Sauerwein, A.; Sonnabend, K.; Fritzsche, M.; Glorius, J.; Kwan, E.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.
Background: Knowing the energy dependence of the (γ,n) cross section is mandatory to predict the abundances of heavy elements using astrophysical models. The data can be applied directly or used to constrain the cross section of the inverse (n,γ) reaction. Purpose: The measurement of the reaction Ce142(γ,n)141Ce just above the reaction threshold amends the existing experimental database in that mass region for p-process nucleosynthesis and helps to understand the s-process branching at the isotope Ce141. Method: The quasi-monoenergetic photon beam of the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS), TUNL, USA, is used to irradiate naturally composed Ce targets. The reaction yield is determined afterwards with high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. Results: The experimental data are in agreement with previous measurements at higher energies. Since the cross-section prediction of the Ce142(γ,n) reaction is exclusively sensitive to the γ-ray strength function, the resulting cross-section values were compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations using different γ-ray strength functions. A microscopic description within the framework of the Hartree-Fock-BCS model describes the experimental values well within the measured energy range. Conclusions: The measured data show that the predicted (γ,n) reaction rate is correct within a factor of 2 even though the closed neutron shell N =82 is approached. This agreement allows us to constrain the (n,γ) cross section and to improve the understanding of the s-process branching at Ce141.
Kosako, K.; Yamano, N.; Fukahori, T.; Shibata, K.; Hasegawa, A.
1 - Description of program or function: JENDL-3.3 based, 175 neutron-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group transport codes. Format: MATXS. Number of groups: 175 neutron, 42 gamma-ray. Nuclides: 337 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.3: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-Nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Sc-45, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-Nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Ge-70, Ge-72, Ge-73, Ge-74, Ge-76, As-75, Se-74, Se-76, Se-77, Se-78, Se-79, Se-80, Se-82, Br-79, Br-81, Kr-78, Kr-80, Kr-82, Kr-83, Kr-84, Kr-85, Kr-86, Rb-85, Rb-87, Sr-86, Sr-87, Sr-88, Sr-89, Sr-90, Y-89, Y-91, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Nb-93, Nb-94, Nb-95, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Tc-99, Ru-96, Ru-98, Ru-99, Ru-100, Ru-101, Ru-102, Ru-103, Ru-104, Ru-106, Rh-103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-110m, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127m, Te-128, Te-129m, Te-130, I-127, I-129, I-131, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-130, Ba-132, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-138, La-139, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-148m, Pm-149, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu
Solar mass fractions of the seeds La139, Ta181, Ba138 and Hf180 are taken for calculation. They are assumed to be produced in ... of these elements by extending the earlier works on neutrino nucleosynthesis in massive stars. .... ing the shock heating of the layers surrounding the collapsing core of supernova progenitor.
Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.
We report on first results from experiments using the (alpha, alpha'gamma) reaction at E alpha = 136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (El) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus Ce-140. The method of (alpha, alpha'gamma) allows the
Lepretre, A.; Beil, H.; Bergere, R.; Carlos, P.; Fagot, J.; Miniac, A. de; Veyssiere, A.
The partial photoneutron cross sections [sigma(γ,n)+sigma(γ,pn)] and sigma(γ,2n) of 124 Te, 126 Te, 128 Te, 130 Te and 140 Ce, 142 Ce were measured in the giant dipole resonance region by means of the monochromatic photon beam installation at SACLAY. Absolute total photoneutron cross sections, Lorentz line parameters and integrated cross sections are evaluated. The experimental behaviour of the GDR for the above nuclei and in particular its spreading, is then tentatively interpreted in terms of the improved dynamic collective model using the concept of potential energy surfaces. (Auth.)
Kinsey, R.; Magurno, B.A.; Young, P.G.
-113m, 47-Ag-114-115, 47-Ag-115m, 47-Ag-116, 47-Ag-116m, 47-Ag-117, 47-Ag-117m, 47-Ag-118, 47-Ag-118m, 47-Ag-119-120, 47-Ag-120m, 47-Ag-121-128, 48-Cd-106-111, 48-Cd-111m, 48-Cd-112-113, 48-Cd-113m, 48-Cd-114-115, 48-Cd-115m, 48-Cd-116-117, 48-Cd-117m, 48-Cd-118-119, 48-Cd-119m, 48-Cd-120-121, 48-Cd-121m, 48-Cd-122-133, 49-In-113, 49-In-113m, 49-In-114, 49-In-114m, 49-In-115, 49-In-115m, 49-In-116, 49-In-116m, 49-In-116N, 49-In-117, 49-In-117m, 49-In-118, 49-In-118m, 49-In-118N, 49-In-119, 49-In-119m, 49-In-120, 49-In-120m, 49-In-121, 49-In-121m, 49-In-122, 49-In-122m, 49-In-123, 49-In-123m, 49-In-124, 49-In-124m, 49-In-125, 49-In-125m, 49-In-126-127, 49-In-127m, 49-In-128, 49-In-128m, 49-In-129, 49-In-129m, 49-In-130-134, 50-Sn-112-113, 50-Sn-113m, 50-Sn-114-117, 50-Sn-117m, 50-Sn-118-119, 50-Sn-119m, 50-Sn-120-121, 50-Sn-121m, 50-Sn-122-123, 50-Sn-123m, 50-Sn-124-125, 50-Sn-125m, 50-Sn-126-127, 50-Sn-127m, 50-Sn-128-129, 50-Sn-129m, 50-Sn-130, 50-Sn-130m, 50-Sn-131, 50-Sn-131m, 50-Sn-132-136, 51-Sb-121-122, 51-Sb-122m, 51-Sb-123-124, 51-Sb-124m, 51-Sb-124N, 51-Sb-125-126, 51-Sb-126m, 51-Sb-126N, 51-Sb-127-128, 51-Sb-128m, 51-Sb-129-130, 51-Sb-130m, 51-Sb-131-132, 51-Sb-132m, 51-Sb-133-134, 51-Sb-134m, 51-Sb-135-139, 52-Te-120-121, 52-Te-121m, 52-Te-122-123, 52-Te-123m, 52-Te-124-125, 52-Te-125m, 52-Te-126-127, 52-Te-127m, 52-Te-128-129, 52-Te-129m, 52-Te-130-131, 52-Te-131m, 52-Te-132-133, 52-Te-133m, 52-Te-134-142, 53-I-127-130, 53-I-130m, 53-I-131-132, 53-I-132m, 53-I-133, 53-I-133m, 53-I-134, 53-I-134m, 53-I-135-136, 53-I-136m, 53-I-137-145, 54-Xe-124-125, 54-Xe-125m, 54-Xe-126-127, 54-Xe-127m, 54-Xe-128-129, 54-Xe-129m, 54-Xe-130-131, 54-Xe-131m, 54-Xe-132-133, 54-Xe-133m, 54-Xe-134, 54-Xe-134m, 54-Xe-135, 54-Xe-135m, 54-Xe-136-143, 54-Xe-143m, 54-Xe-144-147, 55-Cs-133-134, 55-Cs-134m, 55-Cs-135, 55-Cs-135m, 55-Cs-136, 55-Cs-136m, 55-Cs-137-138, 55-Cs-138m, 55-Cs-139-150, 56-Ba-134, 56-Ba-135, 56-Ba-135m, 56-Ba-136, 56-Ba-136m, 56-Ba-137, 56-Ba-137m, 56-Ba-138
Mosulishvili, L.M.; Katamadze, N.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Ginturi, Eh.N.
The paper is concerned with the results of a study of behavior of artificial radionuclides in Georgian tea technological products after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Station. A partial contribution of the activity of radionuclides 141 Ce, 140 La, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 140 Ba, 137 Cs, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, 134 Cs and 90 Sr to the total activity to Georgian tea samples. Maximum tolerated concentrations of radionuclides were assessed provided average annual tea consumption per capita was 1 kg. The maximum of solubility in the water phase falls on Cs radionuclides. The regularities of migration of half-lived radionuclides 3 yrs. After the Chernobyl accident were established
Ishii, Toshiaki; Hirano, Shigeki; Watabe, Teruhisa
Hyperaccumlators are effective indicator organisms for monitoring marine pollution by heavy metals and artificial radionuclides. We found a green algae, Bryopsis maxima that hyperaccumulate a stable and radioactive isotopes such as Sr-90, Tc-99, Ba-138, Re-187, and Ra-226. B. maxima showed high concentration factors for heavy alkali earth metals like Ba and Ra, compared with other marine algae in Japan. Furthermore, this species had the highest concentrations for Tc-99 and Re-187. The accumulation and excretion patterns of Sr-85 and Tc-95m were examined by tracer experiments. The chemical states of Sr and Re in living B. maxima were analyzed by HPLC-ICP/MS, LC/MS, and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis using synchrotron radiation. (author)
Green, L.W.; Cassidy, R.M.; Edwards, W.J.; Knight, C.H.
Analysis methods based on thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and instrumental neutron activation (INA) were investigated. Fission products 139 La, 140 Ce, 142 Ce, 145+146 Nd and the sum of the major lanthanides (masses 139 to 152) were evaluated as fission monitors. A TIMS- 145+146 Nd method was selected as a reference method, and a HPLC- 139 La method showed good agreement and similar precision. Results obtained by INA- 142 Ce, HPLC-(139-152) and TIMS-1 48 Nd methods showed significant differences from those obtained by the above two, for various reasons. The weight and initial composition of the fuel was shown to give a sufficiently accurate estimate of the initial heavy element content; this combined with the HPLC- 139 La method yielded a fast, low-cost burnup method. (author)
Laul, J.C.; Nielson, K.K.; Wogman, N.A.
A rare earth group separation scheme followed by photon energy analysis using Ge(Li) and intrinsic Ge detectors enhances significantly the detection of individual rare earth elements (REE) at or below the ppb level. Based on the x-ray and selected γ-ray energies, Ge(Li) γ-ray counting is favorable for 140 La, 141 Ce, 142 Pr, 153 Sm, 171 Er, and 177 Lu, whereas intrinsic Ge γ-ray counting is favorable for 143 Ce, 147 Nd, 160 Tb, and 166 Ho, and intrinsic Ge x-ray counting is favorable for 152 Eu and 175 Yb. Gamma-ray counting of 153 Gd and 170 Tm is equally sensitive with Ge(Li) or intrinsic Ge detectors. Precise measurements of the REE were made in the USGS geological samples BCR-1, W-1, AGV-1, G2, GSP-1 and PCC-1, the IAEA Soil-5, and the NBS orchard leaf and bovine liver standards. Their chondritic normalized REE patterns behave as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. Interestingly, the REE patterns observed in orchard leaf and other plants are identical to the REE pattern in bovine liver. This comparison leads us to suggest that the plant REE patterns are probably not further fractionated by animals such as bovine during their dietary plant uptake
Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Emling, H.
Experimental data show that there is no even-even nucleus with a reflection asymmetric shape in its ground state. Maximum octupole- octupole correlations occur in nuclei in the mass 224 (N∼134, Z∼88) region. Parity doublets, which are the characteristic signature of octupole deformation, have been observed in several odd mass Ra, Ac and Pa nuclei. Intertwined negative and positive parity levels have been observed in several even-even Ra and Th nuclei above spin ∼8ℎ. In both cases, the opposite parity states are connected by fast El transitions. In some medium-mass nuclei intertwined negative and positive parity levels have also been observed above spin ∼7ℎ. The nuclei which exhibit octupole deformation in this mass region are 144 Ba, 146 Ba and 146 Ce; 142 Ba, 148 Ce, 150 Ce and 142 Xe do not show these characteristics. No case of parity doublet has been observed in the mass 144 region. 32 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab
Vysotskii, Vladimir I.; Kornilova, Alla A.
Highlights: ► The phenomena of isotope transmutation in growing microbiological cultures were investigated. ► Transmutation in microbiological associations is 20 times more effective than in pure cultures. ► Transmutation of radioactive nuclei to stable isotopes in such associations was investigated. ► The most accelerated rate of Cs 137 to stable Ba 138 isotope transmutation was 310 days. ► “Microbiological deactivation” may be used for deactivation of Chernobyl and Fukushima areas. - Abstract: The report presents the results of qualifying examinations of stable and radioactive isotopes transmutation processes in growing microbiological cultures. It is shown that transmutation of stable isotopes during the process of growth of microbiological cultures, at optimal conditions in microbiological associations, is 20 times more effective than the same transmutation process in the form of “one-line” (pure) microbiological cultures. In the work, the process of direct, controlled decontamination of highly active intermediate lifetime and long-lived reactor isotopes (reactor waste) through the process of growing microbiological associations has been studied. In the control experiment (flask with active water but without microbiological associations), the “usual” law of nuclear decay applies, and the life-time of Cs 137 isotope was about 30 years. The most rapidly increasing decay rate, which occurred with a lifetime τ * ≈ 310 days (involving an increase in rate, and decrease in lifetime by a factor of 35 times) was observed in the presence of Ca salt in closed flask with active water contained Cs 137 solution and optimal microbiological association
Pantelica, A. I.; Salagean, M. N.; Scarlat, A. G.; Georgescu, I. I.; Murariu-Magureanu, M.D
During the fossilization process, elemental contents of the buried materials are modified by different physical, chemical and biological factors, such as ground water flow and degree of aeration, chemical composition of the soil, bacterial activity, the process being influenced by the climatical conditions. Bone tissue, by the calcium phosphate mineral (hydroxyapatite) in the external part and organic component (fat and collagen) in the inner part, has proved to be a proper substrate for minor elements accumulation. The uniform increasing of certain elemental concentrations during the fossilization process is generally used in palaeoscience for the age dating. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used by us to determine Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn, and of the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb contents of two different fossil materials discovered in Romania during 1995-1996: Elephas primigenius mammoth mandible bone (1.5-2 million years age) and Pecten solarium shell (20-25 million years age). Mammoth mandible bone samples were taken both from the external and the internal part of the bone. Shell fragments were taken in association with the surrounding rock samples. Irradiations were carried out at the WWR-S reactor in Bucharest (neutron fluence rate 2.3 x 10 12 cm -2 s -1 and at the TRIGA reactor in Pitesti (neutron fluence rate 5 x 10 13 cm -2 s -1 . For the mammoth mandible bone (relative high contents of U and P) corrections were done for the uranium fission and (n,γ)β - contribution to Ce, La, Nd and Sm concentrations, and for the phosphorus interference in Al determination. It was taken into account that 141 Ce, 140 La, 147 Nd, 153 Sm isotopes are originated not only by the neutron activation reactions of these elements, but also from the beta - decay chains of the uranium fission products; for 153 Sm, spectral interference with 103.65 keV X-ray of 239