM) was placed next to the anode to prevent Cl- contamination and acidification of the anolyte, and to produce protons for HCl recovery. A 5-cell paired reverse-electrodialysis (RED) stack provided the electrical energy required to overcome the BPM over-potential (0.3-0.6 V), making the overall process spontaneous. The MRCC reactor produced electricity (908 mW/m2) as well as concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions, and therefore did not require an external power supply. After a fed-batch cycle, the pHs of the chemical product solutions were 1.65 ± 0.04 and 11.98 ± 0.10, due to the production of 1.35 ± 0.13 mmol of acid, and 0.59 ± 0.14 mmol of alkali. The acid- and alkali-production efficiencies based on generated current were 58 ± 3% and 25 ± 3%. These results demonstrated proof-of-concept acid and alkali production using only renewable energy sources. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. The dual process of adolescent immigration and relocation: from country to country and from childhood to adolescence--its reflection in psychodynamic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Sharabany, Ruth; Israeli, Etziona


    This chapter presents psychological issues and processes in adolescent patients who have also migrated or relocated from one country to another. Theoretical perspectives related to attachment processes illumine both migration and adolescence as changes for which secure bases are most needed, lost, and sometimes rediscovered. The psychodynamic processes underlying the difficulties encountered by such adolescents, and their meaning, are presented. Relationships with parents, which normally go through separation-individuation and renegotiation of the oedipal crisis, both of which are central to adolescence, are disrupted by migration. Migration poses new challenges and choices while identity formation is evolving during adolescence. These include adopting a new identity, embracing and letting go of the old, and accepting and integrating the new. The dual relationship with identity finds expression, for example, in language. Fluctuations in understanding and not understanding the new and the old language represent the ambivalence toward the new and the old. The developmental roller-coaster of adolescence, which involves more intense use of defense mechanisms, is heightened during immigration. Processes of idealization (of parents, therapist, old country, new culture) rapidly fade with the devaluation of the same targets. Mechanisms of splitting between good and bad, as well as massive repression of issues that are too hard to deal with at this crossroad, are profuse. Hopeful fantasies of rebirth are concurrent with despair, depression, and, in some cases, suicidal thoughts and attempts. Excerpts from a case in psychodynamic psychotherapy are presented, focusing on the evolving new balances: integrating the old and the new by maintaining attachments to the one while forming attachments to the other; relinquishing and mourning the lost paradise of childhood, as well as the old country, friends, culture, smells, and tastes; accepting disappointments when the shining new

  13. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references.

  14. Strong Turbulence in Alkali Halide Negative Ion Plasmas (United States)

    Sheehan, Daniel


    Negative ion plasmas (NIPs) are charge-neutral plasmas in which the negative charge is dominated by negative ions rather than electrons. They are found in laser discharges, combustion products, semiconductor manufacturing processes, stellar atmospheres, pulsar magnetospheres, and the Earth's ionosphere, both naturally and man-made. They often display signatures of strong turbulence^1. Development of a novel, compact, unmagnetized alkali halide (MX) NIP source will be discussed, it incorporating a ohmically-heated incandescent (2500K) tantulum solenoid (3cm dia, 15 cm long) with heat shields. The solenoid ionizes the MX vapor and confines contaminant electrons, allowing a very dry (electron-free) source. Plasma densities of 10^10 cm-3 and positive to negative ion mass ratios of 1 Fusion 4, 91 (1978).

  15. Mechanical Properties and Eco-Efficiency of Steel Fiber Reinforced Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete


    Sun-Woo Kim; Seok-Joon Jang; Dae-Hyun Kang; Kyung-Lim Ahn; Hyun-Do Yun


    Conventional concrete production that uses ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a binder seems unsustainable due to its high energy consumption, natural resource exhaustion and huge carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. To transform the conventional process of concrete production to a more sustainable process, the replacement of high energy-consumptive PC with new binders such as fly ash and alkali-activated slag (AAS) from available industrial by-products has been recognized as an alternative. This p...

  16. A passive UHF RFID tag chip with a dual-resolution temperature sensor in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process (United States)

    Peng, Feng; Qi, Zhang; Nanjian, Wu


    This paper presents a passive EPC Gen-2 UHF RFID tag chip with a dual-resolution temperature sensor. The chip tag integrates a temperature sensor, an RF/analog front-end circuit, an NVM memory and a digital baseband in a standard CMOS process. The sensor with a low power sigma—delta (ΣΔ) ADC is designed to operate in low and high resolution modes. It can not only achieve the target accuracy but also reduce the power consumption and the sensing time. A CMOS-only RF rectifier and a single-poly non-volatile memory (NVM) are designed to realize a low cost tag chip. The 192-bit-NVM tag chip with an area of 1 mm2 is implemented in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS process. The sensitivity of the tag is -10.7 dBm/-8.4 dBm when the sensor is disabled/enabled. It achieves a maximum reading/sensing distance of 4 m/3.1 m at 2 W EIRP. The inaccuracy of the sensor is -0.6 °C/0.5 °C (-1.0 °C/1.2 °C) in the operating range from 5 to 15 °C in high resolution mode (-30 to 50 °C in low resolution mode). The resolution of the sensor achieves 0.02 °C (0.18 °C) in high (low) resolution mode.

  17. The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence. (United States)

    Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello


    The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens.

  18. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis of electrical properties in alkali metal-doped amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors. (United States)

    Lim, Keon-Hee; Kim, Kyongjun; Kim, Seonjo; Park, Si Yun; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Youn Sang


    Solution-processed and alkali metals, such as Li and Na, are introduced in doped amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor TFTs, which show better electrical performance, such as improved field effect mobility, than intrinsic amorphous ZTO semiconductor TFTs. Furthermore, by using spectroscopic UV-visible analysis we propose a comprehensive technique for monitoring the improved electrical performance induced by alkali metal doping in terms of the change in optical properties. The change in the optical bandgap supported by the Burstein-Moss theory could successfully show a mobility increase that is related to interstitial doping of alkali metal in ZTO semiconductors.

  19. Dual-stream accounts bridge the gap between monkey audition and human language processing. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael Arbib (United States)

    Garrod, Simon; Pickering, Martin J.


    Over the last few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dual-stream dorsal-ventral accounts of language processing [4]. This has led to recent attempts to bridge the gap between the neurobiology of primate audition and human language processing with the dorsal auditory stream assumed to underlie time-dependent (and syntactic) processing and the ventral to underlie some form of time-independent (and semantic) analysis of the auditory input [3,10]. Michael Arbib [1] considers these developments in relation to his earlier Mirror System Hypothesis about the origins of human language processing [11].

  20. Effects of Cognitive Complexity and Emotional Upset on Processing Supportive Messages: Two Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Supportive Communication Outcomes (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D.; Burleson, Brant R.; Holmstrom, Amanda J.; McCullough, Jennifer D.; Rack, Jessica J.; Hanasono, Lisa K.; Rosier, Jennifer G.


    We report tests of hypotheses derived from a theory of supportive communication outcomes that maintains the effects of supportive messages are moderated by factors influencing the motivation and ability to process these messages. Participants in two studies completed a measure of cognitive complexity, which provided an assessment of processing…

  1. High-Order Dispersion Coefficients for Alkali-metal Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Shuai; DING Chi-Kun; CHEN Chang-Yong; WU Xue-Qing


    High-order dispersion coefficients C9,C11,C12,and C13 for the ground-state alkali-metals were calculated by combining the l-dependent model potential of alkali-metal atoms and linear variation method based on B-spline basis functions.The results were compared.

  2. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag (United States)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.


    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  3. Dual cure photocatalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoe, R.J.; Brown-Wensley, K.A.; Holmes, G.L.; Mathis, M.D.; McCormick, F.B.; Palazzotto, M.C.; Spurgeon, K.M. (Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co., St. Paul, MN (USA). Corporate Research Labs.)


    A family of dual cure photocatalyst systems is being developed to be used in the solventless processing of organic coatings. The photocatalyst systems consist of organometallic compounds often in combination with other agents. Upon photolysis, the photocatalyst system generates a Lewis acid and a free radical. The Lewis acid can initiate the polymerization of epoxies or the addition of isocyanates and polyols to form polyurethanes while the free radical can initiate the polymerization of acrylates. The performance of the various photocatalyst systems will be compared on the basis of the physical properties of the cured compositions they produce. 17 figs.

  4. IRMPD Action Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Cation-Cytosine Complexes: Effects of Alkali Metal Cation Size on Gas Phase Conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Wu, R.R.; Polfer, N.C.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M.T.


    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both simi

  5. Behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds from coal gasification; Kaasumaisten alkaliyhdisteiden kaeyttaeytyminen kivihiilen kaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykaenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds has been studied with a chemical equilibrium model. The goal is to evaluate the possibilities to remove the sodium and potassium compounds together with the fly ash particles by using a ceramic honeycomb filter. The studied processes include both CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}- and air-blown gasification and combustion. The results show that the difference between the processes with flue gas recirculation and air-blown processes is small. This is due to that the equilibrium concentration of the dominant gaseous alkali compound, chloride, is more or less the same in both processes. This research project is closely connected to the EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali concentration of the fuel gas from a 1.6 MW pilot plant will be measured. During the next phase of this research the results from DUT will be compared with the results of this presentation. (author)

  6. Alkali production associated with malolactic fermentation by oral streptococci and protection against acid, oxidative, or starvation damage. (United States)

    Sheng, Jiangyun; Baldeck, Jeremiah D; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Quivey, Robert G; Marquis, Robert E


    Alkali production by oral streptococci is considered important for dental plaque ecology and caries moderation. Recently, malolactic fermentation (MLF) was identified as a major system for alkali production by oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans. Our major objectives in the work described in this paper were to further define the physiology and genetics of MLF of oral streptococci and its roles in protection against metabolic stress damage. L-Malic acid was rapidly fermented to L-lactic acid and CO(2) by induced cells of wild-type S. mutans, but not by deletion mutants for mleS (malolactic enzyme) or mleP (malate permease). Mutants for mleR (the contiguous regulator gene) had intermediate capacities for MLF. Loss of capacity to catalyze MLF resulted in loss of capacity for protection against lethal acidification. MLF was also found to be protective against oxidative and starvation damage. The capacity of S. mutans to produce alkali from malate was greater than its capacity to produce acid from glycolysis at low pH values of 4 or 5. MLF acted additively with the arginine deiminase system for alkali production by Streptococcus sanguinis, but not with urease of Streptococcus salivarius. Malolactic fermentation is clearly a major process for alkali generation by oral streptococci and for protection against environmental stresses.

  7. Reaction of chromalumozirconium refractory with alkali-free borosilicate glass melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, O.N.; Frolova, V.P.


    The corrosion mechanism of chromalumozirconium refractory synthesized on the base of the Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-ZrO/sub 2/-SiO/sub 2/ system by the alkali-free borosilicate ''E'' glass melt is investigated. It is estalished that in the process of refractory destruction the diffusion zonality is formed in it being a reflection of comparative migration activity of refractory components.

  8. Phenolic stabilisers extraction constants of polypropylene geotextiles determination in alkali medium


    Farcas, Fabienne; Fayolle, Bruno; Azzouz, Mériam; Richaud, Emmanuel


    The use of geotextiles made of polypropylene (PP) in civil engineering such as tunnel requieres adequates control over their durability, and this characteristic remains poorly known due to their inaccessibility. Considering concrete environment ageing conditions (alkali medium i.e. pH = 9 to 13), the aim of this study is to complete a non-empirical kinetic model for polypropylene ageing by the determination of the extraction parameters a frequently used phenolic process stabilisers: Irganox 1...

  9. Thermoluminescence of alkali halides and its implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartia, R.K., E-mail: [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Rey, L. [Aerial-CRT-parc d' Innovation, B.P. 40443, F-67412 Illkirch Cedex (France); Tejkumar Singh, Th. [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Basanta Singh, Th. [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)


    Trapping levels present in some alkali halides namely NaCl, KCl, KBr, and KI are determined by deconvolution of the thermoluminescence (TL) curves. Unlike most of the studies undertaken over the last few decades, we have presented a comprehensive picture of the phenomenon of TL as an analytical technique capable of revealing the position of the trapping levels present in the materials. We show that for all practical purposes, TL can be described involving only the three key trapping parameters, namely, the activation energy (E), the frequency factor (s), and the order of kinetics (b) even for complex glow curves having a number of TL peaks. Finally, based on these, we logically infer the importance of TL in development and characterization of materials used in dosimetry, dating and scintillation.

  10. Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Susanne; Wong, Jared; Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Padmore, Howard; Ruiz-Osés, Miguel; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik; Ding, Zihao; Gaowei, Mengjia; Attenkofer, Klaus; Liang, Xue; Xie, Junqi; Kühn, Julius


    Bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes are one of the best known sources of electrons for high current and/or high bunch charge applications like Energy Recovery Linacs or Free Electron Lasers. Despite their high quantum efficiency in visible light and low intrinsic emittance, the surface roughness of these photocathodes prohibits their use as low emittance cathodes in high accelerating gradient superconducting and normal conducting radio frequency photoguns and limits the minimum possible intrinsic emittance near the threshold. Also, the growth process for these materials is largely based on recipes obtained by trial and error and is very unreliable. In this paper, using X-ray diffraction, we investigate the different structural and chemical changes that take place during the growth process of the bi-alkali antimonide material K2CsSb. Our measurements give us a deeper understanding of the growth process of alkali-antimonide photocathodes allowing us to optimize it with the goal of minimizing the surface roughness to preserve the intrinsic emittance at high electric fields and increasing its reproducibility.

  11. Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Susanne; Wong, Jared; Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Padmore, Howard; Ruiz-Osés, Miguel; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik; Ding, Zihao; Gaowei, Mengjia; Attenkofer, Klaus; Liang, Xue; Xie, Junqi; Kühn, Julius


    Bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes are one of the best known sources of electrons for high current and/or high bunch charge applications like Energy Recovery Linacs or Free Electron Lasers. Despite their high quantum efficiency in visible light and low intrinsic emittance, the surface roughness of these photocathodes prohibits their use as low emittance cathodes in high accelerating gradient superconducting and normal conducting radio frequency photoguns and limits the minimum possible intrinsic emittance near the threshold. Also, the growth process for these materials is largely based on recipes obtained by trial and error and is very unreliable. In this paper, using X-ray diffraction, we investigate the different structural and chemical changes that take place during the growth process of the bi-alkali antimonide material K2CsSb. Our measurements give us a deeper understanding of the growth process of alkali-antimonide photocathodes allowing us to optimize it with the goal of minimizing the surface roughness to preserve the intrinsic emittance at high electric fields and increasing its reproducibility.

  12. Catalytically active Au-O(OH)x-species stabilized by alkali ions on zeolites and mesoporous oxides. (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Li, Sha; Wang, Yuan; Herron, Jeffrey A; Xu, Ye; Allard, Lawrence F; Lee, Sungsik; Huang, Jun; Mavrikakis, Manos; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria


    We report that the addition of alkali ions (sodium or potassium) to gold on KLTL-zeolite and mesoporous MCM-41 silica stabilizes mononuclear gold in Au-O(OH)x-(Na or K) ensembles. This single-site gold species is active for the low-temperature (alkali ions and establishing an active site on various supports. The intrinsic activity of the single-site gold species is the same on irreducible supports as on reducible ceria, iron oxide, and titania supports, apparently all sharing a common, similarly structured gold active site. This finding paves the way for using earth-abundant supports to disperse and stabilize precious metal atoms with alkali additives for the WGS and potentially other fuel-processing reactions.

  13. Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce processing plant. (United States)

    Liu, Nancy T; Nou, Xiangwu; Bauchan, Gary R; Murphy, Charles; Lefcourt, Alan M; Shelton, Daniel R; Lo, Y Martin


    Biofilm-forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been shown to promote the incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into dual-species biofilms. In this study, interactions between E. coli O157:H7 and R. insidiosa were examined under different incubating conditions. Under static culture conditions, the incorporation of E. coli O157:H7 into biofilms with R. insidiosa was not significantly affected by either low incubating temperature (10°C) or by limited nutrient availability. Greater enhancement of E. coli O157:H7 incorporation in dual-species biofilms was observed by using a continuous culture system with limited nutrient availability. Under the continuous culture conditions used in this study, E coli O157:H7 cells showed a strong tendency of colocalizing with R. insidiosa on a glass surface at the early stage of biofilm formation. As the biofilms matured, E coli O157:H7 cells were mostly found at the bottom layer of the dual-species biofilms, suggesting an effective protection by R. insidiosa in the mature biofilms.

  14. System Design as a Three-Phase Dual-Loop (TPDL) Process: Types of Knowledge-Applied Sources of Feedback, and Student Development as Independent Learners (United States)

    Barak, Moshe


    This study aimed at exploring how high school students deal with designing an information system, for example, for a small business or a medical clinic, the extent to which students develop as independent learners while working on their projects, and the factors that help or hinder fostering students' design skills. The three-phase dual-loop…

  15. Influence of alkalis from different sources than cement in the evolution of alkali-silica reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olague, C.


    Full Text Available A bibliographical revision of the existent literature allows showing symptoms of alkali-silica reaction (ASR in highways, and the practical and economic method uranyl acetate to confirm the presence of ASR. The existence of reaction in concrete pavements of Chihuahua City was verified by a visual observation of patterns cracks, examination of gel deposits and the presence of reactive materials. Considering that the cement used to construct this pavements with problems of ASR, was low alkalis cement, the research was devoted to study the influence of alkalis coming from different sources than cement in the evolution of reaction such as: a aggregates: gravel and sand, b mix water, c additives and d minerals additions The initial classification of cements like high and low alkalis concerned to ASR must be revised for accept the fact that there is not a unique maximum limit alkalis of cement under which the expansible reactivity cannot occur.

    Una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura existente permite mostrar las manifestaciones de reacción álcali-sílice (RAS en estructuras de carreteras y el método práctico y económico de acetato de uranilo para confirmar la presencia de RAS. La existencia de la reacción en pavimentos de hormigón de la ciudad de Chihuahua se pudo confirmar tras la observación visual de modelos de grietas, estudios de depósitos de gel y existencia de fuentes de materiales reactivos. Considerando que el cemento utilizado para construir los tramos de pavimento con problemas de RAS, era un cemento bajo en álcalis, se enfocó la investigación al estudio de la influencia de los álcalis provenientes de fuentes distintas al cemento en la evolución de la reacción tales como: a áridos gruesos y finos, b agua de mezclado, c aditivos y d adiciones minerales El concepto inicial de clasificación de cementos altos y bajos en álcalis con respecto a la RAS debe ser revisado para aceptar el hecho de que no hay un solo

  16. Pi resonance of chemisorbed alkali atoms on noble metals. (United States)

    Borisov, A G; Sametoglu, V; Winkelmann, A; Kubo, A; Pontius, N; Zhao, J; Silkin, V M; Gauyacq, J P; Chulkov, E V; Echenique, P M; Petek, H


    We have performed a joint experimental and theoretical study of the unoccupied electronic structure of alkali adsorbates on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ag. Combining angle- and time-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy with wave packet propagation calculations we show that, along with the well known sigma resonance oriented along the surface normal, there exist long-lived alkali-localized resonances oriented parallel to the surface (pi symmetry). These new resonances are stabilized by the projected band gap of the substrate and emerge primarily from the mixing of the p and d Rydberg orbitals of the free alkali atom modified by the interaction with the surface.

  17. Important role of alkali atoms in A4C60


    Gunnarsson, O.; Erwin, S. C.; Koch, E.; Martin, R. M.


    We show that hopping via the alkali atoms plays an important role for the t1u band of A4C60 (A=K, Rb), in strong contrast to A3C60. Thus the t1u band is broadened by more than 40 % by the presence of the alkali atoms. The difference between A4C60 and A3C60 is in particular due to the less symmetric location of the alkali atoms in A4C60.

  18. Isolation of Bacillus sp. strains capable of decomposing alkali lignin and their application in combination with lactic acid bacteria for enhancing cellulase performance. (United States)

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Dubok; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Shintaro


    Effective biological pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was investigated. Two alkali lignin-degrading bacteria were isolated from forest soils in Japan and named CS-1 and CS-2. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that CS-1 and CS-2 were Bacillus sp. Strains CS-1 and CS-2 displayed alkali lignin degradation capability. With initial concentrations of 0.05-2.0 g L(-1), at least 61% alkali lignin could be degraded within 48 h. High laccase activities were observed in crude enzyme extracts from the isolated strains. This result indicated that alkali lignin degradation was correlated with laccase activities. Judging from the net yields of sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis, the most effective pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was a two-step processing procedure (pretreatment using Bacillus sp. CS-1 followed by lactic acid bacteria) at 68.6%. These results suggest that the two-step pretreatment procedure is effective at accelerating cellulase performance.

  19. Wavelength diversity in optically pumped alkali vapor lasers (United States)

    Perram, Glen P.


    Alternative wavelengths for optically pumped alkali vapor lasers have been developed using single photon excitation of higher lying P-states, stimulated Raman processes, two-photon excitation of S and D states, and electric quadruple excitation on S-D transitions. Two photon excitation of Cs 72D leads to competing and cascade lasing producing red and infrared lasers operating on the D-P transitions, followed by ultraviolet, blue, the standard near infrared DPAL transitions operating on P-S transitions. The S-D pump transitions are fully bleached at pump intensities exceeding 1 MW/cm2, allowing for lasing transitions that terminate on the ground state. The kinetics of these systems are complex due to competition for population inversion among the many optical transitions. An optically pumped mid-infrared rubidium pulsed, mirrorless laser has also been demonstrated in a heat pipe along both the 62P3/2 - 62S1/2 transition at 2.73 μm and the 62P1/2 - 62S1/2 transition at 2.79 μm with a maximum energy of 100 nJ. Performance improves dramatically as the rubidium vapor density is increased, in direct contradiction with the prior work. No scaling limitations associated with energy pooling or ionization kinetics have been observed. Practical application for infrared counter measures depends on the further development of blue diode pump sources. Finally, stimulated electronic Raman scattering and hyper-Raman processes in potassium vapor near the D1 and D2 lines have been observed using a stable resonator and pulsed laser excitation. First and second order Stokes and anti-Stokes lines were observed simultaneously and independently for a pump laser tuning range exceeding 70 cm-1. When the pump is tuned between the K D1 and D2 lines, an efficient hyper-Raman process dominates with a slope efficiency that exceeds 10%. Raman shifted laser may be useful as a target illuminator or atmospheric compensation beacon for a high power diode pumped alkali laser.

  20. "Doubly magic" conditions in magic-wavelength trapping of ultracold alkali-metal atoms. (United States)

    Derevianko, Andrei


    In experiments with trapped atoms, atomic energy levels are shifted by the trapping optical and magnetic fields. Regardless of this strong perturbation, precision spectroscopy may be still carried out using specially crafted, "magic" trapping fields. Finding these conditions for particularly valuable microwave transitions in alkali-metal atoms has so far remained an open challenge. Here I demonstrate that the microwave transitions in alkali-metal atoms may be indeed made impervious to both trapping laser intensity and fluctuations of magnetic fields. I consider driving multiphoton transitions between the clock levels and show that these "doubly magic" conditions are realized at special values of trapping laser wavelengths and fixed values of relatively weak magnetic fields. This finding has implications for precision measurements and quantum information processing with qubits stored in hyperfine manifolds.

  1. Impurity detection in alkali-metal vapor cells via nuclear magnetic resonance (United States)

    Patton, B.; Ishikawa, K.


    We use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of alkali metals sealed in glass vapor cells to perform in situ identification of chemical contaminants. The alkali Knight shift varies with the concentration of the impurity, which in turn varies with temperature as the alloy composition changes along the liquidus curve. Intentional addition of a known impurity validates this approach and reveals that sodium is often an intrinsic contaminant in cells filled with distilled, high-purity rubidium or cesium. Measurements of the Knight shift of the binary Rb-Na alloy confirm prior measurements of the shift's linear dependence on Na concentration, but similar measurements for the Cs-Na system demonstrate an unexpected nonlinear dependence of the Knight shift on the molar ratio. This non-destructive approach allows monitoring and quantification of ongoing chemical processes within the kind of vapor cells which form the basis for precise sensors and atomic frequency standards.

  2. 29Si and 27AI MAS NMR Study of Alkali Feldspars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲棣; 郭九皋; 袁汉珍; 李丽云


    12 natural alkali feldspars have been studied by(29)~Si and(27)~Al MAS NMR as well as XRD,IR,EPMA and chemical analysis.Three kinds of(29)~Si NMR spectra,i.e.the spectra of microcline,perthiteand perthite with minor plagioclase,have been obtained.There are two types of(27)~Al NMR spectra.The(27)~Alspectrum of microcline is the same as that of perthite,but is different from the spectrum for perthite contain-ing plagioclase.Through this study,we found that the results of NMR and IR are inconsistent with that ofXRD,which shows that the transition of alkali feldspar from monoclinic to triclinic system might be a rathercomplicated process.

  3. Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber. (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho


    Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass.

  4. Enhanced saccharification of rice straw and hull by microwave-alkali pretreatment and lignocellulolytic enzyme production. (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Tuteja, Shuchi; Singh, Namita; Bishnoi, Narsi R


    In this study, statistical design of experiments was employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave-alkali pretreatment of rice straw and hulls. Process parameters important in pretreatment of biomass were identified by a Plackett-Burman design and the parameters with significant effects were optimized using a box-behnken design (BBD). Experimental results show that alkali concentration (AC), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the saccharification of rice straw and hulls. Optimum conditions of pretreatment were AC 2.75%, IT 22.50 min and SC 30 g/L, as optimized by BBD. The growth and production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from Aspergillus heteromorphus, solid state fermentation (SSF) was performed using rice straw and hulls pretreated under optimum conditions. Cellulases and xylanase reached the highest enzyme activity at 6th day of fermentation while maximum manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activity occurred at 12th day.

  5. Spatial structure characteristic analysis of corn stover during alkali and biological co-pretreatment using XRD. (United States)

    Tianxue, Yang; Li, Yun; Haobo, Hou; Beidou, Xi; Liansheng, He; Xiaowei, Wang; Caihong, Huang; Kun, Wu; Ying, Zhao; Bin, Chen


    Dynamic variation in the spatial structure of corn stover during alkali and biological co-pretreatment was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The result for crystallinity and microcrystalline size of cellulose showed periodic changes during the pretreatment process. The dominant destruction periods of crystalline areas were mainly located at 3-5d and 7-17d, and prevailing destroyed amorphous areas mainly occurred at 0-2d and 5-7d. On day 7, the relative crystallinity and microcrystalline size reached 52.81% and 8.56 nm, respectively, which were the maximum and minimum values during the whole co-pretreatment. The results indicated that spatial structure change was not uniform with pretreatment time, and this was contributed to explore the vital time point of destruction during the alkali-biological pretreatment.

  6. Alkali Induced Morphology and Property Improvements of TiO2 by Hydrothermal Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qiong; WEN Xianming; MA Peihua; DENG Xiaochuan


    Alkali induced morphology and property improvements of TiO2 by hydrothermal reaction were investigated.The products were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,TG,EDX,FT-IR and DRS.The results indicate that,with the phase transformation from anatase to rutile,the morphologies changed from high aggregated particles to nanofibers with the diameter of about 100 nm and the length up to several tens of micrometers,meanwhile the process is controllable by manipulating the nature of the alkali,alkalinity and hydrothermal temperature.DRS analysis shows the property improvement of the nanofibers in the UV-Vis light absorption compared with the raw materials,implying the products have potential application in photocatalysis.

  7. Recovery of alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud by the calcification-carbonation method (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Ting-an; Wang, Yan-xiu; Lü, Guo-zhi; Zhang, Wei-guang


    Red mud produced in the Bayer process is a hazardous solid waste because of its high alkalinity; however, it is rich in valuable components such as titanium, iron, and aluminum. In this study, a novel calcification-carbonation method was developed to recover alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud under mild reaction conditions. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the potential effects of important parameters such as temperature, amount of CaO added, and CO2 partial pressure on the recovery of alkali and alumina. The results showed that 95.2% alkali and 75.0% alumina were recovered from red mud with decreases in the mass ratios of Na2O to Fe2O3 and of Al2O3 to Fe2O3 from 0.42 and 0.89 to 0.02 and 0.22, respectively. The processed red mud with less than 0.5wt% Na2O can potentially be used as a construction material.

  8. Structure and electronic properties of alkali-C60 nanoclusters. (United States)

    Rabilloud, Franck


    I investigated the structural and electronic properties of both Na(n)C(60) and Li(n)C(60) (n alkali atoms over the C(60) surface is analyzed. The hypotheses for either an homogeneous coating of the C(60) surface by the alkali atoms or the growth of an alkali droplet not wetting the fullerene surface are discussed. Lithium atoms are found to coat homogeneously the fullerene on the C(60) surface via pentagonal sites, contrary to sodium atoms, which prefer to form 4-atom islands on the surface. The charge transfer, the energetics, and the dipole moments are discussed in relation with available results. The adsorption of alkali atoms on the C(60) surface considerably enhances the capacity of C(60) to accept electrons. The arrangement of lithium atoms seems more favorable for the hydrogen storage than that of sodium atoms.

  9. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals (United States)

    Houari, Ahmed


    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)


    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  11. Acid/alkali gated photochromism of two diarylperfluorocyclopentenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; ZiHui; ZHAO; ShengMin; LI; ZhongYu; ZHANG; Zhi; ZHANG; FuShi


    Two novel diarylfuorocyclopentenes, which underwent gated photochromism, were synthesized. It was found that the photochromic property of these diarylethenes could be switched by alternative addition of acids/alkalis, which could provide a new design strategy toward chemical threshold photoreaction.

  12. Effects of Silica Aerogel Content on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Poly(methyl methacry-late)/Silica Aerogel Dual-scale Cellular Foams Processed in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaoli; LUO Guoqiang; ZHANG Ruizhi; ZHANG Jian; LI Meijuan; SHEN Qiang; WANG Jin; ZHANG Lianmeng


    A novel poly(methyl-methacrylate)/silica aerogel (PMMA/SA) dual-scale cellular foam was synthesized with internal mixing followed by the supercritical carbon dioxide foaming process. The effects of silica aerogel content on the microstructural and mechanical performance of the foams were investigated by SEM, TEM analysis, and mechanical tests. The experimental results suggest that the employment of silica aerogel granule as addictive can distinctly improve the morphological feature as well as the mechanical performance in comparison to neat PMMA foam by uniformizing cell size distribution, decreasing cell size and increasing cell density. And dual-scale cells including micrometric cells of 3-10 μm and nanometric cells of about 50nm existed in the structure of foams resulting from the retained original framework structure of silica aerogel, which has not been described in other studies with the addition of various fillers. Furthermore, the mechanical strength was signiifcantly elevated even with a small amount of silica aerogel resulting from the unique microstructure, decreased cell size and enhanced cell walls. The compressive strength was 18.12 MPa and the lfexural strength was 18.90 MPa by adding 5wt% and 2wt% silica aerogel, respectively. These results demonstrate the potential to synthesize PMMA/SA dual-scale cellular foams to be used as structural materials with the advantages of low density and high strength.

  13. Fringe formation in dual-hologram interferometry (United States)

    Burner, A. W.


    Reference-fringe formation in nondiffuse dual-hologram interferometry is described by combining a first-order geometrical hologram treatment with interference fringes generated by two point sources. The first-order imaging relationships can be used to describe reference-fringe patterns for the geometry of the dual-hologram interferometry. The process can be completed without adjusting the two holograms when the reconstructing wavelength is less than the exposing wavelength, and the process is found to facilitate basic intereferometer adjustments.

  14. Near atomically smooth alkali antimonide photocathode thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jun; Nasiatka, James; Schubert, Susanne; Smedley, John; Padmore, Howard


    Nano-roughness limits the emittance of electron beams that can be generated by high efficiency photocathodes, such as the thermally reacted alkali antimonide thin films. However there is an urgent need for photocathodes that can produce an order of magnitude or more lower emittance than present day systems in order to increase the transverse coherence width of the electron beam. In this paper we demonstrate a method for producing alkali antimonide cathodes with near atomic smoothness with high reproducibility.

  15. Estimating the hydration enthalpies of neutral alkali metal atoms. (United States)

    Stace, A J


    Using existing data on the ionization energies of alkali metal atoms in small clusters of water, a thermodynamic cycle is proposed from which the hydration enthalpies of the neutral metal atoms can be estimated. Where comparisons are possible, the results are in reasonable agreement with those obtained using both experimental and ab initio methods. Application of the thermodynamic cycle to neutral alkali metal atoms solvated in ammonia yields solvation enthalpies that are significantly lower than those obtained for water.

  16. Alkali promotion of N-2 dissociation over Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    Using self-consistent density functional calculations, we show that adsorbed Na and Cs lower the barrier for dissociation of N2 on Ru(0001). Since N2 dissociation is a crucial step in the ammonia synthesis reaction, we explain in this way the experimental observation that alkali metals promote...... the ammonia synthesis reaction over Ru catalysts. We also show that the origin of this effect is predominantly a direct electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed alkali atoms and the dissociating molecule....

  17. Photoemission spectroscopy study of a multi-alkali photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Ettema, A R H


    In this paper a photoemission study of the highest core levels of the elements and the electron escape barrier (work function) in a multi-alkali photocathode are presented. The core levels indicate that the alkali atoms are in an oxidized state and therefore the compound Na sub 2 KSb can be regarded as an ionic semiconductor. The measured escape barrier of the Cs sub 2 O surface layer is determined as 2.3 eV.

  18. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.


    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  19. Absorption spectra of alkali-C₆₀ nanoclusters. (United States)

    Rabilloud, Franck


    We investigate the absorption spectra of alkali-doped C60 nanoclusters, namely C60Nan, C60Kn, and C60Lin, with n = 1, 2, 6, 12, in the framework of the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). We study the dependence of the absorption spectra on the nature of the alkali. We show that in few cases the absorption spectra depend on the arrangement of the alkali atoms over the fullerene, though sometimes the absorption spectra do not allow us to distinguish between different configurations. When only one or two alkali atoms are adsorbed on the fullerene, the optical response of alkali-doped C60 is similar to that of the anion C60(-) with a strong response in the UV domain. In contrast, for higher concentration of alkali, a strong optical response is predicted in the visible range, particularly when metal-metal bonds are formed. The weak optical response of the I(h)-symmetry C60Li12 is proposed to be used as a signature of its structure.

  20. Alkali-metal azides interacting with metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Armata, Nerina; Cortese, Remedios; Duca, Dario; Triolo, Roberto


    Interactions between alkali-metal azides and metal-organic framework (MOF) derivatives, namely, the first and third members of the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) family, IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-3, are studied within the density functional theory (DFT) paradigm. The investigations take into account different models of the selected IRMOFs. The mutual influence between the alkali-metal azides and the π rings or Zn centers of the involved MOF derivatives are studied by considering the interactions both of the alkali-metal cations with model aromatic centers and of the alkali-metal azides with distinct sites of differently sized models of IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-3. Several exchange and correlation functionals are employed to calculate the corresponding interaction energies. Remarkably, it is found that, with increasing alkali-metal atom size, the latter decrease for cations interacting with the π-ring systems and increase for the azides interacting with the MOF fragments. The opposite behavior is explained by stabilization effects on the azide moieties and determined by the Zn atoms, which constitute the inorganic vertices of the IRMOF species. Larger cations can, in fact, coordinate more efficiently to both the aromatic center and the azide anion, and thus stabilizing bridging arrangements of the azide between one alkali-metal and two Zn atoms in an η(2) coordination mode are more favored.

  1. Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniak, Z.I.


    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bwire S. Ndazi


    Full Text Available Chemical and thermal stability of rice husks against alkali treatment with 2 to 8% w/v NaOH are presented and discussed in this paper. The thermal stability of the rice husks was examined by using a thermal gravimetric analysis instrument. Chemical stability was evaluated by examining the organic components of rice husks using proximate analysis. The results indicated that the proportion of lignin and hemicellulose in rice husks treated with NaOH ranging from 4 to 8% decreased significantly by 96% and 74%, respectively. The thermal stability and final degradation temperatures of the alkali-treated rice husks were also lowered by 24-26°C due to degradation of hemicellulose and lignin during alkali treatment. Absence of the onset degradation zones in the alkali-treated rice husks was a further indication that hemicellulose and other volatile substances degraded during alkali treatment. This leads to a conclusion that alkali treatment of rice husks with more than 4% NaOH causes a substantial chemical degradation of rice husks, which subsequently decreases their thermal stability.

  3. Vibrations of alkali metal overlayers on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusina, G G; Eremeev, S V; Borisova, S D [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20018 San Sebastian/Donostia, Basque Country (Spain); Benedek, G [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)], E-mail:


    We review the current progress in the understanding of vibrations of alkalis adsorbed on metal surfaces. The analysis of alkali vibrations was made on the basis of available theoretical and experimental results. We also include in this discussion our recent calculations of vibrations in K/Pt(111) and Li(Na)/Cu(001) systems. The dependence of alkali adlayer localized modes on atomic mass, adsorption position and coverage as well as the dependence of vertical vibration frequency on the substrate orientation is discussed. The square root of atomic mass dependence of the vertical vibration energy has been confirmed by using computational data for alkalis on the Al(111) and Cu(001) substrates. We have confirmed that in a wide range of submonolayer coverages the stretch mode energy remains nearly constant while the energy of in-plane polarized modes increases with the increase of alkali coverage. It was shown that the spectrum of both stretch and in-plane vibrations can be very sensitive to the adsorption position of alkali atoms and substrate orientation.

  4. Vibrations of alkali metal overlayers on metal surfaces (United States)

    Rusina, G. G.; Eremeev, S. V.; Echenique, P. M.; Benedek, G.; Borisova, S. D.; Chulkov, E. V.


    We review the current progress in the understanding of vibrations of alkalis adsorbed on metal surfaces. The analysis of alkali vibrations was made on the basis of available theoretical and experimental results. We also include in this discussion our recent calculations of vibrations in K/Pt(111) and Li(Na)/Cu(001) systems. The dependence of alkali adlayer localized modes on atomic mass, adsorption position and coverage as well as the dependence of vertical vibration frequency on the substrate orientation is discussed. The square root of atomic mass dependence of the vertical vibration energy has been confirmed by using computational data for alkalis on the Al(111) and Cu(001) substrates. We have confirmed that in a wide range of submonolayer coverages the stretch mode energy remains nearly constant while the energy of in-plane polarized modes increases with the increase of alkali coverage. It was shown that the spectrum of both stretch and in-plane vibrations can be very sensitive to the adsorption position of alkali atoms and substrate orientation.

  5. Visual Simulation of Dual Clutch Transmission Assembly Process based on DELMIA%基于DELMIA的双离合变速器装配过程可视化仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周尔民; 彭小剑; 王佳强; 邱丽艳


    为了实现双离合变速器的虚拟仿真,通过运用DELMIA创建某双离合变速传动机构的主要螺栓装配仿真过程;并且对装配仿真进行了碰撞干涉和甘特图分析;最后,利用DELMIA的数字化制造工艺与DELMIA工艺工程师的数据交换提前安排制造计划.结果表明,该方法实现了生产、工艺与制造资源的虚拟协同设计,缩短了设计周期,缩短了交付周期,节约了生产时间,降低了设计成本.%To achieve the virtual assembly of the dual clutch transmission, the assembly process is simulated by creating the main screws of a dual clutch transmission mechanism in DELMIA; and the collision interference and gantt charts analysis for the assembly simulation are carried out; finally, using the data exchange of the Digital Process of Manufacturing of DELMIA(DPM) and DELMIA Process Engineer(DPE), the manufacturing plan in advance is arranged . The results show that the method realized the virtual collaborative design of the production, process and manufacturing resource, shortened the design cycle and delivery cycle, saved production time, reduced design cost.

  6. Superconductivity in alkali-metal-doped picene. (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Ryoji; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamanari, Yusuke; Mitamura, Hiroki; Kambe, Takashi; Ikeda, Naoshi; Okamoto, Hideki; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Yamaji, Minoru; Kawasaki, Naoko; Maniwa, Yutaka; Kubozono, Yoshihiro


    Efforts to identify and develop new superconducting materials continue apace, motivated by both fundamental science and the prospects for application. For example, several new superconducting material systems have been developed in the recent past, including calcium-intercalated graphite compounds, boron-doped diamond and-most prominently-iron arsenides such as LaO(1-x)F(x)FeAs (ref. 3). In the case of organic superconductors, however, no new material system with a high superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) has been discovered in the past decade. Here we report that intercalating an alkali metal into picene, a wide-bandgap semiconducting solid hydrocarbon, produces metallic behaviour and superconductivity. Solid potassium-intercalated picene (K(x)picene) shows T(c) values of 7 K and 18 K, depending on the metal content. The drop of magnetization in K(x)picene solids at the transition temperature is sharp (<2 K), similar to the behaviour of Ca-intercalated graphite. The T(c) of 18 K is comparable to that of K-intercalated C(60) (ref. 4). This discovery of superconductivity in K(x)picene shows that organic hydrocarbons are promising candidates for improved T(c) values.

  7. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions. (United States)

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G


    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced.

  8. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (United States)

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko


    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe.

  9. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes;


    Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared...... by onepot sol–gel method. All catalysts were characterized by BET, XRPD and NH3-TPD. Initial SCR activities of 8 out of 9 catalysts showed higher NO conversion at least at one temperature in the temperature range 300–500 ◦C compared to the conventional V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. After potassium poisoning (100......–130 µmol of K/g of catalyst) the relative drop in SCR activity and acidity was lower for all the alternative catalysts compared to the industrial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. Furthermore, Cu/MOR and Nano-V2O5/Sul-TiO2 catalysts showed 8–16 times higher SCR activities than the conventional even after high...

  10. Dual relations in physical and cyber space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the rapid development of computer, communication, and sensing technology, our living space has been transformed from physical space into a space shared by physical space and cyberspace. In the light of this fact and based on analyzing the characteristics of physical and cyberspace, respectively, this paper proposed that there are dual relations between physical space and cyberspace. Establishing dual relations is realized in the following two processes: the process of information extraction, analysis and structurization from physical space to cyberspace and the process of providing the information services from cyberspace to physical space by means of inferring the intention, state and demand of users, as well. HCI (Human Cyberspace Interaction) in dual space means to establish the dual relations, which embodied the human centered HCI, i.e. the interaction is carried out in the way accustomed to users and without distracting their attention.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Cheng


    Full Text Available A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The main constituent of hemicellulose in corn stover was xylan, which accounted for 18.1% of the depithed raw material. More than 90% of the xylan can be extracted under the optimal conditions: NaOH concentration of 10%, temperature of 75ºC, and time of 2h. Solid fractions after extraction were subjected to soda-AQ pulping. In comparison with control pulp obtained without extraction, it was found that alkali pre-extraction could improve the brightness and decrease kappa number of the subsequent pulp, causing a slight loss of yield, viscosity, density, and burst strength, but an obvious improvement of tear strength. Moreover, the silicon content was decreased by 79.8% when the extraction conditions were set at 75 ºC with alkali concentration of 8%, suggesting that pre-extraction of hemicellulose is a potential way to solve silicon problems associated with alkaline pulping of stover.

  12. Alkali ion migration between stacked glass plates by corona discharge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sakai, Daisuke [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Nishii, Junji, E-mail: [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Two stacked glass plates with a 1 mm gap were treated by corona discharge. • Spatial migration of alkali ion over the gap was demonstrated. • Hydrogen gas was necessary for uniform migration. • Surface modification was done with this process without high temperature or vacuum. - Abstract: Corona discharge reflects the spatial migration of alkali ions over a gap between two glass plates. This study examined stacked glass plates containing different alkali ions treated with the corona discharge plasma generated by applied voltage of 4.5 kV at 200 °C. Protons generated at the anode electrode penetrate into the potassium-ion-containing upper glass plate, which is located 5 mm below the anode electrode. Potassium ions intruded into the lower glass plate containing sodium ions placed on the cathode electrode, even over a 1 mm gap separating the plates. Finally, the sodium ion discharged on the cathode electrode. The hydrogen atmosphere was effective at inhibiting the potassium ion reaction with ambient gases during the spatial migration between the two glass plates.

  13. Subtask 6.6 - SiAION Coatings for Alkali-Resistant Silicon Nitride. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The efficiency of a gas turbine can be improved by increasing operating temperature. Construction materials should both meet high strength requirements and exhibit hot alkali corrosion resistance. Structural ceramics based on silicon nitride are promising candidates for high temperature engineering applications because of their high strength and good resistance to corrosion. Their performance varies significantly with the mechanical properties of boundary phases which, in turn, depend on their chemical composition, thickness of the amorphous phase, and the deformation process. To make silicon nitride ceramics tough, SiAlON ceramics were developed with controlled crystallization of the amorphous grain boundary phase. Crystallization of the grain boundary glass improves the high temperature mechanical properties of silicon nitride ceramics. Thus, the knowledge of silicon oxynitride ceramics corrosion behavior in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes important for engineers in designing appropriate part for turbines working at high temperatures. So far there has been no report concerning alkali attack on SiAlON ceramics in the presence of SO{sub 2} and chlorine in flue gas. The goal of this project was to investigate alkali corrosion of SiAlON-Y structural ceramics under combustion conditions in the presence of sodium derived components.

  14. Resistance of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete to Chloride-Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Woo Park


    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of steel in alkali-activated slag (AAS mortar was evaluated by a monitoring of the galvanic current and half-cell potential with time against a chloride-contaminated environment. For chloride transport, rapid chloride penetration test was performed, and chloride binding capacity of AAS was evaluated at a given chloride. The mortar/paste specimens were manufactured with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, instead of Portland cement, and alkali activators were added in mixing water, including Ca(OH2, KOH and NaOH, to activate hydration process. As a result, it was found that the corrosion behavior was strongly dependent on the type of alkali activator: the AAS containing the Ca(OH2 activator was the most passive in monitoring of the galvanic corrosion and half-cell potential, while KOH, and NaOH activators indicated a similar level of corrosion to Portland cement mortar (control. Despite a lower binding of chloride ions in the paste, the AAS had quite a higher resistance to chloride transport in rapid chloride penetration, presumably due to the lower level of capillary pores, which was ensured by the pore distribution of AAS mortar in mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  15. Effect of lithium-potassium mixed alkali on spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped aluminophosphate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yong-Zheng; Liao Mei-Song; Hu Li-Li


    Er3+-doped lithium-potassium mixed alkali aluminophosphate glasses belonging to the oxide system xK2O-(15-x)Li2O-4B2O3-11Al2O3-5BaO-65P2O5 are obtained in a semi-continuous melting quenching process. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped glass matrix have been analysed by fitting the experimental data with the standard Judd- Ofelt theory. It is observed that Judd- Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt(t = 2, 4 and 6) of Er3+ change when the second alkali is introduced into glass matrix. The variation of line strength Sed[4I13/2,4I15/2] follows the same trend as that of the Ω6 parameter. The effect of mixed alkali on the spectroscopic properties of the aluminophosphate glasses, such as absorption cross-section, stimulated emission cross-section, spontaneous emission probability, branching ratio and the radiative lifetime, has also been investigated in this paper.

  16. Alkali (NaOH) Pretreatment of Switchgrass by Radio Frequency-based Dielectric Heating (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Wang, Yifen; Wen, Zhiyou

    Radio-frequency (RF)-based dielectric heating was used in the alkali (NaOH) pre-treatment of switchgrass to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Due to the unique features of RF heating (i.e., volumetric heat transfer, deep heat penetration of the samples, etc.), switchgrass could be treated on a large scale, high solid content, and uniform temperature profile. At 20% solid content, RF-assisted alkali pretreatment (at 0.1 g NaOH/g biomass loading and 90°C) resulted in a higher xylose yield than the conventional heating pretreatment. The enzymatic hydrolysis of RF-treated solids led to a higher glucose yield than the corresponding value obtained from conventional heating treatment. When the solid content exceeded 25%, conventional heating could not handle this high-solid sample due to the loss of fluidity, poor mixing, and heating transfer of the samples. As a result, there was a significantly lower sugar yield, but the sugar yield of the RF-based pretreatment process was still maintained at high levels. Furthermore, the optimal particle size and alkali loading in the RF pretreatment was determined as 0.25-0.50 mm and 0.25 g NaOH/g biomass, respectively. At alkali loading of 0.20-0.25 g NaOH/g biomass, heating temperature of 90°C, and solid content of 20%, the glucose, xylose, and total sugar yield from the combined RF pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis were 25.3, 21.2, and 46.5 g/g biomass, respectively.

  17. Thermochemical analysis of laterite ore alkali roasting: Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki


    The abundance of global nickel reserve is in fact dominated by low grade laterite ores containing only approximately 1.0-1.8 %-Ni. Indonesia is a major limonite and saprolite ores source, particularly in the Sulawesi, northern Maluku, and Papua islands. Production of nickel from laterites typically requires a pre-concentration step which breaks down the mineral crystalline structure, thereby facilitating the subsequent extraction of the valuable metals. This work discusses the thermochemical analysis of the alkali roasting of an Indonesian saprolite ore using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH. These alkali compounds are selected due to their relatively low cost. The Factsage thermochemical computation package is used to predict thermodynamically stable gaseous, solution, pure liquid, and pure solid phases present in the roasting process at temperatures from 100 to 1200°C at ambient pressure, in inert atmosphere. The formation of a liquid solution (or slag) phase is interpreted as a major indicator of mineral structure breakdown. The computed slag formation temperatures are 373.2, 1041.4, and 792.0°C when using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. The masses of volatilized alkali at 1200°C with a total feed mass of 100 gram are 0.49, 3.24, and 3.25 mg for Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. It is therefore hypothesized that Na2CO3 is the most competitive sodium-based alkali for saprolite ore roasting.

  18. Comparative study of reversible hydrogen storage in alkali-doped fulleranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teprovich, Joseph A.; Knight, Douglas A.; Peters, Brent [Clean Energy Directorate – Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Zidan, Ragaiy, E-mail: [Clean Energy Directorate – Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States)


    Highlights: ► Catalytic effect of alkali metals of fullerane formation. ► Hydrogen storage properties of alkali metal hydrides and fullerene composites. ► Novel intercalation of Na and Li in the fullerene lattice. ► Reversible phase transformation of C{sub 60} from fcc to bcc upon de/rehydrogenation. ► Potential to enable to the formation of other carbon based hydrogen storage systems. -- Abstract: In this report we describe and compare the hydrogen storage properties of lithium and sodium doped fullerenes prepared via a solvent-assisted mixing process. For the preparation of these samples either NaH or LiH was utilized as the alkali metal source to make material based on either a Na{sub 6}C{sub 60} or Li{sub 6}C{sub 60}. Both of the alkali-doped materials can reversibly absorb and desorb hydrogen at much milder conditions than the starting materials used to make them (decomposition temperatures of NaH > 420 °C, LiH > 670 °C, and fullerane > 500 °C). The hydrogen storage properties of the materials were compared by TGA, isothermal desorption, and XRD analysis. It was determined that the sodium-doped material can reversibly store 4.0 wt.% H{sub 2} while the lithium doped material can reversibly store 5.0 wt.% H{sub 2} through a chemisorption mechanism indicated by the formation and measurement of C–H bonds. XRD analysis of the material demonstrated that a reversible phase transition between fcc and bcc occurs depending on the temperature at which the hydrogenation is performed. In either system the active hydrogen storage material resembles a hydrogenated fullerene (fullerane)

  19. The long-term durability of low alkali cements. Evidence from new natural analog sites in Europe and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W. Russell [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Laine, Heini M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Khoury, Hani [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Geology


    The long-term durability of low alkali cements is of interest where they are under consideration as repository tunnel and exploration borehole seals and plugs. It is essential to have an appropriate understanding of their longevity to inform decisions on their potential use in a repository environment. Archaelogical analogues of low alkali cement have been studied for some time. Thomassin and Rassineux (1992), for example, reviewed some of the literature on Gallo-Roman cement-based materials and noted that one of the most impressive examples is the 1700 year old Roman mortar used in Hadrian's Wall (UK) which still contains substantial amounts of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate) compounds. These mortars were studied specifically with the behaviour of an ILW repository in mind (Jull and Lees 1990). However, plugs and seals will generally be required to be durable for longer than the few thousand years which can be accessed via archaeological analogues, so it is essential to turn to natural systems for evidence of longer term durability. To date, there have been no reported studies on natural low alkali cements. In principle, however, such cements should exist and the Bituminous Marl Formation, which hosts the natural OPC cements in Jordan (Pitty and Alexander, 2011), is a likely source. This Formation constitutes a widespread terrain which stretches from Syria in the north, through Israel and Jordan to Saudi Arabia in the south. The natural cement was formed by the combustion of organic rich limestones, a process which continues today. In Syria and northern Jordan, for example, the Formation is punctured by Late Oligocene to Quaternary volcanics so sites which include pozzolanic ash mixed with the Bituminous Marl exist and, on combustion, should produce natural low alkali cements. A site in northern Jordan is currently under investigation for evidence of long-term fresh groundwater/low alkali cement interaction and the preliminary results of the study will be

  20. Interactions and low energy collisions between an alkali ion and an alkali atom of different nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Rakshit, Arpita; Berriche, Hamid; Deb, Bimalendu


    We study theoretically interaction potentials and low energy collisions between different alkali atoms and alkali ions. Specifically, we consider systems like X + Y$^{+}$, where X(Y$^{+})$ is either Li(Cs$^+$) or Cs((Li$^+$), Na(Cs$^+$) or Cs(Na$^+$) and Li(Rb$^+$) or Rb(Li$^+$). We calculate the molecular potentials of the ground and first two excited states of these three systems using pseudopotential method and compare our results with those obtained by others. We calculate ground-state scattering wave functions and cross sections of these systems for a wide range of energies. We find that, in order to get convergent results for the total scattering cross sections for energies of the order $1$ K, one needs to take into account at least 60 partial waves. In the low energy limit ($< 1 \\mu$K), elastic scattering cross sections exhibit Wigner law threshold behavior while in the high energy limit the cross sections go as $E^{-1/3}$. We discuss qualitatively the possibilities of forming cold molecular ion by ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gantiva


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a cognitive-behavioral model that makes it possible to explain the crisis situation (CS in terms of intense motivational involvement, and to propose a brief motivational intervention proposal in CS. The CS requires the person to implement coping strategies focused on the management of objective damage, as well as on the search for emotional relief, a consideration that gives rise to the name of dual parallel processing in CS (DPP-CS. Brief intervention is understood as the involvement of motivational processes to enable the person to make decisions regarding emotional and instrumental coping which move her in the direction of emotional relief or solution of the crisis. The paper concludes with a summary of the three basic sources taken from the psychological literature to inform the design of the DPP-CS: the dual extended parallel process model, the cognitive theory of stress and coping, and the formulation by levels in cognitive therapy.

  2. Alkali norite, troctolites, and VHK mare basalts from breccia 14304 (United States)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Keil, Klaus; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Warren, Paul H.


    Twelve clasts were separated from breccia 14304 for consortium study: six pristine highlands rocks, two mare basalts, and four nonpristine highlands rocks. The pristine highlands rocks include representatives of the magnesian troctolite-anorthosite and alkali suites, the two most common subgroups of the Mg suite found at the Apollo 14 site. Two troctolite clasts have olivine (~Fo 90) and plagioclase (~An 94) compositions similar to one group of Apolo 14 troctolites. One also contains spinel (Mg' 66-85). Incompatible element abundances in one are similar to those of 14305 troctolites, although the HREE (heavy rare earth elements) pattern is distinct among Apollo 14 troctolites. A dunite clast (~Fo 89) may be an unrepresentative piece of a troctolite. Alkali lithologies include an alkali anorthosite and an alkali norite, which is a rock type not previously described. The alkali norite has a pristine igneous texture and contains inverted pigeonite (Mg' 64), plagioclase (An82), K-feldspar, ternary feldspar, REE-rich phosphates, and silica. It resembles alkali gabbronorites from Apollo 14 and 67975 in mineralogy and mineral compositions. Alkali lithologies and phosphate-bearing magnesian anorthosites from Apollo 14 may have formed from Mg-rich magmas that assimilated various amounts of material rich in P and REE. This material could be a fractionated derivative of urKREEP. another pristine clast from 14304 is an Mg-gabbronorite. The two mare basalt clasts are very high potassium (VHK) basalts. They have 4 mg/g K and K/La ratios of 580 and 700. The parent magmas of VHK basalts could have formed from typical low-Ti, high-Al basaltic magmas by assimilation of K-rich material. This material could also be a fractionated derivative or urKREEP. Nonpristine 14304 clasts include melt-textured anorthosites and an augite-rich poikilitic melt rock. The latter is probably polymict, but its major component must be an Mg-suite gabbro.

  3. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena eKrefta


    Full Text Available When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such ‘bilingual’ mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct – single or dual – language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1 – English (L2 childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading, and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants’ performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual

  4. Chemical stability and electrical performance of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a solution process. (United States)

    Kim, Chul Ho; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae


    We investigated the chemical stability and electrical properties of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO)/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) structures (DALZI) with the durability of the chemical damage. The IGZO film was easily corroded or removed by an etchant, but the DALZI film was effectively protected by the high chemical stability of ZTO. Furthermore, the electrical performance of the DALZI thin-film transistor (TFT) was improved by densification compared to the IGZO TFT owing to the passivation of the pin holes or pore sites and the increase in the carrier concentration due to the effect of Sn(4+) doping.

  5. Integration Of Low-Cost Single-Frequency GPS Stations Using 'Spider' Technology Within Existing Dual-Frequency GPS Network at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (West Indies): Processing And Results (United States)

    Pascal, K.; Palamartchouk, K.; Lahusen, R. G.; Young, K.; Voight, B.


    Twenty years ago, began the eruption of the explosive Soufrière Hills Volcano, dominating the southern part of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Five phases of effusive activity have now occurred, characterized by dome building and collapse, causing numerous evacuations and the emigration of half of the population. Over the years, the volcano monitoring network has greatly expanded. The GPS network, started from few geodetic markers, now consists of 14 continuous dual frequency GPS stations, distributed on and around the edifice, where topography and vegetation allow. The continuous GPS time series have given invaluable insight into the volcano behavior, notably revealing deflation/inflation cycles corresponding to phases and pauses of effusive activity, respectively. In 2014, collaboration of the CALIPSO Project (Penn State; NSF) with the Montserrat Volcano Observatory enriched the GPS and seismic monitoring networks with six 'spider' stations. The 'spiders', developed by R. Lahusen at Cascades Volcano Observatory, are designed to be deployed easily in rough areas and combine a low cost seismic station and a L1-only GPS station. To date, three 'spiders' have been deployed on Soufrière Hills Volcano, the closest at ~1 km from the volcanic conduit, adjacent to a lava lobe on the dome. Here we present the details of GPS data processing in a network consisting of both dual and single frequency receivers ('spiders') using GAMIT/GLOBK software. Processing together single and dual frequency data allowed their representation in a common reference frame, and a meaningful geophysical interpretation of all the available data. We also present the 'spiders' time series along with the results from the rest of the network and examine if any significant deformation, correlating with other manifestations of volcanic activity, has been recorded by the 'spiders' since deployment. Our results demonstrate that low cost GNSS equipment can serve as valuable components in volcano

  6. Molecular photons interfaced with alkali atoms. (United States)

    Siyushev, Petr; Stein, Guilherme; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja


    Future quantum communication will rely on the integration of single-photon sources, quantum memories and systems with strong single-photon nonlinearities. Two key parameters are crucial for the single-photon source: a high photon flux with a very small bandwidth, and a spectral match to other components of the system. Atoms or ions may act as single-photon sources--owing to their narrowband emission and their intrinsic spectral match to other atomic systems--and can serve as quantum nonlinear elements. Unfortunately, their emission rates are still limited, even for highly efficient cavity designs. Single solid-state emitters such as single organic dye molecules are significantly brighter and allow for narrowband photons; they have shown potential in a variety of quantum optical experiments but have yet to be interfaced with other components such as stationary memory qubits. Here we describe the optical interaction between Fourier-limited photons from a single organic molecule and atomic alkali vapours, which can constitute an efficient quantum memory. Single-photon emission rates reach up to several hundred thousand counts per second and show a high spectral brightness of 30,000 detectable photons per second per megahertz of bandwidth. The molecular emission is robust and we demonstrate perfect tuning to the spectral transitions of the sodium D line and efficient filtering, even for emitters at ambient conditions. In addition, we achieve storage of molecular photons originating from a single dibenzanthanthrene molecule in atomic sodium vapour. Given the large set of molecular emission lines matching to atomic transitions, our results enable the combination of almost ideal single-photon sources with various atomic vapours, such that experiments with giant single-photon nonlinearities, mediated, for example, by Rydberg atoms, become feasible.

  7. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  8. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  9. Nature of the Charge Localized Between Alkali Adatoms and Metal Substrates


    Wertheim, G. K.; Riffe, D. Mark; Citrin, P. H.


    Two previously unappreciated features in photoemission spectra from alkali atoms adsorbed on W(110), namely, the sign of the alkali-induced surface-atom core-level shift of the substrate at low coverage and the very large alkali shallow core-hole lifetime width at all coverages, show that the alkali-substrate interaction is not well described by a transfer of alkali charge. Instead, both features point to the formation of a charge cloud between the alkali adatom and substrate that is d...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeWenjiong; ZhangYi


    The dual random models about the life insurance and social pension insurance have received considerable attention in the recent articles on actuarial theory and applications. This paper discusses a general kind of increasing annuity based on its force of interest accumulationfunction as a general random process. The dual random model of the present value of the benefits of the increasing annuity has been set, and their moments have been calculated under certainconditions.

  11. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Yliniemi


    Full Text Available Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW and glass wool (GW were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW. The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.

  12. Emotional Memory Enhancement Effect in Dual-processing Recognition Retrieval%双加工再认提取中的情绪记忆增强效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新瑞; 徐慧芳; 郭春彦


    根据双加工理论,再认提取可以划分为两种不同的加工:熟悉性与回想。以往的研究普遍认为情绪对再认提取具有增强效应,但是情绪对再认记忆中两种不同加工方式(熟悉性与回想)的增强效应的神经机制尚存争议。本研究以 ERP 作为测量手段,采用修正的“记得/知道”范式对情绪图片进行再认测验,旨在探究在学习‒测验间隔较长的条件下,情绪信息如何对熟悉性与回想产生增强效应。在行为结果中,对于知道判断,情绪图片的记忆表现显著高于中性图片,情绪效价间没有差异;对于记得判断,负性情绪图片的记忆表现要显著高于正性与中性图片。在 ERP 数据上,对于知道判断,情绪图片的 FN400新旧效应有增强作用。对于记得判断,负性图片的 LPC的新旧效应波幅显著高于中性与负性图片;而正性图片的 LPC新旧效应增强作用不显著。以上证据表明:学习‒测验间隔较长的情况下,熟悉性再认提取中,情绪记忆增强效应主要体现在情绪唤醒对记忆强度的提高,而不仅仅体现在情绪效价对熟悉判断反应倾向的影响。在回想的再认提取中,情绪效价的调节占据主导地位,负性情绪图片有显著的情绪记忆增强效应;正性情绪图片则不具有增强效应。%In studies of recognition retrieval, emotional memory enhancement effect was described as better memory performance for emotional stimuli than neutral ones. Based on dual-processing theory, recognition retrieval can be divided into two different processes: familiarity and recollection. Two important event-related potential correlates, the FN400 (a negative shift in frontal regions at 300~500ms time window), and the late positive complex (LPC; a positive peak over posterior regions at 500~800ms time window) was associated with familiarity and recollection, respectively. Some researchers considered

  13. Influence of alkali metal doping on surface properties and catalytic activity/selectivity of CaO catalysts in oxidative coupling of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.H.Rane; S.T.Chaudhari; V.R.Choudhary


    Surface properties (viz. surface area, basicity/base strength distribution, and crystal phases) of alkali metal doped CaO (alkali metal/Ca = 0.1 and 0.4) catalysts and their catalytic activity/selectivity in oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) to higher hydrocarbons at different reaction conditions (viz. temperature, 700 and 750 ℃; CH4/O2 ratio, 4.0 and 8.0 and space velocity, 5140-20550 cm3·g-1·h-1) have been investigated. The influence of catalyst calcination temperature on the activity/selectivity has also been investigated. The surface properties (viz. surface area, basicity/base strength distribution) and catalytic activity/selectivity of the alkali metal doped CaO catalysts are strongly influenced by the alkali metal promoter and its concentration in the alkali metal doped CaO catalysts. An addition of alkali metal promoter to CaO results in a large decrease in the surface area but a large increase in the surface basicity (strong basic sites) and the C2+ selectivity and yield of the catalysts in the OCM process. The activity and selectivity are strongly influenced by the catalyst calcination temperature. No direct relationship between surface basicity and catalytic activity/selectivity has been observed. Among the alkali metal doped CaO catalysts, Na-CaO (Na/Ca = 0.1, before calcination) catalyst (calcined at 750 ℃), showed best performance (C2+selectivity of 68.8% with 24.7% methane conversion), whereas the poorest performance was shown by the Rb-CaO catalyst in the OCM process.

  14. Effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on mechanical properties of Roystonea regia-reinforced epoxy partially biodegradable composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govardhan Goud; R N Rao


    The present paper investigates the effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on tensile, flexural and impact properties of unidirectional Roystonea regia natural-fibre-reinforced epoxy composites which are partially biodegradable. The reinforcement Roystonea regia (royal palm) fibre was collected from the foliage of locally available royal palm tree through the process of water retting and mechanical extraction. The poor adhesion between fibre and matrix is commonly encountered problem in natural-fibre-reinforced composites. To overcome this problem, specific physical and chemical treatments were suggested for surface modification of fibres by investigators. Alkali treatment is one of the simple and effective surface modification techniques which is widely used in natural fibre composites. In the present study both untreated and alkali-treated fibres were used as reinforcement in Roystonea regia epoxy composites and the tensile, flexural and impact properties were determined at different fibre contents. The alkali treatment found to be effective in improving the tensile and flexural properties while the impact strength decreased.

  15. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment. (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie


    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction.

  16. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure. (United States)

    Hinwood, A L; Stasinska, A; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø


    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children.

  17. Characterization of alkali-modified soy protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.


    Full Text Available To study the influence of the preparation mode, including mild alkali modification, of soy protein concentrate on soluble protein content and composition, some of its nutritive and functional properties were investigated. Soy protein concentrate prepared by aqueous alcohol leaching was modified in mild alkaline solutions (pH 8.0 at 40, 50 and 60° C for 60 minutes and compared with two principal types of commercial soy protein concentrate. Soluble protein content, composition and properties of soy protein concentrate, as well as their potential use are essentially determined by the preparation mode. Limited mild alkali hydrolysis increased protein solubility by 40-71%, while emulsion stability was increased by 18-56%. Major storage soybean proteins exhibited different stability to alcohol denaturation and mild alkali modification. The most susceptible were acidic -A3 - and -A5- subunits of glycinin.

  18. Oscillation Frequencies for Simultaneous Trapping of Heteronuclear Alkali Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Arora, Bindiya


    We investigate oscillation frequencies for simultaneous trapping of more than one type of alkali atoms in a common optical lattice. For this purpose, we present numerical results for magic trapping conditions, where the oscillation frequencies for two different kind of alkali atoms using laser lights in the wavelength range 500-1200 nm are same. These wavelengths will be of immense interest for studying static and dynamic properties of boson-boson, boson-fermion, fermion-fermion, and boson-boson-boson mixtures involving different isotopes of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr alkali atoms. In addition to this, we were also able to locate a magic wavelength around 808.1 nm where all the three Li, K, and Rb atoms are found to be suitable for oscillating at the same frequency in a common optical trap.

  19. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. A.


    Full Text Available In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF. All hardened alkali activated material samples were tested for density, workability, and compression after 28 days. Results show a slight increase of density with the addition of steel fibers. However, the workability was reduced with the addition of steel fibers content. Meanwhile, the addition of steel fibers shows the improvement of compressive strength which is about 19 % obtained at 3 % of steel fibers addition.

  20. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, C.Y.


    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  1. Low-frequency Raman scattering in alkali tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelos G Kalampounias


    Raman scattering has been employed to study the alkali-cation size dependence and the polarization characteristics of the low-frequency modes for the glass-forming tellurite mixtures, 0.1M2O–0.9TeO2 (M = Na, K, Rb and Cs). The analysis has shown that the Raman coupling coefficient alters by varying the type of the alkali cation. The addition of alkali modifier in the tellurite network leads to the conversion of the TeO4 units to TeO3 units with a varying number of non-bridging oxygen atoms. Emphasis has also been given to the lowfrequency modes and particular points related to the low-frequency Raman phenomenology are discussed in view of the experimental findings.

  2. Novel, inorganic composites using porous, alkali-activated, aluminosilicate binders (United States)

    Musil, Sean

    Geopolymers are an inorganic polymeric material composed of alumina, silica, and alkali metal oxides. Geopolymers are chemical and fire resistant, can be used as refractory adhesives, and are processed at or near ambient temperature. These properties make geopolymer an attractive choice as a matrix material for elevated temperature composites. This body of research investigated numerous different reinforcement possibilities and variants of geopolymer matrix material and characterized their mechanical performance in tension, flexure and flexural creep. Reinforcements can then be chosen based on the resulting properties to tailor the geopolymer matrix composites to a specific application condition. Geopolymer matrix composites combine the ease of processing of polymer matrix composites with the high temperature capability of ceramic matrix composites. This study incorporated particulate, unidirectional fiber and woven fiber reinforcements. Sodium, potassium, and cesium based geopolymer matrices were evaluated with cesium based geopolymer showing great promise as a high temperature matrix material. It showed the best strength retention at elevated temperature, as well as a very low coefficient of thermal expansion when crystallized into pollucite. These qualities made cesium geopolymer the best choice for creep resistant applications. Cesium geopolymer binders were combined with unidirectional continuous polycrystalline mullite fibers (Nextel(TM) 720) and single crystal mullite fibers, then the matrix was crystallized to form cubic pollucite. Single crystal mullite fibers were obtained by the internal crystallization method and show excellent creep resistance up to 1400°C. High temperature flexural strength and flexural creep resistance of pollucite and polycrystalline/single-crystal fibers was evaluated at 1000-1400°C.

  3. The Dual Career Family. (United States)

    Gurtin, Lee


    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  4. Self-Dual Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnov, Kirill


    Self-dual gravity is a diffeomorphism invariant theory in four dimensions that describes two propagating polarisations of the graviton and has a negative mass dimension coupling constant. Nevertheless, this theory is not only renormalisable but quantum finite, as we explain. We also collect various facts about self-dual gravity that are scattered across the literature.

  5. Dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    A different aspect of using the parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterisation, is considered. The relation between system change and the dual Youla parameter is derived in explicit form. A number of standard uncertain model descriptions are...

  6. Optical dual self functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建文; 刘立人; 王宁


    A recipe to construct the exact dual self-Fourier-Fresnel-transform functions is shown, where the Dirac comb function and transformable even periodic function are used. The mathematical proof and examples are given Then this kind of self-transform function is extended to the feasible optical dual self-transform functions.

  7. Dual doubled geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio; Alvarez-Gaumé, L.


    We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes. i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundam

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of V-Nb Microalloyed Ultrafine-Grained Dual-Phase Steels Processed Through Severe Cold Rolling and Intercritical Annealing (United States)

    Papa Rao, M.; Subramanya Sarma, V.; Sankaran, S.


    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) dual-phase (DP) steel was produced by severe cold rolling (true strain of 2.4) and intercritical annealing of a low carbon V-Nb microalloyed steel in a temperature range of 1003 K to 1033 K (730 °C to 760 °C) for 2 minutes, and water quenching. The microstructure of UFG DP steels consisted of polygonal ferrite matrix with homogeneously distributed martensite islands (both of size hardening. Analysis of work hardening behavior of the UFG DP steels through modified Crussard-Jaoul analysis showed a continuously varying work hardening rate response which could be approximated by 2 or 3 linear regimes. The transmission electron microscopy analysis on post tensile-tested samples indicated that these regimes are possibly related to the work hardening of ferrite, lath, and twin martensite, respectively.

  9. Research on Dual Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Fucai Qian; Peilin Fu


    This paper summarizes recent progress by the authors in developing two solution frameworks for dual control. The first solution framework considers a class of dual control problems where there exists a parameter uncertainty in the observation equation of the LQG problem. An analytical active dual control law is derived by a variance minimization approach. The issue of how to determine an optimal degree of active learning is then addressed, thus achieving an optimality for this class of dual control problems. The second solution framework considers a general class of discrete-time LQG problems with unknown parameters in both state and observation equations. The best possible (partial) closed-loop feedback control law is derived by exploring the future nominal posterior probabilities, thus taking into account the effect of future learning when constructing the optimal nominal dual control.

  10. A hidden history of heartburn: The milk-alkali syndrome. (United States)

    Swaminathan, Krishnan


    Milk-alkali syndrome was once considered to be of historic interest and a rare cause of hypercalcemia. Currently, it should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia, after malignancies and primary hyperparathyroidism. The resurgence is in part due to the easy availability of over the counter (OTC) calcium preparations. We describe a 50-year-old man who presented with severe hypercalcemia on two occasions associated with renal failure and metabolic alkalosis. Extensive investigations during the first admission failed to unravel a specific cause of hypercalcemia but a thorough history during his subsequent admission helped to confirm the diagnosis of milk-alkali syndrome.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; ZHANG Chengjiang; WU Dechao; LI Youguo


    Ultramafic hypoxenoliths found in the alkali-rich porphyry in the Liuhe Village, Heqing, Yunnan,China, are of great significance in understanding the origin and evolution of the porphyry. This paper discusses the mineralogical features of the hypoxenoliths. It shows that the xenoliths are characterized by the upper mantle rocks modified to certain extent by the enriched mantle fluid metasomatism in the mantle environment, with the enriched mantle property of Iow-degree partial melting. This constitutes the important mineralogical evidence for the petrogenesis and mineralization of alkali-rich porphyry.

  12. Assessment of concrete bridge decks with alkali silica reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kirsten; Jansson, Jacob; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Based on investigations of concrete from an approximately 40 years old bridge a procedure to support the management of maintenance and repair of alkali silica damaged bridges is proposed. Combined petrography and accelerated expansion testing were undertaken on cores from the Bridge at Skovdiget......, Bagsværd, Denmark to provide information on the damage condition as well as the residual reactivity of the concrete. The Danish Road Directory’s guidelines for inspection and assessment of alkali silica damaged bridges will be briefly presented, and proposed modifications will be describe...

  13. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard


    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  14. Dual Language Learning / Duale Spracherlernung. Learning German through English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fee-Alexandra Haase


    Full Text Available In this article we examine the impact of English in the learning process of the German language exemplified with the example of the second language acquisition process of the German language in the programs of German in the Department of Foreign Languages of the University of Nizwa in Oman. This study focuses on the distinct features of students in Oman learning German as a second language in an institution of higher education in Oman. The contrastive rhetoric of a German – Oman Arabic language contact situation is challenging and a unique field of research, which allows us to study the process of foreign language learning (L2 and the implementation of the culture of the native language L1 (Arabic. The reflection of the L1 culture, the Arab Oman culture, in the language learning process of the L2 language (German will be described, analyzed and discussed aiming the improvement of the L2 learning process. This article investigates into the process of learning German in an Arabic country of native speakers of Arabic from the perspective of the cultural differences of both cultures in terms of their linguistic prepositions.Received: 17/09/2013 / Accepted: 23/11/2013How to reference this articleHaase, F-A. (2014. Dual Language Learning / Duale Spracherlernung. Learning German through English. Foro de Educación, 12(17, pp. 197-216. doi:


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春红; 王析明; 李建萍; 吕永吉


    Flue gas desulfuration(FGD) plays a key role in energy conservation and emission reduction,and the electric power plant of Benxi Iron Steel Group has managed to deal with 4 220 t/h coal-frid boilers' fule gas desulfurization using WSCM type stone swirl desulphurization and dust removal equipment,and the desulfurization process continually is improved through equipped with NaOH and CaO system,and the appropriate concentration pool and pump,as well as other facilities are installed.Desulfurization process changed its name to "dual-alkali(CaO/NaOH)" process.Through the control of pollutants,online monitoring data and strengthening the management,the expected result of energy saving is achieved.%烟气脱硫对节能减排起着关键性的作用,本钢发电厂3年内先后对4台220 t/h燃煤锅炉进行烟气脱硫,采用WSCM型石质旋流式脱硫除尘设备,在运行中不断完善脱硫工艺,配备了NaOH、CaO系统,建成安装了浓缩池及相应的泵房等配套设施,脱硫工艺更名为"双碱法(CaO/NaOH)"。通过对污染物的控制、在线监控及监测数据,加强管理达到节能减排的预期效果。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yufang; CHEN Bingren


    The absorption of free alkali at low concentration by subacid resin was traced with electric conductance method, the effect of temperature on the adsorption, the activation energy, of adsorption (Ea) and interaction energy (U) was studied. The result showed that, the process of low concentrationalkali adsorption by subacid resin was in accordance with mechanism of monomolecular layer absorption, in addition) with the increasing of temperature, the interaction energy between adsorbate and sorbent increase, so did the surface adsorption rate (k), and linear correlation existed between interaction energy (U) and temperature (T).

  17. Extraction of Alkali Ions Investigated by Conductometric and pH Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kalvoda


    Full Text Available Extraction of alkali ions from aqueous solutions of chlorides and hydroxides into a lipophilic liquid membrane composed of tetraethyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraacetate (TBT solution in hexane was investigated by means of measurements of changes in the electrolytic conductivity and pH-value of the aqueous solution. Hydrolysis of the TBT ionophore resulting in the release of the ethyl groups was proposed as the main reaction process, leading to disturbance of the known preference of TBT for sodium ions. 

  18. Making War Work for Industry: The United Alkali Company's Central Laboratory During World War One. (United States)

    Reed, Peter


    The creation of the Central Laboratory immediately after the United Alkali Company (UAC) was formed in 1890, by amalgamating the Leblanc alkali works in Britain, brought high expectations of repositioning the company by replacing its obsolete Leblanc process plant and expanding its range of chemical products. By 1914, UAC had struggled with few exceptions to adopt new technologies and processes and was still reliant on the Leblanc process. From 1914, the Government would rely heavily on its contribution to the war effort. As a major heavy-chemical manufacturer, UAC produced chemicals for explosives and warfare gases, while also trying to maintain production of many essential chemicals including fertilisers for homeland consumption. UAC's wartime effort was led by the Central Laboratory, working closely with the recently established Engineer's Department to develop new process pathways, build new plant, adapt existing plant, and produce the contracted quantities, all as quickly as possible to meet the changing battlefield demands. This article explores how wartime conditions and demands provided the stimulus for the Central Laboratory's crucial R&D work during World War One.

  19. IRMPD action spectroscopy of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes: effects of alkali metal cation size on gas phase conformation. (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wu, R R; Polfer, N C; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Rodgers, M T


    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both similar and distinctive spectral features over the range of ~1000-1900 cm(-1). The IRMPD spectra of the Li(+)(cytosine), Na(+)(cytosine), and K(+)(cytosine) complexes are relatively simple but exhibit changes in the shape and shifts in the positions of several bands that correlate with the size of the alkali metal cation. The IRMPD spectra of the Rb(+)(cytosine) and Cs(+)(cytosine) complexes are much richer as distinctive new IR bands are observed, and the positions of several bands continue to shift in relation to the size of the metal cation. The measured IRMPD spectra are compared to linear IR spectra of stable low-energy tautomeric conformations calculated at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level of theory to identify the conformations accessed in the experiments. These comparisons suggest that the evolution in the features in the IRMPD action spectra with the size of the metal cation, and the appearance of new bands for the larger metal cations, are the result of the variations in the intensities at which these complexes can be generated and the strength of the alkali metal cation-cytosine binding interaction, not the presence of multiple tautomeric conformations. Only a single tautomeric conformation is accessed for all five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes, where the alkali metal cation binds to the O2 and N3 atoms of the canonical amino-oxo tautomer of cytosine, M(+)(C1).

  20. Hg soil pollution around the Flix chlor-alkali plant (United States)

    Esbrí, José Maria; López-Berdoces, Miguel Angel; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Fernández-Calderon, Sergio; Díez, Sergi; León Higueras, Pablo


    Main mercury consumer in industrialized countries is the chlor-alkali industry. In Spain, this industry declares 2.54 tons of mercury emissions to the atmosphere per year, but the losses of mercury in this industrial process seem to be higher than this. In the next 15 years, these industries are going to make a technology change to a free mercury based technology. This study has been applied to the Flix (Tarragona, NE Spain) plant, located very near the Ebro River. Local industrial activity started in the late 18th Century, being the first Spanish industrial precinct in activity. Technology used in this plant is obsolete, and produces important emissions to the atmosphere. Besides, it has also produced an important pollution problem in the Ebro River. The aim of this work is the characterization of mercury soil pollution around the oldest chlor-alkali plant (CAP), actually in process of decommissioning. For this porpoises, we provided data of mercury in soils and in olive oil leaves, in order to assess the extent of this pollution, and the consequences in terms of transferring to local agricultural biota. We present data from two soils geochemistry surveys, one centered in the general area, and a second one centered in an anomalous area identified by the first survey, at the Ebro margins downstream the town area. A total of 126 surface soil samples were taken and analyzed for total mercury by means of a Lumex RA-915+ device with RP- 91C pyrolysis attachment. Soil-plant transfer was studied based on mercury contents in olive leaves, the most ubiquitous plant species in the area; these biological samples were thoroughly clean and freeze-dried before its total mercury analysis in a Lumex RA-915+ device with its RP-91c pyrolysis attachment. Mercury contents in soils reach maximum levels in the vicinity of CAP (495 mg kg-1), much higher than baseline levels found in the area (0.18 mg kg-1, in average). These polluted soils are located near CAP and the riverbanks of Ebro

  1. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  2. On the origin of alkali metals in Europa exosphere (United States)

    Ozgurel, Ozge; Pauzat, Françoise; Ellinger, Yves; Markovits, Alexis; Mousis, Olivier; LCT, LAM


    At a time when Europa is considered as a plausible habitat for the development of an early form of life, of particular concern is the origin of neutral sodium and potassium atoms already detected in its exosphere (together with magnesium though in smaller abundance), since these atoms are known to be crucial for building the necessary bricks of prebiotic species. However their origin and history are still poorly understood. The most likely sources could be exogenous and result from the contamination produced by Io's intense volcanism and/or by meteoritic bombardment. These sources could also be endogenous if these volatile elements originate directly from Europa's icy mantle. Here we explore the possibility that neutral sodium and potassium atoms were delivered to the satellite's surface via the upwelling of ices formed in contact with the hidden ocean. These metallic elements would have been transferred as ions to the ocean at early epochs after Europa's formation, by direct contact of water with the rocky core. During Europa's subsequent cooling, the icy layers formed at the top of the ocean would have kept trapped the sodium and potassium, allowing their future progression to the surface and final identification in the exosphere of the satellite. To support this scenario, we have used chemistry numerical models based on first principle periodic density functional theory (DFT). These models are shown to be well adapted to the description of compact ice and are capable to describe the trapping and neutralization of the initial ions in the ice matrix. The process is found relevant for all the elements considered, alkali metals like Na and K, as well as for Mg and probably for Ca, their respective abundances depending essentially of their solubility and chemical capabilities to blend with water ices.

  3. Efficient recycling of WC-Co hardmetal sludge by oxidation followed by alkali and sulfuric acid treatments (United States)

    Yang, Dong-hyo; Srivastava, Rajiv Ranjan; Kim, Min-seuk; Nam, Dao Duy; Lee, Jae-chun; Huynh, Hai Trung


    We present a process to recycle strategic metals, viz. tungsten and cobalt, from a WC-Co hardmetal sludge (WCHS) via oxidation followed by a two-step hydrometallurgical treatment with alkali and acid solutions. The oxidation of WCHS was investigated in the temperature range of 500 to 1000 °C and optimized at 600 °C to transform the maximum WC into an alkali-soluble WO3. The conditions for the selective dissolution of WO3 in stage-I were optimized as follows: 4.0 M NaOH, pulp density of 175 g/L, and temperature of 100 °C for 1 h, yielding maximum efficacy. Subsequently, in the second step, the optimal conditions for cobalt leaching from the alkali-treated residue were established as follows: 2.0 M H2SO4, 25 g/L pulp density, and 75 °C temperature for 30 min. Downstream processing of the obtained metal ions in solutions was also easier, as the only impurity of dicobaltite ions with the Na2WO4 solution was precipitated as Co(OH)3 under atmospheric O2; meanwhile, the CoSO4 solution obtained through the second step of processing can be treated via electrolysis to recover the metallic cobalt. The present process is simpler in operation, and the efficient use of eco-friendly lixiviants eliminates the previously reported disadvantage.

  4. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian


    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  5. Powder X-ray diffraction study af alkali alanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Thao; Mosegaard Arnbjerg, Lene; Jensen, Torben René

    for mobile applications, new materials with high gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity of hydrogen have to be developed. Alkali alanates are promising for hydrogen storage materials. Sodium alanate stores hydrogen reversibly at moderate conditions when catalysed with, e.g. titanium, whereas potassium...

  6. Effect of Pozzolanic Reaction Products on Alkali-silica Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Fengyan; LAN Xianghui; LV Yinong; XU Zhongzi


    The effect of fly ash on controlling alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in simulated alkali solution was studied. The expansion of mortar bars and the content of Ca(OH)2 in cement paste cured at 80 ℃ for 91 d were measured. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to study the microstructure of C-S-H. TEM/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was then used to determine the composition of C-S-H. The pore structure of the paste was analyzed by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The results show that the contents of fly ash of 30% and 45% can well inhibit ASR. And the content of Ca(OH)2 decreases with the increase of fly ash. That fly ash reacted with Ca(OH)2 to produce C-S-H with a low Ca/Si molar ratio could bind more Na+ and K+ ions, and produce a reduction in the amount of soluble alkali available for ASR. At the same time, the C-S-H produced by pozzolanic reaction converted large pores to smaller ones (gel pores smaller than 10 nm) to densify the pore structure. Perhaps that could inhibit alkali transport to aggregate for ASR.

  7. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Swaidani Aref M.


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction. Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289 and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260 have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida’a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  8. Influence of alkali, silicate, and sulfate content of carbonated concrete pore solution on mild steel corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L' Hostis, V. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Lab Etud Comportement Betons and Argiles, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Huet, B. [Schlumberger Riboud Prod Ctr, Schlumberger Carbon Serv, F-92142 Clamart (France); Tricheux, L. [CEBTP SOLEN, F-78990 Elancourt (France); Idrissi, H. [CNRS, Lab MATEIS UMR 5510, Equipe RI2S, Dept Sci and Genie Mat, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)


    The increase in the rebar corrosion rate due to the concrete carbonation is the major cause of reinforced concrete degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion behavior of mild steel rebars in simulated carbonated concrete solution. For this purpose, thermodynamic calculations, electrochemical techniques, gravimetric measurements, and surface analyses were used. Thermodynamic investigations of the nature of the interstitial solution provides an estimation of the influence of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and alkali (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) content on carbonate alkalinity of the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O open system (pCO{sub 2}=0. 3 mbar). in this system, calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) remain thermodynamically unstable and amorphous silica controls silicate aqueous content at 100 ppm. Electrochemical results highlight a decrease in the corrosion rate with increasing carbonate alkalinity and the introduction of silicate. The introduction of sulfate at fixed carbonate alkalinity shows a dual effect: at high carbonate alkalinity, the corrosion rate is increased whereas at low carbonate alkalinity, corrosion rate is decreased. Those results are supported by surface analysis. Authors conclude that silicate and sulfate release from cement hydrates and fixation of alkali on carbonated hydrates are key parameters to estimate mild steel corrosion in carbonated concrete. (authors)

  9. Influence of alkali, silicate, and sulfate content of carbonated concrete pore solution on mild steel corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, B. [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Schlumberger Riboud Product Center, Clamart (France); L' Hostis, V. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Tricheux, L. [CEBTP-SOLEN, Elancourt, (France); Idrissi, H. [Laboratoire MATEIS UMR CNRS, Equipe RI2S, Department Science et Genie des Materiaux, Villeurbanne, (France)


    The increase in the rebar corrosion rate due to the concrete carbonation is the major cause of reinforced concrete degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion behavior of mild steel rebars in simulated carbonated concrete solution. For this purpose, thermodynamic calculations, electrochemical techniques, gravimetric measurements, and surface analyses were used. Thermodynamic investigations of the nature of the interstitial solution provides an estimation of the influence of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2} {sup -}) and alkali (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) content on carbonate alkalinity of the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O open system (pCO{sub 2} = 0.3 mbar). In this system, calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) remain thermodynamically unstable and amorphous silica controls silicate aqueous content at 100 ppm. Electrochemical results highlight a decrease in the corrosion rate with increasing carbonate alkalinity and the introduction of silicate. The introduction of sulfate at fixed carbonate alkalinity shows a dual effect: at high carbonate alkalinity, the corrosion rate is increased whereas at low carbonate alkalinity, corrosion rate is decreased. Those results are supported by surface analysis. Authors conclude that silicate and sulfate release from cement hydrates and fixation of alkali on carbonated hydrates are key parameters to estimate mild steel corrosion in carbonated concrete. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of V-Nb Microalloyed Ultrafine-Grained Dual-Phase Steels Processed Through Severe Cold Rolling and Intercritical Annealing (United States)

    Papa Rao, M.; Subramanya Sarma, V.; Sankaran, S.


    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) dual-phase (DP) steel was produced by severe cold rolling (true strain of 2.4) and intercritical annealing of a low carbon V-Nb microalloyed steel in a temperature range of 1003 K to 1033 K (730 °C to 760 °C) for 2 minutes, and water quenching. The microstructure of UFG DP steels consisted of polygonal ferrite matrix with homogeneously distributed martensite islands (both of size produced through intercritical annealing at 1013 K (740 °C) has good combination of strength (1295 MPa) and ductility (uniform elongation, 13 pct). The nanoscale V- and Nb-based carbides/carbonitrides and spheroidized cementite particles have played a crucial role in achieving UFG DP microstructure and in improving the strength and work hardening. Analysis of work hardening behavior of the UFG DP steels through modified Crussard-Jaoul analysis showed a continuously varying work hardening rate response which could be approximated by 2 or 3 linear regimes. The transmission electron microscopy analysis on post tensile-tested samples indicated that these regimes are possibly related to the work hardening of ferrite, lath, and twin martensite, respectively.

  11. Release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems; Freisetzung und Einbindung von Alkalimetallverbindungen in kohlebefeuerten Kombikraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michael


    Coal fired combined cycle power systems will be a sufficient way to increase the efficiency of coal combustion. However, combined cycle power systems require a reliable hot gas cleanup. Especially alkali metals, such as sodium and potassium, can lead to hot corrosion of the gas turbine blading if they condensate as sulphates. The actual work deals with the release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems. The influence of coal composition, temperature and pressure on the release of alkali species in coal combustion was investigated and the relevant release mechanisms identified. Alumosilicate sorbents have been found that reduce the alkali concentration in the hot flue gas of the Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion 2{sup nd} Generation (CPFBC 2{sup nd} Gen.) at 750 C to values sufficient for use in a gas turbine. Accordingly, alumosilicate sorbents working at 1400 C have been found for the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC). The sorption mechanisms have been identified. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to upscale the results of the laboratory experiments to conditions prevailing in power systems. According to these calculations, there is no risk of hot corrosion in both processes. Furthermore, thermodynamic calculations were performed to investigate the behaviour of alkali metals in an IGCC with integrated hot gas cleanup and H{sub 2} membrane for CO{sub 2} sequestration. (orig.)

  12. Hydrogen Adsorption by Alkali Metal Graphite Intercalation Compounds (United States)

    Purewal, Justin

    Adsorption occurs whenever a solid surface is exposed to a gas or liquid, and is characterized by an increase in fluid density near the interface. Adsorbents have drawn attention in the current effort to engineer materials that store hydrogen at high densities within moderate temperature and pressure regimes. Carbon adsorbents are a logical choice as a storage material due to their low costs and large surface areas. Unfortunately, carbon adsorbents suffer from a low binding enthalpy for H2 (about 5 kJ mol-1), well below the 15 to 18 kJ mol-1) that is considered optimal for hydrogen storage systems. Binding interactions can be increased by the following methods: (1) adjusting the graphite interplanar separation with a pillared structure, and (2) introducing dopant species that interact with H2 molecules by strong electrostatic forces. Graphite intercalation compounds are a class of materials that contain both pillared structures and chemical dopants, making them an excellent model system for studying the fundamentals of hydrogen adsorption in nanostructured carbons. Pressure-composition-temperature diagrams of the MC24(H 2)x graphite intercalation compounds were measured for M = (K, Rb, Cs). Adsorption enthalpies were measured as a function of H2 concentration. Notably, CsC24 had an average adsorption enthalpy of 14.9 kJ mol-1), nearly three times larger than that of pristine graphite. The adsorption enthalpies were found to be positively correlated with the alkali metal size. Adsorption capacities were negatively correlated with the size of the alkali metal. The rate of adsorption is reduced at large H2 compositions, due to the effects of site-blocking and correlation on the H2 diffusion. The strong binding interaction and pronounced molecular-sieving behavior of KC24 is likely to obstruct the translational diffusion of adsorbed H2 molecules. In this work, the diffusion of H2 adsorbed in KC24 was studied by quasielastic neutron scattering measurements and molecular

  13. Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eAst


    Full Text Available Cellular compartmentalization into organelles serves to separate biological processes within the environment of a single cell. While some metabolic reactions are specific to a single organelle, others occur in more than one cellular compartment. Specific targeting of proteins to compartments inside of eukaryotic cells is mediated by defined sequence motifs. To achieve multiple targeting to different compartments cells use a variety of strategies. Here, we focus on mechanisms leading to dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins. In many instances, isoforms of peroxisomal proteins with distinct intracellular localization are encoded by separate genes. But also single genes can give rise to differentially localized proteins. Different isoforms can be generated by use of alternative transcriptional start sites, by differential splicing or ribosomal read-through of stop codons. In all these cases different peptide variants are produced, of which only one carries a peroxisomal targeting signal. Alternatively, peroxisomal proteins contain additional signals that compete for intracellular targeting. Dual localization of proteins residing in both the cytoplasm and in peroxisomes may also result from use of inefficient targeting signals. The recent observation that some bona fide cytoplasmic enzymes were also found in peroxisomes indicates that dual targeting of proteins to both the cytoplasm and the peroxisome might be more widespread. Although current knowledge of proteins exhibiting only partial peroxisomal targeting is far from being complete, we speculate that the metabolic capacity of peroxisomes might be larger than previously assumed.

  14. Buffer gas-assisted four-wave mixing resonances in alkali vapor excited by a single cw laser (United States)

    Shmavonyan, Svetlana; Khanbekyan, Aleksandr; Khanbekyan, Alen; Mariotti, Emilio; Papoyan, Aram V.


    We report the observation of a fluorescence peak appearing in dilute alkali (Rb, Cs) vapor in the presence of a buffer gas when the cw laser radiation frequency is tuned between the Doppler-broadened hyperfine transition groups of an atomic D2 line. Based on steep laser radiation intensity dependence above the threshold and spectral composition of the observed features corresponding to atomic resonance transitions, we have attributed these features to the buffer gas-assisted four-wave mixing process.

  15. Collisions of alkali-metal atoms Cs and Rb in the ground state. Spin exchange cross sections (United States)

    Kartoshkin, V. A.


    Collisions of alkali-metal atoms 133Cs and 85Rb in the ground state are considered in the energy interval of 10-4-10-2 au. Complex cross sections of the spin exchange, which allow one to calculate the processes of polarization transfer and the relaxation times, as well as the magnetic resonance frequency shifts caused by spin exchange Cs-Rb collisions, are obtained.

  16. Use of slag/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends in the production of alkali-activated materials


    María V. Borrachero; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; Lourdes Soriano; Mauro M. Tashima; José L.P. Melges; Jorge L. Akasaki; Vinícius N. Castaldelli


    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part...

  17. Unraveling Executive Functioning in Dual Diagnosis (United States)

    Duijkers, Judith C. L. M.; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.


    In mental health, the term dual-diagnosis is used for the co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) with another mental disorder. These co-occurring disorders can have a shared cause, and can cause/intensify each other’s expression. Forming a threat to health and society, dual-diagnosis is associated with relapses in addiction-related behavior and a destructive lifestyle. This is due to a persistent failure to control impulses and the maintaining of inadequate self-regulatory behavior in daily life. Thus, several aspects of executive functioning like inhibitory, shifting and updating processes seem impaired in dual-diagnosis. Executive (dys-)function is currently even seen as a shared underlying key component of most mental disorders. However, the number of studies on diverse aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is limited. In the present review, a systematic overview of various aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is presented, striving for a prototypical profile of patients with dual-diagnosis. Looking at empirical results, inhibitory and shifting processes appear to be impaired for SUD combined with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or cluster B personality disorders. Studies involving updating process tasks for dual-diagnosis were limited. More research that zooms in to the full diversity of these executive functions is needed in order to strengthen these findings. Detailed insight in the profile of strengths and weaknesses that underlies one’s behavior and is related to diagnostic classifications, can lead to tailor-made assessment and indications for treatment, pointing out which aspects need attention and/or training in one’s self-regulative abilities. PMID:27445939

  18. Unraveling Executive Functioning in Dual Diagnosis. (United States)

    Duijkers, Judith C L M; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Egger, Jos I M


    In mental health, the term dual-diagnosis is used for the co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) with another mental disorder. These co-occurring disorders can have a shared cause, and can cause/intensify each other's expression. Forming a threat to health and society, dual-diagnosis is associated with relapses in addiction-related behavior and a destructive lifestyle. This is due to a persistent failure to control impulses and the maintaining of inadequate self-regulatory behavior in daily life. Thus, several aspects of executive functioning like inhibitory, shifting and updating processes seem impaired in dual-diagnosis. Executive (dys-)function is currently even seen as a shared underlying key component of most mental disorders. However, the number of studies on diverse aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is limited. In the present review, a systematic overview of various aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is presented, striving for a prototypical profile of patients with dual-diagnosis. Looking at empirical results, inhibitory and shifting processes appear to be impaired for SUD combined with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or cluster B personality disorders. Studies involving updating process tasks for dual-diagnosis were limited. More research that zooms in to the full diversity of these executive functions is needed in order to strengthen these findings. Detailed insight in the profile of strengths and weaknesses that underlies one's behavior and is related to diagnostic classifications, can lead to tailor-made assessment and indications for treatment, pointing out which aspects need attention and/or training in one's self-regulative abilities.

  19. Selection of the NIR region for a regression model of the ethanol concentration in fermentation process by an online NIR and mid-IR dual-region spectrometer and 2D heterospectral correlation spectroscopy. (United States)

    Nishii, Takashi; Genkawa, Takuma; Watari, Masahiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro


    A new selection procedure of an informative near-infrared (NIR) region for regression model building is proposed that uses an online NIR/mid-infrared (mid-IR) dual-region spectrometer in conjunction with two-dimensional (2D) NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy. In this procedure, both NIR and mid-IR spectra of a liquid sample are acquired sequentially during a reaction process using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer; the 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum is subsequently calculated from the obtained spectral data set. From the calculated 2D spectrum, a NIR region is selected that includes bands of high positive correlation intensity with mid-IR bands assigned to the analyte, and used for the construction of a regression model. To evaluate the performance of this procedure, a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model of the ethanol concentration in a fermentation process was constructed. During fermentation, NIR/mid-IR spectra in the 10000 - 1200 cm(-1) region were acquired every 3 min, and a 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum was calculated to investigate the correlation intensity between the NIR and mid-IR bands. NIR regions that include bands at 4343, 4416, 5778, 5904, and 5955 cm(-1), which result from the combinations and overtones of the C-H group of ethanol, were selected for use in the PLS regression models, by taking the correlation intensity of a mid-IR band at 2985 cm(-1) arising from the CH(3) asymmetric stretching vibration mode of ethanol as a reference. The predicted results indicate that the ethanol concentrations calculated from the PLS regression models fit well to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, it can be concluded that the selection procedure using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer combined with 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy is a powerful method for the construction of a reliable regression model.

  20. Effect of Anti-freezing Admixtures on Alkali-silica Reaction in Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junzhe; LI Yushun; LV Lihua


    The influence of anti-freezing admixture on the alkali aggregate reaction in mortar was analyzed with accelerated methods. It is confirmed that the addition of sodium salt ingredients of anti-freezing admixture accelerates the alkali silica reaction to some extent, whereas calcium salt ingredient of anti-freezing admixture reduces the expansion of alkali silica reaction caused by high alkali cement. It is found that the addition of the fly ash considerably suppresses the expansion of alkali silica reaction induced by the anti-freezing admixtures.

  1. A dual approach to IS strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivang, Reimer


    but more of a both/and decision. The overall conclusion is that IS strategy, because of increased uncertainty and environmental complexity, must encourage interaction between key stakeholders who implement and use the IS technology. The dual organisation and the experience-based group-learning processes......This paper discusses IS strategising and how the combination of the planning and the incremental approaches can enable successful IS strategising. IS strategising is conceptualised as a dual organisational process in which the network and the hierarchy positively coexist through group-learning...

  2. Ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse: improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B


    In this work, the potential of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment in order to improve the rupture of the recalcitrant structures of the cashew able bagasse (CAB), lignocellulosic by-product in Brazil with no commercial value, is obtained from cashew apple process to juice production, was studied. First, biomass composition of CAB was determined, and the percentage of glucan and lignin was 20.54 ± 0.70% and 33.80 ± 1.30%, respectively. CAB content in terms of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, 19.21 ± 0.35%, 12.05 ± 0.37%, and 38.11 ± 0.08%, respectively, was also determined. Results showed that, after enzymatic hydrolysis, alkali concentration exerted influence on glucose formation, after pretreatment with 0.2 and 1.0 mo L(-1) of NaOH (372 ± 12 and 355 ± 37 mg g(glucan)(-1) ) when 2% (w/v) of cashew apple bagasse pretreated by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment (CAB-M) was used. On the other hand, pretreatment time (15-30 min) and microwave power (600-900 W) exerted no significant effect on hydrolysis. On enzymatic hydrolysis step, improvement on solid percentage (16% w/v) and enzyme load (30 FPU g (CAB-M) (-1) ) increased glucose concentration to 15 g L(-1). The fermentation of the hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevesiae resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 5.6 g L(-1) and 1.41 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  3. Self-organized ECM-mimetic model based on an amphiphilic multiblock silk-elastin-like corecombinamer with a concomitant dual physical gelation process. (United States)

    Fernández-Colino, Alicia; Arias, F Javier; Alonso, Matilde; Rodríguez-Cabello, J Carlos


    Although significant progress has been made in the area of injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications and model cell niches, further improvements are still needed, especially in terms of mechanical performance, stability, and biomimicry of the native fibrillar architecture found in the extracellular matrix (ECM). This work focuses on the design and production of a silk-elastin-based injectable multiblock corecombinamer that spontaneously forms a stable physical nanofibrillar hydrogel under physiological conditions. That differs from previously reported silk-elastin-like polymers on a major content and predominance of the elastin-like part, as well as a more complex structure and behavior of such a part of the molecule, which is aimed to obtain well-defined hydrogels. Rheological and DSC experiments showed that this system displays a coordinated and concomitant dual gelation mechanism. In a first stage, a rapid, thermally driven gelation of the corecombinamer solution takes place once the system reaches body temperature due to the thermal responsiveness of the elastin-like (EL) parts and the amphiphilic multiblock design of the corecombinamer. A bridged micellar structure is the dominant microscopic feature of this stage, as demonstrated by AFM and TEM. Completion of the initial stage triggers the second, which is comprised of a stabilization, reinforcement, and microstructuring of the gel. FTIR analysis shows that these events involve the formation of β-sheets around the silk motifs. The emergence of such β-sheet structures leads to the spontaneous self-organization of the gel into the final fibrous structure. Despite the absence of biological cues, here we set the basis of the minimal structure that is able to display such a set of physical properties and undergo microscopic transformation from a solution to a fibrous hydrogel. The results point to the potential of this system as a basis for the development of injectable fibrillar biomaterial platforms

  4. Solidification Structure and Macrosegregation of Billet Continuous Casting Process with Dual Electromagnetic Stirrings in Mold and Final Stage of Solidification: A Numerical Study (United States)

    Jiang, D.; Zhu, M.


    Coupling macroscale heat transfer and fluid flow with microscale grain nucleation and crystal growth, a mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model was established to study the SWRT82B steel solidification structure and macrosegregation in 160 mm × 160 mm billet continuous casting with dual electromagnetic stirrings in mold and final stage of solidification (M-EMS and F-EMS). In the model, the phases of liquid, columnar, and equiaxed were treated separately and the initial growing equiaxed phase, which could move freely with liquid, was regarded as slurry. To obtain the equiaxed grains nucleation and columnar front evolution, the unit tracking method and the columnar front tracking model were built. The model was validated by magnetic induction intensity of stirrer, billet surface temperature, and carbon segregation. The equiaxed phase evolution and the solute transport with effect of fluid flow and grains transport were described in this article. The results show that the equiaxed phase ratio will not increase obviously with higher current intensity of M-EMS, while the negative segregation near the strand surface becomes more serious. The negative segregation zone near the billet center and the center positive segregation come into being with the effect of equiaxed grains sedimentation and liquid thermosolutal flow. It is also found that the liquid solute transport in the F-EMS zone becomes the main factor with higher current intensity rather than the solidification rate, and therefore, the final billet center segregation decreases first and then turns to rise with the current intensity. The optimal current intensities of M-EMS and F-EMS proposed for SWRT82B billet continuous casting are 200 and 400 A, respectively.

  5. Solidification Structure and Macrosegregation of Billet Continuous Casting Process with Dual Electromagnetic Stirrings in Mold and Final Stage of Solidification: A Numerical Study (United States)

    Jiang, D.; Zhu, M.


    Coupling macroscale heat transfer and fluid flow with microscale grain nucleation and crystal growth, a mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model was established to study the SWRT82B steel solidification structure and macrosegregation in 160 mm × 160 mm billet continuous casting with dual electromagnetic stirrings in mold and final stage of solidification (M-EMS and F-EMS). In the model, the phases of liquid, columnar, and equiaxed were treated separately and the initial growing equiaxed phase, which could move freely with liquid, was regarded as slurry. To obtain the equiaxed grains nucleation and columnar front evolution, the unit tracking method and the columnar front tracking model were built. The model was validated by magnetic induction intensity of stirrer, billet surface temperature, and carbon segregation. The equiaxed phase evolution and the solute transport with effect of fluid flow and grains transport were described in this article. The results show that the equiaxed phase ratio will not increase obviously with higher current intensity of M-EMS, while the negative segregation near the strand surface becomes more serious. The negative segregation zone near the billet center and the center positive segregation come into being with the effect of equiaxed grains sedimentation and liquid thermosolutal flow. It is also found that the liquid solute transport in the F-EMS zone becomes the main factor with higher current intensity rather than the solidification rate, and therefore, the final billet center segregation decreases first and then turns to rise with the current intensity. The optimal current intensities of M-EMS and F-EMS proposed for SWRT82B billet continuous casting are 200 and 400 A, respectively.

  6. Interference of Spin-2 Self-Dual Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ilha, A; Ilha, Anderson; Wotzasek, Clovis


    We study the effects of interference between the self-dual and anti self-dual massive modes of the linearized Einstein-Chern-Simons topological gravity. The dual models to be used in the interference process are carefully analyzed with special emphasis on their propagating spectrum. We identify the opposite dual aspects, necessary for the application of the interference formalism on this model. The soldered theory so obtained displays explicitly massive modes of the Proca type. It may also be written in a form of Polyakov-Weigman identity to a better appreciation of its physical contents.

  7. Self-dual Codes Defined on Factor Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-song; WANG Jun; DU Qun; ZENG Gui-hua


    A definition of a self-dual code on graph and a procedure based on factor graphs to judge a self-dual code were presented.Three contributions of this paper were described as follows.To begin with, transform TR→L were defined, which was the basis of self-dual codes defined on graphs and played a key role in the paper.The second were that a self-dual code could be defined on factor graph, which was much different from conventional algebraic method.The third was that a factor graph approach to judge a self-dual code was illustrated, which took advantage of duality properties of factor graphs and our proposed transform TR→L to offer a convenient and geometrically intuitive process to judge a self-dual code.

  8. Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity. (United States)

    Wang, Zhengxuan; Liu, Ye; Li, Hui; Yang, Lin


    Alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation are different processes for rice protein (RP) isolation. The major aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different extraction methods on the antioxidant capacities of RPA, extracted by alkaline (0.2% NaOH), and RPE, extracted by α-amylase, during in vitro digestion for 2h with pepsin and for 3h with pancreatin. Upon pepsin-pancreatin digestion, the protein hydrolysates (RPA-S, RPE-S), which were the supernatants in the absence of undigested residue, and the whole protein digests (RPA, RPE), in which undigested residue remained, were measured. RPE exhibited the stronger antioxidant responses to free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the weakest antioxidant capacities were produced by RPE-S. In contrast, no significant differences in antioxidant activity were observed between RPA and RPA-S. The present study demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant responses induced by the hydrolysates and the protein digests of RPs could be affected differently by alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation, suggesting that the extraction is a vital processing step to modify the antioxidant capacities of RPs. The results of the current study indicated that the protein digests, in which undigested residues remained, could exhibit more efficacious antioxidant activity compared to the hydrolysates.

  9. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.


    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  10. The influence of metakaolin substitution by slag in alkali-activated inorganic binders for civil engineering (United States)

    Kadlec, J.; Rieger, D.; Kovářík, T.; Novotný, P.; Franče, P.; Pola, M.


    In this study the effect of metakaolin replacement by milled blast furnace slag in alkali-activated geopolymeric binder was investigated in accordance to their rheological and mechanical properties. It was demonstrated that slag addition into the metakaolin binder can improve mechanical properties of final products. Our investigation was focused on broad interval of metakaolin substitution in the range from 100 to 40 volume per cents of metakaolin so that the volume content of solids in final binder was maintained constant. Prepared binders were activated by alkaline solution of potassium silicate with silicate module of 1.61. The particle size analyses were performed for determination of particle size distribution. The rheological properties were determined in accordance to flow properties by measurements on Ford viscosity cup and by oscillatory measurements of hardening process. For the investigation of hardening process, the strain controlled small amplitude oscillatory rheometry was used in plane-plate geometry. For determination of applied mechanical properties were binders filled by ceramic grog in the granularity range 0-1 mm. The filling was maintained constant at 275 volume per cents in accordance to ratio of solids in dry binder. The mechanical properties were investigated after 1, 7 and 28 days and microstructure was documented by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that slag addition have beneficial effect not only on mechanical properties of hardened binder but also on flow properties of fresh geopolymer paste and subsequent hardening kinetics of alkali-activated binders.

  11. Industrial metabolism of chlorine: a case study of a chlor-alkali industrial chain. (United States)

    Han, Feng; Li, Wenfeng; Yu, Fei; Cui, Zhaojie


    Substance flow analysis (SFA) is applied to a case study of chlorine metabolism in a chlor-alkali industrial chain. A chain-level SFA model is constructed, and eight indices are proposed to analyze and evaluate the metabolic status of elemental chlorine. The primary objectives of this study are to identify low-efficiency links in production processes and to find ways to improve the operational performance of the industrial chain. Five-year in-depth data collection and analysis revealed that system production efficiency and source efficiency continued increasing since 2008, i.e., when the chain was first formed, at average annual growth rates of 21.01 % and 1.01 %, respectively. In 2011, 64.15 % of the total chlorine input was transformed into final products. That is, as high as 98.50 % of the chlorine inputs were utilized when other by-products were counted. Chlorine loss occurred mostly in the form of chloride ions in wastewater, and the system loss rate was 0.54 %. The metabolic efficiency of chlorine in this case was high, and the chain system had minimal impact on the environment. However, from the perspectives of processing depth and economic output, the case study of a chlor-alkali industrial chain still requires expansion.

  12. 高铝粉煤灰中Al2O3与SiO2在碱溶液中的反应行为%Reaction behaviour of Al2O3 and SiO2 in high alumina coal fly ash during alkali hydrothermal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋周青; 杨静; 马鸿文; 王乐; 马玺


    The reaction behaviours of Al2O3 and SiO2 in high alumina coal fly ash under various alkali hydrothermal conditions were studied. The means of XRD, XRF, FTIR and SEM were used to measure the mineral phase and morphology of the solid samples obtained by different alkali hydrothermal treatments as well as the leaching ratio of SiO2 to Al2O3 in alkali solution. The results showed that with the increase of the hydrothermal treating temperature from 75 to 160 °C, phillipsite-Na, zeolite A, zeolite P, and hydroxysodalite were produced sequentially while the mullite and corundum phase still remained. Zeolite P was massively formed at low-alkali concentration and the hydroxysodalite was predominantly obtained at high-alkali concentration. By the dissolution of aluminosilicate glass and the formation of zeolites together, the leaching efficiency of SiO2 can reach 42.13% with the mass ratio of Al2O3/SiO2 up to 2.19:1.%研究高铝粉煤灰中Al2O3与SiO2组分在NaOH碱液中不同水热条件下的反应行为。采用XRD、XRF、SEM、FTIR等测试方法对高铝粉煤灰碱溶液处理前后的物相组成和形貌变化进行表征,得到粉煤灰Al2O3和SiO2组分的溶出率变化规律。结果表明,高铝粉煤灰经75°C到160°C不同温度碱溶液处理后,颗粒表面硅铝玻璃相消失,依次生成钠型沸石、A型沸石、P型沸石及羟基方钠石,所含刚玉及莫来石相未被完全溶解。在低碱浓度溶液中P型沸石为主要生成相,高碱浓度下羟基方钠石为稳定的相。在铝硅玻璃体溶解和沸石相生成两种反应的共同作用下,粉煤灰中SiO2的溶出率可达42.13%,滤渣中Al2O3/SiO2质量比提高到2.19:1.

  13. (Super)alkali atoms interacting with the σ electron cloud: a novel interaction mode triggers large nonlinear optical response of M@P₄ and M@C₃H₆ (M=Li, Na, K and Li₃O). (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Yu, Guangtao; Huang, Xuri; Chen, Wei; Niu, Min


    Under high-level ab initio calculations, the geometrical structures and nonlinear optical properties of M@P₄ (M=Li, Na, K and Li₃O) and M@C₃H₆ (M=Li and Li₃O) were investigated; all were found to exhibit considerable first hyperpolarizabilities (18110, 1440, 22490, 50487, 2757 and 31776 au, respectively). The computational results revealed that when doping the (super)alkali atom M into the tetrahedral P₄ molecule, the original dual spherical aromaticity of the P₄ moiety is broken and new σ electron cloud is formed on the face of P₄ part interacting with the M atom. It was found that interaction of the (super)alkali atom with the σ electron cloud is a novel mode to produce diffuse excess electrons effectively to achieve a considerable β₀ value. Further, beyond the alkali atom, employing the superalkali unit can be a more effective approach to significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability of the systems, due to the much lower vertical ionization potential. These results were further supported by the case of the (super)alkali atom interacting with the cyclopropane C₃H₆ molecule with its typical σ aromatic electron cloud. Moreover, the β₀ values of the M@P₄ series are nonmonotonic dependent on alkali atomic number, namely, 1440 au (M = Na) alkali atom and the interacting surface with the σ electron cloud in P4 is a crucial geometrical factor in determining their first hyperpolarizabilities. These intriguing findings will be advantageous for promoting the design of novel high-performance nonlinear optical materials.

  14. Cerebral artery evaluation of dual energy CT angiography with dual source CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui; LIU Cheng; DENG Kai; SONG Shao-juan; WANG Dao-ping; HUANG Ling


    Background Conventional computed tomography angiography (CTA) is time consuming, user-dependent and has poor image quality in skull base region. This study assessed the feasibility of a new method, dual energy CTA for depicting the cerebral artery.Methods Phantom scan was done with head CTA sequences on dual source CT and 64 spiral CT for radiation dose calculation. Dual energy CTA was done with dual source CT on 36 patients who were suspected of having cerebral vascular disease. Three series axial images in 0.75 mm thick, 0.4 mm increment were acquired, which were named with 80 kV, 140 kV and merged images; 80 kV and 140 kV images were transferred into dual energy software, and maximum intensity projection (MIP) image was generated quickly by dual energy bone remove (DEBR group); merged images were transferred into In Space software to acquire MIP image through manual conventional bone remove (CoBR group). Post processing time and reading time were compared. Image qualities of the two groups were compared, mainly focusing on skull base segments of internal carotid artery and bone subtraction. ANOVA and SNK tests were applied for radiation dose comparison. Student's t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were applied for assessing differences between data for significance. Cohen's kappa was used for interobserver agreement. Results Radiation dose of phantom scan showed dual energy CTA was between digital bone subtraction and conventional CTA. The post processing time and reading time were much shorter in DEBR than CoBR, and image quality in skull base was much higher in DEBR than CoBR (P0.5). Interobserver agreement for all vessel segments was excellent (kappa=0.97). Conclusions Dual energy CTA is a reliable, new modality for depicting cerebral artery, overcoming the limitation of conventional CTA in the skull base region. It can save much time in post processing and reading than conventional CTA.

  15. Alkali silica reaction in concrete induced by mortar adhered to recycled aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etxeberria, M.


    Full Text Available The durability of recycled concrete must be determined before this material can be used in construction. In this paper the alkali-silica reaction in recycled concrete is analyzed. The recycled concrete is made with recycled aggregates, composed by original limestone aggregates and adhered mortar with reactive silica sand, and high alkali content cement. Due to the manufacturing process used for concrete production and the high water absorption capacity of recycled aggregates, cement accumulation happens in the interface (ITZ. The concentration of alkalis on the surface of recycled aggregates- ITZ and the presence of reactive sand in the mortar adhering to the recycled aggregate induce an alkali-silica reaction in 6-month concrete. The existence of this reaction is confirmed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and EDX analysis. The mechanical properties of 6-month recycled concrete were similar to those values at 28-days of curing.

    La durabilidad del hormigón fabricado con árido reciclado es necesario determinarla antes de su utilización como material de construcción. En este artículo se analiza la reacción álcali-sílice manifestada en el hormigón fabricado con árido reciclado procedente de hormigón (compuesto de árido original calizo y mortero adherido de arena sílice reactiva, y cemento de alto contenido en álcalis. Debido al proceso de fabricación del hormigón y la alta capacidad de absorción del árido reciclado se produce una acumulación del cemento en la Interfase (ITZ. Debido al contacto directo de los álcalis del cemento con la arena sílice reactiva se produce una reacción álcali sílice a los 6 meses de edad del hormigón. Se realiza un análisis mediante microscopio electrónico de barrido ambiental (ESEM y sistema analítico de EDX. Se determina que las propiedades mecánicas del hormigón reciclado a 6 meses son similares a las obtenidas a los 28 días de curado.

  16. Extraction of Saponin from Camellia oleifera Abel Cake by a Combination Method of Alkali Solution and Acid Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Liu


    Full Text Available Saponin 15%~20% content in the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel, from which Camellia oil is squeezed, is a natural nonionic surface active agent and is extensively applied to emulsification, humectation, foaming, medicine, pesticide, and so on. In this paper, the extraction process of saponin was researched through a combining method of alkali solution and acid isolation. A quantitative method for saponin was established by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The influence of extraction factors was investigated by a single-factor test and a response surface methodology. The results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions of saponin were extraction temperature 68°C, alkali solution pH 9.1, acid isolation pH 4.1, and liquid-solid ratio 15.9 : 1. The extraction rate of saponin was 76.12% at the optimal extraction conditions.

  17. Direct observation of bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes growth via in operando x-ray diffraction studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz-Osés


    Full Text Available Alkali antimonides have a long history as visible-light-sensitive photocathodes. This work focuses on the process of fabrication of the bi-alkali photocathodes, K2CsSb. In-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and photoresponse measurements were used to monitor phase evolution during sequential photocathode growth mode on Si(100 substrates. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition for the initial antimony layer was observed at a film thickness of 40 Å . The antimony crystalline structure dissolved upon potassium deposition, eventually recrystallizing upon further deposition into K-Sb crystalline modifications. This transition, as well as the conversion of potassium antimonide to K2CsSb upon cesium deposition, is correlated with changes in the quantum efficiency.

  18. Generation and characterization of alkali metal clusters in Y-FAU zeolites. An ESR and MAS NMR spectroscopic study (United States)

    Hannus, István; Béres, Attila; Nagy, János B.; Halász, János; Kiricsi, Imre


    Charged and neutral metal clusters of various compositions and sizes can be prepared by controlling the alkali metal content by the decomposition of alkali azides and the composition of the host zeolite by ion-exchange. ESR signals show that electron transfer from alkali metal atoms to alkali metal cations does occur, but in a direction opposite to that predicted by the gas-phase thermochemistry. Alkali metal clusters proved to be very active basic catalytic centers.

  19. Coherent coupling of alkali atoms by random collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Or; Firstenberg, Ofer


    Random spin-exchange collisions in warm alkali vapor cause rapid decoherence and act to equilibriate the spin state of the atoms. In contrast, here we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a coherent coupling of one alkali specie to another specie, mediated by these random collisions. We show that, the minor specie (potassium) inherits the magnetic properties of the dominant specie (rubidium), including its lifetime (T1), coherence time (T2), gyromagnetic ratio, and SERF magnetic-field threshold. We further show that this coupling can be completely controlled by varying the strength of the magnetic field. Finally, we explain these phenomena analytically by modes-mixing of the two species via spin-exchange collisions.

  20. Alkali-helium snowball complexes formed on helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Müller, S; Mudrich, M; Stienkemeier, F


    We systematically investigate the formation and stability of snowballs formed by femtosecond photoionization of small alkali clusters bound to helium nanodroplets. For all studied alkali species Ak = (Na,K,Rb,Cs) we observe the formation of snowballs Ak(+)He(N) when multiply doping the droplets. Fragmentation of clusters Ak(N) upon ionization appears to enhance snowball formation. In the case of Na and Cs we also detect snowballs Ak(2) (+)He(N) formed around Ak dimer ions. While the snowball progression for Na and K is limited to less than 11 helium atoms, the heavier atoms Rb and Cs feature wide distributions at least up to Ak(+)He(41). Characteristic steps in the mass spectra of Cs-doped helium droplets are found at positions consistent with predictions on the closure of the first shell of helium atoms around the Ak(+) ion based on variational Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Coherent coupling of alkali atoms by random collisions. (United States)

    Katz, Or; Peleg, Or; Firstenberg, Ofer


    Random spin-exchange collisions in warm alkali vapor cause rapid decoherence and act to equilibrate the spin state of the atoms in the vapor. In contrast, here we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a coherent coupling of one alkali species to another species, mediated by these random collisions. We show that the minor species (potassium) inherits the magnetic properties of the dominant species (rubidium), including its lifetime (T_{1}), coherence time (T_{2}), gyromagnetic ratio, and spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetic-field threshold. We further show that this coupling can be completely controlled by varying the strength of the magnetic field. Finally, we explain these phenomena analytically by mode mixing of the two species via spin-exchange collisions.

  2. Penetration of alkali atoms throughout a graphene membrane: theoretical modeling. (United States)

    Boukhvalov, D W; Virojanadara, C


    Theoretical studies of penetration of various alkali atoms (Li, Na, Rb, Cs) throughout a graphene membrane grown on a silicon carbide substrate are reported and compared with recent experimental results. Results of first principles modeling demonstrate a rather low (about 0.8 eV) energy barrier for the formation of temporary defects in the carbon layer required for the penetration of Li at a high concentration of adatoms, a higher (about 2 eV) barrier for Na, and barriers above 4 eV for Rb and Cs. Experiments prove migration of lithium adatoms from the graphene surface to the buffer layer and SiC substrate at room temperature, sodium at 100 °C and impenetrability of the graphene membrane for Rb and Cs. Differences between epitaxial and free-standing graphene for the penetration of alkali ions are also discussed.

  3. The optical properties of alkali nitrate single crystals (United States)

    Anan'ev, Vladimir; Miklin, Mikhail


    Absorption of non-polarized light by a uniaxial crystal has been studied. The degree of absorption polarization has been calculated as a function of the ratio of optical densities in the region of low and high absorbances. This function is proposed for analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of uniaxial crystal absorption spectra. Non-polarized light spectra of alkali nitrate single crystals, both pure and doped with thallium, have been studied. It is shown that the absorption band at 300 nm is due to two transitions, whose intensities depend on temperature in various ways. There is a weak band in a short wavelength range of the absorption spectrum of potassium nitrate crystal, whose intensity increases with thallium doping. The band parameters of alkali nitrate single crystals have been calculated. Low-energy transitions in the nitrate ion have been located.

  4. Polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of the alkali metal atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentealba, P. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Mecanica Cuantica Aplicada (CMCA)); Reyes, O. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Fisica)


    The electric static dipole polarizability [alpha], quadrupole polarizability C, dipole-quadrupole polarizability B, and the second dipole hyperpolarizability [gamma] have been calculated for the alkali metal atoms in the ground state. The results are based on a pseudopotential which is able to incorporate the very important core-valence correlation effect through a core polarization potential, and, in an empirical way, the main relativistic effects. The calculated properties compare very well with more elaborated calculations for the Li atom, excepting the second hyperpolarizability [gamma]. For the other atoms, there is neither theoretical nor experimental information about most of the higher polarizabilities. Hence, the results of this paper should be seen as a first attempt to give a complete account of the series expansion of the interaction energy of an alkali metal atom and a static electric field. (author).

  5. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasenjit Sen


    Electronic and magnetic structures of (1 0 0) films of K and Cs, having thicknesses of one to seven layers, are calculated within the plane-wave projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism of the density functional theory (DFT), using both local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the PW91 generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Only a six-layer Cs film is found to have a ferromagnetic (FM) state which is degenerate with a paramagnetic (PM) state within the accuracy of these calculations. These results are compared with those obtained from calculations on a finite-thickness uniform jellium model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films and bulk hosts are also discussed.

  6. Alkali halide microstructured optical fiber for X-ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHaven, S. L., E-mail:, E-mail:; Wincheski, R. A., E-mail:, E-mail: [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Albin, S., E-mail: [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States)


    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  7. Positronium-alkali atom scattering at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Ajoy [Laban Hrad Vidyapith, AD-369, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Basu, Arindam [Department of Physics, Maheshtala College, Chandannagar, South 24 Parganas, Kolkata 700 140 (India); Sarkar, Nirmal K [Sodepur Chandrachur Vidyapith, 1, Desh Bandhu Nagar, Sodepur, 743 174 (India); Sinha, Prabal K [Department of Physics, Bangabasi College, 19, Raj Kumar Chakravorty Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India)


    We investigate the scattering of orthopositronium (o-Ps) atom off different atomic alkali targets (Na to Cs) at low and medium energies (up to 120 eV). Projectile-elastic and target-elastic close-coupling models have been employed to investigate the systems in addition to the static-exchange model. Elastic, excitation and total cross sections have been reported for all four systems. The magnitude of the alkali excitation cross section increases with increasing atomic number of the target atom while the position of the peak value shifts towards lower incident energies. The magnitudes of the Ps excitation and ionization cross sections increase steadily with atomic number with no change in the peak position. The reported results show regular behaviour with increasing atomic number of the target atom. Scattering parameters for the Ps-Rb and Ps-Cs systems are being reported for the first time.

  8. Alkali Halide Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection (United States)

    DeHaven, S. L.; Wincheski, R. A.; Albin, S.


    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  9. Dual-species biofilms formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and environmental bacteria isolated from fresh-cut processing plants (United States)

    Biofilm formation is a mechanism adapted by many microorganisms that enhances the survival in stressful environments. In food processing facilities, bacterial strains with strong biofilm forming capacities are more likely to survive the daily cleaning and disinfection. Foodborne bacterial pathogens,...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.


    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  11. Solubility of 1:1 Alkali Nitrates and Chlorides in Near-Critical and Supercritical Water : 1 Alkali Nitrates and Chlorides in Near-Critical and Supercritical Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, Ingo; Metz, Sybrand J.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Versteeg, Geert F.


    To increase the available data oil systems containing supercritical water and inorganic compounds, all experimental setup was designed to investigate the solubilities of inorganic compounds Ill supercritical water, In this work, three alkali chloride salts (LiCl, NaCl, KCl) and three alkali nitrate

  12. A hidden history of heartburn: The milk-alkali syndrome



    Milk-alkali syndrome was once considered to be of historic interest and a rare cause of hypercalcemia. Currently, it should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia, after malignancies and primary hyperparathyroidism. The resurgence is in part due to the easy availability of over the counter (OTC) calcium preparations. We describe a 50-year-old man who presented with severe hypercalcemia on two occasions associated with renal failure and metabolic alkalosis...

  13. Efficient potassium diode pumped alkali laser operating in pulsed mode. (United States)

    Zhdanov, Boris V; Rotondaro, Matthew D; Shaffer, Michael K; Knize, Randall J


    This paper presents the results of our experiments on the development of an efficient hydrocarbon free diode pumped alkali laser based on potassium vapor buffered by He gas at 600 Torr. A slope efficiency of more than 50% was demonstrated with a total optical conversion efficiency of 30%. This result was achieved by using a narrowband diode laser stack as the pump source. The stack was operated in pulsed mode to avoid limiting thermal effects and ionization.

  14. Composition and thermodynamic properties of dense alkali metal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabdullin, M.T. [NNLOT, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 al-Farabi Str., Almaty 050035 (Kazakhstan); Ramazanov, T.S.; Dzhumagulova, K.N. [IETP, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 al-Farabi Str., Almaty 050035 (Kazakhstan)


    In this work composition and thermodynamic properties of dense alkali metal plasmas (Li, Na) were investigated. Composition was derived by solving the Saha equations with corrections due to nonideality. The lowering of the ionization potentials was calculated on the basis of pseudopotentials by taking screening and quantum effects into account (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Engineering Properties of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Concrete



    This paper reports the results of experimental research on certain engineering properties of a new (portland cement-free) concrete made with alkali-activated fly ash. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine its (bending and compression) mechanical strength, modulus of elasticity, bond strength, and shrinkage. The results show that mortar and concrete made with portland cement-free activated fly ash develop a high mechanical strength in short periods of time, have a moderate modulus of el...

  16. Ultrafine microporous and mesoporous activated carbon fibers from alkali lignin



    A facile and sustainable approach has been successfully devised to fabricate ultrafine (100-500 nm) highly porous activated carbon fibers (ACFs) by electrospinning of aqueous solutions of predominantly alkali lignin (low sulfonate content) followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation at 850 °C under N2. Incorporating a polyethylene oxide (PEO) carrier with only up to one ninth of lignin not only enabled efficient electrospinning into fibers but also retained fibrous structures during...

  17. Alkali metal control over N-N cleavage in iron complexes. (United States)

    Grubel, Katarzyna; Brennessel, William W; Mercado, Brandon Q; Holland, Patrick L


    Though N2 cleavage on K-promoted Fe surfaces is important in the large-scale Haber-Bosch process, there is still ambiguity about the number of Fe atoms involved during the N-N cleaving step and the interactions responsible for the promoting ability of K. This work explores a molecular Fe system for N2 reduction, particularly focusing on the differences in the results obtained using different alkali metals as reductants (Na, K, Rb, Cs). The products of these reactions feature new types of Fe-N2 and Fe-nitride cores. Surprisingly, adding more equivalents of reductant to the system gives a product in which the N-N bond is not cleaved, indicating that the reducing power is not the most important factor that determines the extent of N2 activation. On the other hand, the results suggest that the size of the alkali metal cation can control the number of Fe atoms that can approach N2, which in turn controls the ability to achieve N2 cleavage. The accumulated results indicate that cleaving the triple N-N bond to nitrides is facilitated by simultaneous approach of least three low-valent Fe atoms to a single molecule of N2.

  18. Effect of Alkali on Daqing Crude Oil/Water Interfacial Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jixiang; Li Mingyuan; Lin Meiqin; Wu Zhaoliang


    Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding using sodium hydroxide as the alkali component to enhance oil recovery in Daqing Oilfield,northeast China has been successful,but there are new problems in the treatment of produced crude. The alkali added forms stable water-in-crude oil emulsion,hence de-emulsification process is necessary to separate oil and water. The problems in enhanced oil recovery with ASP flooding were investigated in laboratory by using fractions of Daqing crude oil. The oil was separated into aliphatics,aromatics,resin and asphaltene fractions. These fractions were then mixed with an additive-free jet fuel to form model oils. The interfacial properties,such as interfacial tension and interfacial pressure of the systems were also measured,which together with the molecular parameters of the fractions were all used to investigate the problems in the enhanced oil recovery. In our work,it was found that sodium hydroxide solution reacts with the acidic hydrogen in the fractions of crude oil and forms soap-like interfacially active components,which accumulate at the crude oil-water interface.

  19. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov


    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  20. Characterization of water and alkali extractable arabinoxylan from wheat and rye under standardized conditions. (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Praznik, Werner; Loeppert, Renate; Nowotna, Anna


    Arabinoxylans (AXs) are an important component of wheat and rye dough. They bind water, contribute to the formation of viscous dough and improve the quality of bread. For the application of AX fractions in bread making process, it is useful to record a quality profile of wheat fractions compared to the quality profile of rye fractions under standardized conditions. In this work water and alkali extractable AX containing fractions, from wheat- and rye wholemeal, were extracted under standardized conditions and characterized. For analysis of composition, structural features, and molecular dimension a combination of chemical, physicochemical, enzymatic and chromatographic techniques was applied. The molar mass distributions obtained by means of an innovative colorimetric pentose detection in the eluted SEC fractions were comparable for all under standardized conditions extracted AXs. The determined molar masses of AXs extracted both from wheat- and from rye grain were close to 2.0 × 10(5) g/mol for water extractable AXs and 3.0 × 10(5) g/mol for alkali extractable AXs. Different susceptibility to endoxylanase treatment, having been observed as differences in the SEC profiles, may be evidence of structural differences between AXs depending on their origin. The viscosities of AX solutions were strongly influenced by their molar mass and structure; samples being less susceptible to endoxylanase provided solutions of higher viscosity.

  1. On-line alkali monitoring - Part 1; Kontinuerlig alkalimaetning - Etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Ljung, P.; Woxlin, H.


    As a consequence of the increased knowledge of the environmental impact of combustion based heat and power generation, the use of renewable biofuels will be increased. An obstacle associated to biofuel combustion compared to other fuels is the large release of alkali. Alkali compounds in flue gases are known to cause severe operational problems. Three of the major problems are; fouling of superheating tubes (causing reduced heat transfer and possibly corrosion), agglomeration of the bed material in fluidized beds, and poisoning of SCR catalysts. Yet another alkali related problem arises when, in order to increase the electric efficiency of combustion power plants, combined-cycle technology is used. Alkali vapour present in the fuel gas for the gas turbine is condensed to particles which increase corrosion and erosion of the turbine blades. The research on ash related operational problems has to be extended in order to ensure future use of biofuels in heat and power generation. In all successful research, adequate tools are necessary. To investigate ash related problems the key issue is to be able to perform continuous alkali measurements. This pilot study has investigated the need of continuous alkali measurements, which alkali species are harmful in the different applications and also available instrumentation capable of measuring the specific alkali species. The report gives a short summary presenting alkali related operational problems. In addition a schematic overview is given, showing the alkali species that possibly can exist in various parts of the power plant. 48 refs, 13 figs, 4 tabs

  2. The unexpected properties of alkali metal iron selenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL


    The iron-based superconductors that contain FeAs layers as the fundamental building block in the crystal structures have been rationalized in the past using ideas based on the Fermi surface nesting of hole and electron pockets when in the presence of weak Hubbard U interactions. This approach seemed appropriate considering the small values of the magnetic moments in the parent compounds and the clear evidence based on photoemission experiments of the required electron and hole pockets. However, recent results in the context of alkali metal iron selenides, with generic chemical composition AxFe2ySe2 (A alkali metal element), have challenged those previous ideas since at particular compositions y the low-temperature ground states are insulating and display antiferromagnetic order with large iron magnetic moments. Moreover, angle-resolved photoemission studies have revealed the absence of hole pockets at the Fermi level in these materials. The present status of this exciting area of research, with the potential to alter conceptually our understanding of the ironbased superconductors, is here reviewed, covering both experimental and theoretical investigations. Other recent related developments are also briefly reviewed, such as the study of selenide two-leg ladders and the discovery of superconductivity in a single layer of FeSe. The conceptual issues considered established for the alkali metal iron selenides, as well as several issues that still require further work, are discussed.

  3. Scattering of positrons and electrons by alkali atoms (United States)

    Stein, T. S.; Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Parikh, S. P.; Wan, Y. J.; Zhou, S.; Dababneh, M. S.


    Absolute total scattering cross sections (Q sub T's) were measured for positrons and electrons colliding with sodium, potassium, and rubidium in the 1 to 102 eV range, using the same apparatus and experimental approach (a beam transmission technique) for both projectiles. The present results for positron-sodium and -rubidium collisions represent the first Q sub T measurements reported for these collision systems. Features which distinguish the present comparisons between positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's from those for other atoms and molecules (room-temperature gases) which have been used as targets for positrons and electrons are the proximity of the corresponding positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's over the entire energy range of overlap, with an indication of a merging or near-merging of the corresponding positron and electron Q sub T's near (and above) the relatively low energy of about 40 eV, and a general tendency for the positron-alkali atom Q sub T's to be higher than the corresponding electron values as the projectile energy is decreased below about 40 eV.

  4. Plasma formation in diode pumped alkali lasers sustained in Cs (United States)

    Markosyan, Aram H.; Kushner, Mark J.


    In diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), lasing action occurs on the resonant lines of alkali atoms following pumping by broadband semiconductor lasers. The goal is to convert the efficient but usually poor optical quality of inexpensive diode lasers into the high optical quality of atomic vapor lasers. Resonant excitation of alkali vapor leads to plasma formation through the excitation transfer from the 2P states to upper lying states, which then are photoionized by the pump and intracavity radiation. A first principles global model was developed to investigate the operation of the He/Cs DPAL system and the consequences of plasma formation on the efficiency of the laser. Over a range of pump powers, cell temperatures, excitation frequency, and mole fraction of the collision mixing agent (N2 or C2H6), we found that sufficient plasma formation can occur that the Cs vapor is depleted. Although N2 is not a favored collisional mixing agent due to large rates of quenching of the 2P states, we found a range of pump parameters where laser oscillation may occur. The poor performance of N2 buffered systems may be explained in part by plasma formation. We found that during the operation of the DPAL system with N2 as the collisional mixing agent, plasma formation is in excess of 1014-1015 cm-3, which can degrade laser output intensity by both depletion of the neutral vapor and electron collisional mixing of the laser levels.

  5. Heterometallic aluminates: alkali metals trapped by an aluminium aryloxide claw. (United States)

    Muñoz, M Teresa; Cuenca, Tomás; Mosquera, Marta E G


    A series of heterometallic aluminium-alkali metal species [AlMMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2]n have been isolated for lithium, sodium and potassium. These compounds can be generated by the reaction of [AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]2 with the metallated phenol [M{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]n or through the reaction of the mixture of AlMe3 and the appropriate alkali metal alkyl base with two equivalents of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. In the heterometallic species obtained, the {AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2}(-) moiety is observed and could be described as a claw which fixes the alkali ion by the phenoxide oxygen atoms while the methoxy groups help to stabilize their coordination sphere. All compounds have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Catalytic studies reveal that these compounds are active in ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide.

  6. Electron densities and alkali atoms in exoplanet atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavvas, P. [GSMA, Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, CNRS UMR 7331, Reims, 51687 France (France); Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V., E-mail: [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)


    We describe a detailed study on the properties of alkali atoms in extrasolar giant planets, and specifically focus on their role in generating the atmospheric free electron densities, as well as their impact on the transit depth observations. We focus our study on the case of HD 209458b, and we show that photoionization produces a large electron density in the middle atmosphere that is about two orders of magnitude larger than the density anticipated from thermal ionization. Our purely photochemical calculations, though, result in a much larger transit depth for K than observed for this planet. This result does not change even if the roles of molecular chemistry and excited state chemistry are considered for the alkali atoms. In contrast, the model results for the case of exoplanet XO-2b are in good agreement with the available observations. Given these results we discuss other possible scenarios, such as changes in the elemental abundances, changes in the temperature profiles, and the possible presence of clouds, which could potentially explain the observed HD 209458b alkali properties. We find that most of these scenarios cannot explain the observations, with the exception of a heterogeneous source (i.e., clouds or aerosols) under specific conditions, but we also note the discrepancies among the available observations.

  7. Superconductivity in alkali-doped C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Arthur P., E-mail:


    Highlight: • Superconductivity in alkali-doped C{sub 60} (A{sub 3}C{sub 60}) is well described by an s-wave state produced by phonon mediated pairing. • Moderate coupling of electrons to high-frequency shape-changing intra-molecular vibrational modes produces transition temperatures up to 33 K in single-phase material. • The good understanding of pairing in A{sub 3}C{sub 60} offers a paradigm for the development of new superconducting materials. - Abstract: Superconductivity in alkali-doped C{sub 60} (A{sub 3}C{sub 60}, A = an alkali atom) is well described by an s-wave state produced by phonon mediated pairing. Moderate coupling of electrons to high-frequency shape-changing intra-molecular vibrational modes produces transition temperatures (T{sub c}) up to 33 K in single-phase material. The good understanding of pairing in A{sub 3}C{sub 60} offers a paradigm for the development of new superconducting materials.

  8. Workplace Learning in Dual Higher Professional Education (United States)

    Poortman, Cindy L.; Reenalda, Marloes; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.


    Workplace learning is considered an effective strategy for the development of vocation, career and professional identity. Dual training programs, in which learning at a vocational school and learning at work in a company are combined, are seen as strong carriers for skill formation processes. In this study we explore workplace learning in dual…

  9. Workplace Learning in Dual Higher Professional Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Cindy L.; Reenalda, Marloes; Nijhof, W.J.; Nieuwenhuis, A.F.M.


    Workplace learning is considered an effective strategy for the development of vocation, career and professional identity. Dual training programs, in which learning at a vocational school and learning at work in a company are combined, are seen as strong carriers for skill formation processes. In thi

  10. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A


    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  11. “名字”,还是“卖点”,消费者如何加工双重信息?%How Consumers Process Dual Information? “Names” or “Slogans”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    在营销实践中存在大量的仿洋和仿古品牌名称,因为品牌名称作为信息确实会影响消费者的认知和态度.基于信息加工的角度,本文探讨了消费者如何加工品牌名称等多重信息.通过实验研究发现品牌名称与产品功能诉求在互补型匹配时传播效果更好,而且其效果具有一般性.这一结果有助于在更抽象的信息加工层面理解仿洋和仿古品牌名称的应用效果,因而更好地调控消费者的反应.%Foreign branding and local branding have been frequently used in China's marketing practices because brand names can affect consumers' perceptions and attitudes. Previous research shows that promotion-focused participants have more positive perceptions and attitudes toward brands with Western names, whereas prevention-focused participants have more positive perceptions and attitudes toward brands with Chinese traditional names. Brand names are often advertised with slogans focusing on product attributes. This paper explores how consumers process dual information of brand names and product attributes slogans.The article designs an experiment using fictitious toothpaste advertisements with two fictitious brand names. Two product feature claims were added to two commercials, promoting either a promotion-focused feature (whitening) or a prevention-focused feature (cavity prevention). A 2 ×2 ×2 between-subject design was adopted. 155 college students who participated in the experiment were randomly sent to eight groups.Firstly, results show the robustness of the moderating effect of regulatory focus in dual information processing. Promotion-focused participants have a more positive perceptions and attitudes toward Western brands because they symbolize accomplishment and aspirations. Prevention-focused participants have more positive reactions toward traditional Chinese brands because they conveyed a sense of safety and responsibilities. The study also rules out the possible

  12. Commuting Dual Toeplitz Operators on the Polydisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Feng LU; Shu Xia SHANG


    On the polydisk, the commutativity of dual Toeplitz operators is studied. We obtain characterizations of commuting dual Toeplitz operators, essentially commuting dual Toeplitz operators and essentially semi-commuting dual Toeplitz operators.

  13. Gram-negative bacterial isolates from fresh-cut processing plants enhance the presence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in dual-species biofilms (United States)

    Biofilms formed by resident microflora may provide a microenvironment for foodborne bacterial pathogens to survive and cause cross-contamination in fresh-cut processing and handling facilities. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of individual bacteria strains isolated from two l...

  14. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from grass to bioethanol using materials pretreated with alkali and the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yee Liong


    Full Text Available Grasses are abundant in many climatic regions of the world and have been regarded as weeds by many. This work investigated the use of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass in the production of bioethanol. Two pretreated grasses were compared as the initial substance in the hydrolysis process followed by bacteria fermentation. For the purpose of breaking down lignin, alkali pretreatment, where grass was soaked in 7% NaOH, was used. For biological pretreatment, grass was incubated for 3 weeks with the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both types of pretreated materials were subjected to Trichoderma reesei ATCC 26921 enzyme hydrolysis. Glucose content from alkali-pretreated samples was 1.6-fold higher than fungus-pretreated samples. Hydrolysates from the pretreatments were fermented using the ethanol insensitive strain Escherichia coli K011. After 24 hours of fermentation, the ethanol yield from alkali-pretreated material was 1.5 times higher than the biological-pretreated material. It can be concluded that NaOH-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had a better ethanol yield compared to biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate, but biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had better ethanol conversion efficiency, which was 18.5 g/g. These results indicated that wild grass is capable of becoming an important biomass for small local bioethanol production.

  15. Si- and alkali-rich melt inclusions in minerals of mantle peridotites from eastern China: Implication for lithospheric evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Qicheng; SUI; Jianli; XU; Ping; LI; Ni; SUN; Qian; WANG; Tuanhua


    Minerals of spinel- and garnet-facies mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basalts from eastern China (North China, Northeastern China and Southeastern China coastal area) contains lots of melt inclusions. Studies on these melt inclusions show that the glass inclusions are rich in SiO2 (60%―68%) and alkalis (K2O+Na2O=5%―11%, especially for K2O) as well as volatiles such as H2O and CO2 (2%―7%), which belong to dacites and andesites of the high-K calcic alkali series rocks with few shoshonites. High Al and Ca diopside in melt inclusion is the product of melt crystallization at high temperature and pressure, rather than the product of devitrification. Results show that these K-rich (in general K2O>3%) intermediate-acidic silicate melt inclusions have characteristics of continent without a genetical link to host basalts and their phenocrystic minerals. Thus, these trapped melt inclusions represent melts of Mesozoic lithospheric mantle-crust interaction and imply that the continental lithospheric mantle beneath eastern China had undergone fragmentation and recreation processes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic periods. This result undoubtly provides important implication for the evolution of sub-continental lithosphere beneath eastern China. We propose that these Si- and alkalis-rich melts should be responsible for the mantle chemical heterogeneity underneath eastern China.

  16. Alkali metal cation-hexacyclen complexes: effects of alkali metal cation size on the structure and binding energy. (United States)

    Austin, C A; Rodgers, M T


    Threshold collision-induced dissociation (CID) of alkali metal cation-hexacyclen (ha18C6) complexes, M(+)(ha18C6), with xenon is studied using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry techniques. The alkali metal cations examined here include: Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). In all cases, M(+) is the only product observed, corresponding to endothermic loss of the intact ha18C6 ligand. The cross-section thresholds are analyzed to extract zero and 298 K M(+)-ha18C6 bond dissociation energies (BDEs) after properly accounting for the effects of multiple M(+)(ha18C6)-Xe collisions, the kinetic and internal energy distributions of the M(+)(ha18C6) and Xe reactants, and the lifetimes for dissociation of the activated M(+)(ha18C6) complexes. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations are used to determine the structures of ha18C6 and the M(+)(ha18C6) complexes, provide molecular constants necessary for the thermodynamic analysis of the energy-resolved CID data, and theoretical estimates for the M(+)-ha18C6 BDEs. Calculations using a polarizable continuum model are also performed to examine solvent effects on the binding. In the absence of solvent, the M(+)-ha18C6 BDEs decrease as the size of the alkali metal cation increases, consistent with the noncovalent nature of the binding in these complexes. However, in the presence of solvent, the ha18C6 ligand exhibits selectivity for K(+) over the other alkali metal cations. The M(+)(ha18C6) structures and BDEs are compared to those previously reported for the analogous M(+)(18-crown-6) and M(+)(cyclen) complexes to examine the effects of the nature of the donor atom (N versus O) and the number donor atoms (six vs four) on the nature and strength of binding.

  17. Sugar production from barley straw biomass pretreated by combined alkali and enzymatic extrusion. (United States)

    Duque, A; Manzanares, P; Ballesteros, I; Negro, M J; Oliva, J M; González, A; Ballesteros, M


    A pretreatment that combines a thermo-mechanical process (extrusion) with chemical and biological catalysts to produce fermentable sugars from barley straw (BS) biomass was investigated. BS was firstly extruded with alkali and then, the pretreated material (extrudate) was submitted to extrusion with hydrolytic enzymes (bioextrusion). The bioextrudate was found to have 35% (w/w dwb) of total solids in soluble form, partly coming from carbohydrate hydrolysis during bioextrusion. About 48% of soluble solids dry weight is comprised by sugars, mostly glucose and xylose. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of bioextrudate could be successfully carried out at high solid loading level of 30% (w/v), with sugar production yield of 32 g glucose and 18 g xylose/100g bioextrudate at 72 h incubation (equivalent to 96 and 52 g/l concentration, respectively). These results, together with the high level of integration of the process, indicate a great potential of this pretreatment technology for sugar production from lignocellulosic substrates.

  18. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, S.; Due-Hansen, J.; Putluru, S.S.R.; Kunov-Kruse, A.; Fehrmann, R.; Degn Jensen, A.


    The aim of the project is to identify, make and test possible alkali resistant deNO{sub x} catalysts for use in biomass, waste or fossil fuelled power plants, where the flue gas typically has a high level of potassium compounds, which rapidly de-activate the traditional V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst. Furthermore, new technologies are investigated based on a protective coating of the catalyst elements and selective reversible absorption of NO{sub x} with ionic liquids. Several promising alternative deNO{sub x} catalyst types have been made during the project: 1) V, Fe, CU based nano-TiO{sub 2} and nano-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} catalysts; 2) V/ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}- and V/ZrO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts; V, Fe, Cu based Zeolite catalysts; 4) V, Fe, Cu based Heteropoly acid catalysts. Several of these are promising alternatives to the state-of the art industrial reference catalyst. All catalysts prepared in the present project exhibit higher to much higher alkali resistance compared to the commercial reference. Furthermore, two catalysts, i.e. 20 wt% V{sub 2}O-3-TiO{sub 2} nano-catalyst and the 4 wt% CuO-Mordenite zeolite based catalyst have also a higher initial SCR activity compared to the commercial one before alkali poisoning. Thus, those two catalysts might be attractive for SCR deNO{sub x} purposes even under ''normal'' fuel conditions in power plants and elsewhere making them strong candidates for further development. These efforts regarding all the promising catalysts will be pursued after this project has expired through a one year Proof of Concept project granted by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. Also the severe rate of deactivation due to alkali poisons can be avoided by coating the vanadium catalyst with Mg. Overall, the protective coating of SCR catalysts developed in the project seems promising and a patent application has been filed for this technology. Finally, a completely different approach to

  19. Electrical conduction and glass relaxation in alkali- silicate glasses (United States)

    Angel, Paul William

    Electrical response measurements from 1 Hz to 1 MHz between 50o and 540oC were made on potassium, sodium and lithium-silicate glasses with low alkali oxide contents. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and air quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Quenching was found to lower the dc conductivity, σdc, and activation energy as well as increase the pre-exponential term when compared to the corresponding annealed glass of the same composition. All of the glasses exhibited Arrhenius behavior in the log σdc against 1/T plots. A sharp decrease in σdc was observed for glasses containing alkali concentrations of 7 mol% or less. The σdc activation energy exhibited similar behavior when plotted as a function of alkali composition and was explained in terms of a mixture of the weak and strong electrolyte models. The depression angle for fits to the complex impedance data were also measured as a function of thermal history, alkali concentration and alkali species. These results were interpreted in terms of changes in the distribution of relaxation times. Annealed samples from a single melt of a 10 mol% K2O-90SiO2 glass were reheated to temperatures ranging from 450o to 800oC, held isothermally for 20 min, and then quenched in either air or silicon oil. The complex impedance of both an annealed and the quenched samples were then measured as a function of temperature from 120o to 250oC. The σdc was found to be remain unaffected by heat treatments below 450oC, to increase rapidly over an approximate 200oC range of temperatures that was dependent on cooling rate and to be constant for heat treatments above this range. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the mean structural relaxation time as a function of temperature and cooling rate near the glass transition temperature and glass transformation ranges. A more detailed definition for the transition and transformation temperatures and ranges was also provided.

  20. Alkali Metal Ion Complexes with Phosphates, Nucleotides, Amino Acids, and Related Ligands of Biological Relevance. Their Properties in Solution. (United States)

    Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Foti, Claudia; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio


    Alkali metal ions play very important roles in all biological systems, some of them are essential for life. Their concentration depends on several physiological factors and is very variable. For example, sodium concentrations in human fluids vary from quite low (e.g., 8.2 mmol dm(-3) in mature maternal milk) to high values (0.14 mol dm(-3) in blood plasma). While many data on the concentration of Na(+) and K(+) in various fluids are available, the information on other alkali metal cations is scarce. Since many vital functions depend on the network of interactions occurring in various biofluids, this chapter reviews their complex formation with phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, and related ligands of biological relevance. Literature data on this topic are quite rare if compared to other cations. Generally, the stability of alkali metal ion complexes of organic and inorganic ligands is rather low (usually log K  Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+) > Cs(+). For example, for citrate it is: log K ML = 0.88, 0.80, 0.48, 0.38, and 0.13 at 25 °C and infinite dilution. Some considerations are made on the main aspects related to the difficulties in the determination of weak complexes. The importance of the alkali metal ion complexes was also studied in the light of modelling natural fluids and in the use of these cations as probes for different processes. Some empirical relationships are proposed for the dependence of the stability constants of Na(+) complexes on the ligand charge, as well as for correlations among log K values of NaL, KL or LiL species (L = generic ligand).