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Sample records for cdte quantum dots

  1. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.

  2. Optical measurements for excitation of CdTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, Marian; Feies, Valentin; Schiopu, Paul; Craciun, Alexandru; Grosu, Neculai; Manea, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the experimental results obtained using a laboratory setup installation for fluorescence excitation of CdTe QDs used as biomarkers for clinical diagnostics. Quantum Dots (QDs) made of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), are highly fluorescent and they are used as robust biomarkers. Generally, QDs are referred to as the zero-dimensional colloidal crystals that possess strong size dependence and multi-colored luminescence properties. Along with its intrinsic features, such as sharp and symmetric emission, photo-stability and high quantum yields, QDs play a vital role in various applications, namely the identification of the chemical moieties, clinical diagnostics, optoelectronics, bio-imaging and bio-sensing1.

  3. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wei Liu; Yu Zhang; Cun Wang Ge; Yong Long Jin; Sun Ling Hu; Ning Gu

    2009-01-01

    Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized with an electrogenerated precursor. The obtained CdTe QDs can possess good crystallizability, high quantum yield (QY) and favorable stability. Furthermore, a detection system is designed firstly for the investigation of the temperature-dependent PL of the QDs.

  4. The role of stress in CdTe quantum dot doped glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Almeida, D. B.; Pelegati, V. B.; Carvalho, H. F.; Moreira, S. G. C.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we unequivocally demonstrate the influence of matrix-related stresses on quantum dots by measuring, side by side, a CdTe quantum dot doped glass and a colloidal sample with similar sizes. We measured the fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime for both samples as a function of the temperature. We show that the expansion coefficient mismatch between CdTe quantum dots and the glass host causes stresses and drastically changes its behavior compared to its colloidal counterpart, even leading to phase transitions. This finding indicates that most experimental data on glass-doped quantum dots used to validate confinement models should be revised, taking stress into account.

  5. Synthesis of CdTe Quantum Dots with Tunable Photoluminescence Using Tellurium Dioxide as Tellurium Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘声燕; 王益林; 杨昆; 周立亚

    2012-01-01

    A simple and convenient method has been developed for synthesis of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) under ambient atmospheric conditions. In contrast to the traditional aqueous synthesis, green to red emitting CdTe QDs were prepared by using TeO2 to replace Te or AIzTe3 as tellurium source in this method. The influences of ex- perimental variables, including pH value, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)/Cd and Te/Cd molar ratios, on the emis- sion peak and photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of the obtained CdTe QDs have been systematically investigated. Experimental results indicate that green to red emitting CdTe QDs with a maximum photolumines- cence quantum yield of 35.4% can be prepared at pH 11.3 and rt(Cd) : n(Te) : n(MPA)= 1 : 0.1 : 1.7.

  6. Luminescent behavior of CdTe quantum dots: Neodymium(III) complex-capped nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Margarida S. [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Algarra, Manuel, E-mail: magonzal@fc.up.pt [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Jimenez-Jimenez, Jose; Rodriguez-Castellon, Enrique [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n 29071, Malaga (Spain); Campos, Bruno B.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2013-02-15

    A water soluble complex of neodymium(III) with CdTe quantum dots nanoparticles was synthesized. The obtained homogeneous solutions were characterized by fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. The effect of the refluxing time of the reaction on the fluorescence intensity and emission wavelength has been studied. It was found that the emission wavelength of the solutions of neodymium(III) complex capped CdTe QDs nanoparticles shifted from about 540 to 735 nm. For an emission wavelength of 668 nm, the most reproducible nanoparticles obtained, the pH effect over the fluorescence emission and its intensity were studied. The purified and lyophilized solid obtained was morphologically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantitative composition was determined by fluorescence X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and the X-ray photoelectron analysis (XPS) confirmed the presence of neodymium(III) at the surface of the CdTe nanoparticles forming a complex with the carboxylate groups from 3-mercaptopropanoic acid of the CdTe QDs. Due to the optical behavior of this complex, it could be of potential interest as a light source in optical devices. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdTe quantum dots nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neodymium(III) complexed quantum dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong red fluorescent emission nanomaterial soluble in water.

  7. Emission switching in carbon dots coated CdTe quantum dots driving by pH dependent hetero-interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Xiao; Wang, Hao; Yi, Qinghua; Wang, Yun; Cong, Shan; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Yinghui; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Qian, Zhicheng [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang, Jianwen; Xiong, Jie, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Luo, Hongmei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Due to the different emission mechanism between fluorescent carbon dots and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), it is of interest to explore the potential emission in hetero-structured carbon dots/semiconducting QDs. Herein, we design carbon dots coated CdTe QDs (CDQDs) and investigate their inherent emission. We demonstrate switchable emission for the hetero-interactions of the CDQDs. Optical analyses indicate electron transfer between the carbon dots and the CdTe QDs. A heterojunction electron process is proposed as the driving mechanism based on N atom protonation of the carbon dots. This work advances our understanding of the interaction mechanism of the heterostructured CDQDs and benefits the future development of optoelectronic nanodevices with new functionalities.

  8. Preparation of luminescent CdTe quantum dots doped core-shell nanoparticles and their application in cell recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhaohui; WANG Kemin; TAN Weihong; LI Jun; FU Zhiying; WANG Yilin; LIU Jianbo; YANG Xiaohai

    2005-01-01

    Based on the reverse microemulsion technique, luminescent quantum dots doped core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by employing silica as the shell and CdTe quantum dots as the core of the nanoparticles, which have an excellent solubility and dispersibility, especially amine and phosphonate groups have been modified on their surface synchronously. In comparison with CdTe quantum dots, these nanoparticles show superiority in chemical and photochemical stability. The quantum dots doped core-shell nanoparticles were successfully linked with lactobionic acid by amine group on it, which was used to recognize living liver cells.

  9. Highly luminescent hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe quantum dots: synthesis and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Novel hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were created using CdTe QDs coated with a hybrid SiO2 shell containing Cd(2+) ions and a sulfur source via a sol-gel process in aqueous solution. Aqueous CdTe QDs with tunable emitting color created through a reaction between cadmium chloride and sodium hydrogen telluride was used as cores for the preparation of hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. In our experiments we found that the surface state of the cores and preparation conditions that affect the formation of the hybrid SiO2 shell also greatly affect photoluminescence of the hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. The generation of CdS-like clusters in the vicinity of the CdTe QDs, caused the quantum size effect of the QDs to be greatly reduced, which changes photoluminescence properties of the hybrid QDs fundamentally. Namely, the novel hybrid SiO2 shell played an important role in generating a series of specific optical properties. In addition, the novel hybrid SiO2 shell can be created if no CdTe QD is added. In order to gain an insight into the inter structure of the hybrid shell, we characterized the hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs using X-ray diffraction analysis and discuss the formation mechanism of such a hybrid structure. This work is significant because the novel hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs with its excellent properties can be used in many applications, such as biolabeling and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Interactions between N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin through spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiupei, E-mail: xiupeiyang@163.com [Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Nanchong 637000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China); Lin, Jia; Liao, Xiulin; Zong, Yingying; Gao, Huanhuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots with the diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. • The modified CdTe quantum dots showed well fluorescence properties. • The interaction between the CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin (DR) was investigated. - Abstract: N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected cadmium telluride quantum dots with a diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. The interaction between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin was investigated by ultraviolet–visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy at physiological conditions (pH 7.2, 37 °C). The results indicate that electron transfer has occurred between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin under light illumination. The quantum dots react readily with doxorubicin to form a N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex via electrostatic attraction between the −NH{sub 3}{sup +} moiety of doxorubicin and the −COO{sup −} moiety of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots. The interaction of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex with bovine serum albumin was studied as well, showing that the complex might induce the conformation change of bovine serum due to changes in microenvironment of bovine serum.

  11. Near-unity quantum yields from chloride treated CdTe colloidal quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert C; Espinobarro-Velazquez, Daniel; Leontiadou, Marina A; Smith, Charles; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J; Li, Chen; Radtke, Hanna; Pengpad, Atip; Bondino, Federica; Magnano, Elena; Pis, Igor; Flavell, Wendy R; O'Brien, Paul; Binks, David J

    2015-04-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for novel light sources and solar energy conversion. However, trap states associated with the CQD surface can produce non-radiative charge recombination that significantly reduces device performance. Here a facile post-synthetic treatment of CdTe CQDs is demonstrated that uses chloride ions to achieve near-complete suppression of surface trapping, resulting in an increase of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) from ca. 5% to up to 97.2 ± 2.5%. The effect of the treatment is characterised by absorption and PL spectroscopy, PL decay, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This process also dramatically improves the air-stability of the CQDs: before treatment the PL is largely quenched after 1 hour of air-exposure, whilst the treated samples showed a PL QY of nearly 50% after more than 12 hours.

  12. [Preparation and characterization of tumor targeted CdTe quantum dots modified with functional polymer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Jing-Ping; Xie, Ai-Mei; Yuan, Jing; Hua, Ye; Zhang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) capped quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and coated with 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (DG), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and 9-D-arginine (9R). The optical properties, morphology and structure of 9R/DG-coated CdTe QDs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, fluorescence spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and transmission electron micrographs (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility, tumor targeted ability and transmembrane action of 9R/DG-coated CdTe QDs were studied. Results indicated that 9R/DG-coated CdTe QDs was constructed successfully by ligand exchange. The 9R/DG-coated CdTe QDs with the size of 8-10 nm had good dispersity and the absorbance and fluorescence peaks of CdTe QDs after modification were red shifted from 480 nm to 510 nm and 627 nm to 659 nm, respectively. In addition, the CdTe QDs modified by PEG, DG and 9R displayed good biocompatibility, high targeted ability to the cancer cells with glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) receptor high expression and obvious transmembrane ability.

  13. CdTe quantum dots as a novel biosensor for Serratia marcescens and Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Sh; Reda, M; Hussien, A; Zayed, D

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to synthesize CdTe quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with Concanavalin A (Con A) as a novel biosensor to be selective and specific for the detection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, the conjugated CdTe QDs-Con A was used as fluorescence labels to capture Serratia marcescens bacteria through the recognition between CdTe QDs-Con A and LPS of S. marcescens. The appearance of the lattice plans in the high resolution transmission electron photograph indicated a high crystalline with an average size of 4-5 nm for the CdTe QDs. The results showed that the relative fluorescence intensity of CdTe QDs-Con A decreased linearly with LPS concentration in the range from 10 to 90 fg/mL and with correlation coefficient (R(2)) equal to 0.9713. LPS surrounding the S. marcescens bacteria was bound to the CdTe QDs-Con A and leads to quenching of PL intensity. It was found that a good linear relationship between the relative PL intensity and the logarithmic of cell population of S. marcescens in range from 1×10 to 1×10(6) CFU/mL at pH 7 with R(2) of 0.952 was established.

  14. CdTe Quantum Dots Embedded in Multidentate Biopolymer Based on Salep: Characterization and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rezanejade Bardajee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method for surface modification of water soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs by using poly(acrylic acid grafted onto salep (salep-g-PAA as a biopolymer. As-prepared CdTe-salep-g-PAA QDs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrum, thermogravimetric (TG analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The absorption and fluorescence emission spectra were measured to investigate the effect of salep-g-PAA biopolymer on the optical properties of CdTe QDs. The results showed that the optical properties of CdTe QDs were significantly enhanced by using salep-g-PAA-based biopolymer.

  15. The interactions between CdTe quantum dots and proteins: understanding nano-bio interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreeram S. Joglekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite remarkable developments in the nanoscience, relatively little is known about the physical (electrostatic interactions of nanoparticles with bio macromolecules. These interactions can influence the properties of both nanoparticles and the bio-macromolecules. Understanding this bio-interface is a prerequisite to utilize both nanoparticles and biomolecules for bioengineering. In this study, luminescent, water soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs capped with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA were synthesized by organometallic method and then interaction between nanoparticles (QDs and three different types of proteins (BSA, Lysozyme and Hemoglobin were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy at pH= 7.4. Based on fluorescence quenching results, Stern-Volmer quenching constant (Ksv, binding constant (Kq and binding sites (n for proteins were calculated. The results show that protein structure (e.g.,globular, metalloprotein, etc. has a significant role in Protein-Quantum dots interactions and each type of protein influence physicochemical properties of Quantum dots differently.

  16. Dynamic effects in CdTe quantum-dot LEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the electrical and electroluminescence properties CdTe nanocrystal films were analysed. The structure consisted of a multilayer of CdTe nanocrystals deposited by the layer-by-layer technique, sandwiched between an ITO anode and an aluminium cathode. The first part of this work was dedicated to structural and process improvement. Earlier devices, produced through a layer-by-layer (LbL) manual procedure, had an average thickness of 30nm per nanocrystal monolayer,...

  17. BSA activated CdTe quantum dot nanosensor for antimony ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shenguang; Zhang, Congcong; Zhu, Yuanna; Yu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuangshuang

    2010-01-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for Sb(3+) determination was reported based on thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. It was the first antimony ion sensor using QD nanoparticles in a receptor-fluorophore system. The water-soluable TGA-capped CdTe QDs were prepared through a hydrothermal route, NaHTe was used as the Te precursor for CdTe QDs synthesis. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated to TGA-capped CdTe via an amide link interacting with carboxyl of the TGA-capped CdTe. When antimony ion enters the BSA, the lone pair electrons of the nitrogen and oxygen atom become involved in the coordination, switching off the QD emission and a dramatic quenching of the fluorescence intensity results, allowing the detection of low concentrations of antimony ions. Using the operating principle, the antimony ion sensor based on QD nanoparticles showed a very good linearity in the range 0.10-22.0 microg L(-1), with the detection limit lower than 2.94 x 10(-8) g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) 2.54% (n = 6). In a study of interferences, the antimony-sensitive TGA-QD-BSA sensor showed good selectivity. Therefore, a simple, fast, sensitive, and highly selective assay for antimony has been built. The presented method has been applied successfully to the determination of antimony in real water samples (n = 6) with satisfactory results.

  18. Two distinct photoluminescence responses of CdTe quantum dots to Ag (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yunsheng; Cao Chun [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Zhu Changqing [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China)], E-mail: zhucq625@163.com

    2008-01-15

    Four sizes of water-soluble thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized and used to investigate the photoluminescence (PL) responses to Ag{sup +} ions. For small particles, the CdTe QDs exhibit PL enhancement in the presence of lower concentration of Ag{sup +} but show obvious quenching with the further increase of Ag{sup +}; for larger particles, however, PL of CdTe QDs is quenched all the time with the Ag{sup +} addition, no PL enhancement is observed. Mechanism study shows that small QDs with more traps on the particle surface are effectively passivated by initial adsorbed Ag{sup +}, which accounts for the PL enhancement observed; after the initial traps are saturated, the excess Ag{sup +} facilitates nonradiative recombination, resulting in PL quenching. For larger particles, the nonradiative recombination dominates the whole process even for the lower concentration of Ag{sup +}, due to the fewer traps on the QD surface. Compared with larger particles, the small CdTe QDs are more suitable for sensing Ag{sup +} because of the more sensitive and selective PL response. To our best knowledge, this is the first systematical study on the interaction of Ag{sup +} with different-sized CdTe QDs.

  19. Enhanced Intracellular Uptake of CdTe Quantum Dots by Conjugation of Oligopeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Jeong Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS, a typical membrane-permeable carrier peptide, was conjugated with mercaptoisobutyric acid-immobilized CdTe quantum dot (CTNPs to enhance the intracellular uptake of quantum dots. Mean size of mercaptoisobutyric acid-immobilized quantum dots (37 nm as determined by dynamic light scattering was increased up to 54 nm after RGDS immobilization. It was found, from in vitro cell culture experiment, that fibroblast (NIH 3T3 cells were well proliferated in the presence of RGDS-conjugated quantum dots (RCTNPs, and the intracellular uptake of CTNPs and RCTNPs was studied by means of ICP and fluorescence microscopy. As a result, the RCTNPs specifically bound to the membrane of NIH 3T3 cells and almost saturated after 6 hours incubation. The amount of RCTNPs uptaken by the cells was higher than that of CTNPs, demonstrating the enhancing effect of RGDS peptide conjugation on the intracellular uptake of quantum dots (QDs.

  20. Studying nanotoxic effects of CdTe quantum dots in Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, C. V.; Almeida, D. B.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Menna-Barreto, R. F. S.; Santos-Mallet, J. R.; Cesar, C. L.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Feder, D.

    2010-02-01

    Many studies have been done in order to verify the possible nanotoxicity of quantum dots in some cellular types. Protozoan pathogens as Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas1 disease is transmitted to humans either by blood-sucking triatomine vectors, blood transfusion, organs transplantation or congenital transmission. The study of the life cycle, biochemical, genetics, morphology and others aspects of the T. cruzi is very important to better understand the interactions with its hosts and the disease evolution on humans. Quantum dot, nanocrystals, highly luminescent has been used as tool for experiments in in vitro and in vivo T. cruzi life cycle development in real time. We are now investigating the quantum dots toxicity on T. cruzi parasite cells using analytical methods. In vitro experiments were been done in order to test the interference of this nanoparticle on parasite development, morphology and viability (live-death). Ours previous results demonstrated that 72 hours after parasite incubation with 200 μM of CdTe altered the development of T. cruzi and induced cell death by necrosis in a rate of 34%. QDs labeling did not effect: (i) on parasite integrity, at least until 7 days; (ii) parasite cell dividing and (iii) parasite motility at a concentration of 2 μM CdTe. This fact confirms the low level of cytotoxicity of these QDs on this parasite cell. In summary our results is showing T. cruzi QDs labeling could be used for in vivo cellular studies in Chagas disease.

  1. Translocation and neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in RMEs motor neurons in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yunli; Wang, Xiong; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yiping; Wang, Dayong, E-mail: dayongw@seu.edu.cn

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We investigated in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons in C. elegans. • CdTe QDs in the range of μg/L caused neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. • Bioavailability of CdTe QDs may be the primary inducer for CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. • Both oxidative stress and cell identity regulate the CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. • CdTe QDs were translocated and deposited into RMEs motor neurons. - Abstract: We employed Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on RMEs motor neurons, which are involved in controlling foraging behavior, and the underlying mechanism of such neurotoxicity. After prolonged exposure to 0.1–1 μg/L of CdTe QDs, abnormal foraging behavior and deficits in development of RMEs motor neurons were observed. The observed neurotoxicity from CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons might be not due to released Cd{sup 2+}. Overexpression of genes encoding Mn-SODs or unc-30 gene controlling cell identity of RMEs neurons prevented neurotoxic effects of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons, suggesting the crucial roles of oxidative stress and cell identity in regulating CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. In nematodes, CdTe QDs could be translocated through intestinal barrier and be deposited in RMEs motor neurons. In contrast, CdTe@ZnS QDs could not be translocated into RMEs motor neurons and therefore, could only moderately accumulated in intestinal cells, suggesting that ZnS coating might reduce neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons. Therefore, the combinational effects of oxidative stress, cell identity, and bioavailability may contribute greatly to the mechanism of CdTe QDs neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. Our results provide insights into understanding the potential risks of CdTe QDs on the development and function of nervous systems in animals.

  2. Preparation and multicolored fluorescent properties of CdTe quantum dots/polymethylmethacrylate composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanni; Liu, Jianjun, E-mail: jjliu717@aliyun.com; Yu, Yingchun; Zuo, Shengli

    2015-10-25

    A new simple route was presented for the preparation of stable fluorescent CdTe/polymethylmethacrylate (CdTe/PMMA) composite films by using hydrophilic thioglycolic acid capped CdTe quantum dots (TGA-CdTe QDs) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as raw materials. The TGA-CdTe QDs were firstly exchanged with n-dodecanethiol (DDT) to become hydrophobic DDT-CdTe QDs via a ligand exchange strategy, and then incorporated into PMMA matrix to obtain fluorescent CdTe/PMMA composite films. The structure and optical properties of DDT-CdTe QDs and CdTe/PMMA composite films were investigated by XRD, IR, UV and PL techniques. The results indicated that the obtained DDT-CdTe QDs well preserved the intrinsic structure and the maximum emission wavelength of the initial water-soluble QDs and the resulting 6.10 wt% CdTe/PMMA composite film exhibited significantly enhanced PL intensity. Furthermore, the multicolored composite films with green, yellow-green, yellow and orange light emissions were well tuned by incorporating the CdTe QDs of various maximum emission wavelengths. The TEM image demonstrated that the CdTe QDs were well-dispersed in the PMMA matrix without aggregation. Superior photostability of QDs in the composite film was confirmed by fluorescence lifetime measurement. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of CdTe/PMMA composite films showed no obvious enhancement of thermal stability compared with pure PMMA. - Highlights: • Ligand-exchange strategy was used to render CdTe QDs oil-soluble. • CdTe QDs were incorporated into PMMA matrix to fabricate fluorescent films. • The resulting 6.10 wt% CdTe/PMMA film exhibited significantly enhanced PL intensity. • Fluorescent colors of films were tuned by varying the λ{sub em} of incorporated CdTe QDs.

  3. A simple and sensitive label-free fluorescence sensing of heparin based on Cdte quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, B; Shahshahanipour, M; Ensafi, Ali A

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive label-free fluorescence method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of an important drug, heparin. This new method was based on water-soluble glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) as the luminescent probe. CdTe QDs were prepared according to the published protocol and the sizes of these nanoparticles were verified through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) with an average particle size of about 7 nm. The fluorescence intensity of glutathione-capped CdTe QDs increased with increasing heparin concentration. These changes were followed as the analytical signal. Effective variables such as pH, QD concentration and incubation time were optimized. At the optimum conditions, with this optical method, heparin could be measured within the range 10.0-200.0 ng mL(-1) with a low limit of detection, 2.0 ng mL(-1) . The constructed fluorescence sensor was also applied successfully for the determination of heparin in human serum. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. CdTe quantum dot as a fluorescence probe for vitamin B12 in dosage form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnavi, E.; Renganathan, R.

    2013-11-01

    We here report the CdTe quantum dot (CdTe QDs)-based sensor for probing vitamin B12 derivatives in aqueous solution. In this paper, simple and sensitive fluorescence quenching measurements has been employed. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), quenching rate constant (kq) and binding constant (K) were rationalized from fluorescence quenching measurement. Furthermore, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism was discussed. This method was applicable over the concentration ranging from 1 to 14 μg/mL (VB12) with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) of VB12 was found to be 0.15 μg/mL. Moreover, the present approach opens a simple pathway for developing cost-effective, sensitive and selective QD-based fluorescence sensors/probes for biologically significant VB12 in pharmaceutical sample with mean recoveries in the range of 100-102.1%.

  5. CdTe Quantum Dots Embedded in Multidentate Biopolymer Based on Salep: Characterization and Optical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Rezanejade Bardajee; Zari Hooshyar

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for surface modification of water soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) by using poly(acrylic acid) grafted onto salep (salep-g-PAA) as a biopolymer. As-prepared CdTe-salep-g-PAA QDs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The absorption and fluorescence emission spectra were measured to investigate the effect of salep-g-PAA biopolymer on the optical propertie...

  6. Super fast detection of latent fingerprints with water soluble CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kaiyang; Yang, Ruiqin; Wang, Yanji; Yu, Xuejiao; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-03-10

    A new method based on the use of highly fluorescent water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) capped with mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) was explored to develop latent fingerprints. After optimized the effectiveness of QDs method contains pH value and developing time, super fast detection was achieved. Excellent fingerprint images were obtained in 1-3s after immersed the latent fingerprints into quantum dots solution on various non-porous surfaces, i.e. adhesive tape, transparent tape, aluminum foil and stainless steel. High sensitivity of the new latent fingerprints develop method was obtained by developing the fingerprints pressed on aluminum foil successively with the same finger. Compared with methyl violet and rhodamine 6G, the MSA-CdTe QDs showed the higher develop speed and fingerprint image quality. Clear image can be maintained for months by extending exposure time of CCD camera, storing fingerprints in a low temperature condition and secondary development.

  7. CdTe and CdSe Quantum Dots Cytotoxicity: A Comparative Study on Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suzete A.O.; Vieira, Cecilia Stahl; Almeida, Diogo B.; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R.; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Feder, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals of a few nanometers in diameter, being their size and shape controlled during the synthesis. They are synthesized from atoms of group II–VI or III–V of the periodic table, such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) or cadmium selenium (CdSe) forming nanoparticles with fluorescent characteristics superior to current fluorophores. The excellent optical characteristics of quantum dots make them applied widely in the field of life sciences. Cellular uptake of QDs, location and translocation as well as any biological consequence, such as cytotoxicity, stimulated a lot of scientific research in this area. Several studies pointed to the cytotoxic effect against micoorganisms. In this mini-review, we overviewed the synthesis and optical properties of QDs, and its advantages and bioapplications in the studies about microorganisms such as protozoa, bacteria, fungi and virus. PMID:22247686

  8. CdTe and CdSe Quantum Dots Cytotoxicity: A Comparative Study on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Feder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals of a few nanometers in diameter, being their size and shape controlled during the synthesis. They are synthesized from atoms of group II–VI or III–V of the periodic table, such as cadmium telluride (CdTe or cadmium selenium (CdSe forming nanoparticles with fluorescent characteristics superior to current fluorophores. The excellent optical characteristics of quantum dots make them applied widely in the field of life sciences. Cellular uptake of QDs, location and translocation as well as any biological consequence, such as cytotoxicity, stimulated a lot of scientific research in this area. Several studies pointed to the cytotoxic effect against micoorganisms. In this mini-review, we overviewed the synthesis and optical properties of QDs, and its advantages and bioapplications in the studies about microorganisms such as protozoa, bacteria, fungi and virus.

  9. Preparation of giant unilamellar CdTe quantum dot vesicles and their metabolic pathway in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with photoluminescence quantum yields of 61% and the maximum emitting at 601.2 nm were prepared in water phase.Giant unilamellar CdTe quantum dot vesicles (GUVs-CdTe),with diameters larger than 1.5 μm,were obtained using lower-pressure evaporation techniques with soybean lecithin.Compared with other QD liposomes,the entrapment efficiency of GUVs-CdTe for QDs has been significantly improved to 86.3%.After GUVs-CdTe were injected into mice through the tail vein,the fluorescence microscopy of tissue sections showed that GUVs-CdTe could not pass through the blood-brain barrier and air-blood barrier,which were removed mostly by the reticuloendothelial system and were widely distributed in the spleen and the liver.This behavior is the same as the character of the metabolic pathway of giant unilamellar vesicles by intravenous injections in mice.

  10. Structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of co-doped CdTe QDs for quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaswamy, Arivarasan; Ganapathy, Sasikala; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Ramasamy, Jayavel

    2015-12-01

    Zinc and sulfur alloyed CdTe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes have been fabricated for quantum dots sensitized solar cells. Alloyed CdTe QDs were prepared in aqueous phase using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a capping agent. The influence of co-doping on the structural property of CdTe QDs was studied by XRD analysis. The enhanced optical absorption of alloyed CdTe QDs was studied using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The capping of MSA molecules over CdTe QDs was confirmed by the FTIR and XPS analyses. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the prepared QDs were thermally stable up to 600 °C. The photovoltaic performance of alloyed CdTe QDs sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes were studied using J-V characteristics under the illumination of light with 1 Sun intensity. These results show the highest photo conversion efficiency of η = 1.21%-5% Zn & S alloyed CdTe QDs.

  11. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Evaluation of CdTe and CdTe/CdS Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhimin; Yang, Ping; Cao, Yongqiang

    2012-01-01

    CdTe and CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared in aqueous solutions using thioglycolic acid as a stabilizing agent. The photoluminescence (PL) wavelength of the QDs depended strongly on the size of CdTe cores and the thickness of CdS shells. Being kept at room temperature for 130 days, the PL wavelength of CdTe and CdTe/CdS QDs was red-shifted. However the red-shifted degree of CdTe QDs is larger than that of CdTe/CdS QDs. The size of CdTe QDs and the thickness of CdS play important roles...

  12. Translocation and neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in RMEs motor neurons in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Wang, Xiong; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yiping; Wang, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    We employed Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on RMEs motor neurons, which are involved in controlling foraging behavior, and the underlying mechanism of such neurotoxicity. After prolonged exposure to 0.1-1 μg/L of CdTe QDs, abnormal foraging behavior and deficits in development of RMEs motor neurons were observed. The observed neurotoxicity from CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons might be not due to released Cd(2+). Overexpression of genes encoding Mn-SODs or unc-30 gene controlling cell identity of RMEs neurons prevented neurotoxic effects of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons, suggesting the crucial roles of oxidative stress and cell identity in regulating CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. In nematodes, CdTe QDs could be translocated through intestinal barrier and be deposited in RMEs motor neurons. In contrast, CdTe@ZnS QDs could not be translocated into RMEs motor neurons and therefore, could only moderately accumulated in intestinal cells, suggesting that ZnS coating might reduce neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons. Therefore, the combinational effects of oxidative stress, cell identity, and bioavailability may contribute greatly to the mechanism of CdTe QDs neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. Our results provide insights into understanding the potential risks of CdTe QDs on the development and function of nervous systems in animals.

  13. Facile preparation of highly luminescent CdTe quantum dots within hyperbranched poly(amidoamine)s and their application in bio-imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunfeng; Liu, Lin; Pang, Huan; Zhou, Hongli; Zhang, Guanqing; Ou, Yangyan; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Du, Jimin; Xiao, Wangchuan

    2014-03-13

    A new strategy for facile preparation of highly luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) within amine-terminated hyperbranched poly(amidoamine)s (HPAMAM) was proposed in this paper. CdTe precursors were first prepared by adding NaHTe to aqueous Cd2+ chelated by 3-mercaptopropionic sodium (MPA-Na), and then HPAMAM was introduced to stabilize the CdTe precursors. After microwave irradiation, highly fluorescent and stable CdTe QDs stabilized by MPA-Na and HPAMAM were obtained. The CdTe QDs showed a high quantum yield (QY) up to 58%. By preparing CdTe QDs within HPAMAM, the biocompatibility properties of HPAMAM and the optical, electrical properties of CdTe QDs can be combined, endowing the CdTe QDs with biocompatibility. The resulting CdTe QDs can be directly used in biomedical fields, and their potential application in bio-imaging was investigated.

  14. Origins of photoluminescence decay kinetics in CdTe colloidal quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Marco

    2015-03-24

    Recent experimental studies have identified at least two nonradiative components in the fluorescence decay of solutions of CdTe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). The lifetimes reported by different groups, however, differed by orders of magnitude, raising the question of whether different types of traps were at play in the different samples and experimental conditions and even whether different types of charge carriers were involved in the different trapping processes. Considering that the use of these nanomaterials in biology, optoelectronics, photonics, and photovoltaics is becoming widespread, such a gap in our understanding of carrier dynamics in these systems needs addressing. This is what we do here. Using the state-of-the-art atomistic semiempirical pseudopotential method, we calculate trapping times and nonradiative population decay curves for different CQD sizes considering up to 268 surface traps. We show that the seemingly discrepant experimental results are consistent with the trapping of the hole at unsaturated Te bonds on the dot surface in the presence of different dielectric environments. In particular, the observed increase in the trapping times following air exposure is attributed to the formation of an oxide shell on the dot surface, which increases the dielectric constant of the dot environment. Two types of traps are identified, depending on whether the unsaturated bond is single (type I) or part of a pair of dangling bonds on the same Te atom (type II). The energy landscape relative to transitions to these traps is found to be markedly different in the two cases. As a consequence, the trapping times associated with the different types of traps exhibit a strikingly contrasting sensitivity to variations in the dot environment. Based on these characteristics, we predict the presence of a sub-nanosecond component in all photoluminescence decay curves of CdTe CQDs in the size range considered here if both trap types are present. The absence of such a

  15. CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence sensor for the determination of vitamin B6 in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Fang Sun; Cui Ling Ren; Li Hong Liu; Xing Guo Chen

    2008-01-01

    A novel,rapid and simple CdTe quantum dots (QDs) based technology platform was established for selective and sensitive determination of vitamin B6 in aqueous solution.It can perform accurate and reproducible quantification of vitamin B6 in pharmaceutical with satisfactory results.

  16. Synthesis of CdTe colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong HE; Xiaogang YOU; Hongye TIAN; Feng GAO; Daxiang CUI

    2008-01-01

    The comparison of growth processes and fluorescent properties of CdTe semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) that are synthesized in water with different modifiers are discussed in this paper. The samples are characterized through ultraviolet,visible spectra (UV,Vis),photoluminescence spectra (PL) and zeta potential. The results show that when the reaction time is prolonged for the same modifier, the ultraviolet absorption peak and fluorescent emission peak present obvious red shifts and the diameters of the QDs continuously increase. With the same reaction time but different modifiers, QDs with different diameters can be gained. The average full width at half maximum of the photoluminescence spectra is about 50 nm which shows that the monodispersity is quite good.Under the best reaction conditions, the highest quantum yield (QY) can be attained by using thioglycollic acid (TGA) as modifier when the reaction time is 240 min.The zeta potential is influenced by the modifier and pH.

  17. Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage Effect of TGA-capped CdTe Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-bo; ZHANG Hai-xia; GUO Cai-xia; HU Gui-qin; DU Hai-ying; JIN Ming-hua; HUANG Pei-li; SUN Zhi-wei; YANG Wen-sheng

    2012-01-01

    The cytotoxicity and DNA damage caused by thioglycolic acid(TGA)-capped cadmium telluride(CdTe)quantum dots(QDs)to hepatocyte line HL-7702 were investigated.Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay; DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis(SCGE); the change of cell cycle progression was examined by propidium iodide(PI)-flow cytometry(FCM);apoptosis was measured by acridine orange/ethidium bromide(AO/EB)assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI-FCM(FITC:fluorescein isothiocyanate).The results show that the cytotoxicity induced by CdTe QDs was increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner; after exposure to QDs for 24 h,as the exposure dose increased,the rate of DNA damage was significantly increased(P<0.05),and the degree of DNA damage was elevated.As the dose of CdTe QDs increased,the percentage of G0/G1 phase cells was significantly decreased(P<0.001),while the percenttages of S and G2/M phases cells were significantly increased(P<0.001).In AO/EB assay,apoptotic cells could be observed under a fluorescence microscope,and apoptotic rate was increased as exposure dose increased.In Annexin V-FITC/PI-FCM assay,the apoptotic rates of CdTe QDs treated groups were significantly increased compared with that of control group(P<0.05).Our studies indicate that CdTe QDs could influence cell viability,and induce DNA damage,the S and G2/M phases arrest and apoptosis of HL-7702.

  18. Photodegradation of Mercaptopropionic Acid- and Thioglycollic Acid-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Buffer Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yanping; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Jie; Du, Yingying; He, Haiyan; Liu, Yunshi

    2015-06-01

    CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and thioglycollic acid (TGA) as capping agents. It is confirmed that TGA and MPA molecules were attached on the surface of the QDs using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The movement of the QDs in agarose gel electrophoresis indicated that MPA-capped CdTe QDs had small hydrodynamic diameter. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of TGA-capped QDs is higher than that of MPA-capped QDs at same QD concentration because of the surface passivation of TGA. To systemically investigate the photodegradation, CdTe QDs with various PL peak wavelengths were dispersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and Tris-borate-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (TBE) buffer solutions. It was found that the PL intensity of the QDs in PBS decreased with time. The PL peak wavelengths of the QDs in PBS solutions remained unchanged. As for TGA-capped CdTe QDs, the results of PL peak wavelengths in TBE buffer solutions indicated that S(2-) released by TGA attached to Cd(2+) and formed CdS-like clusters layer on the surface of aqueous CdTe QDs. In addition, the number of TGA on the CdTe QDs surface was more than that of MPA. When the QDs were added to buffer solutions, agents were removed from the surface of CdTe QDs, which decreased the passivation of agents thus resulted in photodegradation of CdTe QDs in buffer solutions.

  19. Degree of supersaturation: An effective tool to control the luminescence efficiency and size distribution in CdTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Indrajit; Priyam, Amiya; Choubey, Ravi Kant

    2013-06-01

    Supersaturation controlled synthesis of thioglycollic acid (TGA) capped CdTe quantum dots in aqueous medium has been carried out. With a four-fold increase in the degree of supersaturation, the photoluminescence quantum efficiency of the nanoparticles was enhanced more than five times to a remarkably high value of 46%. This was accompanied by concomitant narrowing of the size distribution of the QDs. The simplified approach obviates the need for post-preparative treatments to improve the particle characteristics.

  20. Efficient optical trapping of CdTe quantum dots by femtosecond laser pulses

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Weiyi

    2014-12-11

    The development in optical trapping and manipulation has been showing rapid progress, most of it is in the small particle sizes in nanometer scales, substituting the conventional continuous-wave lasers with high-repetition-rate ultrashort laser pulse train and nonlinear optical effects. Here, we evaluate two-photon absorption in optical trapping of 2.7 nm-sized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with high-repetition-rate femtosecond pulse train by probing laser intensity dependence of both Rayleigh scattering image and the two-photon-induced luminescence spectrum of the optically trapped QDs. The Rayleigh scattering imaging indicates that the two-photon absorption (TPA) process enhances trapping ability of the QDs. Similarly, a nonlinear increase of the two-photon-induced luminescence with the incident laser intensity fairly indicates the existence of the TPA process.

  1. Highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots with reduced cytotoxicity-A Robust biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandi Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available l-Cysteine (Cys capped CdTe quantum dots (CdTe@Cys QDs were successfully synthesized in an aqueous medium. The synthesized CdTe@Cys samples were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, fluorescence (FL spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, confocal microscopy and subsequently subjected to the antibacterial test. Systematic investigations were carried out for the determination of optimal conditions namely the ratios of Cd:Te, CdTe:Cys, pH value and the chemical stability of CdTe@Cys. Moreover, the reactivation of FL intensity in the CdTe@Cys sample was done easily by the addendum of Cys. The introduction of additional cysteine to the CdTe@Cys QDs sample showed an enhancement in terms of the FL intensity and stability along with the reduced antibacterial activity. This was further confirmed through Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT assays. Both the result of the bio-stability tests namely the antibacterial test and MTT assay displayed similarities between the externally added Cys and cytotoxicity of the bacteria and human HeLa cancer cell lines. Confocal microscopic images were captured for the CdTe@Cys conjugated Escherichia coli.

  2. Effect of visible and UV irradiation on the aggregation stability of CdTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipotan, Aleksei S.; Gerasimova, Marina A.; Aleksandrovsky, Aleksandr S.; Zharkov, Sergey M.; Slabko, Vitaliy V.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of controlling the aggregation stability of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) stabilized by thioglycolic acid (TGA) is important for implementation of quasi-resonant laser-induced self-assembly. This study examines the influence of irradiation by the UV as well as by the visible light on the photostimulated aggregation of QDs. Different photochemical mechanisms are identified, depending on whether light wavelength falls into an interband transition or the first exciton transition. Irradiation by visible light does not lead to changes in the absorption spectra but decreases luminescence intensity through the detachment of TGA and the formation of dangling bonds, leading to the creation of radiativeless relaxation centers. UV irradiation (in the 300-370 nm range), at an intensity of 0.4 W/cm2, initially (during the first 75 min) leads to the degradation of the stabilizer and QDs' surface. After 75 min of combined UV and visible light irradiation, a gradual increase in spontaneous aggregation takes place, testifying excessive decrease in stabilizing potential barrier height. Hence, the laser-induced self-assembly of CdTe QDs is recommended to be performed over a time period of between 80 and 100 min after the beginning of low-intensity UV irradiation under conditions equivalent to those applied in this study.

  3. Application of mercaptosuccinic acid capped CdTe quantum dots for latent fingermark development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuejiao; Liu, Jianjun; Zuo, Shengli; Yu, Yingchun; Cai, Kaiyang; Yang, Ruiqin

    2013-09-10

    The aqueous synthesis of mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) solution for quickly and sensitively developing latent fingermarks is described. The rapid growth mechanism of CdTe/MSA QDs, which depends on the molecule structure of MSA, is briefly discussed and compared with that of thioglycolic acid (TGA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) capped CdTe QDs. Development of latent fingermarks with the synthesized CdTe/MSA QDs was faster and the ridge details were clearer compared with CdTe/TGA QDs. In addition, latent fingermarks developed with CdTe/MSA QDs showed less background and better contrast than that of gentian violet or rhodamine 6G. Latent fingermarks could be well developed on black tape, scotch tape, tinfoil, aluminum alloy, stainless steel as well as on the adhesive side of yellow tape, even when the latter were aged up to seven days. As immersion time greatly reduced to 10 s by using CdTe/MSA QDs, a preliminary result of latent fingermark development by spraying was presented also.

  4. Extracellular biosynthesis of CdTe quantum dots by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum and their anti-bacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Asad; Ahmad, Absar

    2013-04-01

    The growing demand for semiconductor [quantum dots (Q-dots)] nanoparticles has fuelled significant research in developing strategies for their synthesis and characterization. They are extensively investigated by the chemical route; on the other hand, use of microbial sources for biosynthesis witnessed the highly stable, water dispersible nanoparticles formation. Here we report, for the first time, an efficient fungal-mediated synthesis of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots at ambient conditions by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum when reacted with a mixture of CdCl2 and TeCl4. Characterization of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was carried out by different techniques such as Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. CdTe nanoparticles shows antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fungal based fabrication provides an economical, green chemistry approach for production of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots.

  5. A confocal laser scanning microscopic study on thermoresponsive binary microgel dispersions incorporated with CdTe quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Brijitta; B V R Tata; K Saravanan; B K Panigrahi; T Kaliyappan

    2010-12-01

    Monodisperse poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) particles loaded with cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) of two different sizes (4.7 nm and 5.6 nm) were synthesized in aqueous medium by bonding the capping agent on the quantum dots to the amide groups of PNIPAM and incubating the samples at 45° C. A huge increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity (green and red regions) is observed for the PNIPAM–CdTe QDs composites compared to the parent CdTe QDs. We report here for the first time the imaging of binary dispersion of green and red luminescent PNIPAM–CdTe QDs composites using a fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope. These composites have potential applications both in material science and biology.

  6. Exploring Feasibility for Application of Luminescent CdTe Quantum Dots Prepared in Aqueous Phase to Live Cell Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Fang WENG; Xing Tao SONG; Liang LI; Hui Feng QIAN; Ke Ying CHEN; Xue Ming XU; Cheng Xi CAO; Ji Cun REN

    2006-01-01

    This paper explored the feasibility for the application of luminescent CdTe quantum dots prepared in aqueous phase to live cell imaging. The highly luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs)were first prepared in aqueous phase, and then were covalently coupled to a plant lectin (UEA-1),as a fluorescent probe. After incubating with of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the QD probe with UEA-1 was able to specifically bind the corresponding cell receptor. The good cell images were obtained in live cells using laser confocal scanning microscopy. We predict that QDs prepared in water phase will probably become an attractive alternative probe in cellular imaging and bio-labeling.

  7. Effect of Cadion 1B on the Spectrum of Mercaptoacetic Acid-stabilized CdTe Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Li-Qun; ZHOU Xing-Wang; L(U) Jian-Quan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of cadion 1B (4-nitro-benzene-diazo-amino-azobenzene) on the fluorescent and absorption spectros- copy of mercaptoacetic acid-stabilized CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QD) in aqueous media was studied. Surfactant, medium, dosages of the cadion 1B, pH and thermodynamics parameters were also examined. The experimental re-sults showed that when cadion 1B was added into the CdTe QD solution, a new absorption peak was observed, and the fluorescence of CdTe QD was quenched to some extent, suggesting that there exist an interaction between cadion 1B and CdTe QD. The apparent equilibrium constant at room temperature was calculated to be 1.095×106 L·mol-1, and the coverage ratio of cadion IB on the surface of CdTe QD was estimated as 45%. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that the interaction was a spontaneous process in which electrostatic interactions play a major role.

  8. Crystallization from amorphous structure to hexagonal quantum dots induced by an electron beam on CdTe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, M.; Zelaya-Angel, O.; Medina-Torres, A. C.; Aguilar-Hernández, J. R.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Espinoza-Beltran, F. J.

    2009-02-01

    Amorphous cadmium-telluride films were prepared by rf sputtering on Corning 7059 glass substrates at room temperature. The deposition time was 10 and 12 h with a thickness of 400 and 480 (±40 nm), respectively. As-prepared films were amorphous according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, but a win-fit-software analysis of the main XRD broad band suggests a wurtzite structure at short range. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at 200 keV produces crystallization of the amorphous CdTe. The TEM-electron beam induces the formation of CdTe quantum dots with the wurtzite hexagonal structure (the metastable structure of CdTe) and with ˜6 nm of average grain size. As effect of a probable distortion of the CdTe crystalline lattice, the unit cell volume (UCV) shrinks to about 30% with respect to the bulk-UCV of CdTe. Besides, the energy band gap increases as expected, according to literature data on quantum confinement.

  9. Evaluation of toxic effects of CdTe quantum dots on the reproductive system in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangrong; Yuwen, Lihui; Yang, Wenjing; Weng, Lixing; Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are highly promising nanomaterials for various biological and biomedical applications because of their unique optical properties, such as robust photostability, strong photoluminescence, and size-tunable fluorescence. Several studies have reported the in vivo toxicity of QDs, but their effects on the male reproduction system have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs at a high dose of 2.0 nmol per mouse and a low dose of 0.2 nmol per mouse. Body weight measurements demonstrated there was no overt toxicity for both dose at day 90 after exposure, but the high dose CdTe affected body weight up to 15 days after exposure. CdTe QDs accumulated in the testes and damaged the tissue structure for both doses on day 90. Meanwhile, either of two CdTe QDs treatments did not significantly affect the quantity of sperm, but the high dose CdTe significantly decreased the quality of sperm on day 60. The serum levels of three major sex hormones were also perturbed by CdTe QDs treatment. However, the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those mated with untreated male mice. These results suggest that CdTe QDs can cause testes toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The low dose of CdTe QDs is relatively safe for the reproductive system of male mice. Our preliminary result enables better understanding of the reproductive toxicity induced by cadmium-containing QDs and provides insight into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological and environmental systems.

  10. Red-shift of the photoluminescent emission peaks of CdTe quantum dots due to the synergistic interaction with carbon quantum dot mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, E.; Zazueta, A.; López-Delgado, R.; Saucedo, E.; Ruelas, R.; Ayón, A.

    2016-11-01

    We report the relatively large red-shift effect observed in down-shifting carbon quantum dots (CQDs) that is anticipated to have a positive impact on the power conversion efficiency of solar cells. Specifically, with an excitation wavelength of 390 nm, CQDs of different sizes, exhibited down-shifted emission peaks centered around 425 nm. However, a solution comprised of a mixture of CQDs of different sizes, was observed to have an emission peak red-shifted to 515 nm. The effect could arise when larger carbon quantum dots capture the photons emitted by their smaller counterparts followed by the subsequent re-emission at longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the red-shift effect was also observed in CdTe QDs when added to a solution with the aforementioned mixture of Carbon QDs. Thus, whereas a solution solely comprised of a collection of CdTe QDs of different sizes, exhibited a down-shifted photoluminescence centered around 555 nm, the peak was observed to be further red-shifted to 580 nm when combined with the solution of CQDs of different sizes. The quantum dot characterization included crystal structure analysis as well as photon absorption and photoluminescence wavelengths. Subsequently, the synthesized QDs were dispersed in a polymeric layer of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and incorporated on functional and previously characterized solar cells, to quantify their influence in the electrical performance of the photovoltaic structures. We discuss the synthesis and characterization of the produced Carbon and CdTe QDs, as well as the observed improvement in the power conversion efficiency of the fabricated photovoltaic devices.

  11. Aqueous synthesis of highly luminescent surface Mn2+-doped CdTe quantum dots as a potential multimodal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; He, Fei; He, Xi-Wen; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2014-12-01

    Mn(2+)-doped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized directly via a facile surface doping strategy in aqueous solution. The best optical property emerged when the added amount of Mn(2+) was 5% compared to Cd(2+) in the CdTe nanoparticles and the reaction temperature was 60 °C. The fluorescence and magnetic properties of the QDs were studied. The as-prepared Mn(2+)-doped CdTe QDs have high quantum yield (48.13%) and a narrow distribution with an average diameter of 3.7 nm. The utility of biological imaging was also studied. Depending on the high quantum yield, cells in culture were illuminated and made more distinct from each other compared to results obtained with normal QDs. They also have a prominent longitudinal relaxivity value (r1= 4.2 mM(-1) s(-1)), which could indicate that the Mn(2+)-doped CdTe QDs can be used as a potential multimodal agent for fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

  12. High-throughput and rapid fluorescent visualization sensor of urinary citrate by CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Shujuan; Gong, Jiajia; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Changqing

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, we have presented a novel CdTe quantum dots (QDs) based fluorescent sensor for visual and turn-on sensing of citrate in human urine samples. The europium ion (Eu(3+)) can lead to the fluorescence quenching of thioglycollic acid (TGA) modified CdTe QDs due to photoinduced electron transfer accompanied by the change of emission color from yellow to orange. Next, addition of citrate breaks the preformed assembly because citrate can replace the CdTe QDs, based on the fact that the Eu(3+) ion displays higher affinity with citrate than the CdTe QDs. Thus the photoinduced electron transfer is switched off, and the fluorescence emission of CdTe QDs is rapidly (within 5min) recovered, simultaneously, the orange emission color restores to yellow. Such proposed strategy may conveniently discriminate the patient of renal stone from normal person by naked eyes. In addition to visualization detection, the fluorescence responses can be used for well quantifying citrate in the range of 0.67-133μM. So, the present, simple, low-cost and visualized citrate fluorescence sensor has great potential in the applications for earlier screening in clinical detection.

  13. Systematic investigation of interactions between papain and MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qi; Qiu, Hangna; Huang, Shan; Huang, Chusheng; Su, Wei; Hu, Baoqing; Liu, Yi

    2013-10-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have been widely applied in biological and biomedical areas, but relatively little is known about the interaction of QDs with some natural enzymes. Herein, the interactions between 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs (MPA-QDs) and papain were systematically investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra under the physiological conditions. The fluorescence spectra results indicated that MPA-QDs quenched the fluorescence intensity of papain. The modified Stern-Volmer quenching constant K a at different temperatures and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔG and ΔS were also calculated. The binding of MPA-QDs and papain is a result of the formation of QDs-papain complex and the electrostatic interactions play a major role in stabilizing the complex. The CD technique was further used to analyze the conformational changes of papain induced by MPA-QDs and the results indicated that the biological activity of papain was affected by MPA-QDs dramatically.

  14. Bioaccumulation of CdTe quantum dots in a freshwater alga Ochromonas danica: a kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Miao, Ai-Jun; Luo, Jun; Wei, Zhong-Bo; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Yang, Liu-Yan

    2013-09-17

    The bioaccumulation kinetics of thioglycolic acid stabilized CdTe quantum dots (TGA-CdTe-QDs) in a freshwater alga Ochromonas danica was comprehensively investigated. Their photoluminescence (PL) was determined by flow cytometry. Its cellular intensity increased hyperbolically with exposure time suggesting real internalization of TGA-CdTe-QDs. This hypothesis was evidenced by the nanoparticle uptake experiment with heat-killed or cold-treated cells and by their localization in the vacuoles. TGA-CdTe-QD accumulation could further be well simulated by a biokinetic model used previously for conventional pollutants. Moreover, macropinocytosis was the main route for their internalization. As limited by their diffusion from the bulk medium to the cell surface, TGA-CdTe-QD uptake rate increased proportionally with their ambient concentration. Quick elimination in the PL of cellular TGA-CdTe-QDs was also observed. Such diminishment resulted mainly from their surface modification by vacuolar biomolecules, considering that these nanoparticles remained mostly undissolved and their expulsion out of the cells was slow. Despite the significant uptake of TGA-CdTe-QDs, they had no direct acute effects on O. danica. Overall, the above research shed new light on nanoparticle bioaccumulation study and would further improve our understanding about their environmental behavior, effects and fate.

  15. A sensitive fluorescent nanosensor for chloramphenicol based on molecularly imprinted polymer-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Jalili, Roghayeh; Manzoori, Jamshid L

    2016-05-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor using molecularly imprinted silica nanospheres embedded CdTe quantum dots (CdTe@SiO2 @MIP) was developed for detection and quantification of chloramphenicol (CAP). The imprinted sensor was prepared by synthesis of molecularly imprinting polymer (MIP) on the hydrophilic CdTe quantum dots via reverse microemulsion method using small amounts of solvents. The resulting CdTe@SiO2 @MIP nanoparticles were characterized by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They preserved 48% of fluorescence quantum yield of the parent quantum dots. CAP remarkably quenched the fluorescence of prepared CdTe@SiO2 @MIP, probably via electron transfer mechanism. Under the optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of CdTe@SiO2 @MIP decreased with increasing CAP by a Stern-Volmer type equation in the concentration range of 40-500 µg L(-1). The corresponding detection limit was 5.0 µg L(-1). The intra-day and inter-day values for the precision of the proposed method were all <4%. The developed sensor had a good selectivity and was applied to determine CAP in spiked human and bovine serum and milk samples with satisfactory results.

  16. Study on CdTe Quantum Dots Electrochemiluminescent Sensor Supported by Carbon Nano-tubes With ITO Basal Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixia, Yu; Jilin, Yan; Yifeng, Tu

    2011-05-01

    The water soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) was synthesized with modified method. Its quantum yield was characterized for higher than 54%. Therefore a novel sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor was constructed based on the modification of composite of CdTe QDs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chitosan (CHIT) on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. After heat-treatment by infrared radiation, meanwhile with the co-reactant, triethylamine (TEA), the proposed sensor showed excellent anodic ECL efficiency and stability. This ECL sensor responded the dopamine (DA) in a wide linear range from 50 pM to 10 nM with a detection limit of 24 pM due to the quenching effect from DA. The DA contents in practical biological samples of cerebro-spinal fluid were detected with satisfactory recovery of average 95.7%.

  17. Determination of 2-methoxyestradiol by chemiluminescence based on luminol-KMnO4-CdTe quantum dots system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bin; Wang, Tiantian; Han, Shuping; Cao, Xiaohui; Qu, Tiantian; Zhao, Feifei; Guo, Xinhong; Yao, Hanchun

    2015-02-05

    In this study, water-soluble CdTe quantum-dots (QDs) capped with glutathione (GSH) was synthesized. It was found that CdTe QDs could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the luminol-KMnO4 system in alkaline medium, and 4 nm CdTe QDs was used as catalysts to enhance the reaction sensitivity. The CL intensity of CdTe QDs-luminol-KMnO4 was strongly inhibited in the presence of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) and the relative CL intensity was in linear correlation with the concentration of 2-ME. Based on this inhibition, a novel CL method with a lower detection limit and wider linear range was developed for the determination of 2-ME. The detection limit of plasma samples was 3.07×10(-10) g mL(-1) with a relative standard deviation of 0.24% for 8.0×10(-9) g mL(-1) 2-ME. The method was successfully applied for determination of 2-ME in plasma samples. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly.

  18. Fluorescence-tagged metallothionein with CdTe quantum dots analyzed by the chip-CE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszpit, Ewelina; Krizkova, Sona; Kepinska, Marta; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Milnerowicz, Halina; Kopel, Pavel; Kizek, Rene

    2015-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescence nanoparticles (NPs) with unique optic properties which allow their use as probes in chemical, biological, immunological, and molecular imaging. QDs linked with target ligands such as peptides or small molecules can be used as tumor biomarkers. These particles are a promising tool for selective, fast, and sensitive tagging and imaging in medicine. In this study, an attempt was made to use QDs as a marker for human metallothionein (MT) isoforms 1 and 2. Four kinds of CdTe QDs of different sizes bioconjugated with MT were analyzed using the chip-CE technique. Based on the results, it can be concluded that MT is willing to interact with QDs, and the chip-CE technique enables the observation of their complexes. It was also observed that changes ranging roughly 6-7 kDa, a value corresponding to the MT monomer, depend on the hydrodynamic diameters of QDs; also, the MT sample without cadmium interacted stronger with QDs than MT saturated with cadmium. Results show that MT is willing to interact with smaller QDs (blue CdTe) rather than larger ones QDs (red CdTe). To our knowledge, chip-CE has not previously been applied in the study of CdTe QDs interaction with MT.

  19. Photo-induced interaction of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots with cyanine dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbar, Mostafa F.; Fayed, Tarek A.; Meaz, Talaat M.; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.

    2016-11-01

    The photo-induced interaction of three different sizes of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) with two monomethine cyanine dyes belonging to the thiazole orange (TO) family has been studied. Positively charged cyanines interact with QDs surface which is negatively charged due to capping agent carboxylate ions. The energy transfer parameters including Stern-Volmer constant, Ksv, number of binding sites, n, quenching sphere radius, r, the critical energy transfer distance, R0, and energy transfer efficiencies, E have been calculated. The effect of structure and the number of aggregating molecules have been studied as a function of CdTe QDs particle size. Combining organic and inorganic semiconductors leads to increase of the effective absorption cross section of the QDs which can be utilized in novel nanoscale designs for light-emitting, photovoltaic and sensor applications. A synthesized triplet emission of the studied dyes was observed using CdTe QDs as donors and this is expected to play a potential role in molecular oxygen sensitization and in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications.

  20. Fluorescence-tagged metallothionein with CdTe quantum dots analyzed by the chip-CE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guszpit, Ewelina, E-mail: ewelina.guszpit@gmail.com [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Krizkova, Sona [Mendel University in Brno, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy (Czech Republic); Kepinska, Marta [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos [Mendel University in Brno, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy (Czech Republic); Milnerowicz, Halina [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Kopel, Pavel; Kizek, Rene [Mendel University in Brno, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescence nanoparticles (NPs) with unique optic properties which allow their use as probes in chemical, biological, immunological, and molecular imaging. QDs linked with target ligands such as peptides or small molecules can be used as tumor biomarkers. These particles are a promising tool for selective, fast, and sensitive tagging and imaging in medicine. In this study, an attempt was made to use QDs as a marker for human metallothionein (MT) isoforms 1 and 2. Four kinds of CdTe QDs of different sizes bioconjugated with MT were analyzed using the chip-CE technique. Based on the results, it can be concluded that MT is willing to interact with QDs, and the chip-CE technique enables the observation of their complexes. It was also observed that changes ranging roughly 6–7 kDa, a value corresponding to the MT monomer, depend on the hydrodynamic diameters of QDs; also, the MT sample without cadmium interacted stronger with QDs than MT saturated with cadmium. Results show that MT is willing to interact with smaller QDs (blue CdTe) rather than larger ones QDs (red CdTe). To our knowledge, chip-CE has not previously been applied in the study of CdTe QDs interaction with MT.Graphical Abstract.

  1. Enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots-H2O2 by horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junli; Li, Baoxin

    In this study, it was found that horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme could effectively enhance the CL emission of CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-H2O2 system, whereas HRP could not enhance the CL intensity. The CL enhancement mechanism was investigated, and the CL enhancement was supposed to originate from the catalysis of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme on the CL reaction between CdTe QDs and H2O2. Meantime, compared with CdTe QDs-H2O2 CL system, H2O2 concentration was markedly decreased in QDs-H2O2-HRP-mimicking DNAzyme CL system, improving the stability of QDs-H2O2 CL system. The QDs-based CL system was used to detect sensitively CdTe QDs and HRP-mimicking DNAzyme (as biologic labels). This work gives a path for enhancing CL efficiency of QDs system, and will be helpful to promote the step of QDs application in various fields such as bioassay and trace detection of analyte.

  2. A simple fluorescence quenching method for berberine determination using water-soluble CdTe quantum dots as probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ming; Liu, Meigui; Cao, Chun; Xia, Yunsheng; Bao, Linjun; Jin, Yingqiong; Yang, Song; Zhu, Changqing

    2010-03-01

    A novel method for the determination of berberine has been developed based on quenching of the fluorescence of thioglycolic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots (TGA-CdTe QDs) by berberine in aqueous solutions. Under optimum conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of berberine between 2.5 × 10 -8 and 8.0 × 10 -6 mol L -1 with a detection limit of 6.0 × 10 -9 mol L -1. The method has been applied to the determination of berberine in real samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. The mechanism of the proposed reaction was also discussed.

  3. Biocompatibility of hydrophilic silica-coated CdTe quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jing; Wang, Kan; Song, Hua; Xu, Xin; Ji, Jiajia; Cui, Daxiang

    2011-12-01

    Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles exhibit great application prospects in biomedical engineering. Herein, we reported the effects of hydrophilic silica-coated CdTe quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles (FMNPs) on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and mice with the aim of investigating their biocompatibility. FMNPs with 150 nm in diameter were prepared, and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra and magnetometer. HEK293 cells were cultured with different doses of FMNPs (20, 50, and 100μ g/ml) for 1-4 days. Cell viability and adhesion ability were analyzed by CCK8 method and Western blotting. 30 mice were randomly divided into three groups, and were, respectively, injected via tail vein with 20, 60, and 100 μg FMNPs, and then were, respectively, raised for 1, 7, and 30 days, then their lifespan, important organs, and blood biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results show that the prepared water-soluble FMNPs had high fluorescent and magnetic properties, less than 50 μg/ml of FMNPs exhibited good biocompatibility to HEK293 cells, the cell viability, and adhesion ability were similar to the control HEK293 cells. FMNPs primarily accumulated in those organs such as lung, liver, and spleen. Lung exposed to FMNPs displayed a dose-dependent inflammatory response, blood biochemical parameters such as white blood cell count (WBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), displayed significant increase when the FMNPs were injected into mice at dose of 100μg. In conclusion, FMNPs exhibit good biocompatibility to cells under the dose of less than 50 μg/ml, and to mice under the dose of less than 2mg/kg body weight. The FMNPs' biocompatibility must be considered when FMNPs are used for in vivo diagnosis and therapy.

  4. Novel {beta}-cyclodextrin modified CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence nanosensor for acetylsalicylic acid and metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarra, M. [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Campos, B.B.; Aguiar, F.R.; Rodriguez-Borges, J.E. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 169-007 Porto (Portugal); Esteves da Silva, J.C.G., E-mail: jcsilva@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-05-01

    {beta}-Cyclodextrin was modified with 11-[(ethoxycarbonyl)thio]undecanoic acid and used as a capping agent, together with mercaptosuccinic acid, to prepare water-stable CdTe quantum dots. The water soluble quantum dot obtained displays fluorescence with a maximum emission at 425 nm (under excitation at 300 nm) with lifetimes of 0.53, 4.8, 181, and 44.1 ns, respectively. The S-{beta}CD-MSA-CdTe can act as a nanoprobe that is due to the affinity of the cyclodextrin moiety for selected substances such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites as foreign species. The fluorescence of the S-{beta}CD-MSA-CdTe is enhanced on addition of ASA. Linear calibration plots are observed with ASA in concentrations between 0 and 1 mg/l, with a limit of detection at 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol/l (1.5 ng/ml) and a precision as relative standard deviation of 1% (0.05 mg/l). The interference effect of certain compounds as ascorbic acid and its main metabolites such as salicylic, gentisic and salicyluric acid upon the obtained procedure was studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanosensors constituted by CdTe quantum dots capped with modified cyclodextrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This nanomaterial shows fluorescence properties compatible with a semiconductor quantum dot. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanosensor shows fluorescence enhancement when inclusion complexes are formed with acetylsalicylic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This nanomaterial has nanosensor potential taking into consideration the formation stability of the inclusion complex.

  5. CdTe quantum dots with daunorubicin induce apoptosis of multidrug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cadmium telluride quantum dots (Cdte QDs have received significant attention in biomedical research because of their potential in disease diagnosis and drug delivery. In this study, we have investigated the interaction mechanism and synergistic effect of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped Cdte QDs with the anti-cancer drug daunorubicin (DNR on the induction of apoptosis using drug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells. Electrochemical assay revealed that Cdte QDs readily facilitated the uptake of the DNR into HepG2/ADM cells. Apoptotic staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that compared with Cdte QDs or DNR treatment alone, the apoptosis rate increased after the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR in HepG2/ADM cells. We observed that Cdte QDs treatment could reduce the effect of P-glycoprotein while the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR can clearly activate apoptosis-related caspases protein expression in HepG2/ADM cells. Moreover, our in vivo study indicated that the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR effectively inhibited the human hepatoma HepG2/ADM nude mice tumor growth. The increased cell apoptosis rate was closely correlated with the enhanced inhibition of tumor growth in the studied animals. Thus, Cdte QDs combined with DNR may serve as a possible alternative for targeted therapeutic approaches for some cancer treatments.

  6. Selective optosensing of clenbuterol and melamine using molecularly imprinted polymer-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Huy, Bui; Seo, Min-Ho; Zhang, Xinfeng; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2014-07-15

    A novel procedure for the optosensing of clenbuterol and melamine was developed using molecularly imprinted polymer-capped CdTe quantum dots (MIP-CdTe QDs). The MIP-CdTe QDs were synthesized by a radical polymerization process among CdTe QDs, a template, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The sizes of the MIP-CdTe particles were controlled by the speed of polymerization, concentration of the template, concentration of the quantum dots, and the ratio of template, monomer and cross-linker. Excellent selectivity and high sensitivity of MIP-CdTe QDs toward clenbuterol/melamine molecules were observed based on the fluorescence quenching of QDs. Experimental results showed that the optimum molar ratios of template, monomer, and cross-linker were 1:8:20 and 1:4:20 for analyzing clenbuterol and melamine, respectively. Under optimum conditions, these MIP-CdTe QDs showed a limit of detection of 0.4 μM (120 ng/mL) for clenbuterol and 0.6 μM (75 ng/mL) for melamine. The feasibility of the developed method in real samples was successfully evaluated through the analysis of clenbuterol and melamine in milk and liver samples with satisfactory recoveries of 92-97%. The MIP-CdTe QDs could be easily regenerated for subsequent sample analysis with water.

  7. Sensitive detection of sodium cromoglycate with glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots as a novel fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chenxia; Liu, Shaopu; Li, Dan; Yang, Jidong; He, Youqiu

    2015-11-01

    A sensitive and simple analytical strategy for the detection of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) has been established based on a readily detectable fluorescence quenching effect of SCG for glutathione-capped (GSH-capped) CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The fluorescence of GSH-capped CdTe QDs could be efficiently quenched by SCG through electron transfer from GSH-capped CdTe QDs to SCG. Under optimum conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of SCG between 0.6419 and 100 µg/mL, with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9964; the detection limit (3δ/K) was 0.1926 µg/mL. The optimum conditions and the influence of coexisting foreign substances on the reaction were also investigated. The very effective and simple method reported here has been successfully applied to the determination of SCG in synthetic and real samples. It is believed that the established approach could have good prospects for application in the fields of clinical diseases diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Sensitive arginine sensing based on inner filter effect of Au nanoparticles on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijian; Li, Ming; Jiang, Linye; Shen, Feng; Hu, Yufeng; Ren, Xueqin

    2017-02-01

    Arginine plays an important role in many biological functions, whose detection is very significant. Herein, a sensitive, simple and cost-effective fluorescent method for the detection of arginine has been developed based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of thioglycolic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs). When citrate-stabilized AuNPs were mixed with thioglycolic acid-capped CdTe QDs, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was significantly quenched by AuNPs via the IFE. With the presence of arginine, arginine could induce the aggregation and corresponding absorption spectra change of AuNPs, which then IFE-decreased fluorescence could gradually recover with increasing amounts of arginine, achieving fluorescence "turn on" sensing for arginine. The detection mechanism is clearly illustrated and various experimental conditions were also optimized. Under the optimum conditions, a decent linear relationship was obtained in the range from 16 to 121 μg L- 1 and the limit of detection was 5.6 μg L- 1. And satisfactory results were achieved in arginine analysis using arginine injection, compound amino acid injection, even blood plasma as samples. Therefore, the present assay showed various merits, such as simplicity, low cost, high sensitivity and selectivity, making it promising for sensing arginine in biological samples.

  9. Size dependence of the spontaneous emission rate and absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mello Donega, C.; Koole, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the size dependence of the band gap, of the spontaneous emission rate, and of the absorption cross section of quantum dots is systematically investigated over a wide size range, using colloidal CdSe and CdTe QDs as model systems (diameters ranging from 1.2 to 8 nm and from 2 to 9.5 nm

  10. Blood group antigen studies using CdTe quantum dots and flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Filho PE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paulo E Cabral Filho,1 Maria IA Pereira,1 Heloise P Fernandes,2 Andre A de Thomaz,3 Carlos L Cesar,3 Beate S Santos,4 Maria L Barjas-Castro,2 Adriana Fontes1 1Departamento de Biofísica e Radiobiologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, 2Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Sangue, Campinas, São Paulo, 3Departamento de Eletrônica Quântica, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, 4Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil Abstract: New methods of analysis involving semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs] as fluorescent probes have been highlighted in life science. QDs present some advantages when compared to organic dyes, such as size-tunable emission spectra, broad absorption bands, and principally exceptional resistance to photobleaching. Methods applying QDs can be simple, not laborious, and can present high sensibility, allowing biomolecule identification and quantification with high specificity. In this context, the aim of this work was to apply dual-color CdTe QDs to quantify red blood cell (RBC antigen expression on cell surface by flow cytometric analysis. QDs were conjugated to anti-A or anti-B monoclonal antibodies, as well as to the anti-H (Ulex europaeus I lectin, to investigate RBCs of A1, B, A1B, O, A2, and Aweak donors. Bioconjugates were capable of distinguishing the different expressions of RBC antigens, both by labeling efficiency and by flow cytometry histogram profile. Furthermore, results showed that RBCs from Aweak donors present fewer amounts of A antigens and higher amounts of H, when compared to A1 RBCs. In the A group, the amount of A antigens decreased as A1 > A3 > AX = Ael, while H antigens were AX = Ael > A1. Bioconjugates presented stability and remained active for at least 6 months. In conclusion

  11. CdTe Quantum Dot/Dye Hybrid System as Photosensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Savateeva, Diana; Rakovich, Tatsiana; Donegan, John F.; Rakovich, Yury P.; Kelly, Vincent; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    We have studied the photodynamic properties of novel CdTe quantum dots—methylene blue hybrid photosensitizer. Absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence lifetime imaging of this system reveal efficient charge transfer between nanocrystals and the methylene blue dye. Near-infrared photoluminescence measurements provide evidence for an increased efficiency of singlet oxygen production by the methylene blue dye. In vitro studies on the growth of HepG2 and HeLa cancerous cells were also performed, they point toward an improvement in the cell kill efficiency for the methylene blue-semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid system.

  12. CdTe quantum dots@luminol as signal amplification system for chrysoidine with chemiluminescence-chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinting sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huimin; Li, Leilei; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-01-15

    A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) sensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) in CdTe quantum dots@luminol (CdTe QDs@luminol) nanomaterials combined with chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-MIP) for sensing chrysoidine was developed. CdTe QDs@luminol was designed to not only amplify the signal of CL but also reduce luminol consumption in the detection of chrysoidine. On the basis of the abundant hydroxy and amino, Cs and graphene oxide were introduced into the GM-MIP to improve the adsorption ability. The adsorption capacities of chrysoidine by both Cs/GM-MIP and non-imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-NIP) were investigated, and the CdTe QDs@luminol and Cs/GM-MIP were characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The proposed sensor can detect chrysoidine within a linear range of 1.0×10(-7) - 1.0×10(-5) mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2×10(-8) mol/L (3δ) due to considerable chemiluminescence signal enhancement of the CdTe quantum dots@luminol detector and the high selectivity of the Cs/GM-MIP system. Under the optimal conditions of CL, the CdTe QDs@luminol-Cs/GM-MIP-CL sensor was used for chrysoidine determination in samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 90-107%.

  13. Development of FRET-Based Assays in the Far-Red Using CdTe Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Z. Chong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dots (QDs are now commercially available in a biofunctionalized form, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET between bioconjugated dots and fluorophores within the visible range has been observed. We are particularly interested in the far-red region, as from a biological perspective there are benefits in pushing to ∼700 nm to minimize optical absorption (ABS within tissue and to avoid cell autofluorescence. We report on FRET between streptavidin- (STV- conjugated CdTe quantum dots, Qdot705-STV, with biotinylated DY731-Bio fluorophores in a donor-acceptor assay. We also highlight the changes in DY731-Bio absorptivity during the streptavidin-biotin binding process which can be attributed to the structural reorientation. For fluorescence beyond 700 nm, different alloy compositions are required for the QD core and these changes directly affect the fluorescence decay dynamics producing a marked biexponential decay with a long-lifetime component in excess of 100 nanoseconds. We compare the influence of the two QD relaxation routes upon FRET dynamics in the presence of DY731-Bio.

  14. NHS Mediated CdTe Quantum Dots/Albumin Conjugates and Labeling C. Elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Luminescent quantum dots(QDs) are a promising alternative to organic dyes for biomedical assays and imaging.A new conjugation method, NHS mediated conjugating, for QDs and BSA was introduced. The QDs-BSA conjugates were confirmed, and their stability has been proved. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were used as animal models, and the imaging of QDs in the organism was studied.

  15. Temperature Dependent Luminescent Decay Properties of CdTe Quantum Dot Monolayers: Impact of Concentration on Carrier Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Graham P; Bradley, A Louise

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra and average photoluminescence decay rate of CdTe quantum dot monolayers of different sizes as a function of concentration in the range 77 K to 296 K. It is shown that a simple three level analytic model involving bright and dark exciton states can only describe the lower temperature data but is unable to satisfactorily fit the data over the full temperature range. An extended model which includes external trap states is necessary to fit the data above approximately 150 K. Parameters for the model are obtained using both temporal and spectral data. The model indicates that the efficiency of interaction with trap states increases as the QD monolayer concentration increases, which is likely due to an increase in the density of available traps.

  16. Fluorescence biosensor based on CdTe quantum dots for specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa Nguyen, Thi; Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Hien Vu, Thi; Tran, Thi Kim Chi; Quyen Dong, Van; Khang Dinh, Duy; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2012-09-01

    This report highlights the fabrication of fluorescence biosensors based on CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus. The core biosensor was composed of (i) the highly luminescent CdTe/CdS QDs, (ii) chromatophores extracted from bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum, and (iii) the antibody of β-subunit. This core part was linked to the peripheral part of the biosensor via a biotin-streptavidin-biotin bridge and finally connected to the H5N1 antibody to make it ready for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus. Detailed studies of each constituent were performed showing the image of QDs-labeled chromatophores under optical microscope, proper photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CdTe/CdS QDs, chromatophores and the H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

  17. Biocompatible fluorescence-enhanced ZrO{sub 2}-CdTe quantum dot nanocomposite for in vitro cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Zhisong; Zhu Zhihong; Zheng Xinting; Qiao Yan; Li Changming [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, 637457 (Singapore); Guo Jun, E-mail: ecmli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-04-15

    With advances of quantum dots (QDs) in bioimaging applications, various materials have been used to coat QDs to reduce their nanotoxicity; however, the coating could introduce new toxic sources and quench the fluorescence in bioimaging applications. In this work, ZrO{sub 2}, an excellent ceramic material with low extinction coefficient and good biocompatibility, is utilized to coat CdTe QDs for the first time. Experimental results show that ZrO{sub 2}-QD nanocomposites with the size of {approx} 30 nm possess enhanced fluorescence emission, lower nanotoxicity and gradually increased fluorescence under 350 nm light illumination. After functionalization with folic acid, they were applied to label cultured HeLa cells effectively. Therefore, the ZrO{sub 2}-QD nanocomposites could be promising biocompatible nanomaterials with strong fluorescence emission to replace or complement QDs in biomedical applications.

  18. CdTe(1-x)Se(x)/Cd0.5Zn0.5S core/shell quantum dots: core composition and property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Cao, Yongqiang; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ruili; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Yulan

    2014-08-01

    Alloy CdTe(1-x)Se(x) quantum dots (QDs) have been fabricated by an organic route using Cd, Te and Se precursors in a mixture of trioctylamine and octadecylphosphonic acid at 280 °C. The variation of photoluminescence (PL) peak wavelength of the CdTe(1-x)Se(x) QDs compared with CdTe QDs confirmed the formation of an alloy structure. The Se component drastically affected the stability of CdTe(1-x)Se(x) QDs. A Cd0.5Zn0.5S shell coating on CdTe(1-x)Se(x) cores was carried out using oleic acid as a capping agent. CdTe(1-x)Se(x)/Cd0.5Zn0.5S core/shell QDs revealed dark red PL while a yellow PL peak was observed for the CdTe(1-x)Se(x) cores. The PL efficiency of the core/shell QDs was drastically increased (less than 1% for the cores and up to 65% for the core/shell QDs). The stability of QDs in various buffer solutions was investigated. Core/shell QDs can be used for biological applications because of their high stability, tunable PL and high PL efficiency.

  19. Fabrication of fluorescence-based biosensors from functionalized CdSe and CdTe quantum dots for pesticide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Kim Chi; Chinh Vu, Duc; Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Yen Nguyen, Hai; Hai Nguyen, Ngoc; Cao Dao, Tran; Nga Pham, Thu; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the results on the fabrication of highly sensitive fluorescence biosensors for pesticide detection. The biosensors are actually constructed from the complex of quantum dots (QDs), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylthiocholine (ATCh). The biosensor activity is based on the change of luminescence from CdSe and CdTe QDs with pH, while the pH is changed with the hydrolysis rate of ATCh catalyzed by the enzyme AChE, whose activity is specifically inhibited by pesticides. Two kinds of QDs were used to fabricate our biosensors: (i) CdSe QDs synthesized in high-boiling non-polar organic solvent and then functionalized by shelling with two monolayers (2-ML) of ZnSe and eight monolayers (8-ML) of ZnS and finally capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to become water soluble; and (ii) CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous phase then shelled with CdS. For normal checks the fabricated biosensors could detect parathion methyl (PM) pesticide at very low contents of ppm with the threshold as low as 0.05 ppm. The dynamic range from 0.05 ppm to 1 ppm for the pesticide detection could be expandable by increasing the AChE amount in the biosensor.

  20. Spectroscopic investigations on the effect of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots on catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haoyu; Yang, Bingjun; Cui, Erqian; Liu, Rutao

    2014-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are recognized as some of the most promising semiconductor nanocrystals in biomedical applications. However, the potential toxicity of QDs has aroused wide public concern. Catalase (CAT) is a common enzyme in animal and plant tissues. For the potential application of QDs in vivo, it is important to investigate the interaction of QDs with CAT. In this work, the effect of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots with fluorescence emission peak at 612 nm (QDs-612) on CAT was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. Binding of QDs-612 to CAT caused static quenching of the fluorescence, the change of the secondary structure of CAT and the alteration of the microenvironment of tryptophan residues. The association constants K were determined to be K288K = 7.98 × 105 L mol-1 and K298K = 7.21 × 105 L mol-1. The interaction between QDs-612 and CAT was spontaneous with 1:1 stoichiometry approximately. The CAT activity was also inhibited for the bound QDs-612. This work provides direct evidence about enzyme toxicity of QDs-612 to CAT in vitro and establishes a new strategy to investigate the interaction between enzyme and QDs at a molecular level, which is helpful for clarifying the bioactivities of QDs in vivo.

  1. Multilayered films incorporating CdTe quantum dots with tunable optical properties for antibacterial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuelian [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, 1 Tiansheng Road, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, 1 Tiansheng Road, Chongqing 400715 (China); Lu, Zhisong, E-mail: zslu@swu.edu.cn [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, 1 Tiansheng Road, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Qing, E-mail: qli@swu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, 1 Tiansheng Road, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University, 1 Tiansheng Road, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2013-12-02

    Tunable absorption/emission and antibacterial activity are highly desirable for antibacterial decorative coating layers. In this study, films with both tunable optical and effective antibacterial properties were fabricated with cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs) and poly-L-lysine (PLL) via layer-by-layer assembly. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra as well as surface morphology were examined to monitor the film growth. The films are fabricated in a logarithmic growth mode, exhibiting effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and good biocompatibility to Hela cells. By changing sizes of the incorporated QDs, optical properties of the films can be easily tailored. The PLL/QDs' multilayered films may be used as colorful coating layers for applications requiring both unique optical and antibacterial properties. - Highlights: • A layer-by-layer film incorporating quantum dots and poly-L-lysine was fabricated. • The film shows tunable optical properties and antibacterial activity. • The film is built up in a logarithmic growth mode.

  2. A comparative study of CdTe quantum dots and CdTe@SiO2 nanoparticles: fabrication and cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, Asma; Zeshan, Basit; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zhang, Ruohu; Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Chunlei; Yang, Jing; Cui, Yiping

    2012-09-01

    Quantum Dots have shown remarkable potentials in biomedical research. Herein, we reported the effects of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and CdTe@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293A) cells with the aim of investigating their in vitro cytotoxicity. The CdTe@SiO2 particles were prepared by reverse microemulsion method. The structural morphology of the CdTe and hydrophilic silica-coated CdTe particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry. The in vitro cytotoxicity of CdTe QDs and CdTe@SiO2 nanoparticles was assessed in 293A cells using standard MTT assay, western blot and fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that the CdTe and CdTe@SiO2 particles were relatively uniform with the diameter of about 3.8 nm, 75 nm respectively. The cell viability and the adhesion ability were similar to the control 293A cells. The level of the fibronectin protein expression was decreased with the increasing concentration of CdTe while the no effects were observed on expression of beta-actin in CdTe as well as CdTe@SiO2 treated cells even at highest concentration of 45 microg/mL which demonstrated their good biocompatibility to 293A cells. The results indicate that the CdTe@SiO2 nanoparticles are attractive candidates for biological imaging studies as expected.

  3. CdTe量子点的制备与应用%Preparation and Application of the CdTe Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶磊; 闫玉禧; 王琳琳; 曲芳芳; 牟颖

    2009-01-01

    在微波样品处理器中, 合成了量子产率为65%的CdTe量子点, 发射波长为510~670 nm. 该方法合成的量子点半峰宽较窄, 发光强度较高. 为了提高光稳定性, 在制备的CdTe量子点表面包覆了硅层, 得到尺寸分布较均匀的纳米粒子, 并对其进行毒性检验.%The CdTe quantum dots were synthesized in a microwave reactor. The photoluminescence quantum yield reaches 65% and the photoluminescence wavelength is from 510 nm to 670 nm. The CdTe quantum dots obtained with this procedure have narrower FWHM and higher photoluminescence intensity compared with those prepared with other procedures. In order to improve the photochemical stability, the CdTe quantum dots were coated with silica. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was uniform. Meanwhile, the biological toxicity of the nanoparticles was also studied.

  4. Evaluation of Biological Toxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots with Different Coating Reagents according to Protein Expression of Engineering Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained from toxicity assessment of quantum dots (QDs can be used to establish guidelines for the application of QDs in bioimaging. This paper focused on the design of a novel method to evaluate the toxicity of CdTe QDs using engineering Escherichia coli as a model. The toxicity of mercaptoacetic acid (MPA, glutathione (GSH, and L-cysteine (Cys capped CdTe QDs was analyzed according to the heterologous protein expression in BL21/DE3, engineering Escherichia coli extensively used for protein expression. The results showed that the MPA-CdTe QDs had more serious toxicity than the other two kinds of CdTe QDs. The microscopic images and SEM micrographs further proved that both the proliferation and the protein expression of engineering Escherichia coli were inhibited after treatment with MPA-CdTe QDs. The proposed method is important to evaluate biological toxicity of both QDs and other nanoparticles.

  5. A novel ascorbic acid sensor based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ modulated photoluminescence of CdTe quantum dots@SiO2 nanobeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Li, Yang; Lin, Zi-Han; Tang, Guangchao; Su, Xing-Guang

    2013-10-21

    In this paper, CdTe quantum dot (QD)@silica nanobeads were used as modulated photoluminescence (PL) sensors for the sensing of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution for the first time. The sensor was developed based on the different quenching effects of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) on the PL intensity of the CdTe QD@ silica nanobeads. Firstly, the PL intensity of the CdTe QDs was quenched in the presence of Fe(3+). Although both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) could quench the PL intensity of the CdTe QDs, the quenching efficiency were quite different for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). The PL intensity of the CdTe QD@silica nanobeads can be quenched by about 15% after the addition of Fe(3+) (60 μmol L(-1)), while the PL intensity of the CdTe QD@silica nanobeads can be quenched about 49% after the addition of Fe(2+) (60 μmol L(-1)). Therefore, the PL intensity of the CdTe QD@silica nanobeads decreased significantly when Fe(3+) was reduced to Fe(2+) by ascorbic acid. To confirm the strategy of PL modulation in this sensing system, trace H2O2 was introduced to oxidize Fe(2+) to Fe(3+). As a result, the PL intensity of the CdTe QD@silica nanobeads was partly recovered. The proposed sensor could be used for ascorbic acid sensing in the concentration range of 3.33-400 μmol L(-1), with a detection limit (3σ) of 1.25 μmol L(-1) The feasibility of the proposed sensor for ascorbic acid determination in tablet samples was also studied, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  6. Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe MPA-capped quantum dots by glutathione for hydrogen peroxide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S Sofia M; Ribeiro, David S M; Molina-Garcia, L; Ruiz Medina, A; Prior, João A V; Santos, João L M

    2014-05-01

    The manipulation of the surface chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals has been exploited to implement distinct sensing strategies in many analytical applications. In this work, reduced glutathione (GSH) was added at reaction time, as an electron-donor ligand, to markedly increase the quantum yield and the emission efficiency of MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots. The developed approach was employed in the implementation of an automated flow methodology for hydrogen peroxide determination, as this can oxidize GSH preventing its surface passivating effect and producing a manifest fluorescence quenching. After optimization, linear working calibration curve for hydrogen peroxide concentrations between 0.0025% and 0.040% were obtained (n=6), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9975. The detection limit was approximately 0.0012%. The developed approach was employed in the determination of H₂O₂ in contact lens preservation solutions and the obtained results complied with those furnished by the reference method, with relative deviations comprised between -1.18 and 4.81%.

  7. Parallel comparative studies on the toxic effects of unmodified CdTe quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, and carbon nanodots on live cells as well as green gram sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanchao; Feng, Duan; Shi, Wen; Li, Xiaohua; Ma, Huimin

    2013-11-15

    By using confocal fluorescence microscopy and direct visualization, a parallel comparative investigation has been systematically made on the relative toxicity of three common nanomaterials, such as unmodified CdTe quantum dots (QDs), Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) and carbon nanodots (C-dots), to live cells as well as green gram sprouts. Bare CdTe QDs exert the most toxic effect on a variety of cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7, NIH/3T3 cells) as well as live plants (green gram sprouts). For cells, this toxic effect leads to the partial death of cells, the decrease of cell metabolic activity, the shrinkage of cells, the breakage of chromatin, the damage of cell membrane integrity, and the fragmentation of mitochondria; for green gram sprouts, the presence of CdTe QDs markedly inhibits their growth. Moreover, the toxic behaviors of CdTe QDs are dose- and time-dependent. Under the same conditions, Au NPs only decrease the metabolic activity of cells to a small extent, and do not affect the appearance of cellular/subcellular structures and the plant growth; interestingly, C-dots exert no obvious toxicity to both live cells and the growth of green gram sprouts, showing good biocompatibility. These parallel comparative studies clearly reveal that the relative toxicity of the three nanomaterials in their native forms is bare CdTe QDs>Au NPs>C-dots, whose IC50 values for normal NIH/3T3 cells are 0.98 μg/mL, 62 μg/mL, and >250 μg/mL, respectively. This quantitative information is of great importance for right choice of the nanomaterials in their practical applications.

  8. Synthesis of AS1411-aptamer-conjugated CdTe quantum dots with high fluorescence strength for probe labeling tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report microwave-assisted, one-stage synthesis of high-quality functionalized water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs). By selecting sodium tellurite as the Te source, cadmium chloride as the Cd source, mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as the capping agent, and a borate-acetic acid buffer solution with a pH range of 5-8, CdTe nanocrystals with four colors (blue to orange) were conveniently prepared at 100 °C under microwave irradiation in less than one hour (reaction time: 10-60 min). The influence of parameters such as the pH, Cd:Te molar ratio, and reaction time on the emission range and quantum yield percentage (QY%) was investigated. The structures and compositions of the prepared CdTe QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selective area electron diffraction, and X-ray powder diffraction experiments. The formation mechanism of the QDs is discussed in this paper. Furthermore, AS1141-aptamer-conjugated CdTe QDs in the U87MG glioblastoma cell line were assessed with a fluorescence microscope. The obtained results showed that the best conditions for obtaining a high QY of approximately 87% are a pH of 6, a Cd:Te molar ratio of 5:1, and a 30-min reaction time at 100 °C under microwave irradiation. The results showed that AS1141-aptamer-conjugated CdTe QDs could enter tumor cells efficiently. It could be concluded that a facile high-fluorescence-strength QD conjugated with a DNA aptamer, AS1411, which can recognize the extracellular matrix protein nucleolin, can specifically target U87MG human glioblastoma cells. The qualified AS1411-aptamer-conjugated QDs prepared in this study showed excellent capabilities as nanoprobes for cancer targeting and molecular imaging.

  9. Enhanced Specificity of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction via CdTe Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaofeng; Ma, Chao; Zhu, Yanliang; Li, Shuchun; Shao, Youhua; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Zhongdang

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles were recently reported to be able to improve both efficiency and specificity in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here, CdTe QDs were introduced into multi-PCR systems. It was found that an appropriate concentration of CdTe QDs could enhance the performance of multi-PCR by reducing the formation of nonspecific products in the complex system, but an excessive amount of CdTe QDs could suppress the PCR. The effects of QDs on PCR can be reversed by increasing the polymerase concentration or by adding bovine serum albumin (BSA). The mechanisms underlying these effects were also discussed. The results indicated that CdTe QDs could be used to optimize the amplification products of the PCR, especially in the multi-PCR system with different primers annealing temperatures, which is of great significance for molecular diagnosis.

  10. Studies on interaction between CdTe quantum dots and -chymotrypsin by molecular spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianniao tian; Shengzhi Wei; Yanchun Zhao; Rongjun Liu; Shulin Zhao

    2010-05-01

    In this article, the interaction between -Chymotrypsin and CdTe QDs was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods at pH 7.20 and pH 9.05. The intrinsic fluorescence of -Chy is quenched by CdTe QDs. Under different pH conditions, the level of binding constants is determined to be 103 from fluorescence data. The hydrogen bond or van der Waals force is involved in the binding process when pH is 9.05, while the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions play main role in the binding process when pH is 7.20. The red-shift of synchronous fluorescence spectral peak of protein after the addition of CdTe QDs reveals that the microenvironments around tryptophan residues are disturbed by CdTe QDs. The secondary structure of -Chy undergoes slight changes as similar by far-UV CD data. The activity and stability of -Chy in the presence of CdTe QDs were also studied. -Chy can maintain its high activity and stability under different pH conditions for 24 h in the presence of CdTe QDs.

  11. CdTe quantum dots induce activation of human platelets: implications for nanoparticle hemocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Stephen P; Santos-Martinez, Maria J; Medina, Carlos; Jain, Namrata; Radomski, Marek W; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Volkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    New nanomaterials intended for systemic administration have raised concerns regarding their biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Quantum dots (QD) nanoparticles have been used for diagnostics, and recent work suggests their use for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging. However, the hemocompatibility of QDs and their constituent components has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, comprehensive investigation of QD–platelet interactions is presented. These interactions were shown using transmission electron microscopy. The effects of QDs on platelet function were investigated using light aggregometry, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, flow cytometry, and gelatin zymography. Platelet morphology was also analyzed by phase-contrast, immunofluorescence, atomic-force and transmission electron microscopy. We show that the QDs bind to platelet plasma membrane with the resultant upregulation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin receptors, and release of matrix metalloproteinase-2. These findings unravel for the first time the mechanism of functional response of platelets to ultrasmall QDs in vitro. PMID:25897218

  12. A selective determination of copper ions in water samples based on the fluorescence quenching of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurerk, Piyaluk; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Bunkoed, Opas

    2016-03-01

    CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped with different stabilizers, i.e. thioglycolic acid (TGA), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and glutathione (GSH) were investigated as fluorescent probes for the determination of Cu(2+). The stabilizer was shown to play an important role in both the sensitivity and selectivity for the determination of Cu(2+). TGA-capped CdTe QDs showed the highest sensitivity, followed by the MPA and GSH-capped CdTe QDs, respectively. The TGA- and MPA-capped CdTe QDs were not selective for Cu(2+) that was affected by Ag(+). The GSH-capped CdTe QDs were insensitive to Ag(+) and were used to determine Cu(2+) in water samples. Under optimal conditions, quenching of the fluorescence intensity (F0/F) increased linearly with the concentration of Cu(2+) over a range of 0.10-4.0 µg/mL and the detection limit was 0.06 µg/mL. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cu(2+) in water samples. Good recoveries of 93-104%, with a relative standard deviation of < 6% demonstrated that the developed simple method was accurate and reliable. The quenching mechanisms were also described.

  13. CdTe quantum dots induce activation of human platelets: implications for nanoparticle hemocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel SP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephen P Samuel,1 Maria J Santos-Martinez,2–4 Carlos Medina,2,3 Namrata Jain,1 Marek W Radomski,2,3 Adriele Prina-Mello,1,5 Yuri Volkov1,5 1Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 3Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 4School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 5AMBER and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: New nanomaterials intended for systemic administration have raised concerns regarding their biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Quantum dots (QD nanoparticles have been used for diagnostics, and recent work suggests their use for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging. However, the hemocompatibility of QDs and their constituent components has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, comprehensive investigation of QD–platelet interactions is presented. These interactions were shown using transmission electron microscopy. The effects of QDs on platelet function were investigated using light aggregometry, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, flow cytometry, and gelatin zymography. Platelet morphology was also analyzed by phase-contrast, immunofluorescence, atomic-force and transmission electron microscopy. We show that the QDs bind to platelet plasma membrane with the resultant upregulation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin receptors, and release of matrix metalloproteinase-2. These findings unravel for the first time the mechanism of functional response of platelets to ultrasmall QDs in vitro. Keywords: platelets, quantum dots, aggregometry, flow cytometry, zymography, quartz crystal microbalance, transmission electron microscopy

  14. CdTe quantum dots functionalized with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide as luminescent nanoprobe for the sensitive recognition of bromide ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Hosten, Eric; McCleland, Cedric [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (South Campus), Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2012-04-06

    Graphical abstract: A bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) showed a high selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of bromide ion using fluorescence recovery. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water soluble CdTe quantum dots interact with tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum dots fluorescence is quenched by the radical. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the presence of bromide ions the fluorescence is restored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor is more selective to bromine ions than other common ions. - Abstract: A novel bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) has been developed. Fluorescence quenching of the QDs by 4AT was observed. The functionalized QDs-4AT nanoprobe allowed a highly sensitive determination of bromide ion via analyte-induced change in the photoluminescence (fluorescence recovery) of the modified QDs. A detection limit of 0.6 nM of bromide ion was obtained, while the interfering effect of other inorganic cations and anions was investigated to examine the selectivity of the nanoprobe. The linear range was between 0.01 and 0.13 {mu}M. Combined fluorescence lifetime and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements confirmed electron transfer processes between bromide ion and QDs-4AT.

  15. Laser-excited optical emission response of CdTe quantum dot/polymer nanocomposite under shock compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Pan [LNM, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Kang, Zhitao; Summers, Christopher J. [Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0826 (United States); Bansihev, Alexandr A.; Christensen, James M.; Dlott, Dana D. [School of Chemical Sciences and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Breidenich, Jennifer; Scripka, David A.; Thadhani, Naresh N. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States); Zhou, Min, E-mail: min.zhou@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Laser-driven shock compression experiments and corresponding finite element method simulations are carried out to investigate the blueshift in the optical emission spectra under continuous laser excitation of a dilute composite consisting of 0.15% CdTe quantum dots by weight embedded in polyvinyl alcohol polymer. This material is a potential candidate for use as internal stress sensors. The analyses focus on the time histories of the wavelength blue-shift for shock loading with pressures up to 7.3 GPa. The combined measurements and calculations allow a relation between the wavelength blueshift and pressure for the loading conditions to be extracted. It is found that the blueshift first increases with pressure to a maximum and subsequently decreases with pressure. This trend is different from the monotonic increase of blueshift with pressure observed under conditions of quasistatic hydrostatic compression. Additionally, the blueshift in the shock experiments is much smaller than that in hydrostatic experiments at the same pressure levels. The differences in responses are attributed to the different stress states achieved in the shock and hydrostatic experiments and the time dependence of the mechanical response of the polymer in the composite. The findings offer a potential guide for the design and development of materials for internal stress sensors for shock conditions.

  16. Optical studies of capped quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuister, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and spectroscopy of CdSe and CdTe semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The first chapter gives an introduction into the unique size dependent properties of semiconductor quantum dots. Highly luminescent QDs of CdSe and CdTe were prepared via a high temperature method

  17. Cytotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: the involvement of cellular uptake and induction of pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Qin, Haiyan; Liu, Kezhou; Guo, Miao; Ge, Yakun; Xu, Mingen; Sun, Yonghong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) have been proposed to induce oxidative stress, which plays a crucial role in CdTe QDs-mediated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the direct interactions of CdTe QDs with HUVECs and their potential impairment of other organelles like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in HUVECs are poorly understood. In this study, we reported that the negatively charged CdTe QDs (-21.63±0.91 mV), with good dispersity and fluorescence stability, were rapidly internalized via endocytosis by HUVECs, as the notable internalization could be inhibited up to 95.52% by energy depletion (NaN3/deoxyglucose or low temperature). The endocytosis inhibitors (methyl-β-cyclodextrin, genistein, sucrose, chlorpromazine, and colchicine) dramatically decreased the uptake of CdTe QDs by HUVECs, suggesting that both caveolae/raft- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis were involved in the endothelial uptake of CdTe QDs. Using immunocytochemistry, a striking overlap of the internalized CdTe QDs and ER marker was observed, which indicates that QDs may be transported to ER. The CdTe QDs also caused remarkable ER stress responses in HUVECs, confirmed by significant dilatation of ER cisternae, upregulation of ER stress markers GRP78/GRP94, and activation of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase-eIF2α-activating transcription factor 4 pathway (including phosphorylation of both protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase and eIF2α and elevated level of activating transcription factor 4). CdTe QDs further promoted an increased C/EBP homologous protein expression, phosphorylation of c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase, and cleavage of ER-resident caspase-4, while the specific inhibitor (SP600125, Z-LEVD-fmk, or salubrinal) significantly attenuated QDs-triggered apoptosis, indicating that all three ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathways were activated and the direct participation of ER in the CdTe QDs-caused apoptotic cell death in HUVECs. Our

  18. lmmunofiuorescent Labeling of Human HepG2 Cells with CdTe Quantum Dot Probe Conjugated with Anti-pan CK MAb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Yu-jie; ZHANG Gui-zhen; WANG Qian; WANG Ya-li; WU Mei; DU Zhen-wu; ZHANG Jie; JIANG Ri-hua

    2011-01-01

    A relatively sensitive, specific, and photostable method for the detection of cytokeratin of cancer cells via conjugation with cadmium telluride quantum dots(CdTe QDs) was described. Water soluble CdTe QDs were conjugated to anti-pan-cytokeratin(CK) monoclonal antibody(MAb) through coupling reagent [1-ethyi-3-(3-dimethylamino propyl)carbodiimide, EDC] and the conjugates were purified by dialysis. The expression of pan CK protein in HepG2 cells was observed by immunocytochemistry and direct immunofluorescence via QDs-Ab conjugates respectively. Fluorescence intensity and photostability of QDs were compared with those of FITC(fiuorescein isothiocyanate). The results show that the QDs-Ab conjugates recognized specifically pan CK protein in HepG2 cells. Compared with FITC, CdTe QDs had higher brightness and photostability without obvious photobleaching under continuous exciting light illumination for 30 min and after the placement at room temperature for 3 d. The results indicate that conjugates of CdTe quantum dot with anti-pan CK MAb can be used for labeling cancer cells derived from epithelial tissues, which provides the basis for the detection of circulating tumor cells(CTCs).

  19. Synthesis of cysteamine-coated CdTe quantum dots and its application in mercury (II) detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei Jiying [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Zhu Hui; Wang Xiaolei [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang Hanchang [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Yang Xiurong, E-mail: xryang@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-12-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-quality CA-CdTe QDs were synthesized with a kinetic-growth strategy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis procedures were very simple. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained QDs were used to detect Hg{sup 2+} without the interference of Cu{sup 2+}. - Abstract: High-quality cysteamine-coated CdTe quantum dots (CA-CdTe QDs) were successfully synthesized in aqueous phase by a facile one-pot method. Through hydroxylamine hydrochloride-promoted kinetic growth strategy, water-soluble CA-CdTe QDs could be obtained conveniently in a conical flask by a stepwise addition of raw materials. The photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of the obtained QDs reached 9.2% at the emission peak of 520 nm. The optical property and the morphology of the QDs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescence of the resultant QDs was quenched by copper (II) (Cu{sup 2+}) and mercury (II) (Hg{sup 2+}) meanwhile. It is worthy of note that to separately detect Hg{sup 2+}, cyanide ion could be used to eliminate the interference of Cu{sup 2+}. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the logarithm of Hg{sup 2+} concentration over the range of 0.08-3.33 {mu}M with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.07 {mu}M.

  20. Novel fluorescent CdTe quantum dot-thymine conjugate—synthesis, properties and possible application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodzik, Łucja; Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Novel, highly fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots conjugated with thymine and stabilized with thioglycolic acid were obtained and characterized. Successful formation of the conjugate was confirmed by elemental analysis, and UV-vis, fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. Crystal structure and composition of the conjugates were characterized with xray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The size of the conjugates was 4-6 nm as demonstrated using atomic force microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. The plasmon resonance fluorescence band at 540 nm on excitation at 351 nm was observed for these nanoparticles. The intensity of this band increased with the increase in the amount of conjugated thymine with no shift in its position. Based on the fluorescence measurements it was found that the CdTe-thymine conjugate interacted efficiently and selectively not only with adenine, a nucleobase complementary to thymine, but also with adenine-containing modified nucleosides, i.e., 5‧-deoxy-5‧-(methylthio)adenosine and 2‧-O-methyladenosine, the urinary tumor markers which allow monitoring of the disease progression. To the best of our knowledge, as yet, there have been no studies presented in literature on that type of the interaction with CdTe-thymine conjugates. Therefore, the system presented can be considered as a working component of a selective adenine/adenosine biosensor with potential application in cancer diagnosis.

  1. Fluorescence quenching of CdTe quantum dots by gardenoside%栀子甙对碲化镉量子点的荧光淬灭作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 王芳; 马静; 卞伟

    2015-01-01

    CdTe quantum dots were synthesized in aqueous solution with 3‐mercaptopropionic acid as the stabilizer .The fluorescence quenching of 3‐mercaptopropionic acid stabilized CdTe quantum dots by gardenoside was investigated with fluorescence spectrometry .The effects of concentration of quan‐tum dots ,pH of buffer solution ,and reaction time on the fluorescence intensity of gardenoside/CdTe quantum dots system were examined .The optimum condition for the determination of gardenoside was established ,and the possible reaction mechanisms between gardenoside and as‐prepared CdTe quan‐tum dots were primarily studied .Results indicate that ,under the optimal experimental conditions ,the relative fluorescence intensity decreases linearly with the gardenoside concentration in the range of 2 × 10 - 7 -4 × 10 - 6 mol/L ,while the detection limit and relative standard deviation are 1 .4 × 10 - 7 mol/L and 0 .355% ,respectively .Moreover ,common metal cations ,sugars and amino acids have almost no apparent effect on the determination of gardenoside .In one word ,the present route can be readily used for the determination of gardenoside in the body fluid of human ;and the interaction between gardeno‐side and CdTe quantum dots is possibly dominated by dynamic quenching process .%以3‐巯基丙酸作为稳定剂,在水溶液中合成了 CdTe 量子点;采用荧光光谱法初步研究了栀子甙对巯基丙酸稳定的 CdTe 量子点的荧光淬灭作用,考察了量子点浓度、pH 、反应时间等多种因素对量子点‐栀子甙体系荧光强度的影响,确定了测定栀子甙的最佳实验条件;并初步探讨了栀子甙与该量子点相互作用的可能反应机理.结果表明,在最佳实验条件下,巯基丙酸稳定的 CdTe 量子点对栀子甙检测的线性范围为2×10-7~4×10-6 mol/L ,检出限为1.4×10-7 mol/L ,相对标准偏差为0.355%;且常见的金属阳离子、糖类和氨基酸对栀

  2. One-Pot Aqueous Phase Synthesis of CdTe and CdTe/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Beiying; Yang, Fengjiu; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Wenyan; Luo, Wei; Wang, Lianjun; Jiang, Wan

    2016-06-01

    A facile and economical one-pot strategy has been developed for the synthesis of water-solute CdTe and CdTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) using tellurium dioxide (TeO2) as a tellurium precursor and thioglycolic acid (TGA) as stabilizer without any pre-treatment and inert atmosphere protection. As-synthesized QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL). The spherical particles were uniformly distributed with the average diameters of 3.2 nm (CdTe QDs) and -5 nm (CdTe/ZnS QDs). By altering the reaction conditions, the emission wavelengths of the CdTe core QDs and CdTe/ZnS core/shell QDs could be tuned from 508 to 574 nm and 526 to 600 nm with narrow full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 33 to 58 nm, respectively. Meanwhile, on the optimum condition, the luminescence efficiency of CdTe/ZnS QDs can achieve to 74%, which was higher than that of CdTe core QDs (24%).

  3. Selective Detection of Mercury(Ⅱ) and Copper(Ⅱ) Based on the Opposite Size-dependent Fluorescence Quenching of CdTe Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yun-Sheng; CAO Chun; ZHU Chang-Qing

    2007-01-01

    Three different size CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) have been prepared in aqueous solutions,and their interactions with Cu2+ and Hg2+ have been investigated.The opposite size-dependent fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs by Hg2+ and Cu2+ was observed: Hg2+ quenched smaller particles more efficiently than larger ones while larger particles were more markedly quenched by Cu2+.Based on the different size responses,Hg2+ and Cu2+ were respectively detected with high sensitivity and selectivity,for the first time,using the QDs with different sizes but the same components and capping ligands.

  4. A novel method for fabricating hybrid biobased nanocomposites film with stable fluorescence containing CdTe quantum dots and montmorillonite-chitosan nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yawen; Ge, Xuesong; Guan, Jing; Wu, Lin; Zhao, Fuhua; Li, Hui; Mu, Xindong; Jiang, Yijun; Chen, Aibing

    2016-07-10

    A method was presented for fabricating the fluorescent nanocomposites containing CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and montmorillonite (MMT)-chitosan (CS). MMT-CS/CdTe QDs nanocomposites were prepared via a simple, versatile and robust approach combination of covalent and electrostatic assembly methods (Scheme 1). The negatively charged MMT was initially modified with positively charged CS through electrostatic assembly, followed by incorporation of CdTe-QDs into the MMT-CS nanosheets by covalent connections between the amino groups of CS and the carboxylic acid groups of thioglycollic acid (TGA). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the FTIR were used to prove the QDs have intercalated into the MMT-CS matrix. The fluorescence emission spectra showed that the MMT-CS/CdTe QDs nanocomposites had the best fluorescence intensity compared with the bare CdTe QDs and CS-QDs.

  5. CdTe quantum dots conjugated to concanavalin A as potential fluorescent molecular probes for saccharides detection in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Denise P L A; Andrade, Camila G; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Sabino, Caetano P; Kato, Ilka T; Carvalho, Luiz B; Alves, Severino; Ribeiro, Martha S; Fontes, Adriana; Santos, Beate S

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QDs) have been applied in biological analysis due to their unique optical properties and their versatility to be conjugated to biomolecules, such as lectins and antibodies, acquiring specificity to label a variety of targets. Concanavalin A (Con A) lectin binds specifically to α-d-mannose and α-d-glucose regions of saccharides that are usually expressed on membranes of mammalian cells and on cell walls of microbials. Candida albicans is the most common fungal opportunistic pathogen present in humans. Therefore, in this work, this fungus was chosen as a model for understanding cells and biofilm-forming organisms. Here, we report an efficient bioconjugation process to bind CdTe (Cadmium Telluride) QDs to Con A, and applied the bioconjugates to label saccharide structures on the cellular surface of C. albicans suspensions and biofilms. By accomplishing hemagglutination experiments and circular dichroism, we observed that the Con A structure and biochemical properties were preserved after the bioconjugation. Fluorescence microscopy images of yeasts and hyphae cells, as well as biofilms, incubated with QDs-(Con A) showed a bright orange fluorescence profile, indicating that the cell walls were specifically labeled. Furthermore, flow cytometry measurements confirmed that over 93% of the yeast cells were successfully labeled by QD-(Con A) complex. In contrast, non-conjugated QDs or QDs-(inhibited Con A) do not label any kind of biological system tested, indicating that the bioconjugation was specific and efficient. The staining pattern of the cells and biofilms demonstrate that QDs were effectively bioconjugated to Con A with specific labeling of saccharide-rich structures on C. albicans. Consequently, this work opens new possibilities to monitor glucose and mannose molecules through fluorescence techniques, which can help to optimize phototherapy protocols for this kind of fungus.

  6. Cytotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: the involvement of cellular uptake and induction of pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ming Yan,1,* Yun Zhang,2,* Haiyan Qin,3 Kezhou Liu,1 Miao Guo,1 Yakun Ge,1 Mingen Xu,1 Yonghong Sun,4 Xiaoxiang Zheng4 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 2Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, 3Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, 4Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Detection Technology and Medicinal Effectiveness Appraisal, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs have been proposed to induce oxidative stress, which plays a crucial role in CdTe QDs-mediated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. However, the direct interactions of CdTe QDs with HUVECs and their potential impairment of other organelles like endoplasmic reticulum (ER in HUVECs are poorly understood. In this study, we reported that the negatively charged CdTe QDs (–21.63±0.91 mV, with good dispersity and fluorescence stability, were rapidly internalized via endocytosis by HUVECs, as the notable internalization could be inhibited up to 95.52% by energy depletion (NaN3/deoxyglucose or low temperature. The endocytosis inhibitors (methyl-β-cyclodextrin, genistein, sucrose, chlorpromazine, and colchicine dramatically decreased the uptake of CdTe QDs by HUVECs, suggesting that both caveolae/raft- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis were involved in the endothelial uptake of CdTe QDs. Using immunocytochemistry, a striking overlap of the internalized CdTe QDs and ER marker was observed, which indicates that QDs may be transported to ER. The CdTe QDs also caused remarkable ER stress responses in HUVECs, confirmed by significant dilatation of ER cisternae, upregulation of ER stress markers GRP78/GRP94, and

  7. Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tianshu Wu,1,2 Keyu He,1,2 Shengjun Ang,1,2 Jiali Ying,1,2 Shihan Zhang,1,2 Ting Zhang,1,2 Yuying Xue,1,2 Meng Tang1,2 1Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: With the rapid development of nanotechnology, quantum dots (QDs as advanced nanotechnology products have been widely used in neuroscience, including basic neurological studies and diagnosis or therapy for neurological disorders, due to their superior optical properties. In recent years, there has been intense concern regarding the toxicity of QDs, with a growing number of studies. However, knowledge of neurotoxic consequences of QDs applied in living organisms is lagging behind their development, even if several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs on neural cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA-modified CdTe QDs and underlying mechanisms. First of all, we observed impairments in learning efficiency and spatial memory in the MPA-modified CdTe QD-treated rats by using open-field and Y-maze tests, which could be attributed to pathological changes and disruption of ultrastructure of neurons and synapses in the hippocampus. In order to find the mechanisms causing these effects, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq, an advanced technology, was used to gain the potentially molecular targets of MPA-modified CdTe QDs. According to ample data from RNA-seq, we chose the signaling pathways of PI3K–Akt and MPAK–ERK to do a thorough investigation, because they play important roles in synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation, and spatial memory. The data demonstrated that phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt, p-ERK1/2, and c-FOS signal

  8. Tandem Solar Cells from Solution-Processed CdTe and PbS Quantum Dots Using a ZnTe–ZnO Tunnel Junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, Ryan W.; Pach, Gregory F.; Kurley, J. Matthew; France, Ryan M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; MacLeod, Bradley A.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Beard, Matthew C.; Luther, Joseph M.

    2017-01-10

    We developed a monolithic CdTe-PbS tandem solar cell architecture in which both the CdTe and PbS absorber layers are solution-processed from nanocrystal inks. Due to their tunable nature, PbS quantum dots (QDs), with a controllable band gap between 0.4 and ~1.6 eV, are a promising candidate for a bottom absorber layer in tandem photovoltaics. In the detailed balance limit, the ideal configuration of a CdTe (Eg = 1.5 eV)-PbS tandem structure assumes infinite thickness of the absorber layers and requires the PbS band gap to be 0.75 eV to theoretically achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 45%. However, modeling shows that by allowing the thickness of the CdTe layer to vary, a tandem with efficiency over 40% is achievable using bottom cell band gaps ranging from 0.68 and 1.16 eV. In a first step toward developing this technology, we explore CdTe-PbS tandem devices by developing a ZnTe-ZnO tunnel junction, which appropriately combines the two subcells in series. We examine the basic characteristics of the solar cells as a function of layer thickness and bottom-cell band gap and demonstrate open-circuit voltages in excess of 1.1 V with matched short circuit current density of 10 mA/cm2 in prototype devices.

  9. Tandem Solar Cells from Solution-Processed CdTe and PbS Quantum Dots Using a ZnTe-ZnO Tunnel Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Ryan W; Pach, Gregory F; Kurley, J Matthew; France, Ryan M; Reese, Matthew O; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; MacLeod, Bradley A; Talapin, Dmitri V; Beard, Matthew C; Luther, Joseph M

    2017-02-08

    We developed a monolithic CdTe-PbS tandem solar cell architecture in which both the CdTe and PbS absorber layers are solution-processed from nanocrystal inks. Due to their tunable nature, PbS quantum dots (QDs), with a controllable band gap between 0.4 and ∼1.6 eV, are a promising candidate for a bottom absorber layer in tandem photovoltaics. In the detailed balance limit, the ideal configuration of a CdTe (Eg = 1.5 eV)-PbS tandem structure assumes infinite thickness of the absorber layers and requires the PbS band gap to be 0.75 eV to theoretically achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 45%. However, modeling shows that by allowing the thickness of the CdTe layer to vary, a tandem with efficiency over 40% is achievable using bottom cell band gaps ranging from 0.68 and 1.16 eV. In a first step toward developing this technology, we explore CdTe-PbS tandem devices by developing a ZnTe-ZnO tunnel junction, which appropriately combines the two subcells in series. We examine the basic characteristics of the solar cells as a function of layer thickness and bottom-cell band gap and demonstrate open-circuit voltages in excess of 1.1 V with matched short circuit current density of 10 mA/cm(2) in prototype devices.

  10. Mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence probe for the determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkoed, Opas; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2015-11-01

    Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dot (QDs) fluorescent probes were synthesized in aqueous solution and used for the determination of salicylic acid. The interaction between the MPA-capped CdTe QDs and salicylic acid was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy and some parameters that could modify the fluorescence were investigated to optimize the measurements. Under optimum conditions, the quenched fluorescence intensity of MPA-capped CdTe QDs was linearly proportional to the concentration of salicylic acid in the range of 0.5-40 µg mL(-1) with a coefficient of determination of 0.998, and the limit of detection was 0.15 µg mL(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceutical products, and satisfactory results were obtained that were in agreement with both the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and the claimed values. The recovery of the method was in the range 99 ± 3% to 105 ± 9%. The proposed method is simple, rapid, cost effective, highly sensitivity and eminently suitable for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparation. The possible mechanisms for the observed quenching reaction was also discussed.

  11. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  12. A simple and rapid label-free fluorimetric biosensor for protamine detection based on glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Kazemifard, N; Rezaei, B

    2015-09-15

    A novel fluorescent biosensor is developed, based on glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots aggregation, for the determination of trace amount of an important drug, protamine. In this method with increasing the protamine concentration, the fluorescence of the quantum dots was quenched due to their aggregation. Different parameters affect the sensitivity, such as pH and the amount of the quantum dots, were optimized. Using the new optical biosensor, under the optimized conditions, protamine could be measured in the range of 2.0-200 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL(-)(1). The relative standard deviation for five replicates determination of 30.0 ng mL(-)(1) protamine was 1.26%. The influence of common interfering species on the protamine detection was studied. The results showed that the biosensor is highly selective and sensitive for the detection of protamine. The optical biosensor was successfully used for the determination of protamine in real samples.

  13. Characterization of L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots and application to test Cu(II) deficiency in biological samples from critically ill patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáez, Laura; Molina, Jorge; Florea, Daniela I.; Planells, Elena M. [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus Cartuja, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Cabeza, M. Carmen [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Quintero, Bartolomé, E-mail: bqosso@ugr.es [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-06-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We examinate stability of L-cysteine capped CdTe QD. •Factors influence QD fluorescence response are controlled. •Application in copper deficiency analysis is made. •We report comparison with other techniques. -- Abstract: The catalytic activity of copper ion gives, from the physiological point of view, a central role in many biological processes. Variations in the composition and location of cellular copper have been addressed given their physiological and pathological consequences. In this paper L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots is used for the fluorimetric determination of Cu(II) in biological samples from healthy individuals and patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICU). An acceptable homogeneity in the CdTe QDs size has been obtained with an average value of 3 nm. No significant alterations in the spectral properties were observed for 2 months when stored in vacutainers at 6 °C and a concentration of approximately 2 μM. Data from oxidative stress markers such superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and DNA damage can be correlated with a Cu(II) deficiency for the ICU patients as measured by flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Aqueous solutions 0.3 μM of L-cysteine capped CdTe QDs in MOPS buffer (6 mM, pH 7.4) used at 21 °C in the range 15–60 min after preparation of the sample for the measurements of fluorescence gives contents in Cu(II) for erythrocytes in good agreement with those obtained in FAAS and ICP-MS but the comparative ease of use makes the fluorimetric technique more suitable than the other two techniques for routine analysis.

  14. Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, quantum dots (QDs) as advanced nanotechnology products have been widely used in neuroscience, including basic neurological studies and diagnosis or therapy for neurological disorders, due to their superior optical properties. In recent years, there has been intense concern regarding the toxicity of QDs, with a growing number of studies. However, knowledge of neurotoxic consequences of QDs applied in living organisms is lagging behind their development, even if several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs on neural cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-modified CdTe QDs and underlying mechanisms. First of all, we observed impairments in learning efficiency and spatial memory in the MPA-modified CdTe QD-treated rats by using open-field and Y-maze tests, which could be attributed to pathological changes and disruption of ultrastructure of neurons and synapses in the hippocampus. In order to find the mechanisms causing these effects, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), an advanced technology, was used to gain the potentially molecular targets of MPA-modified CdTe QDs. According to ample data from RNA-seq, we chose the signaling pathways of PI3K-Akt and MPAK-ERK to do a thorough investigation, because they play important roles in synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation, and spatial memory. The data demonstrated that phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), p-ERK1/2, and c-FOS signal transductions in the hippocampus of rats were involved in the mechanism underlying spatial learning and memory impairments caused by 3.5 nm MPA-modified CdTe QDs.

  15. Aptamer-based fluorescent screening assay for acetamiprid via inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajia; Li, Ying; Wang, Luokai; Xu, Jingyue; Huang, Yanjun; Luo, Yeli; Shen, Fei; Sun, Chunyan; Meng, Rizeng

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel aptamer-based fluorescent detection method for small molecules represented by acetamiprid based on the specific binding of aptamers with acetamiprid, and the inner filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs). When CdTe QDs were mixed with AuNPs, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was significantly quenched via IFE. The IFE efficiency could be readily modulated by the absorption and the aggregation state of AuNPs. The presence of salt could easily induce the aggregation of AuNPs, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched QDs. Acetamiprid-binding aptamer (ABA) could adsorb on the negatively charged AuNPs through the coordination interaction to protect AuNPs from salt-induced aggregation, so the fluorescence of CdTe QDs would be quenched by the IFE of AuNPs. However, the specific binding of ABA with acetamiprid could release the ABA from the surfaces of AuNPs and decrease the salt tolerance of AuNPs, so the IFE-decreased fluorescence of CdTe QDs was regained with the presence of acetamiprid, and the fluorescence enhancement efficiency was driven by the concentration of acetamiprid. Based on this principle, the aptamer-based fluorescent method for acetamiprid has been established and optimized. The assay exhibited excellent selectivity towards acetamiprid over its analogues and other pesticides which may coexist with acetamiprid. Under the optimum experiment conditions, the established method could be applied for the determination of acetamiprid with a wide linear range from 0.05 to 1.0 μM, and a low detection limit of 7.29 nM (3σ). Furthermore, this IFE-based method has been successfully utilized to detect acetamiprid in six types of vegetables, and the results were in full agreement with those from HPLC and LC-MS. The proposed method displays remarkable advantages of high sensitivity, rapid analysis, excellent selectivity, and would be suitable for the practical application

  16. CdTe-JA 偶合物的制备和应用%Coupling Reaction and Application of Jasmonic Acid and CdTe Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳红; 王玉洁; 何桂; 俞英

    2014-01-01

    As a good luminescent material , quantum dots can be a probe for targets in complicated system through the surface modification with recognition function molecule .CdTe quantum dots ( QDs) were synthesized in aque-ous solution using mercaptoethylamine ( MA) as stabilizer .The optimal conditions for synthesis were studied by flu-orescence spectroscopy .The purification of CdTe QDs with different solvents and pH values of buffer solution was investigated systematically .The results showed that the purification with twice volume isopropanol was the best . The fluorescence of QDs basically unchanged in pH 7.4 buffer solution .The jasmonic acid-CdTe conjugates was obtained by coupling CdTe QDs with jasmonic acid ( JA) using the N-hydroxysuccinimide ( NHS) as a coupling a-gent.The optimal conditions for coupling reaction are pH 7.4 and stiring for 30 min at 37 ℃.After the JA mole-cule linked with CdTe QDs , the maximum absorption peak of jasmonic acid-CdTe conjugates was blue-shifted by 10 nm.The photostability of jasmonic acid-CdTe conjugates was also studied by fluorescence microscope .The jasmon-ic acid-CdTe conjugates was applied preliminarily in the labeling of root sections of mung bean seedlings .%以巯基乙胺( MA)作为修饰剂,在水相条件下合成了稳定的CdTe量子点,优化了合成反应条件;其中用异丙醇做沉淀剂效果好,量子点重新分散到pH值为7.4的Tris-HCl缓冲溶液中,荧光基本保持不变;用N-羟基琥珀酰亚胺(NHS)作偶联剂,量子点与茉莉酸(JA)在pH值为7.4,37℃反应30 min合成了具有识别茉莉酸结合位点的探针. CdTe-JA最大吸收峰与CdTe相比蓝移了约10 nm,抗光漂白性好,并初步对绿豆幼苗根部进行了荧光标记.

  17. Resonant energy transfer between SiC and CdTe quantum dots%SiC和 CdTe 量子点间荧光共振能量转移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红玉; 王伟; 陈波; 王正斌

    2016-01-01

    采用水相法制备了巯基乙胺包裹的CdTe量子点,用湿化学刻蚀法制得了SiC量子点,并对CdTe和S iC量子点的光学特性进行了研究。结果表明:随着激发波长的增加,因量子限制效应,S iC量子点荧光的最大发射峰出现红移;CdTe量子点的发射谱和SiC量子点的吸收谱有较大的重叠,且带边发射有较大的能量分离;CdTe量子点和SiC量子点之间存在福斯特共振能量转移。同时,CdTe和SiC混合液蒸干后的荧光光谱显示,供体SiC的荧光减弱,而受体CdTe的荧光增强;相同大小的CdTe、SiC及CdTe和SiC混合物的液滴在空气中自然蒸发时,液滴的颜色在紫外灯照射下发生了变化,这是由于蒸发过程中,液滴体积减小,导致液滴中量子点间的距离减小,有利于CdTe量子点和SiC量子点间发生福斯特共振能量转移。%3‐Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)‐capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized in aqueous solution .SiC QDs were performed by wet chemical etching of cubic SiC powder . The optical properties of SiC QDs exhibited that PL emission peaks shifted to long wavelength with the increase of excitation wavelength ,which attributed to the quantum confinement effect .In addition , fluorescence emission spectra of SiC QDs overlapped with the absorption spectra of CdTe QDs ,and there was significant energy separation between band emissions from CdTe QDs and SiC QDs . Hence ,the forster resonance energy transfer between CdTe and SiC QDs was studied .PL spectra of the mixture of CdTe and SiC show that the PL intensity of SiC decreases and that of CdTe increases .In addition ,the emission color of the mixture of CdTe and SiC has changed under an ultraviolet lamp at different times during evaporation of solvent .T hese results are due to the forster resonance energy transfer between CdTe and SiC QDs .

  18. Determination of Captopril Based on the Photoluminescence Quenching of the pH Sensitive Mercaptopropanoic Acid Capped CdTe Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.; Lima, A. A.; Aucelio, R. Q.

    2017-01-01

    The determination of captopril was performed by measuring the photoluminescence quenching of pH sensitive mercaptopropanoic acid capped CdTe quantum dots. Under optimum conditions, the calibration model (log F0/F as a function of the concentration of captopril) was linear up to 8 × 10-6 mol/L (1.7 μg/mL) and the limit of detection (xb - 3sb) was 2.7 × 10-7 mol/L (18 ng/mL). A possible mechanism for quenching is proposed. The method was applied in the determination of captopril in two commercial pharmaceutical formulations, indicating that it can be used for simple and fast quantitative control of commercial medicines or pharmaceutical preparations.

  19. A highly selective and simple fluorescent sensor for mercury (II) ion detection based on cysteamine-capped CdTe quantum dots synthesized by the reflux method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaojie; Qu, Lingbo; Yang, Ran; Zhou, Yuchen; Li, Jianjun

    2015-06-01

    Cysteamine (CA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) (CA-CdTe QDs) were prepared by the reflux method and utilized as an efficient nano-sized fluorescent sensor to detect mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+) ). Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence quenching effect of CA-CdTe QDs was linear at Hg(2+) concentrations in the range of 6.0-450 nmol/L. The detection limit was calculated to be 4.0 nmol/L according to the 3σ IUPAC criteria. The influence of 10-fold Pb(2+) , Cu(2+) and Ag(+) on the determination of Hg(2+) was CdTe QDs probe, which was prepared using a one-pot synthetic method. This CA-CdTe QDs sensor system represents a new feasibility to improve the detection performance of a QDs sensor by changing the synthesis method.

  20. Photoactivation by visible light of CdTe quantum dots for inline generation of reactive oxygen species in an automated multipumping flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, David S.M.; Frigerio, Christian; Santos, Joao L.M. [Requimte, Department of Chemical Sciences, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira no. 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Prior, Joao A.V., E-mail: joaoavp@ff.up.pt [Requimte, Department of Chemical Sciences, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira no. 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdTe quantum dots generate free radical species upon exposure to visible radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high power visible LED lamp was used as photoirradiation element. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laboratory-made LED photocatalytic unit was implemented inline in a MPFS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free radical species oxidize luminol producing a strong chemiluminescence emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epinephrine scavenges free radical species quenching chemiluminescence emission. - Abstract: Quantum dots (QD) are semiconductor nanocrystals able to generate free radical species upon exposure to an electromagnetic radiation, usually in the ultraviolet wavelength range. In this work, CdTe QD were used as highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) generators for the control of pharmaceutical formulations containing epinephrine. The developed approach was based on the chemiluminometric monitoring of the quenching effect of epinephrine on the oxidation of luminol by the produced ROS. Due to the relatively low energy band-gap of this chalcogenide a high power visible light emitting diode (LED) lamp was used as photoirradiation element and assembled in a laboratory-made photocatalytic unit. Owing to the very short lifetime of ROS and to ensure both reproducible generation and time-controlled reaction implementation and development, all reactional processes were implemented inline by using an automated multipumping micro-flow system. A linear working range for epinephrine concentration of up to 2.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} (r = 0.9953; n = 5) was verified. The determination rate was about 79 determinations per hour and the detection limit was about 8.69 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}. The results obtained in the analysis of epinephrine pharmaceutical formulations by using the proposed methodology were in good agreement with those furnished by the reference procedure, with

  1. Effect of CdTe quantum dots size on the conformational changes of human serum albumin: results of spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingjun; Liu, Rutao; Hao, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yongzhong; Du, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are recognized as some of the most promising candidates for future applications in biomedicine. However, concerns about their safety have delayed their widespread application. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the main protein component of the circulatory system. It is important to explore the interaction of QDs with HSA for the potential in vivo application of QDs. Herein, using spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), the effect of glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots of different sizes on the HSA was investigated. After correction for the inner filter effect, the fluorescence emission spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the microenvironment of aromatic acid residues in the protein was slightly changed when the glutathione (GSH)-cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs was added, and GSH-CdTe QDs with larger particle size exhibited a much higher effect on HSA than the small particles. Although a ground-state complex between HSA and GSH-CdTe QDs was formed, the UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopic results did not find appreciable conformational changes of HSA. ITC has been used for the first time to characterize the binding of QDs with HSA. The ITC results revealed that the binding was a thermodynamically spontaneous process mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions, and the binding constant tended to increase as the GSH-CdTe QDs size increased. These findings are helpful in understanding the bioactivities of QDs in vivo and can be used to assist in the design of biocompatible and stable QDs.

  2. Insights into the effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots on the structure and activity of human serum albumin by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haoyu; Yang, Xudan; Li, Meng; Han, Songlin; Liu, Yingxue [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China-America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong Province, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Tan, Xuejie [School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong Province 250353 (China); Liu, Chunguang, E-mail: chunguangliu2013@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China-America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong Province, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Rutao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China-America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong Province, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) are a kind of nanostructured semiconductor crystals with the size range of 1–10 nm. Their unique photophysical properties and potential toxicity to human health have aroused wide concern of scientists and general public. However, the interaction mechanism of QDs on human serum albumin (HSA, the vital protein in human blood) from both structural and functional perspectives is rarely reported. In the present work, effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots with fluorescence emission peak at 612 nm (QDs-612) on the conformation and function of HSA were investigated by spectroscopic methods, molecular docking study and esterase activity assay. The hydrophobic interaction between HSA and QDs-612 was spontaneous with the binding constants calculated to be 6.85×10{sup 5} L mol{sup −1} (298 K) and 8.89×10{sup 5} L mol{sup −1} (308 K). The binding of QDs-612 to HSA induced the static quenching of fluorescence and the changes of secondary structure and microenvironment of Tyr-411 residue, which resulted in serious decrease on the hydrolysis of substrate p-nitrophenylacetate in esterase activity assay of HSA. This work confirms the possibility on direct interaction of QDs-612 with HSA and obtains a possible mechanism of relationship between conformation and function of HSA. - Highlights: • The interaction between CdTe QDs (QDs-612) and HSA is spontaneous. • The predominant force of the binding is hydrophobic interaction. • The interaction changes the secondary structure of HSA. • Tyr-411 residue of HSA expose to a hydrophilic environment. • The esterase activity of HSA decreases by adding QDs-612.

  3. Plasma kinetics and biodistribution of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots in mice: a comparison between Cd and Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Xie, Guangyun; Sun, Zhiwei; Mu, Ying; Han, Sihai; Xiao, Yang; Liu, Na; Wang, Hui; Guo, Caixia; Shi, Zhixiong; Li, Yanbo; Huang, Peili

    2011-10-01

    Water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) have shown potential as tumor diagnostic agents. However, little is known about their biological behaviors in vivo. Male ICR mice were intravenously given a single dose (2.5 μmol kg-1 body weight) of water-soluble cadmium-telluride (CdTe) QDs (the QDs are approximately 4 nm in diameter and have maximal emission at 630 nm). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for measuring the kinetic action of 111Cd and 125Te for 7 days. The plasma kinetics of Cd and Te followed a two-compartment model, in which Cd exhibited greater apparent volume of distribution, greater clearance, faster distribution half-life, and significantly slower elimination half-life compared to Te. Contrary to its relatively transient fate in the plasma, high levels of Cd persisted in the liver and kidneys. Te accumulated primarily in the spleen. The different plasma kinetics and distribution patterns of Cd and Te imply that CdTe QDs have been part of the degradation or aggregation in vivo.

  4. Exploration of CdTe quantum dots as mesoscale pressure sensors via time-resolved shock-compression photoluminescent emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhitao; Banishev, Alexandr A.; Lee, Gyuhyon; Scripka, David A.; Breidenich, Jennifer; Xiao, Pan; Christensen, James; Zhou, Min; Summers, Christopher J.; Dlott, Dana D.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2016-07-01

    The nanometer size of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and their unique optical properties, including size-tunable narrow photoluminescent emission, broad absorption, fast photoluminescence decay, and negligible light scattering, are ideal features for spectrally tagging the shock response of localized regions in highly heterogeneous materials such as particulate media. In this work, the time-resolved laser-excited photoluminescence response of QDs to shock-compression was investigated to explore their utilization as mesoscale sensors for pressure measurements and in situ diagnostics during shock loading experiments. Laser-driven shock-compression experiments with steady-state shock pressures ranging from 2.0 to 13 GPa were performed on nanocomposite films of CdTe QDs dispersed in a soft polyvinyl alcohol polymer matrix and in a hard inorganic sodium silicate glass matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescent emission spectroscopy was used to correlate photoluminescence changes with the history of shock pressure and the dynamics of the matrix material surrounding the QDs. The results revealed pressure-induced blueshifts in emitted wavelength, decreases in photoluminescent emission intensity, reductions in peak width, and matrix-dependent response times. Data obtained for these QD response characteristics serve as indicators for their use as possible time-resolved diagnostics of the dynamic shock-compression response of matrix materials in which such QDs are embedded as in situ sensors.

  5. Impact of D2O/H2O Solvent Exchange on the Emission of HgTe and CdTe Quantum Dots: Polaron and Energy Transfer Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiannan; Kershaw, Stephen V; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Zhovtiuk, Olga; Reckmeier, Claas; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail I; Rogach, Andrey L

    2016-04-26

    We have studied light emission kinetics and analyzed carrier recombination channels in HgTe quantum dots that were initially grown in H2O. When the solvent is replaced by D2O, the nonradiative recombination rate changes highlight the role of the vibrational degrees of freedom in the medium surrounding the dots, including both solvent and ligands. The contributing energy loss mechanisms have been evaluated by developing quantitative models for the nonradiative recombination via (i) polaron states formed by strong coupling of ligand vibration modes to a surface trap state (nonresonant channel) and (ii) resonant energy transfer to vibration modes in the solvent. We conclude that channel (i) is more important than (ii) for HgTe dots in either solution. When some of these modes are removed from the relevant spectral range by the H2O to D2O replacement, the polaron effect becomes weaker and the nonradiative lifetime increases. Comparisons with CdTe quantum dots (QDs) served as a reference where the resonant energy loss (ii) a priori was not a factor, also confirmed by our experiments. The solvent exchange (H2O to D2O), however, is found to slightly increase the overall quantum yield of CdTe samples, probably by increasing the fraction of bright dots in the ensemble. The fundamental study reported here can serve as the foundation for the design and optimization principles of narrow bandgap quantum dots aimed at applications in long wavelength colloidal materials for infrared light emitting diodes and photodetectors.

  6. Probing the interaction of a new synthesized CdTe quantum dots with human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade, E-mail: rezanejad@pnu.ac.ir; Hooshyar, Zari

    2016-05-01

    A novel CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared in aqueous phase via a facile method. At first, poly (acrylic amide) grafted onto sodium alginate (PAAm-g-SA) were successfully synthesized and then TGA capped CdTe QDs (CdTe-TGA QDs) were embed into it. The prepared CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs were optimized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The characterization results indicated that CdTe-TGA QDs, with particles size of 2.90 nm, were uniformly dispersed on the chains of PAAm-g-SA biopolymer. CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs also exhibited excellent UV–vis absorption and high fluorescence intensity. To explore biological behavior of CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs, the interactions between CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs and human serum albumin (HSA) (or bovine serum albumin (BSA)) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, FT-IR, UV–vis, and fluorescence spectroscopic. The results confirmed the formation of CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs-HSA (or BSA) complex with high binding affinities. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG < 0, ΔH < 0 and ΔS < 0) were indicated that binding reaction was spontaneous and van der Waals interactions and hydrogen-bond interactions played a major role in stabilizing the CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs-HSA (or BSA) complexes. The binding distance between CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs and HSA (or BSA)) was calculated about 1.37 nm and 1.27 nm, respectively, according to Forster non-radiative energy transfer theory (FRET). Analyzing FT-IR spectra showed that the formation of QDs-HSA and QDs-BSA complexes led to conformational changes of the HSA and BSA proteins. All these experimental results clarified the effective transportation and elimination of CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs in the body by binding to HSA and BSA, which could be a useful guideline for the estimation of QDs as a drug carrier. - Highlights: • The CdTe quantum dots coated with polyacrylamide grafted onto sodium alginate. • The

  7. Design and fabrication of an aptasensor for chloramphenicol based on energy transfer of CdTe quantum dots to graphene oxide sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Hadizadeh, Farzin [Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vajhedin, Fereshteh [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abnous, Khalil, E-mail: Abnouskh@mums.ac.ir [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezani, Mohammad, E-mail: Ramezanim@mums.ac.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Detection and quantification of chloramphenicol have played essential roles in the effort to minimize food safety risk. Herein, a sophisticated “turn on” aptasensor based on aptamer–CdTe quantum dots (Apt–QDs) and graphene oxide (GO) was developed for chloramphenicol sensing. In this assay, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs–Apt was efficiently quenched through energy transfer from QDs–Apt to GO, and chloramphenicol was detected by recovering the quenched fluorescence due to specific binding between aptamer and chloramphenicol. The results indicated that the addition of a CdTe QDs-labeled aptamer to a GO solution (250 μg/mL) led to a high quenching efficiency, yielding over 90% fluorescence quenching. Using a series of chloramphenicol concentrations (0.1 to 10 nM) aptasensor provides a limit of detection and limit of quantification at 98 pM and 987 pM, respectively. Linearity of response over chloramphenicol was demonstrated (r > 0.99). Furthermore, the GO-based aptasensor exhibited excellent selectivity toward chloramphenicol compared to other synthetic drugs with similar structures such as thiamphenicol, metronidazole and nitrofurantoin. Good reproducibility and precision (RSD 4.73%, n = 10) of the assay indicates the ability of the aptasensor for routine quantitative trace analysis of chloramphenicol. Our results suggested that the prepared aptasensor was also well qualified for the detection of chloramphenicol in milk with a limit of detection of 0.2 ppb. - Highlights: • Aptasensor based on aptamer–QDs and GO was developed for chloramphenicol sensing. • The fluorescence of QDs–Apt was quenched through energy transfer from QDs to GO. • Chloramphenicol was detected by recovering the quenched fluorescence. • The limit of detection for chloramphenicol was calculated to be 98 pM. • The proposed aptasensor showed high sensitivity, selectivity and precision.

  8. Probing the interaction of a new synthesized CdTe quantum dots with human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade; Hooshyar, Zari

    2016-05-01

    A novel CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared in aqueous phase via a facile method. At first, poly (acrylic amide) grafted onto sodium alginate (PAAm-g-SA) were successfully synthesized and then TGA capped CdTe QDs (CdTe-TGA QDs) were embed into it. The prepared CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs were optimized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The characterization results indicated that CdTe-TGA QDs, with particles size of 2.90 nm, were uniformly dispersed on the chains of PAAm-g-SA biopolymer. CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs also exhibited excellent UV-vis absorption and high fluorescence intensity. To explore biological behavior of CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs, the interactions between CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs and human serum albumin (HSA) (or bovine serum albumin (BSA)) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, FT-IR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopic. The results confirmed the formation of CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs-HSA (or BSA) complex with high binding affinities. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔGCdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs-HSA (or BSA) complexes. The binding distance between CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs and HSA (or BSA)) was calculated about 1.37 nm and 1.27 nm, respectively, according to Forster non-radiative energy transfer theory (FRET). Analyzing FT-IR spectra showed that the formation of QDs-HSA and QDs-BSA complexes led to conformational changes of the HSA and BSA proteins. All these experimental results clarified the effective transportation and elimination of CdTe-PAAm-g-SA QDs in the body by binding to HSA and BSA, which could be a useful guideline for the estimation of QDs as a drug carrier.

  9. Comparative Study on the Efficiency of the Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans Using CdTe Quantum Dots, Zn(II Porphyrin and Their Conjugates as Photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osnir S. Viana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of fluorescent II-VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs as active photosensitizers in photodymanic inactivation (PDI is still being evaluated. In the present study, we prepared 3 nm size CdTe QDs coated with mercaptosuccinic acid and conjugated them electrostatically with Zn(II meso-tetrakis (N-ethyl-2-pyridinium-2-yl porphyrin (ZnTE-2-PyP or ZnP, thus producing QDs-ZnP conjugates. We evaluated the capability of the systems, bare QDs and conjugates, to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and applied them in photodynamic inactivation in cultures of Candida albicans by irradiating the QDs and testing the hypothesis of a possible combined contribution of the PDI action. Tests of in vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity in fibroblasts were also performed in the presence and absence of light irradiation. The overall results showed an efficient ROS production for all tested systems and a low cytotoxicity (cell viability >90% in the absence of radiation. Fibroblasts incubated with the QDs-ZnP and subjected to irradiation showed a higher cytotoxicity (cell viability <90% depending on QD concentration compared to the bare groups. The PDI effects of bare CdTe QD on Candida albicans demonstrated a lower reduction of the cell viability (~1 log10 compared to bare ZnP which showed a high microbicidal activity (~3 log10 when photoactivated. The QD-ZnP conjugates also showed reduced photodynamic activity against C. albicans compared to bare ZnP and we suggest that the conjugation with QDs prevents the transmembrane cellular uptake of the ZnP molecules, reducing their photoactivity.

  10. 水溶性CdTe量子点及其复合物的电化学发光研究%Study on electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots and its compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鑫; 张纪梅

    2014-01-01

    通过水热法制备了高荧光效率的巯基丙酸修饰的水溶性CdTe量子点,对不同取样时间的CdTe量子点进行电化学发光强度测试,并对其电化学发光的测试条件(包括扫描速度、共反应剂浓度、缓冲液的pH 等)进行了优化,得到最佳测试条件;同时,在水合肼还原剂作用下用微波快速有效的合成了石墨烯,并在超声作用下制备了石墨烯-CdTe 量子点复合物,进一步提高了水溶性CdTe 量子点的电化学发光强度。%The hydrothermal method was applied to synthese water-soluble CdTe quantum dots with high fluorescence quan-tum yield, and the electrochemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots was tested with different sampling time. Be-sides, the best conditions for testing electrochemiluminescence were obtained by optimizing the testing conditions including scanning rate, concentration of coreagent, pH of buffer solution, etc. Meanwhile, grapheme (RGO) was obtained rapidly and effectively by using hydrazine hydrate as reductant in the microwave reactor and graphene-CdTe quantum dots was prepared under ultrasound to further improve the electrochemiluminescence intensity of CdTe quantum dots.

  11. The combined influence of surface modification, size distribution, and interaction time on the cytotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in PANC-1 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuquan Chang; Bin Kang; Xiqin Liu; Yaodong Dai; Da Chen

    2012-01-01

    Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and cysteamine (Cys) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were successfully prepared and used to investigate the combined influence of surface modification,size distribution,and interaction time on their cytotoxicity in human pancreatic carcinoma (PANC-1) cells.Results indicated that the smaller the size of MPA-CdTe QDs,the higher the cytotoxicity,which could be partly due to the difference of their distribution inside cells.Comparing with MPA-CdTe QDs,Cys-CdTe QDs had better cellular metabolizability and lower cytotoxicity.These QDs' cellular distribution and cytotoxicity were closely related to their interaction time with cells.Their cytotoxicity was found to be significantly enhanced with the increase of incubation time in medium.After QD treatments,the influence of recover time on the final cell viability was also dependent on the concentration and surface modification of QDs used in pretreatment.The combined influence of these factors discussed here might provide useful information for understanding and reducing the cytotoxicity of QDs in future biomedical applications.

  12. Fluorescence quenching studies on the interaction of catechin-quinone with CdTe quantum dots. Mechanism elucidation and feasibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Neunert, Grażyna; Nogala-Kałucka, Małgorzata; Polewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Changes of the photoluminescent properties of QD in the presence of oxidized catechin (CQ) were investigated by absorption, steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime and dynamic light scattering measurements. Photoluminescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime was decreasing with increasing CQ concentration. Dynamic light scattering technique found the hydrodynamic diameter of QD suspension in water is in range of 45 nm, whereas in presence of CQ increased to mean values of 67 nm. Calculated from absorption peak position of excition band indicated on average QD size of 3.2 nm. Emission spectroscopy and time-resolved emission studies confirmed preservation of electronic band structure in QD-CQ aggregates. On basis of the presented results, the elucidated mechanism of QD fluorescence quenching is a result of the interaction between QD and CQ due to electron transfer and electrostatic attraction. The results of fluorescence quenching of water-soluble CdTe quantum dot (QD) capped with thiocarboxylic acid were used to implement a simple and fast method to determine the presence of native antioxidant quinones in aqueous solutions. Feasibility studies on this method carried out with oxidized catechin showed a linear relation between the QD emission and quencher concentration, in range from 1 up to 200 μM. The wide linear range of concentration dependence makes it possible to apply this method for the fast and sensitive detection of quinones in solutions.

  13. A molecularly imprinted polymer-coated CdTe quantum dot nanocomposite for tryptophan recognition based on the Förster resonance energy transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Guizar, Antonio; Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Pina-Luis, Georgina E.

    2016-12-01

    A new ‘turn-on’ Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) nanosensor for l-tryptophan based on molecularly imprinted quantum dots (QDs) is proposed. The approach combines the advantages of the molecular imprinting technique, the fluorescent characteristics of the QDs and the energy transfer process. Silica-coated CdTe QDs were first synthesized and then molecularly imprinted using a sol-gel process without surfactants. The final composite presents stable fluorescence which increases with the addition of l-tryptophan. This ‘turn-on’ response is due to a FRET mechanism from the l-tryptophan as donor to the imprinted QD as acceptor. QDs are rarely applied as acceptors in FRET systems. The nanosensor shows selectivity towards l-tryptophan in the presence of other amino acids and interfering ions. The l-tryptophan nanosensor exhibits a linear range between 0 and 8 µM concentration, a detection limit of 350 nM and high selectivity. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the detection of l-tryptophan in saliva. This novel sensor may offer an alternative approach to the design of a new generation of imprinted nanomaterials for the recognition of different analytes.

  14. A comparative study on the sensitive detection of hydroxyl radical using thiol-capped CdTe and CdTe/ZnS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Nyokong, Tebello

    2012-11-01

    Four types of water-soluble luminescent quantum dots (QDs) whose surface was functionlaized with thioglycolic acid (TGA), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), or glutathione (GSH), were investigated for the sensitive and selective detection of hydroxyl radical (·OH) in aqueous media. It was found that the type of capping agent and QD influenced the sensitivity of the probe. The order of sensitivity of the probe was: GSH-CdTe@ZnS > MPA-CdTe@ZnS > TGA-CdTe > MPA-CdTe QDs. Under the optimum conditions, a limit of detection as low as 8.5 × 10(-8) M was obtained using GSH-CdTe@ZnS. The effects of foreign reactive oxygen species and the Fenton reactants and products as possible interferences on the proposed probe were negligible for CdTe@ZnS QDs. Besides, experimental results indicated that CdTe@ZnS QDs were more attractive for the selective recognition of ·OH than CdTe QDs. The mechanistic reaction pathway between the QDs and ·OH is proposed.

  15. Study on the optimized in aqueous synthetic CdTe quantum dots ammonia system%氨系水相优化合成CdTe量子点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谦; 苏英; 陈秀宇

    2012-01-01

    用巯基丙酸(MPA)作稳定剂,无需氮气或氩气保护下,在氨系水相中通过超声合成CdTe量子点的前驱体,前驱体经水浴回流制备粒径可调的CdTe量子点.通过荧光和吸收光谱、透射电子显微镜和红外光谱对产物进行了表征.试验表明:反应时间、温度、pH值、Cd^2+、HTe^-、MPA的物质的量比,对量子点的粒径大小、粒径分布和粒径生长速度均有很大的影响.n(HTe^-):n(Cd^2+):n(MPA):1:3:6,pH=9.8条件下合成前驱体,在92+1℃水浴下回流,可以快速获得长波长、高荧光的CdTe量子点,合成的量子点储存6个月后经稳态/瞬态荧光光谱仪测定,外量子效率仍为16.45%.%With the mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the stabilizer, and without the protection of nitrogen and argon, the precursor of CdTe Quantum Dots was synthesized by ultrasound in aqueous ammonia system and prepared by water bath circumfluence particle size adjustable CdTe quantum dots. The products were characterized through fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Experiments showed that: the reaction time, temperature, pH value, Cd^2+ ,HTe^-,MPA and the ratio of amount of substance had a great effect on the particle size of CdTe quantum dots, particle size distribution and the rate of growth. When n (HTe^-):n (Cd^2+):n (MPA) = 1:3:6, Ph = 9.8, the precursor, reflux at 92±1 ℃ under water bath could quickly obtain long wavelength and fluorescent CdTe Quantum Dots. After the synthesized quantum dots were stored for six months and determined by the steady state/transient state fluorescence spectrometer, the external quantum efficiency was still 16.45%.

  16. The Influence of Surface Modification on the Photoluminescence of CdTe Quantum Dots: Realization of Bio-Imaging via Cost-Effective Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Gan; Jiang, Li-Ming; Yi, Dong-Mei; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Sun, Hong-Chen

    2015-12-01

    To impart biocompatibility, stability, and specificity to quantum dots (QDs)-and to reduce their toxicity-it is essential to carry out surface modification. However, most surface-modification processes are costly, complicated, and time-consuming. In addition, the modified QDs often have a large size, which leads to easy aggregation in biological environments, making it difficult to excrete them from in vivo systems. To solve these problems, three kinds of conventional polymers, namely, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, neutral), sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, negative charged), and poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA, positive charged) were selected to modify the surface of QDs at low cost via a simple process in which the size of the QDs was kept small after modification. The effect of polymer modification on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the QDs was systematically investigated. High quantum yields (QYs) of 65 % were reached, which is important for the realization of bio-imaging. Then, the cytotoxicity of CdTe QD-polymer composites was systematically investigated via MTT assay using the Cal27 and HeLa cell lines, especially for high concentrations of QD-polymer composites in vitro. The experimental results showed that the cytotoxicity decreased in the order CdTe-PDDA>CdTe>CdTe-PSS>CdTe-PVA, indicating that PSS and PVA can reduce the toxicity of the QDs. An obvious cytotoxicity of CdTe-PVA and CdTe-PSS was present until 120 h for the Cal27 cell line and until 168 h for the HeLa cell line. At last, the Cal27 cell line was selected to realize bio-imaging using CdTe-PSS and CdTe-PVA composites with different emission colors under one excitation wavelength.

  17. Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum non-toxic concentrations for biological use

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prasad, Babu R

    2010-03-25

    Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs) have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped) have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours) co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel) were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation) were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to

  18. Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum non-toxic concentrations for biological use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Valérie A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA capped have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly

  19. Detection of DNA using an "off-on" switch of a regenerating biosensor based on an electron transfer mechanism from glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots to nile blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yizhong; Liu, Shaopu; Kong, Ling; Tan, Xuanping; He, Youqiu; Yang, Jidong

    2014-11-21

    Although various strategies have been reported for double-stranded DNA (DNA) detection, development of a time-saving, specific, and regeneratable fluorescence sensing platform still remains a desired goal. In this study, we proposed a new DNA detection method that relies on an "off-on" switch of a regenerated fluorescence biosensor based on an electron transfer mechanism from glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) to nile blue (NB). Initially, the high fluorescence of GSH-capped CdTe QDs could be effectively quenched by NB due to the binding of NB to the GSH on the surface of the QDs and the electron transfer from the photoexcited GSH-capped CdTe QDs to NB. Then, the high affinity of DNA to NB enabled the NB to be dissociated from the surface of GSH-capped CdTe QDs to form a more stable complex with DNA and suppress the electron transfer process between GSH-capped CdTe QDs and NB, thereby restoring the fluorescence of NB surface modified GSH-capped CdTe QDs (QDs-NB). In addition, we have testified the regenerability of the proposed DNA senor. The corresponding result shows that this DNA sensor is stable for two reuses. This fluorescence "off-on" signal was sensitive to the concentration of DNA in the range from 0.0092 to 25.0 μg mL(-1) with a good correlation coefficient of 0.9989, and the detection limit (3σ/S) was 2.78 ng mL(-1). To further investigate for perfect analysis performance, the developed biosensor was applied for the determination of DNA in human fresh serum samples with satisfactory results.

  20. CdTe quantum dots: aqueous phase synthesis, stability studies and protein conjugation for development of biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, Vivek; Sadawana, Mayur; Srivastava, Rohit

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous medium is advantageous as compared to the organic solvent mediated synthesis, as the aqueous synthesis is less toxic, reagent effective, easily reproducible and importantly, synthesized QDs have biological compatibility. The QDs should be aqueous in nature for use in cell imaging, drug labeling, tracking and delivery. Structural modifications are necessary to enable their use in biosensing application. In this work, mercaptopropionic acid capped cadmium telluride QDs (MPA-CdTe QDs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by various techniques. Water and various biochemical buffers were used to study the fluorescence intensity stability of the QDs at different physicochemical conditions. QDs stored in 4° C showed excellent stability of fluorescence intensity values as compared to the samples stored at room temperature. Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) was conjugated with the QDs (SPA-QDs) and characterized using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, zeta potential, HRTEM, FTIR, and AFM. Blue shift was observed in the fluorescence emission spectra that may be due to reduction in the surface charge as carboxyl groups on QDs were replaced by amino groups of SPA. This SPA conjugated to QDs enables binding of the C-terminal of antibodies on its surface allowing N-terminal binding site remain free to bind with antigenic biomarkers. Thus, the biosensor i.e. antibody bound on SPA-QDs would bind to the antigenic biomarkers in sample and the detection system could be developed. As QDs have better fluorescence properties than organic dyes, this biosensor will provide high sensitivity and quantitative capability in diagnostics.

  1. MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots exposure causes neurotoxic effects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine at the genetic level, or by increasing ROS, or both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Zhan, Qinglin; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-12-01

    As quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in biomedical applications, the number of studies focusing on their biological properties is increasing. While several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs towards neural cells, the in vivo toxic effects on the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects and the underlying mechanisms of water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that exposure to MPA-capped CdTe QDs induced behavioral defects, including alterations to body bending, head thrashing, pharyngeal pumping and defecation intervals, as well as impaired learning and memory behavior plasticity, based on chemotaxis or thermotaxis, in a dose-, time- and size-dependent manner. Further investigations suggested that MPA-capped CdTe QDs exposure inhibited the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine in C. elegans at the genetic level within 24 h, while opposite results were observed after 72 h. Additionally, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in the CdTe QD-treated worms, which confirmed the common nanotoxicity mechanism of oxidative stress damage, and might overcome the increased gene expression of neurotransmitter transporters and receptors in C. elegans induced by long-term QD exposure, resulting in more severe behavioral impairments.

  2. AOT/异辛烷反胶束体系制备CdTe量子点的研究%Synthesis of CdTe Quantum Dots in AOT/isooctane Reversed Micelle System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谦; 王小燕; 罗志敏

    2012-01-01

    采用反胶束法制备CdTe量子点。反胶束体系由CdTe前驱体、AOT(丁二酸二异辛酯磺酸钠)、异辛烷组成;CdTe前驱体在水相中以巯基丙酸为稳定剂、按nCd2+:nHTe-:nMPA=3:1:6、pH=9.8的条件合成。考察了反胶束体系中ω(ω=[水]/[表面活性剂])、表面活性剂浓度对合成CdTe量子点的光学性质的影响。试验表明:当AOT的浓度为0.06g.mL-1时,改变ω能合成不同粒径的CdTe量子点,ω从7增加到13荧光发射光谱位移117.2nm。%Quantum Dots were prepared by using reversed micelle.CdTe precursors was formed in aqueous solution with MPA as stabilizer under the following condition: nCd2+: nHTe-: nMPA=3:1:6,ph=9.8.Reversed Micelle System was formed with AOT,isooctane and CdTe precursors.The impact of ω(ω=/[ surfactant]) and concentration of surfactant on the optical properties of synthesized CdTe quantum dots has been examined.The experiment has found that when the concentration of AOT was 0.06g.mL-1,changing ω can synthesize CdTe quantum dots of different particle diameters;when ω was increased from 7 to 13,fluorescent emission spectra shifted for 117.2nm.

  3. 碲化镉量子点对小鼠肝脏的氧化损伤作用研究%Oxidative damage effects induced by CdTe quantum dots in mice liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广云; 杜庆成; 郑敏; 陈巍; 刘娜; 鲁洋; 黄沛力; 孙志伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate oxidative damage effects induced by CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in mice liver. Methods 40 ICR mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, one control group ( normal saline), four CdTe QDs (exposed by intravenous injection of 0.2ml CdTe QDs at the concentration of 0,0.5,5,50 and 500nmol/ml respectively ). All mice were decapitated 24h after the injection. Concentration of MDA and the activities of SOD, CAT, 8-OHdG expression were examined by immunohistochemistry and hepatocellular apoptosis was measured with TUNEL resperctively. Results The results showed in 500 nmol/ml CdTe QDs group, MDA concentration in the liver tissue were significantly higher than those of control group ( P < 0. 05 ). The activities of SOD in 50 and 500 nmol/ml and CAT in 5 , 50 and 500 nmol/ml CdTe QDs groups were significantly lower than those of control group ( P < 0. 01 ). Positive staining for 8-OHdG appeared in 50 and 500nmol/ml CdTe QDs groups and the apoptosis of liver cells was observed in 500nmol/ml CdTe QDs group by TUNEL technique. Conclusion It was suggested that CdTe QDs at certain doses could induce oxidative damage effects of the mice liver in the condition of this experiment.%目的 探讨碲化镉量子点(CdTe QDs)对小鼠肝脏的氧化损伤作用.方法 将40只雄性ICR小鼠随机分为5组,每组8只,尾静脉注射染毒.染毒浓度分别为0(对照)、0.5、5、50和500nmol/ml CdTe QDs溶液,每只动物注射0.2ml,对照组注射等体积的生理盐水,染毒24h后小鼠脱臼处死.采用生化方法检测肝脏组织匀浆中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性及丙二醛(MDA)含量,免疫组化法观察肝脏细胞8-羟基脱氧鸟嘌呤(8-OHdG)表达水平、TUNEL法检测肝细胞凋亡.结果 500nmol/ml CdTe QDs染毒组MDA含量与对照组比较显著增加(P<0.05);50和500nmol/ml CdTe QDs染毒组SOD活性与对照组比较显著降低(P<0.01);5、50和500nmol/ml CdTe QDs染毒组的CAT活性与

  4. Enhanced electrochemiluminescence of RuSi nanoparticles for ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A by energy transfer with CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingling; Chen, Miaomiao; Zhang, Haiqing; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-05-15

    This paper develops a new approach to enhance the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emission of the Ru(bpy)3(2+)-tripropyl amine (TPrA) system for ultrasensitive determination of ochratoxin A (OTA). Ru(bpy)3(2+)-doped silica nanoparticles (RuSi NPs) act as ECL materials, which are immobilized on the surface of electrode by chitosan to fabricate a solid-state ECL sensor. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) can enhance the ECL emission of the Ru(bpy)3(2+)-TPrA ECL system by energy transfer. This strategy can improve the sensitivity of the sensor. In this assay, we combine the ECL with molecular imprinting technique to improve the selectivity of this sensor. The template molecule could be eluted from the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), and the formed cavities could then selectively recognize the target. The cavities could also work as the tunnel for the transfer of coreactant TPrA to produce responsive signal. With the increase of the concentration of OTA in samples, more cavities were filled because of the rebinding of OTA to the MIP surface, resulting in a gradual decrease in ECL intensity. The results showed that the ECL decrease value depended linearly on the logarithm of the OTA concentration in the range from 1.00×10(-5) to 11.13 ng mL(-1) with lower detection limit of 3.0 fg mL(-1) (S/N=3). This ECL sensor has also been applied to detect OTA concentration in the real samples with satisfied results, and the recoveries range from 85.1% to 107.9%.

  5. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan

    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid-state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...... of quantum dots, however, results in a large inhomogeneous broadening of quantum dot spectra. Work on self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots will be presented. Properties of atom-like single-dot states are investigated optically using high spatial and spectral resolution. Single-dot spectra can be used...

  6. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...... of quantum dots, however, results in a large inhomogeneous broadening of quantum dot spectra.Work on self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots will be presented. Properties of atom-like single-dots states are investigated optically using high spatial and spectral resolution. Single-dot spectra can be used...

  7. Preparation of thermally stable well-dispersed water-soluble CdTe quantum dots in montmorillonite clay host media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan-Cheng

    2012-02-15

    In this work, a method to prepare a thermally stable QDs/clay powder is reported. First, several water soluble CdTe QDs characterised by different size-dependent emission wavelengths were synthesised through wet chemistry. Montmorillonite-Na(+) clay in water was dispersed into a muddy suspension by sonication. Then, the clay-water suspension was used as the host media for CdTe QDs to prepare the QDs/clay powder by freeze drying. The experiments showed that QDs/clay powder could be re-dispersed in water without changing the luminescent property of the QDs; this process was reversible. EDX showed that Cd and Te elements existed in the QDs/clay powder and the XRD tests showed that the clay [001] reflection peaks for raw clay, QDs (λ(em)=514 nm)/clay and QDs (λ(em)=560 nm)/clay were the same, namely 2θ=7.4°. Finally, QDs/clay powder was applied to the HDPE polymer extrusion process at 200 °C to produce thin films; the resultant QDs-polymer nanocomposite film exhibited strong fluorescence.

  8. Glass substrates crosslinked with tetracycline-imprinted polymeric silicate and CdTe quantum dots as fluorescent sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Mu-Rong [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hu, Chiung-Wen [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jian-Lian, E-mail: cjl@mail.cmu.edu.tw [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-21

    A fluorescence-based sensor that combines the merits of quantum dots (QDs) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was first fabricated on a glass substrate via a sol–gel route. Some of the key performance factors, including silane selection, substrate etching, the reaction times of glass silanization and sol–gel polymerization, and the times and methods used for template stripping and loading, were discussed and determined. After fabricating the sensor on either a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) or a 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPS) modified glass substrate, APS showed a much better performance than MPS as both the capping reagent of QDs and the functional monomer of tetracycline-templated MIPs. The APS-QDs on APS-modified glass had a higher imprinted factor (IF = 5.6), a lower LOD (2.1 μM, 3σ), and a more stable signal (2.8%, n = 10 at 70 μM) than those on the MPS-modified glass (IF = 5.2, LOD = 6.5 μM, stability = 6.2%). Furthermore, the recoveries of tetracycline (70 μM) from BSA (133 μg/mL) and FBS (0.66 ppt) by the APS-modified glass were 98% (RSD = 3.5%, n = 5) and 97% (RSD = 5.7%), respectively. For the MPS-modified glass, recoveries of 95% (RSD = 7.2%) and 89% (RSD = 8.7%) were observed at 67 μg/mL of BSA and 0.33 ppt of FBS, respectively. - Highlights: • QD-MIP composites were first built on a glass substrate through a sol–gel route. • Two silanes were evaluated as both a surface modifier and a functional capping monomer. • Fluorescence enhancement by template on glass was different from quenching in solution.

  9. 配体对CdTe量子点与BSA的选择性相互作用的影响%Ligand Effects on Selective Interaction of CdTe Quantum Dots with BSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊珊; 王雪婷; 郭明明; 于俊生

    2012-01-01

    Five water-soluble CdTe quantum dots ( QDs) were synthesized using thioglycolic acid ( TGA) , 3-mercaptopropionic acid( MPA) , l-thioglycerol(TG), L-cysteine(L-cys) and glutathione ( GSH) as stabilizers, respectively. The interaction of CdTe QDs with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Experimental results demonstrated that fluorescence of BSA could be markedly quenched by all these five CdTe QDs in Tris-HCl buffer solution ( pH = 7. 40). The quenching ability of CdTe QDs to BSA is as GSH>Z,-cys>TGA>TG>MPA in the order of ligands. However, when BSA was added into CdTe QDs solution, five CdTe QDs exhibited apparently selective responses to BSA. As the concentration of BSA increased, fluorescence intensity of CdTe QDs capped by TGA and MPA were both significantly enhanced firstly, then declined sharply. Under the same experimental conditions, fluorescence intensity of L-cys-capped CdTe QDs was significantly quenched by BSA, and that of TG-capped CdTe QDs was only slightly quenched by BSA. While almost no change of GSH-capped QDs fluorescence was observed in the presence of BSA. These results indicated that ligand molecular structure of CdTe QDs played an important role in the interaction between BSA and CdTe QDs. Time-resolved luminescence dynamics suggested that the ground state complex of BSA and CdTe QDs could form by electrostatic interaction. Possible interaction mechanism of BSA with CdTe QDs was proposed based on the molecular structure of ligands.%以巯基乙酸(TGA)、巯基丙酸(MPA)、巯基甘油(TG)、L-半胱氨酸(L-cys)和谷胱甘肽(GSH)等5种巯基分子为稳定剂,水相合成了5种C dTe量子点.以牛血清白蛋白(BSA)作为靶分子,通过吸收光谱、荧光光谱和时间分辨荧光动力学等手段研究了各种配体分子稳定的CdTe量子点与BSA的直接相互作用.结果表明,5种量子点均能有效猝灭BSA的荧光,其猝灭程度按配体次序为GSH>L

  10. One-pot aqueous synthesis of gadolinium doped CdTe quantum dots with dual imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunli; Shen, Zhitao; Luo, Chunhua; Lin, Hechun; Huang, Rong; Wang, Yiting; Peng, Hui

    2016-08-01

    A facile one-pot strategy has been developed for the aqueous synthesis of Gd doped CdTe (Gd:CdTe) QDs as fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging dual-modal agent. The prepared Gd:CdTe QDs showed narrow size distribution and the average size was less than 5nm. The amount of Gd(3+) dopant in Gd:CdTe QDs significantly affected the optical properties of obtained QDs. The highest PL QY for the prepared Gd:CdTe QDs was up to 42.5%. The QDs showed the weak toxicity and significant enhancement in MRI signal. The specific relaxivity value (r1) was determined to be 4.22mM(-1)s(-1). These properties make the prepared Gd:CdTe QDs be an effective dual-modal imaging agent and have great potential applications in biomedical field.

  11. The synthesis of newly modified CdTe quantum dots and their application for improvement of latent fingerprint detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Feng; Han Jiaxing; Zhang Jun; Liu Zhiliang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Li Qun; Sun Xiufeng; Zheng Jincheng; Bao Liru; Li Xin, E-mail: cejzhang@imu.edu.cn [Division of Science and Technology, Public Security Department of Inner Mongolia, Hohhot 010051 (China)

    2011-02-18

    Motivated by the urgent demand for the detection of latent fingerprints using fluorescence-based nanotechnology, this work was devoted to developing a simple synthetic approach to obtain positively charged CdTe QDs with enhanced fluorescence and affinity for the improvement of latent fingerprint detection. Through this synthetic method, the positively charged CdTe-COONH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}{sup +} QDs were successfully achieved by using hydrazine hydrate as both the surface stabilizer and pH adjuster during the preparation process. In comparison to the negatively charged CdTe-COO{sup -} QDs prepared by using sodium hydroxide as the pH adjuster, the CdTe-COONH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}{sup +} QDs showed enhanced fluorescence. The effectiveness of CdTe-COO{sup -} and CdTe-COONH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}{sup +} QDs for detection of latent fingerprints present on a large variety of smooth objects was systematically and comparatively studied. The results indicate that the detection of latent fingerprints by using CdTe-COONH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}{sup +} QDs as fluorescent labeling marks was greatly enhanced, and more characteristic finger ridge details were detected and identified due to their enhanced affinity with latent fingerprints, in comparison to the detection by using CdTe-COO{sup -} QDs as fluorescent labeling marks. The CdTe-COONH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}{sup +} QDs show superior detection capability than the CdTe-COO{sup -} QDs, which greatly improves the applicability of CdTe QDs for practical application in latent fingerprint detection.

  12. Synthesis of CdTe quantum dots modified with thiolated chitosan and its application in development of latent fingerprints%巯基化壳聚糖修饰CdTe量子点粉末的潜指纹显现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史云; 段晶; 吕家根

    2016-01-01

    对分子量约为10万的壳聚糖经水解得到的水溶性低分子量壳聚糖,用巯基乙酸对其进行巯基化后为稳定剂,合成了巯基化壳聚糖修饰的CdTe量子点溶液。荧光光谱表征表明,合成的量子点溶液最大发射波长为546 nm;将巯基化壳聚糖修饰的 CdTe QDs溶液经离心、干燥得到量子点粉末。所制备粉末用于“502”熏蒸后玻璃、铝片、铜片上的潜指纹显现及未熏蒸铝片、纸币上的潜指纹显现,均取得高对比度的指纹显现效果。%Water-soluble low molecular weight chitosan was obtained by hydrolyzing chitosan with 100,000 Daltions.The chitosan modified by thioglycolic acid was used as a stabilizer for CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs).Fluorescence emission spectra show that the maximum emission wavelength of the prepared QDs is 546 nm.CdTe QDs powder was prepared by centrifuging the QDs solution and drying the obtained precipitation.The prepared CdTe QDs could develop latent fingerprints on glass, aluminum and copper plates pretreated with α-cyanoacrylate fuming. Addtionally,the latent fingerprints on aluminum plate and paper currency could be directly developed with CdTe QDs in absence ofα-cyanoacrylate fuming.

  13. 荧光碳点与CdTe量子点对毕赤酵母的毒性比较%Comparison of cytotoxicity of fluorescent carbon dots and CdTe quantum dots for pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董微; 王莹; 宋有涛; 徐淑坤; 葛欣

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized with glucose as the carbon source; CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized with mercapto succinic acid (MSA) as the stabilizing agent. Their fluorescent properties were characterized by UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study result illustrated both of them had excellent optical performance. By using Pichia pastoris yeast as an indicator organism, the dependence of yeast's growth with fluorescent CDs and fluorescent QDs at the lag period was also investigated, and Pichia pastoris yeast which cultured for 25 hours using blood corpuscle count plate method was counted. The study result illustrated fluorescent CDs had no influence on the growth of yeast, even the concentration of fluorescent CDs was as high as 14.4 mmol/L, while CdTe QDs showed low cytotoxicity only they were controlled at a very low concentration (5.1 μmol/L). ,.%以葡萄糖为碳源合成荧光碳点;以巯基琥珀酸为稳定剂,合成CdTe量子点.通过紫外吸收光谱和荧光发射光谱对二者的荧光性能进行表征.又以毕赤酵母作为指示生物,考察了延滞期的毕赤酵母分别与荧光碳点和量子点共培养后的生长曲线,并利用血球计数板法对培养至25h的毕赤酵母细胞进行计数.研究结果表明:荧光碳点对毕赤酵母的生长抑制作用不明显,即使在高浓度(14.4 mmol/L)下,也基本不影响毕赤酵母的生长;而CdTe量子点必须控制在很低的浓度(5.1 μmol/L),才表现出低的细胞毒性.

  14. Cytotoxicity assessment of functionalized CdSe, CdTe and InP quantum dots in two human cancer cell models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics & Beijing Key Lab of Aging and Geriatrics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Hu, Rui [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Jianwei [Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics & Beijing Key Lab of Aging and Geriatrics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhang, Butian; Wang, Yucheng [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Xin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Law, Wing-Cheung [Department of Industrial and System Engineering, The Hang Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (Hong Kong); Liu, Liwei [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Ye, Ling, E-mail: lye_301@163.com [Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics & Beijing Key Lab of Aging and Geriatrics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Yong, Ken-Tye, E-mail: ktyong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-12-01

    The toxicity of quantum dots (QDs) has been extensively studied over the past decade. Some common factors that originate the QD toxicity include releasing of heavy metal ions from degraded QDs and the generation of reactive oxygen species on the QD surface. In addition to these factors, we should also carefully examine other potential QD toxicity causes that will play crucial roles in impacting the overall biological system. In this contribution, we have performed cytotoxicity assessment of four types of QD formulations in two different human cancer cell models. The four types of QD formulations, namely, mercaptopropionic acid modified CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs (CdSe-MPA), PEGylated phospholipid encapsulated CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs (CdSe-Phos), PEGylated phospholipid encapsulated InP/ZnS QDs (InP-Phos) and Pluronic F127 encapsulated CdTe/ZnS QDs (CdTe-F127), are representatives for the commonly used QD formulations in biomedical applications. Both the core materials and the surface modifications have been taken into consideration as the key factors for the cytotoxicity assessment. Through side-by-side comparison and careful evaluations, we have found that the toxicity of QDs does not solely depend on a single factor in initiating the toxicity in biological system but rather it depends on a combination of elements from the particle formulations. More importantly, our toxicity assessment shows different cytotoxicity trend for all the prepared formulations tested on gastric adenocarcinoma (BGC-823) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines. We have further proposed that the cellular uptake of these nanocrystals plays an important role in determining the final faith of the toxicity impact of the formulation. The result here suggests that the toxicity of QDs is rather complex and it cannot be generalized under a few assumptions reported previously. We suggest that one have to evaluate the QD toxicity on a case to case basis and this indicates that standard procedures and comprehensive

  15. Visual and fluorescent assays for selective detection of beta-amyloid oligomers based on the inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Zhou, Binbin; Huang, Nanbing; Jiang, Mengsha; Zhang, Jiebing; Liu, Lin

    2016-11-15

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are the major constituents of senile plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Aβ monomers (AβMs) can coalesce to form small, soluble oligomers (AβOs), followed by reorganization and assembly into long, thread-like fibrils (AβFs). Recently, soluble AβOs have been regarded as reliable molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD because of their high toxicity for neuronal synapse and high concentration levels in the brains of AD patients. In this work, we reported a label-free, sensitive and selective method for visual and fluorescent detection of AβOs based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs). Specifically, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was quenched significantly by AuNPs through the IFE. PrP(95-110), an AβOs-specific binding peptide from cellular prion protein, triggered the aggregation and color change of AuNPs suspension; thus, the IFE of AuNPs on the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was weakened and the fluorescence intensity was recovered. However, in the presence of AβOs, the specific interaction of AβOs and PrP(95-110) prevented the absorption of PrP(95-110) onto the surface of AuNPs. As a result, the aggregation of AuNPs was inhibited and the fluorescence intensity of CdTe QDs was quenched again. This label-free method is specific for detection of AβOs but not for AβMs and AβFs. The detection limits were found to be 0.5nM for the visual assay and 0.2nM for the fluorescent detection. We believe that this work would be valuable for many investigations related to AD diagnosis and drug discovery.

  16. Efficient energy transfer from inserted CdTe quantum dots to YVO₄:Eu³⁺ inverse opals: a novel strategy to improve and expand visible excitation of rare earth ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongsheng; Cui, Shaobo; Chen, Xu; Xu, Wen; Zhou, Pingwei; Wang, Yunfeng; Xu, Lin; Song, Hongwei; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei

    2014-07-21

    Rare earth (RE)-based phosphors demonstrate sharp emission lines, long lifetimes and high luminescence quantum yields; thus, they have been employed in various photoelectric devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar spectral converters. However, their applications are largely confined by their narrow excitation bands and small absorption cross sections of 4f-4f transitions. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel strategy to improve and expand the visible excitation bands of Eu(3+) ions through the interface energy transfer (ET) from CdTe quantum dots (QDs) to YVO₄:Eu(3+) inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs). The significant effects observed in the CdTe QDs/YVO₄:Eu(3+) IOPCs composites were that the excitation of Eu(3+) ions was continuously extended from 450 to 590 nm and that the emission intensity of the (5)D₀-(7)FJ transitions was enhanced ∼20-fold, corresponding to the intrinsic (7)F₁-(5)D₁ excitation at 538 nm. Furthermore, in the IOPC network, the ET efficiency from the QDs to YVO₄:Eu(3+) was greatly improved because of the suppression of energy migration among the CdTe QDs, which gave an optimum ET efficiency as high as 47%. Besides, the modulation of photonic stop bands (PSBs) on the radiative transition rates of the QDs and Eu(3+) ions was studied, which showed that the decay lifetime constants for Eu(3+) ions were independent of PSBs, while those of QDs demonstrated a suppression in the PSBs. Their physical nature was explained theoretically.

  17. Amplified solid-state electrochemiluminescence detection of cholesterol in near-infrared range based on CdTe quantum dots decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes@reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Juan; Liu, Qian; Fei, Airong; Qian, Jing; Dong, Xiaoya; Qiu, Baijing; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-15

    An amplified solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detection of cholesterol in near-infrared (NIR) range was constructed based on CdTe quantum dots (QDs) decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes@reduced graphene nanoribbons (CdTe-MWCNTs@rGONRs), which were prepared by electrostatic interactions. The CdTe QDs decorated on the MWCNTs@rGONRs resulted in the amplified ECL intensity by ~4.5 fold and decreased onset potential by ~100 mV. By immobilization of the cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and NIR CdTe-MWCNTs@rGONRs on the electrode surface, a solid-state ECL biosensor for cholesterol detection was constructed. When cholesterol was added to the detection solution, the immobilized ChOx catalyzed the oxidation of cholesterol to generate H2O2, which could be used as the co-reactant in the ECL system of CdTe-MWCNTs@rGONRs. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited good performance for cholesterol detection including good reproducibility, selectivity, and acceptable linear range from 1 μM to 1mM with a relative low detection limit of 0.33 μM (S/N=3). The biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of cholesterol in biological fluid and food sample, which would open a new possibility for development of solid-state ECL biosensors with NIR emitters.

  18. Macromolecular Systems with MSA-Capped CdTe and CdTe/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots as Superselective and Ultrasensitive Optical Sensors for Picric Acid Explosive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Priyanka; Saikia, Dilip; Adhikary, Nirab Chandra; Sarma, Neelotpal Sen

    2015-11-11

    This work reports the development of highly fluorescent materials for the selective and efficient detection of picric acid explosive in the nanomolar range by fluorescence quenching phenomenon. Poly(vinyl alcohol) grafted polyaniline (PPA) and its nanocomposites with 2-mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (PPA-Q) and with MSA-capped CdTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (PPA-CSQ) are synthesized in a single step free radical polymerization reaction. The thermal stability and photo stability of the polymer increases in the order of PPA < PPA-Q < PPA-CSQ. The polymers show remarkably high selectivity and efficient sensitivity toward picric acid, and the quenching efficiency for PPA-CSQ reaches up to 99%. The detection limits of PPA, PPA-Q, and PPA-CSQ for picric acid are found to be 23, 1.6, and 0.65 nM, respectively, which are remarkably low. The mechanism operating in the quenching phenomenon is proposed to be a combination of a strong inner filter effect and ground state electrostatic interaction between the polymers and picric acid. A portable and cost-effective electronic device for the visual detection of picric acid by the sensory system is successfully fabricated. The device is further employed for quantitative detection of picric acid in real water samples.

  19. Quantum Dots: Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  20. Determination of trace amounts of silver in oxaliplatin by fluorescence quenching of CdTe quantum dots%CdTe量子点荧光猝灭法测定奥沙利铂中微量银

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董微; 徐淑坤; 王莹

    2012-01-01

    以谷胱甘肽作为稳定剂,100℃恒温回流,直接合成水溶性CdTe量子点.基于Ag+对合成的CdTe量子点的荧光猝灭效应,建立了测定抗癌药物奥沙利铂中微量银的方法.考察了量子点浓度、缓冲液种类、缓冲液浓度、缓冲液pH和反应时间对银离子测定的影响.当量子点浓度为0.004g/L时,在0.10mmol/LpH7.4的磷酸缓冲溶液中,反应时间为5min,体系的相对荧光强度与Ag+的质量浓度呈良好的线性关系,其线性范围为16.42~98.50μg/L,线性相关系数为0.9975,检出限为0.12μg/L.%Water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by means of L-glutathione (GSH) as a modifying agent in an aqueous solution at 100 ℃. Based on the quenching of the fluorescence intensity of CdTe QDs by Ag(I) , a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of trace amounts of silver in anti-cancer drug oxaliplatin was developed. In the study, the effects of experimental conditions, including concentration of CdTe QDs, the type, concentration and pH of buffer, and reacting time on the determination of Ag (I) were investigated in detail. When the concentration of QDs was 0.004 g/L in the phosphate buffer at pH 7. 4, the fluorescence quenching intensity of the CdTe QDs was linear with Ag (I) mass concentration in the range of 16. 42 ~ 98. 50 μg/L, with a linear correlation coefficient of 0. 9975. The limit of detection (3( ) was 0. 12 μ.g/L.

  1. Folic acid-CdTe quantum dot conjugates and their applications for cancer cell targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriamoorthy, Preethi; Zhang, Xing; Hao, Guiyang; Joly, Alan G.; Singh, S.; Hossu, Marius; Sun, Xiankai; Chen, Wei

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we report the preparation,luminescence, and targeting properties of folic acid- CdTe quantum dot conjugates. Water-soluble CdTe quantum dots were synthesized and conjugated with folic acid using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide-N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The in-fluence of folic acid on the luminescence properties of CdTe quantum dots was investigated, and no energy transfer between them was observed. To investigate the efficiency of folic acid-CdTe nanoconjugates for tumor targeting, pure CdTe quantum dots and folic acid-coated CdTe quantum dots were incubated with human naso- pharyngeal epidermal carcinoma cell line with positive expressing folic acid receptors (KB cells) and lung cancer cells without expression of folic acid receptors (A549 cells). For the cancer cells with positive folate receptors (KB cells), the uptake for CdTe quantum dots is very low, but for folic acid-CdTe nanoconjugates, the uptake is very high. For the lung cancer cells without folate receptors (A549 cells), the uptake for folic acid- CdTe nanoconjugates is also very low. The results indicate that folic acid is an effective targeting molecule for tumor cells with overexpressed folate receptors.

  2. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  3. Enhanced photoelectrochemical strategy for ultrasensitive DNA detection based on two different sizes of CdTe quantum dots cosensitized TiO2/CdS:Mn hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Gao-Chao; Han, Li; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2014-11-04

    A TiO2/CdS:Mn hybrid structure cosensitized with two different sizes of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) was designed to develop a novel and ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical DNA assay. In this protocol, TiO2/CdS:Mn hybrid structure was prepared by successive adsorption and reaction of Cd(2+)/Mn(2+) and S(2-) ions on the surface of TiO2 film and then was employed as matrix for immobilization of hairpin DNA probe, whereas large-sized CdTe-COOH QDs and small-sized CdTe-NH2 QDs as signal amplification elements were successively labeled on the terminal of hairpin DNA probe. The target DNA detection was based upon the photocurrent change originated from conformation change of the hairpin DNA probe after hybridization with target DNA. In the absence of target DNA, the immobilized DNA probe was in the hairpin form and the anchored different sizes of CdTe-COOH and CdTe-NH2 QDs were close to the TiO2/CdS:Mn electrode surface, which led to a very strong photocurrent intensity because of the formation of the cosensitized structure. However, in the presence of target DNA, the hairpin DNA probe hybridized with target DNA and changed into a more rigid, rodlike double helix, which forced the multianchored CdTe QDs away from the TiO2/CdS:Mn electrode surface, resulting in significantly decreased photocurrent intensity because of the vanished cosensitization effect. By using this cosensitization signal amplification strategy, the proposed DNA assay could offer an ultrasensitive and specific detection of DNA down to 27 aM, and it opened up a new promising platform to detect various DNA targets at ultralow levels for early diagnoses of different diseases.

  4. Graphene quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Güçlü, Alev Devrim; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the current status of theoretical and experimental research of graphene based nanostructures, in particular quantum dots, at a level accessible to young researchers, graduate students, experimentalists and theorists. It presents the current state of research of graphene quantum dots, a single or few monolayer thick islands of graphene. It introduces the reader to the electronic and optical properties of graphite, intercalated graphite and graphene, including Dirac fermions, Berry's phase associated with sublattices and valley degeneracy, covers single particle properties of

  5. Quantum Dots Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Stan; Williams, Phillip; Burke, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide are presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dot application technique are discussed.

  6. Quantum dots microstructured optical fiber for x-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, S. L.; Williams, P. A.; Burke, E. R.

    2016-02-01

    A novel concept for the detection of x-rays with microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide is presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dots application technique are discussed.

  7. 多壁碳纳米管上原位生长CdTe量子点及与牛血清蛋白的偶联%In Situ Grown CdTe Quantum Dots on MWCNTs and Its Coupling with BSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉华; 李佑稽; 晏学万; 杨钊; 张俊生

    2012-01-01

    以巯基乙酸为稳定剂在水溶液中使Cd2+与NaTeH在多壁碳纳米管(MWCNTs)上原位生长CdTe量子点(QDs),并与生物分子牛血清蛋白(BSA)偶联.通过电镜、荧光、紫外、傅立叶红外等技术,对量子点-碳纳米管异质结(CdTe-MWCNTs)及异质结-牛血清蛋白复合物(CdTe-MWCNTs-BSA)进行表征.结果表明,活化的碳纳米管有微弱荧光,CdTe-MWCNTs异质结及CdTe-MWCNTs-BSA复合物均具有荧光性质,在碳纳米管壁上的CdTe量子点直径大约5nm,它们具有不同的红外光谱特征.%The CdTe quantum dots grew in situ on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with thioglycollic acid as the stabilizer, Cd2+ and NaTeH as reactant in aqueous solution. The as prepared CdTe-MWCNTs quantum dots-MWCNTs heterojunctions could couple with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Both CdTe-MWCNTs and CdTe-MWCNTs-BSA were characterized by TEM, fluorescence spec- trum,UV and FT-IR measurements. The fluorescence analysis showed that functionalized MWCNTs had weak fluorescence, both CdTe-MWCNTs heterojunctions and CdTe-MWCNTs-BSA multiplex exhibited fluorescence absorption. The TEM results revealed that the diameter of CdTe quantum dots was about 5 nm. The FT-IR spectra indicated that the CdTe quantum dots grew on the functionalized MWCNTs and coupled with BSA.

  8. Characterization of the interaction of a mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin-capped CdTe quantum dots-methylene blue/methylene green system with herring sperm DNA using a spectroscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yizhong; Liu, Shaopu; Wang, Lei; Yin, Pengfei; He, Youqiu

    2014-11-01

    Novel, water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and ~ 4.0 nm in diameter were synthesized in aqueous solution, and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A fluorescence-sensing system based on the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs was then designed to measure the interaction of phenothiazine dyes [methylene blue (MB) and methylene green (MG)] with herring sperm DNA (hsDNA). This fluorescence-sensing system was based on a fluorescence "OFF-ON" mode. First, MB/MG adsorbed on the surface of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs effectively quenches the fluorescence of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs through PET. Then, addition of hsDNA restores the fluorescence intensity of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs, because hsDNA can bind with MB/MG and remove it from the as-prepared (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs. In addition, detailed reaction mechanisms of the (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs-MB/MG-hsDNA solution system were studied using optical methods, by comparison with the TGA-CdTe QDs-MB/MG-hsDNA solution system.

  9. Enhancing reactive species generation upon photo-activation of CdTe quantum dots for the chemiluminometric determination of unreacted reagent in UV/S2O8(2-) drug degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Rodolfo M M; Oliveira, Thaís D; Rodrigues, S Sofia M; Frigerio, Christian; Santos, João L M; Korn, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    A new chemiluminescence (CL) flow method for persulfate determination was developed based on luminol oxidation by in-line generated radicals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by CdTe quantum dots (QDs) under a low energetic radiation (visible light emitted by LEDs) promoted the decomposition of persulfate ion (S2O8(2-)) into sulfate radical (SO4(∙-)), leading to subsequent radical chain reactions that yield the emission of light. Due to the inherent radical short lifetimes and the transient behavior of CL phenomena an automated multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) was proposed to improve sample manipulation and reaction zone implementation ensuring reproducible analysis time and high sampling rate. The developed approach allowed up to 60 determinations per hour and determine S2O8(2-) concentrations between 0.1 and 1 mmol with good linearity (R=0.9999). The method has shown good repeatability with relative standard deviations below 2.5% (n=3) for different persulfate concentrations (0.1 and 0.625 mmol L(-1)). Limits of detection (3σ) and quantification (10σ) were 2.7 and 9.1 µmol L(-1), respectively. The MPFS system was applied to persulfate determination in bench scale UV/S2O8(2-) drug degradation processes of model samples showing good versatility and providing real time information on the persulfate consumption in photo-chemical degradation methodologies.

  10. Cu²⁺ functionalized N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots as a novel resonance Rayleigh scattering probe for the recognition of phenylalanine enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jidong; Tan, Xuanping; Zhang, Xiaoning; Yang, Qiong; Shen, Yizhong

    2015-01-01

    A simple protocol that can be used to simultaneously determinate enantiomers is extremely intriguing and useful. In this study, we proposed a low-cost, facile, sensitive method for simultaneous determination. The molecular recognition of Cu(2+) functionalized N-acetyl-l-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots (Cu(2+)-NALC/CdTe QDs) with phenylalanine (PA) enantiomers was investigated based on the resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectral technique. The RRS intensity of NALC/CdTe QDs is very weak, but Cu(2+) functionalized NALC/CdTe QDs have extremely high RRS intensity, the most important observations are that PA could quench the RRS intensity of Cu(2+)-NALC/CdTe QDs, and that l-PA and d-PA have different degree of influence. In addition, those experimental factors such as acidity, concentration of Cu(2+) and reaction time were investigated in regards to their effects on enantioselective interaction. Finally, the applicability of the chiral recognized sensor for the analysis of chiral mixtures on enantiomers has been demonstrated, and the results that were obtained high precision (<4.63%) and low error (<3.06%).

  11. Singlet oxygen generation from water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lixin; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias

    2006-05-17

    Water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites have been prepared via electrostatic interaction. We used CdTe quantum dots with diameters up to 3.4 nm, 2-aminoethanethiol as a stabilizer, and meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine dihydrochloride (TSPP) as an organic dye. The photophysical properties of the nanocomposite have been investigated. The fluorescence of the parent CdTe quantum dot is largely suppressed. Instead, indirect excitation of the TSPP moiety leads to production of singlet oxygen with a quantum yield of 0.43. The nanocomposite is sufficiently photostable for biological applications.

  12. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  13. Highly Luminescent Hybrid SiO2-Coated CdTe Quantum Dots Retained Initial Photoluminescence Efficiency in Sol-Gel SiO2 Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongsheng; Xing, Yugui; Wu, Qinan; Yang, Ping

    2015-02-01

    A highly luminescent silica film was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) through a controlled sol-gel reaction. The pre-hydrolysis of TEOS and APS which resulted in the mixture of TEOS and APS in a molecular level is a key for the formation of homogenous films. The aminopropyl groups in APS play an important role for obtaining homogeneous film with high photoluminescence (PL). Red-emitting hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe nano-crystals (NCs) were fabricated by a two-step synthesis including a thin SiO2 coating via a sol-gel process and a subsequent refluxing using green-emitting CdTe NCs. The hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe NCs were embedded in a functional SiO2 film via a two-step process including adding the NCs in SiO2 sol with a high viscosity and almost without ethanol and a subsequent spinning coating. The hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe NCs retained their initial PL efficiency (54%) in the film. Being encapsulated with the hybrid NCs in the film, no change on the absorption and PL spectra of red-emitting CdTe NCs (632 nm) was observed. This indicates the hybrid NCs is stable enough during preparation. This phenomenon is ascribed to the controlled sol-gel process and a hybrid SiO2 shell on CdTe NCs. Because these films exhibited high PL efficiency and stability, they will be utilizable for potential applications in many fields.

  14. Hexagonal graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, S.

    2016-12-05

    We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.

  15. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  16. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  17. Dissipative tunneling in structures with quantum dots and quantum molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Dahnovsky, Yu. I.; Krevchik, V. D.; Semenov, M. B.; Yamamoto, K.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.; Aringazin, A. K.; Kudryashov, E. I.; Mayorov, V. G.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of tunneling control in systems "quantum dot - quantum well" (as well as "quantum dot - quantum dot" or quantum molecule) and "quantum dot - bulk contact" is studied as a quantum tunneling with dissipation process in the semiclassical (instanton) approximation. For these systems temperature and correlation between a quantum dot radius and a quantum well width (or another quantum dot radius) are considered to be control parameters. The condition for a single electron blockade is fo...

  18. Cytotoxicity assessment of functionalized CdSe, CdTe and InP quantum dots in two human cancer cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hu, Rui; Liu, Jianwei; Zhang, Butian; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Xin; Law, Wing-Cheung; Liu, Liwei; Ye, Ling; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2015-12-01

    The toxicity of quantum dots (QDs) has been extensively studied over the past decade. Some common factors that originate the QD toxicity include releasing of heavy metal ions from degraded QDs and the generation of reactive oxygen species on the QD surface. In addition to these factors, we should also carefully examine other potential QD toxicity causes that will play crucial roles in impacting the overall biological system. In this contribution, we have performed cytotoxicity assessment of four types of QD formulations in two different human cancer cell models. The four types of QD formulations, namely, mercaptopropionic acid modified CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs (CdSe-MPA), PEGylated phospholipid encapsulated CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs (CdSe-Phos), PEGylated phospholipid encapsulated InP/ZnS QDs (InP-Phos) and Pluronic F127 encapsulated CdTe/ZnS QDs (CdTe-F127), are representatives for the commonly used QD formulations in biomedical applications. Both the core materials and the surface modifications have been taken into consideration as the key factors for the cytotoxicity assessment. Through side-by-side comparison and careful evaluations, we have found that the toxicity of QDs does not solely depend on a single factor in initiating the toxicity in biological system but rather it depends on a combination of elements from the particle formulations. More importantly, our toxicity assessment shows different cytotoxicity trend for all the prepared formulations tested on gastric adenocarcinoma (BGC-823) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines. We have further proposed that the cellular uptake of these nanocrystals plays an important role in determining the final faith of the toxicity impact of the formulation. The result here suggests that the toxicity of QDs is rather complex and it cannot be generalized under a few assumptions reported previously. We suggest that one have to evaluate the QD toxicity on a case to case basis and this indicates that standard procedures and comprehensive

  19. CdTe量子点-铜酞菁复合体系荧光共振能量转移的研究∗%Fluorescence resonance energy transfer b etween CdTe quantum dots and copp er phthalo cyanine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志聪; 李芳; 李牧野; 魏来

    2015-01-01

    The fluorescence resonance energy transfer in CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is inves-tigated by ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy technique equipped with femtosecond laser (780 nm, 76 MHz, 130 fs). The results show that the fluorescence lifetime of CdTe QDs decreases with the increase of CuPc concentration, and the energy transfer efficiency is found to increase with the increase of CuPc concentration. Moreover, the influence of the laser excitation power on the energy transfer efficiency is also studied. It is found that transfer efficiency decreases as excitation laser power increases, the physical mechanism is the thermal activation in the high power and the excited state transitions of high order induced by two-photon. The energy transfer efficiency can reach 43.8%, when the laser power is 200 mW, via two-photon excitation. This study indicates that the CdTe QDs-CuPc composite system has high potential as the third generation of photosensitizers.%以波长为780 nm、重复频率为76 MHz、脉宽为130 fs的飞秒激光作为激发光源,采用超快时间分辨光谱技术研究了CdTe量子点-铜酞菁复合体系的荧光共振能量转移.实验结果表明,在780 nm的双光子激发条件下,复合体系中CdTe量子点的荧光寿命随着铜酞菁溶液浓度的增加而减少,荧光共振能量转移效率增加.同时也研究了激发功率对荧光共振能量转移效率的影响.结果表明,随着激发光功率的增加,复合体系溶液中CdTe量子点的荧光寿命增加,荧光共振能量转移效率减小,其物理机理是因为高激发功率下的热效应和由双光子诱导的高阶激发态的跃迁.当激发光功率为200 mW时,双光子荧光共振能量转移效率为43.8%.研究表明CdTe量子点-铜酞菁复合体系是非常有潜力的第三代光敏剂.

  20. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  1. Study of metallothionein-quantum dots interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tmejova, Katerina; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Krizkova, Sona; Blazkova, Iva; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles have gained increasing interest in medical and in vivo applications. Metallothionein (MT) is well known as a maintainer of metal ions balance in intracellular space. This is due to high affinity of this protein to any reactive species including metals and reactive oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to determine the metallothionein-quantum dots interactions that were investigated by spectral and electrochemical techniques. CuS, CdS, PbS, and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were analysed. The highest intensity was shown for CdTe, than for CdS measured by fluorescence. These results were supported by statistical analysis and considered as significant. Further, these interactions were analysed using gel electrophoresis, where MT aggregates forming after interactions with QDs were detected. Using differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction, QDs and MT were studied. This method allowed us to confirm spectral results and, moreover, to observe the changes in MT structure causing new voltammetric peaks called X and Y, which enhanced with the prolonged time of interaction up to 6 h.

  2. Single quantum dot nanowire photodetectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kouwen, M.P.; Van Weert, M.H.M.; Reimer, M.E.; Akopian, N.; Perinetti, U.; Algra, R.E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Zwiller, V.

    2010-01-01

    We report InP nanowire photodetectors with a single InAsP quantum dot as light absorbing element. With excitation above the InP band gap, the nanowire photodetectors are efficient (quantum efficiency of 4%). Under resonant excitation of the quantum dot, the photocurrent amplitude depends on the line

  3. Quantum dot nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Henini

    2002-06-01

    These sophisticated technologies for the growth of high quality epitaxial layers of compound semiconductor materials on single crystal semiconductor substrates are becoming increasingly important for the development of the semiconductor electronics industry. This article is intended to convey the flavor of the subject by focusing on the technology and applications of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs and to give an introduction to some of the essential characteristics.

  4. Study of the interaction of flavonoids with 3-mercaptopropionic acid modified CdTe quantum dots mediated by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucelio, Ricardo Q.; Carvalho, Juliana M.; Real, Juliana T.; Maqueira-Espinosa, Luis; Pérez-Gramatges, Aurora; da Silva, Andrea R.

    2017-02-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenols that help the maintenance of health, aiding the prevention of diseases. In this work, CdTe QDs coated with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3MPA), with an average size of 2.7 nm, were used as photoluminescence probe for flavonoids in different conditions. The interaction between 14 flavonoids and QDs was evaluated in aqueous dispersions in the absence and in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). To establish a relationship between photoluminescence quenching and the concentration of flavonoids, the Stern-Volmer model was used. In the absence of CTAB, the linear ranges for quercetin, morin and rutin were from 5.0 × 10- 6 mol L- 1 to 6.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 and from 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 to 6.0 × 10- 4 mol L- 1 for kaempferol. The sensibility of the Stern-Volmer curves (Ks) indicated that quercetin interacts more strongly with the probe: Ks quercetin > Ks kaempferol > Ks rutin > Ks morin. The conjugation extension in the 3 rings, and the acidic hydroxyl groups (positions 3ʹand 4ʹ) in the B-ring enhanced the interaction with 3MPA-CdTe QDs. The other flavonoids do not interact with the probe at 10- 5 mol L- 1 level. In CTAB organized dispersions, Ks 3-hydroxyflavone > Ks 7-hydroxyflavone > Ks flavona > Ks rutin in the range from 1.0 × 10- 6 mol L- 1 to 1.2 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 for flavones and of 1.0 × 10- 6 mol L- 1 to 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 for rutin. Dynamic light scattering, conductometric measurements and microenvironment polarity studies were employed to elucidate the QDs-flavonoids interaction in systems containing CTAB. The quenching can be attributed to the preferential solubility of hydrophobic flavonoid in the palisade layer of the CTAB aggregates adsorbed on the surface of the 3MPA CdTe QDs.

  5. Electron correlations in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, D L J

    2001-01-01

    Quantum dot structures confine electrons in a small region of space. Some properties of semiconductor quantum dots, such as the discrete energy levels and shell filling effects visible in addition spectra, have analogies to those of atoms and indeed dots are sometimes referred to as 'artificial atoms'. However, atoms and dots show some fundamental differences due to electron correlations. For real atoms, the kinetic energy of electrons dominates over their mutual Coulomb repulsion energy and for this reason the independent electron approximation works well. For quantum dots the confining potential may be shallower than that of real atoms leading to lower electron densities and a dominance of mutual Coulomb repulsion over kinetic energy. In this strongly correlated regime the independent electron picture leads to qualitatively incorrect results. This thesis concentrates on few-electron quantum dots in the strongly correlated regime both for quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional dots in a square confining p...

  6. Photostable epoxy polymerized carbon quantum dots luminescent thin films and the performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang; Du, Lei; Liu, Cui; Li, Yunchuan; Yang, ZhenZhen; Cao, Yuan-Cheng

    High photostable epoxy polymerized carbon quantum dots (C-dots) luminescent thin films were prepared and their performances were compared with the CdTe quantum dots (QDs). First, water soluble C-dots (λem = 543.60 nm) were synthesized. Poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG) and diaminooctane were used as the polymer matrix to make the epoxy resin films. FT-IR spectra showed that there were vibration at 3448 cm-1 and 1644 cm-1 which contributed to -OH and -NH respectively. SEM observations showed that the polymerizations of the films were uniform and there were no structure defects. Mechanical tests showed the tensile modulus of C-dots composite films were 4.6, 4.9, 6.4 and 7.8 MPa respectively with corresponding 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% mass fraction of C-dots, while the tensile modulus of CdTe QDs films were 4.6 MPa under the same mass fraction of CdTe QDs. Compared with semiconductor QDs, the decay of quantum yield were 5% and 10% for the C-dots and CdTe QDs, respectively. The pictures in the continuous irradiation of 48 h showed that the C-dots film was more photostable. This study provides much helpful and profound towards the fluorescent enhancement films in the field of flexible displays.

  7. Improved performance of silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots/organic hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Zhaoyun [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, Jiangsu Province (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Renqi; Xue, Zhaoguo; Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Jun; Yu, Yao; Su, Weining; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We introduce an intermediate cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) layer between the organic with silicon nanowires of hybrid solar cells as a down-shifting layer. • The hybrid solar cell got the maximum short circuit current density of 33.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, getting an increase of 15.1% comparing to solar cell without CdTe QDs. • The PCE of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layer increases 28.8%. - Abstract: We fabricated silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs)/organic hybrid solar cells and investigated their structure and electrical properties. Transmission electron microscope revealed that CdTe QDs were uniformly distributed on the surface of the silicon nanowires, which made PEDOT:PSS easily filled the space between SiNWs. The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics of hybrid solar cells were investigated both in dark and under illumination. The result shows that the performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layer has an obvious improvement. The optimal short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of solar cells with CdTe QDs layer can reach 33.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Compared with the solar cells without CdTe QDs, J{sub sc} has an increase of 15.1%. Power conversion efficiency of solar cells also increases by 28.8%. The enhanced performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layers are ascribed to down-shifting effect of CdTe QDs and the modification of the silicon nanowires surface with CdTe QDs. The result of our experiments suggests that hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs modified are promising candidates for solar cell application.

  8. Quadra-Quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules: Basic Nanostructures for Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  9. Quantum dots: Rethinking the electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Dimple

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the Quantum dots are quite interesting for the electronics industry. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale crystals, which have unique photo physical, quantum electrical properties, size-dependent optical properties, There small size means that electrons do not have to travel as far as with larger particles, thus electronic devices can operate faster. Cheaper than modern commercial solar cells while making use of a wider variety of photon energies, including "waste heat" from the sun's energy. Quantum dots can be used in tandem cells, which are multi junction photovoltaic cells or in the intermediate band setup. PbSe (lead selenide) is commonly used in quantum dot solar cells.

  10. Hydrophobin-Encapsulated Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shohei; Sandiford, Lydia; Cooper, Maggie; Rosca, Elena V; Ahmad Khanbeigi, Raha; Fairclough, Simon M; Thanou, Maya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Wohlleben, Wendel; von Vacano, Bernhard; de Rosales, Rafael T M; Dobson, Peter J; Owen, Dylan M; Green, Mark

    2016-02-01

    The phase transfer of quantum dots to water is an important aspect of preparing nanomaterials that are suitable for biological applications, and although numerous reports describe ligand exchange, very few describe efficient ligand encapsulation techniques. In this report, we not only report a new method of phase transferring quantum dots (QDs) using an amphiphilic protein (hydrophobin) but also describe the advantages of using a biological molecule with available functional groups and their use in imaging cancer cells in vivo and other imaging applications.

  11. Quantum Dots in Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, Margarida M.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that have broad excitation spectra, narrow emission spectra, tunable emission peaks, long fluorescence lifetimes, negligible photobleaching, and ability to be conjugated to proteins, making them excellent probes for bioimaging applications. Here the author reviews the advantages and disadvantages of using quantum dots in bioimaging applications, such as single-particle tracking and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, to study receptor-mediated t...

  12. Quantum dots in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Margarida M

    2011-03-01

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that have broad excitation spectra, narrow emission spectra, tunable emission peaks, long fluorescence lifetimes, negligible photobleaching, and ability to be conjugated to proteins, making them excellent probes for bioimaging applications. Here the author reviews the advantages and disadvantages of using quantum dots in bioimaging applications, such as single-particle tracking and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, to study receptor-mediated transport.

  13. An NMR quantum computer of the semiconductor CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T.; Goto, A.; Hashi, K.; Ohki, S.

    2002-12-01

    We propose a method to implement a quantum computer by solid-state NMR. We can use the J-coupling for the quantum gate in CdTe. Both Cd and Te have two isotopes with spin 1/2, then we can have 4-qubits. The decoherence by dipole interaction may be minimized by preparing the isotope superlattice grown in the order of— 111Cd- 123Te- 113Cd- 125Te—in the [111] direction and by applying the magnetic field in the direction of [100], the magic angle of the dipole interaction. The optical pumping technique can be used in CdTe to make the initialization of the qubits.

  14. Optically active quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  15. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-23

    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials.

  16. Mesoscopic Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics with Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, L I; Lukin, M D

    2003-01-01

    We describe an electrodynamic mechanism for coherent, quantum mechanical coupling between spacially separated quantum dots on a microchip. The technique is based on capacitive interactions between the electron charge and a superconducting transmission line resonator, and is closely related to atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics. We investigate several potential applications of this technique which have varying degrees of complexity. In particular, we demonstrate that this mechanism allows design and investigation of an on-chip double-dot microscopic maser. Moreover, the interaction may be extended to couple spatially separated electron spin states while only virtually populating fast-decaying superpositions of charge states. This represents an effective, controllable long-range interaction, which may facilitate implementation of quantum information processing with electron spin qubits and potentially allow coupling to other quantum systems such as atomic or superconducting qubits.

  17. Quantum-dot emitters in photonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous emission from self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots is strongly influenced by the environment in which they are placed. This can be used to determine fundamental optical properties of the quantum dots as well as to manipulate and control the quantum-dot emission itself....

  18. Beer's law in semiconductor quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Adamashvili, G T

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of a coherent optical linear wave in an ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots is considered. It is shown that a distribution of transition dipole moments of the quantum dots changes significantly the polarization and Beer's absorption length of the ensemble of quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for these quantities are presented.

  19. Nanoscale quantum-dot supercrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2013-09-01

    We develop a theory allowing one to calculate the energy spectra and wave functions of collective excitations in twoand three-dimensional quantum-dot supercrystals. We derive analytical expressions for the energy spectra of twodimensional supercrystals with different Bravias lattices, and use them to analyze the possibility of engineering the supercrystals' band structure. We demonstrate that the variation of the supercrystal's parameters (such as the symmetry of the periodic lattice and the properties of the quantum dots or their environment) enables an unprecedented control over its optical properties, thus paving a way towards the development of new nanophotonics materials.

  20. Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Dominik

    2009-10-15

    This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T{sub 1}=20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T{sub 1}{proportional_to}B{sup -5} has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T{sub 1}{proportional_to}T{sup -1}. The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T{sub 1}{sup h

  1. Polymer-coated quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, Nikodem; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Julius G.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of addit

  2. Nuclear Spins in Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erlingsson, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis is the hyperfine interaction between the many lattice nuclear spins and electron spins localized in GaAs quantum dots. This interaction is an intrinsic property of the material. Despite the fact that this interaction is rather weak, it can, as shown in this thesis, stro

  3. Enhancement and quenching of photoluminescence from Au nanoparticles and CdTe quantum dot comp osite system%Au纳米颗粒和CdTe量子点复合体系发光增强和猝灭效应∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小东; 张少锋; 周思华

    2015-01-01

    利用金属蒸发真空多弧离子源注入机,将Au离子注入到高纯石英玻璃来制备镶嵌有Au 纳米颗粒的衬底材料,随后将化学方法合成的CdTe量子点旋涂在玻璃衬底上制备了Au纳米颗粒和CdTe量子点复合体系。通过对镶嵌有Au纳米颗粒的衬底进行热退火处理来控制Au纳米颗粒的生长和分布,系统研究了Au纳米颗粒的局域表面等离子体共振对CdTe量子点光致发光性能的影响。利用光学吸收谱、原子力显微镜、透射电子显微镜和光致发光谱对样品进行了表征和测试。光致发光谱表明, Au纳米颗粒的局域表面等离子体对CdTe量子点的发光有增强效应也有猝灭效应。深入分析了Au纳米颗粒和CdTe量子点之间的相互作用过程,提出了关于Au-CdTe 纳米复合体系中CdTe 发光增强和猝灭的新机理。该实验结果为利用金属纳米颗粒表面等离子体技术制备高发光性能的光电子器件提供了较好的参考。%New composite systems consisting of Au nanoparticles (NPs) and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) are fabricated by spin coating chemically synthesizing CdTe QDs on silica substrates which have already been implanted by Ag ions through using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source implanter. By thermally annealing the Au ions implanted silica substrates, the growth and redistribution of Au NPs can be controlled, the influence of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of Au NPs on the photoluminescence (PL) of CdTe QDs is well studied. The optical properties, surface morphologies, microstructures, and light emission properties of the Au-ion implanted samples are investigated by using optical ab-sorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and PL spectra measurements. PL spectra show that the PL intensities from Au NPs and CdTe QDs composite systems can be enhanced or quenched compared with those of CdTe QDs directly spin coated on bare silica

  4. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...

  5. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  6. Colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichkin, S. B.; Razumov, V. F.

    2016-12-01

    Key recent results obtained in studies of a new class of luminophores, colloidal quantum dots, are analyzed. Modern methods for the synthesis and post-synthetic treatment of colloidal quantum dots that make it possible to achieve record high quantum yield of luminescence and to modify their characteristics for specific applications are considered. Currently important avenues of research on colloidal quantum dots and the problems in and prospects for their practical applications in various fields are discussed. The bibliography includes 272 references.

  7. Quantum Computer Using Coupled Quantum Dot Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, N J; Natori, A; Yasunaga, H; Wu*, Nan-Jian

    1999-01-01

    We propose a method for implementation of a quantum computer using artificial molecules. The artificial molecule consists of two coupled quantum dots stacked along z direction and one single electron. One-qubit and two-qubit gates are constructed by one molecule and two coupled molecules, respectively.The ground state and the first excited state of the molecule are used to encode the |0> and |1> states of a qubit. The qubit is manipulated by a resonant electromagnetic wave that is applied directly to the qubit through a microstrip line. The coupling between two qubits in a quantum controlled NOT gate is switched on (off) by floating (grounding) the metal film electrodes. We study the operations of the gates by using a box-shaped quantum dot model and numerically solving a time-dependent Schridinger equation, and demonstrate that the quantum gates can perform the quantum computation. The operating speed of the gates is about one operation per 4ps. The reading operation of the output of the quantum computer can...

  8. A carbon dots-CdTe quantum dots fluorescence resonance energy transfer system for the analysis of ultra-trace chlortoluron in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huilin; Liao, Xiufen; Sun, Chao; Xie, Xiangli; Zhong, Fuxin; Yi, Zhongsheng; Huang, Yipeng

    2015-02-05

    In this paper, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system between fluorescence carbon dots (CDs, donor) and CdTe quantum dots (CdTe, acceptor) was constructed, and a novel platform for sensitive and selective determination of chlortoluron was accordingly proposed. It was found that in Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH=8.7, energy transfer from CDs to CdTe occurred, which resulted in a great enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of CdTe. Upon the addition of chlortoluron, in terms of strong interaction between chlortoluron and CdTe QDs through the formation of chlortoluron-CdTe ground state complex, resulted in CdTe fluorescence quenching. Under optimal conditions, in range of 2.4×10(-10)molL(-1)-8.5×10(-8)molL(-1), the change of CdTe fluorescence intensity was in good linear relationship with the chlortoluron concentration, and the detection limit was 7.8×10(-11)molL(-1) (S/N=3). Most of common relevant substance, cations and anions did not interfere with the detection of chlortoluron. The proposed method was applied to determine chlortoluron in water samples with satisfactory results.

  9. Inhibition of autophagy contributes to the toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Junpeng; Shao, Ming; Lai, Lu; Liu, Yi; Xie, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) are used as near-infrared probes in biologic and medical applications, but their cytological effects and mechanism of potential toxicity are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of CdTe QDs of different sizes and investigated their mechanism of toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growth inhibition assay revealed that orange-emitting CdTe (O-CdTe) QDs (half inhibitory concentration [IC50] =59.44±12.02 nmol/L) were more toxic than green-emitting CdTe QDs (IC50 =186.61±19.74 nmol/L) to S. cerevisiae. Further studies on toxicity mechanisms using a transmission electron microscope and green fluorescent protein tagged Atg8 processing assay revealed that O-CdTe QDs could partially inhibit autophagy at a late stage, which differs from the results reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited at a late stage by O-CdTe QDs could be partially recovered by enhancing autophagy with rapamycin (an autophagy activator), combined with an increased number of living cells. These results indicate that inhibition of autophagy acts as a toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in S. cerevisiae. This work reports a novel toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in yeast and provides valuable information on the effect of CdTe QDs on the processes of living cells.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes, doped by quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzova, N. V.; Gerasimova, M. A.; Slabko, V. V.; Slyusareva, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Doping of polymer particles by a fluorophores results in the sensitization within the visible spectral region becoming very promising materials for sensor applications. Colloids of biocompatible chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) doped with quantum dots (QD) of CdTe and CdSe/ZnS (with sizes of 2.0-2.4 nm) were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential measurements, absorption and luminescence (including time-resolved) spectroscopy. The influence of ionic strength (0.02-1.5 M) on absorption and photoluminescence properties of encapsulated into PEC and unencapsulated quantum dots was investigated. The stability of the emission intensity of the encapsulated quantum dots has been shown to be strongly dependent on concentration of quantum dots.

  11. Comparison of three cell fixation methods for high content analysis assays utilizing quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y; Byrne, S; Bashir, M; Davies, A; Whelan, A; Gun'ko, Y; Kelleher, D; Volkov, Y

    2008-10-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles or quantum dots are being increasingly utilized as fluorescent probes in cell biology both in live and fixed cell assays. Quantum dots possess an immense potential for use in multiplexing assays that can be run on high content screening analysers. Depending on the nature of the biological target under investigation, experiments are frequently required on cells retaining an intact cell membrane or also on those that have been fixed and permeabilized to expose intracellular antigens. Fixation of cell lines before or after the addition of quantum dots may affect their localization, emission properties and stability. Using a high content analysis platform we perform a quantitative comparative analysis of three common fixation techniques in two different cell lines exposed to carboxylic acid stabilized CdTe quantum dots. Our study demonstrates that in prefixed and permeabilized cells, quantum dots are readily internalized regardless of cell type, and their intracellular location is primarily determined by the properties of the quantum dots themselves. However, if the fixation procedures are preformed on live cells previously incubated with quantum dots, other important factors have to be considered. The choice of the fixative significantly influences the fluorescent characteristics of the quantum dots. Fixatives, regardless of their chemical nature, negatively affected quantum dots fluorescence intensity. Comparative analysis of gluteraldehyde, methanol and paraformaldehyde demonstrated that 2% paraformaldehyde was the fixative of choice. The presence of protein in the media did not significantly alter the quantum dot fluorescence. This study indicates that multiplexing assays utilizing quantum dots, despite being a cutting edge tool for high content cell imaging, still require careful consideration of the basic steps in biological sample processing.

  12. Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Sánchez, Rafael; Jordan, Andrew N

    2015-01-21

    We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  13. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2002-01-01

    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  14. Activation of silicon quantum dots for emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wei-Qi; Miao Xin-Jian; Huang Zhong-Mei; Liu Shi-Rong; Qin Chao-Jian

    2012-01-01

    The emission of silicon quantum dots is weak when their surface is passivated well. Oxygen or nitrogen on the surface of silicon quantum dots can break the passivation to form localized electronic states in the band gap to generate active centers where stronger emission occurs.From this point of view,we can build up radiative matter for emission.Emissions of various wavelengths can be obtained by controlling the surface bonds of silicon quantum dots.Our experimental results demonstrate that annealing is important in the treatment of the activation,and stimulated emissions at about 600 and 700 nm take place on active silicon quantum dots.

  15. Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T

    2016-03-03

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems.

  16. POLARON IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL QUANTUM DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Fai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Polaron states in cylindrical and spherical quantum dots with parabolic confinement potentials are investigated applying the Feynman variational principle. It is observed that for both kinds of quantum dots the polaron energy and mass increase with the increase of Frohlich electron-phonon coupling constant and confinement frequency. In the case of a spherical quantum dot, the polaron energy for the strong coupling is found to be greater than that of a cylindrical quantum dot. The energy and mass are found to be monotonically increasing functions of the coupling constant and the confinement frequency.

  17. Spin transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A.T. da Cunha; Anda, Enrique V. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Full text: We investigate the spin polarized transport properties of a nanoscopic device constituted by a quantum dot connected to two leads. The electrical current circulates with a spin polarization that is modulated via a gate potential that controls the intensity of the spin-orbit coupling, the Rashba effect. We study a polarized field-effect transistor when one of its parts is constituted by a small quantum dot, which energies are controlled by another gate potential operating inside the confined region. The high confinement and correlation suffered by the charges inside the dot gives rise to novel phenomena. We show that through the manipulation of the gate potential applied to the dot it is possible to control, in a very efficient way, the intensity and polarization of the current that goes along the system. Other crucial parameters to be varied in order to understand the behavior of this system are the intensity of the external applied electric and magnetic field. The system is represented by the Anderson Impurity Hamiltonian summed to a spin-orbit interaction, which describes the Rashba effect. To obtain the current of this out-of-equilibrium system we use the Keldysh formalism.The solution of the Green function are compatible with the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that under the effect of a external magnetic field, if the dot is small enough the device operates as a complete spin filter that can be controlled by the gate potential. The behavior of this device when it is injected into it a polarized current and modulated by the Rashba effect is as well studied. (author)

  18. Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots in Photonic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gérard, J.-M.; Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.;

    2011-01-01

    We review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....

  19. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....

  20. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  1. Quantum Dot Spectrum Converters for Enhanced High Efficiency Photovoltaics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to enhance solar cell efficiency, radiation resistance and affordability. The Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter (QDSC) disperses quantum dots...

  2. One-bath synthesis of hydrophilic molecularly imprinted quantum dots for selective recognition of chlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Ye; Shi Yan Lu; Qin Qin Hu; Xin Jiang; Guo Fen Wei; Jing Jing Wang; Jian Quan Lu

    2011-01-01

    A simple one-bath strategy has been developed to synthesize a novel CdTe@SiO2@MIP (molecularly imprinted and silica-functionalized CdTe quantum dots, MISFQDs), in which a silica shell was coated on the surface of CdTe quantum dots (CdTe@SiO2 QDs) and then a polymer for selective recognition of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was constructed on the surface of CdTe@SiO2 QDs using mercaptoacetic acid as stabilizer, 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTES) as functional monomers and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as crosslink agent. The structures of CdTe@SiO2@MIP were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible absorption, Fluorescence, FT-IR spectrum and powder X-ray diffraction. The application and characterization of the CdTe@SiO2@MIP were investigated by experiments. All results indicated that the CdTe@SiO2@MIP can selectively recognize 4-chlorophenol.

  3. Exciton in type-II quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Ortega, J; Escorcia, R A [Universidad del Magdalena, A. A. 731, Santa Marta (Colombia); Mikhailov, I D, E-mail: jsierraortega@gmail.co [Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We study the quantum-size effect and the influence of the external magnetic field on the exciton ground state energy in the type-II InP quantum disk, lens and pyramid deposited on a wetting layer and embedded in a GaInP matrix. We show that the charge distribution over and below quantum dot and wetting layer induced by trapped exciton strongly depends on the quantum dot morphology and the strength of the magnetic field.

  4. Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2011-05-01

    We review recent progress in light sensors based on solution-processed materials. Spin-coated semiconductors can readily be integrated with many substrates including as a post-process atop CMOS silicon and flexible electronics. We focus in particular on visible-, near-infrared, and short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on size-effect-tuned semiconductor nanoparticles made using quantum-confined PbS, PbSe, Bi 2S3, and In2S3. These devices have in recent years achieved room-temperature D values above 1013 Jones, while fully-depleted photodiodes based on these same materials have achieved MHz response combined with 1012 Jones sensitivities. We discuss the nanoparticle synthesis, the materials processing, integrability, temperature stability, physical operation, and applied performance of this class of devices. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  6. Optically active quantum-dot molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlykov, Alexander I; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Rukhlenko, Ivan D

    2017-02-20

    Chiral molecules made of coupled achiral semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots, show great promise for photonic applications owing to their prospective uses as configurable building blocks for optically active structures, materials, and devices. Here we present a simple model of optically active quantum-dot molecules, in which each of the quantum dots is assigned a dipole moment associated with the fundamental interband transition between the size-quantized states of its confined charge carriers. This model is used to analytically calculate the rotatory strengths of optical transitions occurring upon the excitation of chiral dimers, trimers, and tetramers of general configurations. The rotatory strengths of such quantum-dot molecules are found to exceed the typical rotatory strengths of chiral molecules by five to six orders of magnitude. We also study how the optical activity of quantum-dot molecules shows up in their circular dichroism spectra when the energy gap between the molecular states is much smaller than the states' lifetime, and maximize the strengths of the circular dichroism peaks by optimizing orientations of the quantum dots in the molecules. Our analytical results provide clear design guidelines for quantum-dot molecules and can prove useful in engineering optically active quantum-dot supercrystals and photonic devices.

  7. Research on Self-Assembling Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-30

    0K. in a second phase of this contract we turned our efforts to the fabrication and studies of self assembled quantum dots . We first demonstrated a...method for producing InAs-GasAs self assembled quantum dots (SAD) using MBE. (AN)

  8. Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Huijuan [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu Lian [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)], E-mail: huliancaohj@yahoo.com

    2008-04-21

    We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots.

  9. Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perinetti, U.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different optical experiments performed on semiconductor quantum dots. These structures allow to confine a small number of electrons and holes to a tiny region of space, some nm across. The aim of this work was to study the basic properties of different types of quantum dots mad

  10. Silicon Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A. J. Ferguson , A. S. Dzurak, and R. G. Clark. Gate-defined quantum dots in intrinsic silicon. Nano Letters, 7(7), 2051 (2007). 4, 21, 44, 68, 99 132...B, 80(7), 075310 (2009). 66 [105] M. Field, C. Smith, M. Pepper , D. Ritchie, J. Frost, G. Jones, and D. Hasko. Measurements of Coulomb blockade with a...transistor as an integrated charge sensor. Applied Physics Letters, 97(26), 262113 (2010). 68, 74 [111] G. Podd, S. Angus, D. Williams, and A. Ferguson

  11. Cadmium sulfate and CdTe-quantum dots alter DNA repair in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Song; Cai, Qingsong [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Chibli, Hicham [Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4 (Canada); Allagadda, Vinay [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Nadeau, Jay L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4 (Canada); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Increasing use of quantum dots (QDs) makes it necessary to evaluate their toxicological impacts on aquatic organisms, since their contamination of surface water is inevitable. This study compares the genotoxic effects of ionic Cd versus CdTe nanocrystals in zebrafish hepatocytes. After 24 h of CdSO{sub 4} or CdTe QD exposure, zebrafish liver (ZFL) cells showed a decreased number of viable cells, an accumulation of Cd, an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and an induction of DNA strand breaks. Measured levels of stress defense and DNA repair genes were elevated in both cases. However, removal of bulky DNA adducts by nucleotide excision repair (NER) was inhibited with CdSO{sub 4} but not with CdTe QDs. The adverse effects caused by acute exposure of CdTe QDs might be mediated through differing mechanisms than those resulting from ionic cadmium toxicity, and studying the effects of metallic components may be not enough to explain QD toxicities in aquatic organisms. - Highlights: • Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs lead to cell death and Cd accumulation. • Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs induce cellular ROS generation and DNA strand breaks. • Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs induce the expressions of stress defense and DNA repair genes. • NER repair capacity was inhibited with CdSO{sub 4} but not with CdTe QDs.

  12. Synthesis of Colloidal Quantum Dots Coated with Mercaptosuccinic Acid for Early Detection and Therapeutics of Oral Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelin, G.; Arivarasan, A.; Ganesan, M.; Prasad, N. Rajendra; Sasikala, G.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are gaining widespread recognition for its luminescence behavior and unique photo physical properties as a bio-marker and inorganic fluorophore. In spite of such rampant advantages, its application is clinically hampered depending on the surface coating decreasing its luminescence efficiency. The present study reports preparation of CdTe QDs capped with biologically active thiol based material, mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) for diagnosis of oral cancer (KB) cells by acting as a fluorophore marking targeted tumor cells and at the same time exhibiting certain cytotoxic effects. Synthesized MSA coated CdTe QDs is spherical in shape with an average particle size of 3-5nm. In vitro, the rapid uptake of MSA CdTe QDs in oral cancer cell lines were assessed through fluorescence microscopy. Further, this study evaluates the therapeutic efficiency of MSA CdTe QDs in human oral cancer cell lines using MTT analysis. MSA CdTe QDs exhibit significant cytotoxicity in oral cancer cells in a dose dependent manner with low IC50 when compared with other raw CdTe QDs. MSA CdTe QDs were also treated with human lymphocytes (normal cells) to assess and compare the toxicity profile of QDs in normal and oral tumors. The results of our present study strengthen our hypothesis of using MSA CdTe QDs as detector for tracking and fluorescence imaging of oral cancer cells and exhibiting sufficient cytotoxicity in them.

  13. Biocompatible quantum dots for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Sandra J; Chang, Jerry C; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James R; Tomlinson, Ian D

    2011-01-28

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, size-tunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots.

  14. Quantum-dot supercrystals for future nanophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2013-01-01

    The study of supercrystals made of periodically arranged semiconductor quantum dots is essential for the advancement of emerging nanophotonics technologies. By combining the strong spatial confinement of elementary excitations inside quantum dots and exceptional design flexibility, quantum-dot supercrystals provide broad opportunities for engineering desired optical responses and developing superior light manipulation techniques on the nanoscale. Here we suggest tailoring the energy spectrum and wave functions of the supercrystals' collective excitations through the variation of different structural and material parameters. In particular, by calculating the excitonic spectra of quantum dots assembled in two-dimensional Bravais lattices we demonstrate a wide variety of spectrum transformation scenarios upon alterations in the quantum dot arrangement. This feature offers unprecedented control over the supercrystal's electromagnetic properties and enables the development of new nanophotonics materials and devices.

  15. Synthesis and optical properties of type II CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots in aqueous solution via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Kong, X.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Tu, L.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    3-Mercaptopropionic acid stabilized CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) were prepared in an aqueous solution following the synthetic route of successive ion layer adsorption and reaction. The photoluminescence quantum yield of the CdTe QDs could reach 40%, from 8% of the bare core, via the contro

  16. Tailoring Magnetism in Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutic, Igor; Abolfath, Ramin; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2007-03-01

    We study magnetism in magnetically doped quantum dots as a function of particle numbers, temperature, confining potential, and the strength of Coulomb interaction screening. We show that magnetism can be tailored by controlling the electron-electron Coulomb interaction, even without changing the number of particles. The interplay of strong Coulomb interactions and quantum confinement leads to enhanced inhomogeneous magnetization which persists at substantially higher temperatures than in the non-interacting case or in the bulk-like dilute magnetic semiconductors. We predict a series of electronic spin transitions which arise from the competition between the many-body gap and magnetic thermal fluctuations. Cond-mat/0612489. [1] R. Abolfath, P. Hawrylak, I. Zuti'c, preprint.

  17. Quantum dot devices for optical communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    . The main property of semiconductor quantum dots compared to bulk material or even quantum well structures is the discrete nature of the allowed states, which means that inversion of the medium can be obtained for very low electron densities. This has led to the fabrication of quantum dot lasers with record......-low threshold currents and amplifiers with record-high power levels. In this tutorial we will review the basic properties of quantum dots, emphasizing the properties which are important for laser and amplifier applications, as well as devices for all-optical signal processing. The high-speed properties...

  18. Electron transport in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    When I was contacted by Kluwer Academic Publishers in the Fall of 200 I, inviting me to edit a volume of papers on the issue of electron transport in quantum dots, I was excited by what I saw as an ideal opportunity to provide an overview of a field of research that has made significant contributions in recent years, both to our understanding of fundamental physics, and to the development of novel nanoelectronic technologies. The need for such a volume seemed to be made more pressing by the fact that few comprehensive reviews of this topic have appeared in the literature, in spite of the vast activity in this area over the course of the last decade or so. With this motivation, I set out to try to compile a volume that would fairly reflect the wide range of opinions that has emerged in the study of electron transport in quantum dots. Indeed, there has been no effort on my part to ensure any consistency between the different chapters, since I would prefer that this volume instead serve as a useful forum for the...

  19. Quantum dots with single-atom precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsch, Stefan; Martínez-Blanco, Jesús; Yang, Jianshu; Kanisawa, Kiyoshi; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-07-01

    Quantum dots are often called artificial atoms because, like real atoms, they confine electrons to quantized states with discrete energies. However, although real atoms are identical, most quantum dots comprise hundreds or thousands of atoms, with inevitable variations in size and shape and, consequently, unavoidable variability in their wavefunctions and energies. Electrostatic gates can be used to mitigate these variations by adjusting the electron energy levels, but the more ambitious goal of creating quantum dots with intrinsically digital fidelity by eliminating statistical variations in their size, shape and arrangement remains elusive. We used a scanning tunnelling microscope to create quantum dots with identical, deterministic sizes. By using the lattice of a reconstructed semiconductor surface to fix the position of each atom, we controlled the shape and location of the dots with effectively zero error. This allowed us to construct quantum dot molecules whose coupling has no intrinsic variation but could nonetheless be tuned with arbitrary precision over a wide range. Digital fidelity opens the door to quantum dot architectures free of intrinsic broadening-an important goal for technologies from nanophotonics to quantum information processing as well as for fundamental studies of confined electrons.

  20. Bidirectional photoinduced energy transfer in nanoassemblies of quantum dots and luminescent metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, Srinidhi; Reinhoudt, David N. [Twente Univ., Entschede (Netherlands). Lab. of Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology and MESA Inst. of Nanotechnology; Strassert, Cristian Alejandro [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst. and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech); Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Condensed Matter and Interfaces; Cola, Luisa de [Twente Univ., Entschede (Netherlands). Lab. of Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology and MESA Inst. of Nanotechnology; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst. and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech)

    2014-02-15

    This work describes the synthesis and photophysical characterization of Ir(III) and Ru(II) complexes bearing terminal amino groups, which act as anchoring units for the attachment to quantum dots, QDs. The photophysical properties of the metal complexes in combination with different types of QDs, allows directional photoinduced processes in the assemblies. In particular, we show photoinduced energy transfer from the luminescent excited Ir(III) unit to the CdTe nanocrystals, with an efficiency of 40 %. The directionality was then inverted by employing an emitting Ru(II) complex as energy acceptor, in combination with photoluminescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The efficiency of the photoinduced energy transfer from the nanocrystals to the Ru(II) center was estimated to be as high as 75 %. This work provides model systems for nanoassemblies based on quantum dots and metal complexes for optoelectronic applications, and as active light-harvesting systems. (orig.)

  1. Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... oscillator strength due to Coulomb effects. This is in stark contrast to the measured oscillator strength, which turns out to be so small that it can be described by excitons in the strong confinement regime. We attribute these findings to exciton localization in local potential minima arising from alloy...

  2. Quantum dots for terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H C; Aslan, B; Gupta, J A; Wasilewski, Z R; Aers, G C; SpringThorpe, A J; Buchanan, M [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ottawa, K1A 0R6 (Canada)], E-mail: h.c.liu@nrc.ca

    2008-09-24

    Nanostructures made of semiconductors, such as quantum wells and quantum dots (QD), are well known, and some have been incorporated in practical devices. Here we focus on novel structures made of QDs and related devices for terahertz (THz) generation. Their potential advantages, such as low threshold current density, high characteristic temperature, increased differential gain, etc, make QDs promising candidates for light emitting applications in the THz region. Our idea of using resonant tunneling through QDs is presented, and initial results on devices consisting of self-assembled InAs QDs in an undoped GaAs matrix, with a design incorporating a GaInNAs/GaAs short period superlattice, are discussed. Moreover, shallow impurities are also being explored for possible THz emission: the idea is based on the tunneling through bound states of individual donor or acceptor impurities in the quantum well. Initial results on devices having an AlGaAs/GaAs double-barrier resonant tunneling structure are discussed.

  3. Scanning gate microscopy of ultra clean carbon nanotube quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jiamin; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; LeRoy, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    We perform scanning gate microscopy on individual suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. The size and position of the quantum dots can be visually identified from the concentric high conductance rings. For the ultra clean devices used in this study, two new effects are clearly identified. Electrostatic screening creates non-overlapping multiple sets of Coulomb rings from a single quantum dot. In double quantum dots, by changing the tip voltage, the interactions between the quantum dots can b...

  4. Time-bin Entanglement from Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Weihs, Gregor; Predojević, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The desire to have a source of single entangled photon pairs can be satisfied using single quantum dots as emitters. However, we are not bound to pursue only polarization entanglement, but can also exploit other degrees of freedom. In this chapter we focus on the time degree of freedom, to achieve so-called time-bin entanglement. This requires that we prepare the quantum dot coherently into the biexciton state and also build special interferometers for analysis. Finally this technique can be extended to achieve time-bin and polarization hyper-entanglement from a suitable quantum dot.

  5. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  6. Electronic properties of aperiodic quantum dot chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotaev, P. Yu.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Kaputkina, N. E.

    2012-04-01

    The electronic spectral and transport properties of aperiodic quantum dot chains are investigated. The systems with singular continuous energy spectrum are considered: Thue-Morse chain, double-periodic chain, Rudin-Shapiro chain. The influence of electronic energy in quantum dot on the spectral properties, band structure, density of states and spectral resistivity, is discussed. Low resistivity regions correspond to delocalized states and these states could be current states. Also we discuss the magnetic field application as the way to tune electronic energy in quantum dot and to obtain metallic or insulating conducting states of the systems.

  7. Amplification Without Inversion in Semiconductor Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibadali, A.; Abbasian, K.; Rostami, A.

    In this paper, we have realized amplification without inversion (AWI) in quantum dot (QD). A Y-type four-level system of InxGa1-xN quantum dot has been obtained and investigated for AWI. It has been shown that, with proper setting of control fields' amplitude, we can obtain reasonable gain. With proper setting of phase difference of control fields and probe field, we can obtain considerable gain in resonant wavelength. We have designed this system by solving the Schrödinger-Poisson equations for InxGa1-xN quantum dot in GaN substrate, self-consistently.

  8. Quantum dot heterojunction solar cells: the mechanism of device operation and impacts of quantum dot oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Ihly, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the understanding of the chemistry and physics of colloidal quantum dots for practical solar energy photoconversion. Solar cell devices that make use of PbS quantum dots generally rely on constant and unchanged optical properties such that band gap energies remain tuned within the device. The design and development of unique experiments to ascertain mechanisms of optical band gap shifts occurring in PbS quantum dot thin-films exposed to air are discussed. The systematic s...

  9. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-03-17

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  10. Quantum Dots Investigated for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe and CuInS2 for use in intermediate-bandgap solar cells. Using quantum dots in a solar cell to create an intermediate band will allow the harvesting of a much larger portion of the available solar spectrum. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent, which is approximately a factor of 2 better than any state-of-the-art devices available today. This technology is also applicable to thin-film devices--where it offers a potential four-fold increase in power-to-weight ratio over the state of the art. Intermediate-bandgap solar cells require that quantum dots be sandwiched in an intrinsic region between the photovoltaic solar cell's ordinary p- and n-type regions (see the preceding figure). The quantum dots form the intermediate band of discrete states that allow sub-bandgap energies to be absorbed. However, when the current is extracted, it is limited by the bandgap, not the individual photon energies. The energy states of the quantum dot can be controlled by controlling the size of the dot. Ironically, the ground-state energy levels are inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dots. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Ba Wendi et al., in the early 1990's. The most studied quantum dots prepared by this method have been of CdSe. To produce these dots, researchers inject a syringe of the desired organometallic precursors into heated triocytlphosphine oxide (TOPO) that has been vigorously stirred under an inert atmosphere (see the following figure). The solution immediately begins to change from colorless to yellow, then orange and red/brown, as the quantum dots increase in size. When the desired size is reached, the heat is removed from the flask. Quantum dots of different sizes can be identified by placing them under a "black light" and observing the various color differences in

  11. Double Acceptor Interaction in Semimagnetic Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Merwyn Jasper D. Reuben

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of geometry of the semimagnetic Quantum Dot on the Interaction energy of a double acceptor is computed in the effective mass approximation using the variational principle. A peak is observed at the lower dot sizes as a magnetic field is increased which is attributed to the reduction in confinement.

  12. Quantum Dots Coupled to a Superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellinggaard, Anders Robert

    are tuned electrostatically. This includes tuning the odd occupation of the dot through a quantum phase transition, where it forms a singlet with excitations in the superconductor. We detail the fabrication of these bottom gated devices, which additionally feature ancillary sensor dots connected...

  13. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan;

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....

  14. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  15. Energy transfer processes in semiconductor quantum dots: bacteriorhodopsin hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Sukhanova, Alyona; Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Rakovich, Yury; Donegan, John F.; Nabiev, Igor

    2009-05-01

    The potential impact of nanoscience on energy transfer processes in biomolecules was investigated on the example of a complex between fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and photochromic membrane protein. The interactions between colloidal CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein were studied by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including integrated and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies, zeta potential and size measurement, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. QDs' luminescence was found to be strongly modulated by bacteriorhodopsin, but in a controllable way. Decreasing emission lifetimes and blue shifts in QDs' emission at increasing protein concentrations suggest that quenching occurs via Förster resonance energy transfer. On the other hand, concave Stern-Volmer plots and sigmoidal photoluminescence quenching curves imply that the self-assembling of NCs and bR exists, and the number of nanocrystals (NCs) per bacteriorhodopsin contributing to energy transfer can be determined from the inflection points of sigmoidal curves. This number was found to be highly dependent not only on the spectral overlap between NC emission and bR absorption bands, but also on nanocrystal surface charge. These results demonstrate the potential of how inorganic nanoscale materials can be employed to improve the generic molecular functions of biomolecules. The observed interactions between CdTe nanocrystals and bacteriorhodopsin can provide the basis for the development of novel functional materials with unique photonic properties and applications in areas such as all-optical switching, photovoltaics and data storage.

  16. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  17. Quantum dots as biophotonics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carlos L

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a short review of quantum dots (QDs) physics, applications, and perspectives. The main advantage of QDs over bulk semiconductors is the fact that the size became a control parameter to tailor the optical properties of new materials. Size changes the confinement energy which alters the optical properties of the material, such as absorption, refractive index, and emission bands. Therefore, by using QDs one can make several kinds of optical devices. One of these devices transforms electrons into photons to apply them as active optical components in illumination and displays. Other devices enable the transformation of photons into electrons to produce QDs solar cells or photodetectors. At the biomedical interface, the application of QDs, which is the most important aspect in this book, is based on fluorescence, which essentially transforms photons into photons of different wavelengths. This chapter introduces important parameters for QDs' biophotonic applications such as photostability, excitation and emission profiles, and quantum efficiency. We also present the perspectives for the use of QDs in fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), so useful in modern microscopy, and how to take advantage of the usually unwanted blinking effect to perform super-resolution microscopy.

  18. Start Shift of Individual Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-18

    We will here describe the results of the influence of electric field on InP quantum dots embedded in GalnP, lattice matched to GaAs. Experimental...details The sample we used was grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy, and contained InP quantum dots in GanP, lattice matched to GaAs (n-type

  19. Chaotic quantum dots with strongly correlated electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum dots pose a problem where one must confront three obstacles: randomness, interactions and finite size. Yet it is this confluence that allows one to make some theoretical advances by invoking three theoretical tools: Random Matrix theory (RMT), the Renormalization Group (RG) and the 1/N expansion. Here the reader is introduced to these techniques and shown how they may be combined to answer a set of questions pertaining to quantum dots

  20. Quantum Entanglement of Quantum Dot Spin Using Flying Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    previously to optically isolate single quantum dots, and adopted a high NA confocal fiber setup that allows for single quantum dot resolution and the...960nm, to telecom wavelength (1.55 microns) for long distance transmission in fibers . Work toward these goals began with non QuEST support from...been to advance the frontier of quantum entangled semiconductor electrons using ultrafast optical techniques. The approach is based on

  1. Synthesis of CdSe/ZnS and CdTe/ZnS Quantum Dots: Refined Digestive Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeram Cingarapu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report synthesis of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots (QDs from the bulk CdSe and CdTe material by evaporation/co-condensation using the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD technique and refined digestive ripening. The outcomes of this new process are (1 the reduction of digestive ripening time by employing ligands (trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO and oleylamine (OA as capping agent as well as digestive ripening solvent, (2 ability to tune the photoluminescence (PL from 410 nm to 670 nm, (3 demonstrate the ability of SMAD synthesis technique for other semiconductors (CdTe, (4 direct comparison of CdSe QDs growth with CdTe QDs growth based on digestive ripening times, and (5 enhanced PL quantum yield (QY of CdSe QDs and CdTe QDs upon covering with a ZnS shell. Further, the merit of this synthesis is the use of bulk CdSe and CdTe as the starting materials, which avoids usage of toxic organometallic compounds, eliminates the hot injection procedure, and size selective precipitation processes. It also allows the possibility of scale up. These QDs were characterized by UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and powder XRD.

  2. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... quantum-dot-waveguide coupling. Such a structure is ideally suited for a number of applications in quantum information processing and among others we propose an on-chip spin-photon interface, a single photon transistor, and a deterministic cNOT gate....

  3. Inhibition of autophagy contributes to the toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Junpeng Fan,1–4 Ming Shao,1–4 Lu Lai,3–5 Yi Liu,3–5 Zhixiong Xie1–4,6 1College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, 2Hubei Provincial Cooperative Innovation Center of Industrial Fermentation,3State Key Laboratory of Virology, 4Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE, 5College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 6School of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs are used as near-infrared probes in biologic and medical applications, but their cytological effects and mechanism of potential toxicity are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of CdTe QDs of different sizes and investigated their mechanism of toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growth inhibition assay revealed that orange-emitting CdTe (O-CdTe QDs (half inhibitory concentration [IC50] =59.44±12.02 nmol/L were more toxic than green-emitting CdTe QDs (IC50 =186.61±19.74 nmol/L to S. cerevisiae. Further studies on toxicity mechanisms using a transmission electron microscope and green fluorescent protein tagged Atg8 processing assay revealed that O-CdTe QDs could partially inhibit autophagy at a late stage, which differs from the results reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited at a late stage by O-CdTe QDs could be partially recovered by enhancing autophagy with rapamycin (an autophagy activator, combined with an increased number of living cells. These results indicate that inhibition of autophagy acts as a toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in S. cerevisiae. This work reports a novel toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in yeast and provides valuable information on the effect of CdTe QDs on the processes of living cells. Keywords: CdTe quantum dots, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, toxicity, autophagy

  4. Inter-dot coupling effects on transport through correlated parallel coupled quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shyam Chand; G Rajput; K C Sharma; P K Ahluwalia

    2009-05-01

    Transport through symmetric parallel coupled quantum dot system has been studied, using non-equilibrium Green function formalism. The inter-dot tunnelling with on-dot and inter-dot Coulomb repulsion is included. The transmission coefficient and Landaur–Buttiker like current formula are shown in terms of internal states of quantum dots. The effect of inter-dot tunnelling on transport properties has been explored. Results, in intermediate inter-dot coupling regime show signatures of merger of two dots to form a single composite dot and in strong coupling regime the behaviour of the system resembles the two decoupled dots.

  5. Advancements in the Field of Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha; Sinha, Swami Prasad.

    2012-08-01

    Quantum dots are defined as very small semiconductor crystals of size varying from nanometer scale to a few micron i.e. so small that they are considered dimensionless and are capable of showing many chemical properties by virtue of which they tend to be lead at one minute and gold at the second minute.Quantum dots house the electrons just the way the electrons would have been present in an atom, by applying a voltage. And therefore they are very judiciously given the name of being called as the artificial atoms. This application of voltage may also lead to the modification of the chemical nature of the material anytime it is desired, resulting in lead at one minute to gold at the other minute. But this method is quite beyond our reach. A quantum dot is basically a semiconductor of very tiny size and this special phenomenon of quantum dot, causes the band of energies to change into discrete energy levels. Band gaps and the related energy depend on the relationship between the size of the crystal and the exciton radius. The height and energy between different energy levels varies inversely with the size of the quantum dot. The smaller the quantum dot, the higher is the energy possessed by it.There are many applications of the quantum dots e.g. they are very wisely applied to:Light emitting diodes: LEDs eg. White LEDs, Photovoltaic devices: solar cells, Memory elements, Biology : =biosensors, imaging, Lasers, Quantum computation, Flat-panel displays, Photodetectors, Life sciences and so on and so forth.The nanometer sized particles are able to display any chosen colour in the entire ultraviolet visible spectrum through a small change in their size or composition.

  6. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2015-07-15

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned \\'dots-in-a-matrix\\' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  7. Quantum Dots and Their Multimodal Applications: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Holloway, Paul H; Teng-Kuan Tseng; Lei Qian; Debasis Bera

    2010-01-01

    Semiconducting quantum dots, whose particle sizes are in the nanometer range, have very unusual properties. The quantum dots have band gaps that depend in a complicated fashion upon a number of factors, described in the article. Processing-structure-properties-performance relationships are reviewed for compound semiconducting quantum dots. Various methods for synthesizing these quantum dots are discussed, as well as their resulting properties. Quantum states and confinement of their excitons ...

  8. Phonons in Quantum-Dot Quantum Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QINGuo-Yi

    2004-01-01

    Phonon modes of A1As/GaAs/A1As and GaAs/A1As/metal Pb quantum-dot quantum wells (QDQW's) with the whole scale up to 90 AО are calculated by using valence force field model (VFFM) based on group theory.Their optical frequency spectra are divided into two nonoverlapping bands, the AlAs-like band and the GaAs-like band,originated from and having frequency interval inside the bulk AlAs optical band and bulk GaAs optical band, respectively.The GaAs-LO (Г)-like modes of QDQW's that have maximum bulk GaAs-LO (Г) parentages in all modes covering thewhole frequency region and all symmetries have always A1 symmetry. Its frequency is controllable by adjusting thestructure parameters. In A1As/GaAs/A1As, it may be controlled to meet any designed frequency in GaAs-like band.The results on GaAs/A1As/metal Pb QDQW's show the same effect of reducing in interface optical phonons by using the metal/semiconductor interface revealed ever by macroscopic model The frequency spectra in both GaAs-like andAlAs-like optical phonon bands are independent of the thickness of Pb shell as long as the thickness of Pb shell is no less than 5 AО Defects at metal/A1As interface have significant influence to AlAs-like optical modes but have only minor influence to GaAs-like optical modes. All these results are important for the studying of the e-ph interaction in QD structures.

  9. Phonons in Quantum-Dot Quantum Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Guo-Yi

    2004-01-01

    Phonon modes of AlAs/GaAs/AlAs and GaAs/AlAs/metal Pb quantum-dot quantum wells (QDQW's)with the whole scale up to 90 A are calculated by using valence force field model (VFFM) based on group theory.Their optical frequency spectra are divided into two nonoverlapping bands, the AMs-like band and the GaAs-like band,originated from and having frequency interval inside the bulk AlAs optical band and bulk GaAs optical band, respectively.The GaAs-LO (F)-like modes of QDQW's that have maximum bulk GaAs-LO (F) parentages in all modes covering the whole frequency region and all symmetries have always A1 symmetry. Its frequency is controllable by adjusting the structure parameters. In AlAs/GaAs/AlAs, it may be controlled to meet any designed frequency in GaAs-like band.The results on GaAs/AMs/metal Pb QDQW's show the same effect of reducing in interface optical phonons by using the metal/semiconductor interface revealed ever by macroscopic model. The frequency spectra in both GaAs-like and AlAs-like optical phonon bands are independent of the thickness of Pb shell as long as the thickness of Pb shell is no less than 5 A. Defects at metal/AlAs interface have significant influence to AMs-like optical modes but have only minor influence to GaAs-like optical modes. All these results are important for the studying of the e-ph interaction in QD structures.

  10. Electromechanical transition in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micchi, G.; Avriller, R.; Pistolesi, F.

    2016-09-01

    The strong coupling between electronic transport in a single-level quantum dot and a capacitively coupled nanomechanical oscillator may lead to a transition towards a mechanically bistable and blocked-current state. Its observation is at reach in carbon-nanotube state-of-art experiments. In a recent publication [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 206802 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.206802] we have shown that this transition is characterized by pronounced signatures on the oscillator mechanical properties: the susceptibility, the displacement fluctuation spectrum, and the ring-down time. These properties are extracted from transport measurements, however the relation between the mechanical quantities and the electronic signal is not always straightforward. Moreover the dependence of the same quantities on temperature, bias or gate voltage, and external dissipation has not been studied. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap and provide a detailed description of the transition. Specifically we find (i) the relation between the current-noise and the displacement spectrum; (ii) the peculiar behavior of the gate-voltage dependence of these spectra at the transition; (iii) the robustness of the transition towards the effect of external fluctuations and dissipation.

  11. Quantum analysis of plasmonic coupling between quantum dots and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, SalmanOgli

    2016-10-01

    In this study, interaction between core-shells nanoparticles and quantum dots is discussed via the full-quantum-theory method. The electromagnetic field of the nanoparticles is derived by the quasistatic approximation method and the results for different regions of the nanoparticles are quantized from the time-harmonic to the wave equation. Utilizing the optical field quantization, the nanoparticles' and quantum dots' deriving amplitudes contributing to the excitation waves are determined. In the current model, two counterpropagating waves with two different frequencies are applied. We derived the Maxwell-Bloch equations from the Heisenberg-Langevin equations; thus the nanoparticles-quantum dots interaction is perused. Moreover, by full quantum analyzing of the analytical expression, the quantum-plasmonic coupling relation and the Purcell factor are achieved. We show that the spontaneous emission of quantum dots can be dramatically manipulated by engineering the plasmon-plasmon interaction in the core-shells nanoparticles. This issue is a very attractive point for designing a wide variety of quantum-plasmonic sensors. Through the investigation of the nanoparticle plasmonic interaction effects on absorbed power, the results show that the nanoparticles' and quantum dots' absorption saturation state can be switched to each other just by manipulation of their deriving amplitudes. In fact, we manage the interference between the two waves' deriving amplitudes just by the plasmonic interactions effect.

  12. Dot-in-Well Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Ting, David; Hill, cory; Liu, John; Mumolo, Jason; Chang, Yia Chung

    2008-01-01

    Dot-in-well (DWELL) quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) [DWELL-QDIPs] are subjects of research as potentially superior alternatives to prior QDIPs. Heretofore, there has not existed a reliable method for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) having precise, repeatable dimensions. This lack has constituted an obstacle to the development of uniform, high-performance, wavelength-tailorable QDIPs and of focal-plane arrays (FPAs) of such QDIPs. However, techniques for fabricating quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) having multiple-quantum- well (MQW) structures are now well established. In the present research on DWELL-QDIPs, the arts of fabrication of QDs and QWIPs are combined with a view toward overcoming the deficiencies of prior QDIPs. The longer-term goal is to develop focal-plane arrays of radiationhard, highly uniform arrays of QDIPs that would exhibit high performance at wavelengths from 8 to 15 m when operated at temperatures between 150 and 200 K. Increasing quantum efficiency is the key to the development of competitive QDIP-based FPAs. Quantum efficiency can be increased by increasing the density of QDs and by enhancing infrared absorption in QD-containing material. QDIPs demonstrated thus far have consisted, variously, of InAs islands on GaAs or InAs islands in InGaAs/GaAs wells. These QDIPs have exhibited low quantum efficiencies because the numbers of QD layers (and, hence, the areal densities of QDs) have been small typically five layers in each QDIP. The number of QD layers in such a device must be thus limited to prevent the aggregation of strain in the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs non-lattice- matched material system. The approach being followed in the DWELL-QDIP research is to embed In- GaAs QDs in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum- well (MQW) structures (see figure). This material system can accommodate a large number of QD layers without excessive lattice-mismatch strain and the associated degradation of photodetection properties. Hence, this material

  13. Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jie-Sen; Li Zhi-Bing; Yao Dao-Xin

    2012-01-01

    We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S =1/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation.The edge states of the graphene nano sheets axe used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation.We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array of quantum dots.It is shown that both schemes contain a great amount of information for quantum computation.The corresponding gate operations are also proposed.

  14. Size effects in the quantum yield of Cd Te quantum dots for optimum fluorescence bioimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacinto, C.; Rocha, U.S. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fotonica e Fluidos Complexos; Maestro, L.M.; Garcia-Sole, J.; Jaque, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica de Materiales. Fluorescence Imaging Group

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Semiconductor nano-crystals, usually referred as Quantum Dots (QDs) are nowadays regarded as one of the building-blocks in modern photonics. They constitute bright and photostable fluorescence sources whose emission and absorption properties can be adequately tailored through their size. Recent advances on the controlled modification of their surface has made possible the development of water soluble QDs, without causing any deterioration in their fluorescence properties. This has made them excellent optical selective markers to be used in fluorescence bio-imaging experiments. The suitability of colloidal QDs for bio-imaging is pushed forward by their large two-photon absorption cross section so that their visible luminescence (associated to the recombination of electro-hole pairs) can be also efficiently excited under infrared excitation (two-photon excitation). This, in turns, allows for large penetration depths in tissues, minimization of auto-fluorescence and achievement of superior spatial imaging resolution. In addition, recent works have demonstrated the ability of QDs to act as nano-thermometers based on the thermal sensitivity of their fluorescence bands. Based on all these outstanding properties, QDs have been successfully used to mark individual receptors in cell membranes, to intracellular temperature measurements and to label living embryos at different stages. Most of the QD based bio-images reported up to now were obtained by using whether CdSe or CdTe QDs since both are currently commercial available with a high degree of quality. They show similar fluorescence properties and optical performance when used in bio-imaging. Nevertheless, CdTe-QDs have very recently attracted much attention since the hyper-thermal sensitivity of their fluorescence bands was discovered. Based on this, it has been postulated that intracellular thermal sensing with resolutions as large as 0.25 deg C can be achieved based on CdTe-QDs, three times better than

  15. Electroluminescence Biosensor for DNA Determination Based on CdTe Quantum Dots Double-Tagging Fe3O4@Au Core/Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles%量子点双标记的Fe3O4@Au磁性纳米DNA电致发光型传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海洪; 杨峰; 李建平

    2012-01-01

    合成了Fe3O4@Au磁性纳米粒子,并根据单链寡聚核苷酸(ss-DNA)杂交原理,利用量子点电化学发光,构建了DNA电化学传感器.在磁控玻碳电极(MCGCE)表面,将5′-SH-ssDNA捕获探针自组装在Fe3O4@Au磁性纳米粒子上,然后与目标DNA互补的一端杂交形成dsDNA,再与双标记了量子点的5′-NH2-ssDNA-NH2-3′信号探针杂交形成三明治杂交的DNA.应用循环伏安法对DNA的固定与杂交进行了表征.目标DNA浓度在1.0×10-13~1.0×10-11 mol/L范围与其响应的ECL信号呈线性关系,检出限为1.8×10-14mol/L.由于采用量子点双标记法,检测的灵敏度显著提高.%An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) DNA biosensor based on Fe3O4@Au core/shell nano-particle films modified magnetic controlled glassy carbon electrode (MCGCE) was developed by using quantum dots (QDs) as labels of reporter probe DNA. The DNA biosensor was based on a sandwich detection strategy, which involves 5'-SH capture probe immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) , target and 5'-NH2 reporter probe NH2~3'. After hybridization reaction, thioglycollic acid-capped CdTe QDs are attached to the end amino group of the sandwich hybrids. The fabrication and hybridization process of the DNA biosensor were characterized by cyclic voltammetric methods. The responsive ECL intensity was linearly related to the target nucleic acid concentration in the range of 1. 0×10-13 to 1.0×10-11 mol/L, with a detection limit of 1. 8×10-14mol/L. In addition, the ECL biosensor exhibited the advantages of high sensitivity, good selectivity, satisfying stability, reproduc-ibility and repeatability.

  16. Inorganic passivation and doping control in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Hoogland, Sjoerd H.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss strategies to reduce midgap trap state densities in colloidal quantum dot films and requirements to control doping type and magnitude. We demonstrate that these improvements result in colloidal quantum dot solar cells with certified 7.0% efficiency.

  17. Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2014-08-26

    A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.

  18. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-10-05

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  19. LUMINESCENCE OF CADMIUM SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS IN FLUOROPHOSPHATE GLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Z. O. Lipatova; E. V. Kolobkova; V. A. Aseev

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide quantum dots are perspective materials in optics, medicine, biology and optoelectronics. Fluorophosphate glasses, doped with cadmium sulfide quantum dots, were examined in the paper. Heat treatment led to the formation of quantum dots with diameters equal to 2.8 nm, 3.0 nm and 3.8 nm. In view of such changes in the quantum dots size the fundamental absorption edge shift and the luminescence band are being displaced to the long wavelengths. Luminescence lifetime has been fou...

  20. Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan

    2003-01-01

    We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...... coherence. The inferred homogeneous line widths are significantly smaller than the line widths usually observed in the photoluminescence from single quantum dots indicating an additional inhomogeneours broadening mechanism in the latter....

  1. Synthesis of cadmium telluride quantum wires and the similarity of their band gaps to those of equidiameter cadmium telluride quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Sun, Jianwei; Wang, Lin-Wang; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    High-quality colloidal CdTe quantum wires having purposefully controlled diameters in the range of 5-11 nm are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, using Bi-nanoparticle catalysts, cadmium octadecylphosphonate and trioctylphosphine telluride as precursors, and a TOPO solvent. The wires adopt the wurtzite structure, and grow along the [002] direction (parallel to the c axis). The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to the experimental results for high-quality CdTe quantum dots. In contrast to the predictions of an effective-mass approximation, particle-in-a-box model, and previous experimental results from CdSe and InP dot-wire comparisons, the band gaps of CdTe dots and wires of like diameter are found to be experimentally indistinguishable. The present results are analyzed using density functional theory under the local-density approximation by implementing a charge-patching method. The higher-level theoretical analysis finds the general existence of a threshold diameter, above which dot and wire band gaps converge. The origin and magnitude of this threshold diameter is discussed.

  2. Quantum confinement-tunable intersystem crossing and the triplet state lifetime of cationic porphyrin–CdTe quantum dot nano-assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ghada H.

    2015-03-27

    Here, we report a ground-state interaction between the positively charged cationic porphyrin and the negatively charged carboxylate groups of the thiol ligands on the surface of CdTe quantum dots (QDs), leading to the formation of a stable nanoassembly between the two components. Our time-resolved data clearly demonstrate that we can dramatically tune the intersystem crossing (ISC) and the triplet state lifetime of porphyrin by changing the size of the QDs in the nanoassembly.

  3. Design of tunneling injection quantum dot lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Guo-zhi; YAO Jiang-hong; SHU Yong-chun; WANG Zhan-guo

    2007-01-01

    To implement high quality tunneling injection quantum dot lasers,effects of primary factors on performance of the tunneling injection quantum dot lasers were investigated. The considered factors were tunneling probability,tunneling time and carriers thermal escape time from the quantum well. The calculation results show that with increasing of the ground-state energy level in quantum well,the tunneling probability increases and the tunneling time decreases,while the thermal escape time decreases because the ground-state energy levelis shallower. Longitudinal optical phonon-assisted tunneling can be an effective method to solve the problem that both the tunneling time and the thermal escape time decrease simultaneously with the ground-state energy level increasing in quantum well.

  4. Angiogenic Profiling of Synthesized Carbon Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shereema, R M; Sruthi, T V; Kumar, V B Sameer; Rao, T P; Shankar, S Sharath

    2015-10-20

    A simple method was employed for the synthesis of green luminescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from styrene soot. The CQDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The prepared carbon quantum dots did not show cellular toxicity and could successfully be used for labeling cells. We also evaluated the effects of carbon quantum dots on the process of angiogenesis. Results of a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay revealed the significant decrease in the density of branched vessels after their treatment with CQDs. Further application of CQDs significantly downregulated the expression levels of pro-angiogenic growth factors like VEGF and FGF. Expression of VEGFR2 and levels of hemoglobin were also significantly lower in CAMs treated with CQDs, indicating that the CQDs inhibit angiogenesis. Data presented here also show that CQDs can selectively target cancer cells and therefore hold potential in the field of cancer therapy.

  5. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  6. Resonant tunneling in graphene pseudomagnetic quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, D A; Pereira, Vitor M; Park, Harold S; Campbell, D K; Neto, A H Castro

    2013-06-12

    Realistic relaxed configurations of triaxially strained graphene quantum dots are obtained from unbiased atomistic mechanical simulations. The local electronic structure and quantum transport characteristics of y-junctions based on such dots are studied, revealing that the quasi-uniform pseudomagnetic field induced by strain restricts transport to Landau level- and edge state-assisted resonant tunneling. Valley degeneracy is broken in the presence of an external field, allowing the selective filtering of the valley and chirality of the states assisting in the resonant tunneling. Asymmetric strain conditions can be explored to select the exit channel of the y-junction.

  7. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  8. Effects of cell cycle on the uptake of water soluble quantum dots by cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shen; Chen, Ji-Yao; Wang, Jun-Yong; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Peng, Qian

    2011-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) with excellent optical properties have become powerful candidates for cell imaging. Although numerous reports have studied the uptake of QDs by cells, little information exists on the effects of cell cycle on the cellular QD uptake. In this report, the effects of cell cycle on the uptake of water soluble thiol-capped CdTe QDs by the human cervical carcinoma Hela cell line, human hepatocellular carcinoma QGY7701 cell line, and human embryonic kidney 293T cell line were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. All three cell lines show to take up CdTe QDs via endocytosis. After arresting cells at specific phases with pharmacological agents, the cells in G2/M phase take up the most CdTe QDs, probably due to an increased membrane expansion during mitosis; whereas the cells in G1 phase do the least. A mathematical physics model was built to calculate the relative uptake rates of CdTe QDs by cells in different phases of the cell cycle, with the result as the uptake rate in G2/M phase is 2-4 times higher than that in G1 phase for these three cell lines. The results obtained from this study may provide the information useful for intracellular delivery of QDs.

  9. Cyclic voltammetry as a sensitive method for in situ probing of chemical transformations in quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipovich, Nikolai P; Poznyak, Sergei K; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Gaponik, Nikolai

    2016-04-21

    The application of electrochemical methods for the characterization of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) attracts considerable attention as these methods may allow for monitoring of some crucial parameters, such as energetic levels of conduction and valence bands as well as surface traps and ligands under real conditions of colloidal solution. In the present work we extend the applications of cyclic voltammetry (CV) to in situ monitoring of degradation processes of water-soluble CdTe QDs. This degradation occurs under lowering of pH to the values around 5, i.e. under conditions relevant to bioimaging applications of these QDs, and is accompanied by pronounced changes of their photoluminescence. Observed correlations between characteristic features of CV diagrams and the fluorescence spectra allowed us to propose mechanisms responsible for evolution of the photoluminescence properties as well as degradation pathway of CdTe QDs at low pH.

  10. A Polaron in a Quantum Dot Quantum Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; XIE HongJing; CHEN ChuanYu

    2002-01-01

    The polaron effect in a quantum dot quantum well (QDQW)system is investigated by using the perturbation method. Both the bound electron states outside and inside the shell well are taken into account . Numerical calculation on the CdS/HgS QDQW shows that the phonon correction to the electron ground state energy is quite significant and cannot be neglected.

  11. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  12. THz quantum-confined Stark effect in semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, Boris S.; Livshits, Daniil A.;

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate an instantaneous all-optical manipulation of optical absorption at the ground state of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) via a quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) induced by the electric field of incident THz pulses with peak electric fields reaching 200 kV/cm in the free space...

  13. Probing silicon quantum dots by single-dot techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychugov, Ilya; Valenta, Jan; Linnros, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Silicon nanocrystals represent an important class of non-toxic, heavy-metal free quantum dots, where the high natural abundance of silicon is an additional advantage. Successful development in mass-fabrication, starting from porous silicon to recent advances in chemical and plasma synthesis, opens up new possibilities for applications in optoelectronics, bio-imaging, photovoltaics, and sensitizing areas. In this review basic physical properties of silicon nanocrystals revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy, lifetime, intensity trace and electrical measurements on individual nanoparticles are summarized. The fabrication methods developed for accessing single Si nanocrystals are also reviewed. It is concluded that silicon nanocrystals share many of the properties of direct bandgap nanocrystals exhibiting sharp emission lines at low temperatures, on/off blinking, spectral diffusion etc. An analysis of reported results is provided in comparison with theory and with direct bandgap material quantum dots. In addition, the role of passivation and inherent interface/matrix defects is discussed.

  14. Semiconductor nanowires self-assembled from colloidal CdTe nanocrystal building blocks: optical properties and application perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    RAKOVICH, YURY; DONEGAN, JOHN FRANCIS

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Solution-based self-assembly of quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures (nanowires) from quasi-zero-dimensional (quantum dots) colloidal nanocrystal building blocks has proven itself as a powerful and flexible preparation technique. Polycrystalline CdTe nanowires self-assembled from light-emitting thiol-capped CdTe nanocrystals are the focus of this Feature Article. These nanowires represent an interesting model system for quantum dot solids, where electronic coupling ...

  15. Semiconductor nanowires self-assembled from colloidal CdTe nanocrystal building blocks: optical properties and application perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rakovich, Yury P.; Jäckel, Frank; Donegan, John F.; Rogach, Andrey L

    2012-01-01

    Solution-based self-assembly of quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures (nanowires) from quasi-zero-dimensional (quantum dots) colloidal nanocrystal building blocks has proven itself as a powerful and flexible preparation technique. Polycrystalline CdTe nanowires self-assembled from light-emitting thiol-capped CdTe nanocrystals are the focus of this Feature Article. These nanowires represent an interesting model system for quantum dot solids, where electronic coupling between the i...

  16. Local Gate Control of a Carbon Nanotube Double Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Nanotube Double Quantum Dot N. Mason,*† M. J. Biercuk,* C. M. Marcus† We have measured carbon nanotube quantum dots with multiple electro- static gates and...used the resulting enhanced control to investigate a nano- tube double quantum dot. Transport measurements reveal honeycomb charge stability diagrams...This ability to control electron interactions in the quantum regime in a molecular conductor is important for applications such as quantum

  17. Water soluble reduced graphene oxide as an efficient photoluminescence quencher for semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiping; Sun, Luwei; He, Haiping

    2017-02-01

    Chemically derived water soluble reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized via a two-step reduction approach assisted with sulfonation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the removal of oxygen-related groups from GO. The obtained rGO can effectively quench the photoluminescence (PL) of CdTe quantum dots. Concentration- and volume-dependent quenching behaviors are investigated to reveal the quenching mechanism. The Stern-Volmer plot shows exponential dependence on the rGO concentration, indicating that "sphere of action" model works when the extent of quenching is large.

  18. Quantum dots as optical labels for ultrasensitive detection of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshath, Uchangi Satyaprasad; Shubha, Likitha R; Bhatt, Praveena; Thakur, Munna Singh

    2014-07-15

    Considering the fact that polyphenols have versatile activity in-vivo, its detection and quantification is very much important for a healthy diet. Laccase enzyme can convert polyphenols to yield mono/polyquinones which can quench Quantum dots fluorescence. This phenomenon of charge transfer from quinones to QDs was exploited as optical labels to detect polyphenols. CdTe QD may undergo dipolar interaction with quinones as a result of broad spectral absorption due to multiple excitonic states resulting from quantum confinement effects. Thus, "turn-off" fluorescence method was applied for ultrasensitive detection of polyphenols by using laccase. We observed proportionate quenching of QDs fluorescence with respect to polyphenol concentration in the range of 100 µg to 1 ng/mL. Also, quenching of the photoluminescence was highly efficient and stable and could detect individual and total polyphenols with high sensitivity (LOD-1 ng/mL). Moreover, proposed method was highly efficient than any other reported methods in terms of sensitivity, specificity and selectivity. Therefore, a novel optical sensor was developed for the detection of polyphenols at a sensitive level based on the charge transfer mechanism.

  19. Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...... to resolve luminescence lines from individual quantum dots, revealing an atomic-like spectrum of sharp transition lines. A parameter of fundamental importance is the intrinsic linewidth of these transitions. Using high-resolution spectroscopy we have determined the linewidth and investigated its dependence...... on temperature, which gives information about how the exciton confined to the quantum dot interacts with the surrounding lattice....

  20. Nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in distant cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Tao; Zhu Ai-Dong; Zhang Shou

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for implementing nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in cavities is proposed.By modulating the parameters of the system,the optimal 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning machine,1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning machine,and 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning machine are constructed.The present scheme,which is attainable with current technology,saves two qubits compared with previous cloning machines.

  1. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Neetu, E-mail: singh.neetu1985@gmail.com; Kapoor, Avinashi [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-110 021 (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Mehra, R. M. [School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida-201 306, U.P. (India)

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  2. Charged-Exciton Complexes in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2001-01-01

    It is known experimentally that stable charged-exciton complexes can exist in low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures. Much less is known about the properties of such charged-exciton complexes since three-body problems are very difficult to be solved, even numerically. Here we introduce the correlated hyperspherical harmonics as basis functions to solve the hyperangular equation for negatively and positively charged excitons (trions) in a harmonic quantum dot. By using this method, we have calculated the energy spectra of the low-lying states of a charged exciton as a function of the radius of quantum dot. Based on symmetry analysis, the level crossover as the dot radius increases can be fully explained as the results of symmetry constraint.``

  3. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  4. Enabling biomedical research with designer quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Janczewski, D.; Dorokhin, D.V.; Han, M-Y; Vancso, G.J.; Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are a new class of semiconductor nanoparticulate luminophores, which are actively researched for novel applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this review, the recent progress in the design and applications of QD labels for in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells is presented.

  5. Electron Scattering in Intrananotube Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchs, G.; Bercioux, D.; Ruffieux, P.; Gröning, P.; Grabert, H.; Gröning, O.

    2009-01-01

    Intratube quantum dots showing particle-in-a-box-like states with level spacings up to 200 meV are realized in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes by means of low dose medium energy Ar+ irradiation. Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy compared to results of a Fabry-Perot electron r

  6. Quantum dot waveguides: ultrafast dynamics and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyze, based on numerical simulations, the dynamics of semiconductor devices incorporating quantum dots (QDs). In particular we emphasize the unique ultrafast carrier dynamics occurring between discrete QD bound states, and its influence on QD semiconductor optical amplifiers...... (SOAs). Also the possibility of realizing an all-optical regenerator by incorporating a QD absorber section in an amplifier structure is discussed....

  7. Decoherence in Nearly-Isolated Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.; Harris jr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Decoherence in nearly-isolated GaAs quantum dots is investigated using the change in average Coulomb blockade peak height upon breaking time-reversal symmetry. The normalized change in average peak height approaches the predicted universal value of 1/4 at temperatures well below the single...

  8. System and method for making quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments, the QDs produced using embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in solar photovoltaic cells, bio-imaging, IR emitters, or LEDs.

  9. Saturating optical resonances in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Selvakumar V.; Rustagi, K. C.

    Optical bistability in quantum dots, recently proposed by Chemla and Miller, is studied in a two-resonance model. We show that for such classical electromagnetic resonances the applicability of a two-resonance model is far more restrictive than for those in atoms.

  10. Single Molecule Applications of Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Elmelund; Jauffred, Liselotte; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanocrystals composed of semiconductor materials were first introduced for biological applications in the late 1990s. The focus of this review is to give a brief survey of biological applications of quantum dots (QDs) at the single QD sensitivity level. These are described as follows:...

  11. Optical Properties of Quantum-Dot-Doped Liquid Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Aberle, C; Weiss, S; Winslow, L

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO.

  12. Quantum spin Hall effect in α -Sn /CdTe(001 ) quantum-well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küfner, Sebastian; Matthes, Lars; Bechstedt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    The electronic and topological properties of heterovalent and heterocrystalline α -Sn/CdTe(001) quantum wells (QWs) are studied in dependence on the thickness of α -Sn by means of ab initio calculations. We calculate the topological Z2 invariants of the respective bulk crystals, which identify α -Sn as strong three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TIs), whereas CdTe is a trivial insulator. We predict the existence of two-dimensional (2D) topological interface states between both materials and show that a topological phase transition from a trivial insulating phase into the quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase in the QW structures occurs at much higher thicknesses than in the HgTe case. The QSH effect is characterized by the localization, dispersion, and spin polarization of the topological interface states. We address the distinction of the 3D and 2D TI characters of the studied QW structures, which is inevitable for an understanding of the underlying quantum state of matter. The 3D TI nature is characterized by two-dimensional topological interface states, while the 2D phase exhibits one-dimensional edge states. The two different state characteristics are often intermixed in the discussion of the topology of 2D QW structures, especially, the comparison of ab initio calculations and experimental transport studies.

  13. Probing the quantum-classical connection with open quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, D. K.; Akis, R.; Brunner, R.

    2015-10-01

    Open quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both classical and quantum features of transport. From the classical point of view these dots possess a mixed phase space which yields families of closed, regular orbits as well as an expansive sea of chaos. As a closed test bed, they provide a natural system with a very rich set of eigen-states. When coupled to the environment through a pair of quantum point contacts, each of which passes several modes, the original quantum environment evolves into a set of decoherent and coherent states, which eventually couple to the classical states discussed above. The manner of this connection is governed strongly by decoherence theory. The remaining coherent states possess all the properties of pointer states. Here, we discuss the quantum-classical connection and how it appears within the experimental world.

  14. Quantum Dots and Their Multimodal Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Holloway

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting quantum dots, whose particle sizes are in the nanometer range, have very unusual properties. The quantum dots have band gaps that depend in a complicated fashion upon a number of factors, described in the article. Processing-structure-properties-performance relationships are reviewed for compound semiconducting quantum dots. Various methods for synthesizing these quantum dots are discussed, as well as their resulting properties. Quantum states and confinement of their excitons may shift their optical absorption and emission energies. Such effects are important for tuning their luminescence stimulated by photons (photoluminescence or electric field (electroluminescence. In this article, decoupling of quantum effects on excitation and emission are described, along with the use of quantum dots as sensitizers in phosphors. In addition, we reviewed the multimodal applications of quantum dots, including in electroluminescence device, solar cell and biological imaging.

  15. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon

    2015-11-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals\\' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.

  16. Light emission from Si quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe M. Fauchet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Si quantum dots (QDs as small as ∼2 nm in diameter have been synthesized by a variety of techniques. Because of quantum confinement and the elimination of bulk or surface defects, these dots can emit light from the near infrared throughout the visible with quantum efficiencies in excess of 10%. The luminescence wavelength range has been extended to longer wavelengths by the addition of light-emitting rare earths such as erbium (Er. Light-emitting devices (LEDs have been fabricated and their performances are starting to approach those of direct band gap semiconductor or organic LEDs. A search for a Si QD-based laser is even under way. The state-of-the-art in the materials science, physics, and device development of luminescent Si QDs is reviewed and areas of future research are pointed out.

  17. One-pot synthesis of stable water soluble Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hao; Gao Xue; Liu Siyu; Su Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell-doped quantum dots (d-dots) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the stabilizer are successfully synthesized through a simple one-pot synthesis procedure in aqueous solution. The average diameter of Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots is about 2.9 nm, which is lager than that of Mn:ZnSe cores (about 1.9 nm). The optical features and structure of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots have been characterized by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photostability against UV irradiation and chemical stability against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} etching have been studied, and the results showed that the prepared Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots are more stable than CdTe quantum dots prepared in aqueous solution. Finally, the resulting core/shell quantum dots are used as fluorescent label in human osteoblast-like HepG2 cell imaging.

  18. Concentration and size dependence of peak wavelength shift on quantum dots in colloidal suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Benjamin S.; Cao, Caroline G. L.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that have significant advantages over organic fluorophores, including their extremely narrow Gaussian emission bands and broad absorption bands. Thus, QDs have a wide range of potential applications, such as in quantum computing, photovoltaic cells, biological sensing, and electronics. For these applications, aliasing provides a detrimental effect on signal identification efficiency. This can be avoided through characterization of the QD fluorescence signals. Characterization of the emissivity of CdTe QDs as a function of concentration (1 to 10 mg/ml aqueous) was conducted on 12 commercially available CdTe QDs (emission peaks 550 to 730 nm). The samples were excited by a 50-mW 405-nm laser with emission collected via a free-space CCD spectrometer. All QDs showed a redshift effect as concentration increased. On average, the CdTe QDs exhibited a maximum shift of +35.6 nm at 10 mg/ml and a minimum shift of +27.24 nm at 1 mg/ml, indicating a concentration dependence for shift magnitude. The concentration-dependent redshift function can be used to predict emission response as QD concentration is changed in a complex system.

  19. Quantum Size- Dependent Third- Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ting; XIONG Gui-guang

    2005-01-01

    The density matrix approach has been employed to investigate the optical nonlinear polarization in a single semiconductor quantum dot(QD). Electron states are considered to be confined within a quantum dot with infinite potential barriers. It is shown, by numerical calculation, that the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities for a typical Si quantum dot is dependent on the quantum size of the quantum dot and the frequency of incident light.

  20. Sensitivity of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers to optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G; Uskov, A V

    2004-05-15

    The sensitivity of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers to optical feedback is analyzed with a Lang-Kobayashi approach applied to a standard quantum-dot laser model. The carriers are injected into a quantum well and are captured by, or escape from, the quantum dots through either carrier-carrier or phonon-carrier interaction. Because of Pauli blocking, the capture rate into the dots depends on the carrier occupancy level in the dots. Here we show that different carrier capture dynamics lead to a strong modification of the damping of the relaxation oscillations. Regions of increased damping display reduced sensitivity to optical feedback even for a relatively large alpha factor.

  1. High-resolution photoluminescence studies of single semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots, especially those formed by self-organized growth, are considered a promising material system for future optical devices [1] and the optical properties of quantum dot ensembles have been investigated in detail over the past years. Recently, considerable interest has...... developed in the study of single quantum dots, characterized by sharp atomic-like transition lines revealing their zero-dimensional density of states. Substantial information about the fundamental properties of individual quantum dots, as well as their interactions with other dots and the host lattice, can...

  2. Coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian;

    . An alternative approach is to couple the quantum dot directly to the propagating mode of a photonic waveguide. We demonstrate the coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide using time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements. A pronounced effect is seen in the decay rates of dots coupled...

  3. Local Quantum Dot Tuning on Photonic Crystal Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Faraon, Andrei; Fushman, Ilya; Stoltz, Nick; Petroff, Pierre; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Quantum networks based on InGaAs quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal devices rely on QDs being in resonance with each other and with the cavities they are embedded in. We developed a new technique based on temperature tuning to spectrally align different quantum dots located on the same chip. The technique allows for up to 1.8nm reversible on-chip quantum dot tuning.

  4. Ratiometric fluorescent paper sensor utilizing hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots for the visual determination of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yahui; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xiaochun; Yang, Bo; Yang, Liang; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-03-21

    A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu(2+) has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu(2+), while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a microporous membrane, which provides a convenient and simple approach for the visual detection of Cu(2+). Therefore, the as-synthesized probe shows great potential application for the determination of Cu(2+) in real samples.

  5. Mitigation of quantum dot cytotoxicity by microencapsulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Romoser

    Full Text Available When CdSe/ZnS-polyethyleneimine (PEI quantum dots (QDs are microencapsulated in polymeric microcapsules, human fibroblasts are protected from acute cytotoxic effects. Differences in cellular morphology, uptake, and viability were assessed after treatment with either microencapsulated or unencapsulated dots. Specifically, QDs contained in microcapsules terminated with polyethylene glycol (PEG mitigate contact with and uptake by cells, thus providing a tool to retain particle luminescence for applications such as extracellular sensing and imaging. The microcapsule serves as the "first line of defense" for containing the QDs. This enables the individual QD coating to be designed primarily to enhance the function of the biosensor.

  6. An ultrasensitive method for the determination of melamine using cadmium telluride quantum dots as fluorescence probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiafei; Li, Jin; Kuang, Huiyan; Feng, Lei; Yi, Shoujun; Xia, Xiaodong; Huang, Haowen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Simulation of Ministry of Education of China, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Chen, Yong; Tang, Chunran [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Zeng, Yunlong, E-mail: yunlongzeng1955@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Simulation of Ministry of Education of China, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: Melamine takes place of the TGA on the surface of TGA-CdTe QDs with negative charge to form melamine coated QDs changing the surface charge of the QDs, resulting the fluorescence quenched as the QDs aggregation occurred by electrostatic attraction of the two opposite charged nanocrystals. -- Highlights: •An ultrasensitive and selective method for the determination of melamine was developed at pH 11.0. •The selectivity of the method was improved. •The sensitivity of the method enhanced obviously as the CdTe QDs have higher QYs at pH 11. •The sensitivity and linear range for the analysis are size dependent using QDs PL probes. •Melamine takes the place of TGA resulting fluorescence quenched of QDs. -- Abstract: An ultrasensitive and simple method for the determination of melamine was developed based on the fluorescence quenching of thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) at pH 11.0. In strong alkaline aqueous solution, the selectivity of the method has been greatly improved due to most heavy metal ions show no interference as they are in the precipitation form or in their anion form. Furthermore, CdTe quantum dots have higher quantum yields at higher pH. The method has a wider concentration range and lower detection limit. The influence factors on the determination of melamine were investigated and the optimum conditions were determined. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity change of TGA coated CdTe quantum dots was linearly proportional to melamine over a concentration range from 1.0 × 10{sup −11} to 1.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} with a correlation coefficient of 0.9943 and a detection limit of 5 × 10{sup −12} mol L{sup −1}. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching of the QDs has been proposed based on the infrared spectroscopy information and electrophoresis experiments in presence of melamine under alkaline condition. The proposed method was employed to detect trace melamine in milk powder

  7. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-10-05

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  8. Quantum Computation Using Optically Coupled Quantum Dot Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, K. L.; Roychowhury, V. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A solid state model for quantum computation has potential advantages in terms of the ease of fabrication, characterization, and integration. The fundamental requirements for a quantum computer involve the realization of basic processing units (qubits), and a scheme for controlled switching and coupling among the qubits, which enables one to perform controlled operations on qubits. We propose a model for quantum computation based on optically coupled quantum dot arrays, which is computationally similar to the atomic model proposed by Cirac and Zoller. In this model, individual qubits are comprised of two coupled quantum dots, and an array of these basic units is placed in an optical cavity. Switching among the states of the individual units is done by controlled laser pulses via near field interaction using the NSOM technology. Controlled rotations involving two or more qubits are performed via common cavity mode photon. We have calculated critical times, including the spontaneous emission and switching times, and show that they are comparable to the best times projected for other proposed models of quantum computation. We have also shown the feasibility of accessing individual quantum dots using the NSOM technology by calculating the photon density at the tip, and estimating the power necessary to perform the basic controlled operations. We are currently in the process of estimating the decoherence times for this system; however, we have formulated initial arguments which seem to indicate that the decoherence times will be comparable, if not longer, than many other proposed models.

  9. Entrapment in phospholipid vesicles quenches photoactivity of quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Generalov R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Roman Generalov1,2, Simona Kavaliauskiene1, Sara Westrøm1, Wei Chen3, Solveig Kristensen2, Petras Juzenas11Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 2School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USAAbstract: Quantum dots have emerged with great promise for biological applications as fluorescent markers for immunostaining, labels for intracellular trafficking, and photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. However, upon entry into a cell, quantum dots are trapped and their fluorescence is quenched in endocytic vesicles such as endosomes and lysosomes. In this study, the photophysical properties of quantum dots were investigated in liposomes as an in vitro vesicle model. Entrapment of quantum dots in liposomes decreases their fluorescence lifetime and intensity. Generation of free radicals by liposomal quantum dots is inhibited compared to that of free quantum dots. Nevertheless, quantum dot fluorescence lifetime and intensity increases due to photolysis of liposomes during irradiation. In addition, protein adsorption on the quantum dot surface and the acidic environment of vesicles also lead to quenching of quantum dot fluorescence, which reappears during irradiation. In conclusion, the in vitro model of phospholipid vesicles has demonstrated that those quantum dots that are fated to be entrapped in endocytic vesicles lose their fluorescence and ability to act as photosensitizers.Keywords: fluorescence lifetime, free radicals, liposomes, lipodots, reactive oxygen species

  10. Entrapment in phospholipid vesicles quenches photoactivity of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalov, Roman; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Westrøm, Sara; Chen, Wei; Kristensen, Solveig; Juzenas, Petras

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots have emerged with great promise for biological applications as fluorescent markers for immunostaining, labels for intracellular trafficking, and photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. However, upon entry into a cell, quantum dots are trapped and their fluorescence is quenched in endocytic vesicles such as endosomes and lysosomes. In this study, the photophysical properties of quantum dots were investigated in liposomes as an in vitro vesicle model. Entrapment of quantum dots in liposomes decreases their fluorescence lifetime and intensity. Generation of free radicals by liposomal quantum dots is inhibited compared to that of free quantum dots. Nevertheless, quantum dot fluorescence lifetime and intensity increases due to photolysis of liposomes during irradiation. In addition, protein adsorption on the quantum dot surface and the acidic environment of vesicles also lead to quenching of quantum dot fluorescence, which reappears during irradiation. In conclusion, the in vitro model of phospholipid vesicles has demonstrated that those quantum dots that are fated to be entrapped in endocytic vesicles lose their fluorescence and ability to act as photosensitizers.

  11. Studies of silicon quantum dots prepared at different substrate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agel, Faisal A.; Suleiman, Jamal; Khan, Shamshad A.

    2017-03-01

    In this research work, we have synthesized silicon quantum dots at different substrate temperatures 193, 153 and 123 K at a fixed working pressure 5 Torr. of Argon gas. The structural studies of these silicon quantum dots have been undertaken using X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The optical and electrical properties have been studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy and I-V measurement system. X-ray diffraction pattern of Si quantum dots prepared at different temperatures show the amorphous nature except for the quantum dots synthesized at 193 K which shows polycrystalline nature. FESEM images of samples suggest that the size of quantum dots varies from 2 to 8 nm. On the basis of UV-visible spectroscopy measurements, a direct band gap has been observed for Si quantum dots. FTIR spectra suggest that as-grown Si quantum dots are partially oxidized which is due exposure of as-prepared samples to air after taking out from the chamber. PL spectra of the synthesized silicon quantum dots show an intense peak at 444 nm, which may be attributed to the formation of Si quantum dots. Temperature dependence of dc conductivity suggests that the dc conductivity enhances exponentially by raising the temperature. On the basis above properties i.e. direct band gap, high absorption coefficient and high conductivity, these silicon quantum dots will be useful for the fabrication of solar cells.

  12. Peptide-Decorated Tunable-Fluorescence Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Bedanga; Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Liang, Wentao; Champion, Paul; Wanunu, Meni

    2017-03-22

    We report here the synthesis of graphene quantum dots with tunable size, surface chemistry, and fluorescence properties. In the size regime 15-35 nm, these quantum dots maintain strong visible light fluorescence (mean quantum yield of 0.64) and a high two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section (6500 Göppert-Mayer units). Furthermore, through noncovalent tailoring of the chemistry of these quantum dots, we obtain water-stable quantum dots. For example, quantum dots with lysine groups bind strongly to DNA in solution and inhibit polymerase-based DNA strand synthesis. Finally, by virtue of their mesoscopic size, the quantum dots exhibit good cell permeability into living epithelial cells, but they do not enter the cell nucleus.

  13. Single quantum dots fundamentals, applications, and new concepts

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapid growing field of semiconductor quantum dots by contributions from some of the most prominent researchers in the field. Special focus is given to the optical and electronic properties of single quantum dots due to their potential applications in devices operating with single electrons and/or single photons. This includes quantum dots in electric and magnetic fields, cavity-quantum electrodynamics, nonclassical light generation, and coherent optical control of excitons. Single Quantum Dots also addresses various growth techniques as well as potential device applications such as quantum dot lasers, and new concepts like a single-photon source, and a single quantum dot laser.

  14. Principles of conjugating quantum dots to proteins via carbodiimide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fayi; Chan, Warren C W

    2011-12-09

    The covalent coupling of nanomaterials to bio-recognition molecules is a critical intermediate step in using nanomaterials for biology and medicine. Here we investigate the carbodiimide-mediated conjugation of fluorescent quantum dots to different proteins (e.g., immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin, and horseradish peroxidase). To enable these studies, we developed a simple method to isolate quantum dot bioconjugates from unconjugated quantum dots. The results show that the reactant concentrations and protein type will impact the overall number of proteins conjugated onto the surfaces of the quantum dots, homogeneity of the protein-quantum dot conjugate population, quantum efficiency, binding avidity, and enzymatic kinetics. We propose general principles that should be followed for the successful coupling of proteins to quantum dots.

  15. Mode Competition in Dual-Mode Quantum Dots Semiconductor Microlaser

    CERN Document Server

    Chusseau, Laurent; Viktorovitch, P; Letartre, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of quantum dots lasers with the aim of assessing the conditions for stable cw dual-mode operation when the mode separation lies in the THz range. Several possible models suited for InAs quantum dots in InP barriers are analytically evaluated, in particular quantum dots electrically coupled through a direct exchange of excitation by the wetting layer or quantum dots optically coupled through the homogeneous broadening of their optical gain. A stable dual-mode regime is shown possible in all cases when quantum dots are used as active layer whereas a gain medium of quantum well or bulk type inevitably leads to bistable behavior. The choice of a quantum dots gain medium perfectly matched the production of dual-mode lasers devoted to THz generation by photomixing.

  16. Probing relaxation times in graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Christian; Neumann, Christoph; Kazarski, Sebastian; Fringes, Stefan; Engels, Stephan; Haupt, Federica; Müller, André; Stampfer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum bits. In fact, the predicted weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interaction promise spin qubits with long coherence times. Graphene quantum dots have been extensively investigated with respect to their excitation spectrum, spin-filling sequence and electron-hole crossover. However, their relaxation dynamics remain largely unexplored. This is mainly due to challenges in device fabrication, in particular concerning the control of carrier confinement and the tunability of the tunnelling barriers, both crucial to experimentally investigate decoherence times. Here we report pulsed-gate transient current spectroscopy and relaxation time measurements of excited states in graphene quantum dots. This is achieved by an advanced device design that allows to individually tune the tunnelling barriers down to the low megahertz regime, while monitoring their asymmetry. Measuring transient currents through electronic excited states, we estimate a lower bound for charge relaxation times on the order of 60–100 ns. PMID:23612294

  17. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and electrochemical biosensing of glucose on quantum dots/carbon nanotubes electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Lu, Xianbo; Li, Jun; Yao, Xin; Li, Jinghong

    2007-06-15

    Because of their unique chemical, physical and electronic properties, Quantum dots (QDs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are now extremely attractive and important nanomaterials in bioanalytical applications. In this work, CdTe QDs with the size of about 3 nm were prepared and a novel electrochemical biosensing platform of glucose based on CdTe/CNTs electrode was explored. This CdTe/CNTs electrode was prepared by first mixing CdTe QDs, CNTs, Nafion, and glucose oxidase (GOD) in appropriate amounts and then modifying this mixture on the glass carbon electrode (GC). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the dispersion of CdTe QDs on carbon nanotubes and cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of the CdTe/CNTs electrode. A pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks of glucose oxidase were obtained at the CdTe/CNTs based enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and the electrode. The immobilized glucose oxidase could retain bioactivity and catalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen. Due to the synergy between the CdTe QDs and CNTs, this novel biosensing platform based on QDs/CNTs electrode responded even more sensitively than that based on GC electrode modified by CdTe QDs or CNTs alone. The inexpensive, reliable and sensitive sensing platform based on QDs/CNTs electrode provides wide potential applications in clinical, environmental, and food analysis.

  18. Ligand exchange on the surface of cadmium telluride quantum dots with fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyun; Zhang, Hongxia; Lu, Chao; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-01-01

    CdTe quantum dots (QDs) can provide high-intensity and photostable luminescent signals when they are used as labeling materials for sensing trace amounts of bioanalytes. However, a major concern is whether the capping ligands of CdTe QDs cause toxic effects in living systems. In the current study, we address this problem through the complete ligand transformation of CdTe QDs from toxic thiolglycolic acid (TGA) to green citrate, which is attributed to the Cd-S bond breaking and the Au-S bond formation. The highly efficient depletion of S atom from the surface of the CdTe QDs occurs after the addition of fluorosurfactant (FSN)-capped gold nanoparticles into TGA-capped CdTe QDs, accompanying with the rapid aggregation of FSN-capped gold nanoparticles via noncrosslinking mechanism in the presence of high salt. After the ligand transformation, negligible differences are observed on both photoluminescence spectra and luminescent quantum yield. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the original and new-born CdTe QDs is detected by measuring cell viability after the nanoparticle treatment. In comparison with the original TGA-capped QDs, the new-born CdTe QDs can induce minimal cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells even at high dosages. Our study indicates that the extremely simple method herein opens up novel pathways for the synthesis of green CdTe QDs, and the as-prepared citrate-capped CdTe QDs might have great potential for biological labeling and imaging applications.

  19. 精氨酸-甘氨酸-天冬氨酸与核糖核酸酶修饰碲化镉量子点探针对黑素瘤A375细胞的靶向研究%Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-and RNase A-conjugated CdTe quantum dot-based nanoprobes for active targeting of human A375 malignant melanoma cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓罡; 张振; 费烨; 陈向东

    2013-01-01

    Objective To prepare arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-and ribonuclease A (RNase A)-conjugated CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoprobes,and to observe their capability to target human A375 malignant melanoma cells.Methods RNase A-modified CdTe quantum dots (CdTe RQDs) were obtained by using a microwave-based heating method,and then chemically conjugated to the RGD peptide to prepare RGD-CdTe RQD nanoprobes,which were then physically and chemically characterized by transmission electron microscopy,powder crystal diffraction,fluorescence spectrophotometry,and ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry.A375 cells were cultured in vitro and incubated with various concentrations (20,40,80 nmol/L) of RGD-CdTe RQD nanoprobes for different durations (12,24,36,72 hours).Then,methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was conducted to estimate the proliferative activity of A375 cells.To observe the targeting capability of RGD-CdTe RQD nanoprobes,A375 cells were treated with RGD-CdTe RQD nanoprobes at the concentration determined by MTT assay for one hour followed by laser confocal microscopy.Results CdTe RQDs with good dispersion and biocompatibility were obtained by using a microwave-based heating method,and then successfully conjugated to the RGD peptide to form RGD-CdTe RQD nanoprobes.The treatment with RGD-CdTe RQDs of 20 nmol/L for 12 hours exhibited the weakest effect on the proliferative activity of A375 cells,and hence,20 nmol/L was selected for the fluorescence imaging assay.Laser confocal microscopy revealed that RGD-CdTe RQD nanoprobes were able to actively target A375 cells.Conclusion RGD-CdTe RQD nanoprobes with a favorable capability to actively target A375 cells are successfully prepared in this study.%目的 制备精氨酸-甘氨酸-天冬氨酸(RGD)与核糖核酸酶(RNase A)修饰的碲化镉(CdTe)量子点(quantum dot,QDs)的纳米探针,观察其对恶性黑素瘤A375细胞的靶向效果.方法 利用微波加热方法得到核糖核酸酶修

  20. A Quick and Parallel Analytical Method Based on Quantum Dots Labeling for ToRCH-Related Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ding

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantum dot is a special kind of nanomaterial composed of periodic groups of II–VI, III–V or IV–VI materials. Their high quantum yield, broad absorption with narrow photoluminescence spectra and high resistance to photobleaching, make them become a promising labeling substance in biological analysis. Here, we report a quick and parallel analytical method based on quantum dots for ToRCH-related antibodies including Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 and 2 (HSV2. Firstly, we fabricated the microarrays with the five kinds of ToRCH-related antigens and used CdTe quantum dots to label secondary antibody and then analyzed 100 specimens of randomly selected clinical sera from obstetric outpatients. The currently prevalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits were considered as “golden standard” for comparison. The results show that the quantum dots labeling-based ToRCH microarrays have comparable sensitivity and specificity with ELISA. Besides, the microarrays hold distinct advantages over ELISA test format in detection time, cost, operation and signal stability. Validated by the clinical assay, our quantum dots-based ToRCH microarrays have great potential in the detection of ToRCH-related pathogens.

  1. Barrier Li Quantum Dots in Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYi-Min; LIXiao-Zhu; YANWen-Hong; BAOCheng-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The methods for the few-body system are introduced to investigate the states of the barrier Li quantum dots (QDs) in an arbitrary strength of magnetic field. The configuration, which consists of a positive ion located on the z-axis at a distaneed from the two-dimensional QD plane (the x-y plane) and three electrons in the dot plane bound by the positive ion, is called a barrier Li center. The system, which consists of three electrons in the dot plane bound by the ion,is called a barrier Li QD. The dependence of energy of the state of the barrier Li QD on an external magnetic field B and the distance d is obtained. The angular momentum L of the ground states is found to jump not only with the variation orB but also with d.

  2. Identification of quantum dots labeled metallothionein by fast scanning laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konecna, Marie [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotny, Karel [Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, CZ-625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Krizkova, Sona [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Blazkova, Iva [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kopel, Pavel [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kaiser, Jozef [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, CZ-616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Hodek, Petr [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 2030/8, CZ-128 00 Prague,Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kizek, Rene [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-11-01

    The technique described in this paper allows detection of quantum dots (QDs) specifically deposited on the polystyrene surface by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Using LIBS, the distribution of QDs or their conjugates with biomolecules deposited on the surface can be observed, regardless of the fact if they exhibit fluorescence or not. QDs deposited on the specific surface of polystyrene microplate in the form of spots are detected by determination of the metal included in the QDs structure. Cd-containing QDs (CdS, CdTe) stabilized with mercaptopropionic (MPA) or mercaptosuccinic (MSA) acid, respectively, alone or in the form of conjugates with metallothionein (MT) biomolecule are determined by using the 508.58 nm Cd emission line. The observed absolute detection limit for Cd in CdTe QDs conjugates with MT in one spot was 3 ng Cd. Due to the high sensitivity of this technique, the immunoanalysis in combination with LIBS was also investigated. Cd spatial distribution in sandwich immunoassay was detected. - Highlights: • We describe determination of biomolecules labeled with quantum dots by LIBS. • LIBS and immunoassay are applied for the determination of metallothionein. • Metallothionein amount detected by LIBS is 10-times lower compared to ELISA.

  3. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Cadeddu, Davide; Teissier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We present an exploration of the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter's properties with the highest sensitivity, allowing...

  4. Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide;

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...

  5. Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity quantum dot laser

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Yiyang; Shambat, Gary; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James S; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The lasing behavior of one dimensional GaAs nanobeam cavities with embedded InAs quantum dots is studied at room temperature. Lasing is observed throughout the quantum dot PL spectrum, and the wavelength dependence of the threshold is calculated. We study the cavity lasers under both 780 nm and 980 nm pump, finding thresholds as low as 0.3 uW and 19 uW for the two pump wavelengths, respectively. Finally, the nanobeam cavity laser wavelengths are tuned by up to 7 nm by employing a fiber taper in near proximity to the cavities. The fiber taper is used both to efficiently pump the cavity and collect the cavity emission.

  6. Energy level statistics of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsau, Chien-Yu; Nghiem, Diu; Joynt, Robert; Woods Halley, J

    2007-05-08

    We investigate the charging energy level statistics of disordered interacting electrons in quantum dots by numerical calculations using the Hartree approximation. The aim is to obtain a global picture of the statistics as a function of disorder and interaction strengths. We find Poisson statistics at very strong disorder, Wigner-Dyson statistics for weak disorder and interactions, and a Gaussian intermediate regime. These regimes are as expected from previous studies and fundamental considerations, but we also find interesting and rather broad crossover regimes. In particular, intermediate between the Gaussian and Poisson regimes we find a two-sided exponential distribution for the energy level spacings. In comparing with experiment, we find that this distribution may be realized in some quantum dots.

  7. Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Pandey; Manoj K Harbola; V Ranjan; Vijay A Singh

    2003-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as ‘artificial atoms’ by some, they are much larger (1 100 nm) than real atoms. One can study a variety of manyelectron effects in them, which are otherwise difficult to observe in a real atom. We have treated these effects within the local density approximation (LDA) and the Harbola–Sahni (HS) scheme. HS is free of the selfinteraction error of the LDA. Our calculations have been performed in a three-dimensional quantum dot. We have carried out a study of the size and shape dependence of the level spacing. Scaling laws for the Hubbard ‘’ are established.

  8. Energy level statistics of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsau, C-Y [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nghiem, Diu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Joynt, Robert [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Halley, J Woods [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2007-05-08

    We investigate the charging energy level statistics of disordered interacting electrons in quantum dots by numerical calculations using the Hartree approximation. The aim is to obtain a global picture of the statistics as a function of disorder and interaction strengths. We find Poisson statistics at very strong disorder, Wigner-Dyson statistics for weak disorder and interactions, and a Gaussian intermediate regime. These regimes are as expected from previous studies and fundamental considerations, but we also find interesting and rather broad crossover regimes. In particular, intermediate between the Gaussian and Poisson regimes we find a two-sided exponential distribution for the energy level spacings. In comparing with experiment, we find that this distribution may be realized in some quantum dots.

  9. Energy level statistics of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsau, Chien-Yu; Nghiem, Diu; Joynt, Robert; Halley, J. Woods

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the charging energy level statistics of disordered interacting electrons in quantum dots by numerical calculations using the Hartree approximation. The aim is to obtain a global picture of the statistics as a function of disorder and interaction strengths. We find Poisson statistics at very strong disorder, Wigner-Dyson statistics for weak disorder and interactions, and a Gaussian intermediate regime. These regimes are as expected from previous studies and fundamental considerations, but we also find interesting and rather broad crossover regimes. In particular, intermediate between the Gaussian and Poisson regimes we find a two-sided exponential distribution for the energy level spacings. In comparing with experiment, we find that this distribution may be realized in some quantum dots.

  10. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Masala, Silvia

    2015-10-13

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Mehra, Neelesh K; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K

    2016-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have captured the fascination and attention of scientists due to their simultaneous targeting and imaging potential in drug delivery, in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In the present study, we have exhaustively reviewed various aspects of QDs, highlighting their pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, pharmacology, interactions, and toxicological manifestations. The eventual use of QDs is to dramatically improve clinical diagnostic tests for early detection of cancer. In recent years, QDs were introduced to cell biology as an alternative fluorescent probe.

  13. Depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhouse, D.A.R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY, 10598 (United States); Debnath, Ratan; Kramer, Illan J.; Zhitomirsky, David; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Quantum Solar Power Corporation, 1055 W. Hastings, Ste. 300, Vancouver, BC, V6E 2E9 (Canada); Etgar, Lioz; Graetzel, Michael [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-07-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between light and quantum-dot (QD) excitons is strongly influenced by the environment in which the QD is placed. We have investigated the interaction by measuring the time-resolved spontaneous-emission rate of QD excitons in different nanostructured environments. Thereby, we have...... is demonstrated and the influence of disorder is discussed. The findings have a strong bearing on future nanophotonic devices....

  15. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between light and quantum-dot (QD) excitons is strongly influenced by the environment in which the QD is placed. We have investigated the interaction by measuring the time-resolved spontaneous-emission rate of QD excitons in different nanostructured environments. Thereby, we have...... is demonstrated and the influence of disorder is discussed. The findings have a strong bearing on future nanophotonic devices....

  16. The pinning effect in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monisha, P. J., E-mail: pjmonisha@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, D V R College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad-502285 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The pinning effect is studied in a Gaussian quantum dot using the improved Wigner-Brillouin perturbation theory (IWBPT) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The electron ground state plus one phonon state is degenerate with the electron in the first excited state. The electron-phonon interaction lifts the degeneracy and the first excited states get pinned to the ground state plus one phonon state as we increase the confinement frequency.

  17. Thickness-Controllable Silica Coating of CdTe QDs by Reverse Microemulsion Method for the Application in the Growth of Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Aiwu Wang; Yuhong Zheng; Feng Peng

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis and surface modification of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and the application in the rice growth. Water-soluble thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilized CdTe quantum dots were synthesized firstly and then the surface modification was conducted. II–VI semiconductor nanocrystals prefer to be coated with silica as inert materials to improve their chemical properties. The toxicity of QDs reduced after the modification. Silica coated QDs were used in the growth of rice seed and...

  18. Electric and Magnetic Interaction between Quantum Dots and Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tighineanu, Petru

    a future challenge for the droplet-epitaxy technique. A multipolar theory of spontaneous emission from quantum dots is developed to explain the recent observation that In(Ga)As quantum dots break the dipole theory. The analysis yields a large mesoscopic moment, which contains magnetic-dipole and electric......-matter interaction of both electric and magnetic character. Our study demonstrates that In(Ga)As quantum dots lack parity symmetry and, as consequence, can be employed for locally probing the parity symmetry of complex photonic nanostructures. This opens the prospect for interfacing quantum dots with optical......The present thesis reports research on the optical properties of quantum dots by developing new theories and conducting optical measurements. We demonstrate experimentally singlephoton superradiance in interface-uctuation quantum dots by recording the temporal decay dynamics in conjunction...

  19. DLTS measurements on GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegner, Annika; Nowozin, Tobias; Marent, Andreas; Bimberg, Dieter [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Berlin (Germany); Tseng, Chi-Che [Institute of Photonics Technologies, NTHU (China); Lin, Shih-Yen [Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, NTOU (China)

    2010-07-01

    Memory devices based on hole storage in self-organized quantum dots offer significant advantages with respect to storage time and scalability. Recently, we demonstrated a first prototype based on InAs/GaAs quantum dots at low temperatures. To enable feasible storage times at room temperature the localisation energy of the quantum dots has to be increased by using other material systems. A first step in this direction is the use of GaSb quantum dots within a GaAs matrix. We have characterized self-organized GaSb/GaAs quantum dots embedded into a n{sup +}p-diode structure. DLTS measurements on hole emission were conducted and yield a strong peak from which a mean emission energy of about 400 meV can be extracted. The reference sample without the quantum dots (containing only the wetting layer) shows no such peak.

  20. Quantum dot spectroscopy using a single phosphorus donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büch, Holger; Fuechsle, Martin; Baker, William; House, Matthew G.; Simmons, Michelle Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using a deterministic single P donor placed with atomic precision accuracy next to a nanoscale silicon quantum dot, we present a way to analyze the energy spectrum of small quantum dots in silicon by tunnel-coupled transport measurements. The energy-level structure of the quantum dot is observed as resonance features within the transport bias triangles when the donor chemical potential is aligned with states within the quantum dot as confirmed by a numeric rate equation solver SIMON. This technique allows us to independently extract the quantum dot level structure irrespective of the density of states in the leads. Such a method is useful for the investigation of silicon quantum dots in the few-electron regime where the level structure is governed by an intricate interplay between the spin- and the valley-orbit degrees of freedom.

  1. Electrically addressing a single self-assembled quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, D J P; Atkinson, P; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2006-01-01

    We report on the use of an aperture in an aluminum oxide layer to restrict current injection into a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot, from an ensemble of such dots within a large mesa. The insulating aperture is formed through the wet-oxidation of a layer of AlAs. Under photoluminescence we observe that only one quantum dot in the ensemble exhibits a Stark shift, and that the same single dot is visible under electroluminescence. Autocorrelation measurements performed on the electroluminescence confirm that we are observing emission from a single quantum dot.

  2. Electron States of Few-Electron Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴振宏; 孙金祚; 张立德; 李作宏; 黄士勇; 隋鹏飞

    2002-01-01

    We study few-electron semiconductor quantum dots using the unrestricted Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method based on the Gaussian basis. Our emphasis is on the energy level calculation for quantum dots. The confinement potential in a quantum dot is assumed to be in a form of three-dimensional spherical finite potential well. Some valuable results, such as the rearrangement of the energy level, have been obtained.

  3. Controllability of multi-partite quantum systems and selective excitation of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, S G [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Pullen, I C H [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computing, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Solomon, A I [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    We consider the degrees of controllability of multi-partite quantum systems, as well as necessary and sufficient criteria for each case. The results are applied to the problem of simultaneous control of an ensemble of quantum dots with a single laser pulse. Finally, we apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate selective excitation of individual dots for a simultaneously controllable ensemble of quantum dots.

  4. Investigation of Quantum Dot Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Lett. 79, 722 (2001). 8. Report of Inventions None. 9. List of Scientific Personnel Supported, Degrees, Awards and Honors Siddhartha ...Ghosh, GSRA Sameer Pradhan, GSRA Sasan Fathpour, GSRA Zetian Mi, GSRA Siddhartha Ghosh, Ph.D., “Growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs self-organized quantum

  5. Quantum transport through an array of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuguang; Xie, Hang; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiaodong; Chen, Guanhua

    2013-01-07

    The transient current through an array of as many as 1000 quantum dots is simulated with two newly developed quantum mechanical methods. To our surprise, upon switching on the bias voltage, the current increases linearly with time before reaching its steady state value. And the time required for the current to reach its steady state value is proportional to the length of the array, and more interestingly, is exactly the time for a conducting electron to travel through the array at the Fermi velocity. These quantum phenomena can be understood by a simple analysis on the energetics of an equivalent classical circuit. An experimental design is proposed to confirm the numerical findings.

  6. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Julien; Munsch, Matthieu; Bleuse, Joel;

    2012-01-01

    Besides microcavities and photonic crystals, photonic nanowires have recently emerged as a novel resource for solidstate quantum optics. We will review recent studies which demonstrate an excellent control over the spontaneous emission of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in single-mode Ga...... quantum optoelectronic devices. Quite amazingly, this approach has for instance permitted (unlike microcavity-based approaches) to combine for the first time a record-high efficiency (72%) and a negligible g(2) in a QD single photon source....

  7. Tuning the quantum critical crossover in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    2005-03-01

    Quantum dots with large Thouless number g embody a regime where both disorder and interactions can be treated nonperturbatively using large-N techniques (with N=g) and quantum phase transitions can be studied. Here we focus on dots where the noninteracting Hamiltonian is drawn from a crossover ensemble between two symmetry classes, where the crossover parameter introduces a new, tunable energy scale independent of and much smaller than the Thouless energy. We show that the quantum critical regime, dominated by collective critical fluctuations, can be accessed at the new energy scale. The nonperturbative physics of this regime can only be described by the large-N approach, as we illustrate with two experimentally relevant examples. G. Murthy, PRB 70, 153304 (2004). G. Murthy, R. Shankar, D. Herman, and H. Mathur, PRB 69, 075321 (2004)

  8. Accessing the quantum palette: quantum-dot spectral conversion towards the BIPV application of thin-film micro-modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, S. D.; Kartopu, G.; Rugen-Hankey, S. L.; Clayton, A. J.; Barrioz, V.; Irvine, S. J. C.

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) incorporation of thin-film photovoltaics, commercially available quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited, as part of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite film, on a cadmium telluride (CdTe) micro-module. This resulted in an increase in photocurrent generation through the luminescent down-shifting (LDS) process. The optical properties of these films were characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy. The impact of the film on the micro-module was studied through current-voltage (I-V) and external quantum efficiency measurements. Further layers were added to the initial single-layer LDS film, however no additional improvement to the micro-module were observed. Additionally, a range of emission wavelengths have been explored. The majority of these films, when tested on a CdTe device, were shown to improve the photocurrent generation whilst also visually displaying the vivid colour palette provided by quantum confined materials. The future feasibility of using QD based LDS films for large scale BIPV-based power generation has also been discussed.

  9. High-efficiency aqueous-solution-processed hybrid solar cells based on P3HT dots and CdTe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shiyu; Chen, Zhaolai; Li, Fenghong; Xu, Bin; Song, Jiaxing; Yan, Lulin; Jin, Gan; Wen, Shanpeng; Wang, Chen; Yang, Bai; Tian, Wenjing

    2015-04-08

    Without using any environmentally hazardous organic solution, we fabricated hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on the aqueous-solution-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) dots and CdTe nanocrystals (NCs). As a novel aqueous donor material, the P3HT dots are prepared through a reprecipitation method and present an average diameter of 2.09 nm. When the P3HT dots are mixed with the aqueous CdTe NCs, the dependence of the device performance on the donor-acceptor ratio shows that the optimized ratio is 1:24. Specifically, the dependence of the device performance on the active-layer thermal annealing conditions is investigated. As a result, the optimized annealing temperature is 265 °C, and the incorporation of P3HT dots as donor materials successfully reduced the annealing time from 1 h to 10 min. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements demonstrate that the size of the CdTe NCs increased as the annealing time increased, and the annealing process facilitates the formation of a smoother interpenetrating network in the active layer. Therefore, charge separation and transport in the P3HT dots:CdTe NCs layer are more efficient. Eventually, the P3HT dots:CdTe NCs solar cells achieved 4.32% power conversion efficiency. The polymer dots and CdTe NCs based aqueous-solution-processed HSCs provide an effective way to avoid a long-time thermal annealing process of the P3HT dots:CdTe NCs layer and largely broaden the donor materials for aqueous HSCs.

  10. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Gloria G. [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G. [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 154 Mechanical Engineering Building, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cunningham, Brian T. [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1270 Digital Computer Laboratory, MC-278, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  11. Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots Using Fusarium oxysporum

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki Yamaguchi; Yoshijiro Tsuruda; Tomohiro Furukawa; Lumi Negishi; Yuki Imura; Shohei Sakuda; Etsuro Yoshimura; Michio Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    CdSe quantum dots are often used in industry as fluorescent materials. In this study, CdSe quantum dots were synthesized using Fusarium oxysporum. The cadmium and selenium concentration, pH, and temperature for the culture of F. oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum) were optimized for the synthesis, and the CdSe quantum dots obtained from the mycelial cells of F. oxysporum were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Ultra-thin sections of F. oxysporum showed that the CdSe quantum dots were pr...

  12. Advanced Architecture for Colloidal PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells Exploiting a CdSe Quantum Dot Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianshuo; Goodwin, Earl D; Guo, Jiacen; Wang, Han; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2016-09-22

    Advanced architectures are required to further improve the performance of colloidal PbS heterojunction quantum dot solar cells. Here, we introduce a CdI2-treated CdSe quantum dot buffer layer at the junction between ZnO nanoparticles and PbS quantum dots in the solar cells. We exploit the surface- and size-tunable electronic properties of the CdSe quantum dots to optimize its carrier concentration and energy band alignment in the heterojunction. We combine optical, electrical, and analytical measurements to show that the CdSe quantum dot buffer layer suppresses interface recombination and contributes additional photogenerated carriers, increasing the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of PbS quantum dot solar cells, leading to a 25% increase in solar power conversion efficiency.

  13. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible.

  14. Immunocytotoxicity, cytogenotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Gomes, Tânia; Cardoso, Cátia; Letendre, Julie; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Sousa, Vânia Serrão; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-10-01

    There is an increased use of Quantum Dot (QDs) in biological and biomedical applications, but little is known about their marine ecotoxicology. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible immunocytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and genotoxic effects of cadmium telluride QDs (CdTe QDs) on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to 10 μg L(-1) of CdTe QDs or to soluble Cd [Cd(NO3)2] for 14 days and Cd accumulation, immunocytotoxicity [hemocyte density, cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), differential cell counts (DCC)], cytogenotoxicity (micronucleus test and nuclear abnormalities assay) and genotoxicity (comet assay) were analyzed. Results show that in vivo exposure to QDs, Cd is accumulated in mussel soft tissues and hemolymph and induce immunotoxic effects mediated by a decrease in LMS, changes in DCC, as well as genotoxicity (DNA damage). However, QDs do not induce significant changes in hemocytes density, cell viability and cytogenetic parameters in opposition to Cd(2+). Soluble Cd is the most cytotoxic and cytogenotoxic form on Mytilus hemocytes due to a higher accumulation of Cd in tissues. Results indicate that immunotoxicity and genotoxicity of CdTe QDs and Cd(2+) are mediated by different modes of action and show that Mytilus hemocytes are important targets for in vivo QDs toxicity.

  15. Improved Performance of CdS/CdTe Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells Incorporating Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Kyeong; Park, Tae Hee; Lee, Jun Young; Yang, Jong Hee; Han, Jin Wook; Yi, Whi Kun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    We fabricated quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers. A spin coated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle (NP) film on tin-doped indium oxide glass and sputtered Au on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass were used as photo-anode and counter electrode, respectively. CdS QDs were deposited onto the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} layer by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. Pre-synthesized CdTe QDs were deposited onto a layer of CdS QDs using a direct adsorption technique. CdS/CdTe QDSSCs had high light harvesting ability compared with CdS or CdTe QDSSCs. QDSSCs incorporating single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), sprayed onto the substrate before deposition of the next layer or mixed with TiO{sub 2} NPs, mostly exhibited enhanced photo cell efficiency compared with the pristine cell. In particular, a maximum rate increase of 24% was obtained with the solar cell containing a TiO{sub 2} layer mixed with SWNTs.

  16. Quantum dots for next-generation photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavi E. Semonin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures are an emerging class of functional material that are being developed for novel solar energy conversion strategies. One of the largest losses in a bulk or thin film solar cell occurs within a few picoseconds after the photon is absorbed, as photons with energy larger than the semiconductor bandgap produce charge-carriers with excess kinetic energy, which is then dissipated via phonon emission. Semiconductor nanostructures, where at least one dimension is small enough to produce quantum confinement effects, provide new pathways for controlling energy flow and therefore have the potential to increase the efficiency of the primary photoconversion step. In this review, we provide the current status of research efforts towards utilizing the unique properties of colloidal quantum dots (nanocrystals confined in three dimensions in prototype solar cells and demonstrate that these unique systems have the potential to bypass the Shockley-Queisser single-junction limit for solar photon conversion.

  17. Amphoteric CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad A

    2008-06-25

    The nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) charge states strongly influence their electrical transport properties in photovoltaic and electroluminescent devices, optical gains in NQD lasers, and the stability of the dots in thin films. We report a unique electrostatic nature of CdSe NQDs, studied by electrophoretic methods. When we submerged a pair of metal electrodes, in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, into a dilute solution of CdSe NQDs in hexane, and applied a DC voltage across the pair, thin films of CdSe NQDs were deposited on both the positive and the negative electrodes. Extensive characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies revealed that the films on both the positive and the negative electrodes were identical in every respect, clearly indicating that: (1) a fraction (<1%) of the CdSe NQDs in free form in hexane solution are charged and, more importantly, (2) there are equal numbers of positive and negative CdSe NQDs in the hexane solution. Experiments also show that the number of deposited dots is at least an order of magnitude higher than the number of initially charged dots, indicating regeneration. We used simple thermodynamics to explain such amphoteric nature and the charging/regeneration of the CdSe NQDs.

  18. Production and targeting of monovalent quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Daeha; Farlow, Justin; Southard, Kade; Jun, Young-Wook; Gartner, Zev J

    2014-10-23

    The multivalent nature of commercial quantum dots (QDs) and the difficulties associated with producing monovalent dots have limited their applications in biology, where clustering and the spatial organization of biomolecules is often the object of study. We describe here a protocol to produce monovalent quantum dots (mQDs) that can be accomplished in most biological research laboratories via a simple mixing of CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with phosphorothioate DNA (ptDNA) of defined length. After a single ptDNA strand has wrapped the QD, additional strands are excluded from the surface. Production of mQDs in this manner can be accomplished at small and large scale, with commercial reagents, and in minimal steps. These mQDs can be specifically directed to biological targets by hybridization to a complementary single stranded targeting DNA. We demonstrate the use of these mQDs as imaging probes by labeling SNAP-tagged Notch receptors on live mammalian cells, targeted by mQDs bearing a benzylguanine moiety.

  19. Nonrenewal statistics in transport through quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyński, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of waiting times between successive tunneling events is an already established method to characterize current fluctuations in mesoscopic systems. Here, I investigate mechanisms generating correlations between subsequent waiting times in two model systems, a pair of capacitively coupled quantum dots and a single-level dot attached to spin-polarized leads. Waiting time correlations are shown to give insight into the internal dynamics of the system; for example they allow distinction between different mechanisms of the noise enhancement. Moreover, the presence of correlations breaks the validity of the renewal theory. This increases the number of independent cumulants of current fluctuation statistics, thus providing additional sources of information about the transport mechanism. I also propose a method for inferring the presence of waiting time correlations based on low-order current correlation functions. This method gives a way to extend the analysis of nonrenewal current fluctuations to the systems for which single-electron counting is not experimentally feasible. The experimental relevance of the findings is also discussed; for example reanalysis of previous results concerning transport in quantum dots is suggested.

  20. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alex

    2012-07-29

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  2. Resonance fluorescence from a telecom-wavelength quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khuzheyri, R; Huwer, J; Santana, T S; Szymanska, J Skiba-; Felle, M; Ward, M B; Stevenson, R M; Farrer, I; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J; Gerardot, B D

    2016-01-01

    We report on resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot emitting at telecom wavelengths. We perform high-resolution spectroscopy and observe the Mollow triplet in the Rabi regime--a hallmark of resonance fluorescence. The measured resonance-fluorescence spectra allow us to rule out pure dephasing as a significant decoherence mechanism in these quantum dots. Combined with numerical simulations, the experimental results provide robust characterisation of charge noise in the environment of the quantum dot. Resonant control of the quantum dot opens up new possibilities for on-demand generation of indistinguishable single photons at telecom wavelengths as well as quantum optics experiments and direct manipulation of solid-state qubits in telecom-wavelength quantum dots.

  3. Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Dots in Photonic-Crystal Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg

    deviations. Similar measurements on a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity sow a Rabi splitting on resonance, while time-resolved measurements prove that the system is in the weak coupling regime. Whle tuning the quantum dot through resonance of the high-Q mode we observe a strong and surprisingly...... Successfully model the decay rates with a microscopic model that allows us to for the first time extract the effective phonon density of states, which we can model with bulk phonons. Studies on a quantum dot detuned from a low-Q mode of a photonic-crystal cavity show a high collection efficiency at the first......In this thesis we have performed quantum-electrodynamics experiments on quantum dots embedded in photonic-crystal cavities. We perform a quantitative comparison of the decay dynamics and emission spectra of quantum dots embedded in a micropillar cavity and a photonic-crystal cavity. The light...

  4. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  5. Quantum state preparation in semiconductor dots by adiabatic rapid passage

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanwen; Piper, I.M.; Ediger, M.; Brereton, P.; Schmidgall, E. R.; Hugues, M.; Hopkinson, M.; Phillips, R.T.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of a specific quantum state is a required step for a variety of proposed practical uses of quantum dynamics. We report an experimental demonstration of optical quantum state preparation in a semiconductor quantum dot with electrical readout, which contrasts with earlier work based on Rabi flopping in that the method is robust with respect to variation in the optical coupling. We use adiabatic rapid passage, which is capable of inverting single dots to a specified upper level. We d...

  6. Coupled quantum dot-ring structures by droplet epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somaschini, C; Bietti, S; Koguchi, N; Sanguinetti, S, E-mail: stefano.sanguinetti@unimib.it [L-NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy)

    2011-05-06

    The fabrication, by pure self-assembly, of GaAs/AlGaAs dot-ring quantum nanostructures is presented. The growth is performed via droplet epitaxy, which allows for the fine control, through As flux and substrate temperature, of the crystallization kinetics of nanometer scale metallic Ga reservoirs deposited on the surface. Such a procedure permits the combination of quantum dots and quantum rings into a single, multi-functional, complex quantum nanostructure.

  7. Surface plasmons in a metal nanowire coupled to colloidal quantum dots: Scattering properties and quantum entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We investigate coherent single surface-plasmon transport in a metal nanowire strongly coupled to two colloidal quantum dots. Analytical expressions are obtained for the transmission and reflection coefficients by solving the corresponding eigenvalue equation. Remote entanglement of the wave functions of the two quantum dots can be created if the inter-dot distance is equal to a multiple half-wavelength of the surface plasmon. Furthermore, by applying classical laser pulses to the quantum dots...

  8. Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics: A Path Forward

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2011-11-22

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer a path toward high-efficiency photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processes. Spectral tunability via the quantum size effect facilitates absorption of specific wavelengths from across the sun\\'s broad spectrum. CQD materials\\' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements represent important first steps toward commercially compelling performance. Here we review advances in device architecture and materials science. We diagnose the principal phenomenon-electronic states within the CQD film band gap that limit both current and voltage in devices-that must be cured for CQD PV devices to fulfill their promise. We close with a prescription, expressed as bounds on the density and energy of electronic states within the CQD film band gap, that should allow device efficiencies to rise to those required for the future of the solar energy field. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Nano-laser on silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Qin, Chao-Jian; Lü, Quan; Xu, Li

    2011-04-01

    A new conception of nano-laser is proposed in which depending on the size of nano-clusters (silicon quantum dots (QD)), the pumping level of laser can be tuned by the quantum confinement (QC) effect, and the population inversion can be formed between the valence band and the localized states in gap produced from the surface bonds of nano-clusters. Here we report the experimental demonstration of nano-laser on silicon quantum dots fabricated by nanosecond pulse laser. The peaks of stimulated emission are observed at 605 nm and 693 nm. Through the micro-cavity of nano-laser, a full width at half maximum of the peak at 693 nm can reach to 0.5 nm. The theoretical model and the experimental results indicate that it is a necessary condition for setting up nano-laser that the smaller size of QD (d nano-laser will be limited in the range of 1.7-2.3 eV generally due to the position of the localized states in gap, which is in good agreement between the experiments and the theory.

  10. An Exciton Bound to a Neutral Donor in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解文方

    2002-01-01

    The binding energies for an exciton (X) trapped in a two-dimensional quantum dot by a neutral donor have been calculated using the method of few-body physics for the heavy hole (σ= 0.196) and the light hole (σr = 0.707).We find that the (D0, X) complex confined in a quantum dot has in general a larger binding energy than those in a two-dimensional quantum well and a three-dimensional bulk semiconductor, and the binding energy increases with the decrease of the dot radius. At dot radius R →∞, we compare our calculated result with the previous results.

  11. Nonequilibrium Electron Transport Through a Quantum Dot from Kubo Formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Rong; ZHANG Guang-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Kubo formula for an electron tunneling junction, we revisit the nonequilibrium transport properties through a quantum dot. Since the Fermi level of the quantum dot is set by the conduction electrons of the leads, we calculate the electron current from the left side by assuming the quantum dot coupled to the right lead as another side of the tunneling junction, and the other way round is used to calculate the current from the right side. By symmetrizing these two currents, an effective local density states on the dot can be obtained, and is discussed at high and low temperatures, respectively.

  12. Implementing of Quantum Cloning with Spatially Separated Quantum Dot Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing-Ji; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Du, Xin; Lv, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-07-01

    We propose some schemes for implementing optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning and optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical real state cloning with spatially separated quantum dot spins by choosing the single-qubit rotation angles appropriately. The decoherences of the spontaneous emission of QDs, cavity decay and fiber loss are suppressed since the effective long-distance off-resonant interaction between two distant QDs is mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity, and during the whole process no system is excited.

  13. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1 under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots.

  15. Single-photon superradiance from a quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tighineanu, Petru; Daveau, Raphaël Sura; Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff

    2016-01-01

    We report on the observation of single-photon superradiance from an exciton in a semiconductor quantum dot. The confinement by the quantum dot is strong enough for it to mimic a two-level atom, yet sufficiently weak to ensure superradiance. The electrostatic interaction between the electron and t...

  16. A Nanowire-Based Plasmonic Quantum Dot Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jinfa; Tatebayashi, Jun; Sergent, Sylvain; Fong, Chee Fai; Ota, Yasutomo; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-13

    Quantum dots enable strong carrier confinement and exhibit a delta-function like density of states, offering significant improvements to laser performance and high-temperature stability when used as a gain medium. However, quantum dot lasers have been limited to photonic cavities that are diffraction-limited and further miniaturization to meet the demands of nanophotonic-electronic integration applications is challenging based on existing designs. Here we introduce the first quantum dot-based plasmonic laser to reduce the cross-sectional area of nanowire quantum dot lasers below the cutoff limit of photonic modes while maintaining the length in the order of the lasing wavelength. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires containing InGaAs quantum dot stacks are placed directly on a silver film, and lasing was observed from single nanowires originating from the InGaAs quantum dot emission into the low-loss higher order plasmonic mode. Lasing threshold pump fluences as low as ∼120 μJ/cm(2) was observed at 7 K, and lasing was observed up to 125 K. Temperature stability from the quantum dot gain, leading to a high characteristic temperature was demonstrated. These results indicate that high-performance, miniaturized quantum dot lasers can be realized with plasmonics.

  17. Exciton dephasing in single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    2000-01-01

    . The homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening of InGaAs quantum dot luminescence is of central importance for the potential application of this material system in optoelectronic devices. Recent measurements of MOCVD-grown InAs/InGaAs quantum dots indicate a large homogeneous broadening at room temperature due...

  18. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We deta...

  19. Negative Trions Trapped by a Spherical Parabolic Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a negatively charged exciton trapped by a spherical parabolic quantum dot has been investigated. The energy spectra of low-lying states are calculated by means of matrix diagonalization. The important feature of the low-lying states of the negatively charged excitons in a spherical quantum dot is obtained via an analysis of the energy spectra.

  20. Quantum model for mode locking in pulsed semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugeling, W.; Uhrig, Götz S.; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum dots in GaAs/InGaAs structures have been proposed as a candidate system for realizing quantum computing. The short coherence time of the electronic quantum state that arises from coupling to the nuclei of the substrate is dramatically increased if the system is subjected to a magnetic field and to repeated optical pulsing. This enhancement is due to mode locking: oscillation frequencies resonant with the pulsing frequencies are enhanced, while off-resonant oscillations eventually die out. Because the resonant frequencies are determined by the pulsing frequency only, the system becomes immune to frequency shifts caused by the nuclear coupling and by slight variations between individual quantum dots. The effects remain even after the optical pulsing is terminated. In this work, we explore the phenomenon of mode locking from a quantum mechanical perspective. We treat the dynamics using the central-spin model, which includes coupling to 10-20 nuclei and incoherent decay of the excited electronic state, in a perturbative framework. Using scaling arguments, we extrapolate our results to realistic system parameters. We estimate that the synchronization to the pulsing frequency needs time scales in the order of 1 s .

  1. Graphene Quantum Dots for Theranostics and Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Kathryn L; Goreham, Renee V; Nann, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Since their advent in the early 1990s, nanomaterials hold promise to constitute improved technologies in the biomedical area. In particular, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were conjectured to produce new or improve current methods used for bioimaging, drug delivery, and biomarker sensors for early detection of diseases. This review article critically compares and discusses current state-of-the-art use of GQDs in biology and health sciences. It shows the ability of GQDs to be easily functionalised for use as a targeted multimodal treatment and imaging platform. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of GQDs are explored showing low toxicity for many types of GQDs.

  2. Surface-state-mediated charge-transfer dynamics in CdTe/CdSe core-shell quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawalekar, Sachin; Kaniyankandy, Sreejith; Verma, Sandeep; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2011-06-20

    Herein, we report the synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdSe type-II core-shell quantum dots (QDs) in which 3-mercaptopropionic acid is used as the capping agent. The CdTe QDs and CdTe/CdSe core-shell QDs are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), steady-state absorption, and emission spectroscopy. A red shift in the steady-state absorption and emission bands is observed with increasing CdSe shell thickness over CdTe QDs. The XRD pattern indicates that the peaks are shifted to higher angles after growth of the CdSe shell on the CdTe QDs. HR-TEM images of both CdTe and CdTe/CdSe QDs indicate that the particles are spherical, with a good shape homogeneity, and that the particle size increases by about 2 nm after shell formation. In the time-resolved emission studies, we observe that the average emission lifetime (τ(av)) increases to 23.5 ns for CdTe/CdSe (for the thickest shell) as compared to CdTe QDs (τ(av) =12 ns). The twofold increment in the average emission lifetime indicates an efficient charge separation in type-II CdTe/CdSe core-shell QDs. Transient absorption studies suggest that both the carrier cooling and the charge-transfer dynamics are affected by the presence of traps in the CdTe QDs and CdTe/CdSe core-shell QDs. Carrier quenching experiments indicate that hole traps strongly affect the carrier cooling dynamics in CdTe/CdSe core-shell QDs.

  3. Gates controlled parallel-coupled bilayer graphene double quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lin-Jun; Wei, Da; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Chang, A M

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the fabrication and quantum transport measurements of gates controlled parallel-coupled bilayer graphene double quantum dot. It is shown that the interdot coupling strength of the parallel double dots can be effectively tuned from weak to strong regime by both the in-plane plunger gates and back gate. All the relevant energy scales and parameters of the bilayer graphene parallel-coupled double dot can be extracted from the honeycomb charge stability diagrams revealed through the transport measurements.

  4. Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, H.

    2008-01-24

    The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin

  5. Quantum dots in diagnostics and detection: principles and paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanic, T R; Zhang, Y; Wang, T H

    2014-06-21

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit exceptional optical and electrical behaviors not found in their bulk counterparts. Following seminal work in the development of water-soluble quantum dots in the late 1990's, researchers have sought to develop interesting and novel ways of exploiting the extraordinary properties of quantum dots for biomedical applications. Since that time, over 10,000 articles have been published related to the use of quantum dots in biomedicine, many of which regard their use in detection and diagnostic bioassays. This review presents a didactic overview of fundamental physical phenomena associated with quantum dots and paradigm examples of how these phenomena can and have been readily exploited for manifold uses in nanobiotechnology with a specific focus on their implementation in in vitro diagnostic assays and biodetection.

  6. LUMINESCENCE OF CADMIUM SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS IN FLUOROPHOSPHATE GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. O. Lipatova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide quantum dots are perspective materials in optics, medicine, biology and optoelectronics. Fluorophosphate glasses, doped with cadmium sulfide quantum dots, were examined in the paper. Heat treatment led to the formation of quantum dots with diameters equal to 2.8 nm, 3.0 nm and 3.8 nm. In view of such changes in the quantum dots size the fundamental absorption edge shift and the luminescence band are being displaced to the long wavelengths. Luminescence lifetime has been found to be dependent on the registration wavelength in the range from 450 to 700 nm. Obtained fluorophosphate glasses with CdS quantum dots can find their application as fluorescent materials with intensive luminescence band and long excited-state natural lifetime.

  7. Colloidal-quantum-dot spasers and plasmonic amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Kress, Stephan J P; Rohner, Patrik; Kim, David K; Antolinez, Felipe V; Zaininger, Karl-Augustin; Jayanti, Sriharsha V; Richner, Patrizia; McPeak, Kevin M; Poulikakos, Dimos; Norris, David J

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots are robust, efficient, and tunable emitters now used in lighting, displays, and lasers. Consequently, when the spaser, a laser-like source of surface plasmons, was first proposed, quantum dots were specified as the ideal plasmonic gain medium. Subsequent spaser designs, however, have required a single material to simultaneously provide gain and define the plasmonic cavity, an approach ill-suited to quantum dots and other colloidal nanomaterials. Here we develop a more open architecture that decouples the gain medium from the cavity, leading to a versatile class of quantum-dot-based spasers that allow controlled generation, extraction, and manipulation of plasmons. We first create high-quality-factor, aberration-corrected, Ag plasmonic cavities. We then incorporate quantum dots via electrohydrodynamic printing18,19 or drop-casting. Photoexcitation under ambient conditions generates monochromatic plasmons above threshold. This signal is extracted, directed through an integrated amplifier,...

  8. Second-harmonic imaging of semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld;

    2000-01-01

    Resonant second-harmonic generation is observed at room temperature in reflection from self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots grown on a GaAs (001) substrate. The detected second-harmonic signal peaks at a pump wavelength of similar to 885 nm corresponding to the quantum-dot photoluminescence maximum....... In addition, the second-harmonic spectrum exhibits another smaller but well-pronounced peak at 765 nm not found in the linear experiments. We attribute this peak to the generation of second-harmonic radiation in the AlGaAs spacer layer enhanced by the local symmetry at the quantum-dot interface. We further...... observe that second-harmonic images of the quantum-dot surface structure show wavelength-dependent spatial variations. Imaging at different wavelength is used to demonstrate second-harmonic generation from the semiconductor quantum dots. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  9. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.

  10. Templated self-assembly of SiGe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dais, Christian

    2009-08-19

    This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and characterization of exact aligned SiGe quantum dot structures. In general, SiGe quantum dots which nucleate via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode exhibit broad size dispersion and nucleate randomly on the surface. However, to tap the full potential of SiGe quantum dots it is necessary to control the positioning and size of the dots on a nanometer length, e.g. for electronically addressing of individual dots. This can be realized by so-called templated self-assembly, which combines top-down lithography with bottom-up selfassembly. In this process the lithographically defined pits serve as pre-defined nucleation points for the epitaxially grown quantum dots. In this thesis, extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at a wavelength of e=13.4 nm is employed for prepatterning of the Si substrates. This technique allows the precise and fast fabrication of high-resolution templates with a high degree of reproducibility. The subsequent epitaxial deposition is either performed by molecular beam epitaxy or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. It is shown that the dot nucleation on pre-patterned substrates depends strongly on the lithography parameters, e.g. size and periodicity of the pits, as well as on the epitaxy parameters, e.g. growth temperature or material coverage. The interrelations are carefully analyzed by means of scanning force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Provided that correct template and overgrowth parameters are chosen, perfectly aligned and uniform SiGe quantum dot arrays of different period, size as well as symmetry are created. In particular, the quantum dot arrays with the so far smallest period (35 nm) and smallest size dispersion are fabricated in this thesis. Furthermore, the strain fields of the underlying quantum dots allow the fabrication of vertically aligned quantum dot stacks. Combining lateral and vertical dot alignment results in three

  11. The Electron-Hole Pair in a Single Quantum Dot and That in a Vertically Coupled Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEWen-Fang; ZHUWu

    2003-01-01

    The energy spectra of low-lying states of an exciton in a single and a vertically coupled quantum dots are studied under the influence of a perpendicularly applied magnetic field. Calculations are made by using the method of numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. We also calculated the binding energy of the ground and the excited states of an exciton in a single quantum dot and that in a vertically coupled quantum dot as a function of the dot radius for different vaJues of the distance and the magnetic field strength.

  12. Self-assembled quantum dots in a nanowire system for quantum photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Heiss, M.; Fontana, Y.; Gustafsson, A; Wüst, G.; Magen, C.; O’Regan, D. D.; Luo, J. W.; Ketterer, B.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Kuhlmann, A. V.; Houel, J.; Russo-Averchi, E.; Morante, J. R.; Cantoni, M.; Marzari, N.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots embedded within nanowires represent one of the most promising technologies for applications in quantum photonics. Whereas the top-down fabrication of such structures remains a technological challenge, their bottom-up fabrication through self-assembly is a potentially more powerful strategy. However, present approaches often yield quantum dots with large optical linewidths, making reproducibility of their physical properties difficult. We present a versatile quantum-dot-innanowire...

  13. Decorating multi-walled carbon nanotubes with quantum dots for construction of multi-color fluorescent nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nengqin; Lian, Qiong; Tian, Zhong; Duan, Xin; Yin, Min; Jing, Lihong; Chen, Shouhui; Shen, Hebai; Gao, Mingyuan

    2010-01-01

    Novel multi-color fluorescent nanoprobes were prepared by electrostatically assembling differently sized CdTe quantum dots on polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The structural and optical properties of the nano-assemblies (MWNTs-PEI-CdTe) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction spectra (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, confocal microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also applied to investigate the electrostatic assembling among oxidized MWNTs, PEI and CdTe. Furthermore, confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to monitor the nano-assemblies' delivery into tumor cells. It was found that the nano-assemblies exhibit efficient intracellular transporting and strong intracellular tracking. These properties would make this luminescent nano-assembly an excellent building block for the construction of intracellular nanoprobes, which could hold great promise for biomedical applications.

  14. Silicon quantum dots for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Chen, Song; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (or quantum dots, QDs) exhibit unique optical and electronic properties such as size-controlled fluorescence, high quantum yields, and stability against photobleaching. These properties allow QDs to be used as optical labels for multiplexed imaging and in drug delivery detection systems. Luminescent silicon QDs and surface-modified silicon QDs have also been developed as potential minimally toxic fluorescent probes for bioapplications. Silicon, a well-known power electronic semiconductor material, is considered an extremely biocompatible material, in particular with respect to blood. This review article summarizes existing knowledge related to and recent research progress made in the methods for synthesizing silicon QDs, as well as their optical properties and surface-modification processes. In addition, drug delivery systems and in vitro and in vivo imaging applications that use silicon QDs are also discussed.

  15. Coherent spin dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amand, T.; Senes, M.; Marie, X.; Renucci, P. [Laboratoire de Nanophysique, Magnetisme et Optoelectronique-LPMC, INSA, 135 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Urbaszek, B. [Laboratoire de Nanophysique, Magnetisme et Optoelectronique-LPMC, INSA, 135 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Department of Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Krebs, O.; Laurent, S.; Voisin, P. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Warburton, R.J. [Department of Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    The anisotropic exchange interaction (AEI) between electrons and holes is shown to play a central role in quantum dots (QDs) spin dynamics. In neutral QDs, AEI is at the origin of spin quantum beats observed under resonant excitation between the lowest energy doublet of linearly dipole-active eigenstates. In negatively charged QDs, AEI is at the origin of QD emission with opposite helicity to the optic al excitation, under non-resonant excitation conditions. Finally, the possibility of leaving a spin information in the system after recombination of the photo-injected electron-hole pair is discussed with respect to the type and the level of the doping. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Interference and interactions in open quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J P; Ferry, D K; Moura, A P S; Lai, Y C; Indlekofer, K M

    2003-01-01

    In this report, we review the results of our joint experimental and theoretical studies of electron-interference, and interaction, phenomena in open electron cavities known as quantum dots. The transport through these structures is shown to be heavily influenced by the remnants of their discrete density of states, elements of which remain resolved in spite of the strong coupling that exists between the cavity and its reservoirs. The experimental signatures of this density of states are discussed at length in this report, and are shown to be related to characteristic wavefunction scarring, involving a small number of classical orbits. A semiclassical analysis of this behaviour shows it to be related to the effect of dynamical tunnelling, in which electrons are injected into the dot tunnel through classically forbidden regions of phase space, to access isolated regular orbits. The dynamical tunnelling gives rise to the formation of long-lived quasi-bound states in the open dots, and the many-body implications a...

  17. Self-assembly and photoluminescence evolution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic quantum dots in sol–gel processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Cracow University of Technology, Krakow 31-155 (Poland); Song, Xueling; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Yumeng; Ding, Kun; Nie, Shijie [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were assembled into various morphologies including chain, hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures through sol–gel processes. The PL properties during assembly as investigated. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized from several ligands. • The evolution of PL in self-assembly via sol–gel processes was investigated. • CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling hydrolysis and condensation reactions. • Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created via CdSe/ZnS QDs in sol–gel processes. - Abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were synthesized from several ligands to investigate the PL evolution in QD self-assembly via sol–gel processes. After ligand exchange, CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. The chain was then coated with a SiO{sub 2} shell from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created from CdSe/ZnS QDs via various sol–gel processes. CdTe QDs revealed red-shifted and narrowed PL spectrum after assembly compared with their initial one. In contrast, the red-shift of PL spectra of CdSe/ZnS QDs is small. By optimizing experimental conditions, SiO{sub 2} spheres with multiple CdSe/ZnS QDs were fabricated using TEOS and MPS. The QDs in these SiO{sub 2} spheres retained their initial PL properties. This result is useful for application because of their high stability and high PL efficiency of 33%.

  18. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI. We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs – optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection – that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt. We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.

  19. Quantum dot imaging for embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambhir Sanjiv S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs hold increasing potential for cellular imaging both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we aimed to evaluate in vivo multiplex imaging of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells labeled with Qtracker delivered quantum dots (QDs. Results Murine embryonic stem (ES cells were labeled with six different QDs using Qtracker. ES cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation were not adversely affected by QDs compared with non-labeled control cells (P = NS. Afterward, labeled ES cells were injected subcutaneously onto the backs of athymic nude mice. These labeled ES cells could be imaged with good contrast with one single excitation wavelength. With the same excitation wavelength, the signal intensity, defined as (total signal-background/exposure time in millisecond was 11 ± 2 for cells labeled with QD 525, 12 ± 9 for QD 565, 176 ± 81 for QD 605, 176 ± 136 for QD 655, 167 ± 104 for QD 705, and 1,713 ± 482 for QD 800. Finally, we have shown that QD 800 offers greater fluorescent intensity than the other QDs tested. Conclusion In summary, this is the first demonstration of in vivo multiplex imaging of mouse ES cells labeled QDs. Upon further improvements, QDs will have a greater potential for tracking stem cells within deep tissues. These results provide a promising tool for imaging stem cell therapy non-invasively in vivo.

  20. Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moebius, M.; Martin, J.; Hartwig, M.; Baumann, R. R.; Otto, T.; Gessner, T.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl)-3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD) and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.

  1. Polymersomes containing quantum dots for cellular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camblin M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine Camblin,1 Pascal Detampel,1 Helene Kettiger,1 Dalin Wu,2 Vimalkumar Balasubramanian,1,* Jörg Huwyler1,*1Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Quantum dots (QDs are highly fluorescent and stable probes for cellular and molecular imaging. However, poor intracellular delivery, stability, and toxicity of QDs in biological compartments hamper their use in cellular imaging. To overcome these limitations, we developed a simple and effective method to load QDs into polymersomes (Ps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane-poly(2-methyloxazoline (PDMS-PMOXA diblock copolymers without compromising the characteristics of the QDs. These Ps showed no cellular toxicity and QDs were successfully incorporated into the aqueous compartment of the Ps as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Ps containing QDs showed colloidal stability over a period of 6 weeks if stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at physiological pH (7.4. Efficient intracellular delivery of Ps containing QDs was achieved in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2 and was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Ps containing QDs showed a time- and concentration-dependent uptake in HepG2 cells and exhibited better intracellular stability than liposomes. Our results suggest that Ps containing QDs can be used as nanoprobes for cellular imaging.Keywords: quantum dots, polymersomes, cellular imaging, cellular uptake

  2. Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moebius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl-3,3′-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.

  3. Electrons, holes, and excitons in superlattice of cylindrical quantum dots with weakest coupling of quasiparticles between quantum dots layers

    CERN Document Server

    Tkach, N V; Zegrya, G G

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical investigation of the spectrum of electrons, holes, and excitons in the superlattice of cylindrical quantum dots with weakest coupling of quasiparticles between vertical layers of quantum dots is carried out. The calculations are fulfilled by the example of cylindrical quantum dots of beta-HgS introduced into beta-CdS as the superlattice. It is shown that electron and hole in such system form quasi-two-dimensional energy minibands, but excitons are described by the Sugano-Shinada model. The dependence of quasiparticle spectra on geometric parameters of the superlattice with cylindrical quantum dots is studied. It is shown that the position of minibands of all quasiparticles is very sensitive to variation of the quantum dot height

  4. Photoluminescence properties of hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using CdTe/CdSe QDs prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. A CdSe interlayer made CdTe/CdSe cores with unique type II heterostructures. The hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe QDs revealed excellent photoluminescence (PL) properties compared with hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. Because of the existence of spatial separations of carriers in the type II CdTe/CdSe core/shell QDs, the hybrid QDs had a relatively extended PL lifetime and high stability in phosphate-buffered saline buffer solutions. This is ascribed to the unique components and stable surface state of hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe QDs. During the stabilization test in phosphate-buffered saline buffer solutions, both static and dynamic quenching occurred. The quenching mechanism of the hybrid QDs was not suited with the Stern–Volmer equation. However, the relative stable surface of CdTe/CdSe QDs resulted in lower degradation and relative high PL quantum yields compared with hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. As a result, hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe QDs can be used in bioapplications.

  5. Charge-extraction strategies for colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Xinzheng

    2014-02-20

    The solar-power conversion efficiencies of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have advanced from sub-1% reported in 2005 to a record value of 8.5% in 2013. Much focus has deservedly been placed on densifying, passivating and crosslinking the colloidal quantum dot solid. Here we review progress in improving charge extraction, achieved by engineering the composition and structure of the electrode materials that contact the colloidal quantum dot film. New classes of structured electrodes have been developed and integrated to form bulk heterojunction devices that enhance photocharge extraction. Control over band offsets, doping and interfacial trap state densities have been essential for achieving improved electrical communication with colloidal quantum dot solids. Quantum junction devices that not only tune the optical absorption spectrum, but also provide inherently matched bands across the interface between p-and n-materials, have proven that charge separation can occur efficiently across an all-quantum-tuned rectifying junction. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  6. Open quantum dots in graphene: Scaling relativistic pointer states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, D. K.; Huang, L.; Yang, R.; Lai, Y.-C.; Akis, R.

    2010-04-01

    Open quantum dots provide a window into the connection between quantum and classical physics, particularly through the decoherence theory, in which an important set of quantum states are not "washed out" through interaction with the environment-the pointer states provide connection to trapped classical orbits which remain stable in the dots. Graphene is a recently discovered material with highly unusual properties. This single layer, one atom thick, sheet of carbon has a unique bandstructure, governed by the Dirac equation, in which charge carriers imitate relativistic particles with zero rest mass. Here, an atomic orbital-based recursive Green's function method is used for studying the quantum transport. We study quantum fluctuations in graphene and bilayer graphene quantum dots with this recursive Green's function method. Finally, we examine the scaling of the domiant fluctuation frequency with dot size.

  7. Using a quantum dot system to realize perfect state transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ji; Wu Shi-Hai; Zhang Wen-Wen; Xi Xiao-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    There are some disadvantages to Nikolopoulos et al.'s protocol [Nikolopoulos G M,Petrosyan D and Lambropoulos P 2004 Europhys.Lett.65 297] where a quantum dot system is used to realize quantum communication.To overcome these disadvantages,we propose a protocol that uses a quantum dot array to construct a four-qubit spin chain to realize perfect quantum state transfer (PQST).First,we calculate the interaction relation for PQST in the spin chain.Second,we review the interaction between the quantum dots in the Heitler-London approach.Third,we present a detailed program for designing the proper parameters of a quantum dot array to realize PQST.

  8. Quantum confinement-tunable intersystem crossing and the triplet state lifetime of cationic porphyrin-CdTe quantum dot nano-assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ghada H.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a ground-state interaction between the positively charged cationic porphyrin and the negatively charged carboxylate groups of the thiol ligands on the surface of CdTe quantum dots (QDs), leading to the formation of a stable nanoassembly between the two components. Our time-resolved data clearly demonstrate that we can dramatically tune the intersystem crossing (ISC) and the triplet state lifetime of porphyrin by changing the size of the QDs in the nanoassembly. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Heterostructures with CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots for single photon emitters grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Belyaev, K. G.; Rakhlin, M. V.; Toropov, A. A.; Mukhin, I. S.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of heterostructures with CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) with relatively low surface density, which could be used as single-photon emitters. The QDs were formed on the surface of a 3.1- to 4.5-monolayer-thick two-dimensional strained CdTe layer by depositing amorphous Te layer and its fast thermal desorption. Subsequent thermal annealing of the surface with QDs in the absence of external Te flux led to strong broadening and short-wavelength shift of the QD photoluminescence (PL) peak. Measurement of the micro-PL spectra of individual CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots in fabricated mesastructures with a diameter of 200—1000 nm allowed estimation of the QD surface density as 1010 cm-2.

  10. Quantum Electrodynamics of Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticles Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Ridolfo, A; Fina, N; Saija, R; Savasta, S

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the quantum optical properties of hybrid molecules composed of an individual quantum dot and a metallic nanoparticle. We calculate the resonance fluorescence of this hybrid system. Its incoherent part, the one arising from nonlinear quantum processes, results to be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude as compared to that in the absence of the metallic nanoparticle. Scattering spectra at different excitation powers and nonperturbative calculations of intensity-field correlation functions show that this system can act as a nonlinear ultra-compact two-photon switch for incident photons, where the presence (or absence) of a single incident photon field is sufficient to allow (or prevent) the scattering of subsequent photons. We also find that a small frequency shift of the incident light field may cause changes in the intensity field correlation function of orders of magnitude.

  11. RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Zwicknagl, G. [Institut für Mathematische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schuh, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Zürich, Schafmattstr. 16, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland and Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regens (Germany)

    2013-12-04

    The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.

  12. Quantum dot density studies for quantum dot intermediate band solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, Sedsel Fretheim; Zhou, Dayong; Vitelli, Stefano; Mayani, Maryam Gholami; Fimland, Bjoern-Ove; Reenaas, Turid Worren

    2010-07-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been an active area of research for many years and have been implemented in several applications, such as lasers and detectors. During the last years, some attempts have been made to increase the absorption and efficiency of solar cells by inserting QDs into the intrinsic region of pin solar cells. So far, these attempts have been successful in increasing the absorption, but not the cell efficiency. There are probably several reasons for this lack of efficiency increase, but we believe that one important reason is the low density of the implemented QDs. In this work, samples of single layer InAs QDs on n-GaAs(001) substrates have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and we have performed a systematic study of how deposition parameters affect the QD density. The aim is to achieve densities > 1011 cm-2. The nominal substrate temperature (360 - 500 deg. C), the InAs growth rate (0.085 - 1 ML/s) and thickness (2.0 - 2.8 ML) have been varied in a systematic way for two different deposition methods of InAs, i.e. continuous deposition or deposition with interruptions. In addition, we have for the continuous growth samples also varied the As-flux (0.5 - 6 centre dot10-6 torr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been the main characterization method to determine quantum dot sizes and densities, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for evaluation of the quantum dot heights. We find that the QD density increases with reduced growth temperature and that it is higher for samples grown continuously than for samples grown with growth interruptions. The homogeneity is also strongly affected by temperature, InAs deposition method and the As-flux. We have observed QD densities as high as 2.5 centre dot1011 cm-2 for the samples grown at the lowest growth temperatures. (Author)

  13. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  14. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Stobbe, Søren; Schneider, C.;

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled InAs quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  15. Photolithographic process for the patterning of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Joo; Park, Sang Joon; Lee, Sang Wha [Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, Kyungwon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-Do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, Kyungwon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-Do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jskim@kyungwon.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Recently, quantum dots have been used as molecular probes substituting for conventional organic fluorophores. Quantum dots are stable against photobleaching and have more controllable emission bands, broader absorption spectra, and higher quantum yields. In this study, an array of ZnS-coated CdSe quantum dots on a slide glass has been prepared by photolithographic method. The array pattern was prepared using a positive photoresist (AZ1518) and developer (AZ351). The patterned glass was silanized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and carboxyl-coated quantum dots were selectively attached onto the array pattern. The silanization was examined by measuring contact angle and the surface of the array pattern was analyzed using AFM and fluorescent microscope.

  16. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E. [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Solid State Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Peskin, U., E-mail: uri@tx.technion.ac.il [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Lise Meitner Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  17. Phonon-assisted decoherence and tunneling in quantum dot molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Foerstner, Jens

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of the phonon environment on the electron dynamics in a doped quantum dot molecule. A non-perturbative quantum kinetic theory based on correlation expansion is used in order to describe both diagonal and off-diagonal electron-phonon couplings representing real and virtual...... processes with relevant acoustic phonons. We show that the relaxation is dominated by phonon-assisted electron tunneling between constituent quantum dots and occurs on a picosecond time scale. The dependence of the time evolution of the quantum dot occupation probabilities on the energy mismatch between...... the quantum dots is studied in detail. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  18. A Novel Particle Detector: Quantum Dot Doped Liquid Scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Lindley; Conrad, Janet; Jerry, Ruel

    2010-02-01

    Quantum dots are semiconducting nanocrystals. When excited by light shorter then their characteristic wavelength, they re-emit in a narrow band around this wavelength. The size of the quantum is proportional to the characteristic wavelength so they can be tuned for many applications. CdS quantum dots are made in wavelengths from 360nm to 460nm, a perfect range for the sensitivity of photo-multiplier tubes. The synthesis of quantum dots automatically leaves them in toluene, a good organic scintillator and Cd is a particularly interesting material as it has one of the highest thermal neutron cross sections and has several neutrinoless double beta decay and double electron capture isotopes. The performance of quantum dot loaded scintillator compared to standard scintillators is measured and some unique properties presented. )

  19. Linewidth broadening of a quantum dot coupled to an off-resonant cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Arka; Kim, Erik; Englund, Dirk; Kim, Hyochul; Petroff, Pierre; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    We study the coupling between a photonic crystal cavity and an off-resonant quantum dot under resonant excitation of the cavity or the quantum dot. Linewidths of the quantum dot and the cavity as a function of the excitation laser power are measured. We show that the linewidth of the quantum dot, measured by observing the cavity emission, is significantly broadened compared to the theoretical estimate. This indicates additional incoherent coupling between the quantum dot and the cavity.

  20. UV Nano Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0072 UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling Eric Waclawik QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 06...Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)  03 Feb 2014 to 02 Feb 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling 5a...SUBJECT TERMS Quantum Dots, Energy Conversion, Up-conversion, Modeling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES

  1. Imaging GABAc Receptors with Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Tomlinson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a methodology for labeling the GABAc receptor on the surface membrane of intact cells. This work builds upon our earlier work with serotonin-conjugated quantum dots and our studies with PEGylated quantum dots to reduce nonspecific binding. In the current approach, a PEGylated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphilic polymer derivative of a modified polyacrylamide. These conjugates were used to image GABAC receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

  2. Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Based on Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    studied in the framework of this, including the collaborating researchers in each of them, are detailed below: 1. “Ultra Small InAs/GaInP/ InP Quantum Dots ”: with...of detectors, which will be attached to Si based signal processors. D:\\FINAL REPORT.doc 4 Part 1 Ultra Small InAs/GaInP/ InP Quantum Dots The heights of...an ensemble of self-assembled InAs/GaAs or InAs/ InP quantum dots (QDs) are typically in the range of 10-30 monolayers [1]. Here, we report on InAs

  3. Temperature Studies of Single InP Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-18

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012858 TITLE: Temperature Studies of Single InP Quantum Dots DISTRIBUTION...34 QWR/QD.07 St Petersburg, Russia, June 14-18, 1999 © 1999 loffe Institute Temperature studies of single InP quantum dots Valdry Zwiller, Mats-Erik...Information on the size and geometry of our self-assembled InP Quantum Dots grown on GamnP lattice matched to GaAs has been published elsewhere -I

  4. Solvothermal synthesis of InP quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Angshuman; Sarma, D D

    2009-09-01

    We report an efficient and fast solvothermal route to prepare highly crystalline monodispersed InP quantum dots. This solvothermal route, not only ensures inert atmosphere, which is strictly required for the synthesis of phase pure InP quantum dots but also allows a reaction temperature as high as 430 degrees C, which is otherwise impossible to achieve using a typical solution chemistry; the higher reaction temperature makes the reaction more facile. This method also has a judicious control over the size of the quantum dots and thus in tuning the bandgap.

  5. Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jöns, Klaus D; Zieliński, Michal;

    2016-01-01

    We report the first comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of single crystal phase quantum dots in InP nanowires. Crystal phase quantum dots are defined by a transition in the crystallographic lattice between zinc blende and wurtzite segments and therefore offer....... We notice that the emission spectra consist often of two peaks close in energy, which we explain with a comprehensive theory showing that the symmetry of the system plays a crucial role for the hole levels forming hybridized orbitals. Our results state that crystal phase quantum dots have promising...

  6. Emission redistribution from a quantum dot-bowtie nanoantenna

    OpenAIRE

    Regler, A.; Schraml, K.; Lyamkina, A.; Spiegl, M; Müller, K.; Vuckovic, J.; Finley, J. J.; Kaniber, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and simulation study of a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot coupled to a nearby ($\\sim 25nm$) plasmonic antenna. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy shows a $\\sim 2.4\\times$ increase of intensity, which is attributed to spatial far-field redistribution of the emission from the quantum dot-antenna system. Power-dependent studies show similar saturation powers of $2.5\\mu W$ for both coupled and uncoupled quantum dot emission in polarization-resolved me...

  7. PL Emission and Shape of Silicon Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The calculation results show that the bonding energy and electronic states of silicon quantum dots are different on various curved surfaces, for example, a Si-0-Si bridge bond on curved surface provides the localized levels in band gap and its bonding energy is shallower than that on facet. The red-shifting of PL spectra on smaller silicon quantum dots can be explained by curved surface effect. Experiments demonstrate that silicon quantum dots are activated for emission due to the localized levels provided in curved surface effect.About The Author: Zhong-Mei Huang,Master in Guizhou University.

  8. Graphene mediated Stark shifting of quantum dot energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnischtzke, Laura; Goodfellow, Kenneth M.; Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Lai, Yi-Ming; Fält, Stefan; Wegscheider, Werner; Badolato, Antonio; Vamivakas, A. Nick

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate an optoelectronic device comprised of single InAs quantum dots in an n-i-Schottky diode where graphene has been used as the Schottky contact. Deterministic electric field tuning is shown using Stark-shifted micro-photoluminescence from single quantum dots. The extracted dipole moments from the Stark shifts are comparable to conventional devices where the Schottky contact is a semi-transparent metal. Neutral and singly charged excitons are also observed in the well-known Coulomb-blockade plateaus. Our results indicate that graphene is a suitable replacement for metal contacts in quantum dot devices which require electric field control.

  9. Second Bound State of Biexcitons in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Eang

    2003-01-01

    The second bound state of the biexcitons in a quantum dot, with orbital angular momentum L = 1, is reported. By using the method of few-body physics, the binding energy spectra of the second bound state of a biexciton in a GaAs quantum dot with a parabolic confinement have been calculated as a function of the electron-to-hole mass ratio and the quantum dot size. The fact that the biexcitons have a second bound state may aid in the better understanding of their binding mechanism.

  10. Kondo effect in quantum dots and molecular devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lang; LI Hongxiang; HU Wenping; ZHU Daoben

    2005-01-01

    Kondo effect is a very important many-body phenomenon in condensed matter physics,which explains why the resistance increases as the temperature is lowered (usually <10 K) in dilute magnetic alloy, and why the conductance increases as temperature is decreased in quantum dots. This paper simply introduces equilibrium and non- equilibrium Kondo effects in quantum dots together with the Kondo effect in quantum dots with even number of electrons (when the singlet and triplet states are degenerate). Furthermore, Kondo effect in single atom/molecular transistors is introduced, which indicates a new way to study Kondo effect.

  11. Thermal Rectification Effect of an Interacting Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-Ou; DONG Bing; LEI Xiao-Lin

    2008-01-01

    @@ We investigate the nonlinear thermal transport properties of a single interacting quantum dot with two energy levels tunnel-coupled to two electrodes using nonequilibrium Green function method and Hartree-Fock decoupling approximation. In the case of asymmetric tunnel-couplings to two electrodes, for example, when the upper level of the quantum dot is open for transport, whereas the lower level is blocked, our calculations predict a strong asymmetry for the heat (energy) current, which shows that the quantum dot system may act as a thermal rectifier in this specific situation.

  12. The Electron-Hole Pair in a Single Quantum Dot and That in a Vertically Coupled Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang; ZHU Wu

    2003-01-01

    The energy spectra of low-lying states of an exciton in a single and a vertically coupled quantum dots arestudied under the influence of a perpendicularly applied magnetic field. Calculations are made by using the method ofnumerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. We also calculated the bindingenergy of the ground and the excited states of an exciton in a single quantum dot and that in a vertically coupledquantum dot as a function of the dot radius for different values of the distance and the magnetic field strength.

  13. Quantum Dot-Photonic Crystal Cavity QED Based Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Physical Review A, 2012] 3. Study of the off-resonant quantum dot-cavity coupling in solid-state cavity QED system, and the phonon mediated off...resonant interaction between two quantum dots [Majumdar et al., Physical Review B , 2012] 4. Coherent optical spectroscopy of a single quantum dot via an off...Resonant cavity - much simpler than in conventional approaches [Majumdar et al, Physical Review B, 2011; Papageorge et al., New. Journal of Physics

  14. Quantum dots (QDs) based fluorescence probe for the sensitive determination of kaempferol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuanping; Liu, Shaopu; Shen, Yizhong; He, Youqiu; Yang, Jidong

    2014-12-01

    In this work, using the quenching of fluorescence of thioglycollic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs), a novel method for the determination of kaempferol (KAE) has been developed. Under optimum conditions, a linear calibration plot of the quenched fluorescence intensity at 552 nm against the concentration of KAE was observed in the range of 4-44 μg mL-1 with a detection limit (3σ/K) of 0.79 μg mL-1. In addition, the detailed reaction mechanism has also been proposed on the basis of electron transfer supported by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption and fluorescence (FL) spectroscopy. The method has been applied for the determination of KAE in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. The proposed method manifested several advantages such as high sensitivity, short analysis time, low cost and ease of operation.

  15. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of Externally Tunable, Hydrogel Encapsulated Quantum Dot Nanospheres in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesree GhoshMitra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Dots (QDs have become an interesting subject of study for labeling and drug delivery in biomedical research due to their unique responses to external stimuli. In this paper, the biological effects of a novel hydrogel based QD nano-structure on E. coli bacteria are presented. The experimental evidence reveals that cadmium telluride (CdTe QDs that are encapsulated inside biocompatible polymeric shells have reduced or negligible toxicity to this model cell system, even when exposed at higher dosages. Furthermore, a preliminary gene expression study indicates that QD-hydrogel nanospheres do not inhibit the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP gene expression. As the biocompatible and externally tunable polymer shells possess the capability to control the QD packing density at nanometer scales, the resulting luminescence efficiency of the nanostructures, besides reducing the cytotoxic potential, may be suitable for various biomedical applications.

  16. New features of excitonic emission in metal nanoparticle/semiconductor quantum dot nanosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchenko, Yu. V.; Korbutyak, D. V.

    2016-10-01

    We study theoretically the excitonic emission properties of a hybrid nanosystem composed of a spherical metal nanoparticle (NP) and a spherical quantum dot (QD). We show that electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by a single QD has only dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components, i.e., QD cannot in principle be regarded as an oscillating point dipole, which emits infinite series of multipoles. This leads to a substantial deviation of the characteristics of QD excitonic emission from the emission characteristics of point dipole (molecular fluorophore) located in a vicinity of metal NP at small interparticle distances. The observed fluorescence spectra of the CdTe QD/Ag NP nanostructure are found to be in good agreement with the calculated ones.

  17. Mechanisms of cellular adaptation to quantum dots--the role of glutathione and transcription factor EB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neibert, Kevin D; Maysinger, Dusica

    2012-05-01

    Cellular adaptation is the dynamic response of a cell to adverse changes in its intra/extra cellular environment. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of: (i) the glutathione antioxidant system, and (ii) the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a newly revealed master regulator of lysosome biogenesis, in cellular adaptation to nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress. Intracellular concentrations of glutathione species and activation of TFEB were assessed in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells following treatment with uncapped CdTe quantum dots (QDs), using biochemical, live cell fluorescence and immunocytochemical techniques. Exposure to toxic concentrations of QDs resulted in a significant enhancement of intracellular glutathione concentrations, redistribution of glutathione species and a progressive translocation and activation of TFEB. These changes were associated with an enlargement of the cellular lysosomal compartment. Together, these processes appear to have an adaptive character, and thereby participate in the adaptive cellular response to toxic nanoparticles.

  18. PREFACE: Quantum dots as probes in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2013-05-01

    The recent availability of nanostructured materials has resulted in an explosion of research focused on their unique optical, thermal, mechanical and magnetic properties. Optical imagining, magnetic enhancement of contrast and drug delivery capabilities make the nanoparticles of special interest in biomedical applications. These materials have been involved in the development of theranostics—a new field of medicine that is focused on personalized tests and treatment. It is likely that multimodal nanomaterials will be responsible for future diagnostic advances in medicine. Quantum dots (QD) are nanoparticles which exhibit luminescence either through the formation of three-dimensional excitons or excitations of the impurities. The excitonic luminescence can be tuned by changing the size (the smaller the size, the higher the frequency). QDs are usually made of semiconducting materials. Unlike fluorescent proteins and organic dyes, QDs resist photobleaching, allow for multi-wavelength excitations and have narrow emission spectra. The techniques to make QDs are cheap and surface modifications and functionalizations can be implemented. Importantly, QDs could be synthesized to exhibit useful optomagnetic properties and, upon functionalization with an appropriate biomolecule, directed towards a pre-selected target for diagnostic imaging and photodynamic therapy. This special issue on Quantum dots in Biology is focused on recent research in this area. It starts with a topical review by Sreenivasan et al on various physical mechanisms that lead to the QD luminescence and on using wavelength shifts for an improvement in imaging. The next paper by Szczepaniak et al discusses nanohybrids involving QDs made of CdSe coated by ZnS and combined covalently with a photosynthetic enzyme. These nanohybrids are shown to maintain the enzymatic activity, however the enzyme properties depend on the size of a QD. They are proposed as tools to study photosynthesis in isolated

  19. Aqueous synthesis of MPA-capped CdTe nanocrystals emitted in near infrared with high quantum yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongqiang; Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping; Zhu, Yuanna; Shi, Ruixia; Ma, Qian; Zhang, Aiyu

    2014-07-01

    The high luminescent near infrared (NIR)--emitting CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the stabilized molecules had been sucessfully fabricated by a facile and simple water-reflux method. By virtue of the characterizations for the as-prepared MPA-capped CdTe NCs, such as UV-Vis absorption, steady-state photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL spectra and PL image, the optical properties, diameters and morphologies of the CdTe NCs were investigated detailedly. With the increase of reflux time, the PL peak wavelength of NCs gradually shifted from red light to NIR spectra range within 7 h, and the PL quantum yield (QY) was increased firstly and then decreased slightly. It was worth noted that the NCs still showed a relative high PL QY of 47% as well as a narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL spectra even when the NCs emitted at the NIR wavelength of 754 nm. In addition, the average PL lifetime also exhibited an obvious increase as the growth of CdTe NCs due to the formation of thin CdS shell on the surface of CdTe. The PL stabilities for these NIR-emitting NCs (754 nm) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer solution with various concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 0.1 M were also checked accordingly, and the results indicated that the as-prepared NIR-emitting CdTe NCs had a satisfied PL stability, implying a potential application in the biological field. Hopefully, all the superiority of these NIR-emitting CdTe NCs, such as high PL QY and PL lifetime, narrow FWHM of PL spectra, high PL stability in PBS solution, would make them to be a good candidate for biological applications in future.

  20. Quantum computation in a quantum-dot-Majorana-fermion hybrid system

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement universal quantum computation in a quantum-dot-Majorana-fermion hybrid system. Quantum information is encoded on pairs of Majorana fermions, which live on the the interface between topologically trivial and nontrivial sections of a quantum nanowire deposited on an s-wave superconductor. Universal single-qubit gates on topological qubit can be achieved. A measurement-based two-qubit Controlled-Not gate is produced with the help of parity measurements assisted by the quantum-dot and followed by prescribed single-qubit gates. The parity measurement, on the quantum-dot and a topological qubit, is achieved by the Aharonov- Casher effect.

  1. Application of Quantum Dots in Biological Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are a group of semiconducting nanomaterials with unique optical and electronic properties. They have distinct advantages over traditional fluorescent organic dyes in chemical and biological studies in terms of tunable emission spectra, signal brightness, photostability, and so forth. Currently, the major type of QDs is the heavy metal-containing II-IV, IV-VI, or III-V QDs. Silicon QDs and conjugated polymer dots have also been developed in order to lower the potential toxicity of the fluorescent probes for biological applications. Aqueous solubility is the common problem for all types of QDs when they are employed in the biological researches, such as in vitro and in vivo imaging. To circumvent this problem, ligand exchange and polymer coating are proven to be effective, besides synthesizing QDs in aqueous solutions directly. However, toxicity is another big concern especially for in vivo studies. Ligand protection and core/shell structure can partly solve this problem. With the rapid development of QDs research, new elements and new morphologies have been introduced to this area to fabricate more safe and efficient QDs for biological applications.

  2. Kondo effects in triangular triple quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Akira; Numata, Takahide; Nisikawa, Yunori; Hewson, A. C.

    2009-03-01

    We study the conductance through a triangular triple quantum dot, which is connected to two noninteracting leads, using the numerical renormalization group (NRG). It is found that the system shows a variety of Kondo effects depending on the filling of the triangle. The SU(4) Kondo effect occurs at half-filling, and a sharp conductance dip due to a phase lapse appears in the gate-voltage dependence. Furthermore, when four electrons occupy the three sites on average, a local S=1 moment, which is caused by the Nagaoka mechanism, is induced along the triangle. The temperature dependence of the entropy and spin susceptibility of the triangle shows that this moment is screened by the conduction electrons via two separate stages at different temperatures. The two-terminal and four-terminal conductances show a clear difference at the gate voltages, where the SU(4) or the S=1 Kondo effects occur[1]. We will also discuss effects of deformations of the triangular configuration, caused by the inhomogeneity in the inter-dot couplings and in the gate voltages. [4pt] [1] T.Numata, Y.Nisikawa, A.Oguri, and A.C.Hewson: arXiv:0808.3496.

  3. Quantum Dot Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui

    . Additional to the static linear amplication properties, we focus on exploring the gain dynamics on the time scale ranging from sub-picosecond to nanosecond. In terms of optical signals that have been investigated, one is the simple sinusoidally modulated optical carrier with a typical modulation frequency...... range of 1-100 gigahertz. Our simulations reveal the role of ultrafast intradot carrier dynamics in enhancing modulation bandwidth of quantum dot semiconductor optical ampliers. Moreover, the corresponding coherent gain response also provides rich dispersion contents over a broad bandwidth. One...... important implementation is recently boosted by the research in slow light. The idea is to migrate such dynamical gain knowledge for the investigation of microwave phase shifter based on semiconductor optical waveguide. Our study reveals that phase shifting based on the conventional semiconductor optical...

  4. Wet electron microscopy with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timp, Winston; Watson, Nicki; Sabban, Alon; Zik, Ory; Matsudaira, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Wet electron microscopy (EM) is a new imaging method with the potential to allow higher spatial resolution of samples. In contrast to most EM methods, it requires little time to perform and does not require complicated equipment or difficult steps. We used this method on a common murine macrophage cell line, IC-21, in combination with various stains and preparations, to collect high resolution images of the actin cytoskeleton. Most importantly, we demonstrated the use of quantum dots in conjunction with this technique to perform light/electron correlation microscopy. We found that wet EM is a useful tool that fits into a niche between the simplicity of light microscopy and the high spatial resolution of EM.

  5. Theoretical study of quantum confined Stark shift in InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ru-Hai; Shi Hong-Yan; Sun Xiu-Dong

    2004-01-01

    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of the self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots has been investigated theoretically. The ground-state transition energies for quantum dots in the shape of a cube, pyramid or "truncated pyramid" are calculated and analysed. We use a method based on the Green function technique for calculating the strain in quantum dots and an efficient plane-wave envelope-function technique to determine the ground-state electronic structure of them with different shapes. The symmetry of quantum dots is broken by the effect of strain. So the properties of carriers show different behaviours from the traditional quantum device. Based on these results, we also calculate permanent built-in dipole moments and compare them with recent experimental data. Our results demonstrate that the measured Stark effect in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures can be explained by including linear grading.

  6. Ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for tumor marker based on quantum dots coated carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Long; Zhang, Yan; Li, Shuai; Wang, Xiu; Li, Chen [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Ge, Shenguang [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fluorine Chemistry and Chemical Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yu, Jinghua, E-mail: ujn.yujh@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yan, Mei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Song, Xianrang [Cancer Research Center, Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In this work, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor based on CdTe quantum dots (QDs) coated carbon nanosphere (CN/QDs) for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was developed. The carbon nanospheres (CNs) with good monodispersity and uniform structure were synthetized by a hydrothermal method using glucose as raw material. Then QDs functionized CNs were prepared and employed for signal amplification to improve the sensitivity and the detection limit of immunosensor. For this proposed immunosensor, chitosan was firstly deposited on the pretreated indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface, which promoted the electron transfer. Subsequently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were assembled onto chitosan film modified electrode to improve the absorption capacity of antibodies. Then, primary antibodies were immobilized onto the electrode through the reaction between AuNPs and amino. At last bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed to block the nonspecific binding sites. As a result, a novel ECL immunosensor was obtained on the prepared CN/QDs. The CEA was determined in the range of 0.005–200 ng mL{sup −1}, with a low detection limit of 1.2 pg mL{sup −1} (S/N=3). The proposed ECL immunosensor provides a rapid, simple, and sensitive immunoassay protocol for protein detection, which could be applied in more bioanalytical systems. -- Highlights: • A sandwich-type electrochemluminence immunosensor was fabricated. • CdTe quantum dots coated carbon nanospheres were used to amplify signals. • Au–chitosan biocompatible membrane modified on ITO electrode to capture antibodies.

  7. Bound polarons in quantum dot quantum well structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Yan; Wang Zhi-Ping; Wang Xu

    2009-01-01

    The problem of bound polarons in quantum dot quantum well (QDQW) structures is studied theoretically. The eigenfrequencies of bulk longitudinal optical (LO) and surface optical (SO) modes are derived in the framework of the diclectric continuum approximation. The electron-phonon interaction Hamiltonian for QDQW structures is obtained and the exchange interaction between impurity and LO-phonons is discussed. The binding energy and the trapping energy of the bound polaron in CdS/HgS QDQW structures are calculated. The numcrical results reveal that there exist three branches of eigenfrequcncies of surface optical vibration in the CdS/HgS QDQW structure. It is also shown that the binding energy and the trapping energy increase as the inner radius of the QDQW structure decreases, with the outer radius fixed, and the trapping energy takes a major part of the binding energy when the inner radius is very small.

  8. Excitons in quantum-dot quantum-well nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史俊杰

    2002-01-01

    A variational calculation is presented for the ground-state properties of excitons confined in spherical core-shell quantum-dot quantum-well (QDQW) nanoparticles. The relationship between the exciton states and structure parameters of QDQW nanoparticles is investigated, in which both the heavy-hole and the light-hole exciton states are considered. The results show that the confinement energies of the electron and hole states and the exciton binding energies depend sensitively on the well width and core radius of the QDQW structure. A detailed comparison between the heavy-hole and light-hole exciton states is given. Excellent agreement is found between experimental results and our calculated 1se-1sh transition energies.

  9. Exciton lifetime measurements on single silicon quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangghaleh, Fatemeh; Bruhn, Benjamin; Schmidt, Torsten; Linnros, Jan

    2013-06-01

    We measured the exciton lifetime of single silicon quantum dots, fabricated by electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching and oxidation. The observed photoluminescence decays are of mono-exponential character with a large variation (5-45 μs) from dot to dot, even for the same emission energy. We show that this lifetime variation may be the origin of the heavily debated non-exponential (stretched) decays typically observed for ensemble measurements.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdTe QDs: Their luminescence quenching in the presence of bio-molecules and observation of bistable memory effect in CdTe QD/PEDOT:PSS heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatei, Jayakrishna [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Koteswara Rao, K.S.R., E-mail: ksrkrao@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {center_dot} CdTe QD has been prepared by modified hydrothermal method in room ambient. {center_dot} Luminescence quenching of CdTe QDs in the presence of bio-molecules demonstrated. {center_dot} The CdTe QDs shows memory effect (electrical bistability). - Abstract: We report one-pot hydrothermal synthesis of nearly mono-disperse 3-mercaptopropionic acid capped water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) using an air stable Te source. The optical and electrical characteristics were also studied here. It was shown that the hydrothermal synthesis could be tuned to synthesize nano structures of uniform size close to nanometers. The emissions of the CdTe QDs thus synthesized were in the range of 500-700 nm by varying the duration of synthesis. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the emission peaks is relatively narrow (40-90 nm), which indicates a nearly uniform distribution of QD size. The structural and optical properties of the QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quenching of CdTe QDs in the presence of L-cysteine and DNA confirms its biocompatibility and its utility for biosensing applications. The room temperature current-voltage characteristics of QD film on ITO coated glass substrate show an electrically induced switching between states with high and low conductivities. The phenomenon is explained on the basis of charge confinement in quantum dots.

  11. Long-distance coherent coupling in a quantum dot array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, F R; Barthelemy, P; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Vandersypen, L M K

    2013-06-01

    Controlling long-distance quantum correlations is central to quantum computation and simulation. In quantum dot arrays, experiments so far rely on nearest-neighbour couplings only, and inducing long-distance correlations requires sequential local operations. Here, we show that two distant sites can be tunnel-coupled directly. The coupling is mediated by virtual occupation of an intermediate site, with a strength that is controlled via the energy detuning of this site. It permits a single charge to oscillate coherently between the outer sites of a triple dot array without passing through the middle, as demonstrated through the observation of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference. The long-distance coupling significantly improves the prospects of fault-tolerant quantum computation using quantum dot arrays, and opens up new avenues for performing quantum simulations in nanoscale devices.

  12. Electron Energy Level Statistics in Graphene Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Katsnellson, M. I.; Katsnelson, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations of size quantization of electron energy levels in graphene quantum dots [7] we investigate the level statistics in the simplest tight-binding model for different dot shapes by computer simulation. The results are in a reasonable agreement with the experi

  13. Advanced Epitaxial Lift-Off Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a high-efficiency, triple-junction, epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell by incorporating quantum dots (QDs) within the current-limiting...

  14. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2010-04-13

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  15. A fast "hybrid" silicon double quantum dot qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Zhan; Prance, J R; Gamble, John King; Koh, Teck Seng; Shim, Yun-Pil; Hu, Xuedong; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Eriksson, M A; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N

    2011-01-01

    We propose a quantum dot qubit architecture that has an attractive combination of speed and fabrication simplicity. It consists of a double quantum dot with one electron in one dot and two electrons in the other. The qubit itself is a set of two states with total spin quantum numbers $S^2=3/4$ ($S=\\half$) and $S_z = -\\half$, with the two different states being singlet and triplet in the doubly occupied dot. The architecture is relatively simple to fabricate, a universal set of fast operations can be implemented electrically, and the system has potentially long decoherence times. These are all extremely attractive properties for use in quantum information processing devices.

  16. Berry phase jumps and giant nonreciprocity in Dirac quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F.; Levitov, Leonid S.

    2016-12-01

    We predict that a strong nonreciprocity in the resonance spectra of Dirac quantum dots can be induced by the Berry phase. The nonreciprocity arises in relatively weak magnetic fields and is manifest in anomalously large field-induced splittings of quantum dot resonances which are degenerate at B =0 due to time-reversal symmetry. This exotic behavior, which is governed by field-induced jumps in the Berry phase of confined electronic states, is unique to quantum dots in Dirac materials and is absent in conventional quantum dots. The effect is strong for gapless Dirac particles and can overwhelm the B -induced orbital and Zeeman splittings. A finite Dirac mass suppresses the effect. The nonreciprocity, predicted for generic two-dimensional Dirac materials, is accessible through Faraday and Kerr optical rotation measurements and scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

  17. Type 2 quantum dots in Ge/Si system

    CERN Document Server

    Dvurechenskij, A V

    2001-01-01

    The results on the electronic structure of spatially indirect excitons, multiparticle excitonic complexes, and negative interband photoconductivity in arrays of Ge/Si type 2 quantum dots are presented. These data have been compared with the well known results for type 2 A sup I sup I sup I B sup V and A sup I sup I B sup V sup I -based heterostructures with quantum dots. Fundamental physical phenomena are found to be the result of an increase in the binding energy of excitons in quantum dots as compared with that of free excitons in bulk homogeneous materials; the shortwave shift of exciton transition energy at multiparticle complexes production (charges excitons, biexcitons), as well as the trapping of equilibrium carrier by localized states induced by the charged quantum dot electric field

  18. Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim;

    2005-01-01

    Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how the ...

  19. Non-Markovian spontaneous emission from a single quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Lund-Hansen, Toke;

    2011-01-01

    We observe non-Markovian dynamics of a single quantum dot when tuned into resonance with a cavity mode. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is observed providing the first quantitative description of such a system....

  20. Electro-absorption of silicene and bilayer graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Hazem; Talaat, Mohamed H.; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Portnoi, M. E.; Saroka, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study numerically the optical properties of low-buckled silicene and AB-stacked bilayer graphene quantum dots subjected to an external electric field, which is normal to their surface. Within the tight-binding model, the optical absorption is calculated for quantum dots, of triangular and hexagonal shapes, with zigzag and armchair edge terminations. We show that in triangular silicene clusters with zigzag edges a rich and widely tunable infrared absorption peak structure originates from transitions involving zero energy states. The edge of absorption in silicene quantum dots undergoes red shift in the external electric field for triangular clusters, whereas blue shift takes place for hexagonal ones. In small clusters of bilayer graphene with zigzag edges the edge of absorption undergoes blue/red shift for triangular/hexagonal geometry. In armchair clusters of silicene blue shift of the absorption edge takes place for both cluster shapes, while red shift is inherent for both shapes of the bilayer graphene quantum dots.

  1. Probing of Unembedded Metallic Quantum Dots with Positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, C G; Denison, A B; Weber, M H; Wilcoxon, J P; Woessner, S; Lynn, K G

    2003-08-01

    We employed the two detector coincident Doppler Broadening Technique (coPAS) to investigate Ag, Au and Ag/Au alloy quantum dots of varying sizes which were deposited in thin layers on glass slides. The Ag quantum dots range from 2 to 3 nm in diameter, while the Ag/Au alloy quantum dots exhibit Ag cores of 2 nm and 3 nm and Au shells of varying thickness. We investigate the possibility of positron confinement in the Ag core due to positron affinity differences between Ag and Au. We describe the results and their significance to resolving the issue of whether positrons annihilate within the quantum dot itself or whether surface and positron escape effects play an important role.

  2. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots for "green" Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Pengfei; Cong, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Lijun; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Yi, Qinghua; Zou, Guifu

    2016-12-01

    Considering the environment protection, "green" materials are increasingly explored for photovoltaics. Here, we developed a kind of quantum dots solar cell based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots were prepared by direct pyrolysis of citric acid and ammonia. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots' excitonic absorption depends on the N-doping content in the carbon dots. The N-doping can be readily modified by the mass ratio of reactants. The constructed "green" nitrogen-doped carbon dots solar cell achieves the best power conversion efficiency of 0.79 % under AM 1.5 G one full sun illumination, which is the highest efficiency for carbon dot-based solar cells.

  3. Electric properties of Ge quantum dot embedded in Si matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xi-ying; SHI Wei-lin

    2005-01-01

    The electric characteristics of Ge quantum dot grown by molecular beam epitaxy in Si matrix were investigated by admittance spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy. The admittance spectroscopy measurements show that the activation energy of 0.341 eV can be considered as the emitting energy of hole from the ground state of the quantum dot. And the capacitance variation with temperature of the sample shows a platform at various frequencies with reverse bias 0.5 V, which indicates that the boundary of space charge region is located at the quantum dot layer where the large confined hole concentration blocks the further extension of space charge region. When the temperature increases from 120 K to 200 K, the holes in the dot emit out completely. The position of the platform shifting with the increase of the applied frequency shows the frequency effects of the charges in the quantum dot. The deep level transient spectroscopy results show that the charge concentration in the Ge quantum dot is a function of the pulse duration and the reverse bias voltage, the activation energy and capture cross-section of hole decrease with the increase of pulse duration due to the Coulomb charging effect. The valence-band offsets of hole in Ge dot obtained by admittance spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy are 0.341 and 0.338 eV, respectively.

  4. Cytotoxicity of cadmium-containing quantum dots based on a study using a microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiannuo; Tian, Jing; Weng, Lixing; Wu, Lei; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Wang, Lianhui

    2012-02-01

    There is a lack of reliable nanotoxicity assays available for monitoring and quantifying multiple cellular events in cultured cells. In this study, we used a microfluidic chip to systematically investigate the cytotoxicity of three kinds of well-characterized cadmium-containing quantum dots (QDs) with the same core but different shell structures, including CdTe core QDs, CdTe/CdS core-shell QDs, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs, in HEK293 cells. Using the microfluidic chip combined with fluorescence microscopy, multiple QD-induced cellular events including cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and QD uptake were simultaneously analysed. The three kinds of QDs showed significantly different cytotoxicities. The CdTe QDs, which are highly toxic to HEK293 cells, resulted in remarkable cellular and nuclear morphological changes, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, and strong inhibition of cell proliferation; the CdTe/CdS QDs were moderately toxic but did not significantly affect the proliferation of HEK293 cells; while the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had no detectable influence on cytotoxicity with respect to cell morphology, viability, and proliferation. Our data indicated that QD cytotoxicity was closely related to their surface structures and specific physicochemical properties. This study also demonstrated that the microfluidic chip could serve as a powerful tool to systematically evaluate the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in multiple cellular events.

  5. Toxicokinetics and tissue distribution of cadmium-based Quantum Dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Gomes, Tânia; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Sousa, Vânia Serrão; Nunes, Luís Miguel; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Bebianno, Maria João

    2015-09-01

    Environmental health hazards of Quantum Dots (QDs) are of emergent concern, but limited data is available about their toxicokinetics (TK) and tissue distribution in marine bivalves. This study investigated the QDs behavior in seawater, their TK and tissue distribution in Mytilus galloprovincialis, in comparison with soluble Cd. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and soluble Cd for 21 days at 10 μgCd L(-1) followed by a 50 days depuration. TK of QDs in mussels is related to the homo-aggregate uptake, surface charge, aggregation and precipitation as key factors. There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the TK of both Cd forms, and soluble Cd is the most bioavailable form. Digestive gland is a preferential site for QDs storage and both Cd forms are not eliminated by mussels (t1/2>50 days). Results indicate that the TK model of CdTe QDs in marine mussels is distinct from their soluble counterparts.

  6. A novel electrochemiluminescence sensor based on nitrogen-doped graphene/CdTe quantum dots composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Aming; Zhang, Shengyi, E-mail: syzhangi@126.com; Mao, Changjie; Song, Jiming; Niu, Helin; Jin, Baokang; Tian, Yupeng

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • The composite was prepared by combining CdTe QDs with nitrogen-doped graphene. • The NG/CdTe QDs composite as-prepared was used to construct sensor. • The sensor exhibited high ECL intensity and good ECL stability. • The sensor was used to detect ascorbic acid based on its ECL quenching. - Abstract: A novel sensor was assembled by combining CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode. The sensor as-assembled with the NG/CdTe QDs composite exhibited high electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity and long-time ECL stability. The ECL mechanism and effect factors on ECL emission of the sensor are discussed. Significantly, the sensor was used in ascorbic acid (AA) detection based on the ECL quenching of AA. The results show that the sensor has a linear response range from 0.04 to 200 μM and the detection limit of 0.015 μM for AA.

  7. Quantum-dot-modified microbubbles with bi-mode imaging capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke Hengte; Xing Zhanwen; Guo Caixin; Yue Xiuli; Liu Shaoqin; Dai Zhifei [Nanobiotechnology Division, Bio-X Center, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhao Bo; Wang Jinrui [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu Jibin [Ultrasound Research and Education Institute, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Tang Zhiyong, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.co, E-mail: ji-bin.liu@jefferson.ed, E-mail: zhifei.dai@hit.edu.c [National Center of Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-10-21

    The aim of this paper was to develop a novel bi-mode ultrasound/fluorescent imaging agent through stepwise layer-by-layer deposition of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) onto ST68 microbubbles (MBs) produced by sonication of a mixture of surfactants (Span 60 and Tween 80). The experiments using photoluminescence spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that CdTe nanoparticles were successfully adsorbed on the outer surface of the MBs. The static light scattering measurements showed that size distributions of MBs before and after QD deposition met the size requirements for clinical application. The in vitro and in vivo ultrasonography indicated that the QD-modified MBs maintained good contrast enhancement properties as the original MBs. Furthermore, the in vitro ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) experiment of the QD-MB composites was carried out to validate the ability of MBs to deliver QDs for fluorescent imaging. The results showed that the QD-modified MBs not only maintained the capability of ultrasound imaging, but also could be used as a targeted-drug controlled-release system to deliver the QDs for cell and tissue fluorescent imaging by UTMD. The novel dual-functional imaging agent has potential for a variety of biological and medical applications.

  8. Quantum-dot-modified microbubbles with bi-mode imaging capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hengte; Xing, Zhanwen; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Jinrui; Liu, Jibin; Guo, Caixin; Yue, Xiuli; Liu, Shaoqin; Tang, Zhiyong; Dai, Zhifei

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop a novel bi-mode ultrasound/fluorescent imaging agent through stepwise layer-by-layer deposition of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) onto ST68 microbubbles (MBs) produced by sonication of a mixture of surfactants (Span 60 and Tween 80). The experiments using photoluminescence spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that CdTe nanoparticles were successfully adsorbed on the outer surface of the MBs. The static light scattering measurements showed that size distributions of MBs before and after QD deposition met the size requirements for clinical application. The in vitro and in vivo ultrasonography indicated that the QD-modified MBs maintained good contrast enhancement properties as the original MBs. Furthermore, the in vitro ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) experiment of the QD-MB composites was carried out to validate the ability of MBs to deliver QDs for fluorescent imaging. The results showed that the QD-modified MBs not only maintained the capability of ultrasound imaging, but also could be used as a targeted-drug controlled-release system to deliver the QDs for cell and tissue fluorescent imaging by UTMD. The novel dual-functional imaging agent has potential for a variety of biological and medical applications.

  9. Ceiling temperature and photothermalsensitivity of aqueous MSA-CdTe quantum dots thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinbing; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Ben Q.

    2017-02-01

    Ceiling temperature, photothermal sensitivity and size effects of aqueous mercaptosuccinic acid modified CdTe quantum dots (MSA-CdTe QDs) are determined from experimental measurements for temperature sensing applications. Measured data show that the ceiling temperature of MSA-CdTe prepared by the hydrothermal process is 60 °C, better than that of CdTe QDs modified by thioglycolic acid (TGA). Aqueous MSA-CdTe QDs exhibit a reversible PL spectral peak wavelength shift within the temperature range from room temperature up to the ceiling temperature 60 °C. With the size of the QDs increasing from 1.9 nm to 3.1 nm, the photothermal sensitivity remains unchanged and a stable linear correlation with a slope of 0.16 nm/ °C exists between the PL spectral peak wavelength position and the temperature. The morphology of QDs was examined under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measured emission photoluminescence data by QDs further show that the thermal sensitivity is independent of the size of the QDs for the size range studied. Theoretical analysis is presented to substantiate the experiment results.

  10. Colloidal quantum dot materials for infrared optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinze, Ebuka S.; Nyirjesy, Gabrielle; Cheng, Yan; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2015-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are an attractive material for optoelectronic applications because they combine flexible, low-cost solution-phase synthesis and processing with the potential for novel functionality arising from their nanostructure. Specifically, the bandgap of films composed of arrays of CQDs can be tuned via the quantum confinement effect for tailored spectral utilization. PbS-based CQDs can be tuned throughout the near and mid-infrared wavelengths and are a promising materials system for photovoltaic devices that harvest non-visible solar radiation. The performance of CQD solar cells is currently limited by an absorption-extraction compromise, whereby photon absorption lengths in the near infrared spectral regime exceed minority carrier diffusion lengths in the bulk films. Several light trapping strategies for overcoming this compromise and increasing the efficiency of infrared energy harvesting will be reviewed. A thin-film interference technique for creating multi-colored and transparent solar cells will be presented, and a discussion of designing plasmonic nanomaterials based on earth-abundant materials for integration into CQD solar cells is developed. The results indicate that it should be possible to achieve high absorption and color-tunability in a scalable nanomaterials system.

  11. Quantum Dot Solar Cell Fabrication Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernomordik, Boris D.; Marshall, Ashley R.; Pach, Gregory F.; Luther, Joseph M.; Beard, Matthew C.

    2017-01-10

    Colloidally synthesized quantum-confined semiconducting spherical nanocrystals, often referred to as quantum dots (QDs), offer a high degree of chemical, optical, and electronic tunability. As a result, there is an increasing interest in employing colloidal QDs for electronic and optical applications that is reflected in a growing number of publications. In this protocol we provide detailed procedures for the fabrication of QD solar cells specifically employing PbSe and PbS QDs. We include details that are learned through experience, beyond those in typical methodology sections, and include example pictures and videos to aid in fabricating QD solar cells. Although successful solar cell fabrication is ultimately learned through experience, this protocol is intended to accelerate that process. The protocol developed here is intended to be a general starting point for developing PbS and PbSe QD test bed solar cells. We include steps for forming conductive QD films via dip coating as well as spin coating. Finally, we provide protocols that detail the synthesis of PbS and PbSe QDs through a unique cation exchange reaction and discuss how different QD synthetic routes could impact the resulting solar cell performance.

  12. Optical nuclear spin polarization in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Xian; Duan, Su-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Hyperfine interaction between electron spin and randomly oriented nuclear spins is a key issue of electron coherence for quantum information/computation. We propose an efficient way to establish high polarization of nuclear spins and reduce the intrinsic nuclear spin fluctuations. Here, we polarize the nuclear spins in semiconductor quantum dot (QD) by the coherent population trapping (CPT) and the electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) induced by optical fields and ac electric fields. By tuning the optical fields, we can obtain a powerful cooling background based on CPT for nuclear spin polarization. The EDSR can enhance the spin flip-flop rate which may increase the cooling efficiency. With the help of CPT and EDSR, an enhancement of 1300 times of the electron coherence time can be obtained after a 10-ns preparation time. Project partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant Nos. 11374039 and 11174042) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922204 and 2013CB632805).

  13. Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-06-03

    Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Progress in the toxicological researches for quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received more and more attention as a novel example of nanomaterials. Due to their unique fluorescent characteristics,quantum dots have been successfully applied in biotech-nology and medicine applications. Recently,the toxicity and the potential environmental effects of QDs have become a research hotspot. In this paper,toxicological effects of QDs are reviewed,and the prospects and research directions are given based on the analysis of this research field.

  15. Programmable Periodicity of Quantum Dot Arrays with DNA Origami Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To fabricate quantum dot arrays with programmable periodicity, functionalized DNA origami nanotubes were developed. Selected DNA staple strands were biotin-labeled to form periodic binding sites for streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots. Successful formation of arrays with periods of 43 and 71 nm demonstrates precise, programmable, large-scale nanoparticle patterning; however, limitations in array periodicity were also observed. Statistical analysis of AFM images revealed evidence for steric hindrance or site bridging that limited the minimum array periodicity. PMID:20681601

  16. Ultrafast optical signal processing using semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing.......The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing....

  17. Solution-processed nanocrystal quantum dot tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joshua J.; Lim, Yee-Fun [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wenger, Whitney N.; Hoffman, Rachel S.; Hanrath, Tobias [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Luria, Justin; Marohn, John A. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Jasieniak, Jacek [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Bayview Ave, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2011-07-26

    Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V{sub oc}, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Optical phonons in Ge quantum dots obtained on Si(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Talochkin, A B

    2002-01-01

    The light combination scattering on the optical phonons in the Ge quantum dots, obtained on the Si surface of the (111) orientation through the molecular-beam epitaxy, is studied. The series of lines, connected with the phonon spectrum quantization, was observed. It is shown, that the phonon modes frequencies are well described by the elastic properties and dispersion of the voluminous Ge optical phonons. The value of the Ge quantum dots deformation is determined

  19. Intraband Relaxation and Its Influences on Quantum Dot Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Sheng-Ling; HUANG Yong-Zhen; YU Li-Juan

    2005-01-01

    @@ A comprehensive two-level numerical model is developed to describe carrier distribution in a quantum-dot laser. Light-emission spectra with different intraband relaxation rates (2ps, 7.5ps and 20ps) are calculated and analysed to investigate the influence of relaxation rates on performance of the quantum-dot laser. The results indicate that fast intraband relaxation favours not only the ground state single mode operation but also the higher injection efficiency.

  20. Dynamical symmetries in Kondo tunneling through complex quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, T; Kikoin, K; Avishai, Y

    2002-10-07

    Kondo tunneling reveals hidden SO(n) dynamical symmetries of evenly occupied quantum dots. As is exemplified for an experimentally realizable triple quantum dot in parallel geometry, the possible values n=3,4,5,7 can be easily tuned by gate voltages. Following construction of the corresponding o(n) algebras, scaling equations are derived and Kondo temperatures are calculated. The symmetry group for a magnetic field induced anisotropic Kondo tunneling is SU(2) or SO(4).