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Sample records for cdte photovoltaic module

  1. Strategies for recycling CdTe photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberspacher, Chris; Gay, Charles F.; Moskowitz, Paul D.

    1994-12-01

    Recycling end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules may enhance the competitive advantage of CdTe PV in the marketplace, but the experiences of industries with comparable Environmental, Health and Safety (EH&S) challenges suggest that collection and recycling costs can impose significant economic burdens. Customer cooperation and pending changes to US Federal law may improve recycling economics.

  2. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: Measurements and energy prediction improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Arnesano, A.; Vergallo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m2. About 37 000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m2 and from -1 to 40 W/m2 from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  3. Environmental, health and safety issues related to the production and use of CdTe photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines environmental, health and safety issues associated with the production and use of CdTe photovoltaic modules. Handling of Cd and Te in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers time to implement appropriate hazard management strategies. The most important health hazards are probably related to chronic low-level exposures to Cd, especially to workers in manufacturing facilities. Because of the long latency period associated with the development of health effects arising from such exposures, and the availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, such hazards can be monitored and controlled. The true hazard presented by CdTe is very uncertain because characterizations of its inherent biological toxicity are based on extrapolation of data from other Cd compounds. Technical and institutional mechanisms for the recycling of spent CdTe modules may be needed to ensure public acceptance of this material option and to eliminate expensive disposal costs. (author)

  4. Fabrication of stable, large-area thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T. X.

    1995-06-01

    During the period of this subcontract, May 1991 through February 1995, Solar Cells, Inc. has developed and demonstrated a low-cost process to fabricate stable large-area cadmium telluride based thin-film photovoltaic modules. This report summarizes the final phase of the project which is concentrated on process optimization and product life tests. One of the major post-deposition process steps, the CdCl2 heat treatment, has been experimentally replaced with alternative treatments with vapor chloride or chlorine gas. Material and device qualities associated with alternative treatments are comparable or superior to those with the conventional treatment. Extensive experiments have been conducted to optimize the back-electrode structure in order to ensure long term device stability. Numerous small-area cells and minimodules have been subjected to a variety of stress tests, including but not limited to continuous light soak under open or short circuit or with resistive load, for over 10,000 hours. Satisfactory stability has been demonstrated on 48 and 64 sq cm minimodules under accelerated tests and on 7200 sq cm large modules under normal operating conditions. The conversion efficiency has also been significantly improved during this period. The total area efficiency of 7200 sq cm module has reached 8.4%, corresponding to a 60.3 W normalized output; the efficiency of 64 sq cm minimodules and 1.1 sq cm cells has reached 10.5% (aperture area) and 12.4% (total area), respectively.

  5. CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells and Modules Tutorial; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, David S.

    2015-06-13

    This is a tutorial presented at the 42nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference to cover the introduction, background, and updates on CdTe cell and module technology, including CdTe cell and module structure and fabrication.

  6. Understanding and managing health and environmental risks of CIS, CGS, and CdTe photovoltaic module production and use: A workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.; DePhillips, M.P. [eds.

    1994-04-28

    Environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risks presented by CIS, CGS and CdTe photovoltaic module production, use and decommissioning have been reviewed and discussed by several authors. Several EH&S concerns exit. The estimated EH&S risks are based on extrapolations of toxicity, environmental mobility, and bioavailability data for other related inorganic compounds. Sparse data, however, are available for CIS, CGS or CdTe. In response to the increased interest in these materials, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been engaged in a cooperative research program with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Fraunhofer Institute for Solid State Technology (IFT), the Institute of Ecotoxicity of the GSF Forschungszentrum fair Umwelt und Gesundheit, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) to develop fundamental toxicological and environmental data for these three compounds. This workshop report describes the results of these studies and describes their potential implications with respect to the EH&S risks presented by CIS, CGS, and CdTe module production, use and decommissioning.

  7. Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is concerned with the results of a thorough energy and life cycle assessment (LIA) of CdTe and CIS photovoltaic modules. The analysis is based on actual production data, making it one of the very first of its kind to be presented to the scientific community, and therefore especially worthy of attention as a preliminary indication of the future environmental impact that the up-scaling of thin film module production may entail. The analysis is consistent with the recommendations provided by ISO norms 14040 and updates, and makes use of an in-house developed multi-method impact assessment method named SUMMA, which includes resource demand indicators, energy efficiency indicators, and 'downstream' environmental impact indicators. A comparative framework is also provided, wherein electricity produced by thin film systems such as the ones under study is set up against electricity from poly-Si systems and the average European electricity mix. Results clearly show an overall very promising picture for thin film technologies, which are found to be characterised by favourable environmental impact indicators (with special reference to CdTe systems), in spite of their still comparatively lower efficiencies

  8. Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raugei, Marco [Energy and Environment Research Unit, Dep. of Chemistry, University of Siena Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena (Italy)]. E-mail: raugei@unisi.it; Bargigli, Silvia [Energy and Environment Research Unit, Dep. of Chemistry, University of Siena Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena (Italy); Ulgiati, Sergio [Energy and Environment Research Unit, Dep. of Chemistry, University of Siena Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    The paper is concerned with the results of a thorough energy and life cycle assessment (LIA) of CdTe and CIS photovoltaic modules. The analysis is based on actual production data, making it one of the very first of its kind to be presented to the scientific community, and therefore especially worthy of attention as a preliminary indication of the future environmental impact that the up-scaling of thin film module production may entail. The analysis is consistent with the recommendations provided by ISO norms 14040 and updates, and makes use of an in-house developed multi-method impact assessment method named SUMMA, which includes resource demand indicators, energy efficiency indicators, and 'downstream' environmental impact indicators. A comparative framework is also provided, wherein electricity produced by thin film systems such as the ones under study is set up against electricity from poly-Si systems and the average European electricity mix. Results clearly show an overall very promising picture for thin film technologies, which are found to be characterised by favourable environmental impact indicators (with special reference to CdTe systems), in spite of their still comparatively lower efficiencies.

  9. Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goozner, Robert E.; Long, Mark O.; Drinkard, Jr., William F.

    1999-01-01

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate and electrolyzing the leachate to separate Cd from Te, wherein the Te is deposits onto a cathode while the Cd remains in solution.

  10. A photovoltaic module

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Frederik C.; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovolt...

  11. High throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 November 1993--15 November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandwisch, D W [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), under a 3-year subcontract to advance SCI`s PV manufacturing technologies, reduce module production costs, increase module performance, and provide the groundwork for SCI to expand its commercial production capacities. SCI will meet these objectives in three phases by designing, debugging, and operating a 20-MW/year, automated, continuous PV manufacturing line that produces 60-cm {times} 120-cm thin-film CdTe PV modules. This report describes tasks completed under Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy`s PV Manufacturing Technology program.

  12. CdTe Photovoltaics for Sustainable Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Amit; Sampath, Walajabad

    2016-09-01

    Thin film CdTe (cadmium telluride) is an important technology in the development of sustainable and affordable electricity generation. More than 10 GW of installations have been carried out using this technology around the globe. It has been demonstrated as a sustainable, green, renewable, affordable and abundant source of electricity. An advanced sublimation tool has been developed that allows highly controlled deposition of CdTe films onto commercial soda lime glass substrates. All deposition and treatment steps can be performed without breaking the vacuum within a single chamber in an inline process that can be conveniently scaled to a commercial process. In addition, an advanced cosublimation source has been developed to allow the deposition of ternary alloys such as Cd x Mg1- x Te to form an electron reflector layer which is expected to address the voltage deficits in current CdTe devices and to achieve very high efficiency. Extensive materials characterization, including but not limited to scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction, has been performed to get a better understanding of the effects of processing conditions on CdTe thin film photovoltaics. This combined with computer modeling such as density function theory modeling gives a new insight into the mechanism of CdTe photovoltaic function. With all these efforts, CdTe photovoltaics has seen great progress in the last few years. Currently, it has been recorded as the cheapest source of electricity in the USA on a commercial scale, and further improvements are predicted to further reduce the cost while increasing its utilization. Here, we give an overview of the advantages of thin film CdTe photovoltaics as well as a brief review of the challenges that need to be addressed. Some fundamental studies of processing conditions for thin film CdTe are also presented

  13. CdTe Photovoltaics for Sustainable Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Amit; Sampath, Walajabad

    2016-04-01

    Thin film CdTe (cadmium telluride) is an important technology in the development of sustainable and affordable electricity generation. More than 10 GW of installations have been carried out using this technology around the globe. It has been demonstrated as a sustainable, green, renewable, affordable and abundant source of electricity. An advanced sublimation tool has been developed that allows highly controlled deposition of CdTe films onto commercial soda lime glass substrates. All deposition and treatment steps can be performed without breaking the vacuum within a single chamber in an inline process that can be conveniently scaled to a commercial process. In addition, an advanced cosublimation source has been developed to allow the deposition of ternary alloys such as Cd x Mg1-x Te to form an electron reflector layer which is expected to address the voltage deficits in current CdTe devices and to achieve very high efficiency. Extensive materials characterization, including but not limited to scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction, has been performed to get a better understanding of the effects of processing conditions on CdTe thin film photovoltaics. This combined with computer modeling such as density function theory modeling gives a new insight into the mechanism of CdTe photovoltaic function. With all these efforts, CdTe photovoltaics has seen great progress in the last few years. Currently, it has been recorded as the cheapest source of electricity in the USA on a commercial scale, and further improvements are predicted to further reduce the cost while increasing its utilization. Here, we give an overview of the advantages of thin film CdTe photovoltaics as well as a brief review of the challenges that need to be addressed. Some fundamental studies of processing conditions for thin film CdTe are also presented

  14. Determining energy production of CdTe photovoltaic system

    OpenAIRE

    Virtič, Peter; Šlamberger, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for determining energy production of Cadmium-Telluride photovoltaic system, which has a different working performance than the most used Silicon photovoltaic systems. The main difference is sensitivity to the temperature and the solar irradiance. The CdTe cells are less sensitive to the temperature and in contrast to the Si Cells they have a higher efficiency at lower irradiance.

  15. A photovoltaic module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor. The...... carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  16. CdTe photovoltaics: Life cycle environmental profile and comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the emissions of cadmium throughout all the life stages of CdTe PV modules, from extracting, refining, and purifying the raw materials to producing, using, and disposing or recycling of the modules. Then, we compare these emissions with those in the life cycle of three different types of crystalline Si PV modules. The energy requirement and energy pay back times (EPBT) of CdTe PV modules are considerably shorter than that of crystalline Si modules, although the latter exhibit higher efficiencies. This difference is primarily due to the energy used to process silicon, a fraction of which is derived from fossil fuels, inevitably producing Cd and many other heavy-metal emissions. The lower energy requirement of CdTe PV results in lower emissions of all pollutants, including cadmium

  17. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  18. Photovoltaic minimodule based on CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdS/CdTe solar cells were fabricated without antireflection coatings by successive growth without intermediate processing from the close space sublimation of CdS and CdTe thin layers on conductive and transparent SnO2/glass substrates. At 300 K and 100 mW/cm2 the following best photoelectric parameters were obtained: Isc= (18-19)mA/cm2 and Voc=(0,80-0,82)V. The conversion efficiency is around 10%. The quantum efficiency (QE) in the 510 nm and 845 nm range of wavelengths is on the order of 80-85%. The minimodule fabricated on the basis of the CdTe cells shows power of 0.45 W, corresponding to a voltage of 3 V, and current of 150 mA. (authors)

  19. Advances in CdTe n-i-p photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, P.V. (Ametek Applied Materials Lab., Harleysville, PA (USA))

    1989-10-15

    Development of the CdTe n-i-p solar cell has enabled researchers to produce 11% efficient solar cells while eliminating stability problems associated with a low-resistance back contact. Furthermore, loss analysis indicates that significant increases in efficiency can still be realized through reduction of absorption and reflection and by passivation of recombination centers at the interfaces. Simplifications in the interconnection procedures make the CdTe n-i-p solar module more ''manufacturable''. A submodule with four interconnected cells has been produced. It has an aperture area efficiency over 8% with an area ratio of 0.91. (orig.).

  20. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  1. Modelling the Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanevakis, Markos

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers into various ways in simulation the Photovoltaic (PV) module behaviour under any combination of solar irradiation and ambient temperature. There are three different approaches presented here briefly and one of them is chosen because of its good accuracy and relatively low...

  2. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  3. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  4. Photovoltaic concentrator module technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Chamberlin, Jay L.; Boes, Eldon C.

    Significant developments in the development of photovoltaic (PV) concentrator technology are described. Concentrator cell research, advances in PV concentrator cell technology, and PV concentrator module development are described. Reliability issues currently of concern, including the applicability of wet insulation resistance tests to concentrator modules, correlation of accelerated thermal cycling tests with life expectancy in the field, and the importance of quality assurance during manufacture, are discussed. Two PV concentrator power systems installed in 1989 are discussed. A PV concentrator initiative program established by the DOE is given, and the results of the latest cost study are presented.

  5. Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe module and array at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Powell, R.; Sasala, R. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}, V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.

  6. Intracavity CdTe modulators for CO2 lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J. E.; Nussmeier, T. A.; Goodwin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    The use of cadmium telluride as an electrooptic material for intracavity modulation of CO2 lasers is described. Included are the predicted and measured effects of CdTe intracavity modulators on laser performance. Coupling and frequency modulation are discussed and experimental results compared with theoretically predicted performance for both techniques. Limitations on the frequency response of the two types of modulation are determined.

  7. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  8. Studies of key technologies for CdTe solar modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, CdS thin films, which act as the window layer and n-type partner to the p-type CdTe layer, were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). CdTe thin films were deposited by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) method. To obtain high-quality back contacts, a Te-rich layer was created with chemical etching and back contact materials were applied after CdTe annealing. The results indicate that the ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu complex layers show superior performance over other back contacts. Finally, by using laser scribing and mechanical scribing, the CdTe mini-modules were fabricated, in which a glass/SnO2:F/CdS/CdTe/ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu/Ni solar module with a PWQC-confirmed total-area efficiency of 7.03% (54 cm2) was achieved.

  9. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of high-reliability CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for reliable CdTe solar cell modules, large in area and high in efficiency. In the study of large-area CdS thin film fabrication, a conversion efficiency of 12.5-14.2% was achieved in a cell in a large-area substrate using a mist method-aided process of continuous CdS film fabrication. In the study of large-area CdTe thin film fabrication, the optimization was studied of the base-forming CdS film fabrication conditions and of the CdTe film fabrication conditions in a method using a CdTe powder processed by dry kneading, and a conversion efficiency peak was found to exist when the CdS film thickness was in the range of 700-900 angstrom. In the fabrication of large-area submodules, a large-area substrate was taken up, and TCO (transparent conducting oxide) film was fabricated by the mist method, CdTe film by the normal pressure CSS method, electrodes by the screen printing method, and CdTe film patterns by the blast method. As the result, a conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. In a cost estimation for large-area CdTe solar cell modules, 140 yen/Wp (conversion efficiency: 11.0%, annual production: 100 MW) was obtained. (NEDO)

  10. Reliability Issues for Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-10-01

    Si modules good in field; new designs need reliability testing. CdTe & CIGS modules sensitive to moisture; carefully seal. CPV in product development stage; benefits from expertise in other industries.

  11. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  12. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. [eds.

    1992-10-01

    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  13. Oxygen Incorporation During Fabrication of Substrate CdTe Photovoltaic Devices: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Kuciauskas, D.; Li, J. V.; Pankow, J. W.; DeHart, C. M.; Gessert, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices fabricated in the nonstandard substrate configuration have attracted increasing interest because of their potential compatibility with flexible substrates such as metal foils and polymer films. This compatibility could lead to the suitability of CdTe for roll-to-roll processing and building-integrated PV. Currently, however, the efficiencies of substrate CdTe devices reported in the literature are significantly lower ({approx}6%-8%) than those of high-performance superstrate devices ({approx}17%) because of significantly lower open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). In our recent device development efforts, we have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. Here, we investigate how oxygen incorporation in the CdTe deposition, CdCl2 heat treatment, CdS deposition, and post-deposition heat treatment affect device characteristics through their effects on the junction. By adjusting whether oxygen is incorporated during these processing steps, we have achieved Voc values greater than 860 mV and efficiencies greater than 10%.

  14. CdTe nano-structures for photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Franco, N.; Barreiros, M. A.; Sochinskii, N. V.; Alves, E.

    2013-07-01

    CdTe nano-structures with diameter of ∼100 nm and variable length (200-600 nm) were fabricated on glass substrates covered with conductive buffer layers such as NiCr, ZAO (ZnO:Al2O3 + Ta2O5) or TiPd alloys. The fabrication process consisted of the starting vapour deposition of metal catalyst dropped layer followed by the isothermal catalyst-prompted vapour growth of CdTe nano-structured layer of controllable shape and surface filling. The effect of buffer layers on the crystallographic orientation and thickness of CdTe nano-structured layers is investigated by means of IBA techniques, SEM and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the formed CdTe nano-layers have a cubic structure, mainly oriented towards the [1 1 1] crystallographic direction, except for those grown on ZAO layer where the X-ray diffraction signal is very weak to be associated to any crystallographic form. The RBS spectra recorded on different areas of each sample type showed an almost constant thickness and SEM images revealed an homogeneous and dense distribution of the structures. It was also possible to study the first stage of the nano-structures grown on the Bi2Te3 seeds.

  15. CdTe nano-structures for photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe nano-structures with diameter of ∼100 nm and variable length (200–600 nm) were fabricated on glass substrates covered with conductive buffer layers such as NiCr, ZAO (ZnO:Al2O3 + Ta2O5) or TiPd alloys. The fabrication process consisted of the starting vapour deposition of metal catalyst dropped layer followed by the isothermal catalyst-prompted vapour growth of CdTe nano-structured layer of controllable shape and surface filling. The effect of buffer layers on the crystallographic orientation and thickness of CdTe nano-structured layers is investigated by means of IBA techniques, SEM and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the formed CdTe nano-layers have a cubic structure, mainly oriented towards the [1 1 1] crystallographic direction, except for those grown on ZAO layer where the X-ray diffraction signal is very weak to be associated to any crystallographic form. The RBS spectra recorded on different areas of each sample type showed an almost constant thickness and SEM images revealed an homogeneous and dense distribution of the structures. It was also possible to study the first stage of the nano-structures grown on the Bi2Te3 seeds

  16. CdTe nano-structures for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corregidor, V., E-mail: vicky.corregidor@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Franco, N. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Barreiros, M.A. [LNEG, Estrada Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Sochinskii, N.V. [Consorzio CREO, SS 17 Località Boschetto, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    CdTe nano-structures with diameter of ∼100 nm and variable length (200–600 nm) were fabricated on glass substrates covered with conductive buffer layers such as NiCr, ZAO (ZnO:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) or TiPd alloys. The fabrication process consisted of the starting vapour deposition of metal catalyst dropped layer followed by the isothermal catalyst-prompted vapour growth of CdTe nano-structured layer of controllable shape and surface filling. The effect of buffer layers on the crystallographic orientation and thickness of CdTe nano-structured layers is investigated by means of IBA techniques, SEM and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the formed CdTe nano-layers have a cubic structure, mainly oriented towards the [1 1 1] crystallographic direction, except for those grown on ZAO layer where the X-ray diffraction signal is very weak to be associated to any crystallographic form. The RBS spectra recorded on different areas of each sample type showed an almost constant thickness and SEM images revealed an homogeneous and dense distribution of the structures. It was also possible to study the first stage of the nano-structures grown on the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} seeds.

  17. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab® and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model

  18. Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2007-05-22

    An apparatus and processes for large scale inline manufacturing of CdTe photovoltaic modules in which all steps, including rapid substrate heating, deposition of CdS, deposition of CdTe, CdCl.sub.2 treatment, and ohmic contact formation, are performed within a single vacuum boundary at modest vacuum pressures. A p+ ohmic contact region is formed by subliming a metal salt onto the CdTe layer. A back electrode is formed by way of a low cost spray process, and module scribing is performed by means of abrasive blasting or mechanical brushing through a mask. The vacuum process apparatus facilitates selective heating of substrates and films, exposure of substrates and films to vapor with minimal vapor leakage, deposition of thin films onto a substrate, and stripping thin films from a substrate. A substrate transport apparatus permits the movement of substrates into and out of vacuum during the thin film deposition processes, while preventing the collection of coatings on the substrate transport apparatus itself.

  19. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Health, safety and environmental risks from the operation of CdTe and CIS thin-film modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies the materials embedded in on a type of CIS (Copper indium diselenide) and four different types of CdTe (cadmium telluride) thin-film modules. It refers to the results of our outdoor leaching experiments on photovoltaic (PV) samples broken into small fragments. Estimations for modules accidents on the roof or in the garden of a residential house, e.g. leaching of hazardous materials into water or soil, are given. The outcomes of our estimations show some module materials released into water or oil during leaching accidents. In a worst-case scenario for CdTe modules the leached cadmium concentration in the collected water is estimated to be no higher than the German drinking water limit concentration. For the CIS module scenario the estimated leached element concentrations are about one to two orders of magnitude below the German drinking water limit concentration. For broken CIS and CdTe modules on the ground no critical increase of the natural element concentration is observed after leaching into the soil for 1 year. (Author)

  1. Nanoscale Imaging of Band Gap and Defects in Polycrystalline CdTe Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitenev, Nikolai; Yoon, Yohan; Chae, Jungseok; Katzenmeyer, Aaron; Yoon, Heayoung; An, Sangmin; Shumacher, Joshua; Centrone, Andrea

    To further increase the power efficiency of polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic (PV) technology, a detailed understanding of microstructural properties of the devices is required. In this work, we investigate the microstructure of CdTe PV devices using two optical spectroscopies. Sub-micron thickness lamella samples were cut out from a PV device, either in cross-section or in-plane, by focused ion beam. The first technique is the photothermal induced resonance (PTIR) used to obtain absorption spectra over a broad range of wavelengths. In PTIR, a wavelength tunable pulsed laser is combined with an atomic force microscope to detect the local thermal expansion of lamella CdTe sample induced by light absorption. The second technique based on a near-field scanning optical microscope maps the local absorption at fixed near-IR wavelengths with energies at or below CdTe band-gap energy. The variation of the band gap throughout the CdTe absorber determined from PTIR spectra is ~ 20 meV. Both techniques detect strong spatial variation of shallow defects over different grains. The spatial distribution of mid-gap defects appears to be more uniform. The resolution, the sensitivity and the applicability of these two approaches are compared.

  2. Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

    2007-09-01

    We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

  3. Robust Measurement of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Exhibiting Light-Induced Transients: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael, G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-09

    Light-induced changes to the current-voltage characteristic of thin-film photovoltaic modules (i.e. light-soaking effects) frustrate the repeatable measurement of their operating power. We describe best practices for mitigating, or stabilizing, light-soaking effects for both CdTe and CIGS modules to enable robust, repeatable, and relevant power measurements. We motivate the practices by detailing how modules react to changes in different stabilization methods. We also describe and demonstrate a method for validating alternative stabilization procedures, such as those relying on forward bias in the dark. Reliable measurements of module power are critical for qualification testing, reliability testing, and power rating.

  4. Mechanism of charge transport in ligand-capped crystalline CdTe nanoparticles according to surface photovoltaic and photoacoustic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By combining surface photovoltaic and photoacoustic techniques, we probed the photogenerated charge transport channels of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)- and 2-mercaptoethylamine (MA)-capped crystalline CdTe nanoparticles on illumination with UV-near IR light. The results experimentally confirmed the presence of a CdS shell outside the CdTe core that formed through the self-assembly and decomposition of mercapto ligands during CdTe preparation. The data revealed that the CdS layer was partly responsible for the deexcitation behavior of the photogenerated carriers, which is related to the quantum tunnel effect. Experiments demonstrated that two quantum wells were located at wavelengths of 440 and 500 nm in buried interfacial space-charge regions, whereas the formation of a ligand layer obstructed charge transfer transitions of the core CdTe nanoparticles to a certain extent.

  5. Structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of co-doped CdTe QDs for quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaswamy, Arivarasan; Ganapathy, Sasikala; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Ramasamy, Jayavel

    2015-12-01

    Zinc and sulfur alloyed CdTe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes have been fabricated for quantum dots sensitized solar cells. Alloyed CdTe QDs were prepared in aqueous phase using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a capping agent. The influence of co-doping on the structural property of CdTe QDs was studied by XRD analysis. The enhanced optical absorption of alloyed CdTe QDs was studied using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The capping of MSA molecules over CdTe QDs was confirmed by the FTIR and XPS analyses. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the prepared QDs were thermally stable up to 600 °C. The photovoltaic performance of alloyed CdTe QDs sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes were studied using J-V characteristics under the illumination of light with 1 Sun intensity. These results show the highest photo conversion efficiency of η = 1.21%-5% Zn & S alloyed CdTe QDs.

  6. Modelling of Photovoltaic Module Using Matlab Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Ajisman; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module consists of numbers of photovoltaic cells that are connected in series and parallel used to generate electricity from solar energy. The characteristics of PV module are different based on the model and environment factors. In this paper, simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab Simulink approach is presented. The method is used to determine the characteristics of PV module in various conditions especially in different level of irradiations and temperature. By having different values of irradiations and temperature, the results showed the output power, voltage and current of PV module can be determined. In addition, all results from Matlab Simulink are verified with theoretical calculation. This proposed model helps in better understanding of PV module characteristics in various environment conditions.

  7. The CdTe detector module and its imaging performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Issei; Takayama, Takuzo; Motomura, Nobutoku [Toshiba Corp. Medical Systems Co., Otawara, Tochigi (Japan). Medical Systems R and D Center

    2001-12-01

    In recent years investigations into the application of semiconductor detector technology in gamma cameras have become active world-wide. The reason for this burst of activity is the expectation that the semiconductor-based gamma camera would outperform the conventional Anger-type gamma camera with a large scintillator and photomultipliers. Nevertheless, to date, it cannot be said that this expectation has been met. While most of the studies have used CZT (Cadmium Zinc Telluride) as the semiconductor material, we designed and fabricated an experimental detector module of CdTe (Cadmium Telluride). The module consists of 512 elements and its pixel pitch is 1.6 mm. We have evaluated its energy resolution, planar image performance, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image performance and time resolution for coincidence detection. The average energy resolution was 5.5% FWHM at 140 keV. The intrinsic spatial resolution was 1.6 mm. The quality of the phantom images, both planar and SPECT, was visually superior to that of the Anger-type gamma camera. The quantitative assessment of SPECT images showed accuracy far better than that of the Anger-type camera. The coincidence time resolution was 8.6 ns. All measurement were done at room temperature, and the polarization effect that had been the biggest concern for CdTe was not significant. The results indicated that the semiconductor-based gamma camera is superior in performance to the Anger-type and has the possibility of being used as a positron emission computed tomography (PET) scanner. (author)

  8. The CdTe detector module and its imaging performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years investigations into the application of semiconductor detector technology in gamma cameras have become active world-wide. The reason for this burst of activity is the expectation that the semiconductor-based gamma camera would outperform the conventional Anger-type gamma camera with a large scintillator and photomultipliers. Nevertheless, to date, it cannot be said that this expectation has been met. While most of the studies have used CZT (Cadmium Zinc Telluride) as the semiconductor material, we designed and fabricated an experimental detector module of CdTe (Cadmium Telluride). The module consists of 512 elements and its pixel pitch is 1.6 mm. We have evaluated its energy resolution, planar image performance, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image performance and time resolution for coincidence detection. The average energy resolution was 5.5% FWHM at 140 keV. The intrinsic spatial resolution was 1.6 mm. The quality of the phantom images, both planar and SPECT, was visually superior to that of the Anger-type gamma camera. The quantitative assessment of SPECT images showed accuracy far better than that of the Anger-type camera. The coincidence time resolution was 8.6 ns. All measurement were done at room temperature, and the polarization effect that had been the biggest concern for CdTe was not significant. The results indicated that the semiconductor-based gamma camera is superior in performance to the Anger-type and has the possibility of being used as a positron emission computed tomography (PET) scanner. (author)

  9. Performance of Photovoltaic Modules of Different Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Gaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt of performance evaluation of semitransparent and opaque photovoltaic (PV modules of different generation solar cells, having the maximum efficiencies reported in the literature at standard test conditions (STC, has been carried out particularly for the months of January and June. The outdoor performance is also evaluated for the commercially available semitransparent and opaque PV modules. Annual electrical energy, capitalized cost, annualized uniform cost (unacost, and cost per unit electrical energy for both types of solar modules, namely, semitransparent and opaque have also been computed along with their characteristics curves. Semitransparent PV modules have shown higher efficiencies compared to the opaque ones. Calculations show that for the PV modules made in laboratory, CdTe exhibits the maximum annual electrical energy generation resulting into minimum cost per unit electrical energy, whereas a-Si/nc-Si possesses the maximum annual electrical energy generation giving minimum cost per unit electrical energy when commercially available solar modules are concerned. CIGS has shown the lowest capitalized cost over all other PV technologies.

  10. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  11. Temperature Effect on Photovoltaic Modules Power Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Mohammed Aish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar module could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic power generation. Changing in powers due to higher temperatures (25oC, 35oC, and 45oC have been done for three types of solar modules: monocrystalline , polycrystalline, and copper indium gallium (di selenide (CIGS. The Prova 200 solar panel analyzer is used for the professional testing of three solar modules at different ambient temperatures; 25oC, 35oC, and 45oC and solar radiation range 100-1000 W/m2. Copper indium gallium (di selenide module has the lowest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.38%/oC while monocrystalline module has the highest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.54%/oC, while polycrystalline module has a percentage power drop of 0.49%/oC.

  12. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  13. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van, E-mail: ernest.vandyk@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Booysen, P. [Setsolar, P. O. Box 15934, Panorama 7506 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  14. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  15. High-efficiency large-area CdTe modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, S. P.; Ackerman, B.

    1989-10-01

    A small solar cell with an efficiency of 12.3 percent was examined. The high efficiency of this device was largely due to improving the window layer. Analyzing the diode characteristics of this cell indicates that the largest potential for fill-factor improvement lies in reducing the diode quality factor. Through outdoor life testing of encapsulated modules and accelerated life testing of laboratory cells, the CdS/CdTe structure has demonstrated the long term stability necessary for photovoltaic products. Also described is a preformed metal backcap, which is fitted with hermetic feed-through tubes and used for encapsulization. Using the results of these studies, PEI produced sample modules with efficiencies very close to the original objectives, including a 1 sq ft module with an output of 6.1 W and an active area of 754 sq cm. For this module, the active area efficiency was 8.1 percent and the aperture efficiency was 7.3 percent.

  16. High-efficiency large-area CdTe modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, S.P.; Ackerman, B. (Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This annual technical progress report covers Photon Energy Inc. (PEI) work to produce a small solar cell with an efficiency of 12.3%. The high efficiency of this device was largely due to improving the window layer. Analyzing the diode characteristics of this cell indicates that the largest potential for fill-factor improvement lies in reducing the diode quality factor. Through outdoor life-testing of encapsulated modules and accelerated lifetesting of laboratory cells, the CdS/CdTe structure has demonstrated the long-term stability necessary for photovoltaic products. Also described is a preformed metal backcap, which is fitted with hermetic feed-through tubes and used for encapsulization. Using the results of these studies, PEI produced sample modules with efficiencies very close to the original objectives, including a l-ft{sup 2} module with an output of 6.1 W and an active area of 754 cm{sup 2}. For this module, the active-area efficiency was 8.1% and the aperture efficiency was 7.3%. 9 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Large sample activation analysis. Monitoring of photovoltaic module recycling using radioanalytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic modules are the most promising sources of renewable energy. According to respective EU Directives both the glass carrier material and the photo-active layer (CdTe in this study) shall be re-used. Analyses for process surveillance and control have to be carried out, primarily for monitoring of the separation efficiency and the enrichment level of CdTe. For on-site measurement and process control energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was used. Instrumental photon activation analysis using an electron linear accelerator as activating bremsstrahlung source is intended to be used later for iterative intermediate analysis of random samples for quality control. In this work, the feasibility of both methods for this task was studied. (author)

  18. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future. PMID:25122953

  19. Photovoltaic Module Qualification Plus Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kempe, M.; Bosco, N.; Hacke, P.; Jordan, D.; Miller, D. C.; Silverman, T. J.; Phillips, N.; Earnest, T.; Romero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This report summarizes a set of test methods that are in the midst of being incorporated into IEC 61215 for certification of a module design or other tests that go beyond certification to establish bankability.

  20. Accelerated degradation testing of a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charki, Abdérafi; Laronde, Rémi; Bigaud, David

    2013-01-01

    There are a great many photovoltaic (PV) modules installed around the world. Despite this, not enough is known about the reliability of these modules. Their electrical power output decreases with time mainly as a result of the effects of corrosion, encapsulation discoloration, and solder bond failure. The failure of a PV module is defined as the point where the electrical power degradation reaches a given threshold value. Accelerated life tests (ALTs) are commonly used to assess the reliability of a PV module. However, ALTs provide limited data on the failure of a module and these tests are expensive to carry out. One possible solution is to conduct accelerated degradation tests. The Wiener process in conjunction with the accelerated failure time model makes it possible to carry out numerous simulations and thus to determine the failure time distribution based on the aforementioned threshold value. By this means, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated.

  1. Microinverters for employment in connection with photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Johnson, Brian Benjamin; Krein, Philip T.

    2015-09-22

    Microinverters useable in association with photovoltaic modules are described. A three phase-microinverter receives direct current output generated by a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell and converts such direct current output into three-phase alternating current out. The three-phase microinverter is interleaved with other three-phase-microinverters, wherein such microinverters are integrated in a photovoltaic module with the microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell.

  2. Endurance Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.; Sugimura, Russell S.

    1989-01-01

    Failure mechanisms in high-power service studied. Report discusses factors affecting endurance of amorphous-silicon solar cells. Based on field tests and accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules. Concludes that aggressive research needed if amorphous-silicon modules to attain 10-year life - value U.S. Department of Energy established as goal for photovoltaic modules in commercial energy-generating plants.

  3. Development of a commercial photovoltaic concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifee, S.T.; Hutchison, G. [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The ojective of this work was to develop the design and prototype of a commercial high-concentration photovoltaic (PV) module. The design is for a 282-sun point-focus concentrating module. Most of the components, subassemblies, and design features incorporate simplifications and ease of manufacturing. The Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) module is designed to incorporate high-efficiency, single-crystal silicon PV cells. The housing is made with aluminum laminated for voltage stand-off and simultaneously providing high thermal conductivity. The Fresnel lens injection molded by American Optical (AO) as singles. The cell assembly consists of a copper heat spreader, a photovoltaic cell soldered, a top and bottom contact, and a reflective secondary optical element (SOE). The cell assemblies passed all of the initial electrical characterization and high-potential tests. Under environmental cycling, the only bond that failed was the PV cell-to-heat spreader interface. The other components (top contact, bottom contact, SOE) passed all the environmental cycling tests. The cell assemblies were designed to be mounted onto the receiver section with a thermally conductive RTV. This geometry was subjected to environmental testing. There was no delamination of this bond nor was there electrical breakdown when the assemblies were subjected to the hi-pot test. A mock module was fabricated for environmental evaluation. This module was subjected to the humidity/freeze cycling to assess the performance of the lens mounting design. This module was also subjected to the rain test after the humidity/freeze cycling and checked for water leaks. The lens showed small displacement from its original position after the environmental cycling. One tablespoon of water did collect inside the module.

  4. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C., E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  5. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (PMAX) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 ∼30% and a total degradation of ∼42%. For Si-2 the initial PMAX was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of ∼10% and a total degradation of ∼17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  6. An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell is adversely affected by the significant increase of cell operating temperature during absorption of solar radiation. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system was designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated in this work. To actively cool the PV cells, a parallel array of ducts with inlet/outlet manifold designed for uniform airflow distribution was attached to the back of the PV panel. Experiments were performed with and without active cooling. A linear trend between the efficiency and temperature was found. Without active cooling, the temperature of the module was high and solar cells can only achieve an efficiency of 8–9%. However, when the module was operated under active cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly leading to an increase in efficiency of solar cells to between 12% and 14%. A heat transfer simulation model was developed to compare to the actual temperature profile of PV module and good agreement between the simulation and experimental results is obtained.

  7. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  8. Modulation Instability in Biased Photorefractive-Photovoltaic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ke-Qing; ZHAO Wei; YANG Yan-Long; SUN Chuan-Dong; GAO Hong-Wen; LI Jin-Ping; ZHANG Yan-Peng

    2004-01-01

    @@ We show the modulation instability of broad optical beams in biased photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals under steady-state conditions. This modulation instability growth rate depends on the external bias field, the bulk photovoltaic effect, and the ratio of the optical beam intensity to that of the dark irradiance. Under appropriate conditions, this modulation instability growth rate is the modulation instability growth rate studied previously in biased photorefractive-nonphotovoltaic crystals, and the modulation instability growth rate in open- and closed-circuit photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals can be predicted.

  9. Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, P.

    2010-05-01

    The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

  10. Formation of photovoltaic modules based on polycrystalline solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Dobrzański

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of the paper is formation of photovoltaic modules and analysis of their main electric parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Photovoltaic modules were produced from four polycrystalline silicon solar cells, that were cut and next joined in series. Soft soldering technique and copper-tin strip were used for joining cells.Findings: In order to provide useful power for any application, the individual solar cells must be connected together to give the appropriate current and voltage levels. Taking this fact into account the analysis of photovoltaic module construction was performed.Research limitations/implications: The main goal of the research is to show the practical application of solar cells. Two photovoltaic modules were assembled and their basic electric properties were analysed. It was shown that they may be successively applied as an alternative energy source.Practical implications: Photovoltaic modules are irreplaceable in areas which are far away from power network. Simply photovoltaic module can supply small device without any problem.Originality/value: The produced photovoltaic modules and photovoltaic systems confirm the utility of solar energy in every place where the sun radiation is available. Because of exhaust conventional energy sources like coal or earth gas, new renewable sources of energy (sunlight, wind are more and more often used. It brings huge ecological benefits.

  11. Producer responsibility and recycling solar photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid expansion of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is quickly causing solar to play a growing importance in the energy mix of the world. Over the full life cycle, although to a smaller degree than traditional energy sources, PV also creates solid waste. This paper examines the potential need for PV recycling policies by analyzing existing recycling protocols for the five major types of commercialized PV materials. The amount of recoverable semiconductor material and glass in a 1 m2 area solar module for the five types of cells is quantified both physically and the profit potential of recycling is determined. The cost of landfill disposal of the whole solar module, including the glass and semiconductor was also determined for each type of solar module. It was found that the economic motivation to recycle most PV modules is unfavorable without appropriate policies. Results are discussed on the need to regulate for appropriate energy and environmental policy in the PV manufacturing industry particularly for PV containing hazardous materials. The results demonstrate the need to encourage producer responsibility not only in the PV manufacturing sector but also in the entire energy industry.

  12. Modelling and simulation of a photovoltaic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusabe, D.; Munda, J.L.; Jimoh, A.A. [Tshwane Univ. of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Graduate School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in an effort to develop an accurate simulation model to predict the electrical characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) module under varying climatic conditions. The primary objective was to determine if PV cells operating in short circuit and open circuit voltage depend exclusively on sun intensity and temperature. A new model for current-voltage characteristics and maximum power operation of a PV module was presented in which the effect on I-V and P-V curves of varying climatic conditions were simulated. This model was implemented using the Matlab Simulink program and was used to determine the effect of meteorological conditions on the performance of a PV module generator. Simulated results were in good agreement with specifications given by the manufacturer. The study showed that the maximum power available at low temperatures is higher than that at higher temperatures, and the maximum power is directly proportional to irradiance. This study also developed a PV array model and investigated the benefit of improved curve fitting parameters. It was concluded that the proposed model can be used to predict the required PV module parameters in different weather conditions without range restriction. Future work will investigate the behaviour of the simulation model in a realistic integrated PV system that takes into account specific load requirements and meteorological conditions at the site location. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  13. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  14. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: A potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sulfonated magnetic microsphere was prepared as one strong acid cation-exchange resin. • Cd and Te can be removed directly from the highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. • Good chemical stability, fast adsorbing rate and quick magnetic separation in strong acidic media. • A potential path for recycling CdTe photovoltaic waste. - Abstract: Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste

  15. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: A potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Teng, E-mail: zhangteng@mail.iee.ac.cn; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Sulfonated magnetic microsphere was prepared as one strong acid cation-exchange resin. • Cd and Te can be removed directly from the highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. • Good chemical stability, fast adsorbing rate and quick magnetic separation in strong acidic media. • A potential path for recycling CdTe photovoltaic waste. - Abstract: Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste.

  16. Effect of Temperature on Power Output from Different Commercially available Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Dash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV modules are rated at standard test condition (STC i.e. at irradiance of 1000 W/m2 , temperature at 25 0C and solar spectrum of Air Mass 1.5G. The actual output from the PV module in the field varies from its rated output due to change in ambient environmental conditions from the STC. The reduction in output due to temperature is determined by temperature coefficient which varies with the different types of solar module technologies. In this study, temperature coefficient of different types of commercially available solar modules is evaluated. The testing has been carried out at PV test facility of Solar Energy Centre, New Delhi. The modules are selected randomly from various manufactures. It is found that the average temperature coefficient of power for mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline and CdTe based modules are -0.446 %/°C, -0.387 %/°C and -0.172 %/°C respectively. In case of amorphous silicon module, only one sample is measured and the temperature coefficient is -0.234 %/°C. This study shows that the temperature coefficient for mono crystalline silicon module is higher than the other types of solar modules. This study provides an understanding on the variation in energy generation due to temperature correction between different cell technologies.

  17. Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe sub 2 photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, J.R. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The polycrystalline nature of thin-film CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells continues to be a major factor in several individual losses that limit overall cell efficiency. This report describes progress in the quantitative separation of these losses, including both measurement and analysis procedures. It also applies these techniques to several individual cells to help document the overall progress with CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells. Notably, CdTe cells from Photon Energy have reduced window photocurrent losses to 1 mA/Cm{sup 2}; those from the University of South Florida have achieved a maximum power voltage of 693 mV; and CuInSe{sub 2} cells from International Solar Electric Technology have shown a hole density as high as 7 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, implying a significant reduction in compensation. 9 refs.

  18. Thin photovoltaic modules at ultra high concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Higueras, Pedro; Ferrer-Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Shanks, Katie; Almonacid, Florencia; Férnández, Eduardo F.

    2015-09-01

    A new design concept of high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module is studied both by ray-tracing simulation and by building a prototype. This set-up is based on the idea of concentrating sunlight from different optical units to a single commercial multi-junction solar cell, which is located in a different plane than that of the primary optics (e.g. Fresnel lenses). A two-optical-unit set-up, as a first approach, is built and measured with the solar simulator "Helios 3198". These results are compared to the measurement results of the single-unit of one Fresnel lens and the same solar cell. The feasibility of this new design has been confirmed theoretically and practically.

  19. Development of Substrate Structure CdTe Photovoltaic Devices with Performance Exceeding 10%: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, R. G.; Duenow, J. N.; DeHart, C. M.; Li, J. V.; Kuciauskas, D.; Gessert, T. A.

    2012-08-01

    Most work on CdTe-based solar cells has focused on devices with a superstrate structure. This focus is due to the early success of the superstrate structure in producing high-efficiency cells, problems of suitable ohmic contacts for lightly doped CdTe, and the simplicity of the structure for manufacturing. The development of the CdCl2 heat treatment boosted CdTe technology and perpetuated the use of the superstrate structure. However, despite the beneficial attributes of the superstrate structure, devices with a substrate structure are attractive both commercially and scientifically. The substrate structure eliminates the need for transparent superstrates and thus allows the use of flexible metal and possibly plastic substrates. From a scientific perspective, it allows better control in forming the junction and direct access to the junction for detailed analysis. Research on such devices has been limited. The efficiency of these devices has been limited to around 8% due to low open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor. In this paper, we present our recent device development efforts at NREL on substrate-structure CdTe devices. We have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. We have worked on a variety of contact materials including Cu-doped ZnTe and CuxTe. We will present a comparative analysis of the performance of these contacts. In addition, we have studied the influence of fabrication parameters on junction properties. We will present an overview of our development work, which has led to CdTe devices with Voc values of more than 860 mV and NREL-confirmed efficiencies approaching 11%.

  20. Obtaining an intermediate band photovoltaic material through the Bi insertion in CdTe

    OpenAIRE

    Seminóvski Pérez, Yohanna; Palacios Clemente, Pablo; Wahnón Benarroch, Perla

    2013-01-01

    Defect interaction can take place in CdTe under Te and Bi rich conditions. We demonstrate in this work through first principles calculations, that this phenomenon allows a Jahn Teller distortion to form an isolated half-filled intermediate band in the host semiconductor band-gap. This delocalized energy band supports the experimental deep level reported in the host band-gap of CdTe at a low bismuth concentration. Furthermore, the calculated optical absorption of CdTe:Bi in this work shows a s...

  1. Power Inverter Topologies for Photovoltaic Modules - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    This review-paper focuses on the latest development of inverters for photovoltaic AC-Modules. The power range for these inverters is usually within 90 Watt to 500 Watt, which covers the most commercial photovoltaic-modules. Self-commutated inverters have replaced the grid-commutated ones. The same...... is true for the bulky low-frequency transformers versus the high-frequency transformers, which are used to adapt the voltage level. The AC-Module provides a modular design and a flexible behaviour in various grid conditions. It hereby opens the market for photovoltaic-power for everyone at a low cost...

  2. Application of crystalline silicon solar cells in photovoltaic modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determinate basic electrical properties of solar cells, made of them photovoltaic module and analysis of its main electrical parameters.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, several methods were used: current – voltage characteristic to determinate basic electrical properties of 36 monocrystalline silicon solar cells, soft soldering technique to bond solar cells . Photovoltaic module was produced from 31 solar cells with the largest short-circuit current, which were joined in series.Findings: In order to obtain a device producing an electrical current with a higher current and voltage level, solar cells were connected in a photovoltaic module and then protected from damages derived from external factors. In series connection solar cell with the lowest current determines the current flowing in the PV module. Taking this fact into account the analysis of photovoltaic module construction was performed.Practical implications: Because of low operating cost and simplicity of photovoltaic installation, photovoltaic technology is perfectly suitable for supplying objects which are beyond powers network range as well as connected to it. In many cases, they are less costly option than a direct extension of the power network.Originality/value: Protecting the environment from degradation due to pollution, which has source in conventional power industry, as well as diminishing resources of fossil fuels, tend to increase development of renewable energy production such as photovoltaic technology.

  3. Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-To-Failure Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2008-03-01

    This technical report documents a test-to-failure protocol that may be used to obtain quantitative information about the reliability of photovoltaic modules using accelerated testing in environmental temperature-humidity chambers.

  4. Application of crystalline silicon solar cells in photovoltaic modules

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; M. Giedroć

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determinate basic electrical properties of solar cells, made of them photovoltaic module and analysis of its main electrical parameters.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, several methods were used: current – voltage characteristic to determinate basic electrical properties of 36 monocrystalline silicon solar cells, soft soldering technique to bond solar cells . Photovoltaic module was produced from 31 solar cells with the largest short-circuit curr...

  5. Formation of photovoltaic modules based on polycrystalline solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; A. Januszka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the paper is formation of photovoltaic modules and analysis of their main electric parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Photovoltaic modules were produced from four polycrystalline silicon solar cells, that were cut and next joined in series. Soft soldering technique and copper-tin strip were used for joining cells.Findings: In order to provide useful power for any application, the individual solar cells must be connected together to give the appropriate current an...

  6. Effect of active treatments on photovoltaic characteristics of structures based on CdTe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectric characteristics of ITO/CdTe structures fabricated by the thermal evaporation in vacuum followed by their deposition in a quasi closed volume have been studied before and after treatments of various kinds. Some specimens were subjected to a 'chloride' treatment, the others were annealed in air. Afterward, the specimens were treated in hydrogen plasma, and they were covered with a thin diamond-like carbon film. The 'chloride' treatment of ITO/CdTe structures is shown to result in an increase of the diffusion length of charge carriers in the CdTe layer. The thermal annealing did not affect this parameter, but significantly enhanced the photosensitivity, which means a reduction of the surface recombination rate in the surface CdTe layer. For all considered ITO/CdTe structures obtained by the thermal evaporation in vacuum, the following treatment in hydrogen plasma and the deposition of thin diamondlike films brought about a substantial increase in the diffusion length of charge carriers in the CdTe layer. The ITO/CdTe structures obtained by the thermal vacuum evaporation and treated with hydrogen plasma demonstrated a significant enhancement of their spectral sensitivity in a wavelength range of 400-800 nm, whereas the same effect for structures subjected to the 'chloride' treatment was obtained after the sequential hydrogen plasma treatment and the diamond-like carbon film deposition.

  7. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso;

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module’s electrolumin......This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module......’s electroluminescence intensity distribution, applied at module and cell level. These concepts are demonstrated on a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module that was subjected to several rounds of mechanical loading and humidity-freeze cycling, causing increasing levels of solar cell cracks. The proposed method can...

  8. An experimental investigation of performance of photovoltaic modules in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Muhammad Anser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An outdoor experimental study was carried out to investigate and compare the performance of three commercially available photovoltaic modules (monocrystalline, polycrystalline and single junction amorphous silicon under the weather of Pakistan for the month of January. Power output efficiency, module efficiency, and performance ratio are calculated for each module and comparison is presented. Results have shown that mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline modules perform better at high irradiance and show poor performance in low irradiance conditions. Amorphous solar module has shown better light absorption characteristic and performs better in low irradiance i.e. in cloudy and diffuse sunshine conditions. Monocrystalline photovoltaic module is found to be more efficient, having module efficiency of 13.5% which is higher than the other two modules. Furthermore the power output of mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline modules has shown a higher decrement at higher module temperatures compared to the amorphous solar module. Because of better performance in low solar irradiance, amorphous solar module has shown monthly average performance ratio of 1.07 which is higher than other photovoltaic modules under study.

  9. Direct Analysis of JV-Curves Applied to an Outdoor-Degrading CdTe Module (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D; Kurtz, S.; Ulbrich, C.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present the application of a phenomenological four parameter equation to fit and analyze regularly measured current density-voltage JV curves of a CdTe module during 2.5 years of outdoor operation. The parameters are physically meaningful, i.e. the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc and differential resistances Rsc, and Roc. For the chosen module, the fill factor FF degradation overweighs the degradation of Jsc and Voc. Interestingly, with outdoor exposure, not only the conductance at short circuit, Gsc, increases but also the Gsc(Jsc)-dependence. This is well explained with an increase in voltage dependent charge carrier collection in CdTe.

  10. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  11. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  12. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2010: February 18-19, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  13. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2011: February 16-17, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  14. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2014: February 25-26, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-02-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  15. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2012: February 28 - March 1, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  16. Integral bypass diodes in an amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, J. J.; Flaisher, H.

    1991-01-01

    Thin-film, tandem-junction, amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules were constructed in which a part of the a-Si alloy cell material is used to form bypass protection diodes. This integral design circumvents the need for incorporating external, conventional diodes, thus simplifying the manufacturing process and reducing module weight.

  17. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013: February 26-27, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-10-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  18. Performance Stabilization of CdTe PV Modules using Bias and Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Reversible performance changes due to light exposure frustrate repeatable performance measurements on CdTe PV modules. It is common to use extended light-exposure to ensure that measurements are representative of outdoor performance. We quantify the extent to which such a light-exposed state depends on module temperature and consider bias in the dark to aid in stabilization. We evaluate the use of dark forward bias to bring about a performance state equivalent to that obtained with light exposure, and to maintain a light-exposed state prior to STC performance measurement. Our results indicate that the most promising method for measuring a light-exposed state is to use light exposure at controlled temperature followed by prompt STC measurement with a repeatable time interval between exposure and the STC measurement.

  19. Reliability evaluation of a photovoltaic module using accelerated degradation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronde, Rémi; Charki, Abdérafi; Bigaud, David; Excoffier, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Many photovoltaic modules are installed all around the world. However, the reliability of this product is not enough really known. The electrical power decreases in time due mainly to corrosion, encapsulation discoloration and solder bond failure. The failure of a photovoltaic module is obtained when the electrical power degradation reaches a threshold value. Accelerated life tests are commonly used to estimate the reliability of the photovoltaic module. However, using accelerated life tests, few data on the failure of this product are obtained and the realization of this kind of tests is expensive. As a solution, an accelerated degradation test can be carried out using only one stress if parameters of the acceleration model are known. The Wiener process associated with the accelerated failure time model permits to carry out many simulations and to determine the failure time distribution when the threshold value is reached. So, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated.

  20. Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules Annual Technical Report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Powell, R.C.; Karpov, V.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Dorer, G.L. (First Solar, L.L.C.)

    2001-02-05

    Results and conclusions from Phase II of a three-year subcontract are presented. The subcontract, entitled Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules, is First Solar's portion of the Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program. The research effort of this subcontract is divided into four areas of effort: (1) process and equipment development, (2) efficiency improvement, (3) characterization and analysis, and (4) environmental, health, and safety. As part of the process and equipment development effort, a new semiconductor deposition system with a throughput of 3 m2/min was completed, and a production line in a new 75,000 ft2 facility was started and is near completion. As part of the efficiency-improvement task, research was done on cells and modules with thin CdS and buffer layers as way to increase photocurrent with no loss in the other photovoltaic characteristics. A number of activities were part of the characterization and analysis task, including developing a new admittance spectroscopy system, with a range of 0.001 Hz to 100 kHz, to characterize cells. As part of the environmental, health, and safety task, the methanol-based CdCl2 process was replaced with aqueous-CdCl2. This change enabled the retention of a De Minimus level of emissions for the manufacturing plant, so no permitting is required.

  1. Operating Cell Temperature Determination in Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two procedures (simplified and complete) to determine me operating cell temperature in photovoltaic modules operating in real conditions assuming isothermal stationary modules are presented in this work. Some examples are included that show me dependence of this temperature on several environmental (sky, ground and ambient temperatures, solar irradiance, wind speed, etc.) and structural (module geometry and size, encapsulating materials, anti reflexive optical coatings, etc.) factors and also on electrical module performance. In a further step temperature profiles for non-isothermal modules are analysed besides transitory effects due to variable irradiance and wind gusts. (Author) 27 refs

  2. Characterization of electrochemical photovoltaic cells using polycrystalline CdSe and CdTe electrodes grown by a liquid metal-vapor reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline CdSe and CdTe layers were fabricated by putting liquid Cd in contact with Se or Te vapors under constant Ar flow. The crystalline structure, surface properties, and semiconducting properties of these materials have been determined. Both materials were found to be n-type semiconductors. The results show that, under the proper experimental conditions, the liquid metal-vapor reaction enables the synthesis of polycrystalline CdSe photoelectrodes with a 6.9% energy conversion efficiency when used in an electrochemical photovoltaic cell under 80 mW/cm2 of white light illumination. This efficiency rates amongst the highest ones measured under similar conditions using polycrystalline CdSe. These CdSe layers have a majority charge carrier density of ND=2.6x1017 cm-3 and possess a highly textured surface which is assumed to be mainly responsible for the high photovoltaic efficiency. The highly textured CdTe samples obtained by this process, however, show a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of only 0.2%, and this is seen to be mainly due to their high majority charge carrier density of ND=7.8x1019 cm-3

  3. Characterization of electrochemical photovoltaic cells using polycrystalline CdSe and CdTe electrodes grown by a liquid metal-vapor reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z.; Cinquino, M.; Lawrence, M.F. (Laboratories for Inorganic Materials, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Concordia University, 1455 De Maisonneuve Bld. West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1M8 (CA))

    1991-06-01

    Polycrystalline CdSe and CdTe layers were fabricated by putting liquid Cd in contact with Se or Te vapors under constant Ar flow. The crystalline structure, surface properties, and semiconducting properties of these materials have been determined. Both materials were found to be {ital n}-type semiconductors. The results show that, under the proper experimental conditions, the liquid metal-vapor reaction enables the synthesis of polycrystalline CdSe photoelectrodes with a 6.9% energy conversion efficiency when used in an electrochemical photovoltaic cell under 80 mW/cm{sup 2} of white light illumination. This efficiency rates amongst the highest ones measured under similar conditions using polycrystalline CdSe. These CdSe layers have a majority charge carrier density of {ital N}{sub {ital D}}=2.6{times}10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3} and possess a highly textured surface which is assumed to be mainly responsible for the high photovoltaic efficiency. The highly textured CdTe samples obtained by this process, however, show a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of only 0.2%, and this is seen to be mainly due to their high majority charge carrier density of {ital N}{sub {ital D}}=7.8{times}10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3}.

  4. Grid-connected of photovoltaic module using nonlinear control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of controlling single-phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system is considered. The control objective is fourfold: (i) asymptotic stability of the closed loop system, (ii) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV module (iii) tight regulation of the DC bus voltage, and (iv) unity...

  5. Monitoring of photo-voltaic module properties and environmental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to monitoring of photo-voltaic module properties and environmental parameters. The measurement of current, current voltage, the intensity of solar radiation, the temperature of the environment and wind velocity were conducted. The wireless computerized monitoring was realized in Pakistan (Topi city). In Tajikistan (Dushanbe city) the data were obtained in the spot.

  6. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  7. Modeling and Simulation of photovoltaic Module using MATLAB/SIMULINK

    OpenAIRE

    Yatimi H.; Aroudam E.; Louzazni M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of photovoltaic system (PV) in an efficient manner requires a precise knowledge of the I-V and P-V characteristics curves of PV module. Therefore, our work presents the modeling and simulation of PV module using the Matlab/Simulink package. The model is developed based on the mathematical model of the PV module, which is based on that of an elementary PV solar cell. A particular PV module is selected for the analysis of developed model. The essential parameters required for modeling...

  8. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Shahatha Salim, Jassim Mohammed Najim, Salih Mohammed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad) is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation an...

  9. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  10. Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seippel, R. G.

    This book attempts to provide the reader with a cursory look at solar energy from a quarry of quartz to a sophisticated solar system. The progression of the theories of light is discussed along with the progression of photoelectricity, light rays, the optical spectrum, light reception, photodetection, aspects of photometry and radiometry, preferred terms in radiometric measurement, semiconductor physics, and light energy availability. Other subjects explored are related to manufacturing processes, photovoltaic materials, crystal growing, slicing techniques, wafer finishing, solar cell fabrication, photovoltaic cell types, concentrators, module fabrication, problems of quality assurance, photovoltaic systems, and the photovoltaics hierarchy. Attention is given to the polycrystalline cell, insulator cells, cadmium sulfide cells, amorphous silicon cells, an electrochemical cell, and the low-cost solar array project.

  11. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: a potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste. PMID:25128764

  12. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  13. Standard Test Methods for Determining Mechanical Integrity of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand the mechanical loads, stresses and deflections used to simulate, on an accelerated basis, high wind conditions, heavy snow and ice accumulation, and non-planar installation effects. 1.1.1 A static load test to 2400 Pa is used to simulate wind loads on both module surfaces 1.1.2 A static load test to 5400 Pa is used to simulate heavy snow and ice accumulation on the module front surface. 1.1.3 A twist test is used to simulate the non-planar mounting of a photovoltaic module by subjecting it to a twist angle of 1.2°. 1.1.4 A cyclic load test of 10 000 cycles duration and peak loading to 1440 Pa is used to simulate dynamic wind or other flexural loading. Such loading might occur during shipment or after installation at a particular location. 1.2 These test methods define photovoltaic test specimens and mounting methods, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 Any individual mech...

  14. Thermal lensing and frequency chirp in a heated CdTe modulator crystal and its effects on laser radar performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, R. S.; Kachelmyer, A. L.; Harris, N. W.

    1991-08-01

    The effects of optical and microwave heatings and thermally-induced birefringence in a CdTe modulator crystal on the performance of a linear FM CO2 laser radar are examined. This is conducted in terms of reductions in beam Strehl ratio and dynamic ranges of the Doppler shift and range for given optical and microwave powers. An analysis of the thermal lenses generated by these heatings is presented.

  15. Flexible CdTe Solar Cells and Modules: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-548

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Lucintech and NREL will collaborate to develop flexible CdTe solar cells on flexible glass using sputtering and other deposition technologies. This initial work will be conducted under the DOE funded Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency (FPACE) 1 project, and the interaction with Lucintech will focus on scaling up and transferring the high efficiency cell processes to module production on a pilot line.

  16. Vertically mounted bifacial photovoltaic modules: A global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifacial PV (photovoltaic) modules have recently come to increasing attention and various system designs have been investigated. In this paper, a global comparison is made between vertically mounted bifacial modules facing East–West and conventionally mounted mono-facial modules. An analytical method is used to calculate the radiation received by these two module configurations. It is found that the answer to the question which of these two module configurations performs better strongly depends on three factors: (i) the latitude, (ii) the local diffuse fraction and (iii) the albedo. In a subsequent part of the paper, the minimum albedo required to result in a better performance for vertically mounted bifacial modules is calculated for every place in the world. The calculation is based on measured data of the diffuse light fraction and the results are shown in the form of a global map. Finally, the albedo requirements are compared with the measured global albedo distribution. The calculation allows a distinct decision which module configuration is more suitable for a certain place in the world. The result is also shown as a map defining the corresponding areas. - Highlights: • Vertically mounted bifacial module and conventionally monofacial module are compared. • The key factors affecting the performance of the two configurations are investigated. • Which module configuration is more suitable for each place is shown in a world map. • The minimum albedo for bifacial modules to have a better performance is calculated

  17. 77 FR 4764 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 76 FR 81914 (December 29, 2011... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into...

  18. Outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules during summer in Taxila, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study has been carried out to measure the performance of commercially available photovoltaic modules during summer months in the climate of Taxila, near the capital of Pakistan. The modules used in the study are monocrystalline silicon (c-Si, polycrystalline silicon (p-Si and single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si. The analysis has been focused on the measurement of module efficiency, performance ratio and temperature of each module at actual operating conditions using outdoor monitoring facility. The measured results are compared with the already published data of peak winter month at the same site. Overall, the monocrystalline module showed high average module efficiency while amorphous silicon module was better in term of average performance ratio. Furthermore, the module efficiency and performance ratio has shown decreasing trend with increase of module temperature. It was found that modules have much higher temperature in summer months (about 20°C higher and showed low efficiency and performance ratio than peak winter month. The average ambient temperature varied from 18.1°C to 38.6°C from winter to summer.

  19. A Quantitative Analysis of Photovoltaic Modules Using Halved Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a silicon wafer-based photovoltaic (PV module, significant power is lost due to current transport through the ribbons interconnecting neighbour cells. Using halved cells in PV modules is an effective method to reduce the resistive power loss which has already been applied by some major PV manufacturers (Mitsubishi, BP Solar in their commercial available PV modules. As a consequence, quantitative analysis of PV modules using halved cells is needed. In this paper we investigate theoretically and experimentally the difference between modules made with halved and full-size solar cells. Theoretically, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.8% absolute and output power of 90 mW for the halved cell minimodule. Experimentally, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.3% absolute and output power of 60 mW for the halved cell module. Also, we investigate theoretically how this effect confers to the case of large-size modules. It is found that the performance increment of halved cell PV modules is even higher for high-efficiency solar cells. After that, the resistive loss of large-size modules with different interconnection schemes is analysed. Finally, factors influencing the performance and cost of industrial halved cell PV modules are discussed.

  20. Photovoltaic-module encapsulation design and materials selection: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1982-06-01

    Encapsulation-material system requirements, material-selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available to the module manufacturer are presented in detail. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described for material suppliers to assist them in assessing the suitability of materials in their product lines and the potential of new-material products. A comprehensive discussion of available encapsulation technology and data is presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. A basis is provided for specifying the operational and environmental loads that encapsulation material systems must resist. Potential deployment sites for which cost effectiveness may be achieved at a module price much greater than $0.70/W/sub p/, are also considered; data on higher-cost encapsulant materials and processes that may be in use and other material candidates that may be justified for special application are discussed. Described are encapsulation-system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that have been identified and analyzed as having the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. The available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  1. CdTe buffered GaAs thin-slab IR waveguide modulators and T/R filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheo, P. K.; Brown, R. T.; Carrier, G.; Glueck, W.; Wagner, R.; Gilden, M.

    1989-07-01

    Broadband electrooptic modulation and frequency shifting of CO2 lasers using GaAs thin-slab waveguides have been described previously. The performance of an unbuffered GaAs waveguide traveling-wave modulator has been found to yield a sideband power conversion efficiency of 4.5 + or - .0000045 or -43.6 dB for one watt of microwave drive power. This paper presents the performance of CdTe buffered GaAs waveguide modulator and describes the structural parameters that have been modified to gain 5 dB improvement from that provided by unbuffered IR waveguide modulators. CdTe buffered GaAs thin-slab waveguide modulators with very low optical and microwave insertion losses, have been fabricated. The measured single sideband power that can be converted from the CO2 laser input power is -39 dB for one watt microwave driver power, as compared to a measured value of -44 dB from an unbuffered modulator. The output beam quality has also been improved significantly. A transmission/reflection filter designed to separate the sidebands from the carrier has been fabricated and tested. The rejection ratio of carrier power to sideband power is -19 dB.

  2. Basic Application Technologies of Bifacial Photovoltaic Solar Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joge, Toshio; Eguchi, Yoshio; Imazu, Yasuhiro; Araki, Ichiro; Uematsu, Tsuyoshi; Matsukuma, Kunihiro

    In order to realize a photovoltaic(PV) solar power system which is low cost and flexible on its installation, authors have studied on vertical installations of bifacial solar modules. Simulation studies and field tests were made to evaluate daily and yearly output energies when bifacial modules are vertically installed with various azimuth angles. It is clarified that the yearly generated energies by a vertically installed bifacial module is equivalent to that of a mono-facial module faced to the south with an optimum tilt, regardless the azimuth angles. According with the above results, some applications have been successfully demonstrated including a fence-integrated PV system and a pole mounted PV system.

  3. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shahatha Salim, Jassim Mohammed Najim, Salih Mohammed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of photovoltaic (PV module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.

  4. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahatha Salim, Majid; Mohammed Najim, Jassim [College of Science, University of Anbar (Iraq); Mohammed Salih, Salih [Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Anbar (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad) is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.

  5. Epitaxial growth of CdTe oriented thin films, infrared characterization and possible applications to photo-voltaic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbaux, X.; Pianelli, A.; Hadni, A.; Jeanniard, C.; Strimer, P.

    1980-01-01

    The growth of CdTe oriented thin films by the ENSH method - i.e. Epitaxial Nucleation in Sub-microscopic Holes of an intermediate layer closely applied on a bulk single crystal — has been recently described. The CdTe films are generally difficult to detach from the bulk crystal. However free films are needed to study the infrared transmission in the spectral region of high absorption. To get them, the vitreous or amorphous thin intermediate layers are substituted by quite soluble an oriented ...

  6. Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic (PV) modules were subjected to a thorough indoor assessment procedure. The assessment is to be used as a baseline for future evaluation of the modules deployed outdoors as part of an ongoing evaluation of device performance and degradation. The main focus of the study is the long term monitoring of the devices to determine service lifetime. In this paper we will present initial results of the baseline evaluation, namely I-V characteristics, thorough visual inspection and an analysis of performance parameters. The results obtained revealed that the performance of one of the modules was inferior to the others evaluated. In order to further investigate this, laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurements were conducted on regions that had a non-uniform appearance as observed visually

  7. An Improved Nonlinear Five-Point Model for Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaros Bogning Dongue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved nonlinear five-point model capable of analytically describing the electrical behaviors of a photovoltaic module for each generic operating condition of temperature and solar irradiance. The models used to replicate the electrical behaviors of operating PV modules are usually based on some simplified assumptions which provide convenient mathematical model which can be used in conventional simulation tools. Unfortunately, these assumptions cause some inaccuracies, and hence unrealistic economic returns are predicted. As an alternative, we used the advantages of a nonlinear analytical five-point model to take into account the nonideal diode effects and nonlinear effects generally ignored, which PV modules operation depends on. To verify the capability of our method to fit PV panel characteristics, the procedure was tested on three different panels. Results were compared with the data issued by manufacturers and with the results obtained using the five-parameter model proposed by other authors.

  8. Temperature of rooftop photovoltaic modules: air gap effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bijay L.; Palomino, Ernie G.; TamizhMani, G.

    2009-08-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules decreases as the operating temperature increases. This performance drop is typically higher for the crystalline silicon technologies (~0.5%/°C) as compared to thin film technologies (~0.2%/°C). The temperature of rooftop modules in hot climatic locations like Arizona could be as high as 95°C depending on the air gap between the modules and roof surface. There are several thermal models existing to predict the temperatures of open-rack PV modules but no comprehensive thermal models have been reported for the rooftop PV modules/arrays based on an extended field monitoring. The primary goal of this work is to quantitatively model the influence of air gap on the temperature of rooftop modules so that the system integrators could improve their designs to maximize the overall energy output (kWh/kW) of the rooftop PV systems. To predict the temperature of rooftop PV modules/arrays based on irradiance, ambient temperature and wind speed conditions, this paper presents five thermal models for each of the five air gaps (0, 1, 2, 3 & 4 inches) investigated in this work.

  9. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

    1996-01-01

    How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; and governments.

  10. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  11. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Zerlaut, G.A. [SC-International Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States); D`Aiello, R.V. [RD Associates, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This document provides an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. The overview is followed by a model program which could serve as the basis for a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. The model covers quality assurance procedures for the testing laboratory and manufacturer, third-party certification and labeling, and testing requirements (performance and reliability). A 30-member Criteria Development Committee was established to guide, review, and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories.

  12. Energy metrics analysis of hybrid - photovoltaic (PV) modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, 13 k.m. stone, Ghaziabad - Meerut Road, Ghaziabad 201 206, UP (India); Barnwal, P.; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, energy metrics (energy pay back time, electricity production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency) of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) modules have been analyzed and presented for the composite climate of New Delhi, India. For this purpose, it is necessary to calculate (1) the energy consumption in making different components of the PV modules and (2) the annual energy (electrical and thermal) available from the hybrid-PV modules. A set of mathematical relations have been reformulated for computation of the energy metrics. The manufacturing energy, material production energy, energy use and distribution energy of the system have been taken into account, to determine the embodied energy for the hybrid-PV modules. The embodied energy and annual energy outputs have been used for evaluation of the energy metrics. For hybrid PV module, it has been observed that the EPBT gets significantly reduced by taking into account the increase in annual energy availability of the thermal energy in addition to the electrical energy. The values of EPF and LCCE of hybrid PV module become higher as expected. (author)

  13. Comparison of Performance Measurements of Photovoltaic Modules during Winter Months in Taxila, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anser Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative performance evaluation of three commercially available photovoltaic modules (monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and single junction amorphous silicon in Taxila, Pakistan. The experimentation was carried out at outdoor conditions for winter months. Power output, module efficiency, and performance ratio were calculated for each module and the effect of module temperature and solar irradiance on these parameters was investigated. Module parameters showed strong dependence on the solar irradiance and module temperature. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules showed better performance in high irradiance condition whereas it decreased suddenly with decrease in irradiance. Amorphous solar module also showed good performance in low irradiance due to its better light absorbing characteristics and thus showed higher average performance ratio. Monocrystalline photovoltaic module showed higher monthly average module efficiency and was found to be more efficient at this site. Module efficiency and performance ratio showed a decreasing trend with increase of irradiance and photovoltaic module back surface temperature.

  14. Energy analysis of solar photovoltaic module production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the energy consumption in solar photovoltaic (SPV) module production in India and examine its implications for large-scale introduction of SPV plants in the country. Data on energy used in SPV production were collected from existing manufacturing facilities in the country. The energy payback period turns out to be approximately 4 years. This is comparable to energy payback periods of similar modules produced internationally. However, if an ambitious program of introducing SPV power production is undertaken to contribute substantially to the power scenario in the country, an annual growth rate beyond 21% will render the program an energy sink rather than an energy source, as borne out by dynamic energy analysis. Policy implications are also discussed in light of this analysis

  15. In-field assessment of batteries and PV modules in a large photovoltaic rural electrification programme

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Moreno, Luis Miguel; Narvarte Fernández, Luis; Martinez Moreno, Francisco; Moreton Villagra, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Assuring the sustainability of quality in photovoltaic rural electrification programmes involves enhancing the reliability of the components of solar home systems as well as the characterization of the overall programme cost structure. Batteries and photovoltaic modules have a great impact on both the reliability and the cost assessment, the battery being the weakest component of the solar home system and consequently the most expensive element of the programme. The photovoltaic module, despi...

  16. Parameter Estimation for Single Diode Models of Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration Dept.

    2015-03-01

    Many popular models for photovoltaic system performance employ a single diode model to compute the I - V curve for a module or string of modules at given irradiance and temperature conditions. A single diode model requires a number of parameters to be estimated from measured I - V curves. Many available parameter estimation methods use only short circuit, o pen circuit and maximum power points for a single I - V curve at standard test conditions together with temperature coefficients determined separately for individual cells. In contrast, module testing frequently records I - V curves over a wide range of irradi ance and temperature conditions which, when available , should also be used to parameterize the performance model. We present a parameter estimation method that makes use of a fu ll range of available I - V curves. We verify the accuracy of the method by recov ering known parameter values from simulated I - V curves . We validate the method by estimating model parameters for a module using outdoor test data and predicting the outdoor performance of the module.

  17. 77 FR 14732 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR 70960 (November 16, 2011... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the...

  18. A Photovoltaics Module for Incoming Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Marta L.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic-cell-based projects have been used to train eight incoming undergraduate women who were part of a residential summer programme at a women's college. A module on renewable energy and photovoltaic cells was developed in the physics department. The module's objectives were to introduce women in science, technology, engineering and…

  19. X-ray, electron microscopy and photovoltaic studies on CdTe thin films deposited normally at different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S.; Pal, U.; Samantaray, B.K.; Chaudhuri, A.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (IN). Dept. of Physics and Meteorology); Banerjee, H.D. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India). Materials Science Centre)

    1990-12-01

    X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction studies were conducted on CdTe thin films deposited on glass substrates kept at different substrate temperatures. Variation of the different structural parameters, such as lattice constant, crystallite size, r.m.s. strain, dislocation density and stacking fault probability with substrate temperature, was investigated in the temperature range 300 to 498 K. An increase in the lattice constant and crystallite size values and a decrease in the other parameters with increase in temperature of the substrate was observed. A photovoltage was observed for CdTe film deposited normally on glass substrates kept at higher substrate temperatures. The development of photovoltage in the film is explained in the light of the formation of crystallites of variable structure. (author).

  20. Landfill waste and recycling: Use of a screening-level risk assessment tool for end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) power is currently one of the fastest growing power-generation technologies in the world. While PV technologies provide the environmental benefit of zero emissions during use, the use of heavy metals in thin-film PV cells raises important health and environmental concerns regarding the end-of-life disposal of PV panels. To date, there is no published quantitative assessment of the potential human health risk due to cadmium leaching from cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV panels disposed in a landfill. Thus, we used a screening-level risk assessment tool to estimate possible human health risk associated with disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. In addition, we conducted a literature review of potential cadmium release from the recycling process in order to contrast the potential health risks from PV panel disposal in landfills to those from PV panel recycling. Based on the results of our literature review, a meaningful risk comparison cannot be performed at this time. Based on the human health risk estimates generated for PV panel disposal, our assessment indicated that landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes, although our results pointed to the importance of CdTe PV panel end-of-life management. - Highlights: • Analysis of possible human health risk posed by disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. • Qualitative comparison of risks associated with landfill disposal and recycling of CdTe panels. • Landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes. • There could be potential risks associated with recycling if not properly managed. • Factors other than concerns over toxic substances will likely drive the decisions of how to manage end-of-life PV panels

  1. Nanocrystal grain growth and device architectures for high-efficiency CdTe ink-based photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Ryan W; Panthani, Matthew G; Rance, William L; Duenow, Joel N; Parilla, Philip A; Callahan, Rebecca; Dabney, Matthew S; Berry, Joseph J; Talapin, Dmitri V; Luther, Joseph M

    2014-09-23

    We study the use of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystal colloids as a solution-processable "ink" for large-grain CdTe absorber layers in solar cells. The resulting grain structure and solar cell performance depend on the initial nanocrystal size, shape, and crystal structure. We find that inks of predominantly wurtzite tetrapod-shaped nanocrystals with arms ∼5.6 nm in diameter exhibit better device performance compared to inks composed of smaller tetrapods, irregular faceted nanocrystals, or spherical zincblende nanocrystals despite the fact that the final sintered film has a zincblende crystal structure. Five different working device architectures were investigated. The indium tin oxide (ITO)/CdTe/zinc oxide structure leads to our best performing device architecture (with efficiency >11%) compared to others including two structures with a cadmium sulfide (CdS) n-type layer typically used in high efficiency sublimation-grown CdTe solar cells. Moreover, devices without CdS have improved response at short wavelengths. PMID:25133302

  2. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development: Implementation handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Zerlaut, G.A. [SC-International, Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States); D`Aiello, R.V. [RD Associates, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This document covers the second phase of a two-part program. Phase I provided an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. This report (Phase H) provides most of the draft documents that will be necessary for the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. These include organizational documents such as articles of incorporation, bylaws, and rules of procedure, as well as marketing and educational program documents. In Phase I, a 30-member criteria development committee was established to guide, review and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories. A similar committee was established for Phase II; the criteria implementation committee consisted of 29 members. Twenty-one of the Phase I committee members also served on the Phase II committee, which helped to provide program continuity during Phase II.

  3. Solar-energy conversion by combined photovoltaic converters with CdTe and CuInSe2 base layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the combined use of bifacial thin-film solar cells based on CdTe and frontal solar cells with a CuInSe2 base layer in tandem structures is experimentally confirmed. It is found that, for the use of bifacial solar cells based on cadmium telluride in a tandem structure, the optimal thickness of their base layer should be 1 μm. The gain in the efficiency of the tandem structure, compared with an individual CuInSe2-based solar cell, is 1.8% in the case of series-connected solar cells and 1.3%, for parallel-connected

  4. Elucidating PID Degradation Mechanisms and In-Situ Dark I-V Monitoring for Modeling Degradation Rate in CdTe Thin-Film Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve;

    2016-01-01

    A progression of potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms are observed in CdTe modules, including shunting/junction degradation and two different manifestations of series resistance depending on the stress level and water ingress. The dark I-V method for in-situ characterization of Pmax based...

  5. Photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan solar home systems market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the largest unsubsidized markets for solar home systems (SHSs) in the world, Kenya represents a promising model for rural electrification based on private purchases of clean decentralized photovoltaic technologies. Small amorphous-silicon modules dominate the market and most brands provide high quality and affordable service. Product quality varies widely, however, and the public has limited capacity to distinguish among competing brands. This imposes direct hardships on households with the misfortune to purchase low-quality equipment, and it constrains sales as some customers refrain from purchasing solar equipment due to the associated performance uncertainty. This article analyzes market failure associated with photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan SHS market and develops strategies to address the problem - emphasizing that similar quality problems may exist for other SHS components and in other markets. The principal conclusion is that domestic product testing with public disclosure represents an inexpensive low-risk strategy, but it may prove inadequate. Mandatory product quality standards based on international testing regimes (e.g. IEC standards), augmented with a basic domestic testing option, would provide stronger assurance, but the risks associated with this intervention suggest caution. An emerging multilateral SHS market support effort (PVMTI) should ensure quality for the credit-based sales it promotes in Kenya; however, the long-term impact of this approach is not yet clear and it is unlikely to address quality problems associated with the unsubsidized sales-based markets for SHSs. Finally, fee-for-service models would decisively address quality problems, but launching this model in the Kenyan market would likely require large subsidies. (author)

  6. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, A.

    1984-03-01

    Underwriters Laboratories has conducted a study to identify and develop safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. This discussion of safety systems recognizes that there is little history on which to base the expected safety related performance of a photovoltaic system. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the Proposed UL Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit grounding, and the type of circuit ground are covered. The development of the Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels has continued, and with both industry comment and a product submittal and listing, the Standard has been refined to a viable document allowing an objective safety review of photovoltaic modules and panels. How this document, and other UL documents would cover investigations of certain other photovoltaic system components is described.

  7. The design and research of distributed cooling type high concentrated photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingchong; Yao, Shun; Chen, Bingzhen; Yang, Guanghui; Guo, Limin; Peng, Na; Shen, Du; Bao, Wei; Yang, Cuibai; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    At present, the conversion efficiency of high concentrated photovoltaic modules is about 30%, most of the solar energy is converted into heat, which will result in solar cell temperature rise and subsequent module efficiency decrease. For existing module with large solar cell, the heat source is concentrated and additional cooling fins must be used, resulting in high system complexity and cost rise. In order to lower the cost of photovoltaic, we developed distributed cooling type module with simple structure. This paper depicts a distributed cooling design for high concentrated photovoltaic module, as well as the thermal simulation of this design with analysis software. Module prototype was also made to test the actual effect. The final outdoor results showed high consistency with the simulation results. The chip temperature can be lower than 45° and the module outdoor working efficiency is higher than 26% and lower temperature provide a guarantee of long-term reliability to module packaging material.

  8. Modulation instability of quasi-plane-wave optical beams in biased photorefractive- photovoltaic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ke-Qing; Zhao Wei; Yang Yan-Long; Zhu Xiang-Ping; Li Jin-Ping; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the modulation instability of quasi-plane-wave optical beams in biased photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals by globally treating the space-charge field. The modulation instability growth rate is obtained, which depends on the external bias field, on the bulk photovoltaic effect, and on the ratio of the optical beam's intensity to that of the dark irradiance. Our analysis indicates that this modulation instability growth rate is identical to the modulation instability growth rate studied previously in biased photorefractive-nonphotovoltaic crystals when the bulk photovoltaic effect is negligible for shorted circuits, and predicts the modulation instability growth rate in open- and closed-circuit photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals when the external bias field is absent.

  9. 77 FR 37877 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Determination of Critical Circumstances, 77 FR 31309 (May 25, 2012), under the section entitled ``Preliminary... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... determination in the antidumping duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or...

  10. Investigation of polycrystalline CdZnTe, CdMnTe, and CdTe films for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Ringel, S.A.; Sudharsanan, R. (School of Electrical Engineering, Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Meyers, P.V.; Liu, C.H.; Ramanthan, V. (Ametek Applied Materials Lab., Harleysville, PA (USA))

    1989-10-15

    Polycrystalline thin films of CdZnTe and CdMnTe have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, respectively, on CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass substrates, with bandgaps of 1.65-1.75 eV for the top of a two-cell tandem design. P-i-n cells were fabricated and tested using Ni/p{sup +}-ZnTe as a back contact to the ternary films. CdTe cells were also fabricated using both growth techniques, which resulted in 9-10% efficiency and provided a baseline for ternary cell development. It was found that standard CdTe processing (400deg C air annealing) reduces the ternary bandgaps from about 1.7 to about 1.55 eV, resulting in significantly reduced subgap transmission with cell efficiencies of 3-4%. Optimum air-annealing conditions were determined to retain the 1.7 eV bandgaps; however, the cell performance was still limited by both poor CdZnTe/CdS interface quality and high series resistance. The junction interface was found to improve by annealing in the presence of hydrogen, which resulted in V{sub oc} values from 0.500 V to as high as 0.65 V, but the cell performance became increasingly limited by series resistance. The effects of cell processing on the properties of the CdZnTe/CdS interface, the bulk CdZnTe film, and the back-contact region have been investigated to provide guidelines for achieving high efficiency in widegap ternary cells. (orig.).

  11. Exploration of external light trapping for photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Lourens; van de Groep, Jorik; Di Vece, Marcel; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2016-07-11

    The reflection of incident sunlight by photovoltaic modules prevents them from reaching their theoretical energy conversion limit. We explore the effectiveness of a universal external light trap that can tackle this reflection loss. A unique feature of external light traps is their capability to simultaneously recycle various broadband sources of reflection on the module level, such as the reflection from the metal front grid, the front interfaces, the reflective backside of the cell, and the white back sheet. The reflected light is recycled in the space between the solar cell and a mirror above the solar cell. A concentrator funnels the light into this cage through a small aperture in the mirror. As a proof-of-principle experiment, a significant reflectance reduction of a bare crystalline silicon (c-Si) photodiode is demonstrated. In contrast to conventional light trapping methods, external light trapping does not induce any damage to the active solar cell material. Moreover, this is a universally applicable technology that enables the use of thin and planar solar cells of superior electrical quality that were so far hindered by limited optical absorption. We considered several trap designs and identified fabrication issues. A series of prototype millimeter-scale external metal light traps were milled and applied on an untextured c-Si photodiode, which is used as a model for future thin solar cells. We determined the concentrator transmittance and analyzed the effect of both the concentration factor and cage height on the absorptance and spatial intensity distribution on the surface of the solar cell. This relatively simple and comprehensive light management solution can be a promising candidate for highly efficient solar modules using thin c-Si solar cells. PMID:27410902

  12. TwinFocus, a concentrated photovoltaic module based on mature technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Antonini Piergiorgio; Centro Sandro; Golfetto Stelvio; Saccà Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Among solar power generation, concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) based on multijunction (MJ) solar cells, is one of the most promising technology for hot climates. The fact that multijunction solar cells based on direct band gap semiconductors demonstrate lower dependence on temperature than silicon solar cells boosted their use in concentrated photovoltaics modules. Departing from the mainstream design of Fresnel lenses, the CPV module based on TwinFocus design with off-axis quasi parabolic mi...

  13. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules, and a Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ceran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of energy analysis of a generation system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, a fuel cell with a polymer membrane, and an electrolyser. The analysis was carried out for three configurations of generating devices’ connections with consumer: I – wind turbines and photovoltaic modules supply electrolyser, II – paralel co-operation of fuel cell with renewables, III – renewables supply electrolyser, with the option of direct supply of the consumer.

  14. Application of Bond Graph Modeling for Photovoltaic Module Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, photovoltaic generator is represented using the bond-graph methodology. Starting from the equivalent circuit the bond graph and the block diagram of the photovoltaic generator have been derived. Upon applying bond graph elements and rules a mathematical model of the photovoltaic generator is obtained. Simulation results of this obtained model using real recorded data (irradiation and temperature at the Renewable Energies Development Centre in Bouzaréah – Algeria are obtained using MATLAB/SMULINK software. The results have compared with datasheet of the photovoltaic generator for validation purposes.

  15. An improved five-parameter model for photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Brano, Valerio; Orioli, Aldo; Ciulla, Giuseppina; Di Gangi, Alessandra [D.R.E.AM. Dipartimento di Ricerche Energetiche ed AMbientali, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Edificio 9, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents a new five-parameter model capable of analytically describing the I-V characteristic of a photovoltaic module for each generic condition of operative temperature and solar irradiance. The parameters of the equivalent electrical circuit are extracted by solving a system of equations based on data commonly issued by manufacturers in standard rating conditions with a trial and error process. The procedure, which does not require any special equations solver, can be easily coded into a short software routine using simple languages and finds the solution of the system of equations with the desired accuracy without needing to be guided towards solutions starting from fitted initial values of the searched parameters. In particular, as implemented in VBA macros in Microsoft Excel, the model provides the most accurate results with a rapid convergence. To verify the capability of the new model to fit PV panel characteristics, the procedure was tested on two different panels. Results were compared with the data issued by manufacturers and with the results obtained using five-parameter models proposed by other authors. (author)

  16. Polycrystalline thin-film technology: Recent progress in photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. L.; Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H. S.

    1991-12-01

    Polycrystalline thin films have made significant technical progress in the past year. Three of these materials that have been studied extensively for photovoltaic (PV) power applications are copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin film polycrystalline silicon (x-Si) deposited on ceramic substrates. The first of these materials, polycrystalline thin film CuInSe2, has made some rapid advances in terms of high efficiency and long term reliability. For CuInSe2 power modules, a world record has been reported on a 0.4 sq m module with an aperture-area efficiency of 10.4 pct. and a power output of 40.4 W. Additionally, outdoor reliability testing of CuInSe2 modules, under both loaded and open-circuit conditions, has resulted in only minor changes in module performance after more than 1000 days of continuous exposure to natural sunlight. CdTe module research has also resulted in several recent improvements. Module performance has been increased with device areas reaching nearly 900 sq cm. Deposition has been demonstrated by several different techniques, including electrodeposition, spraying, and screen printing. Outdoor reliability testing of CdTe modules was also carried out under both loaded and open-circuit conditions, with more than 600 days of continuous exposure to natural sunlight. These tests were also encouraging and indicated that the modules were stable within measurement error. The highest reported aperture-area module efficiency for CdTe modules is 10 pct.; the semiconductor material was deposited by electrodeposition. A thin-film CdTe photovoltaic system with a power output of 54 W has been deployed in Saudi Arabia for water pumping. The Module Development Initiative has made significant progress in support of the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program in the past year, and results are presented in this paper.

  17. Polycrystalline thin-film technology: Recent progress in photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.L.; Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.

    1991-12-01

    Polycrystalline thin films have made significant technical progress in the past year. Three of these materials that have been studied extensively for photovoltaic (PV) power applications are copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film polycrystalline silicon (x-Si) deposited on ceramic substrates. The first of these materials, polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2}, has made some rapid advances in terms of high efficiency and long-term reliability. For CuInSe{sub 2} power modules, a world record has been reported on a 0.4-m{sup 2} module with an aperture-area efficiency of 10.4% and a power output of 40.4 W. Additionally, outdoor reliability testing of CuInSe{sub 2} modules, under both loaded and open-circuit conditions, has resulted in only minor changes in module performance after more than 1000 days of continuous exposure to natural sunlight. CdTe module research has also resulted in several recent improvements. Module performance has been increased with device areas reaching nearly 900 cm{sup 2}. Deposition has been demonstrated by several different techniques, including electrodeposition, spraying, and screen printing. Outdoor reliability testing of CdTe modules was also carried out under both loaded and open-circuit conditions, with more than 600 days of continuous exposure to natural sunlight. These tests were also encouraging and indicated that the modules were stable within measurement error. The highest reported aperture-area module efficiency for CdTe modules is 10%; the semiconductor material was deposited by electrodeposition. A thin-film CdTe photovoltaic system with a power output of 54 W has been deployed in Saudi Arabia for water pumping. The Module Development Initiative has made significant progress in support of the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program in the past year, and results are presented in this paper.

  18. An Improved Mathematical Model for Computing Power Output of Solar Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayoom Jakhrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to determine the input parameters values for equivalent circuit models of photovoltaic modules through analytical methods. Thus, the previous researchers preferred to use numerical methods. Since, the numerical methods are time consuming and need long term time series data which is not available in most developing countries, an improved mathematical model was formulated by combination of analytical and numerical methods to overcome the limitations of existing methods. The values of required model input parameters were computed analytically. The expression for output current of photovoltaic module was determined explicitly by Lambert W function and voltage was determined numerically by Newton-Raphson method. Moreover, the algebraic equations were derived for the shape factor which involves the ideality factor and the series resistance of a single diode photovoltaic module power output model. The formulated model results were validated with rated power output of a photovoltaic module provided by manufacturers using local meteorological data, which gave ±2% error. It was found that the proposed model is more practical in terms of precise estimations of photovoltaic module power output for any required location and number of variables used.

  19. Reduction of Temperature in Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Coating with High Thermal Emissivity and Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Satoshi; Sakamoto Kazumasa; Nishioka Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    The temperature of solar cells considerably increases under light-concentrating operations, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. It is very important to reduce the cell temperature in concentrator photovoltaic modules. The thermal radiation layers with high thermal emissivity and thermal conductivity was coated on the aluminum samples which is used for the chassis of concentrator photovoltaic and the effect was evaluated under the conditions with...

  20. Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long-term field exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellibee, D.E.; Hansen, B.R.; King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Quintana, M.A.

    1998-09-08

    Our investigations of both new and field-aged photovoltaic modules have indicated that, in general, today's commercially available modules area highly reliable product. However, by using new test procedures, subtle failure mechanisms have also been identified that must be addressed in order to achieve 30-year module lifetimes. This paper summarizes diagnostic test procedures, results, and implications of in-depth investigations of the performance and durability characteristics of commercial modules after long-term field exposure. A collaborative effort with U.S. module manufacturers aimed at achieving 30-year module lifetimes is also described.

  1. Optimized design and research of secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghui; Chen, Bingzhen; Liu, Youqiang; Guo, Limin; Yao, Shun; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    As the critical component of concentrating photovoltaic module, secondary concentrators can be effective in increasing the acceptance angle and incident light, as well as improving the energy uniformity of focal spots. This paper presents a design of transmission-type secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module. The 3-D model of this design is established by Solidworks and important parameters such as inclination angle and component height are optimized using Zemax. According to the design and simulation results, several secondary microprisms with different parameters are fabricated and tested in combination with Fresnel lens and multi-junction solar cell. The sun-simulator IV test results show that the combination has the highest output power when secondary microprism height is 5mm and top facet side length is 7mm. Compared with the case without secondary microprism, the output power can improve 11% after the employment of secondary microprisms, indicating the indispensability of secondary microprisms in concentrating photovoltaic module.

  2. Investigation of deposition parameters for the non-aqueous electroplating of CdTe films and application in electrochemical photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, R.B.; Pandey, R.K.; Kulkarni, S.K.

    1989-03-01

    The cathodic deposition characteristics of Cd/sup 2+/ and Te/sup 4+/ in a non-aqueous electroplating bath have been studied. The deposition parameters have been optimised to yield uniform and well adhering films of CdTe in a non-aqueous medium. The influence of the potentiostatic and galvanostatic deposition conditions on the stoichiometry, structure and photoanodic behaviour of the CdTe films are also discussed.

  3. Yield from photovoltaic modules under real working situations in west Paraná - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Nabeyama Michels; Marcelo Giovanetti Canteri; Marcelo Augusto de Aguiar e Silva; Estor Gnoatto; José Airton Azevedo dos Santos; Manuel Messias Alvino de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the external factors that influence the yield obtained from photovoltaic modules (Solarex® - MSX 56), as solar irradiance, temperature, placement angle and dust deposition on the photovoltaic modules  installed at the facilities of the Medianeira campus of the UTFPR, working under real conditions. To obtain the data it was used a datalogger from Campbell Scientific, Inc, model CR23X. It was observed that under solar irradiance below 550 W m-2 the panel did not convert maxi...

  4. History of Accelerated and Qualification Testing of Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C. R.; McMahon, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    We review published literature from 1975 to the present for accelerated stress testing of flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules. An important facet of this subject is the standard module test sequences that have been adopted by national and international standards organizations, especially those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The intent and history of these qualification tests, provided in this review, shows that standard module qualification test results cannot be used to obtain or infer a product lifetime. Closely related subjects also discussed include: other limitations of qualification testing, definitions of module lifetime, module product certification, and accelerated life testing.

  5. Assessing the early degradation of photovoltaic modules performance in the Saharan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The study underlines the reliability of PV modules in South Algeria. • Early degradation of PV modules operating in the Saharan region for 11 years. • Performance analysis of these PV panels with suitable explanation of results. • Discovery of early degradation of PV modules performance and some PV defects. - Abstract: In this study, the electrical performance degradation of photovoltaic modules (UDTS-50) functioning for a period of 11 years in a region of the Sahara (URER-MS ADRAR) is analyzed. This paper is devoted to an experimental study of current–voltage characteristics of several PV modules exposed to the extreme weather conditions in desert area. The electrical performance degradation and failure modes are estimated from series of current–voltage characteristics performed in the field. Experimental results show that some PV modules degrade up to 12% compared to their initial state. The performance analysis of the others tested modules revealed some defects, such as cracked cells and physical material defects. The identification of the origin of degradation and failure modes and how they affect the photovoltaic modules is necessary to improve the reliability of photovoltaic installations

  6. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  7. Characterization of a photovoltaic-thermal module for Fresnel linear concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A combined domed Fresnel lens - CPC PVT system is designed and characterized. → Electrical and thermal experiments have been performed. → CFD analysis has been used to determine thermal characteristic dimensionless numbers. - Abstract: An advanced solar unit is designed to match the needs of building integration and concentrating photovoltaic/thermal generation. The unit proposed accurately combines three elements: a domed linear Fresnel lens as primary concentrator, a compound parabolic reflector as secondary concentrator and a photovoltaic-thermal module. In this work the photovoltaic-thermal generator is built, analysed and characterized. Models for the electrical and thermal behaviour of the module are developed and validated experimentally. Applying a thermal resistances approach the results from both models are combined. Finally, efficiency electrical and thermal curves are derived from theoretical analysis showing good agreement with experimental measurements.

  8. Building America Case Study: Photovoltaic Systems with Module-Level Power Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Direct current (DC) power optimizers and microinverters (together known as module-level power electronics, or MLPE) are one of the fastest growing market segments in the solar industry. According to GTM Research in The Global PV Inverter Landscape 2015, over 55% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States used some form of MLPE in 2014.

  9. 77 FR 25400 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ..., 76 FR 70966 (November 16, 2011), and Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR..., 77 FR 17439 (March 26, 2012). Because the AD and CVD investigations were initiated simultaneously...

  10. Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases in Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing: Potential Emissions and Abatement Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Agostinelli, G.; Dekkers, H.; Roth, K.; Kinzig, V.

    2007-01-01

    Some fluorinated gases (F-gases) which are used, or considered to be used, in crystalline silicon photovoltaic solar cell and film silicon module manufacturing have a very high global warming effect. CF4, C2F6, SF6 and NF3 have global warming potentials 7390, 12200, 22800 and 17200 times higher than

  11. Low-cost, High Flexibility I-V Curve Tracer for Photovoltaic Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibirriaga, Julen Joseba Maestro; Pena, Xabier Miquelez de Mendiluce; Opritescu, Adrian;

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and test of an in-door low cost, high flexibility I-V curve tracer for photovoltaic modules. The tracer is connected to a Xenon lamp based flashing solar simulator. The designed tracer is able to deal with the very fast changing irradiation conditions and...

  12. Parameters extraction of photovoltaic module for long-term prediction using Artifical Bee Colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Garoudja, Elyes; Kara, Kamel; Chouder, Aissa; Silvestre Bergés, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic optimization approach based on Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is applied to the extraction of the five electrical parameters of a photovoltaic (PV) module. The proposed approach has several interesting features such as no prior knowledge of the physical system and its convergence is not dependent on the initial conditions. The extracted parameters have been tested against several static IV characteristics of different PV modules from diff...

  13. Estimating Parameters for the PVsyst Version 6 Photovoltaic Module Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We present an algorithm to determine parameters for the photovoltaic module perf ormance model encoded in the software package PVsyst(TM) version 6. Our method operates on current - voltage (I - V) measured over a range of irradiance and temperature conditions. We describe the method and illustrate its steps using data for a 36 cell crystalli ne silicon module. We qualitatively compare our method with one other technique for estimating parameters for the PVsyst(TM) version 6 model .

  14. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH's concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R. (ENTECH, Inc., Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, TX (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH's Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  15. Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1990--31 March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, J.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The polycrystalline nature of thin-film CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells continues to be a major factor in several individual losses that limit overall cell efficiency. This report describes progress in the quantitative separation of these losses, including both measurement and analysis procedures. It also applies these techniques to several individual cells to help document the overall progress with CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells. Notably, CdTe cells from Photon Energy have reduced window photocurrent losses to 1 mA/Cm{sup 2}; those from the University of South Florida have achieved a maximum power voltage of 693 mV; and CuInSe{sub 2} cells from International Solar Electric Technology have shown a hole density as high as 7 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, implying a significant reduction in compensation. 9 refs.

  16. The optimal configuration of photovoltaic module arrays based on adaptive switching controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose a strategy for determining the optimal configuration of a PV array. • The proposed strategy was based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. • It can identify the optimal module array connection scheme in the event of shading. • It can also find the optimal connection of a PV array even in module malfunctions. - Abstract: This study proposes a strategy for determining the optimal configuration of photovoltaic (PV) module arrays in shading or malfunction conditions. This strategy was based on particle swarm optimization (PSO). If shading or malfunctions of the photovoltaic module array occur, the module array immediately undergoes adaptive reconfiguration to increase the power output of the PV power generation system. First, the maximal power generated at various irradiation levels and temperatures was recorded during normal array operation. Subsequently, the irradiation level and module temperature, regardless of operating conditions, were used to recall the maximal power previously recorded. This previous maximum was compared with the maximal power value obtained using the maximum power point tracker to assess whether the PV module array was experiencing shading or malfunctions. After determining that the array was experiencing shading or malfunctions, PSO was used to identify the optimal module array connection scheme in abnormal conditions, and connection switches were used to implement optimal array reconfiguration. Finally, experiments were conducted to assess the strategy for identifying the optimal reconfiguration of a PV module array in the event of shading or malfunctions

  17. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the photovoltaics. It presents the principles and the applications, the issues and the current technology, the challenges and the Group Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  18. Design and development of a data acquisition system for photovoltaic modules characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmili, Hocine [Unite de Developpement des Equipements Solaires (UDES), Route Nationale No11, Bou-Isamil BP 365, Tipaza 42415, Algerie; Ait Cheikh, Salah Med; Haddadi, Mourad; Larbes, Cherif [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Laboratoire de Dispositifs de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique (LDCCP), 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach 16200 Alger (Algeria)

    2010-07-15

    Testing photovoltaic generators performance is complicated. This is due to the influence of a variety of interactive parameters related to the environment such as solar irradiation and temperature in addition to solar cell material (mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, amorphous and thin films). This paper presents a computer-based instrumentation system for the characterization of the photovoltaic (PV) conversion. It based on a design of a data acquisition system (DAQS) allowing the acquisition and the drawing of the characterization measure of PV modules in real meteorological test conditions. (author)

  19. TwinFocus, a concentrated photovoltaic module based on mature technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among solar power generation, concentrated photovoltaics (CPV based on multijunction (MJ solar cells, is one of the most promising technology for hot climates. The fact that multijunction solar cells based on direct band gap semiconductors demonstrate lower dependence on temperature than silicon solar cells boosted their use in concentrated photovoltaics modules. Departing from the mainstream design of Fresnel lenses, the CPV module based on TwinFocus design with off-axis quasi parabolic mirrors differentiates itself for its compactness and the possibility of easy integration also in roof-top applications. A detailed description of the module and of the systems will be given together with measured performances, and expectations for the next release.

  20. A photovoltaics module for incoming science, technology, engineering and mathematics undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Marta L.

    2011-05-01

    Photovoltaic-cell-based projects have been used to train eight incoming undergraduate women who were part of a residential summer programme at a women's college. A module on renewable energy and photovoltaic cells was developed in the physics department. The module's objectives were to introduce women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors to physical phenomena, to develop quantitative literacy and communication skills, and to increase the students' interest in physics. The students investigated the performance of commercially available silicon semiconductors through experiments they designed, carried out and analysed. They fabricated and tested organic dye-based solar cells. This article describes the programme, the solar cell module, and presents some experimental results obtained by the students.

  1. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells: Phase I, Annual Technical Report, October 2005 - September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this project is the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin-film solar cell. CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, but the efficiency of the CdTe solar cell has been stagnant for the last few years. At the manufacturing front, the CdTe technology is fast paced and moving forward with U.S.-based First Solar LLC leading the world in CdTe module production. To support the industry efforts and continue the advancement of this technology, it will be necessary to continue improvements in solar cell efficiency. A closer look at the state-of-the-art performance levels puts the three solar cell efficiency parameters of short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and fill factor (FF) in the 24-26 mA/cm2, 844?850 mV, and 74%-76% ranges respectively. During the late 1090s, efforts to improve cell efficiency were primarily concerned with increasing JSC, simply by using thinner CdS window layers to enhance the blue response (<510 nm) of the CdTe cell. These efforts led to underscoring the important role 'buffers' (or high-resistivity transparent films) play in CdTe cells. The use of transparent bi-layers (low-p/high-p) as the front contact is becoming a 'standard' feature of the CdTe cell.

  2. Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

    1990-01-01

    This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time.

  3. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  4. Crystalline-silicon photovoltaics summary module design and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the design and reliability of solar modules was described. Design requirements involved 14 different considerations, including residential building and material electrical codes, wind-loading, hail impact, operating temperature levels, module flammability, and interfaces for both the array structure and the operation of the system. Reliability research involved in diverse investigations including glass-fracture strength, soiling levels, electrochemical corrosion, and bypass-diode qualification tests. Based on these internationally recognized studies, performance assessments, and failure analyses, the Flat-plate Solar Array Project in its 11-year duration served to nuture the development of 45 different solar module designs from 15 PV manufacturers.

  5. Ultralight amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic modules for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, J. J.; Chen, Englade; Fulton, C.; Myatt, A.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultralight and ultrathin, flexible, rollup monolithic PV modules have been developed consisting of multijunction, amorphous silicon alloys for either terrestrial or aerospace applications. The rate of progress in increasing conversion efficiency of stable multijunction and multigap PV cells indicates that arrays of these modules can be available for NASA's high power systems in the 1990's. Because of the extremely light module weight and the highly automated process of manufacture, the monolithic a-Si alloy arrays are expected to be strongly competitive with other systems for use in NASA's space station or in other large aerospace applications.

  6. Electrochemical degradation of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques of module electrochemical corrosion research, developed during reliability studies of crystalline-silicon modules (C-Si), have been applied to this new investigation into amorphous-silicon (a-Si) module reliability. Amorphous-Si cells, encapsulated in the polymers polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), were exposed for more than 1200 hours in a controlled 85 C/85 percent RH environment, with a constant 500 volts applied between the cells and an aluminum frame. Plotting power output reduction versus charge transferred reveals that about 50 percent a-Si cell failures can be expected with the passage of 0.1 to 1.0 Coulomb/cm of cell-frame edge length; this threshold is somewhat less than that determined for C-Si modules.

  7. Comparative performance testing of photovoltaic modules in tropical climates of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyid, Oo Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of the most significant types of the sustainable and renewable energy sources that have been used in Indonesia. Photovoltaic (PV) is known as the direct conversion of the sunlight to electricity energy with the used of solar cells. There are number of different types of solar PV modules, from an ever increasing range of manufacturers. Each of them claims that they are the best for one reason or another. This paper reports the study results of energy yield measurements of different PV module technologies performed at the outdoor testing facility of the Energy Technology Center (B2TE-BPPT) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong-Indonesia from March 2014 through February 2015. The purposes of the study wereto evaluate and compare the performances of three different PV modules during a medium term outdoor exposure at the tropical climate of Indonesia. Normalized energy yields (Y), module efficiency (η), and performance ratio (PR) were calculated for each module, and the effect of module temperature and solar irradiance on these parameters was investigated. Monocrystalline PV module was better in terms of module efficiency and overall power production. Meanwhile micromorph silicon (uc-Si) showed the lowest module efficiency, but the more power production compared with polycrystalline PV module. Module efficiency and performance ratio showed a decreasing trend with increase of module temperature.

  8. Characterization and Diagnostics for Photovoltaic Modules and Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu

    method is based on estimating the power output of the PV generator from in-plane irradiance and module temperature measurements, and using a performance model of the generator. The novelty of the method comes from its ability to (automatically) self-parameterize the performance model from measurements...... on fuzzy inference systems that can be implemented in the power electronic converter. Experimental results show that the I-V based diagnostic method performs well in identifying both shading and increased series losses affecting PV arrays. The method requires low computation resources and it uses...... policies, as well as decreasing cost of PV modules and balance-of-system components. As these main market drivers reach their limit, the system operating costs and long-term reliability of the PV modules becomes more relevant in reducing the total lifetime cost of the PV system. In this context...

  9. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  10. Photovoltaic Simplified Boost Z Source Inverter for Ac Module Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sam Alaric

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study mainly proposed PV z source boost inverter used to boundary grid or ac module applications. Separate types of converter used for solar system due to its current lagging, here capacitor multiplier based boost converter introduced for maintain the current lagging and voltage gain. Here, the switched inductor z source inverter implemented for grid interface. Proposed z source inverter is controlled by pulse width modulation. A simplified capacitor multiplier controlled by continuous conduction mode, A detailed topology analysis and a generalized discussion are given. The multiplier boost converter has the merits of maintain voltage level and reducing cost and current lagging. Simulation results are implemented and analysis MATLAB software.

  11. Measuring complex for studying cascade solar photovoltaic cells and concentrator modules on their basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. R.; Malevskii, D. A.; Pokrovskii, P. V.; Rumyantsev, V. D.

    2015-06-01

    The design and implementation of several measuring complexes intended for studying cascade solar photovoltaic converters are considered. The complexes consist of a solar simulator and an electronic unit with an active load. The high-aperture light source of the complex reproduces solar intensity over wide spectral range λ = 350-1700 nm with an angle of divergence of ±0.26°, which are characteristic of solar radiation. The active load of the electronic unit allows taking both dark and illuminated I- V characteristics of test objects within about 1 ms during the quasi-stationary part of the irradiation pulse. The small size and low power consumption of the complexes hold out the hope that they will be widely used in designing, refining, and testing cascade efficient photovoltaic converters made of III-V materials and solar modules integrating these converters with concentrator modules.

  12. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.; Forrest, J.

    2012-05-01

    This document describes a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations, as would be experienced by typical residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. This type of shading test is particularly useful to evaluate the impact of different power conversion setups, including microinverters, DC power optimizers and string inverters, on overall system performance. The performance results are weighted based on annual estimates of shade to predict annual performance improvement. A trial run of the test procedure was conducted with a side by side comparison of a string inverter with a microinverter, both operating on identical 8kW solar arrays. Considering three different shade weighting conditions, the microinverter was found to increase production by 3.7% under light shading, 7.8% under moderate shading, and 12.3% under heavy shading, relative to the reference string inverter case. Detail is provided in this document to allow duplication of the test method at different test installations and for different power electronics devices.

  13. Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the result of high-temperature durability and thermal cycling testing and analysis for the selected diodes to study the detail of the thermal design and relative long-term reliability of the bypass diodes used to limit the detrimental effects of module hot-spot susceptibility.

  14. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  15. Study on Mitigation Method of Solder Corrosion for Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of 62Sn36Pb2Ag solder connections poses serious difficulties for outdoor-exposed photovoltaic (PV modules, as connection degradation contributes to the increase in series resistance (RS of PV modules. In this study, we investigated a corrosion mitigation method based on the corrosion mechanism. The effect of added sacrificial metal on the reliability of PV modules was evaluated using the oxidation-reduction (redox reaction under damp heat (DH conditions. Experimental results after exposure to DH show that the main reason for the decrease in power was a drop in the module’s fill factor. This drop was attributed to the increase of RS. The drop in output power of the PV module without added sacrificial metal is greater than that of the sample with sacrificial metal. Electroluminescence and current-voltage mapping analysis also show that the PV module with sacrificial metal experienced less degradation than the sample without sacrificial metal.

  16. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic energy systems have the long range potential for supplying a significant part of the world's need for electricity Even today, such systems offer many benefits compared to other energy systems such as fossil fuel, nuclear and other renewable systems. These include: stability, reliability, require no water, no moving parts, environmentally benign, moderate efficiency, modular, universally usable, easy maintenance, and low power distribution costs. This paper will present information on present costs of the key system components, realistic cost projections and the results of a comparative study of three renewable approaches for a large system. (author), (tabs. 2)

  17. RESEARCH INTO PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES EFFICIENCY IN THE ŻYWIEC BESKIDS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Hilse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into photovoltaic modules in the highlands, based on the example of the Żywiec Beskids, was conducted in 2009 in the town of Stryszawa on the border between the regions of Lesser Poland and Silesia. It involved measurements of the quantity of the produced electric power in three different systems of diverse power (570 Wp, 360 Wp oraz 200 Wp and different technical solutions (rotary modules tracing the Sun rotation and stationary modules. Efficiency of the photovoltaic modules was compared to the intensity of the solar radiation in the city of Żywiec. This way the efficiency of the solar energy processing was determined. The conducted research indicates that with the intensity of the solar radiation amounting to 890 kWh/ m2·year it is possible to produce electric power in the quantity of over 150 kWh/m2·year (rotary modules or about 110 kWh/ m2·year (stationary modules. The highest efficiency of the solar energy processing into the electric energy has been observed in the winter season (ca. 26%.

  18. A Differential Evolution Based MPPT Method for Photovoltaic Modules under Partial Shading Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Partially shaded photovoltaic (PV) modules have multiple peaks in the power-voltage (P-V) characteristic curve and conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, such as perturbation and observation (P&O), which is unable to track the global maximum power point (GMPP) accurately due to its localized search space. Therefore, this paper proposes a differential evolution (DE) based optimization algorithm to provide the globalized search space to track the GMPP. The direction of muta...

  19. Energy and exergy performance evaluation of a typical solar photovoltaic module

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Adarsh Kumar; Pant Pradeep Chandra; Sastry Oruganti Sankara; Kumar Arun; Tyagi Sudhir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the energy and exergy performance evaluation of heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar photovoltaic (SPV) module for a particular day of different months of the year of a typical climatic zone of north India. The energy, exergy and power conversion efficiencies have been calculated and plotted against time based on hourly insolation. The variation in all the efficiencies has been observed with respect to variation in solar ...

  20. Prospects of Nanostructure-Based Solar Cells for Manufacturing Future Generations of Photovoltaic Modules

    OpenAIRE

    K. F. Poole; Singh, R.; R. Podila; G. F. Alapatt; Gupta, N

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive review on prospects for one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanostructure-based solar cells for manufacturing the future generation of photovoltaic (PV) modules. Reducing heat dissipation and utilizing the unabsorbed part of the solar spectrum are the key driving forces for the development of nanostructure-based solar cells. Unrealistic assumptions involved in theoretical work and the tendency of stretching observed experimental results are the primary reasons why quan...

  1. Photovoltaic Power Conversion System Based on Cascaded Inverters with Synchronized Space-Vector Modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oleschuk, V.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    Valencia: Universidad Politecnica, 2009, s. 1-5. ISBN 978-84-612-8014-8. [International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ 09). Valencia (ES), 15.04.2009-17.04.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : cascaded two-level inverters * photovoltaic application * modulation strategy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. Flexible polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. H.; Lanning, B. R.; Misra, M. S.; Kapur, V. K.; Basol, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics (PV), such as CIS and CdTe, have received considerable attention recently with respect to space power applications. Their combination of stability, efficiency, and economy from large-scale monolithic-integration of modules can have significant impact on cost and weight of PV arrays for spacecraft and planetary experiments. An added advantage, due to their minimal thickness (approximately 6 microns sans substrate), is the ability to manufacture lightweight, flexible devices (approximately 2000 W/kg) using large-volume manufacturing techniques. The photovoltaic effort at Martin Marietta and ISET is discussed, including large-area, large-volume thin-film deposition techniques such as electrodeposition and rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering. Progress in the development of flexible polycrystalline thin-film PV is presented, including evaluation of flexible CIS cells. In addition, progress on flexible CdTe cells is presented. Finally, examples of lightweight, flexible arrays and their potential cost and weight impact is discussed.

  3. Yield from photovoltaic modules under real working situations in west Paraná - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Nabeyama Michels

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the external factors that influence the yield obtained from photovoltaic modules (Solarex® - MSX 56, as solar irradiance, temperature, placement angle and dust deposition on the photovoltaic modules  installed at the facilities of the Medianeira campus of the UTFPR, working under real conditions. To obtain the data it was used a datalogger from Campbell Scientific, Inc, model CR23X. It was observed that under solar irradiance below 550 W m-2 the panel did not convert maximum power, and above this value the panel reached saturation levels. Temperature increase led to reduced voltage, and consequently lower module output power, decreasing the efficiency value by nearly 6% at temperatures 15oC above the Standard Test Conditions (STC temperature. These panels are usually placed at different angles according to local latitude, remaining fixed in that position. In comparison with a horizontally-placed panel, it was obtained a 4-hour increase in yield when the panel reached saturation value. Dust levels reduced electricity production levels by approximately 16%. These factors must be taken into account for placement and maintenance of photovoltaic systems, so they can function efficiently.

  4. Photovoltaic-module bypass-diode encapsulation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-20

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented in this annual report. A comprehensive survey of available pad-mounted PN junction and Schottky diodes led to the selection of Semicon PN junction diode cells for this application. Diode junction-to-heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1/sup 0/C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150/sup 0/C. Based on the results of a detailed thermal analysis, which covered the range of bypass currents from 2 to 20 amperes, three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed and fabricated. Thermal testing of these modules has enabled the formation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally-mounted packaged diodes. An assessment of bypass diode reliability, which relies heavily on rectifying diode failure rate data, leads to the general conclusion that, when proper designed and installed, these devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  5. Fundamental engineering analysis of CdTe/CdS photovoltaic processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, B. N.; Jackson, S. C.; Russell, T. W. F.

    1986-06-01

    An engineering analysis of the deposition of CdTe and CdS thin-films by vacuum evaporation for fabricating photovoltaic solar cells has been carried out. Mathematical models describing the mass flows, molecular beam distributions, and film growth kinetics of CdTe and HgCdTe deposition have been developed and verified in laboratoy-scale experiments. Small-area CdTe/CdS photovoltaic devices having efficiencies of 6% were fabricated. Verified mathematical models were used to design large-scale evaporation sources. Commercially available architectural glass coating equipment can be adapted for large-area deposition of CdTe/CdS thin films in an in-line process for economically fabricatig thin-film CdTe/CdS photovoltaic modules.

  6. Earth abundant thin film technology for next generation photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapatt, Githin Francis

    With a cumulative generation capacity of over 100 GW, Photovoltaics (PV) technology is uniquely poised to become increasingly popular in the coming decades. Although, several breakthroughs have propelled PV technology, it accounts for only less than 1% of the energy produced worldwide. This aspect of the PV technology is primarily due to the somewhat high cost per watt, which is dependent on the efficiency of the PV cells as well as the cost of manufacturing and installing them. Currently, the efficiency of the PV conversion process is limited to about 25% for commercial terrestrial cells; improving this efficiency can increase the penetration of PV worldwide rapidly. A critical review of all possibilities pursued in the public domain reveals serious shortcomings and manufacturing issues. To make PV generated power a reality in every home, a Multi-Junction Multi-Terminal (MJMT) PV architecture can be employed combining silicon and another earth abundant material. However, forming electronic grade thin films of earth abundant materials is a non-trivial challenge; without solving this, it is impossible to increase the overall PV efficiency. Deposition of Copper (I) Oxide, an earth abundant semiconducting material, was conducted using an optimized Photo assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition process. X-Ray Diffraction, Ellipsometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Profilometry revealed that the films composed of Cu2O of about 90 nm thickness and the grain size was as large as 600 nm. This result shows an improvement in material properties over previously grown thin films of Cu2O. Measurement of I-V characteristics of a diode structure composed of the Cu2O indicates an increase in On/Off ratio to 17,000 from the previous best value of 800. These results suggest that the electronic quality of the thin films deposited using our optimized process to be better than the results reported elsewhere. Using this optimized thin film forming technique, it is now possible to

  7. Advanced photovoltaic concentrator system low-cost prototype module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminar, N.R.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. (Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the continued development of an extruded lens and the development of a PV receiver, both of which will be used in the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation (SEA) 10X concentrator. These efforts were pare of a pre-Concentrator Initiative Program. The 10X concentrator consists of an inexpensive, extruded linear Fresnel lens which focuses on one-sun cells which are adhesive-bonded to an anodized aluminum heat sink. Module sides are planned to be molded along with the lens and are internally reflective for improved on- and off-track performance. End caps with molded-in bearings complete the module. Ten modules are mounted in a stationary frame for simple, single-axis tracking in the east-west direction. This configuration an array, is shipped completely assembled and requires only setting on a reasonably flat surface, installing 4 fasteners, and hooking up the wires. Development of the 10-inch wide extruded lens involved one new extrusion die and a series of modifications to this die. Over 76% lens transmission was measured which surpassed the program goal of 75%. One-foot long receiver sections were assembled and subjected to evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories. A first group had some problem with cell delamination and voids but a second group performed very well, indicating that a full size receiver would pass the full qualification test. Cost information was updated and presented in the report. The cost study indicated that the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation concentrator system can exceed the DOE electricity cost goals of less than 6cents per KW-hr. 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Ecodesign of organic photovoltaic modules from Danish and Chinese perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Laurent, Alexis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    waste management practices have been contemplated for the end of life of the solar park: recycling, incineration or the average local mix. The assessment of the environmental impacts of such a system reveals that silver used in the electrodes is overall the largest source of impacts, such as chemical...... production of the OPV modules from Denmark to China have additionally been studied to determine the most advantageous configuration. The stakeholders should aim at anchoring the manufacturing of solar parks in countries with stringent emission standards and/or high technology efficiencies, e.g. Denmark, and...

  9. Tracking Error analysis of Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Total 3-Dimensional Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yasuyuki; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2011-12-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) operating simulator for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module using triple-junction solar cell was developed. By connecting 3D equivalent circuit simulation for triple-junction solar cell and ray-trace simulation for optics model, the operating characteristics of CPV module were calculated. A typical flat Fresnel lens and homogenizer were adapted to the optics model. The influence of tracking error on the performance of CPV module was calculated. There was the correlation between the optical efficiency and Isc. However, Pm was not correlated with these values, and was strongly dependent on FF. We can use this total simulator for the evaluation and optimization from the light incidence to operating characteristic of CPV modules.

  10. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Partial shade of monolithic thin-film PV modules can cause reverse-bias conditions leading to permanent damage. In this work, we propose a partial shade stress test for thin-film PV modules that quantifies permanent performance loss. We designed the test with the aid of a computer model that predicts the local voltage, current and temperature stress that result from partial shade. The model predicts the module-scale interactions among the illumination pattern, the electrical properties of the photovoltaic material and the thermal properties of the module package. The test reproduces shading and loading conditions that may occur in the field. It accounts for reversible light-induced performance changes and for additional stress that may be introduced by light-enhanced reverse breakdown. We present simulated and experimental results from the application of the proposed test.

  11. Photovoltaic/thermal solar hybrid system with bifacial PV module and transparent plane collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Ocampo, B. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya 11111, Guanajuato (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Ruiz-Vasquez, E.; Canseco-Sanchez, H. [Instituto Tecnologico de Oaxaca, Oaxaca 68030, Oaxaca (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Cornejo-Meza, R.C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tepic, av. Tecnologico 2595, Tepic 63175, Nayarit (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Trapaga-Martinez, G.; Vorobiev, Y.V. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Garcia-Rodriguez, F.J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya 11111, Guanajuato (Mexico); Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. [CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2007-12-14

    Electric energy production with photovoltaic (PV)/thermal solar hybrid systems can be enhanced with the employment of a bifacial PV module. Experimental model of a PV/thermal hybrid system with such a module was constructed and studied. To make use of both active surfaces of the bifacial PV module, we designed and made an original water-heating planar collector and a set of reflecting planes. The heat collector was transparent in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions, which makes it compatible with the PV module made of crystalline Si. The estimated overall solar energy utilization efficiency for the system related to the direct radiation flux is of the order of 60%, with an electric efficiency of 16.4%. (author)

  12. Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-06-01

    We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

  13. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  14. The Possibility of Phase Change Materials (PCM Usage to Increase Efficiency of the Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klugmann-Radziemska Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is widely available, free and inexhaustible. Furthermore this source of energy is the most friendly to the environment. For direct conversion of solar energy into useful forms like of electricity and thermal energy, respectively photovoltaic cells and solar collectors are being used. Forecast indicate that the first one solution will soon have a significant part in meeting the global energy demand. Therefore it is highly important to increase their efficiency in the terms of providing better energy conversion conditions. It can be obtain by designing new devices or by modifications of existing ones. This article presents general issues of photovoltaic installations exposed to work in high temperatures and basic concepts about phase change materials (PCMs. The paper presents the possibility of PCM usage to receive heat from the photovoltaic module. Specially designed test stand, consisting of PV module covered with a layer of PCM has been build and tested. Current-voltage characteristics of the cell without PCM material and with a layer of PCM have been presented. Authors also describe the results of the electrical and thermal characteristic of a coupled PV-PCM system.

  15. FPGA-based implementation of a fuzzy controller (MPPT) for photovoltaic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messai, A. [CRNB Ain Oussera, P.O. Box 180, 17200, Djelfa (Algeria); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences Engineering, Blida University, Blida 90000 (Algeria); Mellit, A., E-mail: a.mellit@yahoo.co.u [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Jijel University, Ouled-aissa, P.O. Box 98, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences Engineering, Blida University, Blida 90000 (Algeria); Massi Pavan, A. [Department of Materials and Natural Resources, University of Trieste, Via A. Valerio, 2 - 34127 Trieste (Italy); Guessoum, A. [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences Engineering, Blida University, Blida 90000 (Algeria); Mekki, H. [CRNB Ain Oussera, P.O. Box 180, 17200, Djelfa (Algeria); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences Engineering, Blida University, Blida 90000 (Algeria)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} FL-MPPT controller is implemented on FPGA. {yields} Results obtained with ModelSim show a satisfactory performance. {yields} Results will be useful for future development in PV. -- Abstract: This paper describes the hardware implementation of a two-inputs one-output digital Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) on a Xilinx reconfigurable Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using VHDL Hardware Description Language. The FLC is designed for seeking the maximum power point deliverable by a photovoltaic module using the measures of the photovoltaic current and voltage. The simulation results obtained with ModelSim Xilinx Edition-III show a satisfactory performance with a good agreement between the expected and the obtained values.

  16. Reduction of Temperature in Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Coating with High Thermal Emissivity and Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of solar cells considerably increases under light-concentrating operations, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. It is very important to reduce the cell temperature in concentrator photovoltaic modules. The thermal radiation layers with high thermal emissivity and thermal conductivity was coated on the aluminum samples which is used for the chassis of concentrator photovoltaic and the effect was evaluated under the conditions with wind. The temperature of sample with coating showed lower temperature than that without coating. In the condition with wind, the coated sample with high thermal emissivity and high thermal conductivity showed the lowest temperature due to the effect of thermal radiation and thermal conduction.

  17. Solar-energy conversion by combined photovoltaic converters with CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} base layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrypunov, G. S., E-mail: khrip@ukr.net; Sokol, E. I. [National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” (Ukraine); Yakimenko, Yu. I. [National Technical University “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Research Institute of Applied Electronics (Ukraine); Meriuts, A. V. [National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” (Ukraine); Ivashuk, A. V. [National Technical University “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Research Institute of Applied Electronics (Ukraine); Shelest, T. N. [National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” (Ukraine)

    2014-12-15

    The possibility of the combined use of bifacial thin-film solar cells based on CdTe and frontal solar cells with a CuInSe{sub 2} base layer in tandem structures is experimentally confirmed. It is found that, for the use of bifacial solar cells based on cadmium telluride in a tandem structure, the optimal thickness of their base layer should be 1 μm. The gain in the efficiency of the tandem structure, compared with an individual CuInSe{sub 2}-based solar cell, is 1.8% in the case of series-connected solar cells and 1.3%, for parallel-connected.

  18. Analysis of the junction temperature and thermal characteristics of photovoltaic modules under various operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of thermal energy in the interior of photovoltaic (PV) modules as a consequence of continuous solar irradiation causes a difference between the junction temperature of the PV modules and the ambient temperature, which leads to a serious deterioration in the performance of the PV modules. We investigate this problem in depth, proposing a novel method to directly determine the junction temperature of the PV modules based on the p–n junction semiconductor theory. The proposed method is a new and simple approach with a low calculation burden. Its performance is evaluated by examining the characteristics of the junction temperature of the PV modules given variation in both temperature and irradiation intensity. After obtaining the junction temperature of the PV modules, we can track a more accurate maximum power point (MPP) for the PV modules, which is inherently affected by the ambient temperature, so that the maximum utilization efficiency of PV modules can be further achieved. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is a significant improvement in terms of the precision of the MPP control model, and helps PV modules produce their maximum power under various operation conditions. -- Highlights: ► A novel method to directly determine the junction temperature of PV modules from irradiated I–V curves is proposed. ► The junction temperature of the PV modules under various operation conditions can be simply estimated. ► A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effectiveness of the method. ► The proposed method improves the precision of the MPP control model and helps PV modules provide the maximum power output.

  19. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  20. Interlaboratory outdoor stability studies of flexible roll-to-roll coated organic photovoltaic modules: Stability over 10,000 h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Dam, Henrik Friis;

    2013-01-01

    This work attempts to reveal the comparability issues related to outdoor testing procedures of organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules via studies of inter-laboratory long-term outdoor measurements of roll-to-roll coated flexible OPV modules (P3HT:PCBM, inverted architecture) in different geographic...

  1. Creep in Photovoltaic Modules: Examining the Stability of Polymeric Materials and Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Glick, S. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Interest in renewable energy has motivated the implementation of new polymeric materials in photovoltaic modules. Some of these are non-cross-linked thermoplastics, in which there is a potential for new behaviors to occur, including phase transformation and visco-elastic flow. Differential scanning calorimetry and rheometry data were obtained and then combined with existing site-specific time-temperature information in a theoretical analysis to estimate the displacement expected to occur during module service life. The analysis identified that, depending on the installation location, module configuration and/or mounting configuration, some of the thermoplastics are expected to undergo unacceptable physical displacement. While the examples here focus on encapsulation materials, the concerns apply equally to the frame, junction-box, and mounting-adhesive technologies.

  2. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  3. Effects of UV on power degradation of photovoltaic modules in combined acceleration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Trang; Heta, Yushi; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    UV exposure and other factors such as high/low temperature, humidity and mechanical stress have been reported to degrade photovoltaic (PV) module materials. By focusing on the combined effects of UV stress and moisture on PV modules, two new acceleration tests of light irradiation and damp heat (DH) were designed and conducted. The effects of UV exposure were validated through a change in irradiation time (UV dosage) and a change of the light irradiation side (glass side vs backsheet side) in the UV-preconditioned DH and cyclic sequential tests, respectively. The chemical corrosion of finger electrodes in the presence of acetic acid generated from ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant was considered to be the main origin of degradation. The module performance characterized by electroluminescence images was confirmed to correlate with the measured acetic acid concentration and Ag finger electrode resistance.

  4. Performance analysis of a multi crystalline Si photovoltaic module under Mugla climatic conditions in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The electricity yield of one module and a grid connected PV system is compared. ► The average difference in monthly electricity values varies between ±12%. ► Annual average electricity difference is about 0.1% with 0.72 measured PR. ► Annual energy rating for the PV system is calculated about 1414.18 kW h/kW p. ► The measured energy rating is 1412.78 kW h/kW p. - Abstract: Commercially available, a multi crystalline silicon (mc-Si) photovoltaic (PV) module has been monitored outdoors under Mugla climatic conditions in Turkey. Electricity yield of this module is calculated from the uninterruptible measured current–voltage curves from sunrise to sunset during a year. Calculated electricity yield from the measured plane of array or in-plane (POA) irradiation is compared with the calculated electricity from the manufacturer’s electrical values of the module and the measured electricity from the photovoltaic system consisting 26 mc-Si PV modules from the same manufacturer. Calculated annual energy rating for the PV system is 1415.79 kW h/kW p and 1414.18 kW h/kW p from the manufacturer data and tested module respectively. The measured energy rating value is 1412.78 kW h/kW p. Comparison of results from this study with those obtained from the measurements show that the average difference in monthly electricity values varies between ±12% with an annual average value less than 1% and a performance ratio (PR) of 0.72.

  5. Transient Response of Cadmium Telluride Modules to Light Exposure: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; del Cueto, J.; Albin, D. S.; Petersen, C.; Tyler, L.; TamizhMani, G.

    2011-07-01

    Commercial cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules from three different manufacturers were monitored for performance changes during indoor and outdoor light-exposure. Short-term transients in Voc were recorded on some modules, with characteristic times of ~1.1 hours. Outdoor performance data shows a similar drop in Voc after early morning light exposure. Preliminary analysis of FF changes show light-induced changes on multiple time scales, including a long time scale.

  6. First principles study of Bi dopen CdTe thin film solar cells: electronic and optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Seminóvski Pérez, Yohanna; Palacios Clemente, Pablo; Wahnón Benarroch, Perla

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, efficiency improvement of solar cells is one of the most important issues in photovoltaic systems and CdTe is one of the most promising thin film photovoltaic materials we can found. CdTe reported efficiencies in solar energy conversion have been as good as that found in polycrystalline Si thin film cell [1], besides CdTe can be easily produced at industrial scale.

  7. Photovoltaic module V-I and P-V characterization through instrumentation control toolkit of MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Genci Sharko; Nako Hobdari; Nike Shanku; Miranda Ekmekciu; Elton Dasho

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one experimental method for determining the V-I and P-V characteristic of the photovoltaic modules. The short-circuit current (Isc), open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the filling coefficient are measured, also. Direct characteristics of V-I and P-V curves under solar irradiance are measured and graphed in real time with system proposed for this reason. It describes the development of an automated monitoring system for a solar PV plant based on the use of Instrumentation Cont...

  8. Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases in Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing: Potential Emissions and Abatement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Alsema, E.A.; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Agostinelli, G.; Dekkers, H.; Roth, K.; Kinzig, V.

    2007-01-01

    Some fluorinated gases (F-gases) which are used, or considered to be used, in crystalline silicon photovoltaic solar cell and film silicon module manufacturing have a very high global warming effect. CF4, C2F6, SF6 and NF3 have global warming potentials 7390, 12200, 22800 and 17200 times higher than CO2. These gases can be used in texturing, phosphorus silicate glass removal (PSG), edge isolation and reactor cleaning operations from which unreacted species and reaction byproducts will be emit...

  9. An improved electronic circuit for tracing the I-V characteristics of photovoltaic modules and strings

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, V; Chenlo, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an improved electronic circuit for testing photovoltaic (PV) modules or strings by tracing their I-V and P-V characteristics. It consists of an electronic fast varying load based on a power MOSFET controlled by means of an innovative sweeping gate-source voltage in order to improve the tracing of the I-V characteristics on an oscilloscope. In order to prevent damage of data acquisition systems and mainly for use with high voltage PV strings, galvanic i...

  10. Parameter optimization of solar modules based on lens concentrators of radiation and cascade photovoltaic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. M.; Davidyuk, N. Yu.; Ionova, E. A.; Pokrovskii, P. V.; Rumyantsev, V. D.; Sadchikov, N. A.

    2010-02-01

    Two main issues governing the design of a solar concentrator module with triple-junction nano-heterostructure photovoltaic converters (PVCs) are considered: the effective concentration of radiation using Fresnel lenses and effective heat removal from PVCs. By theoretically and experimentally simulating these processes, the design parameters of module’ s elements are determined. A test batch of full-size modules has been fabricated. Each module consists of a front panel of small-size Fresnel lenses (a total of 144 lenses arranged as a 12 × 12 array) and the corresponding number of multilayer InGaP/GaAs/Ge PVCs. The PVCs are mounted on heat-distributing plates and are also integrated into a panel. The efficiency of the concentrator module with a 0.5 × 0.5-m entrance aperture measured under outdoor conditions is 24.3%, which is more than twice as high as the efficiency of standard (concentrator-free) silicon modules. In smaller test modules, the efficiency corrected for the PVC standard temperature (25° C) reaches 26.5%.

  11. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics: 2014 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.

    2014-08-01

    The 2012 NREL report 'Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics' provides a standard methodology for estimating the performance benefit of distributed power electronics under partial shading conditions. Since the release of the report, experiments have been conducted for a number of products and for different system configurations. Drawing from these experiences, updates to the test and analysis methods are recommended. Proposed changes in data processing have the benefit of reducing the sensitivity to measurement errors and weather variability, as well as bringing the updated performance score in line with measured and simulated values of the shade recovery benefit of distributed PV power electronics. Also, due to the emergence of new technologies including sub-module embedded power electronics, the shading method has been extended to include power electronics that operate at a finer granularity than the module level. An update to the method is proposed to account for these emerging technologies that respond to shading differently than module-level devices. The partial shading test remains a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations as would be experienced by typical residential or commercial rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. Performance data for multiple products tested using this method are discussed, based on equipment from Enphase, Solar Edge, Maxim Integrated and SMA. In general, the annual recovery of shading losses from the module-level electronics evaluated is 25-35%, with the major difference between different trials being related to the number of parallel strings in the test installation rather than differences between the equipment tested.

  12. Universal statistics of parasitic shunt formation in solar cells, and its implications for cell to module efficiency gap

    OpenAIRE

    Dongaonkar, Sourabh; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic shunt formation is an important cause of variability and module efficiency loss in all photovoltaic technologies. In this letter, we quantify the nature of this shunt variability in fourmajor thin film photovoltaic (TFPV) technologies, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), organic (OPV), Cu(In,Ga)SSe (CIGS), and CdTe. We analyze a wide variety of datasets to show that the shunt current exhibits a robust universal log-normal behavior for all these technologies. We affirm this conclusio...

  13. Strategies for enhancing the commercial viability of CdTe-based photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to the handling and disposal of end-of-life thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules were examined to determine their potential impacts on the commercialization of this new product. An assessment of existing EH and S data on CdTe PV products revealed the need for additional testing, the need for quantitative surveys of existing customer opinions, the value of appropriate positive comparisons, and the potential advantages of collection and recycling programs. A survey of the PV industry and selected customers indicated that prospective users were not overly concerned about EH and S issues; that they identified Cd content as a key issue when explaining any concerns they did have; and, that they are willing to purchase CdTe PV modules if the price and performance are competitive, if CdTe PV technology is endorsed by users like themselves, and, if there exists a convenient method of handling end-of-life modules. An analysis of public acceptance strategies of industries facing comparable EH and S issues revealed that public relations, regulations, and/or commercial necessity may justify collection and recycling programs for end-of-life CdTe modules. Estimates of the economics of reclaiming CdTe PV modules indicated costs of $0.15-0.25/Wp due, in large part, to the collection and processing expenses. Key strategy recommendations include additional testing to clearly establish EH and S hazards for CdTe-based compounds, programs to educate customers and the public on the nature of these compounds, and further exploration of alternative end-of-life module collection and recycling options

  14. Development of optimal SnO{sub 2} contacts for CdTe photovoltaic applications. [Final technical report of Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Jianping

    1999-09-16

    During this SBIR Phase II project, we have successfully established high quality SnO{sub 2}(F) based transparent conductive oxide coatings by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique and built a large area prototype APCVD deposition system which incorporates innovative design features. This work enhances US photovoltaic research capability and other thin film oxide related research capability.

  15. Brief review of cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başol, Bülent M.; McCandless, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is the most commercially successful thin-film photovoltaic technology. Development of CdTe as a solar cell material dates back to the early 1980s when ˜10% efficient devices were demonstrated. Implementation of better quality glass, more transparent conductive oxides, introduction of a high-resistivity transparent film under the CdS junction-partner, higher deposition temperatures, and improved Cl-treatment, doping, and contacting approaches yielded >16% efficient cells in the early 2000s. Around the same time period, use of a photoresist plug monolithic integration process facilitated the demonstration of the first 11% efficient module. The most dramatic advancements in CdTe device efficiencies were made during the 2013 to 2014 time frame when small-area cell conversion efficiency was raised to 20% range and a champion module efficiency of 17% was reported. CdTe technology is attractive in terms of its limited life-cycle greenhouse gas and heavy metal emissions, small carbon footprint, and short energy payback times. Limited Te availability is a challenge for the growth of this technology unless Te utilization rates are greatly enhanced along with device efficiencies.

  16. Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) Module during Partial Shading based on Simplified Two-Diode Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitti Babu, B.; Gurjar, Suresh; Meher, Ashish

    2015-02-01

    Generally, the characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) array are largely affected by solar temperature, solar irradiance, shading patterns, array configuration and location of shading modules. Partial shading is due to moving clouds and shadows of nearby obstacles and can cause a significant degradation in the output of PV system. Hence, the characteristics of PV array get more multifaceted with multiple peaks. The ultimate aim of the paper is to analyze the performance of PV module during such adverse condition based on simplified two-diode model. To reduce the computational time, the simplified two-diode model has a photocurrent source in parallel with two ideal diodes. Only four parameters are required to be calculated from datasheet in order to simulate the model. Moreover, the performance of PV array is evaluated at different shaded patterns and it is found that the model has less computational time and gives accurate results.

  17. Assessing photovoltaic module degradation and lifetime from long term environmental tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The photovoltaic module failure mechanisms related to temperature, humidity, and electrical bias are analyzed using the data collected over a period of 20 years from various sites in the U.S. The approach is based on measuring the rate dependence of the mechanisms on site stress levels, and then using the rate data to analytically estimate the field life by means of computer models of the site environment. A correlation is established between the accelerated constant-stress testing and the time-varying field exposures. Test results are presented for two failure mechanisms for a module design featuring polyvinyl butyral encapsulant for the temperature range of 85 to 100 C and 85-percent relative humidity.

  18. Wettability and Reaction between Solder and Silver Busbar during the Tabbing Process for Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom-Yong; Hoang, Thi-Lien; Cho, Sung-Bin; Huh, Joo-Youl; Lee, Young-Sik

    2012-10-01

    The soldering quality of a Cu ribbon onto the Ag busbars of solar cells is one of the key factors affecting the cell-to-module loss and durability of a silicon photovoltaic module. In this study, we examined the effects of the surface chemistry and morphology of the screen-printed Ag busbars on the solder wettability and bonding uniformity of the Cu ribbon over the length of the busbar during the tabbing process. The surface of the as-fired Ag busbar was covered by a thin glass layer originating from the glass frit contained in the Ag paste. The presence of the thin glass layer significantly decreased the wettability of the solder, leading to the formation of voided regions at the solder/busbar interface. Although it had only a minor influence on solder wettability, increasing the roughness of the busbar surface resulted in the formation of more voided regions at the solder/busbar interface.

  19. Prospects of Nanostructure-Based Solar Cells for Manufacturing Future Generations of Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive review on prospects for one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanostructure-based solar cells for manufacturing the future generation of photovoltaic (PV modules. Reducing heat dissipation and utilizing the unabsorbed part of the solar spectrum are the key driving forces for the development of nanostructure-based solar cells. Unrealistic assumptions involved in theoretical work and the tendency of stretching observed experimental results are the primary reasons why quantum phenomena-based nanostructures solar cells are unlikely to play a significant role in the manufacturing of future generations of PV modules. Similar to the invention of phase shift masks (to beat the conventional diffraction limit of optical lithography clever design concepts need to be invented to take advantage of quantum-based nanostructures. Silicon-based PV manufacturing will continue to provide sustained growth of the PV industry.

  20. Photovoltaic module V-I and P-V characterization through instrumentation control toolkit of MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genci Sharko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one experimental method for determining the V-I and P-V characteristic of the photovoltaic modules. The short-circuit current (Isc, open-circuit voltage (Voc and the filling coefficient are measured, also. Direct characteristics of V-I and P-V curves under solar irradiance are measured and graphed in real time with system proposed for this reason. It describes the development of an automated monitoring system for a solar PV plant based on the use of Instrumentation Control Toolkit of MatLab Software. PV modules still have relatively low conversion efficiency; therefore, determining and controlling maximum power point tracking (MPPT for the solar array is essential in a PV system.

  1. Protoflight photovoltaic power module system-level tests in the space power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan C.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Work Package Four, which includes the NASA-Lewis and Rocketdyne, has selected an approach for the Space Station Freedom Photovoltaic (PV) Power Module flight certification that combines system level qualification and acceptance testing in the thermal vacuum environment: The protoflight vehicle approach. This approach maximizes ground test verification to assure system level performance and to minimize risk of on-orbit failures. The preliminary plans for system level thermal vacuum environmental testing of the protoflight PV Power Module in the NASA-Lewis Space Power Facility (SPF), are addressed. Details of the facility modifications to refurbish SPF, after 13 years of downtime, are briefly discussed. The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of system level environmental testing in screening out incipient part and workmanship defects and unique failure modes are discussed. Preliminary test objectives, test hardware configurations, test support equipment, and operations are presented.

  2. Photovoltaic Modules Performance Loss Evaluation for Nsukka, South East Nigeria and Mitigable Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan O.L

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Photovoltaic (PV systems and technology offer excellent reliability when designed with the right implementation tools and based on good technical judgements of components that make up each of the critical sections of solar power system. The PV array is an essential section of a solar power system and it is expected to function to deliver pre – estimated power based on design estimations. There are factors that derail the performance of PV modules; the contributions of these factors are peculiar to specific sites of installation, hence the need to empirically evaluate and characterize installation sites before deployment of PV systems. This paper presents the characterization of Nsukka (South East, Nigeria environment using decent instrumentation; and consequently highlights the power loss indicators for PV modules in the target site while presenting equally mitigable design.

  3. Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical e.g. leachability and biological parameters e.g. EC50 in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats

  4. NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF PERFORMANCES OF A SOLAR CELL BASED ON CdTe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ferouani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article has as an aim the study and the simulation of the photovoltaic cells containing CdTe materials, contributing to the development of renewable energies, and able to feed from the houses, the shelters as well as photovoltaic stations… etc. CdTe is a semiconductor having a structure of bands with an indirect gap of a value of 1,5 eV at ambient temperature what means that photon wavelength of approximately 1200 nm will be able to generate an electron-hole pair. One speaks about photogeneration. We will lay the stress, initially, on the essential design features of a photovoltaic module (the open-circuit tension, the short-circuit current, the fill factor, and the output of the cell, our results was simulated with the SCAPS computer code in one dimension which uses electrical characteristics DC and AC of the thin layers heterojunctions. The results obtained after optimization are: VCO = 0.632V, Jsc = 39.1 mA/cm2, FF=82.98 % and the output energy of conversion is 18.26%.Optimization is made according to the temperature and the wavelength.

  5. Automatized segmentation of photovoltaic modules in IR-images with extreme noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Andreas; Hepp, Johannes; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2016-05-01

    Local electric defects may result in considerable performance losses in solar cells. Infrared thermography is an essential tool to detect these defects on photovoltaic modules. Accordingly, IR-thermography is frequently used in R&D labs of PV manufactures and, furthermore, outdoors in order to identify faulty modules in PV-power plants. Massive amount of data is acquired which needs to be analyzed. An automatized method for detecting solar modules in IR-images would enable a faster and automatized analysis of the data. However, IR-images tend to suffer from rather large noise, which makes an automatized segmentation challenging. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable segmentation algorithm for R&D labs. We propose an algorithm, which detects a solar cell or module within an IR-image with large noise. We tested the algorithm on images of 10 PV-samples characterized by highly sensitive dark lock-in thermography (DLIT). The algorithm proved to be very reliable in detecting correctly the solar module. In our study, we focused on thin film solar cells, however, a transfer of the algorithm to other cell types is straight forward.

  6. Characterization of cell mismatch in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, J.L., E-mail: s207094248@live.nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this study the causes and effects of cell mismatch were identified in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module. Different techniques were used to identify the causes of the mismatch, including Electroluminescence (EL) imaging, Infrared (IR) imaging, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, worst-case cell determination and Large Area Laser Beam Induced Current (LA-LBIC) scans. In EL images the cracked cells, broken fingers and material defects are visible. The presence of poorly contacted cells results in the formation of hot-spots. LA-LBIC line scans give the relative photoresponse of the cells in the module. However, this technique is limited due to the penetration depth of the laser beam. The worst case cell determination compares the I-V curves of the whole module with the I-V curve of the module with one cell covered, allowing the evaluation of the performance of each cell in a series-connected string. These methods allowed detection of the poorly performing cells in the module. Using all these techniques an overall view of the photoresponse in the cells and their performance is obtained.

  7. Characterization of cell mismatch in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the causes and effects of cell mismatch were identified in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module. Different techniques were used to identify the causes of the mismatch, including Electroluminescence (EL) imaging, Infrared (IR) imaging, current–voltage (I–V) characteristics, worst-case cell determination and Large Area Laser Beam Induced Current (LA-LBIC) scans. In EL images the cracked cells, broken fingers and material defects are visible. The presence of poorly contacted cells results in the formation of hot-spots. LA-LBIC line scans give the relative photoresponse of the cells in the module. However, this technique is limited due to the penetration depth of the laser beam. The worst case cell determination compares the I–V curves of the whole module with the I–V curve of the module with one cell covered, allowing the evaluation of the performance of each cell in a series-connected string. These methods allowed detection of the poorly performing cells in the module. Using all these techniques an overall view of the photoresponse in the cells and their performance is obtained.

  8. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...... strategy is proposed. It has a very simple structure, and the common-mode voltages can be kept constant with no need of complex space-vector modulation or multicarrier pulsewidth modulation. Experimental results verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the presented method....

  9. Technology support for high-throughput processing of thin-film CdTe PV modules: Annual technical report, Phase 1, 1 April 1998--31 March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Powell, R.C.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Hanak, J.J.; Bohland, J.; Smigielski, K.; Dorer, G.L.

    1999-10-25

    This report describes work performed by First Solar, L.L.C., during Phase 1 of this 3-year subcontract. The research effort of this subcontract is divided into four areas: (1) process and equipment development, (2) efficiency improvement, (3) characterization and analysis, and (4) environmental, health, and safety. As part of the process development effort, the output of the pilot-production facility was increased. More than 6,200 8-ft{sup 2} CdS/CdTe plates were produced during Phase 1--more than double the total number produced prior to Phase 1. This increase in pilot-production rate was accomplished without a loss in the PV conversion efficiency: the average total-area AM1.5 efficiency of sub-modules produced during the reporting period was 6.4%. Several measurement techniques, such as large-area measurement of CdS thickness, were developed to aid process improvement, and the vapor-transport deposition method was refined. CdTe thickness uniformity and reproducibility were improved. From a population of more than 1,100 plates, the mean standard deviation within a plate was 7.3% and the standard deviation of individual-plate averages was 6.8%. As part of the efficiency-improvement task, research was done on devices with thin-CdS and buffer layers. A cell with 13.9% efficiency was produced on a high-quality substrate, and higher than 12% efficiency was achieved with a cell with no CdS layer. A number of experiments were performed as part of the characterization and analysis task. The temperature dependence of CdTe modules was investigated; the power output was found to be relatively insensitive (<5%) to temperature in the 25 to 50 C range. As part of the characterization and analysis task, considerable effort was also given to reliability verification and improvement. The most carefully monitored array, located at the NREL, was found to have unchanged power output within the margin of error of measurement (5%) after 5 years in the field. The first round of National

  10. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2011-05-01

    This is a cumulative and final report for Phases I, II and III of this NREL funded project (subcontract # XXL-5-44205-10). The main research activities of this project focused on the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin film solar cells. Although, thin film CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, the efficiency of the CdTe solar cells have been stagnant for the last few years. This report describes and summarizes the results for this 3-year research project.

  11. A high efficiency photovoltaic module integrated converter with the asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heeje; Kim, Jongrak; Shin, Dongsul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Hosung; Lee, Kyungjun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea); Kim, Jonghyun; Yoo, Dongwook [New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    A module integrated converter (MIC) for a photovoltaic (PV) cell is important part of power conditioning system (PCS). It performs maximum power point tracking of a PV cell to generate the power as much as possible from solar energy. There are several methods for connection between the PV modules and the MICs. In order to avoid partial shading effects, converter-per-module approach was proposed. The MIC that performs maximum power point tracking (MPPT), if it is low efficiency, is no use. The MIC whose output is connected to the output of PV module was proposed for high efficiency. However, there are some problems. In this study, an asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter is proposed instead of the original flyback converter with same method to solve the problems. The proposed MIC was built to verify the performance. The new topology using soft switching technique showed good performance for the efficiency. At the higher power, the efficiency of the proposed converter is higher than existing converter. (author)

  12. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules and test devices design, fabrication and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleeuwen, M.

    1985-01-01

    In July of 1984, Hughes and JPL initiated a contract for Hughes to design, fabricate and test 10 thin film Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic power modules. These modules were to be 1 ft x 4 ft in size. They were to be preceded by the delivery of 10 a-Si 4 in. square test devices. This effort is very timely since thin film PV development has progressed to the point where intermediate load power applications are on the horizon. It is important to know if current a-Si submodule design and manufacturing processes yield a product that is compatible with the packaging needed to meet a 20 to 30 year life span expectancy. The term submodule is assigned to an interconnected assembly of 28 a-Si cells deposited on a 1 foot square glass superstrate. These assemblies are equipped with electrical terminations, i.e., copper tabs at the four corners of the inverted submodules. It is these submodules that are to be interconnected and packaged into power modules, as opposed to the interconnected individual crystalline cells packaged into todays PV modules. A discussion of the fabrication methods and results follows.

  13. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  14. Performance degradation, polymer encapsulant degradation, and estimating lifetimes for photovoltaic modules from accelerated testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Pern, F.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purposes of this paper are to provide background information about encapsulants for photovoltaic (PV) modules and to evaluate estimates of the durability of different materials used in PV modules. The authors summarize the field-deployed module degradation in performance, the established degradation mechanisms of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer, and potential degradation mechanisms in other module components and at materials interfaces. Most of the emphasis is on estimates for the commercially used EVA formulations A9918 and 15295. These formulations have degraded in field-deployed modules to produce acetic acid and a yellow to brown color from polyenes and the module efficiencies have been reduced by 10% to 70% in 4 to 12 years. Yet, projections were made by several different research groups in the 1980s that the EVA lifetime could range from 20 to 100 years, the production of acetic acid would only be 0.006% in 20 years, and that silver metallization would survive attack from acetic acid for 300 years at 55 C. Those authors did not use appropriate variables or specimen configurations that simulate reality, and based their projections using the generalization that chemical reaction rates double for every 10 C increase in T. The authors review the inherent errors in their assumptions about the Arrhenius relation. They also show how degradation in efficiency (from current-voltage data) comparable to field experience is obtained using minimodules with a construction that simulates reality and by using appropriate variables in accelerated testing, i.e., UV, T, and RH. A test protocol is outlined that simulates reality and permits making suitable service lifetime projections.

  15. Roll-to-Roll Slot–Die Coated Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Modules with High Geometrical Fill Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.; Fledderus, H.; Gorter, H.; Mannetje, H.H. 't; Shanmugam, S.; Mandamparambil, R.; Bosman, J.; Rubingh, J.M.; Teunissen, J.P.; Salem, A.; Vries, I.G. de; Andriessen, R.; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible semi-transparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules were manufactured by roll-to-roll slot–die coating of three functional layers [ZnO, photoactive layer, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)] and either the screen printing or inkjet printing of the top ele

  16. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Kichou

    2016-06-01

    Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper “Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure” (Kichou et al., 2016 [1].

  17. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  18. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  19. A multi-physics and multi-scale numerical approach to microcracking and power-loss in photovoltaic modules

    OpenAIRE

    Paggi, Marco; Corrado, Mauro; Rodriguez, Maria Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    A multi-physics and multi-scale computational approach is proposed in the present work to study the evolution of microcracking in polycrystalline Silicon (Si) solar cells composing photovoltaic (PV) modules. Coupling between the elastic and the electric fields is provided according to an equivalent circuit model for the PV module where the electrically inactive area is determined from the analysis of the microcrack pattern. The structural scale of the PV laminate(the macro-model) is coupled t...

  20. Temperature dependent electroreflectance study of CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium telluride is a promising material for large scale photovoltaic applications. In this paper we study CdS/CdTe heterojunction solar cells with electroreflectance spectroscopy. Both CdS and CdTe layers in solar cells were grown sequentially without intermediate processing by the close-space sublimation method. Electroreflectance measurements were performed in the temperature range of T = 100–300 K. Two solar cells were investigated with conversion efficiencies of 4.1% and 9.6%. The main focus in this work was to study the temperature dependent behavior of the broadening parameter and the bandgap energy of CdTe thin film in solar cells. Room temperature bandgap values of CdTe were Eg = 1.499 eV and Eg = 1.481 eV for higher and lower efficiency solar cells, respectively. Measured bandgap energies are lower than for single crystal CdTe. The formation of CdTe1−xSx solid solution layer on the surface of CdTe is proposed as a possible cause of lower bandgap energies. - Highlights: ► Temperature dependent electroreflectance measurements of CdS/CdTe solar cells ► Investigation of junction properties between CdS and CdTe ► Formation of CdTe1− xSx solid solution layer in the junction area

  1. Worldwide outdoor round robin study of organic photovoltaic devices and modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Gevorgyan, Suren; Pacios, R.;

    2014-01-01

    Accurate characterization and reporting of organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance remains one of the important challenges in the field. The large spread among the efficiencies of devices with the same structure reported by different groups is significantly caused by different procedures and...... equipment used during testing. The presented article addresses this issue by offering a new method of device testing using “suitcase sample” approach combined with outdoor testing that limits the diversity of the equipment, and a strict measurement protocol. A round robin outdoor characterization of roll......-to-roll coated OPV cells and modules conducted among 46 laboratories worldwide is presented, where the samples and the testing equipment were integrated in a compact suitcase that served both as a sample transportation tool and as a holder and test equipment during testing. In addition, an internet based...

  2. Accelerated testing of metal foil tape joints and their effect of photovoltaic module reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, N. Robert; Quintana, Michael A.; Puskar, Joseph D.; Lucero, Samuel J.

    2009-08-01

    A program is underway at Sandia National Laboratories to predict long-term reliability of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The vehicle for the reliability predictions is a Reliability Block Diagram (RBD), which models system behavior. Because this model is based mainly on field failure and repair times, it can be used to predict current reliability, but it cannot currently be used to accurately predict lifetime. In order to be truly predictive, physics-informed degradation processes and failure mechanisms need to be included in the model. This paper describes accelerated life testing of metal foil tapes used in thin-film PV modules, and how tape joint degradation, a possible failure mode, can be incorporated into the model.

  3. Mast material test program (MAMATEP). [for Solar Array Assembly of Space Station Photovoltaic Power Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1988-01-01

    The MAMATEP program, which is aimed at verifying the need for and evaluating the performance of various protection techniques for the solar array assembly mast of the Space Station photovoltaic power module, is discussed. Coated and uncoated mast material samples have been environmentally tested and evaluated, before and after testing, in terms of mass and bending modulus. The protective coatings include CV-1144 silicone, a Ni/Al/InSn eutectic, and an open-weave Al braid. Long-term plasma asher results from unprotected samples indicate that, even though fiberglass-epoxy samples degrade, a protection technique may not be necessary to ensure structural integrity. A protection technique, however, may be desirable to limit or contain the amount of debris generated by the degradation of the fiberglass-epoxy.

  4. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  5. Estimating service lifetimes of a polymer encapsulant for photovoltaic modules from accelerated testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Pern, F.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this paper, most of the emphasis is on A9918 ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) used commercially as the pottant for encapsulating photovoltaic (PV) modules, in which the efficiencies in field-deployed modules have been reduced by 10-70% in 4-12 years. Yet, projections were made by several different research groups in the 1980s that the EVA lifetime could range from 2-100 years. The authors (1) elucidate the complexity of the encapsulation problem, (2) indicate the performance losses reported for PV systems deployed since 1981, (3) critically assess the service lifetime predictions for EVA as a PV pottant based on studies by others for which they review the inherent errors in their assumptions about the Arrhenius relation, (4) show how degradation of minimodules in laboratory experiments that simulate reality can produce efficiency losses comparable to those in field-degraded PV modules reported in the literature, and (5) outline an acceptable methodology for making a service lifetime prediction of the polymer encapsulant, including the essential need for relating accelerated lifetime testing to real-time testing with a sufficient number of samples.

  6. Determination of photovoltaic modules parameters at different operating conditions using a novel bird mating optimizer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A simplified bird mating optimizer (SBMO) approach is developed. • SBMO is used to estimate the electrical parameters of a PV module. • The performance of SBMO is promising. • The results are comparable with the other methods. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to provide a framework to accurately estimate the electrical equivalent circuit parameters of photovoltaic arrays by use of an efficient heuristic technique. Owing to the non-linearity of the current vs. voltage (I–V) characteristics of PV modules, using a superior optimization technique helps to effectively find the real electrical parameters. Inspired by the mating process of different bird species, bird mating optimizer (BMO) is a new invented search technique which has shown superior performance for solving complex optimization problems. In this paper, the original BMO algorithm is simplified and used to estimate the electrical parameters of the module model for an amorphous silicon PV system at different operating conditions. The simplified BMO (SBMO) eliminates tedious efforts of parameter setting in original BMO and also modifies some rules. The usefulness of the proposed algorithm is investigated by comparing the obtained results with those found by two particle swarm optimization (PSO) variants, two harmony search (HS) variants as well as seeker optimization algorithm (SOA). Based on the investigated situations of this paper, SBMO yields more accurate results than the other studied methods

  7. Output energy of a photovoltaic module mounted on a single-axis tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the electric energy from a photovoltaic module was calculated theoretically at different azimuths and tilt angles in Taiwan. The gain of the module mounted on a single-axis tracking panel relative to a traditional fixed panel was analyzed. To simulate different operation environments, both types of radiation will be considered in addition to observed radiation, i.e. the extraterrestrial radiation and the global radiation predicted by an empirical model. The results show that the optimal tilt angle obtained from the observed data is flatter than those from other two radiation types and becomes flatter while the panel deviates from due south. The yearly gains obtained from the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiations are 51.4%, 28.5% and 18.7%, respectively, if a single-axis tracked panel is installed with the yearly optimal tilt angle; the similar gains are 45.3%, 25.9% and 17.5%, respectively, while the panel is adjusted to its monthly optimal angle each month. The amount of yearly energy in due west (or east) is less than its maximum in due south by about 11%, 10% and 5% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation respectively. The yearly conversion efficiency of a fixed module is 10.2%, 9.2% and 8.3% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation, respectively.

  8. Trial Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Deibert, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires), caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat', 'thermal-cycle', or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine 4 moisture-cured silicones, 4 foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 deg C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden, Miami, and Phoenix for 1 year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  9. Energy and exergy performance evaluation of a typical solar photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Adarsh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the energy and exergy performance evaluation of heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar photovoltaic (SPV module for a particular day of different months of the year of a typical climatic zone of north India. The energy, exergy and power conversion efficiencies have been calculated and plotted against time based on hourly insolation. The variation in all the efficiencies has been observed with respect to variation in solar radiation and wind speed and found that all the efficiencies are higher in morning and evening time as compared to noon time which is due to the variation in temperature of module throughout the day. Performance of SPV module has been found to be the best in the month of February i.e. all the three efficiencies have been found to be the highest among all the months analysed and presented in the study for the month of February. The energy efficiency is found to be always higher than that power conversion and exergy efficiencies. However, exergy efficiency in some months like February, May, June, September, October and December has been found to be higher than that of power conversion efficiency, reverse is found in rest of the months.

  10. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  11. The Temperature Dependence Coefficients of Amorphous Silicon and Crystalline Photovoltaic Modules Using Malaysian Field Test Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence coefficients of amorphous silicon and crystalline photovoltaic (PV modules using Malaysian field data have been obtained using linear regression technique. This is achieved by studying three test stand-alone PV-battery systems using 62 Wp a-Si, 225 Wp multi-crystalline and 225 Wp mono-crystalline PV modules. These systems were designed to provide electricity for rural domestic loads at 200 W, 500 W and 530 W respectively. The systems were installed in the field with data monitored using data loggers. Upon analysis, the study found that the normalized power output per operating array temperature for the amorphous silicon modules, multi-crystalline modules and mono-crystalline modules were: +0.037 per°C, +0.0225 per °C and +0.0263 per °C respectively. In addition, at a solar irradiance value of 500 Wm-2, the current, voltage, power and efficiency dependence coefficients on operating array temperatures obtained from linear regression were: +37.0 mA per °C, -31.8 mV per °C, -0.1036 W per °C and -0.0214% per °C, for the a-Si modules, +22.5 mA per °C, -39.4 mV per °C, -0.2525 W per °C, -0.072 % per °C for the multi-crystalline modules and +26.3 mA per °C, -32.6 mV per °C, -0.1742 W per °C, -0.0523 % per °C for the mono-crystalline modules. These findings have a direct impact on all systems design and sizing in similar climate regions. It is thus recommended that the design and sizing of PV systems in the hot and humid climate regions of the globe give due address to these findings.

  12. The NREL outdoor accelerated-weathering tracking system and photovoltaic module exposure results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Thomas S.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52×1.83 m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was ±15% for a clear-sky summer day with ± 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m2 of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40° up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13% TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95% compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when the PV modules were removed, and when there were OATS tracking

  13. 77 FR 73018 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... FR 63791 (October 17, 2012) (``Final Determination''). \\2\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells...., Ltd. Photovoltaic Technology Co., Ltd. Zhejiang Sunflower Light Energy Zhejiang Sunflower Light 24.48... and Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Critical Circumstances,77 FR 31309 (May 25,...

  14. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate (in the city of Jaén, Spain) are presented in this article. The shared data contributes to clarify how the Light Induced Degradation (LID) impacts the output power generated by the PV array, especially in the first days of exposure under outdoor conditions. Furthermore, a valuable methodology is provided in this data article permitting the assessment of the degradation rate and the stabilization period of the PV modules. Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper "Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure" (Kichou et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977439

  15. Bloch oscillation and Landau-Zener tunnelling in a modulated optical lattice in a photovoltaic photorefractive crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bing-Zhi; Cui Hu; Li Xiang-Heng; She Wei-Long

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the beam dynamical hehaviour in a modulated optical lattice with a quadratic potential in a photovoltaic photorefractive crystal. We find that two different Bloch oscillation patterns appear for the excitation of both broad and narrow light beams. One kind of optical Landau-Zener tunnelling also appears upon the Bloch oscillation and can be controlled by adjusting the parameter of the optical lattice. Unlike the case of linear potential, the energy radiation due to Landau-Zener tunnelling can be confined in modulated lattices of this kind. For high input intensity levels, the Landau-Zener tunnelling is suppressed by the photovoltaic photorefractive nonlinearity and a symmetry breaking of beam propagation from the modulational instability appears.

  16. Emerging photovoltaic technologies: Environmental and health issues update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M.; Moskowitz, Paul D.

    1997-02-01

    New photovoltaic (PV) technologies promise low-cost, reliable PV modules and have the potential for significant PV penetration into the energy market. These prospects for commercialization have attracted renewed interest in the advantageous environmental impact of using PV and also in the potential environmental, health and safety (EHS) burdens in PV manufacturing and decommissioning. In this paper, we highlight recent studies on EHS issues: a) An integrated energy-environmental-economic analysis which shows that large-scale use of PV can significantly contribute to alleviating the greenhouse effect; in the United States alone, it could displace 450 million tons of carbon emissions by the year 2030, b) Recycling of the spent modules and scarp is economically feasible; current research centers on improving the efficiency and economics of recycling CdTe and CIS modules, c) Toxicological studies conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) compared the acute toxicity of CdTe, CIS, and CGS; CdTe was the most toxic, and CGS the least toxic of the three. Additional studies are now comparing the systemic toxicity of these compounds with the toxicity of their precursors.

  17. Photovoltaic response in pristine WSe2 layers modulated by metal-induced surface-charge-transfer doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtained photovoltaic response in pristine multilayer WSe2 by sandwiching WSe2 between top and bottom metals. In this structure, the work-function difference between the top metal and WSe2 plays a critical role in generating built-in potentials and photovoltaic responses. Our devices with Zn as top metal exhibit photo-conversion efficiencies up to 6.7% under 532 nm illumination and external quantum efficiencies in the range of 40%–83% for visible light. This work provides a method for generating photovoltaic responses in layered semiconductors without detrimental doping or exquisite heterostructures, and also advances the physics for modulating the band structures of such emerging semiconductors

  18. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  19. Standard Test Method for Hot Spot Protection Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure to determine the ability of a photovoltaic (PV) module to endure the long-term effects of periodic “hot spot” heating associated with common fault conditions such as severely cracked or mismatched cells, single-point open circuit failures (for example, interconnect failures), partial (or non-uniform) shadowing or soiling. Such effects typically include solder melting or deterioration of the encapsulation, but in severe cases could progress to combustion of the PV module and surrounding materials. 1.2 There are two ways that cells can cause a hot spot problem; either by having a high resistance so that there is a large resistance in the circuit, or by having a low resistance area (shunt) such that there is a high-current flow in a localized region. This test method selects cells of both types to be stressed. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method....

  20. Synergic system between photovoltaic module and microbial fuel cell with simultaneous pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliv, Oresta; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2015-05-01

    Combined photovoltaic module-microbial fuel cell construction shows prospect of advanced autonomous functioning effective energy-production system with the possibility of round-the-clock power generation. Application of Desulfuromonas sp. as anode biocatalyst in photovoltaic (PV) - microbial fuel cell (MFC) could support highly effective eco-friendly energy derivation with simultaneous reduction of organic and inorganic wastes in water environment. D. acetoxidans is exoelectrogenic bacterium that supports S0-reduction with H2S formation and S0-oxidation while an electrode serves as the electron acceptor. Simultaneous sulfur redox processes enhance electron transfer to the electrode surface that may increase the effectiveness of microbial fuel cell performance. It was shown that D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 possesses selective resistance to 0.5-2.5 mM of copper, iron, nickel, manganese and lead ions. Metal-resistant strains of this bacterium may help overcome H2S toxicity, which is produced because of dissimilative S0-reduction, since divalent cations will interact with sulfide ions, forming insoluble precipitates. Thus D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 may be applied for remediation of toxic metal ions from water environments because of metal fixation in form of insoluble complexes of metal sulfides. D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 is presumed to have the capability to convert organic compounds, such as malate, pyruvate, succinate and fumarate via reductive stage of tricarboxylic acid cycle. Thus application of effluents as anolyte in MFC, based on D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384, may cause decrease of its organic content with formation of simple benign constituents, such as CO2 and H2O. Hence the advanced system for eco-friendly energy generation with simultaneous water pollution control is proposed.

  1. Optimal the tilt angles for photovoltaic modules using PSO method with nonlinear time-varying evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A particle-swarm optimization method with nonlinear time-varying evolution (PSO-NTVE) is employed in determining the tilt angle of photovoltaic (PV) modules in Taiwan. The objective is to maximize the output electrical energy of the modules. In this study, seven Taiwanese cities were selected for analysis. First, the sun's position at any time and location was predicted by the mathematical procedure of Julian dating, and then the solar irradiation was obtained at each site under a clear sky. By combining the temperature effect, the PSO-NTVE method is adopted to calculate the optimal tilt angles for fixed south-facing PV modules. In this method, the parameters are determined by using matrix experiments with an orthogonal array, in which a minimal number of experiments have an effect that approximates the full factorial experiments. Statistical error analysis was performed to compare the results between the four PSO methods and experimental results. Hengchun city in which the minimum total error value of 6.12% the reasons for the weather more stability and less building shade. A comparison of the measurement results in electrical energy between the four PSO methods and the PV modules set a six tilt angles. Obviously four types of PSO methods simulation of electrical energy value from 231.12 kWh/m2 for Taipei to 233.81 kWh/m2 for Hengchun greater than the measurement values from 224.71 kWh/m2 for Taichung to 228.47 kWh/m2 for Hengchun by PV module which is due to instability caused by climate change. Finally, the results show that the annual optimal angle for the Taipei area is 18.16o; for Taichung, 17.3o; for Tainan, 16.15o; for Kaosiung, 15.79o; for Hengchung, 15.17o; for Hualian, 17.16o; and for Taitung, 15.94o. It is evident that the authorized Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) recommends that tilt angle of 23.5o was not an appropriate use of Taiwan's seven cities. PV modules with the installation of the tilt angle should be adjusted in different

  2. Effects of spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K.; Vorster, F.J.; van Dyk, E.E. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    We present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Such investigations are of importance in characterization of photovoltaic devices. The investigation centres on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 10 min intervals on clear-sky days. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of both modules. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effects of the spectral variation on the performance of the two photovoltaic modules are reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the late afternoon spectra in each case account for the decreased current collection and hence power and efficiency of both modules. (author)

  3. How could the family-scale photovoltaic module help the poor farmer out of poverty and reduce CO2 emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xu; Jin, Ran

    2016-04-01

    China, the world's most populous country, is facing great opportunities and challenges. On the one hand, China's increasing economy is raising hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. On the other hand, there are still 100 million of whose daily income is less than 1 US dollar. In addition, China is the world's largest solar panel producer and also the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Could we find a feasible way to use solar panels to help the poor and meanwhile reduce CO2 emissions? To do this, we reviewed the literature and investigated the related field sites and institutions in China. Results show that the extension of family-scale photovoltaic modules to countryside could help. The 3 kW-module is recommended for widely distribution because its technology is mature and the cost is relatively low (3500 US dollars). Besides their own use to improve their living standard, farmers can sell the excess electricity to the grid at the price of 0.17 UD/kWh. The farmer's annual income could be increased by 460-615 US dollars by selling electricity, and this is equivalent to half of their annual income in many rural regions. The photovoltaic module can be used for 25 years and the payback period is 7 years. In addition to its economic benefit, the photovoltaic module can reduce CO2 emissions by 0.93 kg/kWh. This is equivalent to annual reduction of 3000-4000 kg CO2 per family. Therefore, it is concluded that the family-scale photovoltaic module not only can help the farmers out of poverty but also can reduce CO2 emissions significantly. To promote its sustainable development, it is worthwhile to further investigations its business models as well as the effects of long-term support policies under different social and nature conditions.

  4. CdTe Solar Cells: The Role of Copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Da [Arizona State University; Akis, Richard [Arizona State University; Brinkman, Daniel [Arizona State University; Sankin, Igor [First Solar; Fang, Tian [First Solar; Vasileska, Dragica [Arizona State University; Ringhofer, Christain [Arizona State University

    2014-06-06

    In this work, we report on developing 1D reaction-diffusion solver to understand the kinetics of p-type doping formation in CdTe absorbers and to shine some light on underlying causes of metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cell has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport and Poisson equation. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of Cu diffusion anneal time showing pronounced effect the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results suggest strong potential of the approach in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic device.

  5. Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, A. [Scientific and Technological Department, University of Verona, Ca' Vignal 2, Strada Delle Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Khrypunov, G. [National Technical University, 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Galassini, S. [Medicine and Public Health Department, University of Verona, Ca' Vignal 2, Strada Delle Grazie, 37134 Verona (Italy); Zogg, H. [Thin Film Physics Group, Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Tiwari, A.N. [Thin Film Physics Group, Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Technology (CREST), Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-22

    We present a different back contact for CdTe solar cell by the application of only a transparent conducting oxide (TCO), typically ITO, as a back electrical contact on all-PVD CdTe/CdS photovoltaic devices that acts as a free-Cu stable back contact and at the same time allows to realize bifacial CdTe solar cells, which can be illuminated from either or both sides. Also devices with thin CdTe layers (from {proportional_to}2 {mu}m down to 1 {mu}m) have been prepared to improve the conversion efficiency on the back side illumination, which is limited by the collection of carriers far away from the junction and to reduce the amount of material in the CdTe device. Reproducible solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency on the front side illumination and exceeding 3% on the back side illumination are reported. (author)

  6. 26+ Year Old Photovoltaic Power Plant: Degradation and Reliability Evaluation of Crystalline Silicon Modules -- South Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakonu, Kolapo

    As the use of photovoltaic (PV) modules in large power plants continues to increase globally, more studies on degradation, reliability, failure modes, and mechanisms of field aged modules are needed to predict module life expectancy based on accelerated lifetime testing of PV modules. In this work, a 26+ year old PV power plant in Phoenix, Arizona has been evaluated for performance, reliability, and durability. The PV power plant, called Solar One, is owned and operated by John F. Long's homeowners association. It is a 200 kW dc, standard test conditions (STC) rated power plant comprised of 4000 PV modules or frameless laminates, in 100 panel groups (rated at 175 kW ac). The power plant is made of two center-tapped bipolar arrays, the north array and the south array. Due to a limited time frame to execute this large project, this work was performed by two masters students (Jonathan Belmont and Kolapo Olakonu) and the test results are presented in two masters theses. This thesis presents the results obtained on the south array and the other thesis presents the results obtained on the north array. Each of these two arrays is made of four sub arrays, the east sub arrays (positive and negative polarities) and the west sub arrays (positive and negative polarities), making up eight sub arrays. The evaluation and analyses of the power plant included in this thesis consists of: visual inspection, electrical performance measurements, and infrared thermography. A possible presence of potential induced degradation (PID) due to potential difference between ground and strings was also investigated. Some installation practices were also studied and found to contribute to the power loss observed in this investigation. The power output measured in 2011 for all eight sub arrays at STC is approximately 76 kWdc and represents a power loss of 62% (from 200 kW to 76 kW) over 26+ years. The 2011 measured power output for the four south sub arrays at STC is 39 kWdc and represents a power

  7. Development of a tracer for characteristic curves of photovoltaic modules; Desenvolvimento de um tracador de curvas caracteristicas de modulos fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparin, Fabiano Perin

    2009-03-15

    The direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy by means of the photovoltaic effect is a reliable way to generate electricity. The increasing number of photovoltaic installations in the last decade has proved its viability when stimulated by appropriate incentive programs. Photovoltaic cells and modules have peculiar electrical features and the measurement of the characteristic I-V (current - voltage) curve is essential to determine the device's quality. Besides it provides parameters for dimensioning and estimating electricity generation. This work presents the development of a system designed to trace the I-V curve of photovoltaic modules. The system has a four quadrant power supply to polarize the module, two multimeters for measuring I-V pairs of the characteristic curve, one multimeter to measure solar irradiance using a monocrystalline silicon reference cell and one multimeter to measure the module temperature using a Pt100. The system is managed by a program developed in Visual Basic which sends commands to the instruments via a USB - GPIB interface. The system limits are {+-} 100 V and {+-} 10 A, limited by the power supply range. The sweeping voltage is a ramp waveform and it is also programmable by the software. The system can measure 2000 points in each curve and the acquisition time of each point is limited to 50 us. While tracing the characteristic curve, solar irradiance is simultaneously measured. The system is working efficiently and the number of measured points allows studies to obtain precise parameters. The triggering method assures simultaneously measurements of the I-V pair. The use of Windows operational system allows flexibility and simplicity when dealing with the data in post processing software. (author)

  8. Characterization and Analysis of Photovoltaic Modules and the Solar Resource Based on In-Situ Measurements in Southern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanov, Georgi Hristov

    2012-01-01

    In broad terms, this thesis is concerned with outdoor testing of individual photovoltaic (PV) modules and characterization of the solar resource in Southern Norway. The work aims to evaluate the irradiance and temperature dependency of the efficiency for various types of PV technology (mostly crystalline-silicon, c-Si), and to get insight into and explain using device physics the performance differences within the generic c-Si class which have been reported in the literature. In addition, the...

  9. Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre Bergés, Santiago; Nofuentes Garrido, Gustavo; Torres Ramirez, Miquel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch Murillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the degradation of thin-film single junction a-Si photovoltaic (PV) modules and its impact on the output power of a PV array under outdoor long term exposure located in Jaén (Spain), a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate is addressed in this paper. Furthermore, a new procedure of solar cell model parameters extraction experimentally validated is presented. The parameter extraction procedure allows obtaining main model parameters of the...

  10. Influence of Meteorological Parameters on the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Module in Some Cities in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omubo-Pepple V. B; Tamunobereton-ari I; Briggs-Kamara M. A

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the investigation of some metrological parameters on the efficiency of photovoltaic module in some areas in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Results obtained show that efficiency of solar panel is directly proportional to solar flux and output current. Also, that increase in solar flux results to increase in output current of solar panel and enhance efficiency. It was also observed that relative humidity reduces output current and increases efficiency.

  11. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, S. P.; Johnson, S. X.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes work performed under a three-phase subcontract. The objectives of the program include (1) achievement of active-area efficiencies of greater than 14% on small cells; (2) achievement of aperture-area efficiencies of greater than 13% on 0.09-sq m (1 sq ft) modules; (3) achievement of aperture-area efficiencies of greater than 12.5% on 0.37-sq m (4 sq ft) modules; and achievement of greater than 20-year module life (based on life testing extrapolations) with no greater than 10% efficiency degradation. The results obtained and described herein include the following: (1) efficiencies of 12.7% were achieved on small-area devices; (2) 0.09-sq m(1 sq ft) modules achieved greater than 8% aperture-area efficiency, but work for further efficiency improvement was redirected toward the 0.37-sq m(4 sq ft) modules; (3) 0.37-sq m (4 sq ft) modules achieved 26.5-W output, which calculates to 8.0% aperture-area efficiency; (4) consistent prototype production was focused on and substantially achieved within Phase 2; (5) life testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory showed no inherent stability problems with the CdTe technology, and the accuracy of module measurement was satisfactorily resolved; and (6) a 'cradle-to-cradle' recycling program was begun based upon the philosophy that the establishment of such mechanisms will be required to ensure maximum recapture and recycling of all manufacturing waste materials and/or modules returned from the field.

  12. A Differential Evolution Based MPPT Method for Photovoltaic Modules under Partial Shading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Soon Tey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially shaded photovoltaic (PV modules have multiple peaks in the power-voltage (P-V characteristic curve and conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm, such as perturbation and observation (P&O, which is unable to track the global maximum power point (GMPP accurately due to its localized search space. Therefore, this paper proposes a differential evolution (DE based optimization algorithm to provide the globalized search space to track the GMPP. The direction of mutation in the DE algorithm is modified to ensure that the mutation always converges to the best solution among all the particles in the generation. This helps to provide the rapid convergence of the algorithm. Simulation of the proposed PV system is carried out in PSIM and the results are compared to P&O algorithm. In the hardware implementation, a high step-up DC-DC converter is employed to verify the proposed algorithm experimentally on partial shading conditions, load variation, and solar intensity variation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to converge to the GMPP within 1.2 seconds with higher efficiency than P&O.

  13. A pulse-width modulated, high reliability charge controller for small photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, K. [Morningstar Corp., Olney, MD (United States); Welsh, D. [Morningstar Corp., Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of a development effort to design, test and begin production of a new class of small photovoltaic (PV) charge controllers. Sandia National Laboratories provided technical support, test data and financial support through a Balance-of-System Development contract. One of the objectives of the development was to increase user confidence in small PV systems by improving the reliability and operating life of the system controllers. Another equally important objective was to improve the economics of small PV systems by extending the battery lifetimes. Using new technology and advanced manufacturing techniques, these objectives were accomplished. Because small stand-alone PV systems account for over one third of all PV modules shipped, the positive impact of improving the reliability and economics of PV systems in this market segment will be felt throughout the industry. The results of verification testing of the new product are also included in this report. The initial design goals and specifications were very aggressive, but the extensive testing demonstrates that all the goals were achieved. Production of the product started in May at a rate of 2,000 units per month. Over 40 Morningstar distributors (5 US and 35 overseas) have taken delivery in the first 2 months of shipments. Initial customer reactions to the new controller have been very favorable.

  14. Standard Specification for Steel Blades Used with the Photovoltaic Module Surface Cut Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This specification specifies the recommended physical characteristics of the steel blades required for the surface cut test described in ANSI/UL 1703 (Section 24) and IEC 61730-2 (Paragraph 10.3). 1.2 ANSI/UL 1703 and IEC 61730-2 are standards for photovoltaic module safety testing. 1.3 This standard provides additional fabrication details for the surface cut test blades that are not provided in ANSI/UL 1703 or IEC 61730-2. Surface cut test blades that have out-of-tolerance corner radii or burrs are known to cause erroneous test results, either passes or failures. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. CPV for the rooftop market: novel approaches to tracking integration in photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-03-01

    Concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) has long been recognized as an effective approach to enabling the use of high cost, high-efficiency solar cells for enhanced solar energy conversion, but is excluded from the domestic rooftop market due to the requirement that solar concentrators track the sun. This market may be opened up by integrating of the tracking mechanism into the module itself. Tracking integration may take the form of a miniaturization of a conventional tracking apparatus, or optical tracking, in which tracking is achieved through variation of optical properties such as refractive index or transparency rather than mechanical movement of the receiver. We have demonstrated a simple system using a heat-responsive transparency switching material to create a moving aperture that tracks the position of a moving light spot. We use this behavior to create a concentrating light trap with a moving aperture that reactively tracks the sun. Taking the other approach, we have fabricated 3D-printed parabolic mini-concentrators which can track the sun using small motors in a low-profile geometry. We characterize the performance of the concentrators and consider the impact of tracking integration on the broader PV market.

  16. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  17. Study of the thermal behaviour of grid connected photovoltaic modules for anticipating their on-site electric production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework of this study is the field performance assessment of grid connected photovoltaic modules. The efficiency of crystalline silicon modules under field conditions decreases linearly with their operating temperature, compared to the efficiency under standard test conditions (STC). Hence, neither the peak power nor the efficiency at STC is representative of the mean operating performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a model for the PV modules thermal behaviour, which may easily be implemented in field performance assessment prediction methods. The model delivers an estimate of mean module temperature over the whole plane-of-array irradiance range, which is a parameter of the site profile description of local climates. The wind speed probability density function enables taking the average solution of the module energy balance equation. A quantification of thermal losses is achieved by empirical optimization of phenomenological models. Supposing that wind speed and solar irradiance might be considered independent as stochastic variables eventually delivers a characterization of local climate by energy-weighted averages of meteorological parameters. The experimental study of a 1.1 kWp roof mounted photovoltaic systems illustrates and validates the proposed models. (author)

  18. Detection of acid moisture in photovoltaic modules using a dual wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Takashi; Iwami, Kentaro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro; Masuda, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The formation of acetic acid via the penetration of moisture into ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) in photovoltaic (PV) modules is cited as the main reason for PV modules’ degradation. Currently, there is no effective method for detecting acetic moisture in PV modules. We proposed a simple method for detecting acid moisture in PV modules using a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive dye that measures pH by the ratio of the intensities of two peaks in the fluorescence spectra of the dye. We detected the pH change caused by acetic acid with the change in the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectra of the dried dye. Furthermore, we observed that the dry fluorescent dye is heat resistant to withstand the lamination process for the manufacturing of PV modules, and has good long-term durability.

  19. First principles modeling of grain boundaries in CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Maria K. Y.; Sen, Fatih; Buurma, Christopher; Paulauskas, Tadas; Sun, Ce; Kim, Moon; Klie, Robert

    The role of extended defects is of significant interest for semiconductors, especially photovoltaics since energy conversion efficiencies are often affected by such defects. In particular, grain boundaries in CdTe photovoltaics are enigmatic since the achievable efficiencies of CdTe photovoltaics are higher in polycrystalline devices as compared to single crystalline devices. Yet, despite recent advances, the efficiency of poly-CdTe devices are still substantially below the theoretical maximum. We carry out an atomistic-level study using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), together with first principles density functional theory (DFT) modeling, in order to understand the properties of specific bicrystals, i.e. artificial grain boundaries, constructed using wafer bonding. We discuss examples of bicrystals, including some involving large scale DFT calculations, and trends in defect and electronic properties. This work was funded by DOE SunShot BRIDGE program.

  20. Chemical treatment of crystalline silicon solar cells as a method of recovering pure silicon from photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic technology is used worldwide to provide reliable and cost-effective electricity for industrial, commercial, residential and community applications. The average lifetime of PV modules can be expected to be more than 25 years. The disposal of PV systems will become a problem in view of the continually increasing production of PV modules. These can be recycled for about the same cost as their disposal. Photovoltaic modules in crystalline silicon solar cells are made from the following elements, in order of mass: glass, aluminium frame, EVA copolymer transparent hermetising layer, photovoltaic cells, installation box, Tedlar registered protective foil and assembly bolts. From an economic point of view, taking into account the price and supply level, pure silicon, which can be recycled from PV cells, is the most valuable construction material used. Recovering pure silicon from damaged or end-of-life PV modules can lead to economic and environmental benefits. Because of the high quality requirement for the recovered silicon, chemical processing is the most important stage of the recycling process. The chemical treatment conditions need to be precisely adjusted in order to achieve the required purity level of the recovered silicon. For PV systems based on crystalline silicon, a series of etching processes was carried out as follows: etching of electric connectors, anti-reflective coating and n-p junction. The chemistry of etching solutions was individually adjusted for the different silicon cell types. Efforts were made to formulate a universal composition for the etching solution. The principal task at this point was to optimise the etching temperature, time and alkali concentration in such a way that only as much silicon was removed as necessary. (author)

  1. Photovoltaic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell module including a plurality of serially connected photovoltaic cells on a common substrate, each including a first electrode, a printed light-harvesting layer and a printed second electrode, wherein at least one of the electrodes is transparent, and wherein the second electrode...... of a first cell is printed such that it forms an electrical contact with the first electrode of an adjacent second cell without forming an electrical contact with the first electrode of the first cell or the light-harvesting layer of the second cell, and a method of making such photovoltaic cell...

  2. High-Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells: Highlights and Challenges; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noufi, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-05-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have the potential to reach cost-effective PV-generated electricity. These technologies have transitioned from the laboratory to the market place. Pilot production and first-time manufacturing are ramping up to higher capacity and enjoying a flood of venture-capital funding. CIGS solar cells and modules have achieved 19.5% and 13% efficiencies, respectively. Likewise, CdTe cells and modules have reached 16.5% and 10.2% efficiencies, respectively. Even higher efficiencies from the laboratory and from the manufacturing line are only a matter of time. Manufacturing-line yield continues to improve and is surpassing 85%. Long-term stability has been demonstrated for both technologies; however, some failures in the field have also been observed, emphasizing the critical need for understanding degradation mechanisms and packaging options. The long-term potential of the two technologies require R&D emphasis on science and engineering-based challenges to find solutions to achieve targeted cost-effective module performance, and in-field durability. Some of the challenges are common to both, e.g., in-situ process control and diagnostics, thinner absorber, understanding degradation mechanisms, protection from water vapor, and innovation in high-speed processing and module design. Other topics are specific to the technology, such as lower-cost and fast-deposition processes for CIGS, and improved back contact and voltage for CdTe devices.

  3. Détermination des Paramètres, Performances et Etude de la Dégradation des Modules Photovoltaïques en milieu saharien

    OpenAIRE

    SADOK, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    L’utilisation, à grande échelle de la conversion photovoltaïque, est tributaire de certains facteurs technicoéconomiques liés, particulièrement, au générateur photovoltaïque. D’une part, il est l’élément le plus cher d’une chaîne photovoltaïque. D’autre part, les performances du système photovoltaïque entier en dépendent. Pour cela, les travaux, entrepris dans cette étude, sont axés vers l’analyse du fonctionnement du module photovoltaïque. Comme, le Sahara algérien représente un ...

  4. Research on polycrystalline thin-film materials, cells, and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.L.; Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.

    1990-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports research activities in polycrystalline thin films through the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). This program includes research and development (R D) in both copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films for photovoltaic applications. The objective of this program is to support R D of photovoltaic cells and modules that meet the DOE long-term goals of high efficiency (15%--20%), low cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and reliability (30-year life time). Research carried out in this area is receiving increased recognition due to important advances in polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules. These have become the leading thin-film materials for photovoltaics in terms of efficiency and stability. DOE has recognized this potential through a competitive initiative for the development of CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe modules. This paper focuses on the recent progress and future directions of the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program and the status of the subcontracted research on these promising photovoltaic materials. 26 refs., 12 figs, 1 tab.

  5. Research on polycrystalline thin-film materials, cells, and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. L.; Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H. S.

    1990-11-01

    DOE supports research activities in polycrystalline thin films through the Polycrystalline Thin Film Program. This program includes includes R and D in both copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films for photovoltaic applications. The objective is to support R and D of photovoltaic cells and modules that meet the DOE long term goals of high efficiency (15 to 20 percent), low cost ($50/sq cm), and reliability (30-year life time). Research carried out in this area is receiving increased recognition due to important advances in polycrystalline thin film CuInSe2 and CdTe solar cells and modules. These have become the leading thin film materials for photovoltaics in terms of efficiency and stability. DOE has recognized this potential through a competitive initiative for the development of CuInSe(sub 2) and CdTe modules. The recent progress and future directions are studied of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Program and the status of the subcontracted research on these promising photovoltaic materials.

  6. 77 FR 63788 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR 17439... Critical Circumstances, 77 FR 5487 (February 3, 2012) (Preliminary Critical Circumstances Determination... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into...

  7. 77 FR 10478 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... letter from Changzhou Trina Solar Energy Co., Ltd., regarding, ``Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells... the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 76 FR 81914 (December 29, 2011). \\2\\ See Crystalline Silicon... Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 4764 (January...

  8. Efficiency and annual power production of photovoltaic modules; Wirkungsgrad und jaehrliche Strom-Produktion von Photovoltaik-Modulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm Durisch, W. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mayor, J.-C. [previously PSI, Ackerstrasse, Nussbaumen (Switzerland); Lam, K. H. [The University of Hong Kong, Dept. of Architecture, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2007-06-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on an outdoor test facility that was erected at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. It consists of a sun-tracker and a PC-based measurement system. The sun-tracker is used to orient test modules continuously towards the sun. The measurement system is designed for the automatic acquisition of current / voltage characteristics of photovoltaic modules, from which their efficiency is determined. The paper describes tests performed under constant irradiation and various module temperatures, thus allowing the temperature coefficient of the efficiency to be determined. Figures on the efficiencies of three commercially-available panels are presented for different irradiance levels. The results are presented in graphical form and commented on.

  9. Effects of light illumination during damp/dry heat tests on a flexible thin film photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Keiichiro; Takano, Akihiro; Takani, Masayoshi; Masuda, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    Current injected damp heat (CDH) test have been reported to accelerate certain type of long-term degradation observed in at least one prototype flexible thin film silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules deployed in field [1]. This report have raised a question that whether conventional DH tests should be combined with current injection or light illumination to better reproduce long-time degradations of flexible thin film modules. To answer this question, we have been testing multiple flexible products available in the market, as part of the activities of Japanese Task Group 8 of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) [2]. Here, we present some results of our damp (or dry) heat testing with light illumination on a flexible CIGS module product with relatively poor moisture barriers.

  10. Benefit Analysis on Cleaning Photovoltaic Module Surface of Building Integrated Photovoltaic%光伏建筑一体化光伏组件表面清洁的效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田智华; 段凯

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes importance of cleaning photovoltaic module surface of building integrated photovoltaic,and summarizes detail requirements of building integrated photovoltaic ministerial standards on cleaning photovoltaic module surface.On the basis of test result of a project,comparative analysis effect on transfer efficiency,economic indicators,and environmental indicators of cleaning before and after photovoltaic module surface.%本文首先分析光伏建筑一体化中光伏组件清洁的重要性,分析国家现有光伏建筑一体化标准对太阳能光伏组件清洁和维护的具体要求,结合某实际项目的测试结果,对比分析该项目光伏组件清洗前后对系统转换效率、经济指标和环境指标的影响。

  11. CdTe polycrystalline films on Ni foil substrates by screen printing and their photoelectric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The sintered CdTe polycrystalline films by a simple screen printing. • The flexible Ni foil was chose as substrates to reduce the weight of the electrode. • The compact CdTe film was obtained at 550 °C sintering temperature. • The photoelectric activity of the CdTe polycrystalline films was excellent. - Abstract: CdTe polycrystalline films were prepared on flexible Ni foil substrates by sequential screen printing and sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere for the first time. The effect of temperature on the quality of the screen-printed film was investigated in our work. The high-quality CdTe films were obtained after sintering at 550 °C for 2 h. The properties of the sintered CdTe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and UV–visible spectroscopy. The high-quality CdTe films have the photocurrent was 2.04 mA/cm2, which is higher than that of samples prepared at other temperatures. Furthermore, CdCl2 treatment reduced the band gap of the CdTe film due to the larger grain size. The photocurrent of photoelectrode based on high crystalline CdTe polycrystalline films after CdCl2 treatment improved to 2.97 mA/cm2, indicating a potential application in photovoltaic devices

  12. INTEGRATIION STYDY OF CdTe THIN FILMS PV MODULE%CdTe组件集成结构模拟优化及前、背电极接触电阻测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪灵; 曾广根; 蔡伟; 冯良桓; 张静全; 蔡亚平; 武莉莉; 李卫; 黎兵; 雷智; 郑家贵

    2011-01-01

    设计特定的测试结构,测量CdTe太阳电池组件的相邻单元电池的前电极与背电极的接触电阻,研究接触电阻与激光刻蚀刻痕的关系;使用module design simulator软件模拟分析相关膜层电子学性质、集成结构、单元电池性能对电池组件性能的影响.对CdTe电池组件接触电阻测量结果表明:随Ni层厚度增加,接触电阻减小,镍电极镀层较厚(410nm)时,接触电阻在10-3Ω·cm2数量级;加宽刻痕宽度使接触电阻略有下降;基频刻蚀CdTe层所得刻痕的接触电阻比倍频刻蚀高1~2个数量级.module design simulator软件模拟分析结果表明:CdTe薄膜太阳电池组件性能除与单元电池性能参数(转换效率、填充因子、短路电流、开路电压)相关外,单元电池宽度、TCO层方块电阻(或透过率)、CdTe层方块电阻、集成接触区接触电阻都对电池组件的性能存在影响.%The CdTe thin films PV module had been studied by measuring the contact resistance between the back contact metal and the front TCO film of the adjacent elementary cells. The "MODULE DESIGN SIMULATOR" software had been used to simulate the effects of the film electronic performance, the integration structure, and the contact elementary cell characteristics on module characteristics. The contact resistance decreases with the increasing of the thickness of Ni film. And the contact resistance increases 1 -2 orders of magnitude when the CdTe films were etched by basic frequency laser. The highest efficiency corresponds with the optimized cell width and the width of the notches. The unit cell width, sheet resistance of TCO & CdTe, and TCO/Ni contact resistance have great effect on the property of the module, respectively. With the increasing of TCO sheet resistance, the conversion efficiency firstly increase sharply and then decrease slowly. Increasing the sheet resistance of CdTe will lead to the increasing of both conversion efficiency and fill factor.

  13. Photovoltaic solar cell from low-cost thin-film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : One of the main hindrances of using solar energy for electrical power supply is the high initial cost. Thin-film technologies hold considerable promise for substantial cost reduction for photovoltaic solar cells. The paper reviews the present state of the most advanced thin-film technologies. Amorphous silicon solar cells have surmounted the barrier to mass production. Pilot manufacturing lines are under construcion for CdTe thin-film module. Cu(In, Ga)Se2 has reached a record efficiency of 18.8 percent in the laboratory and pilot productions have benn announced by various companies

  14. Photovoltaic solar cell from low-cost thin-film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main hindrances of using solar energy for electrical power supply is the high initial cost. Thin-film technologies hold considerable promise for substantial cost reduction for photovoltaic solar cells. The paper reviews the present state of the most advanced thin-film technologies. Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells have surmounted the barrier to mass production. Pilot manufacturing lines are under construction for CdTe thin-film module. Cu(In, Ga)Se2 has reached a record efficiency of 18.8 percent in the laboratory and pilot productions have been announced by various companies

  15. Advances in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Bruce R.; Armstrong, Joseph H.; Misra, Mohan S.

    1994-01-01

    Polycrystalline, thin-film photovoltaics represent one of the few (if not the only) renewable power sources which has the potential to satisfy the demanding technical requirements for future space applications. The demand in space is for deployable, flexible arrays with high power-to-weight ratios and long-term stability (15-20 years). In addition, there is also the demand that these arrays be produced by scalable, low-cost, high yield, processes. An approach to significantly reduce costs and increase reliability is to interconnect individual cells series via monolithic integration. Both CIS and CdTe semiconductor films are optimum absorber materials for thin-film n-p heterojunction solar cells, having band gaps between 0.9-1.5 ev and demonstrated small area efficiencies, with cadmium sulfide window layers, above 16.5 percent. Both CIS and CdTe polycrystalline thin-film cells have been produced on a laboratory scale by a variety of physical and chemical deposition methods, including evaporation, sputtering, and electrodeposition. Translating laboratory processes which yield these high efficiency, small area cells into the design of a manufacturing process capable of producing 1-sq ft modules, however, requires a quantitative understanding of each individual step in the process and its (each step) effect on overall module performance. With a proper quantification and understanding of material transport and reactivity for each individual step, manufacturing process can be designed that is not 'reactor-specific' and can be controlled intelligently with the design parameters of the process. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the current efforts at MMC to develop large-scale manufacturing processes for both CIS and CdTe thin-film polycrystalline modules. CIS cells/modules are fabricated in a 'substrate configuration' by physical vapor deposition techniques and CdTe cells/modules are fabricated in a 'superstrate configuration' by wet chemical

  16. Design of a thin film CdTe solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, P.V.

    1988-01-15

    Cadmium telluride was originally considered for thin film solar cells because of its optimum band gap, high optical absorption coefficient and ability to be doped. Furthermore, it is a stable compound which can be produced by a wide variety of methods from stable raw materials. As thin film photovoltaics mature, however, it is clear that several more subtle attributes have a significant impact on the viability of commercialization. We discuss the observations which have provided insight and direction to Ametek's CdTe solar cell program. Rather than try to modify the inherent material properties of CdTe, advances have been made by designing a solar cell that exploits existing properties. Specifically, the tendency to self-compensate, which makes low resistance contacting difficult, is turned into an advantage in the n-i-p configuration; the CdTe provides an intrinsic layer with good carrier collection efficiency.

  17. High-efficiency one-sun photovoltaic module demonstration using solar-grade CZ silicon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This work was performed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) and Siemens Solar Industries (Camarillo, CA) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA 1248). The work covers the period May 1994 to March 1996. The purpose of the work was to explore the performance potential of commercial, photovoltaic-grade Czochralski (Cz) silicon, and to demonstrate this potential through fabrication of high-efficiency cells and a module. Fabrication of the module was omitted in order to pursue further development of advanced device structures. The work included investigation of response of the material to various fabrication processes, development of advanced cell structures using the commercial material, and investigation of the stability of Cz silicon solar cells. Some important achievements of this work include the following: post-diffusion oxidations were found to be a possible source of material contamination; bulk lifetimes around 75 pts were achieved; efficiencies of 17.6% and 15.7% were achieved for large-area cells using advanced cell structures (back-surface fields and emitter wrap-through); and preliminary investigations into photodegradation in Cz silicon solar cells found that oxygen thermal donors might be involved. Efficiencies around 20% should be possible with commercial, photovoltaic-grade silicon using properly optimized processes and device structures.

  18. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

  19. Relationship between cross-linking conditions of ethylene vinyl acetate and potential induced degradation for crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonai, Sachiko; Hara, Kohjiro; Tsutsui, Yuji; Nakahama, Hidenari; Masuda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship in crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules between the cross-linking level of copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) as the encapsulant and the degree of degradation due to potential induced degradation (PID) phenomenon. We used three methods for the determination of cross-linking level of EVA: xylene method, which is one of the solvent extraction methods (SEM), curing degree by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and viscoelastic properties by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results indicate that degradation of PV modules by PID test depends on the cross-linking level of EVA. The PV modules encapsulated by EVA with higher cross-linking level show lower degradation degree due to PID phenomenon. Also we showed that EVA with higher cross-linking level tended to be higher volume resistivity. This tendency is similar to that for electrical resistance value during the PID test. The PID test was also done by changing thickness of EVA between front cover glass and c-Si with the same cross-linking level. The PV modules encapsulated by thicker EVA between front cover glass and c-Si cell show lower degradation by PID. From these results, the PV modules encapsulated by EVA with higher cross-linking level, higher volume resistivity and increased thickness would be tolerant of PID phenomenon.

  20. Multilayer perceptron applied to the estimation of the influence of the solar spectral distribution on thin-film photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multilayer perceptrons are used to simulate the I–V curve of thin-film PV modules. • APE from the spectral irradiance was added as an input variable to the network. • A self-organised map is used to select the curves used for training the network. • Curve error and maximum power error decrease when using this technique. • This method could provide accurate estimation of the output of a PV plant. - Abstract: In this paper, we propose the use of a methodology to characterise the electrical parameters of several thin-film photovoltaic module technologies. This methodology allows us to use not only solar irradiance and module temperature as classical models do, but also spectral distribution of solar radiation. The methodology is based on the use of neural network models. From all measured I–V curves of a module, a previous selection of them has been used in order to train the neural network model. This selection is performed using a Kohonen self-organising map fed with spectral data. This spectral information has been added as an input to the neural network itself. The results show that the incorporation of spectral measurements to simulate thin-film modules improves significantly both the fitting of the predicted I–V curve to the measured one and the peak power point estimation

  1. Operating Cell Temperature Determination in Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules; Calculo de la Temperature de Operacion de Celulas Solares en un Panel Fotovoltaico Plano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenlo, F.

    2002-07-01

    Two procedures (simplified and complete) to determine the operating cell temperature in photovoltaic modules operating in real conditions assuming isothermal stationary modules are presented in this work. Some examples are included that show the dependence of this temperature on several environment (sky, ground and ambient temperatures, solar irradiance, wind speed, etc.) and structural (module geometry and size, encapsulating materials, antirreflexive optical coatings, etc) factors and also on electrical module performance. In a further step temperature profiles for non-isothermal modules are analysed besides transitory effects due to variable irradiance and wind gusts. (Author)

  2. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  3. 76 FR 81914 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigation, 76 FR 70966 (November 16, 2011). Postponement of Due Date for the Preliminary... Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice is issued and published pursuant to section 703(c)(2) of... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into...

  4. 77 FR 17439 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Photovoltaic Cells from China, Investigation Nos. 701 TA-481 and 731-TA-1190, Preliminary, 76 FR 78313..., From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 76 FR 70966... producers/exporters and selected Changzhou Trina Solar Energy Co., Ltd. (Trina Solar) and Wuxi Suntech...

  5. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE ELECTRIC PROPERTIES ON MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRAJECTORY WITH THE AIM OF ITS ALIGNMENT WITH ELECTROLYZER U-I CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Firak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to combine a photovoltaic module and an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen from water, an intermediate DC/DC converter can be used to adapt output power features of the module to input power features of the electrolyzer. This can also be done without using electronics, which results in saving as much as 700 USD/kW, as previous investigation has shown. A more sophisticated investigation should be carried out with the aim of improving high system efficiency, resulting in matching the photovoltaic module maximum power point trajectory (the maximum power point path in the U-I plane as a result of solar irradiance change to the operating characteristic of the electrolyzer. This paper presents an analysis of the influences of photovoltaic module electric properties, such as series and parallel resistance and non-ideality factor, on the maximum power point trajectory at different levels of solar irradiance. The possibility of various inclinations (right - vertical - left in relation to an arbitrary chosen operating characteristic of the electrolyzer is also demonstrated. Simulated results are obtained by using Matlab/Simulink simulations of the well known one-diode model. Simulations have been confirmed with experiments on a real photovoltaic module where solar irradiance, solar cell temperature, electric current, and voltage in the circuit with variable ohmic resistance have been measured.

  6. Poly CdTe thin films solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfaing, Y.

    1982-01-01

    CdTe is potentially one of the most interesting materials for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. The width of its forbidden band of 1.5 eV puts it to the maximum of the theoretical yield curve (24%). Its high coefficient of optical absorption in the main band allows the use of thin films (2 to 3 microns). It is appropriate for production of thin polycristalline films with good optical and photoelectrical properties, which is probably due to its ionic character. The goal of the research performed as part of this contract is to determine the optimum conditions for the use of CdTe as photovoltaic converter. The authors think that the virtual efficiency of this material calls for confirmation and evidence provided by a systematic and profound investigation.

  7. Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid Device with Different TE Module Structure

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Combining two different types of solar cells with different absorption bands into a hybrid cell is a very useful method to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. The experimental data of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and thermoelectric generators (TEG) was simulated by equivalent circuit method, and some parameters of DSSCs were obtained. Then, the equivalent circuit model with the obtained parameters was used to optimize the structure design of photovoltaic- (PV-) thermoele...

  8. The Possibility of Phase Change Materials (PCM) Usage to Increase Efficiency of the Photovoltaic Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Klugmann-Radziemska Ewa; Wcisło Patrycja; Ryms Michał; Denda Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy is widely available, free and inexhaustible. Furthermore this source of energy is the most friendly to the environment. For direct conversion of solar energy into useful forms like of electricity and thermal energy, respectively photovoltaic cells and solar collectors are being used. Forecast indicate that the first one solution will soon have a significant part in meeting the global energy demand. Therefore it is highly important to increase their efficiency in the terms of prov...

  9. Photovoltaic mounting/demounting unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic arrangement comprising a photovoltaic assembly comprising a support structure defining a mounting surface onto which a photovoltaic module is detachably mounted; and a mounting/demounting unit comprising at least one mounting/demounting apparatus...... which when the mounting/demounting unit is moved along the mounting surface, causes the photovoltaic module to be mounted or demounted to the support structure; wherein the photovoltaic module comprises a carrier foil and wherein a total thickness of the photo voltaic module is below 500 muiotaeta. The...

  10. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

  11. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

  12. Study of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of micromorph silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure in Jaen, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Kichou, Sofiane; Abaslioglu, Elif; Silvestre Bergés, Santiago; Nofuentes Garrido, Gustavo; Torres Ramirez, Miquel; Chouder, Aissa

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the degradation of tandem Micromorph thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) modules and its impact on the output power of a PV array under outdoor long term exposure located in Jaen (Spain) is addressed in this work. Furthermore, the evolution of main solar cell model parameters is evaluated by means of parameters extraction techniques from monitored data of the PV system in real operation of work. The degradation rate and the stabilization period of micromorph TFPV modules are evaluat...

  13. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH`s concentrator module. Final technical report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R. [ENTECH, Inc., Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, TX (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH`s Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  14. Mission profile based multi-disciplinary analysis of power modules in single-phase transformerless photovoltaic inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters in Europe proves that these topologies can achieve higher efficiency (e.g., ≥ 98% has been reported). Along with the advanced power electronics technology and the booming development of PV power systems, a long service time (e.g. 25...... years) has been set as a main target and an emerging demand from the customers, which imposes a new challenge on grid-connected transformerless inverters. In order to reduce maintenance cost, it is essential to predict the lifetime of the transformerless PV inverter and its components based on the...... mission profiles — solar irradiance and ambient temperature. In this paper, a mission profile based analysis approach is proposed and it is demonstrated by three main single-phase transformerless PV inverters — Full-Bridge (FB) with bipolar modulation scheme, the FB inverter with DC bypass (FB...

  15. Thin film CIGS photovoltaic modules: monolithic integration and advanced packaging for high performance, high reliability and low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, thin-film photovoltaic companies started realizing their low manufacturing cost potential, and have been grabbing an increasingly larger market share. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is the most promising thin-film PV material, having demonstrated the highest energy conversion efficiency in both cells and modules. However, most CIGS manufacturers still face the challenge of delivering a reliable and rapid manufacturing process that can scale effectively and deliver on the promise of this material system. HelioVolt has developed a reactive transfer process for CIGS absorber formation that has the benefits of good compositional control, and a fast high-quality CIGS reaction. The reactive transfer process is a two stage CIGS fabrication method. Precursor films are deposited onto substrates and reusable cover plates in the first stage, while in the second stage the CIGS layer is formed by rapid heating with Se confinement. HelioVolt also developed best-in-class packaging technologies that provide unparalleled environmental stability. High quality CIGS films with large grains were fabricated on the production line, and high-performance highreliability monolithic modules with a form factor of 120 cm × 60 cm are being produced at high yield and low cost. With conversion efficiency levels around 14% for cells and 12% for modules, HelioVolt is commercializing the process on its first production line with 20 MW capacity, and is planning its next GW-scale factory.

  16. Trial-Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Deibert, S. L.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat,' 'thermal-cycle,' or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial-run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine four moisture-cured silicones, four foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 degrees C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden (CO), Miami (FL), and Phoenix (AZ) for one year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  17. Photovoltaic structures based on polymer/semiconductor junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamboa, S.A.; Sebastian, P.J.; Calixto, M.E.; Rivera, M.A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Energia Coordinacion de Solar-H2-Celdas de Combustible, CIE-UNAM 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Nguyen-Cong, H.; Chartier, P. [Laboratoire d` Electrochimie et de Chimie Physique du Corps Solide, Faculte de Chimie, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

    1998-07-23

    CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) thin films were electrodeposited and characterized for photovoltaic applications. Schottky barrier-type photovoltaic junctions were obtained using a heavily doped PMeT (poly-3-methylthiophene), prepared by electropolymerization, displaying nearly metallic behavior, and semiconductors such as CdTe and CIS obtained by electrodeposition. The photovoltaic structures formed and studied are Mo/CIS/PMeT/grid and Mo/CdTe/PMeT/grid Schottky barrier junctions. Solar to electrical conversion efficiency of the order of 1% was obtained in the case of PMeT/CIS and PMeT/CdTe junctions

  18. Siemens solar CIS photovoltaic module and system performance at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Willett, D. [Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper evaluates the individual module and array performance of Siemens Solar Industries copper indium diselenide (CIS) polycrystalline thin-film technology. This is accomplished by studying module and array performance over time. Preliminary temperature coefficients for maximum power, maximum-power voltage, maximum-power current, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor are determined at both the module and array level. These coefficients are used to correct module/array performance to 25{degrees}C to evaluate stability. The authors show that CIS exhibits a strong inverse correlation between array power and back-of-module temperature. This is due mainly to the narrow bandgap of the CIS material, which results in a strong inverse correlation between voltage and temperature. They also show that the temperature-corrected module and array performance has been relatively stable over the evaluation interval ({approx}2 years).

  19. MPPT for Photovoltaic Modules via Newton-Like Extremum Seeking Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Leyva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper adapts the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control technique to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic panels. This technique uses the gradient and Hessian of the panel characteristic in order to approximate the operating point to its optimum. The paper describes in detail the gradient and Hessian estimations carried out by means of sinusoidal dithering signals. Furthermore, we compare the proposed technique with the common Extremum Seeking Control that only uses the gradient. The comparison is done by means of PSIM simulations and it shows the different transient behaviors and the faster response of the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control solution.

  20. Evaluation and Field Assessment of Bifacial Photovoltaic Module Power Rating Methodologies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, Chris; MacAlpine, Sara; Marion, Bill; Toor, Fatima; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Stein, Joshua S.

    2016-06-16

    1-sun power ratings for bifacial modules are currently undefined. This is partly because there is no standard definition of rear irradiance given 1000 Wm-2 on the front. Using field measurements and simulations, we evaluate multiple deployment scenarios for bifacial modules and provide details on the amount of irradiance that could be expected. A simplified case that represents a single module deployed under conditions consistent with existing 1-sun irradiance standards leads to a bifacial reference condition of 1000 Wm-2 Gfront and 130-140 Wm-2 Grear. For fielded systems of bifacial modules, Grear magnitude and spatial uniformity will be affected by self-shade from adjacent modules, varied ground cover, and ground-clearance height. A standard measurement procedure for bifacial modules is also currently undefined. A proposed international standard is under development, which provides the motivation for this work. Here, we compare outdoor field measurements of bifacial modules with irradiance on both sides with proposed indoor test methods where irradiance is only applied to one side at a time. The indoor method has multiple advantages, including controlled and repeatable irradiance and thermal environment, along with allowing the use of conventional single-sided flash test equipment. The comparison results are promising, showing that the indoor and outdoor methods agree within 1%-2% for multiple rear-irradiance conditions and bifacial module types.

  1. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2015-04-14

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  2. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2016-01-05

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  3. Simultaneous shunt protection and back contact formation for CdTe solar cells with single wall carbon nanotube layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adam B.; Khanal, Rajendra R.; Song, Zhaoning; Watthage, Suneth C.; Kormanyos, Kenneth R.; Heben, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Thin film photovoltaic (PV) devices and modules prepared by commercial processes can be severely compromised by through-device low resistance electrical pathways. The defects can be due to thin or missing semiconductor material, metal diffusion along grain boundaries, or areas containing diodes with low turn-on potentials. We report the use of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) layers to enable both protection against these defects and back contact formation for CdTe PV devices. Samples prepared with a SWCNT back contact exhibited good efficiency and did not require shunt protection, while devices prepared without shunt protection using a standard metal back contact performed poorly. We describe the mechanism by which the SWCNT layer functions. In addition to avoiding the need for shunt protection by other means, the SWCNT film also provides a route to higher short circuit currents.

  4. Efficiency and degradation of a copper indium diselenide photovoltaic module and yearly output at a sunny site in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work mainly deals with the testing and modeling of a commercially-available copper indium diselenide (CIS) ST40 module from the former Siemens Solar Industries (SSI). For this purpose, a large quantity of current/voltage characteristics were measured in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)'s photovoltaic test-facility under different cell temperatures, solar irradiation and air mass, AM, conditions. They were used to develop a semi-empirical efficiency model to correlate all measured data sets. The goal was to make available a model, allowing quick and accurate calculation of the performance of the CIS module under all relevant operating conditions. For the undegraded state of the module, the efficiency model allowed us to deduce the efficiency at Standard Test Conditions, STC, and its temperature coefficient at STC, which were 11.58% and minus 0.050% deg. C, respectively. The output of the undegraded module under STC was found to be 42.4 W, i.e., 6% higher than specified by the manufacturer (40 W). Furthermore, the efficiency does not decrease with increasing air mass. At a cell temperature of 25 deg. C and a relative air mass of 1.5, the module has a maximum in efficiency of 12.0% at an irradiance of about 650 W/m2. This indicates that the series-resistance losses become significant at higher irradiances. Hence, improving the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrode on the front side of the cells might lead to a higher output at high irradiances. Identical testing and modeling were repeated after having exposed the module to real weather conditions for one year. We found that the STC efficiency was reduced by 9.0%, from 11.58 down to 10.54%. The temperature coefficient of the efficiency had changed from minus 0.050 % deg. C to minus 0.039% deg. C. These results indicate possible chemical changes in the semiconductor film. The output of the module at STC was reduced by 9.0% from 42.4 W down to 38.6 W. Using meteorological data from a sunny site in the

  5. Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrypunov, G. [Kharkov State Polytechnic University, UA-310002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Romeo, A. [Faculty of Science, University of Verona, Ca' Vignal 2, Strada Delle Grazie, 37134 Verona (Italy); Kurdesau, F. [National Academy of Sciences Belarus, Logoysky Tract 22, Minsk 220090 (Belarus); Baetzner, D.L. [The Australian National University, ACTON, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zogg, H.; Tiwari, A.N. [Thin Film Physics Group, Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) Zuerich, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-04-14

    Recent developments in the technology of high vacuum evaporated CdTe solar cells are reviewed. High-efficiency solar cells of efficiencies up to 12.5% have been developed on soda-lime glass substrates with a low-temperature (<450{sup o}C) process. This simple process is suitable for in-line production of large-area solar modules on glass as well as on flexible polymer films with a roll-to-roll deposition process. Flexible and lightweight CdTe solar cells with a record efficiency of 11.4% have been developed in a superstrate configuration, and 3.5% efficiency mini-modules have been realised in a preliminary development. Deposition of high-temperature stable ITO front contact layer on polyimide is important for high-efficiency cells, as the layer should withstand processing steps maintaining its high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Another development is an application of a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) ITO as a back electrical contact on CdTe leading to first bifacial CdTe solar cells, which can be illuminated from either or both sides. Accelerated long-term stability tests show that light soaking improves the efficiency of CdTe solar cells with ITO back contacts and performance does not degrade. Stability of CdTe solar cells has been measured after irradiation with high-energy protons and electrons of different fluences. These solar cells exhibit superior radiation tolerance compared to conventional Si and GaAs solar cells for space applications. Because of extreme stability, and high specific power (kW/kg) of flexible solar cells, CdTe has a promising potential for space applications. (author)

  6. Analyse, Modélisation et Simulation des Pertes dans un Module Photovoltaïque à Base de Silicium Monocristallin

    OpenAIRE

    OULED SALEM, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Les modules photovoltaïques perdent environ 70% de l'énergie qu'ils reçoivent sur leur surface. plusieurs paramètres peuvent entrainer des pertes qui sont principalement causées par les propriétés physiques des matériaux de base du modules, comme l'énergie du gap, indice de réfraction, ou par les matériaux utilisés dans l'encapsulation et le groupement des cellules dans le module afin, de permettre leur utilisation à des tensions et courants pratiques tout en assurant leur isolation électriqu...

  7. State of the Art analysis for the 'SolcelleInverter' project. Optimised design and control of inverter for photovoltaic systems: the AC-module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baekhoej Kjaer, S.

    2002-02-01

    The 'SolcelleInverter' project starts with this state-of-the-art analysis of 27 different inverter topologies for use in photovoltaic applications. The main concern is the present status for inverters for single solar modules. Technologies for larger clusters of modules are also investigated. The possibility of combining a small decentralised and a big centralised unit is as well investigated. A series of topologies are discovered and this paper will present them. That includes solutions with and without transformers, systems for one or multiple modules, commercial solutions and solutions found in scientific papers and patents. (au)

  8. Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, L.

    2012-03-01

    This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

  9. Daily and seasonal performance of angularly dependent fixed mount dual aperture holographic planar concentrator photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Juan M.; Castillo, Jose E.; Aspnes, Eric D.; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Rosenberg, Glenn

    2010-08-01

    Dual aperture holographic planar concentrator (DA-HPC) technology consists of bifacial cells separated by strips of holographic film that diffract the light from the spacing into the cells for direct incident, diffuse, roof-reflected and albedo irradiance. The holographic film is angularly dependent of the seasonal sun angle. DA-HPC modules are compared to single aperture conventional modules for clear and cloudy days as well as for a seasonal period of eight months. Direct-current IV and alternating-current power curves are used to compare modules with comparable silicon active area and cell efficiency.

  10. Reduction of temperature in silicon photovoltaic module using thermal radiation coating

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Satoshi; Nishioka Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    The temperature of solar cells increases under the actual operating conditions, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. In this study, a thermal radiation layer was coated on the back sheet of the PV module by a spray coating method and the effect was evaluated. The thickness of the layer was 30 μm. The temperature of the PV module with the thermal radiation coating was lower than that of the PV module without the thermal radiation coating. And the ...

  11. Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Electrical Performance and Spectral Response of Nonconcentrator Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells and Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide special techniques needed to determine the electrical performance and spectral response of two-terminal, multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices, both cell and modules. 1.2 These test methods are modifications and extensions of the procedures for single-junction devices defined by Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.3 These test methods do not include temperature and irradiance corrections for spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Procedures for such corrections are available in Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.4 These test methods may be applied to cells and modules intended for concentrator applications. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and ...

  12. Standard Test Method for Determining Resistance of Photovoltaic Modules to Hail by Impact with Propelled Ice Balls

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. 1.2 This test method defines test specimens and methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, provides a method for determining changes in electrical performance, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The size of the ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified. This test method can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 This test method may be applied to concentrator and nonconcentrator modules. 1.6 The v...

  13. Fundamental Issues in Manufacturing Photovoltaic Modules Beyond the Current Generation of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Alapatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to improve the solar cell’s efficiency beyond current generation of bulk and thin film of photovoltaic (PV devices have been reported during the last five decades. Concepts such as multiple exciton generations (MEG, carrier multiplication (CM, hot carrier extraction, and intermediate band solar cells have fundamental flaws, and there is no experimental evidence of fabricating practical higher efficiency solar cells based on the proposed concepts. To take advantages of quantum features of nanostructures for higher performance PV devices, self-assembly-based bottom-up processing techniques are not suitable for manufacturing due to inherent problems of variability, defects, reliability, and yield. For processing nanostructures, new techniques need to be invented with the features of critical dimensional control, structural homogeneity, and lower cost of ownership as compared to the processing tools used in current generations of bulk and thin-film solar cells.

  14. Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These

  15. Some tradeoffs in ingot shaping and price of solar photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, T.

    1982-02-01

    Growth of round ingots is cost-effective for sheets but leaves unused space when round cells are packed into a module. This reduces the packing efficiency, which approaches 95% for square cells, to about 78% and reduces the conversion efficiency of the module by the same ratio. Shaping these ingots into squares with regrowth of cut silicon improves the packing factor, but increases growth cost. The cost impact on solar cell modules was determined by considering shaping ingots in stages from full round to complete square. The sequence of module production with relevant price allocation guidelines is outlined. The severe penalties in add-on price due to increasing slice thickness and kerf are presented. Trade-offs between advantages of recycling silicon and shaping costs are developed for different slicing scenarios. It is shown that shaping results in cost saving of up to 21% for a 15 cm dia. ingot.

  16. Low Cost, Light Weight SOlar Modules Based on Organic Photovoltaic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell Gaudiana; David GInley; Robert Birkmeyer

    2009-09-20

    Objectives - In order to produce solar modules for rooftop applications the performance and the lifetime must be improved to 5% - 7% and >10 year life. Task 1 Stability - (1) Flexible modules are stable to 1000 hrs at 65 C/85%RH, (2) Flexible modules in glass are stable to >2000 hrs at 85 C/85%RH (no decrease in performance); (3) Adhesive + filler helps stabilize modules; and (4) Solution coatable barriers exhibit good WVTR; work in-progress. Task 2 Performance: n-type charge carriers - (1) N-type polymers could not be synthesized; and (2) More than 30 fullerene derivatives synthesized and tested, Several deep LUMO derivatives accept charge from deep LUMO polymers, higher voltage observed, Improvement in cell efficiency not observed, morphology problem. Task 3 Performance: grid electrode - (1) Exceeded flatness and roughness goals; (2) Exceeds sheet resistance goals; (3) Achieved %T goals; and (4) Performance equivalent to ITO - 2% Efficiency ( av.); work in-progress.

  17. Characterization and Application of Colloidal Nanocrystalline Materials for Advanced Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Khagendra P.

    Solar energy is Earth's primary source of renewable energy and photovoltaic solar cells enable the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. Crystalline silicon solar cells and modules have dominated photovoltaic technology from the beginning and they now constitute more than 90% of the PV market. Thin film (CdTe and CIGS) solar cells and modules come in second position in market share. Some organic, dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells are emerging in the market but are not yet in full commercial scale. Solar cells made from colloidal nanocrystalline materials may eventually provide both low cost and high efficiency because of their promising properties such as high absorption coefficient, size tunable band gap, and quantum confinement effect. It is also expected that the greenhouse gas emission and energy payback time from nanocrystalline solar PV systems will also be least compared to all other types of PV systems mainly due to the least embodied energy throughout their life time. The two well-known junction architectures for the fabrication of quantum dot based photovoltaic devices are the Schottky junction and heterojunction. In Schottky junction cells, a heteropartner semiconducting material is not required. A low work function metal is used as the back contact, a transparent conducting layer is used as the front contact, and the layer of electronically-coupled quantum dots is placed between these two materials. Schottky junction solar cells explain the usefulness of nanocrystalline materials for high efficiency heterojunction solar cells. For heterojunction devices, n-type semiconducting materials such as ZnO , CdS or TiO2 have been used as suitable heteropartners. Here, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated using ZnO and CdS semiconductor films as window layers. Both of the heteropartners are sputter-deposited onto TCO coated glass substrates; ZnO was deposited with the substrate held at room temperature and for CdS the substrate was at 250

  18. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  19. Science technology of photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Jayarama

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive introductory text covering solar photovoltaic technologies and its increasing number of applications to generate clean energy around the globe. It treats the fundamentals of solar cells, technologies, solar modules and arrays, solar photovoltaic systems, storage batteries, power conditioning, equipment design of solar PV systems, building integrated photovoltaics, system installation, operation and maintenance, manufacturing and worldwide players and markets. Written in a clear style and with multiple illustrations, this volume is intended for students in natural sciences, engi

  20. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual technical report, 1 January 1996--30 June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Two specific objectives of Solarex`s program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. This report highlights accomplishments during the period of January 1 through June 30, 1996. Accomplishments include: began the conversion of production casting stations to increase ingot size; operated the wire saw in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; developed and qualified a new wire guide coating material that doubles the wire guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; completed a third pilot run of the cost-effective Al paste back-surface-field (BSF) process, verifying a 5% increase in cell efficiency and demonstrating the ability to process and handle the BSF paste cells; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; optimized the design of the 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm polycrystalline silicon solar cells; demonstrated the application of a high-efficiency process in making 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm solar cells; demonstrated that cell efficiency increases with decreasing wafer thickness for the Al paste BSF cells; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; and demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers.

  1. Non-destructive determination of ethylene vinyl acetate cross-linking in photovoltaic (PV) modules by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernev, Boril S; Hirschl, Christina; Eder, Gabriele C

    2013-11-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy was found to be a suitable method for the determination of the degree of cross-linking of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymers. Spectral changes in the Raman spectra of EVA with increasing lamination time (which equals increasing degree of cross-linking) were mainly detected in the CH vibrational regions, namely, in the relative intensities of the characteristic CH3 and CH2 bands. These spectral regions were chosen for a chemometric evaluation where a calibration was performed with the Raman spectra of reference EVA samples and the results obtained from corresponding thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry) and Soxhlet extraction data. These datasets were subsequently used to non-destructively determine the progress of cross-linking in EVA foils, embedded in various mini-modules by Raman microscopy. Thus, we could show that Raman spectroscopy is a highly interesting method for quality control in the production of photovoltaic (PV) modules. However, this approach is valid only for a given grade of EVA, meaning a demand for a new calibration when changing the supplier or the type of EVA used. In addition, the applicability of infrared spectroscopy for the determination of the degree of cross-linking was tested. A good correlation of the decrease in intensity of the characteristic cross-linker infrared bands with increasing progress of the cross-linking was found, as determined by reference methods. However, this analytical method requires taking samples of the EVA foils and is, thus, unsuitable for the non-destructive determination of the degree of cross-linking of the EVA encapsulated within a PV module. PMID:24160881

  2. Harnessing the Sun with Thin Film Photovoltaics: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have a substantial role in meeting electric power needs in the next century, especially with an expected competitive position compared to conventional power-generation and other renewable- energy technologies. Thin-film photovoltaic modules based on CdTe, CuInSe2 or Si can potentially be produced by economical, high-volume manufacturing techniques, dramatically reducing component cost. However, the translation of laboratory thin-film technologies to first-time, large-scale manufacturing has been much more difficult than expected. This is due to the complexity of the processes involved for making large-area PV modules at high rates and with high yields, and compounded by the lack of a fundamental scientific and engineering base required to properly engineer and operate manufacturing equipment. In this paper, we discuss the need to develop diagnostics tools and associated predictive models that quantitatively assess processing conditions and pro duct properties. Incorporation of the diagnostic sensors into both laboratory reactors and manufacturing facilities will (1) underpin the development of solar cells with improved efficiency, and (2) accelerate the scale-up process through intelligent process-control schemes. ''Next-generation'' high-performance (e.g., and gt;25% conversion efficiency) thin-film PV modules will also be assessed, along with critical issues associated with their development

  3. Cell interconnection without glueing or soldering for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summhammer, Johann; Halavani, Zahra

    2016-05-01

    In order to maximize the power output of polycrystalline silicon PV-modules, in previous work we have already tested rectangular cells of 39 × 156 mm which are overlapped along the long sides. The low current density at the cell overlap allows interconnections which need neither soldering nor glueing, but use metallic strips inserted between the cells in the overlap region. The contact is established by the pressure applied to the module during lamination and is retained by the slightly bent cells in the solidified encapsulant. Here we report on the long term stability of different contact materials and contact cross sections applied in eight modules of the 240 W class monitored for up to 24 months of outdoor operation and in a variety of small 5-cell modules exposed to rapid ageing tests with up to 1000 thermal cycles. Cells with three different electrode designs were tested and the contact materials were Cu, Ag, SnPbAg and Sn. Focussing especially on series resistance, fill factor and peak power, it is found that Ag-coated contact strips perform equally well and have practically the same stability as soldered cell interconnections. Due to 70-90% savings in copper and simpler manufacturing the cost of PV-modules may thus be reduced further.

  4. Systematic photovoltaic waste recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palitzsch, Wolfram; Loser, Ulrich [Loser Chemie GmbH, Langenweissbach (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    Indium, selenium, tellurium, gallium, molybdenum, cadmium and silicon are some of the major elements used in photovoltaic cells. Fully aware of the limited availability of these metals in future, recycling has been recognized as the most advisable end-of-life strategy to save these raw materials from turning into production wastes. On the other hand, statutory measures such as 'Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz' (the German law encouraging closed-loop economy) aim to achieve a maximum quota of recycling and a minimum use of resources such as energy and raw materials. By the year of 2050, end-of-life photovoltaic panels are anticipated to amount to 9.57 million tons. Although we are not there yet, discussions on recycling have already started. We have to prepare for higher waste volumes expected in the coming years. But already today we need to solve some environmental problems like loss of conventional resources (e.g., glass) and rare metals. All of the known approaches for recycling photovoltaic semiconductor material seem economically and environmentally inefficient. In this paper, we report about reclaiming metals from scrap of thin film systems and associated photovoltaic manufacturing wastes like sandblasting dust and overspray. We also report one universal wet-chemical treatment for reclaiming the metals from CIS, CIGS or CdTe photovoltaic waste. Further, we discuss the application of our method to new PV systems, such as substrates other than glass (stainless steel, aluminum or plastic foil sheets) and alternative semiconductor alloys such as GaAs. (orig.)

  5. Matlab / simulink based study of photovoltaic cells / modules / array and their experimental verification

    OpenAIRE

    Savita Nema, R.K.Nema, Gayatri Agnihotri

    2010-01-01

    A Matlab-Simulink based simulation study of PV cell/PV module/PV array is carried out and presented in this paper. The simulation model makes use of basic circuit equations of PV solar cell based on its behaviour as diode and comprehensive behavioural study is performed under varying conditions of solar insolation, temperature, varying diode model parameters, series and shunt resistance etc. The study is helpful in outlining the principle and intricacies of PV cell/modules and may be used to ...

  6. Modelling the heat dynamics of building integrated and ventilated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friling, N.; Jimenez, M.J.; Bloem, H.;

    2009-01-01

    heat transfer from the PV module. The experiment and data originate from a test reference module the EC-JRC Ispra. The set-up provides the opportunity of changing physical parameters, the ventilation speed and the type of air flow, and this makes it possible to determine the preferable set-up. To...... turbulent, are applied in the set-up combined with high level of air flow. The improved description by the model is mainly seen in periods with high solar radiation....

  7. Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid Device with Different TE Module Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining two different types of solar cells with different absorption bands into a hybrid cell is a very useful method to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. The experimental data of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs and thermoelectric generators (TEG was simulated by equivalent circuit method, and some parameters of DSSCs were obtained. Then, the equivalent circuit model with the obtained parameters was used to optimize the structure design of photovoltaic- (PV- thermoelectric (TE hybrid devices. The output power (Pout first increases to a maximum and then decreases by increasing the TE prism size, and a smaller spacing between p-type prism and n-type prism of a TE p-n junction causes a higher output power of TEG and hybrid device. When the spacing between TE prisms is 15 μm and the optimal base side length of TE prism is 40 μm, the maximum theoretical efficiency reaches 24.6% according to the equivalent circuit analysis. This work would give some enlightenment for the development of high-performance PV-TE hybrid devices.

  8. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  9. A Low Cost System for Testing and Monitoring the Performance of Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU, V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a low cost system for testing and monitoring the performance of PV modules in outdoor conditions. In order to do this, we improved and adapted another measuring system. This system was developed by us and enables us to ensure the performance of the PV module through testing and monitoring, as well as saving collected data to a database. This database can be accessed through a graphical interface on a laptop connected to the system using serial interface. The error sources of this system are reduced to minimum because of human operators interfering with the system only through the graphical user interface. The Two Diode Model with series and parallel resistances was used to estimate the parameters of the electrical equivalent circuit for the PV module. This model will be simulated in CASPOC 2009. The performances of PV module were obtained in outdoor conditions and were saved to the database. They will be compared with the performances obtained through simulation, to prove the efficiency of the model.

  10. Portable and wireless IV-curve tracer for >5 kV organic photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Valverde, Rafael; Chaouki-Almagro, Samir; Corazza, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    The practical design of a wirelessly controlled portable IV-curve tracer based on a capacitive load is described. The design is optimized for the measurement of solar cell modules presenting a high open circuit voltage of up to 6 kV and a low short circuit current below 100 mA. The portable IV...

  11. 77 FR 31309 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ..., Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service Workers International Union to the Department, regarding... Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR 70960...''), namely Wuxi Suntech Power Co., Ltd. (``Wuxi Suntech'') and Changzhou Trina Solar Energy Co.,...

  12. Standardization of the energy performance of photovoltaic modules in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viganó Davide

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a PV module at STC [1] is a useful indicator for comparing the peak performance of different module types, but on its own is not sufficient to accurately predict how much energy a module will deliver in the field when subjected to a wide range of real operating conditions [2]. An Energy Rating approach has to be preferred for that aim. It is currently under development the standard series IEC 61853 on Energy Rating, for which only part 1 [3] has been issued. It describes methods to characterize the module performance as a function of irradiance and temperature. The reproducibility of the power matrix measurements obtained by the three different methods specified in the standard, namely: under natural sunlight using a tracking system; under natural sunlight without tracker; and a large area pulsed solar simulator of Class AAA were evaluated and discussed [4,5]. The work here presented is focused on the second method listed above, which explores the real working conditions for a PV device and therefore it represents the situation where Energy Rating procedures are expected to give the largest deviations from the STC predictions. The system for continuous monitoring of module performances, already implemented at ESTI, has been recently replaced with a new system having a number of improvements described in the following. The two system results have been compared showing a discrete compatibility. The two power matrices are then merged together using a weighted average and compared to those acquired with the other two remaining “ideal” systems. An interesting tendency seems to come up from this comparison, making the power rating under real operating conditions an essential procedure for energy rating purposes.

  13. Standardization of the energy performance of photovoltaic modules in real operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganó, Davide; Kenny, Robert P.; Müllejans, Harald; Alimonti, Gianluca

    2014-12-01

    The performance of a PV module at STC [1] is a useful indicator for comparing the peak performance of different module types, but on its own is not sufficient to accurately predict how much energy a module will deliver in the field when subjected to a wide range of real operating conditions [2]. An Energy Rating approach has to be preferred for that aim. It is currently under development the standard series IEC 61853 on Energy Rating, for which only part 1 [3] has been issued. It describes methods to characterize the module performance as a function of irradiance and temperature. The reproducibility of the power matrix measurements obtained by the three different methods specified in the standard, namely: under natural sunlight using a tracking system; under natural sunlight without tracker; and a large area pulsed solar simulator of Class AAA were evaluated and discussed [4,5]. The work here presented is focused on the second method listed above, which explores the real working conditions for a PV device and therefore it represents the situation where Energy Rating procedures are expected to give the largest deviations from the STC predictions. The system for continuous monitoring of module performances, already implemented at ESTI, has been recently replaced with a new system having a number of improvements described in the following. The two system results have been compared showing a discrete compatibility. The two power matrices are then merged together using a weighted average and compared to those acquired with the other two remaining "ideal" systems. An interesting tendency seems to come up from this comparison, making the power rating under real operating conditions an essential procedure for energy rating purposes.

  14. Photovoltaic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. photovoltaic industry enjoyed a growth rate of 30 percent in sales for the second year in a row. This sends a message that the way we think about electricity is changing. Instead of big energy projects that perpetuate environmental and economic damage, there is a growing trend toward small renewable technologies that are well matched to end-user needs and operating conditions. As demand grows and markets expand, investment capital will be drawn to the industry and new growth trends will emerge. The photovoltaic industry around the world achieved record shipments also. Worldwide shipments of photovoltaic (PV) modules for 1989 totaled more than 40 megawatts (MW), nearly a 20 percent increase over last year's shipments. The previous two years showed increases in worldwide shipments of 23 and 25 percent, respectively. If this growth rate continues through the 1990s, as industry back orders would indicate, 300 to 1000 MW of PV-supplied power could be on line by 2000. Photovoltaic systems have low environmental impact and they are inexpensive to operate and maintain. Using solid-state technology, PV systems directly convert sunlight to electricity without high-temperature fluids or moving parts that could cause mechanical failure. This makes the technology very reliable.

  15. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  16. Magnetostriction-strain-induced enhancement and modulation of photovoltaic performance in Si-p-n/TbxDy1-xFe2 composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High photovoltaic efficiency is a key index in the application of silicon (Si) solar cells. In this study, a composite of a photovoltaic Si p-n junction solar cell and a magnetostrictive TbxDy1-xFe2 alloy was fabricated. By utilizing the magnetostrictive strain to modulate the energy bandgap of Si, the open-circuit voltage and the maximum photovoltaic output power of the Si p-n junction solar cell could be enhanced by ∝12% and 9.1% under a dc magnetic field of ∝250 mT, respectively. The significantly enhanced photovoltaic performance and the simple fabrication process make the Si-p-n/TbxDy1-xFe2 composite a promising material for high-efficiency solar cell devices. The structure of the proposed Si-p-n/TbxDy1-xFe2 laminated composite. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - R and D of the photovoltaic power generation utilization system/peripheral technology. R and D of new solar cell modules integrated with construction materials (high durability roof modules); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system, Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu - Shinkenzai ittaigata taiyodenchi mojuru no kenkyu kaihatsu (Kotaikyusei yane mojuru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The R and D were conducted of new AC-powered solar cell modules integrated with construction materials for residential use of the large roof panel system, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. In the study of the durable structure of solar cell modules and roof modules, development was made of the roof panel use thin film CdTe solar cell module of a hollow sealing structure and small size/high power system interconnection power conditioner. Further, by the design of PV installation structure and roof panel structure, the performance of construction materials and fire-resistance performance were secured, and the module and power conditioner passed the verification test under the Building Standard Law. At the efficiency of large CdTe thin film solar cell module of 11.0%, the roof array efficiency was 9.2% at roof panel and 8.6% at house roof, and the target efficiency was achieved. Moreover, the initial target of the system expansion cost of 170 yen/W or below was achieved by a combination of the large tireless roof panel assembled in factory, large frameless thin film solar cell module and power conditioner that is AC-powered at roof panel unit. (NEDO)

  18. Pyrolysis of EVA and its application in recycling of photovoltaic modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG De-wen; Manfred Born; Karsten Wambach

    2004-01-01

    The basic pyrolysis behaviour of ethylene vinyl acetate(EVA) copolymer, which is often used as a lamination agent in solar modules, was investigated in thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis(DTA) and thermovolumetry. The TG analysis showed that the EVA pyrolysis can be accelerated under the partial oxidizing atmosphere but the end pyrolysis temperature must be higher than in nitrogen, to eliminate the coke formed. Meanwhile, a strong exothermal peak occurs at about 450℃ under the air condition and gets weaker obviously at the oxygen content lower than 10 vol.%. The mass balance of EVA pyrolysis was given through thermovolumetry with the output of 10 wt.% permanent gas, 89.9 wt.% condensate and 0.1% residual coke. Besides, the composition of the permanent gas and condensate at different pyrolysis stages were analysed and interpreted on the known pyrolysis mechanism.

  19. Pyrolysis of EVA and its application in recycling of photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, De-Wen; Born, Manfred; Wambach, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    The basic pyrolysis behaviour of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer, which is often used as a lamination agent in solar modules, was investigated in thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis(DTA) and thermovolumetry. The TG analysis showed that the EVA pyrolysis can be accelerated under the partial oxidizing atmosphere but the end pyrolysis temperature must be higher than in nitrogen, to eliminate the coke formed. Meanwhile, a strong exothermal peak occurs at about 450 degrees C under the air condition and gets weaker obviously at the oxygen content lower than 10 vol. %. The mass balance of EVA pyrolysis was given through the thermovolumetry with the output of 10 wt. % permanent gas, 89.9 wt. % condensate and 0.1% residual coke. Besides, the composition of the permanent gas and condensate at different pyrolysis stages were analysed and interpreted on the known pyrolysis mechanism. PMID:15900714

  20. Phosphorus Diffusion Mechanisms and Deep Incorporation in Polycrystalline and Single-Crystalline CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colegrove, Eric; Harvey, Steven P.; Yang, Ji-Hui; Burst, James M.; Albin, David S.; Wei, Su-Huai; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2016-05-01

    A key challenge in cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductors is obtaining stable and high hole density. Group I elements substituting Cd can form ideal acceptors but easily self-compensate and diffuse quickly. For example, CdTe photovoltaics have relied on copper as a dopant, but copper creates stability problems and hole density that has not exceeded 1015 cm-3. If hole density can be increased beyond 10^16 cm-3, CdTe solar technology can exceed multicrystalline silicon and provide levelized costs of electricity below conventional energy sources. Group V elements substituting Te offer a solution, but are very difficult to incorporate. Using time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, we examine bulk and grain boundary (GB) diffusion of phosphorous (P) in CdTe in Cd-rich conditions. We find that in addition to slow bulk diffusion and fast GB diffusion, there is a fast bulk diffusion component that enables deep P incorporation in CdTe. Detailed first-principles calculations indicate the slow bulk diffusion component is caused by substitutional P diffusion through the Te sublattice, whereas the fast bulk diffusion component is caused by P diffusing through interstitial lattice sites following the combination of a kick-out step and two rotation steps. The latter is limited in magnitude by high formation energy, but is sufficient to manipulate P incorporation. In addition to an increased physical understanding, this result opens up new experimental possibilities for Group V doping in CdTe materials.

  1. Scanning Kelvin probe measurements on As-doped CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) has been used to study the Fermi level shift in arsenic (As) doped cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. The contact potential difference (CPD) between probe tip and sample surface revealed that increasing As concentrations in CdTe led to a decrease in CPD. This highlighted a downward shift in the CdTe Fermi level and an increase in the CdTe work function. Using a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite sample in ambient conditions as a reference, the absolute work functions of the CdTe samples were estimated to vary from 3.88 to 4.09 eV. High-resolution SKPM measurements revealed localized shifts in CPD at CdTe grain boundaries. This was directly correlated to As doping concentrations, and indicated the segregation of As to grain boundaries. A mechanism is proposed where localized band bending at grain boundaries channels minority carriers away from the grain boundary, leading to reduced carrier recombination. (paper)

  2. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  3. Dependence of CdTe response of bias history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, J.R.; Sasala, R.A.; Eisgruber, I.L. [Colorado State Univ., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Several time-dependent effect have been observed in CdTe cells and modules in recent years. Some appear to be related to degradation at the back contact, some to changes in temperature at the thin-film junction, and some to the bias history of the cell or module. Back-contact difficulties only occur in some cases, and the other two effects are reversible. Nevertheless, confusion in data interpretation can arise when these effects are not characterized. This confusion can be particularly acute when more than one time-dependent effect occurs during the same measurement cycle. The purpose of this presentation is to help categorize time-dependent effects in CdTe and other thin-film cells to elucidate those related to bias history, and to note differences between cell and module analysis.

  4. An outdoor investigation of the absorption degradation of single-junction amorphous silicon photovoltaic module due to localized heat/hot spot formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Osayemwenre Gilbert O; Meyer Edson L; Mamphweli Sampson

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the absorbance degradation of single-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photovoltaic (PV) module, due to the presence of localized heat. The decrease in optical density is a huge challenge due to the long-term degradation of PV modules. The reduction in solar cell optical density causes a decline in its conversion efficiency. This decreases the photogenerating current, hence reduces the effective efficiency of the PV device. An infrared thermography was used for mapping the module temperature profile. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the absorption characterization. The rationale behind the outdoor deployment was to deduce a practical effect of hot spot formation on the module’s absorption ability.The results show a direct correlation between localized heat and the absorption degradation.

  5. One-Dimensional Reaction-Diffusion Simulation of Cu Migration in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Da [Arizona State University; Akis, Richard [Arizona State University; Brinkman, Daniel [Arizona State University; Sankin, Igor [First Solar; Fang, Tian [First Solar; Vasileska, Dragica [Arizona State University; Ringhofer, Christain [Arizona State University

    2014-06-13

    In this work, we report on developing 1D reaction-diffusion solver to understand the kinetics of p-type doping formation in CdTe absorbers and to shine some light on underlying causes of metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cell has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport and Poisson equation. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of Cu diffusion anneal time showing pronounced effect the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results suggest strong potential of the approach in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic device.

  6. Characteristics of CdTe films and CdTe/CdS solar cells fabricated by photostimulated sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The effect of illumination during the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) growth on composition, structural, electrical, optical and photovoltaic properties of CdTe films and CdTe/CdS solar cells was investigated. Data on comparative study by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), absorption spectra and conductivity-temperature measurements of CdTe films prepared by CSS method in a dark (CSSD) and under illumination (CSSI) were presented. It is shown that the growth rate of CdTe films under illumination is higher than that for films prepared without illumination. Moreover, the polycrystalline CdTe films of the cubic structure grown by CSSI technology were characterized with larger the grain size as compared to that for films prepared by CSSD

  7. Process Development for CIGS-Based Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules; Phase I Technical Report, 5 February 1998--4 February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, J., Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.; Albright, S.

    1999-09-13

    This report describes work performed by Global Solar Energy (GSE) under Phase I of this subcontract. GSE has initiated an extensive and systematic plan to accelerate the commercialization of thin-film photovoltaics (PV) on copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). GSE is developing the technology to deposit and monolithically integrate CIGS photovoltaics on a flexible substrate. CIGS-deposited on flexible substrates can be fabricated into either flexible or rigid modules. Low-cost, rigid PV panels for remote power, bulk/utility, telecommunications, and rooftop applications will be produced by affixing the flexible CIGS to an expensive rigid panel by lamination or adhesive. In the GSE approach, long (up to 700 m) continuous rolls of substrate are processed, as opposed to individual small glass plates. In combination with roll-to-roll processing, GSE is developing evaporation deposition operations that enable low-cost and high-efficiency CIGS modules. Efforts are under way to transition the CIGS deposition process into manufacturing at GSE. CIGS process development is focused on synchronizing the operation of the effusion sources, the Se delivery profile, substrate temperature, and a host of other parameters. GSE has selected an interconnect scheme and procured, installed, and tested the equipment necessary to implement the cell interconnection for thin-film CIGS modules on a polyimide substrate.

  8. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  9. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-17

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  10. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Chioncel; Cristian Paul Chioncel; Nicoleta Gillich

    2013-01-01

    This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  11. Discharging-phototransistor-integrated high-voltage Si photovoltaic cells for fast driving demonstration of an electrostatic MEMS actuator by wavelength modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Isao; Lebrasseur, Eric; Mita, Yoshio

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the authors propose a high-voltage photovoltaic (PV) cell array integrating discharging phototransistors for the fast driving of an electrostatic MEMS actuator by light with wavelength modulation. A PV cell array and phototransistors are connected in parallel and colored with green and red lacquer, respectively. This circuit repeats the charge and discharge of a MEMS actuator by being illuminated with light whose color periodically changes between red and green. This method requires only a small additional area and can discharge the actuator at an arbitrary timing. The authors extract the parameters of the circuit and also demonstrate the dynamic driving of a MEMS comb-drive actuator.

  12. Recent Progress on Solution-Processed CdTe Nanocrystals Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed CdTe nanocrystals (NCs photovoltaic devices have many advantages, both in commercial manufacture and daily operation, due to the low-cost fabrication process, which becomes a competitive candidate for next-generation solar cells. All solution-processed CdTe NCs solar cells were first reported in 2005. In recent years, they have increased over four-fold in power conversion efficiency. The latest devices achieve AM 1.5 G power conversion efficiency up to 12.0%, values comparable to those of commercial thin film CdTe/CdS solar cells fabricated by the close-space sublimation (CSS method. Here we review the progress and prospects in this field, focusing on new insights into CdTe NCs synthesized, device fabrication, NC solar cell operation, and how these findings give guidance on optimizing solar cell performance.

  13. Optimum design of composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module. Absorbing effect of cooling panel; Hikari netsu fukugo panel no saiteki sekkei. Reikyaku panel no kyunetsu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Kikuchi, S.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K.; Imaizumi, H. [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module becomes higher in energy-saving than the conventional air-conditioning system by the independent radiational heating and cooling effect obtained when the generating panel using a solar cell module is combined with the heating and cooling panel using a thermo-element module. The output of a solar cell module can be directly used because the solar cell module operates in AC. This paper reports the relation between the absorbed value and power consumption of the cooling panel, while paying attention to the cooling panel. The performance coefficient of the maximum absorbed value from an non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 2 to 3. Assume that the cooling panel during non-adiabatic operation is operated using a solar cell module of 800 W/m{sup 2} in solar intensity and 15% in conversion efficiency. The cooling-surface temperature difference is 12.12 K, and the maximum absorbed value of a non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 39.12 W/m{sup 2}. The absorbed value of the outer temperature to the cooling panel is 74.4 W/m{sup 2}, and each performance coefficient is 3.26 and 0.62. The absorbed value must be calculated for evaluation from the cooling-surface temperature difference measured directly from the cooling panel. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Environmental aging in polycrystalline-Si photovoltaic modules: comparison of chamber-based accelerated degradation studies with field-test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, T.; Biggie, R.; Brooks, A.; Potter, B. G.; Simmons-Potter, K.

    2015-09-01

    Lifecycle degradation testing of photovoltaic (PV) modules in accelerated-degradation chambers can enable the prediction both of PV performance lifetimes and of return-on-investment for installations of PV systems. With degradation results strongly dependent on chamber test parameters, the validity of such studies relative to fielded, installed PV systems must be determined. In the present work, accelerated aging of a 250 W polycrystalline silicon module is compared to real-time performance degradation in a similar polycrystalline-silicon, fielded, PV technology that has been operating since October 2013. Investigation of environmental aging effects are performed in a full-scale, industrial-standard environmental chamber equipped with single-sun irradiance capability providing illumination uniformity of 98% over a 2 x 1.6 m area. Time-dependent, photovoltaic performance (J-V) is evaluated over a recurring, compressed night-day cycle providing representative local daily solar insolation for the southwestern United States, followed by dark (night) cycling. This cycle is synchronized with thermal and humidity environmental variations that are designed to mimic, as closely as possible, test-yard conditions specific to a 12 month weather profile for a fielded system in Tucson, AZ. Results confirm the impact of environmental conditions on the module long-term performance. While the effects of temperature de-rating can be clearly seen in the data, removal of these effects enables the clear interpretation of module efficiency degradation with time and environmental exposure. With the temperature-dependent effect removed, the normalized efficiency is computed and compared to performance results from another panel of similar technology that has previously experienced identical climate changes in the test yard. Analysis of relative PV module efficiency degradation for the chamber-tested system shows good comparison to the field-tested system with ~2.5% degradation following

  15. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  16. Potential of thin-film solar cell module technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.; Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    During the past five years, thin-film cell technology has made remarkable progress as a potential alternative to crystalline silicon cell technology. The efficiency of a single-junction thin-film cell, which is the most promising for use in flat-plate modules, is now in the range of 11 percent with 1-sq cm cells consisting of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 or CdTe materials. Cell efficiencies higher than 18 percent, suitable for 15 percent-efficient flat plate modules, would require a multijunction configuration such as the CdTe/CuInSe2 and tandem amorphous-silicon (a-Si) alloy cells. Assessments are presented of the technology status of thin-film-cell module research and the potential of achieving the higher efficiencies required for large-scale penetration into the photovoltaic (PV) energy market.

  17. Solar Photovoltaics Technology: The Revolution Begins . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence

    2009-11-01

    The prospects of current and coming solar-photovoltaic (PV) technologies are envisioned, arguing this solar-electricity source is at a tipping point in the complex worldwide energy outlook. The emphasis of this presentation is on R&D advances (cell, materials, and module options), with indications of the limitations and strengths of crystalline (Si and GaAs) and thin-film (a-Si:H, Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe). The contributions and technological pathways for now and near-term technologies (silicon, III-Vs, and thin films) and status and forecasts for next- generation PV (organics, nanotechnologies, non-conventional junction approaches) are evaluated. Recent advances in concentrators with efficiencies headed toward 50%, new directions for thin films (20% and beyond), and materials/device technology issues are discussed in terms of technology progress. Insights into technical and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy portfolio. The need for R&D accelerating the now and imminent (evolutionary) technologies balanced with work in mid-term (disruptive) approaches is highlighted. Moreover, technology progress and ownership for next generation solar PV mandates a balanced investment in research on longer-term (the revolution needs revolutionary approaches to sustain itself) technologies (quantum dots, multi-multijunctions, intermediate-band concepts, nanotubes, bio-inspired, thermophotonics, solar hydrogen. . . ) having high-risk, but extremely high performance and cost returns for our next generations of energy consumers. Issues relating to manufacturing are explored-especially with the requirements for the next-generation technologies. This presentation provides insights into how this technology has developed-and where the R&D investments should be made and we can expect to be by this mid-21st century.

  18. Influence of CdTe thickness on structural and electrical properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its high scalability and low production cost, CdTe solar cells have shown a very strong potential for large scale energy production. Although the number of modules produced could be limited by tellurium scarcity, it has been reported that reducing CdTe thickness down to 1.5 μm would solve this issue. There are, however, issues to be considered when reducing thickness, such as formation of pinholes, lower crystallization, and different possible effects on material diffusion within the interfaces. In this work, we present the study of CdTe solar cells fabricated by vacuum evaporation with different CdTe thicknesses. Several cells with a CdTe thickness ranging from 0.7 to 6 μm have been fabricated. The deposition process has been optimized accordingly and their physical and electrical properties have been studied. Thin cells show a different electrical behavior in terms of open circuit voltage and fill factor. Efficiencies range from 7% for thin CdTe cells to 13.5% for the standard thickness. - Highlights: ► Ultra thin CdTe absorbers have been prepared and studied. ► Grain size is depending on the CdTe thickness but spread in the grains increases. ► Lattice parameter is reduced only for ultra thin CdTe. ► The band gap reveals an intermixed CdTe absorber. ► The reason for lower efficiency of ultra thin CdTe is explained

  19. Investigation of deep level defects in CdTe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, H.; Castaldini, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Dieguez, E.; Rubio, S. [Crystal Growth Lab, Department of Materials Physics, Faculty of Science, University Autonoma of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Dauksta, E.; Medvid, A. [Institute of Technical Physics, Riga Technical University, 14 Azenes Str, Riga, Latvia, Department of Materials (Latvia); Cavallini, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-02-21

    In the past few years, a large body of work has been dedicated to CdTe thin film semiconductors, as the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanostructures make them desirable for photovoltaic applications. The performance of semiconductor devices is greatly influenced by the deep levels. Knowledge of parameters of deep levels present in as-grown materials and the identification of their origin is the key factor in the development of photovoltaic device performance. Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy technique (PICTS) has proven to be a very powerful method for the study of deep levels enabling us to identify the type of traps, their activation energy and apparent capture cross section. In the present work, we report the effect of growth parameters and LASER irradiation intensity on the photo-electric and transport properties of CdTe thin films prepared by Close-Space Sublimation method using SiC electrical heating element. CdTe thin films were grown at three different source temperatures (630, 650 and 700 °C). The grown films were irradiated with Nd:YAG LASER and characterized by Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy, Photocurrent measurementand Current Voltage measurements. The defect levels are found to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature.

  20. Effects of heat treatment on diffusion of Cu atoms into CdTe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption fine structure techniques have been used to study the diffusion of Cu atoms into the photovoltaic material CdTe. Depth profile, effective valency, and local structure of Cu atoms in a Cu-doped single crystal of CdTe were investigated before and after a second heat treatment. Enhanced Cu diffusion into the CdTe single crystal was observed as a result of heating at a moderate temperature around 200 degree sign C, resulting in a redistribution of the Cu impurities through a broader depth profile. Some of the Cu atoms are believed either to form small complexes with Te or occupy interstitial sites in the host but accompanied by a large local lattice distortion while others substitute for Cd on the cation sites. The results thus demonstrate that these nondestructive x-ray characterization methods are useful for probing microstructural changes in CdTe photovoltaic materials/devices in which some Cu-containing compounds are used as back contacts. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  1. Quality and energy-performance of photovoltaic modules and installations; Qualita e resa energetica di moduli ed impianti fotovoltaici centrale LEEE-TISO periodo VI: 2000-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D.; Cereghetti, N.; Friesen, G.; Bura, E.; Realini, A.; Rezzonico, S.; Travaglini, G.; Bernasconi, A.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work done at the LEEE-TISO test laboratory in the Ticino, southern Switzerland, between 1991 and 2003 on the testing of over 80 different types of photovoltaic modules. The test cycle used is described that subjects the test modules to real outdoor operating conditions over a period of 15 months. Further work done using a class 'A' solar simulator to measure current-voltage characteristics under standard test conditions is also discussed. The methods used in the measurement campaigns are described and the results obtained are discussed. Differences in performance measurements made under outdoor conditions and in the simulator are presented and their implications are discussed. A simple method for the calculation of energy ratings - the so-called matrix-method - is introduced.

  2. Superior stability of ultra thin CdTe solar cells with simple Cu/Au back contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its high scalability and low production cost, CdTe has shown a significant potential for high mass production, resulting to be one of the cheapest photovoltaic technologies available. Efficiencies exceeding 20% have been obtained by the application of high temperature CdTe deposition. However tellurium scarcity is a limitation for mass production and one of the possibilities to overcome this is the reduction of absorber thickness. We have already demonstrated efficiencies above 11% for devices with 1.5 μm thick CdTe. Nowadays we have fabricated ultra-thin absorber devices performing more than 13% efficiencies. But what is most interesting is that we have observed a different electrical operation and stability, connected to the fact that the depletion region takes a very large part of the device. In this work many CdTe solar cells with a standard Cu/Au back contact, made with different absorber thicknesses, were prepared, stored in dark and tested at different aging times, showing different reactions to the aging and in particular a remarkable stability as CdTe thickness reduces. - Highlights: • CdTe/CdS devices with 0.7, 1 and 1.8 μm thick absorbers have been prepared. • Superior stability in dark aging of ultra thin CdTe devices has been registered. • Electrical analysis shows different behaviors and nature of defects for thin CdTe samples. • For 6 μm CdTe samples degradation is driven mainly by defect compensation. • For ultra thin CdTe samples, degradation is dominated by impurities from the front contact

  3. Superior stability of ultra thin CdTe solar cells with simple Cu/Au back contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmaudo, Ivan; Salavei, Andrei; Xu, Bing Lei; Di Mare, Simone; Romeo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.romeo@univr.it

    2015-05-01

    Due to its high scalability and low production cost, CdTe has shown a significant potential for high mass production, resulting to be one of the cheapest photovoltaic technologies available. Efficiencies exceeding 20% have been obtained by the application of high temperature CdTe deposition. However tellurium scarcity is a limitation for mass production and one of the possibilities to overcome this is the reduction of absorber thickness. We have already demonstrated efficiencies above 11% for devices with 1.5 μm thick CdTe. Nowadays we have fabricated ultra-thin absorber devices performing more than 13% efficiencies. But what is most interesting is that we have observed a different electrical operation and stability, connected to the fact that the depletion region takes a very large part of the device. In this work many CdTe solar cells with a standard Cu/Au back contact, made with different absorber thicknesses, were prepared, stored in dark and tested at different aging times, showing different reactions to the aging and in particular a remarkable stability as CdTe thickness reduces. - Highlights: • CdTe/CdS devices with 0.7, 1 and 1.8 μm thick absorbers have been prepared. • Superior stability in dark aging of ultra thin CdTe devices has been registered. • Electrical analysis shows different behaviors and nature of defects for thin CdTe samples. • For 6 μm CdTe samples degradation is driven mainly by defect compensation. • For ultra thin CdTe samples, degradation is dominated by impurities from the front contact.

  4. Compendium of photovoltaic degradation rates: Photovoltaic degradation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Kurtz, Sarah R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; VanSant, Kaitlyn [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street Golden CO 8040 USA; Newmiller, Jeff [DNV GL, 2420 Camino Ramon, Suite 300 San Ramon CA 95483 USA

    2016-02-07

    Published data on photovoltaic (PV) degradation measurements were aggregated and re-examined. The subject has seen an increased interest in recent years resulting in more than 11 000 degradation rates in almost 200 studies from 40 different countries. As studies have grown in number and size, we found an impact from sampling bias attributable to size and accuracy. Because of the correlational nature of this study we examined the data in several ways to minimize this bias. We found median degradation for x-Si technologies in the 0.5-0.6%/year range with the mean in the 0.8-0.9%/year range. Hetero-interface technology (HIT) and microcrystalline silicon (..mu..c-Si) technologies, although not as plentiful, exhibit degradation around 1%/year and resemble thin-film products more closely than x-Si. Several studies showing low degradation for copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) have emerged. Higher degradation for cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been reported, but these findings could reflect a convolution of less accurate studies and longer stabilization periods for some products. Significant deviations for beginning-of-life measurements with respect to nameplate rating have been documented over the last 35 years. Therefore, degradation rates that use nameplate rating as reference may be significantly impacted. Studies that used nameplate rating as reference but used solar simulators showed less variation than similar studies using outdoor measurements, even when accounting for different climates. This could be associated with confounding effects of measurement uncertainty and soiling that take place outdoors. Hotter climates and mounting configurations that lead to sustained higher temperatures may lead to higher degradation in some, but not all, products. Wear-out non-linearities for the worst performing modules have been documented in a few select studies that took multiple measurements of an ensemble of modules during the lifetime of the system. However, the majority

  5. Development of a pH sensor based on a nanostructured filter adding pH-sensitive fluorescent dye for detecting acetic acid in photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Takashi; Itayama, Tomohiro; Nagasaki, Hideaki; Iwami, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Hara, Yukiko; Masuda, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid formed via the hydrolysis of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as an encapsulant in photovoltaic (PV) modules causes a decrease in the conversion efficiency of such modules by grid corrosion. Here, a nondestructive and simple optical method for evaluating the condition of PV modules is proposed. This method uses a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye to detect acetic acid in PV modules using a change in pH. The change in pH induced by the formation of acetic acid is detected by the change in the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of two peaks of the dye. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye showed sensitivity for small amounts of acetic acid such as that produced from EVA. Furthermore, a membrane filter dyed with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye was confirmed to detect acetic acid in aged EVA after a damp-heat test (85 °C, 85%) for 5000 h in PV modules.

  6. Analysis methods for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Because photovoltaic power systems are being considered for an ever-widening range of applications, it is appropriate for system designers to have knowledge of and access to photovoltaic power systems simulation models and design tools. This brochure gives brief descriptions of a variety of such aids and was compiled after surveying both manufacturers and researchers. Services available through photovoltaic module manufacturers are outlined, and computer codes for systems analysis are briefly described. (WHK)

  7. Development of large-area monolithically integrated silicon-film{trademark} photovoltaic modules. Final subcontract report, May 1, 1991--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.B.; Rand, J.A.; Cotter, J.E. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this program is to develop Silicon Film{trademark} Product III into a low-cost, stable solar cell for large-scale terrestrial power applications. The Product III structure is a thin (<100 {mu}m) polycrystalline layer of silicon on a durable, insulating, ceramic substrate. The insulating substrate allows the silicon layer to be isolated and metallized to form a monolithically interconnected array of solar cells. High efficiency is achieved by the use of light trapping and passivated surfaces. This project focused on the development of five key technologies associated with the monolithic sub-module device structure: (1) development of the film deposition and growth processes; (2) development of the low-cost ceramic substrate; (3) development of a metallurgical barrier technology; (4) development of sub-element solar cell processing techniques; and (5) development of sub-module (isolation and interconnection) processes. This report covers the development approaches and results relating to these technologies. Significant progress has been made in the development of all of the related technologies. This is evidenced by the fabrication of a working 12.0 cm{sup 2} prototype sub-module consisting of 7 elements and testing with an open circuit voltage of 3.9 volts, a short circuit current of 35.2 mA and a fill factor of 63% and an overall efficiency of 7.3%. Another significant result achieved is a 13.4% (NREL verified), 1.0 cm{sup 2} solar cell fabricated from material deposited and grown on a graphite cloth substrate. The significant technological hurdle of the program was and remains the low quality of the photovoltaic layer which is caused by contamination of the photovoltaic layer from the low-cost ceramic substrate by trace impurities found in the substrate precursor materials. The ceramic substrate and metallurgical barrier are being developed specifically to solve this problem.

  8. Effects of various deposition times and RF powers on CdTe thin film growth using magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type II-VI compound semiconductor, which is an active component for producing photovoltaic solar cells in the form of thin films, due to its desirable physical properties. In this study, CdTe film was deposited using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system onto a glass substrate. To improve the properties of the CdTe film, effects of two experimental parameters of deposition time and RF power were investigated on the physical properties of the CdTe films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometer were used to study the structural, morphological and optical properties of the CdTe samples grown at different experimental conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that film properties strongly depend on the experimental parameters and by optimizing these parameters, it is possible to tune the desired structural, morphological and optical properties. From XRD data, it is found that increasing the deposition time and RF power leads to increasing the crystallinity as well as the crystal sizes of the grown film, and all the films represent zinc blende cubic structure. Roughness values given from AFM images suggest increasing the roughness of the CdTe films by increasing the RF power and deposition times. Finally, optical investigations reveal increasing the film band gaps by increasing the RF power and the deposition time.

  9. Effects of various deposition times and RF powers on CdTe thin film growth using magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type II-VI compound semiconductor, which is an active component for producing photovoltaic solar cells in the form of thin films, due to its desirable physical properties. In this study, CdTe film was deposited using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system onto a glass substrate. To improve the properties of the CdTe film, effects of two experimental parameters of deposition time and RF power were investigated on the physical properties of the CdTe films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometer were used to study the structural, morphological and optical properties of the CdTe samples grown at different experimental conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that film properties strongly depend on the experimental parameters and by optimizing these parameters, it is possible to tune the desired structural, morphological and optical properties. From XRD data, it is found that increasing the deposition time and RF power leads to increasing the crystallinity as well as the crystal sizes of the grown film, and all the films represent zinc blende cubic structure. Roughness values given from AFM images suggest increasing the roughness of the CdTe films by increasing the RF power and deposition times. Finally, optical investigations reveal increasing the film band gaps by increasing the RF power and the deposition time.

  10. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  11. Evaluation of Polarization Effects of e(-) Collection Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX Hybrid Pixel Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Astromskas, V.; Gimenez, EN; Lohstroh, A; Tartoni, N

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of operational conditions such as temperature, exposure time and flux on the polarization of a Schottky electron collection CdTe detector. A Schottky e- collection CdTe Medipix3RX hybrid pixel detector was developed as a part of the CALIPSO-HIZPAD2 EU project. The 128 ×128 pixel matrix and 0.75 mm thick CdTe sensor bump-bonded to Medipix3RX readout chips enabled the study of the polarization effects. Single and quad module Medipix3RX chips were used which ...

  12. High-efficiency CdTe thin-film solar cells using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhi, A.; Stirn, R. J.; Meyers, P. V.; Liu, C. H.

    1989-06-01

    Energy conversion efficiency of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited CdTe as an intrinsic active layer in n-i-p solar cell structures is reported. Small-area devices with efficiencies over 9 percent have been demonstrated. I-V characteristics, photospectral response, and the results of Auger profiling of structural composition for typical devices will be presented. Also presented are preliminary results on similar photovoltaic devices having Cd(0.85)Mn(0.15)Te in place of CdTe as an i layer.

  13. High-efficiency CdTe thin-film solar cells using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouhi, A.; Stirn, R.J.; Meyers, P.V.; Liu, C.H.

    1989-05-01

    Energy conversion efficiency of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited CdTe as an intrinsic active layer in n-i-p solar cell structures is reported. Small-area devices with efficiencies over 9% have been demonstrated. I--V characteristics, photospectral response, and the results of Auger profiling of structural composition for typical devices will be presented. Also presented are preliminary results on similar photovoltaic devices having Cd/sub 0.85/Mn/sub 0.15/Te in place of CdTe as an i layer.

  14. High-efficiency CdTe thin-film solar cells using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhi, A.; Stirn, R. J.; Meyers, P. V.; Liu, C. H.

    1989-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiency of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited CdTe as an intrinsic active layer in n-i-p solar cell structures is reported. Small-area devices with efficiencies over 9 percent have been demonstrated. I-V characteristics, photospectral response, and the results of Auger profiling of structural composition for typical devices will be presented. Also presented are preliminary results on similar photovoltaic devices having Cd(0.85)Mn(0.15)Te in place of CdTe as an i layer.

  15. Scaling and qualifying CdTe/CdS module production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. C.; Jayamaha, U.; Dorer, G. L.; McMaster, H.

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes our development of high-throughput manufacturing and the long-term testing of CdS/CdTe photovoltaic (PV) modules. We report the development of a vapor transport deposition (VTD) process for II-VI thin-films capable of satisfying the requirements of very large-scale production. CdTe film deposition rates of ⩾1 μm/s have been translated into production line speeds up to 2.5 m/min and areal generation rates up to 1.5 m2/min. The best small-area devices fabricated using VTD material are more than 11% efficient. Long-term outdoor module testing continues to indicate a stable product while accelerated life testing has revealed the superiority of alternative processing methodologies.

  16. CdTe devices and method of manufacturing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Noufi, Rommel; Dhere, Ramesh G.; Albin, David S.; Barnes, Teresa; Burst, James; Duenow, Joel N.; Reese, Matthew

    2015-09-29

    A method of producing polycrystalline CdTe materials and devices that incorporate the polycrystalline CdTe materials are provided. In particular, a method of producing polycrystalline p-doped CdTe thin films for use in CdTe solar cells in which the CdTe thin films possess enhanced acceptor densities and minority carrier lifetimes, resulting in enhanced efficiency of the solar cells containing the CdTe material are provided.

  17. Accessing the quantum palette: quantum-dot spectral conversion towards the BIPV application of thin-film micro-modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, S. D.; Kartopu, G.; Rugen-Hankey, S. L.; Clayton, A. J.; Barrioz, V.; Irvine, S. J. C.

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) incorporation of thin-film photovoltaics, commercially available quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited, as part of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite film, on a cadmium telluride (CdTe) micro-module. This resulted in an increase in photocurrent generation through the luminescent down-shifting (LDS) process. The optical properties of these films were characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy. The impact of the film on the micro-module was studied through current-voltage (I-V) and external quantum efficiency measurements. Further layers were added to the initial single-layer LDS film, however no additional improvement to the micro-module were observed. Additionally, a range of emission wavelengths have been explored. The majority of these films, when tested on a CdTe device, were shown to improve the photocurrent generation whilst also visually displaying the vivid colour palette provided by quantum confined materials. The future feasibility of using QD based LDS films for large scale BIPV-based power generation has also been discussed.

  18. Accessing the quantum palette: quantum-dot spectral conversion towards the BIPV application of thin-film micro-modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) incorporation of thin-film photovoltaics, commercially available quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited, as part of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite film, on a cadmium telluride (CdTe) micro-module. This resulted in an increase in photocurrent generation through the luminescent down-shifting (LDS) process. The optical properties of these films were characterized through UV–vis spectroscopy. The impact of the film on the micro-module was studied through current–voltage (I–V) and external quantum efficiency measurements. Further layers were added to the initial single-layer LDS film, however no additional improvement to the micro-module were observed. Additionally, a range of emission wavelengths have been explored. The majority of these films, when tested on a CdTe device, were shown to improve the photocurrent generation whilst also visually displaying the vivid colour palette provided by quantum confined materials. The future feasibility of using QD based LDS films for large scale BIPV-based power generation has also been discussed. (paper)

  19. Optimization of the front contact to minimize short-circuit current losses in CdTe thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Jason Michael

    With a growing population and rising standard of living, the world is in need of clean sources of energy at low cost in order to meet both economic and environmental needs. Solar energy is an abundant resource which is fundamentally adequate to meet all human energy needs. Photovoltaics are an attractive way to safely convert this energy to electricity with little to no noise, moving parts, water, or arable land. Currently, thin-film photovoltaic modules based on cadmium telluride are a low-cost solution with multiple GW/year commercial production, but have lower conversion efficiency than the dominant technology, crystalline silicon. Increasing the conversion efficiency of these panels through optimization of the electronic and optical structure of the cell can further lower the cost of these modules. The front contact of the CdTe thin-film solar cell is critical to device efficiency for three important reasons: it must transmit light to the CdTe absorber to be collected, it must form a reasonably passive interface and serve as a growth template for the CdTe, and it must allow electrons to be extracted from the CdTe. The current standard window layer material, cadmium sulfide, has a low bandgap of 2.4 eV which can block over 20% of available light from being converted to mobile charge carriers. Reducing the thickness of this layer or replacing it with a higher-bandgap material can provide a commensurate increase in device efficiency. When the CdS window is made thinner, a degradation in electronic quality of the device is observed with a reduction in open-circuit voltage and fill factor. One commonly used method to enable a thinner optimum CdS thickness is a high-resistance transparent (HRT) layer between the transparent conducting oxide electrode and window layer. The function of this layer has not been fully explained in the literature, and existing hypotheses center on the existence of pinholes in the window layer which are not consistent with observed results

  20. Module photovoltaïque et ombrages : étude et intégration d'une structure d'équilibrage

    OpenAIRE

    Vighetti, Stéphane; Lembeye, Yves; Ferrieux, Jean-Paul; Barbaroux, Jean

    2010-01-01

    National audience Les systèmes photovoltaïques (PV) actuels nécessitent la mise en série d'un grand nombre de cellules PV pour atteindre la tension nécessaire au convertisseur. Cette mise en série peut, en cas d'ombrage, même faible, impacter tous les modules et causer une perte notable de puissance. De plus, le développement du PV intégré au bâti en zone urbaine met en exergue ces problèmes d'ombrages. Cet article propose d'intégrer une topologie d'électronique de puissance au sein même d...

  1. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of CdTe for High-Efficiency Thin-Film PV Devices; Annual Report, 26 January 1998-25 January 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITN's 3-year project, titled ''Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) of CdTe for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Photovoltaic (PV) Devices,'' has the overall objectives of improving thin-film CdTe PV manufacturing technology and increasing CdTe PV device power conversion efficiency. CdTe deposition by APCVD employs the same reaction chemistry as has been used to deposit 16%-efficient CdTe PV films, i.e., close-spaced sublimation, but employs forced convection rather than diffusion as a mechanism of mass transport. Tasks of the APCVD program center on demonstrating APCVD of CdTe films, discovering fundamental mass-transport parameters, applying established engineering principles to the deposition of CdTe films, and verifying reactor design principles that could be used to design high-throughput, high-yield manufacturing equipment. Additional tasks relate to improved device measurement and characterization procedures that can lead to a more fundamental understanding of CdTe PV device operation, and ultimately, to higher device conversion efficiency and greater stability. Specifically, under the APCVD program, device analysis goes beyond conventional one-dimensional device characterization and analysis toward two-dimension measurements and modeling. Accomplishments of the first year of the APCVD subcontract include: selection of the Stagnant Flow Reactor design concept for the APCVD reactor, development of a detailed reactor design, performance of detailed numerical calculations simulating reactor performance, fabrication and installation of an APCVD reactor, performance of dry runs to verify reactor performance, performance of one-dimensional modeling of CdTe PV device performance, and development of a detailed plan for quantification of grain-boundary effects in polycrystalline CdTe devices

  2. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  3. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  4. Three-phase Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic technology has experienced unprecedented growth in the last two decades, transforming from mainly off-grid niche generation to a major renewable energy technology, reaching approximately 180 GW of capacity worldwide at the end of 2014. Large photovoltaic power plants interfacing the...... grid through a three-phase power electronic converter are now well on the way to becoming a major player in the power system in many countries. Therefore, this article gives an overview of photovoltaic systems with a focus on three-phase applications, presenting these both from a hardware point of view......, detailing the different photovoltaic inverter structures and topologies as well as discussing the different control layers within a grid-connected photovoltaic plant. Modulation schemes for various photovoltaic inverter topologies, grid synchronization, current control, active and reactive power control...

  5. Quality and energy yield of modules and photovoltaic plants - Final report; Qualita e resa energetica di moduli ed impianti fotovoltaici. Centrale ISAAC-TISO - Periodo VII: 2003-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D.; Bernasconi, A.; Friesen, G.; Cereghetti, N.; Pola, I.; Bura, E.; Nagel, K.; Pittet, D.; Realini, A.; Pasinelli, P.; Ballerini, N.; Rioggi, S.

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done at the ISAAC-TISO test centre in southern Switzerland. The main objective of the test centre is the evaluation of photovoltaic module quality, i.e. the assessment of the power values declared by the manufacturer, the electrical behaviour and energy production in varying climatic conditions, the stability of these values over time, and module life-span. Up till now, both outdoor and indoor structures for testing the electrical behaviour of modules have been realised. Indoor measurements under standard conditions are carried out using a solar simulator, outdoor measurements are carried out using external stands capable of accommodating 18 pairs of modules. The aim of the test procedure is to verify the actual power of modules; to verify if module guarantees are respected; to observe the behaviour of modules under real climatic conditions; to compare the energy yield of the different types of module; and finally, to develop methods for forecasting energy yield. The test installations are described in detail and various results are presented. Building-integrated photovoltaics is discussed and the mechanical characteristics of various module types are examined.

  6. Design of the Photovoltaic Grid-connected Power System Based on Intelligent Power Module%基于智能功率模块的光伏并网发电系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑绘绘; 杨奕

    2011-01-01

    近年来,光伏并网发电逐渐成为光伏应用的主流,对光伏并网发电系统的研究必将推动光伏并网发电技术的发展,进而增加光伏在能源替代中的作用.IPM50B5LA060是三菱公司推出的光伏专用智能功率模块,提出了基于该功率模块的光伏并网发电系统设计方案,详细介绍了系统主电路、模块外围接口电路的设计,并制作了实验样机.实验结果证明了方案的可行性和可靠性.%In recent years. Photovoltaic grid-connected generation gradually becoming the mainstream of photovoltaic application,researching on photovoltaic generation system will promote the development of photovoltaic grid-connected generation technology and then increase the replace role of the photovoltaic in energy. IPM50B5LA060 is the intelligent power module that Mitsubishi developed for PV. The design scheme for photovoltaic grid-connected power system which based on this intelligent power module was proposed, the design of the main circuit of the system and the interface circuit of the module were detailed introduced, then the prototype is maked. Experiment results show the feasibility and reliability of the scheme.

  7. Studies on optoelectronic properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium telluride continues to be a leading candidate for the development of cost effective photovoltaics for terrestrial applications. In the present work two individual metallic targets of Cd and Te were used for the deposition of CdTe thin films on mica substrates from room temperature to 300 °C by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. XRD patterns of CdTe thin films deposited on mica substrates exhibit peaks at 2θ = 27.7°, 46.1° and 54.6°, which corresponds to reflection on (1 1 1), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes of CdTe cubic structure. The intensities of XRD patterns increases with the increase of substrate temperature upto 150 °C and then it decreases at higher substrate temperatures. The conductivity of CdTe thin films measured from four probe method increases with the increase of substrate temperature. The activation energies (ΔE) are found to be decrease with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance spectra of CdTe thin films deposited on mica have a clear interference pattern in the longer wavelength region. The films have good transparency (T > 85 %) exhibiting interference pattern in the spectral region between 1200 – 2500 nm. The optical band gap of CdTe thin films are found to be in the range of 1.48 – 1.57. The refractive index, n decreases with the increase of wavelength, λ. The value of n and k increases with the increase of substrate temperature

  8. Phosphorus Diffusion Mechanisms and Deep Incorporation in Polycrystalline and Single-Crystalline CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Eric; Harvey, Steven P.; Yang, Ji-Hui; Burst, James M.; Albin, David S.; Wei, Su-Huai; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2016-05-01

    A key challenge in cadmium-telluride (CdTe) semiconductors is obtaining stable and high hole density. Group-I elements substituting Cd can form acceptors but easily self-compensate and diffuse quickly. For example, CdTe photovoltaics have relied on copper as a dopant, but this creates stability problems and hole density that has not exceeded 1015 cm-3 . If hole density can be increased beyond 1016 cm-3 , CdTe solar technology can exceed multicrystalline silicon performance and provide levelized costs of electricity below conventional energy sources. Group-V elements substituting Te offer a solution, but they are very difficult to incorporate. Using time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, we examine bulk and grain-boundary diffusion of phosphorus (P) in CdTe in Cd-rich conditions. We find that in addition to slow bulk diffusion and fast grain-boundary diffusion, there is a critical fast bulk-diffusion component that enables deep P incorporation in CdTe. Detailed first-principle calculations indicate the slow bulk-diffusion component is caused by substitutional P diffusion through the Te sublattice, whereas the fast bulk-diffusion component is caused by P diffusing through interstitial lattice sites following the combination of a kick-out step and two rotation steps. The latter is limited in magnitude by high formation energy, but is sufficient to manipulate P incorporation. In addition to an increased physical understanding, these results open up experimental possibilities for group-V doping in CdTe applications.

  9. Developments on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic panels at Photon Energy, Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, S.P.; Jordan, J.F.; Ackerman, B.; Chamberlin, R.R. (Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (USA))

    1989-10-15

    Photon Energy, Inc. has been developing a prototype production line that produces 1 ft{sup 2} and 4 ft{sup 2} photovoltaic modules based on polycrystalline thin films of CdS and CdTe. A 1 ft{sup 2} module has been measured at SERI with 7.3% aperture area and a corresponding output of 6.11 W. A 4 ft{sup 2} module delivered to SERI is the largest known single substrate CdS/CdTe module in the world to date. Active area efficiency has increased from 6.1 to 8.1% on 1 ft{sup 2} substrates delivered to SERI since June 1987. An efficiency of 12.3% has recently been achieved on a small cell (0.302 cm{sup 2} area). Higher efficiencies (over 13%) are expected as a more transparent window layer is developed. Research and development efforts have focused on stability and efficiency issues. Areas studied include electroding, encapsulation, doping, small cell as well as 1 ft{sup 2} and 4 ft{sup 2} module performance optimization, and accelerated as well as real-time life testing. (orig.).

  10. A Criterion for Rating the Usability and Accuracy of the One-Diode Models for Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Orioli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In selecting a mathematical model for simulating physical behaviours, it is important to reach an acceptable compromise between analytical complexity and achievable precision. With the aim of helping researchers and designers working in the area of photovoltaic systems to make a choice among the numerous diode-based models, a criterion for rating both the usability and accuracy of one-diode models is proposed in this paper. A three-level rating scale, which considers the ease of finding the data used by the analytical procedure, the simplicity of the mathematical tools needed to perform calculations and the accuracy achieved in calculating the current and power, is used. The proposed criterion is tested on some one-diode equivalent circuits whose analytical procedures, hypotheses and equations are minutely reviewed along with the operative steps to calculate the model parameters. To assess the achievable accuracy, the current-voltage (I-V curves at constant solar irradiance and/or cell temperature obtained from the analysed models are compared to the characteristics issued by photovoltaic (PV panel manufacturers and the differences of current and power are calculated. The results of the study highlight that, even if the five parameter equivalent circuits are suitable tools, different usability ratings and accuracies can be observed.

  11. High efficiency thin film CdTe solar cells. Second quarterly progress report, June 19-September 18, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serreze, H.B.; Entine, G.; Goldner, R.B.

    1979-10-01

    During the second quarter of this program primary emphasis was put into depositing and evaluating both n and p-type CdTe films on a variety of conducting and non-conducting substrates. Improvements in the deposition apparatus permitted preparation of a large number of CdTe films and numerous analytic techniques available at Tufts University were utilized to examine these films. It was found that the introduction of a thin (100 A). In layer between the ITO and the CdTe significantly reduced the previously observed barrier present at the ITO/n-CdTe interface without adversely reducing optical transmission. While the resistivity of the films is still rather high, very recent results show that proper changes in procedure are capable of markedly lowering the resistivity. Preliminary Schottky barrier devices have been made which show promising photovoltaic characteristics.

  12. Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokalič, Matevž; Raguse, John; Sites, James R.; Topič, Marko

    2013-09-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) imaging process of small area solar cells is investigated in detail to expose optical and electrical effects that influence image acquisition and corrupt the acquired image. An approach to correct the measured EL images and to extract the exact EL radiation as emitted from the photovoltaic device is presented. EL images of circular cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells are obtained under different conditions. The power-law relationship between forward injection current and EL emission and a negative temperature coefficient of EL radiation are observed. The distributed Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE®) model of the circular CdTe solar cell is used to simulate the dark J-V curve and current distribution under the conditions used during EL measurements. Simulation results are presented as circularly averaged EL intensity profiles, which clearly show that the ratio between resistive parameters determines the current distribution in thin-film solar cells. The exact resistance values for front and back contact layers and for CdTe bulk layer are determined at different temperatures, and a negative temperature coefficient for the CdTe bulk resistance is observed.

  13. Estimation of non-linear continuous time models for the heat exchange dynamics of building integrated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.;

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on a method for linear or non-linear continuous time modelling of physical systems using discrete time data. This approach facilitates a more appropriate modelling of more realistic non-linear systems. Particularly concerning advanced building components, convective and radiative...... heat interchanges are non-linear effects and represent significant contributions in a variety of components such as photovoltaic integrated facades or roofs and those using these effects as passive cooling strategies, etc. Since models are approximations of the physical system and data is encumbered...... with measurement errors it is also argued that it is important to consider stochastic models. More specifically this paper advocates for using continuous-discrete stochastic state space models in the form of non-linear partially observed stochastic differential equations (SDE's)-with measurement noise...

  14. The Present, Mid-Term, and Long-Term Supply Curves for Tellurium; and Updates in the Results from NREL's CdTe PV Module Manufacturing Cost Model (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; Redlinger, M.; Lokanc, M.; Eggert, R.

    2013-09-01

    For those PV technologies that rely upon Te, In, and Ga, first-order observations and calculations hint that there may be resource constraints that could inhibit their successful deployment at a SunShot level. These are only first-order approximations, however, and the possibility for an expansion in global Te, In, and Ga supplies needs to be considered in the event that there are upward revisions in their demand and prices.In this study, we examine the current, mid-term, and long-term prospects of Tellurium (Te) for use in PV. We find that the current global supply base of Te would support <10 GW of annual traditional CdTe PV manufacturing production. But as for the possibility that the supply base for Te might be expanded, after compiling several preliminary cumulative availability curves we find that there may be significant upside potential in the supply base for this element - principally vis a vis increasing demand and higher prices. Primarily by reducing the Tellurium intensity in manufacturing and by increasing the recovery efficiency of Te in Cu refining processes, we calculate that it may prove affordable to PV manufacturers to expand the supply base for Te such that 100 GW, or greater, of annual CdTe PV production is possible in the 2030 - 2050 timeframe.

  15. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Y.; Chmeissani, M.; Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm2 area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm3. The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(G...

  16. Inline atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition for thin film CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study has been undertaken to assess the deposition of CdTe for thin film devices via an inline atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (AP-MOCVD) reactor. The precursors for CdTe synthesis were released from a showerhead assembly normal to a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/glass substrate, previously coated with a CdZnS window layer using a conventional batch AP-MOCVD reactor with horizontal flow delivery. Under a simulated illumination with air mass coefficient 1.5 (AM1.5), the initial best cell conversion efficiency (11.2%) for such hybrid cells was comparable to a reference device efficiency (∼ 13%), grown entirely in the AP-MOCVD batch reactor. The performance and structure of the hybrid and conventional devices are compared for spectral response, CdTe grain morphology and crystal structure. These preliminary results reported on the transfer from a batch to an inline AP-MOCVD reactor which holds a good potential for the large-scale production of thin film photovoltaics devices and related materials. - Highlights: • Inline metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) used to grow CdTe films • Desired dopant profiles in CdTe:As achieved with inline MOCVD reactor • Initial conversion efficiency of 11.2% was comparable to batch devices (∼ 13%). • Inline MOCVD holds a good potential for large-scale thin film photovoltaics production

  17. Photovoltaics Performance and Reliability Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrig, L.

    This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

  18. Does the band gap calculated from the photocurrent of Schottky devices lead to erroneous results? Analysis for CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Xavier

    2000-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in flexible, lightweight photovoltaic modules based on thin metallic substrates. This paper reports some optoelectronic properties of electrodeposited CdTe thin films grown onto lightweight stainless steel (SS) foils. The optoelectronic properties were investigated with Schottky barriers of Au/CdTe/SS structure. The influence of the built-in potential of the Schottky junction on the bulk and the interface recombination of the photo-generated minority carriers is explained with the existing models. The voltage-dependent collection functions influence the photocurrent of the devices in both short- and long-wavelength regions of the spectrum. It is observed that in the photovoltaic mode the contribution due to the collection functions depends on the open-circuit voltage of the device. Au/CdTe Schottky devices, having higher open-circuit voltage, exhibit a better response in the long wavelength region. This is due to the efficient collection of the carriers generated in the bulk of the film and in such devices the contribution from the bulk collection function is higher. The enhancement in the bulk collection function causes a shift in the response of the device to higher wavelengths giving lower values for the calculated band gap. Due to this dependence of the long wavelength response on the open-circuit voltage of the devices, the band gap calculated from the photocurrent of different Schottky devices gives different values for the band gap of the material. Thus the method of calculating the band gap from the photocurrent of Schottky devices can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the band gap of the material.

  19. High-Efficiency, Commercial Ready CdTe Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, James R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-11-19

    Colorado State’s F-PACE project explored several ways to increase the efficiency of CdTe solar cells and to better understand the device physics of those cells under study. Increases in voltage, current, and fill factor resulted in efficiencies above 17%. The three project tasks and additional studies are described in detail in the final report. Most cells studied were fabricated at Colorado State using an industry-compatible single-vacuum closed-space-sublimation (CSS) chamber for deposition of the key semiconductor layers. Additionally, some cells were supplied by First Solar for comparison purposes, and a small number of modules were supplied by Abound Solar.

  20. System tests and applications photovoltaic program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    A summary of all the photovoltaic system tests and application experiments that have been initiated since the start of the US DOE Photovoltaics Program in 1975 is presented. They are organized in the following manner for ease of reference: (1) application experiments: these are independently designed and constructed projects which are funded by DOE; (2) system field tests: projects designed and monitored by the national laboratories involved in the photovoltaic program; (3) exhibits: designed to acquaint the general public to photovoltaics; (4) component field tests: real time endurance testing conducted to monitor module reliability under actual environmental conditions; and (5) test facilities: descriptions of the four national laboratories involved in the photovoltaic program.

  1. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  2. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  3. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  4. Effects of Stoichiometry in Undoped CdTe Heteroepilayers on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Colegrove, Eric; Stafford, Brian; Gao, Wei; Sivananthan, Siva; Kuciauskas, Darius; Moutinho, Helio; Farrell, Stuart; Barnes, Teresa

    2015-06-14

    Crystalline CdTe layers have been grown heteroepitaxially onto crystalline Si substrates to establish material parameters needed for advanced photovoltaic (PV) device development and related simulation. These studies suggest that additional availability of the intrinsic anion (i.e., Te) during molecular beam epitaxy deposition can improve structural and optoelectronic quality of the epilayer and the interface between Si substrate and the epilayer. This is seen most notably for thin CdTe epitaxial films (<; ~10 micrometers). Although these observations are foundationally important, they are also relevant to envisioned high-performance multijunction II-VI alloy PV devices-where thin layers will be required to achieve production costs aligned with market constraints.

  5. High efficiency solution processed sintered CdTe nanocrystal solar cells: the role of interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Matthew G; Kurley, J Matthew; Crisp, Ryan W; Dietz, Travis C; Ezzyat, Taha; Luther, Joseph M; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2014-02-12

    Solution processing of photovoltaic semiconducting layers offers the potential for drastic cost reduction through improved materials utilization and high device throughput. One compelling solution-based processing strategy utilizes semiconductor layers produced by sintering nanocrystals into large-grain semiconductors at relatively low temperatures. Using n-ZnO/p-CdTe as a model system, we fabricate sintered CdTe nanocrystal solar cells processed at 350 °C with power conversion efficiencies (PCE) as high as 12.3%. JSC of over 25 mA cm(-2) are achieved, which are comparable or higher than those achieved using traditional, close-space sublimated CdTe. We find that the VOC can be substantially increased by applying forward bias for short periods of time. Capacitance measurements as well as intensity- and temperature-dependent analysis indicate that the increased VOC is likely due to relaxation of an energetic barrier at the ITO/CdTe interface. PMID:24364381

  6. Identification of critical stacking faults in thin-film CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type semiconductor used in thin-film solar cells. To achieve high light-to-electricity conversion, annealing in the presence of CdCl2 is essential, but the underlying mechanism is still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that a reduction in the high density of stacking faults in the CdTe grains is a key process that occurs during the chemical treatment. A range of stacking faults, including intrinsic, extrinsic, and twin boundary, are computationally investigated to identify the extended defects that limit performance. The low-energy faults are found to be electrically benign, while a number of higher energy faults, consistent with atomic-resolution micrographs, are predicted to be hole traps with fluctuations in the local electrostatic potential. It is expected that stacking faults will also be important for other thin-film photovoltaic technologies

  7. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  8. Energy efficiency of photovoltaic modules mono and polycrystalline in function of global solar radiation; Eficiencia energetica de modulos fotovoltaicos mono e poli-cristalinos em funcao da radiacao solar global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jairsiqueira@fca.unesp.br; Silva, Carliane Diniz e [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Fiorentino, Jair de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: jairfiorentino@terra.com.br; Araujo, Joao Alberto Borges de [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Botucatu (FATEC), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes a methodology to evaluate the acting of the solar energy conversion in electric energy, generated by photovoltaic modules installed under field conditions, constituted monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon cells. The modules were appraised with relationship to energy efficiency for different marks and potency levels, in function of the readiness of solar radiation, being used loads sized for the nominal potency level of each module. The energy efficiency values calculated with the data obtained in field, didn't agree with the technical information presented by the makers of the modules monocrystalline, as being more efficient than the polycrystalline. Was ended, therefore, that the modules of the appraised marks presented inferior medium efficiency at 50% of the values supplied by the makers (author)

  9. Qualification testing of photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E. H.; Barlow, R. S.

    Sandia has developed a revised set of specifications for qualification testing of passively-cooled photovoltaic concentrator modules. The purpose of the tests is to screen new concentrator designs and new production runs for susceptibility to known failure mechanisms; concentrator hardware must be qualified prior to array-level installation at Sandia's Photovoltaic Advanced System Test Facility (PASTF). Tests for cell assemblies and receiver sections, as well as for complete modules, are specified. They include ultraviolet radiation testing of materials, characterization of electrical performance checks to assure safety and structural integrity of modules, and accelerated environmental aging or cycling.

  10. Qualification testing of photovoltaic concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia has developed a revised set of specifications for qualification testing of passively-cooled photovoltaic concentrator modules. The purpose of the tests is to screen new concentrator designs and new production runs for susceptibility to known failure mechanisms; concentrator hardware must be qualified prior to array-level installation at Sandia's Photovoltaic Advanced System Test Facility (PASTF). Tests for cell assemblies and receiver sections, as well as for complete modules, are specified. They include ultraviolet radiation testing of materials, characterization of electrical performance, checks to assure safety and structural integrity of modules, and accelerated environmental aging or cycling

  11. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  12. Plasmonic metallic nanostructures for efficient absorption enhancement in ultrathin CdTe-based photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of incorporating metal nanodiscs (NDs) and nanospheres on optical absorptions of a CdTe solar cell are theoretically investigated by finite-difference time-domain calculations. Significant broadband absorption enhancements have been demonstrated in CdTe layers with various metals, among which Al-ND arrays result in the best photon absorption performance of up to 50% enhancement with respect to bare CdTe materials. The origins of increased absorptions are believed to be the effects of the enormous electric field enhancement and increased scattering upon the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance. The geometrical dependences of photon absorption in plasmonic CdTe thin films are also studied, from which the relatively optimal geometrical parameters leading to the ultimate solar cell efficiency of ∼36% are extracted. Besides, this work offers a clue to using low-cost plasmonic metals for potential photovoltaic applications.

  13. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F-G; Holm, O; Berger, W

    2013-04-01

    Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources. PMID:23402897

  14. Mathematical Model for Photovoltaic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wafaa ABD EL-BASIT; Ashraf Mosleh ABD El–MAKSOOD; Fouad Abd El-Moniem Saad SOLIMAN

    2013-01-01

    The study of photovoltaic systems in an efficient manner requires a precise knowledge of the (I-V) and (P-V) characteristic curves of photovoltaic modules. So, the aim of the present paper is to estimate such characteristics based on different operating conditions. In this concern, a simple one diode mathematical model was implemented using MATLAB script. The output characteristics of PV cell depend on the environmental conditions. For any solar cell, the model parameters are function of the ...

  15. Georgetown University Photovoltaic Higher Education National Exemplar Facility (PHENEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N.

    1984-01-01

    Several photographs of this facility using photovoltaic (PV) cells are shown. An outline is given of the systems requirements, system design and wiring topology, a simplified block design, module electrical characteristics, PV module and PV module matching.

  16. Current status of photovoltaic research at SERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S. K.

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of the Solar Energy Research Institute's photovoltaic cell development program is to conduct high risk, potentially high-payoff R&D leading to a more substantial knowledge base for exploitation by private concerns interested in the electrical energy market. Attention is presently given to the status of research and development for crystalline and amorphous silicon, polycrystalline CuInSe2 and CdTe thin-film, and high efficiency III-V compound solar cells. Comparative efficiencies and economies are presented in tabular form, together with schematics of promising solar cell layer structures.

  17. Thin film CdTe solar cells by close spaced sublimation: Recent results from pilot line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe is an attractive material to produce high efficient and low cost thin film solar cells. The semiconducting layers of this kind of solar cell can be deposited by the Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) process. The advantages of this technique are high deposition rates and an excellent utilization of the raw material, leading to low production costs and competitive module prices. CTF Solar GmbH is offering equipment and process knowhow for the production of CdTe solar modules. For further improvement of the technology, research is done at a pilot line, which covers all relevant process steps for manufacture of CdTe solar cells. Herein, we present the latest results from the process development and our research activities on single functional layers as well as for complete solar cell devices. Efficiencies above 13% have already been obtained with Cu-free back contacts. An additional focus is set on different transparent conducting oxide materials for the front contact and a Sb2Te3 based back contact. - Highlights: ► Laboratory established on industrial level for CdTe solar cell research ► 13.0% cell efficiency with our standard front contact and Cu-free back contact ► Research on ZnO-based transparent conducting oxide and Sb2Te3 back contacts ► High resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of ion polished cross section

  18. Quantized Nanocrystalline CdTe Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystalline CdTe thin films were prepared by asymmetric rectangular pulse electrodeposition in organic solution at 110°C. STM image shows a porous network morphology constructed by interconnected spherical CdTe crystallites with a mean diameter of 4.2 nm. A pronounced size quantization was indicated in the action and absorption spectra. Potentials dependence dual conductive behavior was revealed in the photocurrent-potential (I-V) curves.

  19. Chlorine diffusion in CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadaiyandi, K.; Ramachandran, K. (School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India))

    1991-06-01

    The experimental results of chlorine diffusion in CdTe reveal that the dominant mechanism for diffusion is through neutral defect pair such as (V{sub Cd}V{sub Te}){sup *}. Here, theoretical calculations are carried out for all the possible mechanisms such as single vacancy, single interstitial, neutral defect pair, and Frenkel defect pair. The results suggest that the most possible mechanism for Cl diffusion in CdTe is that through neutral defect pair, supporting the experiment. (orig.).

  20. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  1. Development of static photovoltaic concentrator modules with diffuse reflector; Desenvolvimento de modulos fotovoltaicos concentradores estaticos com refletor difuso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehn Febras, Filipe

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was to manufacture and to characterize prototypes of flat static concentrator modules, called MEC-P. This concentrator consists of strings of bifacial cells and a white reflecting plane. Then the reflected radiation can reach the rear face of the bifacial cells. Two prototypes had been manufactured: prototype A, with 615 mm x 315 mm x 60 mm, and prototype B, with 615 mm x 365 x mm x 60 mm, considering length, width and height. These dimensions are based on previous work of optimization of the MEC-P, and the difference between prototype A and prototype B is the distance between the most external string and the edge of the module. Commercial white paints had been tested on the reflecting plane. The best result is achieved with the paint named Hammerite{sup R}, with averaged reflectance above 90 % for wavelengths from 400 nm to 1050 nm. The selected paint was aged in external conditions and in an ultraviolet radiation accelerated aging chamber. It was observed a reflectance degradation from its original value after exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Nevertheless, when the sample painted was exposed to UV radiations under a glass plate laminated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), the reflectance of the samples remained the same. The prototypes had been installed in Porto Alegre, 48 deg tilted to the horizontal, with the strings toward east-west or north-south. To characterize the prototypes, solar cells had been installed to measure the incident irradiance in six regions of the prototypes and to evaluate the operating temperature. Taking into account the optical concentration (C{sub OP}) for the worst irradiance on the rear face of the bifacial cell, we observed that the prototype B with strings toward the north-south shows the larger C{sub OP} and mainly, constant during the period with higher irradiance for cloudless days. MEC-P prototypes presented operating 18 temperatures from 15 deg C to 26 deg C above the ambient temperature, similar to the

  2. Study on analytical modelling approaches to the performance of thin film PV modules in sunny inland climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed at verifying that analytical modelling approaches may provide an estimation of the outdoor performance of TF (thin film) PV (photovoltaic) technologies in inland sites with sunny climates with adequate accuracy for engineering purposes. Osterwald's and constant fill factor methods were tried to model the maximum power delivered and the annual energy produced by PV modules corresponding to four TF PV technologies. Only calibrated electrical parameters at STC (standard test conditions), on-plane global irradiance and module temperature are required as inputs. A 12-month experimental campaign carried out in Madrid and Jaén (Spain) provided the necessary data. Modelled maximum power and annual energy values obtained through both methods were statistically compared to the experimental ones. In power terms, the RMSE (root mean square error) stays below 3.8% and 4.5% for CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules, respectively, while RMSE exceeds 5.4% for a-Si (amorphous silicon) or a-Si:H/μc-Si PV modules. Regarding energy terms, errors lie below 4.0% in all cases. Thus, the methods tried may be used to model the outdoor behaviour of the a-Si, a-Si:H/μc-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV modules tested – ordered from the lowest to the highest accuracy obtained – in sites with similar spectral characteristics to those of the two sites considered. - Highlights: • Simple analytical methods to model the outdoor behaviour of thin film PV (photovoltaic) technologies. • 8 PV modules were deployed outdoors over a 12-month period in two sunny inland sites. • RMSE (root mean square error) values stay below 3.8% and 4.5% in CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules. • Errors remain below 4.0% for all the PV modules and sites in energy terms. • Simple methods: suitable estimation of PV outdoor behaviour for engineering purposes

  3. Photovoltaic business

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The work is focused on business photovoltaic performance as one of the alternative sources of electrical power. Theoretical part was created by quoting work up documents. Literature search was divided into several parts. The first part revolves around the solar radiation and its advantages and disadvantages. In the second part is speaking about the variations of using solar energy from heating the water to generate electric energy. It also deals with photovoltaic power plants in the world and...

  4. PVMaT improvements in the Solarex photovoltaic module manufacturing technology: Annual subcontract report: May 5, 1998 -- April 30, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2000-01-10

    This report describes work done by Solarex during the first year of this subcontract. The objective of this three-year PVMaT program is to continue the advancement of Solarex PV manufacturing technologies to design and implement a process that produces polycrystalline silicon PV modules that can be sold profitably for $2.00 per peak watt or less and that will increase the production capacity of the Frederick plant to at least 25 megawatts per year. Accomplishments during the first year of the program include: (1) Verification of the process to produce SiF{sub 4}, the precursor to silicon feedstock. (2) Design of a silicon feedstock pilot facility using the SiNaF process. (3) Development of and transfer to manufacturing of a process to use thinner wire in the wire saw. (4) Completion of a production trial with recycled SiC. (5) Laboratory development of a selective emitter process using rapid thermal processing. (6) Fabrication of high-efficiency polycrystalline cells using silicon nitride from three different sources. (7) Development of a new encapsulation formulation and laboratory demonstration of a 6-minute lamination cycle. (8) Implementation of an automated laminator. (9) Laboratory demonstration of automated handling of ceramics.

  5. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources

  6. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, F.-G., E-mail: franz-georg.simon@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.3 Contaminant Transfer and Environmental Technologies, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Holm, O.; Berger, W. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.3 Contaminant Transfer and Environmental Technologies, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  7. Experimental evaluation of a-Se and CdTe flat-panel x-ray detectors for digital radiography and fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Susumu; Hori, Naoyuki; Sato, Kenji; Tokuda, Satoshi; Sato, Toshiyuki; Uehara, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Youji; Yamada, Satoshi

    2000-04-01

    Described are two types of direct-detection flat-panel X-ray detectors utilizing amorphous selenium (a-Se) and cadmium telluride (CdTe). The a-Se detector is fabricated using direct deposition onto a thin film transistor (TFT) substrate, whereas the CdTe detector is fabricated using a novel hybrid method, in which CdTe is pre-deposited onto a glass substrate and then connected to a TFT substrate. The detector array format is 512 X 512 with a pixel pitch of 150 micrometer. The imaging properties of both detectors have been evaluated with respect to X-ray sensitivity, lag, spatial resolution, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) measured at 1 lp/mm were 0.96 for a- Se and 0.65 for CdTe. The imaging lags after 33 ms were about 4% for a-Se and 22% for CdTe. The DQE values measured at zero spatial frequency were 0.75 for a-Se and 0.22 for CdTe. The results indicate that the a-Se and CdTe detectors have high potential as new digital X-ray imaging devices for both radiography and fluoroscopy.

  8. The activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using alternative chlorine containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, B., E-mail: B.Maniscalco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Kaminski, P.M.; Bass, K. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); West, G. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    The re-crystallisation of thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) using cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) is a vital process for obtaining high efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the precise micro-structural mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study, we have used alternative chlorine-containing compounds to determine if these can also assist the re-crystallisation of the CdTe layer and to understand the separate roles of cadmium and chlorine during the activation. The compounds used were: tellurium tetrachloride (TeCl{sub 4}), cadmium acetate (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}). TeCl{sub 4} was used to assess the role of Cl and the formation of a Te-rich outer layer which may assist the formation of the back contact. (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}) and HCl were used to distinguish between the roles of cadmium and chlorine in the process. Finally, ZnCl{sub 2} was employed as an alternative to CdCl{sub 2}. We report on the efficacy of using these alternative Cl-containing compounds to remove the high density of planar defects present in untreated CdTe. - Highlights: • Cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) activation treatment • Alternative chlorine containing compounds • Microstructure analysis and electrical performances.

  9. The activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using alternative chlorine containing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The re-crystallisation of thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) using cadmium chloride (CdCl2) is a vital process for obtaining high efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the precise micro-structural mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study, we have used alternative chlorine-containing compounds to determine if these can also assist the re-crystallisation of the CdTe layer and to understand the separate roles of cadmium and chlorine during the activation. The compounds used were: tellurium tetrachloride (TeCl4), cadmium acetate (Cd(CH3CO2)2), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2). TeCl4 was used to assess the role of Cl and the formation of a Te-rich outer layer which may assist the formation of the back contact. (Cd(CH3CO2)2) and HCl were used to distinguish between the roles of cadmium and chlorine in the process. Finally, ZnCl2 was employed as an alternative to CdCl2. We report on the efficacy of using these alternative Cl-containing compounds to remove the high density of planar defects present in untreated CdTe. - Highlights: • Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) activation treatment • Alternative chlorine containing compounds • Microstructure analysis and electrical performances

  10. CuInSe2 and CdTe: Scale-up for manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweibel, Ken; Mitchell, Richard

    1989-12-01

    The information in this report was originally compiled to serve as a chapter in a photovoltaic reference book. The particular focus of this chapter was on the development of low-cost photovoltaic materials, namely CuInSe2 and CdTe, two leading polycrystalline thin film materials exhibiting high efficiencies and low production costs. Both materials demonstrate significant potential as usable technologies in the commercial market. While the primary focus of this review is on the characteristics of these materials, the authors also provide a look at key methods for making these materials as well as for making added layers that are required for completing a device. In addition, the authors discuss related issues to specific materials (e.g., availability, stability, toxicity) and to each approach (e.g., advantages and drawbacks).

  11. Identification of the curve of maximum power of photovoltaic modules using simulation software; Identificacao da curva de maxima potencia de modulos FV utilizando softwares de simulacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Andre Pimentel; Ramalho, Geraldo Luis Bezerra; Dias, Samuel Vieira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Ceara (CEFETCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], emails: apmoreira@cefetce.br, gramalho@cefetce.br, samueldias@cefetce.br; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFETPet), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], email: rangel@cefetpet.br

    2008-07-01

    This article is presented the study and compared the behaviour of real and simulated a photovoltaic system, through the design and simulation software, Electronic Workbench (MultiSIM 9), AIM-Spice and identifying the point of maximum power (MPP), with the help of modeling software from Matlab. The results of the simulated model were very close to data collected from a real.photovoltaic system. (author)

  12. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  13. Monocrystalline CdTe solar cells with open-circuit voltage over 1 V and efficiency of 17%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Boccard, Mathieu; Liu, Shi; Becker, Jacob; Zhao, Xin-Hao; Campbell, Calli M.; Suarez, Ernesto; Lassise, Maxwell B.; Holman, Zachary; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2016-06-01

    The open-circuit voltages of mature single-junction photovoltaic devices are lower than the bandgap energy of the absorber, typically by a gap of 400 mV. For CdTe, which has a bandgap of 1.5 eV, the gap is larger; for polycrystalline samples, the open-circuit voltage of solar cells with the record efficiency is below 900 mV, whereas for monocrystalline samples it has only recently achieved values barely above 1 V. Here, we report a monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe double-heterostructure solar cell with open-circuit voltages of up to 1.096 V. The latticed-matched MgCdTe barrier layers provide excellent passivation to the CdTe absorber, resulting in a carrier lifetime of 3.6 μs. The solar cells are made of 1- to 1.5-μm-thick n-type CdTe absorbers, and passivated hole-selective p-type a-SiCy:H contacts. This design allows CdTe solar cells to be made thinner and more efficient. The best power conversion efficiency achieved in a device with this structure is 17.0%.

  14. Photo-induced interaction of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots with cyanine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbar, Mostafa F; Fayed, Tarek A; Meaz, Talaat M; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M

    2016-11-01

    The photo-induced interaction of three different sizes of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) with two monomethine cyanine dyes belonging to the thiazole orange (TO) family has been studied. Positively charged cyanines interact with QDs surface which is negatively charged due to capping agent carboxylate ions. The energy transfer parameters including Stern-Volmer constant, Ksv, number of binding sites, n, quenching sphere radius, r, the critical energy transfer distance, R0, and energy transfer efficiencies, E have been calculated. The effect of structure and the number of aggregating molecules have been studied as a function of CdTe QDs particle size. Combining organic and inorganic semiconductors leads to increase of the effective absorption cross section of the QDs which can be utilized in novel nanoscale designs for light-emitting, photovoltaic and sensor applications. A synthesized triplet emission of the studied dyes was observed using CdTe QDs as donors and this is expected to play a potential role in molecular oxygen sensitization and in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications. PMID:27267278

  15. Development of CdTe line sensors for a fast X-ray CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Fast scanning X-ray CT system was developed to visualize dynamic motion of interface in multi-phase flow. The scanning time less than 4 msec. was achieved by using 18 pulsed X-ray generators and highly sensitive 256-pixel CdTe line sensor modules. The sensor device technology is based on their prototypes previously assembled for high-resolution radiography and tomography imaging of electronic parts. Equipped with the above CdTe modules, the fast X-ray CT system was able to visualize the 50 mm diameter cross section with a spatial resolution of 2.8 mm. When the system was applied to an air-water two-phase flow and a simplified fluidized bed system, it successfully quantified the multi-dimensional characteristics of interface in flow. (author)

  16. High-efficiency large-area CdTe panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.; Jordan, John F.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this three year effort has been to develop an improved materials technology and fabrication process for limited volume production of 1 and 4 sq ft CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. The module stability objective by the end of this three year subcontract was to develop techniques to provide ten year life exploration with no greater than 10 percent degradation. In order to achieve these efficiency and stability objectives, the research program has been separated into tasks including: (1) analysis and characterization of CdS/CdTe devices; (2) performance optimization on small cells; (3) encapsulation and stability testing; and (4) module efficiency optimization.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Earth Abundant and Nontoxic Metal Chalcogenides Produced via Aerosol Spray Pyrolysis for Photovoltaic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Patrick John

    2013-01-01

    A novel synthesis technique for the production of copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals has been developed using aerosol spray pyrolysis. CZTS is a quaternary semiconducting material that shows promise as a replacement to common semiconductors such as CdTe and CIGS for use in photovoltaic devices. CIGS is currently being commercialized in the photovoltaic industry, but rare and expensive indium and gallium components threaten its long term viability. CZTS looks to be one of the best alt...

  18. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  19. Photovoltaic: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Herbert J.

    This instructional manual contains 11 learning activity packets for use in a workshop on photovoltaic converters. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction; solar radiation--input for photovoltaic converters; photovoltaic cells; solar electric generator systems; characteristics of silicon cells; photovoltaic module source resistance;…

  20. Performance of a Parabolic Concentrating Solar photovoltaic module of Building integrated Photovoltaic%应用于建筑光伏一体化的聚光光伏组件性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常泽辉; 文麒麟

    2013-01-01

      构造一种可应用于建筑光伏一体化的聚光光伏组件,在典型天气下对聚光光伏组件的性能展开实验研究,并能接收一部分散射光。这为建筑光伏一体化的设计和优化提供了参考。%Construct a concentrating photovoltaic components that can be applied to BIPV, expand the experimental study of the performance concentrating photovoltaic components in a typical weather,and be able to receive a portion of the scattered light. This is th reference for the design and optimization of BIPV.

  1. Applied photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wenham, Stuart R; Watt, Muriel E; Corkish, Richard; Sproul, Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The new edition of this thoroughly considered textbook provides a reliable, accessible and comprehensive guide for students of photovoltaic applications and renewable energy engineering. Written by a group of award-winning authors it is brimming with information and is carefully designed to meet the needs of its readers. Along with exercises and references at the end of each chapter, it features a set of detailed technical appendices that provide essential equations, data sources and standards. The new edition has been fully updated with the latest information on photovoltaic cells,

  2. Valuation of the quantity of electric output from photovoltaic generation system in case of PV module applied to installing to vertical direction; Taiyo denchi wo suichoku ni haichishita baai no hatsudenryo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In general, it is most efficient and economical to install photovoltaic (PV) modules with proper slope. There are room spaces on the wall except ground or roof. The PV modules were installed on the vertical wall, to consider the compensative method for this weak point. When modules were installed vertically, there is an advantage that reflecting solar light as well as incident solar light can be utilized compared with the installation with slope. The PV modules were installed on the roof of building with inclination of 90{degree} facing to south using the roof material as a reflecting material (S90), and with inclination of 15{degree} facing to south (S15), to compare their output. The output ratio, S90/S15 was 0.42. When it was very fine, this value increased to 0.60. When using plated steel plate as the reflecting material, this value increased to 0.74, which provided 10 to 30% larger output than the roof material. From these results, about 50% of module output of S15 can be expected for S90. If receiving larger reflection, there would only a slight difference in the module output between S15 and S90. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) leaching behavior and surface chemistry in response to pH and O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao; Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Field, Jim A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) are increasingly being applied in photovoltaic solar cells and electronic components. A major concern is the public health and ecological risks associated with the potential release of toxic cadmium, tellurium, and/or selenium species. In this study, different tests were applied to investigate the leaching behavior of CdTe and CdSe in solutions simulating landfill leachate. CdTe showed a comparatively high leaching potential. In the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Waste Extraction Test (WET), the concentrations of cadmium released from CdTe were about 1500 and 260 times higher than the regulatory limit (1 mg/L). In contrast, CdSe was relatively stable and dissolved selenium in both leaching tests was below the regulatory limit (1 mg/L). Nonetheless, the regulatory limit for cadmium was exceeded by 5- to 6- fold in both tests. Experiments performed under different pH and redox conditions confirmed a marked enhancement in CdTe and CdSe dissolution both at acidic pH and under aerobic conditions. These findings are in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that recycling of decommissioned CdTe-containing devices is desirable to prevent the potential environmental release of toxic cadmium and tellurium in municipal landfills. PMID:25710599

  4. Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Radziemska

    2009-01-01

    The present commercial photovoltaic solar cells (PV) converts solar energy into electricity with a relatively low efficiency, less than 20%. More than 80% of the absorbed solar energy is dumped to the surroundings again after photovoltaic conversion. Hybrid PV/T systems consist of PV modules coupled with the heat extraction devices. The PV/T collectors generate electric power and heat simultaneously. Stabilizing temperature of photovoltaic modules at low level is higly desirable to ob...

  5. Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System

    OpenAIRE

    Radziemska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The present commercial photovoltaic solar cells (PV) converts solar energy into electricity with a relatively low efficiency, less than 20%. More than 80% of the absorbed solar energy is dumped to the surroundings again after photovoltaic conversion. Hybrid PV/T systems consist of PV modules coupled with the heat extraction devices. The PV/T collectors generate electric power and heat simultaneously. Stabilizing temperature of photovoltaic modules at low level is higly desirable to obtain eff...

  6. Review of the field performance of one cadmium telluride module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto, J.A. del [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Performance data gathered in situ from a large-area cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module that has been deployed outdoors since February 1995 are investigated. It appears that the module's performance has been stable over the last 2 years but it exhibits a semi-cyclical variation whereby the efficiency appears to peak between the autumnal equinox and winter solstice. Analyses are performed that dissect module current-voltage parameters by irradiance and examine their dependence on temperature. The temperature coefficient of the efficiency is quite small and negative from 80% of 1-sun intensity and upwards. Its meager value is the outcome of the sizes and opposite sings of the temperature coefficients of the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. Average module series resistance is quantified and shown to be a determinant in power loss of 11% at 1-sun intensity. It is demonstrated to constrain the fill factor at illumination intensities above 60% of 1-sun, which occurs in the same range of illumination intensities that the temperature coefficients of the fill factor exhibit positive values. Evidence is presented that points to some spectrally-induced variations in the efficiency. (Author)

  7. Lightweight, Flexible Photovoltaic Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With recent advances in MicroLink's inverted metamorphic (IMM) multijunction epitaxial lift off (ELO) solar cells, new opportunities for solar cell packaging are...

  8. Installation Photovoltaïque de l'Ecole d'Aïre : 9.5 kWc de modules amorphes - Analyse des données de fonctionnement, comparaisons avec le logiciel PVsyst

    OpenAIRE

    Mermoud, André; Durot, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Nous avons enregistré les données de fonctionnement d'une installation photovoltaïque de 9.9 kWc, constituée de modules amorphes, sur plus de 2 ans, avec pour objectif une validation du logiciel PVsyst. La première étape fut de mesurer les performances réelles d'un module de la série installée, sur une année, afin d'en déterminer les paramètres de modélisation. En seconde étape, nous avons comparé la production réelle avec la simulation effectuée lors du design de l'installation, en utilisant...

  9. Photoinduced tellurium precipitation in CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Shunji

    1991-06-01

    Tellurium precipitation in CdTe is found to be induced by photoirradiation with energy higher than the energy gap at 240 W/sq cm. It is suggested that this photoinduced precipitation is related with the strong electron-phonon interactions, possibly self-trapped excitons. This irreducible tellurium precipitation may cause a serious problem for the life of semiconductor devices.

  10. Manipulation of inter-particle interactions between TiO2 and CdTe: an effective method to enhance the performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported a pH-controlled deposition method to directly assemble aqueous 1-thioglycerol and 3-mercaptopropionic acid capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on mesoporous TiO2 thin films. The inter-particle interactions between CdTe QDs and mesoporous TiO2 could be modulated with the adjustment of solution pH values. Low amount of QD loading on the mesoporous TiO2 film was observed in the case of electrostatic attraction or strong electrostatic repulsion between CdTe QDs and TiO2. Only at weak electrostatic repulsion between CdTe QDs and TiO2 were high loading and uniform distribution of CdTe QDs obtained on the TiO2 film. Under an optimal condition, a power conversion efficiency of 0.76% was achieved for the CdTe QD sensitized solar cells under the standard illumination condition of simulated AM 1.5G (100 mW cm−2). (paper)

  11. Performance Summary for the First Solar CdTe 1-kW System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, B.; del Cueto, J.; McNutt, P.; Rose, D.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Describes performance of 1-kWac CdTe PV array from First Solar operated at NREL from 6/95 to 14/00. This paper describes the performance of a 1-kW{sub ac} CdTe PV array from First Solar (formerly Solar Cells, Inc.) operated at NREL from June 1995 to November 2000. The PV array operating efficiencies over the 5.5-year period were calculated from 15-minute averages to determine changes in seasonal and annual performance. Performance measurements of each module were also made before installing the modules outdoors and again in August 2000 using NREL's indoor SPIRE 240A pulsed solar simulator and the Standard Outdoor Measurement System (SOMS). Although some modules showed increases in efficiency and others decreases, the average efficiency of the modules in the PV array did not change. For modules that showed changes in efficiency, analysis of module I-V parameters indicated that the changes in efficiency were primarily a consequence of changes in fill factor.

  12. Direct determination of optical and recombination losses in thin-film photovoltaic devices based on external quantum efficiency analysis: Application to Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4, CdTe and CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid perovskite solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nakane, Akihiro; Tampo, Hitoshi; Tamakoshi, Masato; Fujimoto, Shohei; Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Shinho; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In developing photovoltaic devices with high efficiencies, accurate determination of carrier loss mechanisms in solar cells is crucial. In conventional solar-cell characterization techniques, however, photocurrent reduction originating from parasitic light absorption and recombination within the bulk or at the interfaces cannot be assessed easily. Here, we develop a global analysis scheme in which the optical and recombination losses in solar cells are evaluated directly from external quantum...

  13. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  14. Roof Photovoltaic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to accurately predict the annual energy production of photovoltaic systems for any given geographical location, building orientation, and photovoltaic cell...

  15. CdTe Films Deposited by Closed-space Sublimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    CdTe films are prepared by closed-space sublimation technology. Dependence of film crystalline on substrate materials and substrate temperature is investigated. It is found that films exhibit higher crystallinity at substrate temperature higher than 400℃. And the CdTe films deposited on CdS films with higher crystallinity have bigger crystallite and higher uniformity. Treatment with CdCl2 methanol solution promotes the crystallite growth of CdTe films during annealing.

  16. Synthesis and Surface Modification of CdTe Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    CdTe nanocrystals were prepared in aqueous solution via the reaction between Cd2+ and NaHTe in the presence of mercaptoacetic acid. Interactions between CdTe nanocrystals and phenylalanine were formed via electrostatic/coordinate self-assembly. The photoluminescence intensity of CdTe nanocrystals was improved obviously. The interaction mechanism was discussed and was considered to be surface passivation.

  17. 基于 TRIZ 理论的光伏组件焊接技术创新设计∗%Innovation Design of Photovoltaic Modules Welding Technology based on TRIZ Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭清华; 龚军辉

    2016-01-01

    TRIZ 理论是一种解决发明问题的理论,是一种发现问题并解决问题的方法论。在创新过程中,将实际问题转换成 TRIZ 问题,借助 TRIZ 工具解决和改善现有产品中所存在的矛盾与不足。针对光伏发电系统中光伏组件焊接技术设计中出现的虚焊、裂片、锡丝及锡渣等问题,将 TRIZ 理论引入光伏组件焊接技术的创新设计中。通过对实际问题的分析,基于 TRIZ 理论确定技术矛盾和物理矛盾,查阅TRIZ 理论的矛盾矩阵,根据 TRIZ 理论提供的创新原理制定光伏组件焊接创新设计方案。%TRIZ methodology is a theory of solving invention problem,which is a methodology of finding problems and solving the problems.Practical problems will be converted to TRIZ ones in the process of innovation,with the tools of TRIZ solving and improving the contradiction which is existing inside of products,and ultimately achieve a process of innovation. To solve the problems in the design of photovoltaic modules welding technology,the TRIZ methodology has been introduced into the innovation design progress of photovoltaic modules welding technology.The actual problems are analyzed,but the technical and physical contradictions are found out by using the TRIZ methodology.After consulting the contradiction ma-trix of TRIZ methodology,the photovoltaic modules welding innovation design is finished according to innovation principles which are provided by the TRIZ methodology.

  18. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  19. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system with these low-voltage panels was installed and its performance ratio has been simulated and projected to be 92.1%, which is 20% more than the crystalline silicon and CdTe counterparts.

  20. Development of CdTe radiation detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing radiation detectors using cadmium telluride (CdTe), which has the high radiation absorption characteristic. The image pickup tube using polycrystalline CdTe thin film has been developed at the first stage. Furthermore, the X-ray imaging line sensor with high scanning speed and the radiation spectrometer with thermo-electric Peltier cooler were developed by using CdTe single crystal, which has high electric charge collection characteristics. At present, the energy discriminating photon counting radiation line sensors are developing. In this presentation, the feature of the detector using CdTe and their applications are described examples of development until now. (author)