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Sample records for cdr3 oligoclonality frequently

  1. T-cell receptor Vbeta CDR3 oligoclonality frequently occurs in childhood refractory cytopenia (MDS-RC) and severe aplastic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vries, A.C. de; Langerak, A.W.; Verhaaf, B.;

    2008-01-01

    (Very) severe acquired aplastic anemia ((v)SAA) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are rare diseases in childhood. (V)SAA is a bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome characterized by immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic progenitors. MDS is a malignant clonal stem cell disorder, of which...

  2. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100145.htm CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy ... Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous system (CNS) and collect waste products, as well as ...

  3. Number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell CDR3 clonotypes expanding during acute infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells undergoing clonal expansions following SIVmac251 infection was determined using a T-cell receptor Vβ chain (TRBV) third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) DNA heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA). This assay measures the number of newly expanding T-cell clones but not their antigenic specificity. Fewer expanding CD4+ (3-23 per animal) than CD8+ (18-37 per animal) clonotypes were observed during the acute phase of SIV infection. CD8+ T-cell expansions peaked at 4 weeks postinfection (wpi) concomitant with early reductions in viremia. Expanding clone TRBV transcripts ranged in frequency from the limit of detection of 2% to 40% of their TRBV subfamily's transcripts. The number of expanding CD4+ or CD8+ clones correlated with neither peak, subsequent slope, nor steady-state viremia. CDR3 repertoires in CD8-expressing cells in different anatomical compartments were also analyzed. Repertoires were polyclonal in the thymus, oligoclonal in mesenteric lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and spleen, and extremely oligoclonal in intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL). The lack of correlation between the number of expanding T-cell clonotypes and viremia levels may reflect the highly variable selection pressure imposed on SIV by T-cell responses targeting different epitopes in outbred macaques

  4. Shark IgNAR antibody mimotopes target a murine immunoglobulin through extended CDR3 loop structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David P; Streltsov, Victor A; Dolezal, Olan; Hudson, Peter J; Coley, Andrew M; Foley, Michael; Proll, David F; Nuttall, Stewart D

    2008-04-01

    Mimotopes mimic the three-dimensional topology of an antigen epitope, and are frequently recognized by antibodies with affinities comparable to those obtained for the original antibody-antigen interaction. Peptides and anti-idiotypic antibodies are two classes of protein mimotopes that mimic the topology (but not necessarily the sequence) of the parental antigen. In this study, we combine these two classes by selecting mimotopes based on single domain IgNAR antibodies, which display exceptionally long CDR3 loop regions (analogous to a constrained peptide library) presented in the context of an immunoglobulin framework with adjacent and supporting CDR1 loops. By screening an in vitro phage-display library of IgNAR variable domains (V(NAR)s) against the target antigen monoclonal antibody MAb5G8, we obtained four potential mimotopes. MAb5G8 targets a linear tripeptide epitope (AYP) in the flexible signal sequence of the Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1), and this or similar motifs were detected in the CDR loops of all four V(NAR)s. The V(NAR)s, 1-A-2, -7, -11, and -14, were demonstrated to bind specifically to this paratope by competition studies with an artificial peptide and all showed enhanced affinities (3-46 nM) compared to the parental antigen (175 nM). Crystallographic studies of recombinant proteins 1-A-7 and 1-A-11 showed that the SYP motifs on these V(NAR)s presented at the tip of the exposed CDR3 loops, ideally positioned within bulge-like structures to make contact with the MAb5G8 antibody. These loops, in particular in 1-A-11, were further stabilized by inter- and intra- loop disulphide bridges, hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, and aromatic residue packing. We rationalize the higher affinity of the V(NAR)s compared to the parental antigen by suggesting that adjacent CDR1 and framework residues contribute to binding affinity, through interactions with other CDR regions on the antibody, though of course definitive support of

  5. 葡萄膜炎患者外周血T细胞TCR BV亚家族克隆性的初步研究%Study on the T cells of TCR BV CDR3 Lineage Polymorphism in Peripheral Blood of Uveitis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏克娜; 黄红艳; 张璐; 邹红云; 余伍忠; 焦敏

    2012-01-01

    为探讨葡萄膜炎患者外周血单个核细胞(peripheral blood mononuclear cells,PBMCs)TCR BV CDR3谱系特点及多态性,为其免疫发病机制研究提供实验基础.采用RT-PCR扩增TCR BV 26个亚家族CDR3的方法,经免疫扫描谱型技术分析对葡萄膜炎患者PBMC中TCR BV CDR3的谱系漂移情况进行研究.结果显示:(1)5例正常健康人PBMC TCR BV CDR3谱型绝大多数呈正态(或高斯)分布,4例葡萄膜炎患者TCR BV CDR3扫描谱型均出现非正态分布的异常峰型,包括寡峰/寡峰趋势,偏峰和不规则异常峰型;(2)在26个TCR BV亚家族中,不同亚家族异常峰型出现的频率不同,非正态异常峰型出现频率较高的亚家族有BV2和BV17(均为3/4),而BV5.2、BV6、BV15和BV18亚家族均未出现异常峰型;(3)TCR BV2和BV17两个亚家族在HLA-B27阴性的3个患者均出现非正态异常峰型,而在HLA-B27阳性(合并强直性脊柱炎)的患者并未出现异常.葡萄膜炎患者PBMC TCRBV部分亚家族的异常表达可能与该病的免疫发病机理有关,为葡萄膜炎发病机制的进一步研究提供依据.%To study T cells lineage polymorphism of TCR BV CDR3 in peripheral blood of uveitis patients so as to provide experimental basis to immune pathogenesis research in uveitis. T cells TCR BV 26 subfamily CDR3 of uveitis patients PBMC were amplified by RT-PCR method,then TCR BV CDR3 lineages polymorphism were analyzed by immunization scanning spectrum. Results: 1) Most spectral type of PBMC TCR BV CDR3 in five normal controls showed Gauss distribution, TCR BV CDR3 scanning spectrum of 4 cases uveitis patients all showed abnormal distribution peak,including oligoclonal/oligoclonal trend, skewing peak and irregular abnormal peak: 2) Frequencies of abnormal peak type occurrence varied in the 26 TCR BV subfamilies: high frequency abnormal peak type subfamilies were BV2 and BV17 (both 3/4) .while BV5. 2,BV6,BV15 and BV18 subfamilies had no abnormal peak type:3)TCR BV2 and BV

  6. BCR CDR3 length distributions differ between blood and spleen and between old and young patients, and TCR distributions can be used to detect myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) is the most hyper-variable region in B cell receptor (BCR) and T cell receptor (TCR) genes, and the most critical structure in antigen recognition and thereby in determining the fates of developing and responding lymphocytes. There are millions of different TCR Vβ chain or BCR heavy chain CDR3 sequences in human blood. Even now, when high-throughput sequencing becomes widely used, CDR3 length distributions (also called spectratypes) are still a much quicker and cheaper method of assessing repertoire diversity. However, distribution complexity and the large amount of information per sample (e.g. 32 distributions of the TCRα chain, and 24 of TCRβ) calls for the use of machine learning tools for full exploration. We have examined the ability of supervised machine learning, which uses computational models to find hidden patterns in predefined biological groups, to analyze CDR3 length distributions from various sources, and distinguish between experimental groups. We found that (a) splenic BCR CDR3 length distributions are characterized by low standard deviations and few local maxima, compared to peripheral blood distributions; (b) healthy elderly people's BCR CDR3 length distributions can be distinguished from those of the young; and (c) a machine learning model based on TCR CDR3 distribution features can detect myelodysplastic syndrome with approximately 93% accuracy. Overall, we demonstrate that using supervised machine learning methods can contribute to our understanding of lymphocyte repertoire diversity. (paper)

  7. Standardized analysis for the quantification of Vbeta CDR3 T-cell receptor diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S Alice; Khalili, Jahan; Ashe, Jimiane; Berenson, Ron; Ferrand, Christophe; Bonyhadi, Mark

    2006-12-20

    Assessment of the diversity of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is often determined by measuring the frequency and distribution of individually rearranged TCRs in a population of T cells. Spectratyping is a common method used to measure TCR repertoire diversity, which examines genetic variation in the third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) region of the TCR Vbeta chain using RT-PCR length-distribution analysis. A variety of methods are currently used to analyze spectratype data including subjective visual measures, qualitative counting measures, and semi-quantitative measures that compare the original data to a standard, control data set. Two major limitations exist for most of these approaches: data files become very wieldy and difficult to manage, and current analytic methods generate data which are difficult to compare between laboratories and across different platforms. Here, we introduce a highly efficient method of analysis that is based upon a normal theoretical Gaussian distribution observed in cord blood and recent thymic emigrants. Using this analysis method, we demonstrate that PBMC obtained from patients with various diseases have skewed TCR repertoire profiles. Upon in vitro activation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 coated beads (Xcyte Dynabeads) TCR diversity was restored. Moreover, changes in the TCR repertoire were dynamic in vivo. We demonstrate that use of this streamlined method of analysis in concert with a flexible software package makes quantitative assessment of TCR repertoire diversity straightforward and reproducible, enabling reliable comparisons of diversity values between laboratories and over-time to further collaborative efforts. Analysis of TCR repertoire by such an approach may be valuable in the clinical setting, both for prognostic potential and measuring clinical responses to therapy. PMID:17081557

  8. An evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal banding confirmed by immunofixation on agarose gel.

    OpenAIRE

    George, P M; Lorier, M A; Donaldson, I M

    1983-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 115 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic lumbar puncture or myelography was examined to determine the usefulness of immunofixation, following agarose gel electrophoresis, in the detection of oligoclonal IgG. All electrophoretic patterns were evaluated with and without immunofixation, and the interpretation of 9% of specimens was altered by immunofixation. The demonstration of oligoclonal IgG was shown to be more reliable in the diagnosis of multiple sc...

  9. Distinct CDR3 Conformations in T Cell Receptors Determine the Level of Cross-Reactivity for Diverse Antigens, but Not the Docking Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lindsay L.; Colf, Leremy A.; Stone, Jennifer D.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Kranz, David M.

    2008-01-01

    T cells are known to cross-react with diverse peptide MHC antigens through their αβ TCRs. To explore the basis of such cross-reactivity, we examined the 2C TCR that recognizes two structurally distinct ligands, SIY-Kb and alloantigen QL9-Ld. Here we characterized the crossreactivity of several high affinity 2C TCR variants that contained mutations only in the CDR3α loop. Two of the TCRs lost their ability to cross-react with the reciprocal ligand (SIY-Kb), while another TCR (m67) maintained r...

  10. Selection of affinity-improved neutralizing human scFv against HBV PreS1 from CDR3 VH/VL mutant library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YanMin; Bai, Yin; Guo, XiaoChen; Wang, WenFei; Zheng, Qi; Wang, FuXiang; Sun, Dejun; Li, DeShan; Ren, GuiPing; Yin, JieChao

    2016-07-01

    A CDR3 mutant library was constructed from a previously isolated anti-HBV neutralizing Homo sapiens scFv-31 template by random mutant primers PCR. Then the library was displayed on the inner membrane surface in Escherichia coli periplasmic space. Seven scFv clones were isolated from the mutant library through three rounds of screening by flow cytometry. Competition ELISA assay indicates that isolated scFv fragments show more efficient binding ability to HBV PreS1 compared with parental scFv-31. HBV neutralization assay indicated that two clones (scFv-3 and 59) show higher neutralizing activity by blocking the HBV infection to Chang liver cells. Our method provides a new strategy for rapid screening of mutant antibody library for affinity-enhanced scFv clones and the neutralizing scFvs obtained from this study provide a potential alternative of Hepatitis B immune globulin. PMID:27255707

  11. Analysis of the T-cell receptor repertoire of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes from patients with HTLV-1-associated disease: evidence for oligoclonal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, U; Banks, D; Jacobson, S; Biddison, W E

    1996-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic, progressive neurological disease characterized by marked degeneration of the spinal cord and the presence of antibodies against HTLV-1. Patients with HAM/TSP, but not asymptomatic carriers, show very high precursor frequencies of HTLV-1-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid, suggestive of a role of these T cells in the pathogenesis of the disease. In HLA-A2+ HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1-specific T cells were demonstrated to be directed predominantly against one HTLV-1 epitope, namely, Tax11-19. In the present study, we analyzed HLA-A2-restricted HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific cytotoxic T cells from three patients with HAM/TSP. An analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of these cells revealed an absence of restricted variable (V) region usage. Different combinations of TCR V alpha and V beta genes were utilized between, but also within, the individual patients for the recognition of Tax11-19. Sequence analysis of the TCR showed evidence for an oligoclonal expansion of few founder T cells in each patient. Apparent structural motifs were identified for the CDR3 regions of the TCR beta chains. One T-cell clone could be detected within the same patient over a period of 3 years. We suggest that these in vivo clonally expanded T cells might play a role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP and provide information on HTLV-1-specific TCR which may elucidate the nature of the T cells that infiltrate the central nervous system in HAM/TSP patients. PMID:8551623

  12. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Diamant

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  13. A comparison of cellulose acetate immunofixation with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the detection of oligoclonal bands in unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodland, F C; Thompson, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two methods of electrophoresis for the detection of oligoclonal bands in unconcentrated CSF were compared. A sample of 98 routine CSFs yielded 18 positives by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) while cellulose acetate electrophoresis with immunofixation (CAIF) gave 13 positives (72% of the PAGE findings). Despite the loss of sensitivity the cellulose acetate electrophoresis was easier to interpret and more suited to a routine hospital laboratory.

  14. Antiparasitic antibodies occur with similar frequency in patients with clinically established multiple sclerosis with or without oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cruz Gomes da Fonseca-Papavero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The "hygiene hypothesis" postulates an inverse relationship between the prevalence of parasitic infections and the frequency of multiple sclerosis (MS. Objective: It was to study whether antibodies against parasites could be demonstrated more frequently in blood serum from MS patients with oligoclonal bands (OCB than from MS patients without OCB. Methods: We studied serum samples from 164 patients who had previously been analyzed to investigate OCB. Parasitic antibodies were studied through unidimensional electrophoresis of proteins on polyacrylamide gel against Taenia antigens, searching for antiparasitic specific low molecular weight antibodies and also for antiparasitic nonspecific high molecular weight antibodies. Results: Two of the 103 patients with no evidence of OCB had antibodies of low molecular weight and 59 of them had antibodies of high molecular weight. Of the 61 patients with evidence of OCB, one showed antibodies of low molecular weight and 16 showed antibodies of high molecular weight. Conclusion: Antiparasitic antibodies are detected with similar frequency in MS patients with OCB and in MS patients without OCB.

  15. Distinct oligoclonal band antibodies in multiple sclerosis recognize ubiquitous self-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändle, Simone M; Obermeier, Birgit; Senel, Makbule; Bruder, Jessica; Mentele, Reinhard; Khademi, Mohsen; Olsson, Tomas; Tumani, Hayrettin; Kristoferitsch, Wolfgang; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Wekerle, Hartmut; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Dornmair, Klaus

    2016-07-12

    Oligoclonal Ig bands (OCBs) of the cerebrospinal fluid are a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a disabling inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). OCBs are locally produced by clonally expanded antigen-experienced B cells and therefore are believed to hold an important clue to the pathogenesis. However, their target antigens have remained unknown, mainly because it was thus far not possible to isolate distinct OCBs against a background of polyclonal antibodies. To overcome this obstacle, we copurified disulfide-linked Ig heavy and light chains from distinct OCBs for concurrent analysis by mass spectrometry and aligned patient-specific peptides to corresponding transcriptome databases. This method revealed the full-length sequences of matching chains from distinct OCBs, allowing for antigen searches using recombinant OCB antibodies. As validation, we demonstrate that an OCB antibody from a patient with an infectious CNS disorder, neuroborreliosis, recognized a Borrelia protein. Next, we produced six recombinant antibodies from four MS patients and identified three different autoantigens. All of them are conformational epitopes of ubiquitous intracellular proteins not specific to brain tissue. Our findings indicate that the B-cell response in MS is heterogeneous and partly directed against intracellular autoantigens released during tissue destruction. In addition to helping elucidate the role of B cells in MS, our approach allows the identification of target antigens of OCB antibodies in other neuroinflammatory diseases and the production of therapeutic antibodies in infectious CNS diseases. PMID:27325759

  16. Intrathecal, polyspecific antiviral immune response in oligoclonal band negative multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Brecht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oligoclonal bands (OCB are detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in more than 95% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS in the Western hemisphere. Here we evaluated the intrathecal, polyspecific antiviral immune response as a potential diagnostic CSF marker for OCB-negative MS patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested 46 OCB-negative German patients with paraclinically well defined, definite MS. Sixteen OCB-negative patients with a clear diagnosis of other autoimmune CNS disorders and 37 neurological patients without evidence for autoimmune CNS inflammation served as control groups. Antibodies against measles, rubella, varicella zoster and herpes simplex virus in paired serum and CSF samples were determined by ELISA, and virus-specific immunoglobulin G antibody indices were calculated. An intrathecal antibody synthesis against at least one neurotropic virus was detected in 8 of 26 (31% patients with relapsing-remitting MS, 8 of 12 (67% with secondary progressive MS and 5 of 8 (63% with primary progressive MS, in 3 of 16 (19% CNS autoimmune and 3 of 37 (8% non-autoimmune control patients. Antibody synthesis against two or more viruses was found in 11 of 46 (24% MS patients but in neither of the two control groups. On average, MS patients with a positive antiviral immune response were older and had a longer disease duration than those without. CONCLUSION: Determination of the intrathecal, polyspecific antiviral immune response may allow to establish a CSF-supported diagnosis of MS in OCB-negative patients when two or more of the four virus antibody indices are elevated.

  17. Clinical and neurophysiological findings in oligoclonal band negative multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesaroš Šarlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides magnetic resonance imaging, the presence of locally produced oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is the most consistent laboratory abnormality in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The most sensitive method for the detection of CSF OCB is isoelectric focusing (IEF [6]. Occasional patients with clinically definite MS lack evidence for intrathecal IgG synthesis [7, 8]. This study was designed to compare clinical data and evoked potential (EP findings between CSF OCB positive and OCB negative MS patients. The study comprised 22 OCB negative patients with clinically definite MS [11] and 22 OCB positive controls matched for age, disease duration, activity and course of MS. In both groups clinical assessment was performed by using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score [12] and progression rate (PR. All patients underwent multimodal EP: visual (VEPs, brainstem auditory (BAEPs and median somatosensory (mSEPs. The VEPa were considered abnormal if the P100 latency exceeded 117 ms or inter-ocular difference greater than 8 ms was detected. The BAEPs were considered abnormal if waves III or V were absent or the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, or I-V were increased. The mSEPs were considerd abnormal when N9, N13 and N20 potentials were absent or when increased interpeak latencies were recorded. The severity of the neurophysiological abnormalities was scored for each modality as follows normal EP score 0; every other EP abnormality except the absence of one of the main waves, score 1; absence of one or more of the main waves, score 2 [13]. Both mean EDSS score (4.0 vs. 3.5 and PR (0.6 vs. 0.5 were similar in OCB positive and OCB negative group, (p>0.05. In the first group males were predominant, but without statistical significance (Table 1. Disease started more often with the brainstem symptoms in the OCB positive than in OCB negative MS group (p=0.028, while there was no differences in other initial symptoms between

  18. Oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased brain atrophy in early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of oligoclonal bands (OB at early stages of multiple sclerosis was associated with higher brain atrophy, when compared with patients without OB. METHODS: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients with less than two years of disease onset and OB detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were included. SIENAX was used for total brain volume (TBV, gray matter volume (GMV, and white matter volume (WMV. RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 29 had positive IgG-OB. No differences were found between positive and negative patients in gender, expanded disability status scale (EDSS, treatment received, and T2/T1 lesion load. TBV in positive IgG-OB patients was 1.5 mm³ x 10(6 compared with 1.64 mm³ x 10(6 in the negative ones (p=0.02. GMV was 0.51 mm³ x 10(6 in positive IgG-OB compared with 0.62 mm³ x 10(6 in negative ones (p=0.002. No differences in WMV (p=0.09 were seen. CONCLUSIONS: IgG-OB in the CSF was related to neurodegeneration magnetic resonance (MR markers in early RRMS.

  19. Frequently used, highly appreciated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Schrøder, Kim Christian;

    , gender, region and educational level. It finds that the news media perceived most important to consumers’ everyday lives are not necessarily those consumed most frequently, challenging the notion that frequency of use and appreciation of a medium necessarily relate. In terms of the rise of social media......, this study finds that not all participants describe social media content as ‘news’, especially the less politically-engaged. Despite this lack of formal recognition, such platforms nonetheless become central in how people connect to public issues. This paper accordingly sheds light on the questions of......Digitalization has made patterns of news consumption immensely more varied than before, complicating industry attempts to adapt to changing user habits. In such a rapidly changing landscape, it is unclear how news audiences negotiate this environment and what impact this may have on the possible...

  20. Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Marte W; Viken, Marte K; Celius, Elisabeth G;

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated the...... association of HLA alleles and KIR ligands according to OCB status in MS patients (n=3876). Specific KIR ligands were associated with patients when compared to controls (n=3148), supporting a role for NK cells in MS pathogenesis. HLA class I alleles and KIR ligands did not differ between OCB phenotypes, but...... HLA class II associations were convincingly replicated....

  1. CSF oligoclonal banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... 1/2015 Updated by: Daniel Kantor, MD, Kantor Neurology, Coconut Creek, FL and immediate past president of ...

  2. Discovery of Frequent Itemsets: Frequent Item Tree-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Senthil Kumar; R.S.D.Wahidabanu

    2007-01-01

    Mining frequent patterns in large transactional databases is a highly researched area in the field of data mining. Existing frequent pattern discovering algorithms suffer from many problems regarding the high memory dependency when mining large amount of data, computational and I/O cost. Additionally, the recursive mining process to mine these structures is also too voracious in memory resources. In this paper, we describe a more efficient algorithm for mining complete frequent itemsets from ...

  3. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility.

  4. Frequent Itemset Hiding Algorithm Using Frequent Pattern Tree Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnatsheh, Rami

    2012-01-01

    A problem that has been the focus of much recent research in privacy preserving data-mining is the frequent itemset hiding (FIH) problem. Identifying itemsets that appear together frequently in customer transactions is a common task in association rule mining. Organizations that share data with business partners may consider some of the frequent…

  5. Immunization of volunteers with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a elicits the oligoclonal expansion of CD8+ T cells with predominant Vbeta repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno-Gonçalves, Rosângela; Wahid, Rezwanul; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2005-06-01

    CD8(+) T cells are likely to play an important role in host defense against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi by several effector mechanisms, including lysis of infected cells (cytotoxicity) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion. In an effort to better understand these responses, we studied the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of serovar Typhi-specific CD8(+) T cells in humans. To this end, we determined the TCR beta chain (Vbeta) usage of CD8(+) T cells from three volunteers orally immunized with Ty21a typhoid vaccine by flow cytometry using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Although TCR Vbeta usage varied among volunteers, we identified oligoclonal Vbeta subset expansions in individual volunteers (Vbeta 2, 5.1, 8, 17, and 22 in volunteer 1; Vbeta 1, 2, 5.1, 14, 17, and 22 in volunteer 2; and Vbeta 3, 8, 14, and 16 in volunteer 3). These subsets were antigen specific, as shown by cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma secretion assays on Vbeta sorted cells and on T-cell clones derived from these volunteers. Moreover, eight-color flow cytometric analysis showed that these clones exhibited a T effector memory phenotype (i.e., CCR7(-) CD27(-) CD45RO(+) CD62L(-)) and coexpressed gut homing molecules (e.g., high levels of integrin alpha4beta7, intermediate levels of CCR9, and low levels of CD103). In conclusion, our results show that long-term T-cell responses to serovar Typhi in Ty21a vaccinees are oligoclonal, involving multiple TCR Vbeta families. Moreover, these serovar Typhi-specific CD8(+) T cells bearing defined Vbeta specificities are phenotypically and functionally consistent with T effector memory cells with preferential gut homing potential. PMID:15908381

  6. Brain atrophy and lesion load are related to CSF lipid-specific IgM oligoclonal bands in clinically isolated syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, Maria Jose; Bosca, Isabel; Simo-Castello, Maria; Casanova, Bonaventura [Hospital La Fe, Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Department, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Marti, Gracian [Hospital Quiron, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Valencia (Spain); CIBER Mental Health Network, ISCIII, Valencia (Spain); Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Marti-Bonmati, Luis [Hospital Quiron, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Valencia (Spain); Coret, Francisco [Hospital Clinic Universitari, Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Department, Valencia (Spain); Alvarez-Cermeno, Jose C. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Neurology Department, Madrid (Spain); Villar, Luisa M. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Immunology Department, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this work is to study the relationship between the presence of lipid-specific oligoclonal IgM bands (LS-OCMB) in CSF, with both T2 lesion volume (T2LV) accumulation and brain atrophy (percentage change of brain volume-PCBV-and brain parenchyma fraction-BPF) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of demyelination. Twenty-four CIS patients were included in this prospective study. IgG oligoclonal bands (OCGB) and LS-OCMB were determined in paired serum and CSF samples within 3 months since clinical onset. Brain MRI studies were scheduled at baseline, 3 months, first and second years after CIS onset. Differences in T2LV, PCBV and BPF between CIS patients according to the type of OCB were studied. Nine patients had no OCB; 15 had only OCGB, and seven had OCGB + LS-OCMB present in the CSF. LS-OCMB were associated with greater T2LV in all scheduled MRI studies. At the end of follow-up (year 2), it was threefold higher in patients with these antibodies than in those without LS-OCMB (3.95 cm{sup 3} vs. 1.36 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.001). At that point, brain atrophy was also higher in patients with LS-OCMB (BPF, 0.73 in LS-OCMB+ patients vs. 0.76 in negative ones, p = 0.03). The rate in brain atrophy was higher in the first group of patients as well. Considering only patients with OCGB, the presence of LS-OCMB was also related to greater T2LV, T2LV increase and a trend towards higher atrophy rate. The presence of LS-OCMB in the first event suggestive of demyelination is related to an early increase in lesion load and brain atrophy. These data are in line with prospective studies showing the clinical prognostic value of LS-OCMB. (orig.)

  7. Discovery of Frequent Itemsets: Frequent Item Tree-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Senthil Kumar

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mining frequent patterns in large transactional databases is a highly researched area in the field of data mining. Existing frequent pattern discovering algorithms suffer from many problems regarding the high memory dependency when mining large amount of data, computational and I/O cost. Additionally, the recursive mining process to mine these structures is also too voracious in memory resources. In this paper, we describe a more efficient algorithm for mining complete frequent itemsets from transactional databases. The suggested algorithm is partially based on FP-tree hypothesis and extracts the frequent itemsets directly from the tree. Its memory requirement, which is independent from the number of processed transactions, is another benefit of the new method. We present performance comparisons for our algorithm against the Apriori algorithm and FP-growth.

  8. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  9. Efficient Frequent Pattern Tree Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Bujji Babu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule learning is a popular and well researched technique for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases in the area of data mining. The association rules are a part of intelligent systems. Association rules are usually required to satisfy a user-specified minimum support and a user-specified minimum confidence at the same time. Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms are very familiar algorithms for association rule mining. In this paper we are more concentrated on the Construction of efficient frequent pattern trees. Here, we present the novel frequent pattern trees and the performance issues. The proposed trees are fast and efficient trees helps to extract the frequent patterns. This paper provides the major advantages in the FP-Growth algorithm for association rule mining with using the newly proposed approach.

  10. [Osmolality of frequently consumed beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Elizabeth; De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. Beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions. PMID:15602899

  11. The frequent occurrence of MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, Matthias [Gesellschaft fuer Technische Mikrobiologie und Hygieneueberwachung - Dr. Graff und Partner, Stadtweg 9, D-38176 Wendeburg (Germany); Neubert, Volkmar [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) is not as rare as many materials scientist and corrosion practitioners do believe. It is not an exotic and scarce event, but can be found frequently in many fields of corrosion research, provided that it is looked for. The reason for the relatively few descriptions of MIC cases seems to be the fact, that the microbiological approach is not widely known and applied in the world of materials science. MIC is not so much a corrosion mechanism on its own, but it enhances the corrosion rates of the 'normal' mechanisms to such an extent, that in some cases 'incredible' fast corrosion progress can be observed. The reason is the microorganisms' function as bio-catalysts: Chemical reactions, which are very slow under normal chemical conditions can be highly accelerated by living organisms. Besides that, several microorganisms do produce very corrosive substances which in natural environments do not occur without the activity of microorganisms, e. g. sulfuric or nitric acid. We want to point out, that it can be very worthy to take microbial induced corrosion into account. MIC is not the general answer for all unsolved corrosion problems, but to think about it helps in many corrosion cases as the authors had to experience. The initial indication for the presence of MIC are markedly increased corrosion rates. In the following, some of our 'lessons' are presented as short case studies: Two of them deal with steel corrosion characterized by increased corrosion rates. The third example presents corrosion damage of aluminium structures, where from a technical point of view corrosion was not expected, least of all microbial induced corrosion. (authors)

  12. Mining Frequent Max and Closed Sequential Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar, Ramin

    2002-01-01

    Although frequent sequential pattern mining has an important role in many data mining tasks, however, it often generates a large number of sequential patterns, which reduces its efficiency and effectiveness. For many applications mining all the frequent sequential patterns is not necessary, and mining frequent Max, or Closed sequential patterns will provide the same amount of information. Comparing to frequent sequential pattern mining, frequent Max, or Closed sequential pattern mining g...

  13. Maximal Frequent Itemset Generation Using Segmentation Apporach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rajalakshmi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining.Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequentitemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all thefrequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved bymining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS. Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets whichhave no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces thenumber of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemsetof length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequentitemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. Inthis paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from huge data sourcesusing the concept of segmentation of data source and prioritization of segments. Empirical evaluationshows that this method outperforms various other known methods.

  14. Frequent Pattern Mining using CATSIM Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan Modi; Mr. B. L Pal

    2012-01-01

    Efficient algorithms to discover frequent patterns are essential in data mining research. Frequent pattern mining is emerging as powerful tool for many business applications such as e-commerce, recommendersystems and supply chain management and group decision support systems to name a few. Several effective data structures, such as two-dimensional arrays, graphs, trees and tries have been proposed to collect candidate and frequent itemsets. It seems as the tree structure is most extractive to...

  15. Mining Frequent Itemsets Using Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Soumadip; Sarkar, Debasree; Sarkar, Partha Pratim; 10.5121/ijaia.2010.1411

    2010-01-01

    In general frequent itemsets are generated from large data sets by applying association rule mining algorithms like Apriori, Partition, Pincer-Search, Incremental, Border algorithm etc., which take too much computer time to compute all the frequent itemsets. By using Genetic Algorithm (GA) we can improve the scenario. The major advantage of using GA in the discovery of frequent itemsets is that they perform global search and its time complexity is less compared to other algorithms as the genetic algorithm is based on the greedy approach. The main aim of this paper is to find all the frequent itemsets from given data sets using genetic algorithm.

  16. Mining Frequent Itemsets in Correlated Uncertain Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童咏昕; 陈雷; 佘洁莹

    2015-01-01

    Recently, with the growing popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) and pervasive computing, a large amount of uncertain data, e.g., RFID data, sensor data, real-time video data, has been collected. As one of the most fundamental issues of uncertain data mining, uncertain frequent pattern mining has attracted much attention in database and data mining communities. Although there have been some solutions for uncertain frequent pattern mining, most of them assume that the data is independent, which is not true in most real-world scenarios. Therefore, current methods that are based on the independent assumption may generate inaccurate results for correlated uncertain data. In this paper, we focus on the problem of mining frequent itemsets over correlated uncertain data, where correlation can exist in any pair of uncertain data objects (transactions). We propose a novel probabilistic model, called Correlated Frequent Probability model (CFP model) to represent the probability distribution of support in a given correlated uncertain dataset. Based on the distribution of support derived from the CFP model, we observe that some probabilistic frequent itemsets are only frequent in several transactions with high positive correlation. In particular, the itemsets, which are global probabilistic frequent, have more significance in eliminating the influence of the existing noise and correlation in data. In order to reduce redundant frequent itemsets, we further propose a new type of patterns, called global probabilistic frequent itemsets, to identify itemsets that are always frequent in each group of transactions if the whole correlated uncertain database is divided into disjoint groups based on their correlation. To speed up the mining process, we also design a dynamic programming solution, as well as two pruning and bounding techniques. Extensive experiments on both real and synthetic datasets verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithms.

  17. A Tabular Approach for Frequent itemset mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Krishna Mohan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequent patterns are patterns that appear in a data set frequently. For example, a set of items, such as milk and bread that appear frequently together in a transaction data set is a frequent itemset. Frequent pattern mining searches for recurring relationships in a given data set. With massive amounts of data continuously being collected and stored, many industries are becoming interested in mining such patterns from their databases. The discovery of interesting correlation relationships among huge amounts of business transaction records can help in many business decision-making processes, such as catalog design, cross-marketing, and customer shopping behavior analysis. If we think of the universe as the set of items available at the store, then each item has a Boolean variable representing the presence or absence of that item. Each basket can then be represented by a Boolean vector of values assigned to these variables. The Boolean vectors can be analyzed for buying patterns that reflect items that are frequently associated or purchased together. A set of items is referred to as an itemset. An itemset that contains k items is a k-itemset. The occurrence frequency of an itemset is the number of transactions that contain the itemset. This is also known, simply, as the frequency, support count, or count of the itemset. The set of frequent k-itemsets is commonly denoted by Lk.

  18. Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithms for Data Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimek, Arthur; Assent, Ira; Vreeken, Jilles

    2014-01-01

    that frequent pattern mining was at the cradle of subspace clustering—yet, it quickly developed into an independent research field. In this chapter, we discuss how frequent pattern mining algorithms have been extended and generalized towards the discovery of local clusters in high-dimensional data. In......Discovering clusters in subspaces, or subspace clustering and related clustering paradigms, is a research field where we find many frequent pattern mining related influences. In fact, as the first algorithms for subspace clustering were based on frequent pattern mining algorithms, it is fair to say...... particular, we discuss several example algorithms for subspace clustering or projected clustering as well as point out recent research questions and open topics in this area relevant to researchers in either clustering or pattern mining...

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information (MQSA) Frequently Asked Questions About Digital Mammography Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... mammography exams, such as DBT? What is digital mammography? Full field digital mammography (FFDM, also known simply ...

  20. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Emergencies Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) About Extreme Heat Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What happens ... body as a result of exposure to extreme heat? People suffer heat-related illness when the body’s ...

  1. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Counseling What are genetic professionals and what do they ... genetics nurses. Top of page What is genetic counseling and evaluation? Genetic professionals work as members of ...

  2. Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) On This Page If ... local health department. We would like to create workplace guidelines in case an employee is diagnosed with ...

  3. Lyme Disease Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lyme disease FAQ Health care providers Educational materials Lyme Disease Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Language: English Español ( ... been bitten by a tick. Do I have Lyme disease? If you have not done so already, ...

  4. Finding Frequent Subpaths in a Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanta Guha

    2014-01-01

    The problem considered is that of finding frequent subpaths of a database of paths in a fixed undirected graph. This problem arises in applications such as predicting congestion in network and vehicular traffic.An algorithm, called AFS, based on the classic frequent itemset mining algorithm Apriori is developed, but with significantly improved efficiency over Apriori from exponential in transaction size to quadratic through exploiting the underlying graph structure. This efficiency makes A...

  5. A Novel method for Frequent Pattern Mining

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rajeswari; Dr.V.Vaithiyanathan

    2013-01-01

    Data mining is a field which explores for exciting knowledge or information from existing substantial group of data. In particular, algorithms like Apriori aid a researcher to understand the potential knowledge, deep inside the database. However because of the huge time consumed by Apriori to find the frequent item sets and generate rules, several applications cannot use this algorithm. In this paper, the authors describe a novel method for frequent pattern mining, a variation of Apriori Algo...

  6. A COMBINTORIAL TREE BASED FREQUENT PATTERN MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yamuna Devi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent pattern mining is a process of extracting frequently occurring itemset patterns from very large data storages. These frequent patterns are used to generate association rules which define the relationship among items. The strength of the relationship can be measured using two different units namely support value and confidence level. Any relationship that satisfies minimum threshold of support value is known as frequent pattern. There are several methods and algorithms suggested to mine frequent patterns from large databases. Most of the methods can be assessed for its complexity based on the number of processing levels and number of candidate sets with subsets that are generated in each level. In this study, the combinatorial approach which generates minimal number of combinations using a tree structure and automatically filters infrequent itemsets and mine frequent patterns is suggested. It scans input database once and carries out minimized intersections to count the support value. The complexity is based on the number of transactions and the maximum length of transactions. The new approach purely depends on the size of input transaction database. The combinatorial approach does not depend on the unknown number of processing levels and there is nocandidate sets and subsets generation. The proposed method makes minimal number of combinations when compared to number of candidate sets and subsets in other methods. The method is compared with number of existing legendary methods for its performance.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Frequent Subgraph Discovery Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ur Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid development of the Internet technology and new scientific advances, the number of applications that model the data as graphs increases, because graphs have highly expressive power to model a complicated structure. Graph mining is a well-explored area of research which is gaining popularity in the data mining community. A graph is a general model to represent data and has been used in many domains such as cheminformatics, web information management system, computer network, and bioinformatics, to name a few. In graph mining the frequent subgraph discovery is a challenging task. Frequent subgraph mining is concerned with discovery of those subgraphs from graph dataset which have frequent or multiple instances within the given graph dataset. In the literature a large number of frequent subgraph mining algorithms have been proposed; these included FSG, AGM, gSpan, CloseGraph, SPIN, Gaston, and Mofa. The objective of this research work is to perform quantitative comparison of the above listed techniques. The performances of these techniques have been evaluated through a number of experiments based on three different state-of-the-art graph datasets. This novel work will provide base for anyone who is working to design a new frequent subgraph discovery technique.

  8. Parallel Frequent Pattern Discovery: Challenges and Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Parallel frequent pattern discovery algorithms exploit parallel and distributed computing resources to relieve the sequential bottlenecks of current frequent pattern mining (FPM) algorithms. Thus, parallel FPM algorithms achieve better scalability and performance, so they are attracting much attention in the data mining research community. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art parallel and distributed frequent pattern mining algorithms with more emphasis on pattern discovery from complex data (e.g., sequences and graphs) on various platforms. A review of typical parallel FPM algorithms uncovers the major challenges, methodologies, and research problems in the field of parallel frequent pattern discovery,such as work-load balancing, finding good data layouts, and data decomposition. This survey also indicates a dramatic shift of the research interest in the field from the simple parallel frequent itemset mining on traditional parallel and distributed platforms to parallel pattern mining of more complex data on emerging architectures, such as multi-core systems and the increasingly mature grid infrastructure.

  9. Text Classification Using Sentential Frequent Itemsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Zhu Liu; He-Ping Hu

    2007-01-01

    Text classification techniques mostly rely on single term analysis of the document data set, while more concepts,especially the specific ones, are usually conveyed by set of terms. To achieve more accurate text classifier, more informative feature including frequent co-occurring words in the same sentence and their weights are particularly important in such scenarios. In this paper, we propose a novel approach using sentential frequent itemset, a concept comes from association rule mining, for text classification, which views a sentence rather than a document as a transaction, and uses a variable precision rough set based method to evaluate each sentential frequent itemset's contribution to the classification. Experiments over the Reuters and newsgroup corpus are carried out, which validate the practicability of the proposed system.

  10. Frequent price changes under menu costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Svejstrup

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty on a single firm's pricing behaviour in a dynamic menu cost model that results in (S,s)-rules where the price is fixed inside a band. It will be demonstrated that even though the band of inaction widens in response to increased uncertainty, the...... price may be changed more frequent in the short run, and in the long run it definitely will. Hence, observing frequent price changes is not necessarily inconsistent with a firm operating under menu costs. This paper relies on an article by Dixit (1991), (Review of Economic studies, 58, 141-151), but it...

  11. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification ab

  12. Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the support of National Natural Science Foundation of China, BGI, the largest genomics organization in the world, and Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, published online in Nature Geneticsics that the study on frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling genes in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of thebladder on August 8th, 2011. Their study provides a valuable genetic basis for future studies on TCC,

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about Colonoscopy and Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Frequently Asked Questions About Colonoscopy and Sigmoidoscopy Colonoscopy (KO-lun- AH -skuh-pee) and sigmoidoscopy (SIG-moid- AH -skuh-pee) are ...

  14. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  15. Frequent paracetamol use and asthma in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, S; Sterne, J; Songhurst, C.; Burney, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The pulmonary antioxidant glutathione may limit airway inflammation in asthma. Since paracetamol (acetaminophen) depletes the lung of glutathione in animals, a study was undertaken to investigate whether frequent use in humans was associated with asthma.
METHODS—Information was collected on the use of analgesics as part of a population based case-control study of dietary antioxidants and asthma in adults aged 16-49 years registered with 40 general practices in ...

  16. On Differentially Private Frequent Itemset Mining*

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Chen; Naughton, Jeffrey F.; Cai, Jin-Yi

    2012-01-01

    We consider differentially private frequent itemset mining. We begin by exploring the theoretical difficulty of simultaneously providing good utility and good privacy in this task. While our analysis proves that in general this is very difficult, it leaves a glimmer of hope in that our proof of difficulty relies on the existence of long transactions (that is, transactions containing many items). Accordingly, we investigate an approach that begins by truncating long transactions, trading off e...

  17. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  18. On Differentially Private Frequent Itemset Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Naughton, Jeffrey F; Cai, Jin-Yi

    2012-11-01

    We consider differentially private frequent itemset mining. We begin by exploring the theoretical difficulty of simultaneously providing good utility and good privacy in this task. While our analysis proves that in general this is very difficult, it leaves a glimmer of hope in that our proof of difficulty relies on the existence of long transactions (that is, transactions containing many items). Accordingly, we investigate an approach that begins by truncating long transactions, trading off errors introduced by the truncation with those introduced by the noise added to guarantee privacy. Experimental results over standard benchmark databases show that truncating is indeed effective. Our algorithm solves the "classical" frequent itemset mining problem, in which the goal is to find all itemsets whose support exceeds a threshold. Related work has proposed differentially private algorithms for the top-k itemset mining problem ("find the k most frequent itemsets".) An experimental comparison with those algorithms show that our algorithm achieves better F-score unless k is small. PMID:24039383

  19. A New Algorithm for Mining Frequent Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力; 靳蕃

    2002-01-01

    Mining frequent pattern in transaction database, time-series databases, and many other kinds of databases have been studied popularly in data mining research. Most of the previous studies adopt Apriori-like candidate set generation-and-test approach. However, candidate set generation is very costly. Han J. proposed a novel algorithm FP-growth that could generate frequent pattern without candidate set. Based on the analysis of the algorithm FP-growth, this paper proposes a concept of equivalent FP-tree and proposes an improved algorithm, denoted as FP-growth*, which is much faster in speed, and easy to realize. FP-growth* adopts a modified structure of FP-tree and header table, and only generates a header table in each recursive operation and projects the tree to the original FP-tree. The two algorithms get the same frequent pattern set in the same transaction database, but the performance study on computer shows that the speed of the improved algorithm, FP-growth*, is at least two times as fast as that of FP-growth.

  20. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron V Berard

    Full Text Available Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT, a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  1. Valuing real options: frequently made errors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze frequently made errors when valuing real options. The best way of doing it is through examples. We start by analyzing Damodaran's proposal to value the option to expand the business of Home Depot. Some of the errors and problems of this and other approaches are: - Assuming that the option is replicable and using Black and Scholes' formula. - The estimation of the option's volatility is arbitrary and has a decisive effect on the option's value. - As there is no riskles...

  2. Frequent MAGE mutations in human melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavia L Caballero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis (CT genes are expressed only in the germ line and certain tumors and are most frequently located on the X-chromosome (the CT-X genes. Amongst the best studied CT-X genes are those encoding several MAGE protein families. The function of MAGE proteins is not well understood, but several have been shown to potentially influence the tumorigenic phenotype. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a mutational analysis of coding regions of four CT-X MAGE genes, MAGEA1, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, MAGEC2 and the ubiquitously expressed MAGEE1 in human melanoma samples. We first examined cell lines established from tumors and matching blood samples from 27 melanoma patients. We found that melanoma cell lines from 37% of patients contained at least one mutated MAGE gene. The frequency of mutations in the coding regions of individual MAGE genes varied from 3.7% for MAGEA1 and MAGEA4 to 14.8% for MAGEC2. We also examined 111 fresh melanoma samples collected from 86 patients. In this case, samples from 32% of the patients exhibited mutations in one or more MAGE genes with the frequency of mutations in individual MAGE genes ranging from 6% in MAGEA1 to 16% in MAGEC1. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate for the first time that the MAGE gene family is frequently mutated in melanoma.

  3. Screening mammography interpretation test: more frequent mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present the mammographic cases most commonly misinterpreted by the participants in the mammography self-test proposed by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) National Congress in Rimini, Italy, 2002, by analysing the findings responsible for errors, suggesting reasons for the errors, and assessing possible inadequacies in the format of the test. Materials and methods: The self-test was performed on the mammograms of 160 cases (32 positive and 128 negative for cancer as confirmed by histology). The mammograms had been taken in the four standard projections and placed on four multi-panel diaphanoscopes, each displaying a set of 40 cases comprising benign and malignant cases in equal proportions. The participants were given pre-printed forms on which to note down their diagnostic judgement. We evaluated a total of 134 fully-completed forms. Among these, we identified the 23 cases most frequently misread by over 15 participants in percentages varying between 40-90%. Of these cases, 10 were malignancies and 13 were negative mammograms. On review, we also assessed the diagnostic contribution of complementary investigations (not available the participants). The 134 fully-completed forms (all of the 40 cases) yielded a total of 5360 responses, 1180 of which (22.01%) were incorrect. Of these 823 out of the 4288 cases expected to be negative (19.2%) were false positive, and 357 out of the 1072 cases expected to be positive (33.3%) were false negative. As regards the 23 most frequently misread cases, these were 10/32 (31.25%) mammograms positive for malignancy and 13/128 (10.15%) negative mammograms or mammograms showing benign disease. The 10 malignancies included 7 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 1 infiltrating cribriform carcinoma, 1 infiltrating tubular carcinoma, and 1 carcinoma in situ. The 13 cases of benign disease - as established by histology or long-term follow-up - mistaken for malignancies by the test participants were fibrocystic breast

  4. LGM: Mining Frequent Subgraphs from Linear Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Tabei, Yasuo; Hirose, Shuichi; Tsuda, Koji

    2011-01-01

    A linear graph is a graph whose vertices are totally ordered. Biological and linguistic sequences with interactions among symbols are naturally represented as linear graphs. Examples include protein contact maps, RNA secondary structures and predicate-argument structures. Our algorithm, linear graph miner (LGM), leverages the vertex order for efficient enumeration of frequent subgraphs. Based on the reverse search principle, the pattern space is systematically traversed without expensive duplication checking. Disconnected subgraph patterns are particularly important in linear graphs due to their sequential nature. Unlike conventional graph mining algorithms detecting connected patterns only, LGM can detect disconnected patterns as well. The utility and efficiency of LGM are demonstrated in experiments on protein contact maps.

  5. Most frequent calf diseases in industrial breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to conduct an analysis of the incidence of viral diseases in calves if these diseases are divided into two basic groups. One group comprises diseases of respiratory organs which are manifested by symptoms of a respiratory syndrome, and the second group comprises diseases of digestive tract organs in the form of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is considered that viruses have the dominant role in the complex etiology of the respiratory syndrome, primarily the IBR virus or the Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1, followed by the parainfluenza 3 virus (RSV, the Bovine Viral Diahrrea Virus (BVDV, the bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, but also other viruses, such as adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, can also influence the appearance of the respiratory syndrome. The respiratory syndrome is rarely caused by a single viral agent, but most frequently by mixed viruses, but also by bacterial infections. Mixed viral infections often have a lethal outcome. Investigations of the etiology of the gastrointestinal syndrome so far indicate that, in addition to bacteria, viruses can also be a significant etiological factor. Rotaviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses parvoviruses, herpesviruses (the IBR virus, pestiviruses (BVDV, can be the causes of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is believed that viruses can be the cause in about 10% cases in the ethiopathogenesis of this syndrome. The paper describes the etiopathogenesis of calf diseases of viral etiology which are most often found in the local conditions of industrial breeding of calves.

  6. NCL Disorders: Frequent Causes of Childhood Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfried KOHLSCHÜTTER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia in children or young adults is most frequently caused by neuronal ceroidlipofuscinoses (NCL, a group of incurable lysosomal storage disorders linked by the accumulation of a characteristic intracellular storage material and progressive clinical deterioration, usually in combination with visual loss, epilepsy, and motor decline. The clinical characteristics can vary and the age at disease onset ranges from birth to over 30 years. Diagnosis of an NCL is difficult because of genetic heterogeneity with14 NCL forms (CLN1- CLN14 identified and a high phenotype variability. A new classification of the disorders is based on the affected gene and the age at disease onset and allows a precise and practicable delineation of every NCL disease. We present a clear diagnostic algorithm to identify each NCL form. A precise diagnosis is essential for genetic counseling of affected families and for optimizing palliative care. As patient management profits from recognizing characteristic complications, care supported by a specialized team of NCL clinicians is recommended. The development of curative therapies remains difficult as the underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear for all NCL forms.

  7. Improving Frequent Link Failure Detection in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sakthi ganesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available VANET technology integrates wireless cellular and ad hoc for seamless connectivity between vehicles. Vehicle ad-hoc networks (VANETs are systems that allow vehicles to communicate with each other. Wireless-vice can send information to nearby vehicles, and messages can be sent from one vehicle to another, so that the informationcan be spread throughout the city. In the network, there is a link failure very common due to the high mobility of nodes in the network region available. So what makes frequent link failure that packets do not reach the respective destinations. The mechanism proposed here establishes a kind of route discovery packet parallel to the real time application to be delivered to the destination, while minimizing losses. The main objective is to establish parallel paths during link failures scenarios for real-time applications to provide data to their destination safely. Recovery road parallel fixed temporary parallel path between nodes when link failure. The node beforethe link failure packet buffers, after setting the new parallel paths before the packets stored in the buffer via the destination newly created path.

  8. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger RH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roland H Wenger,1,2 Vartan Kurtcuoglu,1,2 Carsten C Scholz,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs1,2,4 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, 2National Center of Competence in Research “Kidney.CH”, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. Keywords: gas laws, hypoxia-inducible factor, Krogh tissue cylinder, oxygen diffusion, partial pressure, tissue oxygen levels

  9. NCL Disorders: Frequent Causes of Childhood Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela SCHULZ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   How to Cite This Article: Schulz A, Kohlschütter A. NCL Disorders: Frequent Causes of Childhood Dementia. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter;7(1:1-8.AbstractDementia in children or young adults is most frequently caused by neuronal ceroidlipofuscinoses (NCL, a group of incurable lysosomal storage disorders linked by the accumulation of a characteristic intracellular storage material and progressive clinical deterioration, usually in combination with visual loss, epilepsy, and motor decline. The clinical characteristics can vary and the age at disease onset ranges from birth to over 30 years. Diagnosis of an NCL is difficult because of genetic heterogeneity with14 NCL forms (CLN1- CLN14 identified and a high phenotype variability. A new classification of the disorders is based on the affected gene and the age at disease onset and allows a precise and practicable delineation of every NCL disease. We present a clear diagnostic algorithm to identify each NCL form. A precise diagnosis is essential for genetic counseling of affected families and for optimizing palliative care. As patient management profits from recognizing characteristic complications, care supported by a specialized team of NCL clinicians is recommended. The development of curative therapies remains difficult as the underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear for all NCL forms.References Haltia M. The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses: from past to present. Biochim Biophys Acta 2006;1762:850-6.Mole SE, Williams R, Goebel HH, eds. The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease. 2 ed. Contemporary Neurology Series. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2011.P. 480.Lebrun AH,  Moll-Khosrawi  P,  Pohl  S,  Makrypidi  G, Storch S, Kilian D, et al. Analysis of potential biomarkers and modifier genes affecting the clinical course of CLN3 disease. Mol Med 2011;17:1253-61.Lebrun AH, Storch S, Ruschendorf F, Schmiedt ML, Kyttala A, Mole SE, et al. Retention of lysosomal

  10. Frequently asked questions: iodinated contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Michael A

    2004-10-01

    Although iodinated contrast agents are safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. Some questions are easily answered and others still require extensive investigation. For one frequent question--is informed consent necessary before all contrast media injections--the simple answer is no. Another question concerns use of contrast media in patients with prior reactions or allergies. Contrast agents can be safely used in such patients, but special care must be taken to be aware of what the previous reaction was and to be ready to treat any reaction. The protective role of pre-treatment with steroids is well established for minor reactions, but they may not prevent major reactions. It is important to realize that even life-threatening, anaphylactoid reactions are not the result of a true allergy to contrast media. Many questions arise about contrast agent-induced nephropathy. Baseline serum creatinine values should be obtained in patients who are at risk, not all patients. The incidence and natural history of contrast agent-induced nephropathy remain unclear. It occurs only in patients with compromised renal function before contrast agent injection, but even patients with normal serum creatinine levels can have renal dysfunction. Calculated creatinine clearance is a better way to determine risk and to follow this complication. The outcome in almost all patients is benign, with progression to end-stage renal disease being rare. The major risk factors, in addition to renal dysfunction, are long-standing diabetes mellitus, dehydration, and use of other nephrotoxic medications. Recent work in preventing and ameliorating contrast agent-induced nephropathy with N-acetyl cysteine, substitution of an isosmolal nonionic contrast agent, and various hydration regimens has been promising. Another common concern is use of iodinated contrast agents in pregnant or breast-feeding women. In both cases, there is no evidence

  11. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Notenbomer; Roelen, Corné A. M.; Willem van Rhenen; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussion...

  12. Frequent occurrence of highly expanded but unrelated B-cell clones in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitra Kriangkum

    Full Text Available Clonal diversity in multiple myeloma (MM includes both MM-related and MM-unrelated clonal expansions which are subject to dominance exerted by the MM clone. Here we show evidence for the existence of minor but highly expanded unrelated B-cell clones in patients with MM defined by their complementary determining region 3 (CDR3 peak. We further characterize these clones over the disease and subsequent treatment. Second clones were identified by their specific IgH-VDJ sequences that are distinct from those of dominant MM clones. Clonal frequencies were determined through semi-quantitative PCR, quantitative PCR and single-cell polymerase chain reaction of the clone-specific sequence. In 13/74 MM patients, more than one dominant CDR3 peak was identified with 12 patients (16% being truly biclonal. Second clones had different frequencies, were found in different locations and were found in different cell types from the dominant MM clone. Where analysis was possible, they were shown to have chromosomal characteristic distinct from those of the MM clone. The frequency of the second clone also changed over the course of the disease and often persisted despite treatment. Molecularly-defined second clones are infrequent in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, 1/43 individuals or 2%, suggesting that they may arise at relatively late stages of myelomagenesis. In further support of our findings, biclonal gammopathy and concomitant MM and CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia were confirmed to originate from two unrelated clones. Our data supports the idea that the clone giving rise to symptomatic myeloma exerts clonal dominance to prevent expansion of other clones. MM and second clones may arise from an underlying niche permissive of clonal expansion. The clinical significance of these highly expanded but unrelated clones remains to be confirmed. Overall, our findings add new dimensions to evaluating related and unrelated clonal expansions in

  13. Frequent occurrence of highly expanded but unrelated B-cell clones in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriangkum, Jitra; Motz, Sarah N; Debes Marun, Carina S; Lafarge, Sandrine T; Gibson, Spencer B; Venner, Christopher P; Johnston, James B; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

    2013-01-01

    Clonal diversity in multiple myeloma (MM) includes both MM-related and MM-unrelated clonal expansions which are subject to dominance exerted by the MM clone. Here we show evidence for the existence of minor but highly expanded unrelated B-cell clones in patients with MM defined by their complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) peak. We further characterize these clones over the disease and subsequent treatment. Second clones were identified by their specific IgH-VDJ sequences that are distinct from those of dominant MM clones. Clonal frequencies were determined through semi-quantitative PCR, quantitative PCR and single-cell polymerase chain reaction of the clone-specific sequence. In 13/74 MM patients, more than one dominant CDR3 peak was identified with 12 patients (16%) being truly biclonal. Second clones had different frequencies, were found in different locations and were found in different cell types from the dominant MM clone. Where analysis was possible, they were shown to have chromosomal characteristic distinct from those of the MM clone. The frequency of the second clone also changed over the course of the disease and often persisted despite treatment. Molecularly-defined second clones are infrequent in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, 1/43 individuals or 2%), suggesting that they may arise at relatively late stages of myelomagenesis. In further support of our findings, biclonal gammopathy and concomitant MM and CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) were confirmed to originate from two unrelated clones. Our data supports the idea that the clone giving rise to symptomatic myeloma exerts clonal dominance to prevent expansion of other clones. MM and second clones may arise from an underlying niche permissive of clonal expansion. The clinical significance of these highly expanded but unrelated clones remains to be confirmed. Overall, our findings add new dimensions to evaluating related and unrelated clonal expansions in MM and the

  14. Is Frequent Pattern Mining useful in building predictive models?

    OpenAIRE

    Karunaratne, Thashmee

    2011-01-01

    The recent studies of pattern mining have given more attention to discovering patterns that are interesting, significant, discriminative and so forth, than simply frequent. Does this imply that the frequent patterns are not useful anymore? In this paper we carry out a survey of frequent pattern mining and, using an empirical study, show how far the frequent pattern mining is useful in building predictive models.

  15. Guide and manual of frequent special radiological procedures pertaining frequent pediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of instructions and / or recommendations are afforded, developed in a systematic way, whose purpose is to help treating doctors to make decisions about the mode of study appropriate for a specialized clinical circumstance. The instructions are aimed at radiologists, in order to facilitate the selection and realization of special studies in the pediatric patient images, so that in this way, guide of the best and most efficient way to the resolution of the cases before diagnostic doubts that seek to clarify the treating clinician. The studies most frequently requested are exposed, as well as those with their prompt realization will lead to a quick and timely medical care and / or surgical of a specific problem

  16. Using Apriori with WEKA for Frequent Pattern Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Tanna, Paresh; Ghodasara, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge exploration from the large set of data,generated as a result of the various data processing activities due to data mining only. Frequent Pattern Mining is a very important undertaking in data mining. Apriori approach applied to generate frequent item set generally espouse candidate generation and pruning techniques for the satisfaction of the desired objective. This paper shows how the different approaches achieve the objective of frequent mining along with the complexities required...

  17. Text Clustering Based on Frequent Items Using Zoning and Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Suneetha, S.; M. Usha Rani; Yaswanth Kumar.Avulapati

    2011-01-01

    In today’s information age, there is an incredible nonstop growth in the textual information available in electronic form. This increasing textual data has led to the task of mining useful or interesting frequent itemsets (words/terms) from very large unstructured text databases and this task still seems to be quite challenging. The use of such frequent association for text clustering has received a great deal of attention in research communities since the mined frequent itemsets reduces the ...

  18. A GENERAL SURVEY ON FREQUENT PATTERN MINING USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    K. Poornamala; R. Lawrance

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, data mining is an important aspect for generating association rules among the large number of itemsets. Association rule mining is one of the techniques in data mining that that has two sub processes. First, the process called as finding frequent itemsets and second process is association rules mining. In this sub process, the rules with the use of frequent itemsets have been extracted. Researchers developed a lot of algorithms for finding frequent itemsets and association ru...

  19. Feed Forward Neural Network Algorithm for Frequent Patterns Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K.R.Pardasani; Sanjay Sharma; Amit Bhagat

    2010-01-01

    Association rule mining is used to find relationships among items in large data sets. Frequent patterns mining is an important aspect in association rule mining. In this paper, an efficient algorithm named Apriori-Feed Forward(AFF) based on Apriori algorithm and the Feed Forward Neural Network is presented to mine frequent patterns. Apriori algorithm scans database many times to generate frequent itemsets whereas Apriori-Feed Forward(AFF) algorithm scans database Only Once. Computational resu...

  20. Efficient Algorithm for Frequent Pattern Mining Based On Apriori

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D. N. Goswami; Dr. Anshu Chaturvedi; C. S. Raghuvanshi

    2010-01-01

    Frequent pattern mining is a heavily researched area in the field of data mining with wide range of applications. Mining frequent patterns from large scale databases has emerged as an important problemin data mining and knowledge discovery community. A number of algorithms has been proposed to determine frequent pattern. Apriori algorithm is the first algorithm proposed in this field. With the time a number of changes proposed in Apriori to enhance the performance in term of time and number o...

  1. Using Apriori with WEKA for Frequent Pattern Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Paresh Tanna; Dr. Yogesh Ghodasara

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge exploration from the large set of data, generated as a result of the various data processing activities due to data mining only. Frequent Pattern Mining is a very important undertaking in data mining. Apriori approach applied to generate frequent item set generally espouse candidate generation and pruning techniques for the satisfaction of the desired objective. This paper shows how the different approaches achieve the objective of frequent mining along with the complexities require...

  2. Predictors of Frequent Emergency Room Visits among a Homeless Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kinna Thakarar; Morgan, Jake R.; Jessie M Gaeta; Carole Hohl; Mari-Lynn Drainoni

    2015-01-01

    Background Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER) visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed...

  3. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  4. Limitations of clonality analysis of B cell proliferations using CDR3 polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M A; Krol, A D G; Philippo, K; Derksen, P W B; Veenendaal, R. A.; Schuuring, E; Kluin, Ph M; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Background/Aims—Detection of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an attractive alternative to Southern blotting in lymphoma diagnostics. However, the advantages and limitations of PCR in clonality analysis are still not fully appreciated. In this study, clonality was analysed by means of PCR, focusing in particular on the sample size requirements when studying extremely small samples of polyclonal and monoclonal lesions.

  5. Characterization of heavy chain CDR3 diversity in the developing fetal piglet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sun, J.; Butler, J. E.; Weber, P.; Šinkora, Marek; Ford, S. P.; Christenson, R. K.

    Uppsala: International Union of Immunological Societies, 2001. s. 199. [International Veterinary Immunology Symposium /6./. 15.07.2001-20.07.2001, Uppsala] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  6. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is constr

  7. [Congestive heart failure with frequent hospital readmissions in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; Del Corso, L

    1993-03-01

    Ten elderly patients with heart failure and frequent hospital readmission within 12 months before the study, were submitted to clinical radiologic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation in order to find the causes of readmission. The most frequent factors were found to be non compliance with drug prescriptions and therapy inadequate for the etiology of the heart failure and the kind of cardiac dysfunction. PMID:8482059

  8. An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Maximal Frequent Item Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M.J.M.Z. Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: In today's life, the mining of frequent patterns is a basic problem in data mining applications. The algorithms which are used to generate these frequent patterns must perform efficiently. The objective was to propose an effective algorithm which generates frequent patterns in less time. Approach: We proposed an algorithm which was based on hashing technique and combines a vertical tidset representation of the database with effective pruning mechanisms. It removes all the non-maximal frequent item-sets to get exact set of MFI directly. It worked efficiently when the number of item-sets and tid-sets is more. Results: The performance of our algorithm had been compared with recently developed MAFIA algorithm and the results show how our algorithm gives better performance. Conclusions: Hence, the proposed algorithm performs effectively and generates frequent patterns faster.

  9. Predictors of Frequent Emergency Room Visits among a Homeless Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinna Thakarar

    Full Text Available Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use.A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH. This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits.In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, p<0.01. HIV seropositivity was not predictive of frequent ER visits. In patients with history of illicit drug use, mental health (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.07-5.95 and hepatitis C (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.37-5.93 were predictors of frequent ER use. HIV seropositivity did not predict ER use (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 - 0.97.In a HCH population, hepatitis C predicted frequent ER visits in homeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population.

  10. Frequent Trajectory Patterns Mining for Intelligent Visual Surveillance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Lin; CHEN Yao-wu

    2009-01-01

    A frequent trajectory patterns mining algorithm is proposed to learn the object activities and classify the trajectories in intelligent visual surveillance system. The distribution patterns of the trajectories were generated by an Apriori based frequent patterns mining algorithm and the trajectories were classified by the frequent trajectory patterns generated. In addition, a fuzzy c-mcans (FCM) based learning algorithm and a mean shift based clustering procedure were used to construct the representation of trajectories. The algorithm can be further used to describe activities and identify anomalies. The experiments on two real scenes show that the algorithm is effective.

  11. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended to......BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social...... inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross...

  12. Predictors of frequent visits to a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Aagaard, Andreas; Buus, Niels

    2014-01-01

    social network and social support. RESULTS: The study identified two overall trends of predictors of frequent use of the psychiatric emergency room. High use of psychiatric services: ≥5 visits to the psychiatric emergency room, ≥3 admissions or ≥60 bed days during the year, was and continued to be......BACKGROUND: The role of the psychiatric emergency services has undergone extensive changes following a significant downsizing of the number of psychiatric hospital beds during the past decades. A relatively small number of "frequent visitors" accounts for a disproportionately large amount of visits...... to psychiatric emergency services. OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of frequent use of a psychiatric emergency room at a Danish University Psychiatric Hospital through a 12-year period (1995-2007) and to speculate on how changes in the mental healthcare services affect predictors of frequent use...

  13. Perceived Quality of Social Relations and Frequent Drunkenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Thora M; Rivera, Francisco; Jiménez-Iglesias, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to examine, for female and male students separately, whether perceived quality of relationships with peers and parents and relations in school predict self-reported frequent drunkenness among Spanish adolescents. METHODS: The Spanish data from the Health Behaviour in...... were associated with decreased odds of frequent drunkenness, whereas low perceived maternal knowledge as well as medium and low satisfaction with the family increased odds of being frequently drunk. The proportion of male students reporting medium satisfaction with friendships had significantly lower...... School-aged Children Study (HBSC) 2010 survey were used including 1177 female and 1126 male students aged between 15 and 16 years. RESULTS: For both genders, students reporting low school satisfaction had increased odds of frequent drunkenness. Among females, low and medium levels of classmate support...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  15. A NEW ASSOCIATION RULE MINING BASED ON FREQUENT ITEM SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sanober Shaikh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new mining algorithm is defined based on frequent item set. Apriori Algorithm scans the database every time when it finds the frequent item set so it is very time consuming and at each step it generates candidate item set. So for large databases it takes lots of space to store candidate item set. The defined algorithm scans the database at the start only once and then makes the undirected item set graph. From this graph by considering minimum support it finds the frequent item set and by considering the minimum confidence it generates the association rule. If database and minimum support is changed, the new algorithm finds the new frequent items by scanning undirected item set graph. That is why it’s executing efficiency is improved distinctly compared to traditional algorithm.

  16. Zika Virus Infection and Zika Fever: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently asked questions Updated: 25 March 2016 ABOUT ZIKA What is Zika virus infection? Zika virus infection is caused by ... possible to characterize the disease better. How is Zika virus transmitted? Zika virus is transmitted to people ...

  17. THE FREQUENT SKIN DISEASES DIAGNOSED AT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim KAYMAK

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of some skin diseases are increasing at adolescent and early adulthood period. The most frequent disease at this period is acne vulgaris whereas fungal diseases, dermatitis, dermatosis which are due to stress and other reasons, oral mucosal lesions and herpetic lesions of perioral region are also frequent. In this research we aim to determine the frequent dermatologic diseases of university students and 147 female, 74 male, a total of 221 students are included. We questioned the dermatologic complaints of students, then examined dermatologically in detail and registered ages, sexes, findings of the dermatological examination and dermatological diagnostic informations. As a result it is found out that the most frequent diseases are acne vulgaris (34.1%, allergic and pruritic dermatosis (16.6%, fungal diseases ( 13.0%, and eritamatous-squamous disease (8.3%. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 313-320

  18. The ParMol package for frequent subgraph mining

    OpenAIRE

    Meinl, Thorsten; Wörlein, Marc; Urzova, Olga; Fischer, Ingrid; Philippsen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Mining for frequent subgraphs in a graph database has become a popular topic in the last years. Algorithms to solve this problem are used in chemoinformatics to find common molecular fragments in a database of molecules represented as two-dimensional graphs. However; the search process in arbitrary graph structures includes costly graph and subgraph isomorphism tests. In our ParMol package we have implemented four of the most popular frequent subgraph miners using a common infrastructure: MoF...

  19. Computational Model for Mining Frequent Sets in Large Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Singh R. C. Jain

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we have addressed the problem that we overcome in data mining applications i.e. mining frequent patterns in large databases efficiently in less time with less memory requirement. We are proposing a computational model for finding frequent patterns in large datasets with less number of scans .We have also proposed methodology which would help in storing large database compactly and thus help in improving the storage space requirement. Our model would help in generating less patte...

  20. Incremental Mining for Regular Frequent Patterns in Vertical Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the real world database updates continuously in several online applications like super market, network monitoring, web administration, stock market etc. Frequent pattern mining is afundamental and essential area in data mining research. Not only occurrence frequency of a pattern but also occurrence behaviour of a pattern may be treated as important criteria to measure the interestingness of a pattern. A frequent pattern is said to be regular frequent if the occurrence behaviour is less than or equal to the user given regularity threshold. In incremental transactional databases the occurrence frequency and the occurrence behaviour of a pattern changes whenever a small set of new transactions are added to the database. It is undesirable to mine regular frequent patterns from the scratch. Thus proposes a new algorithm called RFPID (Regular Frequent Pattern Mining in Incremental Databases to mine regular frequent patterns in incremental transactional databases using vertical data format which requires only one database scan. The experimental results show our algorithm is efficient in both memory utilization and execution.

  1. Mining Maximal Frequent Patterns in a Unidirectional FP-tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jing-jing; LIU Rui-xin; WANG Yan; JIANG Bao-qing

    2006-01-01

    Becausemining complete set of frequent patterns from dense database could be impractical, an interesting alternative has been proposed recently. Instead of mining the complete set of frequent patterns, the new model only finds out the maximal frequent patterns, which can generate all frequent patterns. FP-growth algorithm is one of the most efficient frequent-pattern mining methods published so far. However,because FP-tree and conditional FP-trees must be two-way traversable, a great deal memory is needed in process of mining. This paper proposes an efficient algorithm Unid_FP-Max for mining maximal frequent patterns based on unidirectional FP-tree. Because of generation method of unidirectional FP-tree and conditional unidirectional FP-trees, the algorithm reduces the space consumption to the fullest extent. With the development of two techniques:single path pruning and header table pruning which can cut down many conditional unidirectional FP-trees generated recursively in mining process, Unid_ FP-Max further lowers the expense of time and space.

  2. Conjunctival Changes in Wearers of Frequent Replacement Hydrogel and Frequent Replacement Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses: Comparison Using Impression Cytology Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rukiye Aydın FEBO; Zeynep Özbek Söylemezoğlu; Ali Veral

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the level of conjunctival changes using conjunctival impression cytology in wearers of frequent replacement hydrogel (FRHL) and frequent replacement silicone hydrogel contact lens FRSHL. Materials and Methods: Forty-two contact lens users who were seen at the Cornea and Contact Lens Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Dokuz Eylül University were evaluated in this study. The first group consisted of wearers of FRHL used for minimum one year and maximum five ye...

  3. Mining Frequent Generalized Itemsets and Generalized Association Rules Without Redundancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Kunkle; Donghui Zhang; Gene Cooperman

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some new algorithms to efficiently mine max frequent generalized itemsets (g-itemsets) and essential generalized association rules (g-rules). These are compact and general representations for all frequent patterns and all strong association rules in the generalized environment. Our results fill an important gap among algorithms for frequent patterns and association rules by combining two concepts. First, generalized itemsets employ a taxonomy of items, rather than a fiat list of items. This produces more natural frequent itemsets and associations such as (meat, milk) instead of (beef, milk), (chicken, milk), etc. Second, compact representations of frequent itemsets and strong rules, whose result size is exponentially smaller, can solve a standard dilemma in mining patterns: with small threshold values for support and confidence, the user is overwhelmed by the extraordinary number of identified patterns and associations; but with large threshold values, some interesting patterns and associations fail to be identified. Our algorithms can also expand those max frequent g-itemsets and essential g-rules into the much larger set of ordinary frequent g-itemsets and strong g-rules. While that expansion is not recommended in most practical cases, we do so in order to present a comparison with existing algorithms that only handle ordinary frequent g-itemsets. In this case, the new algorithm is shown to be thousands, and in some cases millions, of the time faster than previous algorithms. Further, the new algorithm succeeds in analyzing deeper taxonomies, with the depths of seven or more. Experimental results for previous algorithms limited themselves to taxonomies with depth at most three or four. In each of the two problems, a straightforward lattice-based approach is briefly discussed and then a classificationbased algorithm is developed. In particular, the two classification-based algorithms are MFGI_class for mining max frequent g-itemsets and EGR

  4. Frequently Used Coping Scales: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the frequency of the use of coping scales in academic journals published from 1998 to 2010. Two thousand empirical journal articles were selected from the EBSCO database. The COPE, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Religious-COPE and Coping Response Inventory were frequently mentioned. In particular, the COPE (20.2%) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (13.6%) were used the most frequently. In this literature reviewed, coping scales were most often used to assess coping with health issues (e.g. illness, pain and medical diagnoses) over other types of stressors, and patients were the most frequent participants. Further, alpha coefficients were estimated for the COPE subscales, and correlations between the COPE subscales and coping outcomes were calculated, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative affect, psychological distress, physical symptoms and well-being. PMID:24338955

  5. Determinants of frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies addressing determinants of frequent attendance have mainly focused on socio-demographic, psychosocial and medical factors, and few had data on lifestyle and gender-specific factors. This study aims to describe determinants of general practice frequent attendance in...... Danish adult population, by examining lifestyle, socio-demographic, medical and gender-specific factors. METHOD: For 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (50-65 year old) we obtained data on visits to general practitioner (GP) from the Danish National Health Service Register...... at cohort baseline (1993-97), when information on medical conditions and lifestyle, socio-demographic and gender-specific factors was collected by questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to identify determinants of frequent attendance, defined as top 10 % GP users at the year of recruitment into...

  6. Extracting Frequent Connected Subgraphs from Large Graph Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Qing-Qing Yuan; Hao-Feng Zhou; Ming-Sheng Hong; Bai-Le Shi

    2004-01-01

    Mining frequent patterns from datasets is one of the key success of data mining research. Currently, most of the studies focus on the data sets in which the elements are independent, such as the items in the marketing basket.. However, the objects in the real world often have close relationship with each other. How to extract frequent patterns from these relations is the objective of this paper. The authors use graphs to model the relations, and select a simple type for analysis. Combining the graph theory and algorithms to generate frequent patterns, a new algorithm called Topology, which can mine these graphs efficiently, has been proposed. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by doing experiments with synthetic datasets and real data. The experimental results show that Topology can do the job well. At the end of this paper, the potential improvement is mentioned.

  7. Injury patterns in children with frequent emergency department visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare injury patterns in children with many and few emergency department (ED) visits in order to reveal the causes for the frequent visits. METHODS: Three cohorts of Danish children (total 579 721 children) were followed for three years when their ages were 0-2, 6-8, and 12-14....... RESULTS: Children with frequent visits had a different injury pattern with 0-46% more superficial injuries and 25-82% more dislocations, sprains, and strains. There was 20-30% fewer fractures and 12% fewer falls from a higher level. 15-51% fewer were admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Children with many ED visits had...... years. Information on all ED visits was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry. Injury type, place of accident, injury mechanism, admission, and distance to ED were compared between children with frequent ED visits (five or more during the three years) and children with only one visit...

  8. Significant Interval and Frequent Pattern Discovery in Web Log Data

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Kanak

    2010-01-01

    There is a considerable body of work on sequence mining of Web Log Data. We are using One Pass frequent Episode discovery (or FED) algorithm, takes a different approach than the traditional apriori class of pattern detection algorithms. In this approach significant intervals for each Website are computed first (independently) and these interval used for detecting frequent patterns/Episode and then the Analysis is performed on Significant Intervals and frequent patterns That can be used to forecast the user's behavior using previous trends and this can be also used for advertising purpose. This type of applications predicts the Website interest. In this approach, time-series data are folded over a periodicity (day, week, etc.) Which are used to form the Interval? Significant intervals are discovered from these time points that satisfy the criteria of minimum confidence and maximum interval length specified by the user.

  9. Mining Tree Based Frequent Pattern from Human Interaction in Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja R. Kose*1

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life, interactions between human beings are frequently occurring in meetings, where topics are discussed and new decisions are made. To understand and interpret how people interact in a meeting discussion study of semantic knowledge is important. It becomes possible to extract frequent patterns of human interaction based on the captured content of face-to-face meetings by using mining method. Human interactions are categorized as proposing an idea, giving comments, expressing a positive opinion, acknowledgement; indicate the intention of user towards a topic or role in a discussion.Tree is used for representing a human interaction flow in a discussion session. Tree-based interaction mining algorithms are studied to analyze the structures of the trees and to extract interaction flow patterns. It can successfully extract several interesting patterns which is useful for the interpretation of human behavior in meeting discussions, such as determining frequent interactions, typical interaction flows, and relationships between different types of interactions.

  10. Computational Model for Mining Frequent Sets in Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Singh R. C. Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have addressed the problem that we overcome in data mining applications i.e. mining frequent patterns in large databases efficiently in less time with less memory requirement. We are proposing a computational model for finding frequent patterns in large datasets with less number of scans .We have also proposed methodology which would help in storing large database compactly and thus help in improving the storage space requirement. Our model would help in generating less patterns and thus improving the mining time required in large databases. Our computational model is an amalgamation of three approaches i.e. bottom up counting inference and top down intersection method for generating the frequent sets and tree based approach for storing the databases compactly

  11. Significant Interval and Frequent Pattern Discovery in Web Log Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a considerable body of work on sequence mining of Web Log Data We are using One Pass frequent Episode discovery (or FED algorithm, takes a different approach than the traditional apriori class of pattern detection algorithms. In this approach significant intervals for each Website are computed first (independently and these interval used for detecting frequent patterns/Episode and then the Analysis is performed on Significant Intervals and frequent patterns That can be used to forecast the user's behavior using previous trends and this can be also used for advertising purpose. This type of applications predicts the Website interest. In this approach, time-series data are folded over a periodicity (day, week, etc. Which are used to form the Interval? Significant intervals are discovered from these time points that satisfy the criteria of minimum confidence and maximum interval length specified by the user.

  12. A Frame Work for Frequent Pattern Mining Using Dynamic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Joshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Discovering frequent objects (item sets, sequential patterns is one of the most vital fields in data mining. It is well understood that it require running time and memory for defining candidates and this is the motivation for developing large number of algorithm. Frequent patterns mining is the paying attention research issue in association rules analysis. Apriori algorithm is a standard algorithm of association rules mining. Plenty of algorithms for mining association rules and their mutations are projected on the foundation of Apriori Algorithm. Most of the earlier studies adopted Apriori-like algorithms which are based on generate-and-test candidates theme and improving algorithm approach and formation but no one give attention to the structure of database. Several modifications on apriori algorithms are focused on algorithm Strategy but no one-algorithm emphasis on least transaction and more attribute representation of database. We presented a new research trend on frequent pattern mining in which generate Transaction pair to lighten current methods from the traditional blockage, providing scalability to massive data sets and improving response time. In order to mine patterns in database with more columns than rows, we proposed a complete framework for the frequent pattern mining. A simple approach is if we generate pair of transaction instead of item id where attributes are much larger then transaction so result is very fast. Newly, different works anticipated a new way to mine patterns in transposed databases where there is a database with thousands of attributes but merely tens of stuff. We suggest a novel dynamic algorithm for frequent pattern mining in which generate transaction pair and for generating frequent pattern we find out by longest common subsequence using dynamic function. Our solutions give result more rapidly. A quantitative investigation of these tradeoffs is conducted through a wide investigational study on artificial and

  13. Efficient Vertical Mining of Frequent Closures and Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Szathmary, Laszlo; Valtchev, Petko; Napoli, Amedeo; Godin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The effective construction of many association rule bases requires the computation of both frequent closed and frequent generator itemsets (FCIs/FGs). However, only few miners address both concerns, typically by applying levelwise breadth-first traversal. As depth-first traversal is known to be superior, we examine here the depth-first FCI/FG-mining. The proposed algorithm, Touch, deals with both tasks separately, i.e., uses a well-known vertical method, Charm, to extract FCIs and a novel one...

  14. Examination of Operation Quality for High-frequent Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of operation quality for high-frequent operation requires other approaches than the typical evaluation of punctuality (trains on time) and reliability (operated trains). This is because passengers in high-frequent railway systems do not necessarily notice train delays as they just...... measurement. However, if an even more accurate measurement is wanted, the article recommends using the passenger delay approach. For the passenger delay approach, the article recommends using a 3rd generation passenger delay model since it is the most accurate type of model and it can be combined with railway...

  15. [Anorexia nervosa is frequently associated with psychiatric co-morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Anna; Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen

    2015-09-21

    Recent literature is explored focusing on the relationship between symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) and other psychiatric disorders and lines of treatment. In AN, restrictive subtype, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders are the most frequent co-morbidities. In AN, bulimic subtype, depression, emotional instability/borderline and dependency disorders are most frequent. Psychopharmacological treatment could be tried in cases with AN and co-morbid depression, but otherwise the evidence base is lacking and pharmacological treatment relies on case stories and experience. PMID:26418641

  16. Mining Frequent Itemsets from Online Data Streams: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HebaTallah Mohamed Nabil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Online mining of data streams poses many new challenges more than mining static databases. In addition to the one-scan nature, the unbounded memory requirement, the high data arrival rate of data streams and the combinatorial explosion of itemsets exacerbate the mining task. The high complexity of the frequent itemsets mining problem hinders the application of the stream mining techniques. In this review, we present a comparative study among almost all, as we are acquainted, the algorithms for mining frequent itemsets from online data streams. All those techniques immolate with the accuracy of the results due to the relatively limited storage, leading, at all times, to approximated results.

  17. One portion size of foods frequently consumed by Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Hyun, Wha-Jin; Lee, Sim-Yeol; Park, Hong-Ju; Kim, Se-Na; Song, Kyung-Hee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to define a one portion size of food items frequently consumed for convenient use by Koreans in food selection, diet planning, and nutritional evaluation. We analyzed using the original data on 5,436 persons (60.87%) aged 20 ~ 64 years among 8,930 persons to whom NHANES 2005 and selected food items consumed by the intake frequency of 30 or higher among the 500 most frequently consumed food items. A total of 374 varieties of food items of regular use were selected. And the por...

  18. An Efficient Hybrid Algorithm for Mining Web Frequent Access Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Li-qiang; LIU Da-xin

    2004-01-01

    We propose an efficient hybrid algorithm WDHP in this paper for mining frequent access patterns.WDHP adopts the techniques of DHP to optimize its performance, which is using hash table to filter candidate set and trimming database.Whenever the database is trimmed to a size less than a specified threshold, the algorithm puts the database into main memory by constructing a tree, and finds frequent patterns on the tree.The experiment shows that WDHP outperform algorithm DHP and main memory based algorithm WAP in execution efficiency.

  19. Frequent Subgraph Discovery in Large Attributed Streaming Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Abhik; Holder, Larry; Choudhury, Sutanay

    2014-08-13

    The problem of finding frequent subgraphs in large dynamic graphs has so far only consid- ered a dynamic graph as being represented by a series of static snapshots taken at various points in time. This representation of a dynamic graph does not lend itself well to real time processing of real world graphs like social networks or internet traffic which consist of a stream of nodes and edges. In this paper we propose an algorithm that discovers the frequent subgraphs present in a graph represented by a stream of labeled nodes and edges. Our algorithm is efficient and consists of tunable parameters that can be tuned by the user to get interesting patterns from various kinds of graph data. In our model updates to the graph arrive in the form of batches which contain new nodes and edges. Our algorithm con- tinuously reports the frequent subgraphs that are estimated to be found in the entire graph as each batch arrives. We evaluate our system using 5 large dynamic graph datasets: the Hetrec 2011 challenge data, Twitter, DBLP and two synthetic. We evaluate our approach against two popular large graph miners, i.e., SUBDUE and GERM. Our experimental re- sults show that we can find the same frequent subgraphs as a non-incremental approach applied to snapshot graphs, and in less time.

  20. An Efficient TDTR Algorithm for Mining Frequent Itemsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Kerana Hanirex

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on mining frequent itemsets is one the emerging task in data mining.The purchasing of one product when another product is purchased represents an association rule. Association rules are useful for analyzing the customer behavior. It takes an important part in shopping basket data analysis, clustering. The FP-Growth algorithm is the basic algorithm for mining association rules. This paper presents an efficient algorithm for mining frequent itemsets using Two Dimensional Transactions Reduction(TDTR approach which reduces the original database(D transactions to the reduced data base transactions D1 based on the min_sup count. Then for each item it finds the number of transactions that the item present and hence find the largest frequent itemset using the two dimensional approach. Using the largest item set property ,it finds the subset of frequent item sets. Thus TDTR approach reduces the number of scans in the database and hence improve the efficiency & accuracy by finding the number of association rules and reduces time to find the rules.

  1. An Adaptive Algorithm for Finding Frequent Sets in Landmark Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Ong, Kok-Leong; Lee, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We consider a CPU constrained environment for finding approximation of frequent sets in data streams using the landmark window. Our algorithm can detect overload situations, i.e., breaching the CPU capacity, and sheds data in the stream to “keep up”. This is done within a controlled error threshold...

  2. GRAMI: Generalized Frequent Subgraph Mining in Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    El Saeedy, Mohammed El Sayed

    2011-07-24

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs or protein-protein interaction in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. Interesting interactions in such applications may be transitive (e.g., friend of a friend). Existing methods, however, search for frequent isomorphic (i.e., exact match) subgraphs and cannot discover many useful patterns. In this paper we propose GRAMI, a framework that generalizes frequent subgraph mining in a large single graph. GRAMI discovers frequent patterns. A pattern is a graph where edges are generalized to distance-constrained paths. Depending on the definition of the distance function, many instantiations of the framework are possible. Both directed and undirected graphs, as well as multiple labels per vertex, are supported. We developed an efficient implementation of the framework that models the frequency resolution phase as a constraint satisfaction problem, in order to avoid the costly enumeration of all instances of each pattern in the graph. We also implemented CGRAMI, a version that supports structural and semantic constraints; and AGRAMI, an approximate version that supports very large graphs. Our experiments on real data demonstrate that our framework is up to 3 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches.

  3. The Most Frequently Listed Courses in the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Baron; McCann, Lee I.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the most frequently listed undergraduate psychology courses for four institutional types by analyzing 400 college catalogs. Reports that some segmentation continues in the research methodology and developmental areas, the balance of natural and social science courses appear stable, and there are no signs of a change toward vocationalism.…

  4. Frequent Errors in Chinese EFL Learners' Topic-Based Writings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated a large number of errors found in the topic-based writings of Chinese EFL learners, especially provided an analysis on frequent errors, to find useful pedagogical implications for English grammar teaching and writing instruction in Chinese EFL setting. Students' topic-based writings were examined by the author. The findings…

  5. Frequent hypermethylation of DBC1 in malignant lymphoproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Karin Elmegård; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.;

    2008-01-01

    Allelic loss at chromosome 9q31-34 is a frequent event in many lymphoproliferative malignancies. Here, we examined DBC1 at 9q33.1 as a potential target in lymphomagenesis. DBC1 is a putative tumor suppressor that has been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell growth and programmed cell d...

  6. Prognostic factors for frequent episodic asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Hamid, Amalia Setyati, Noormanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a major health problem affecting millions of children worldwide. The prevalence of asthmain children tends to increase annually in the world. Therefore, identification of the prognostic factorsfor episodic asthma is important to perform early prevention of asthma attacks in children. Thestudy was performed to identify the prognostic factors for frequent episodic asthma in children. Thiswas a retrospective cohort study involving asthmatic children who attended the Emergency Unit orOutpatient Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. Theinclusion criteria were asthmatic children aged over 7 years, suffering from asthma over 2 years andgetting agreement from their parents as expressed by signed an informed consent. The exclusioncriteria were children with other chronic obtructive pulmonary diseases beside asthma and childrenwith cardiovascular diseases. Subjects were grouped into two groups i.e. Case Group and ControlGroup. The Case Group was children with frequent episodic asthma while the Control Group waschildren with infrequent episodic asthma. Prognostic factors for episodic asthma were then gatheredby giving a questionnaire to their parents. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationshipbetween prognostic factors and episodic asthma. A total of 94 subjects comprising 37 (36.4%subjects with frequent episodic asthma and 57 (63.6% subjects with infrequent episodic asthmawere involved in the study. Furthermore, response to initial theraphy was significantly associatedwith frequent episodic asthma (RR= 8.64; 95%CI= 0.47-2.50; p=0.001. Whereas, nutritionalstatus, patients age when asthma diagnosed, exclusive breastfeeding, maternal education, exposureof secondhand smoke and welfare were not (p>0.05. In conclusion, the initial therapy is prognosticfactors for frequent episodic asthma in children.

  7. Frequent Item set Mining Using Global Profit Weight Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHA RAJKUMAR,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study focused on weighted based frequent item set mining. The base paper has proposed multi criteria based frequent item set for weight calculation. Contribution towards this project is to implement the global profit weight measure and test the performance over utility based mining. For this project the data consist of 90 products from automobile shop including unit price, quantity sold and profit margin for transaction set (one month data. Algorithm has been implemented in Visual Basic for visualizing step by step process calculations. Supervised machine learning techniques namely Naïve Bayes Decision tree classifier, VFI and IB1 Classifier are used for learning the model. The results of the models are compared and observed that Naïve Bayes performs well. WEKA tool is used to classify the data set and accuracy is calculated.

  8. Recognition of highly frequented sets of tourist sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moreno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an algorithm to identify sets of the most frequently visited tourist sites. We do this by examining the trajectories followed by tourists and by considering their visits to these sites. We propose a second algorithm that recommends a specific order to visit these sites. To accomplish this task, we consider variables such as tourist preferences, departure and arrival locations, and time constraints. To validate our proposal, a prototype website application was developed, which experiments with real vehicle trajectories in Rio de Janeiro. Although more exhaustive experiments will be required to deal with different possible scenarios, preliminary results show the usefulness of our proposal for displaying sets of neighborhoods frequented by vehicles as they move about a city.

  9. Mining Multi-Level Frequent Itemsets under Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Gouider, Mohamed Salah

    2010-01-01

    Mining association rules is a task of data mining, which extracts knowledge in the form of significant implication relation of useful items (objects) from a database. Mining multilevel association rules uses concept hierarchies, also called taxonomies and defined as relations of type 'is-a' between objects, to extract rules that items belong to different levels of abstraction. These rules are more useful, more refined and more interpretable by the user. Several algorithms have been proposed in the literature to discover the multilevel association rules. In this article, we are interested in the problem of discovering multi-level frequent itemsets under constraints, involving the user in the research process. We proposed a technique for modeling and interpretation of constraints in a context of use of concept hierarchies. Three approaches for discovering multi-level frequent itemsets under constraints were proposed and discussed: Basic approach, "Test and Generate" approach and Pruning based Approach.

  10. Frequent Data Itemset Mining Using VS_Apriori Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Badal,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The organization, management and accessing of information in better manner in various data warehouse applications have been active areas of research for many researchers for more than last two decades. The work presented in this paper is motivated from their work and inspired to reduce complexity involved in data mining from data warehouse. A new algorithm named VS_Apriori is introduced as the extension of existing Apriori Algorithm that intelligently mines the frequent data itemset in large scale database. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the role of Apriori Algorithm, to demonstrate efficient way and to implement the Algorithm for generating frequent data itemset. Experiments are also performed to show high speedups.

  11. Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, H J; Cant, M A; Hoffman, J I; Sanderson, J L

    2014-12-01

    As breeding between relatives often results in inbreeding depression, inbreeding avoidance is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, inbreeding avoidance may entail fitness costs. For example, dispersal away from relatives may reduce survival. How these conflicting selection pressures are resolved is challenging to investigate, but theoretical models predict that inbreeding should occur frequently in some systems. Despite this, few studies have found evidence of regular incest in mammals, even in social species where relatives are spatio-temporally clustered and opportunities for inbreeding frequently arise. We used genetic parentage assignments together with relatedness data to quantify inbreeding rates in a wild population of banded mongooses, a cooperatively breeding carnivore. We show that females regularly conceive to close relatives, including fathers and brothers. We suggest that the costs of inbreeding avoidance may sometimes outweigh the benefits, even in cooperatively breeding species where strong within-group incest avoidance is considered to be the norm. PMID:25540153

  12. TIFIM: Tree based Incremental Frequent Itemset Mining over Streaming Data

    OpenAIRE

    V.Sidda Reddy; Dr T.V. Rao; Dr.A.Govardhan

    2013-01-01

    Data Stream Mining algorithms performs under constraints called space used and time taken, which is due to the streaming property. The relaxation in these constraints is inversely proportional to the streaming speed of the data. Since the caching and mining the streaming-data is sensitive, here in this paper a scalable, memory efficient caching and frequent itemset mining model is devised. The proposed model is an incremental approach that builds single level multi node trees called bushes fr...

  13. Lymphedema following cancer therapy in Slovenia: a frequently overlooked condition?

    OpenAIRE

    Rucigaj, Tanja Planinsek; Leskovec, Nada Kecelj; Zunter, Vesna Tlaker

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Secondary lymphedema following cancer therapy is a frequent, often painful, quality of life disturbing condition, reducing the patients’ mobility and predisposing them to complications, e.g. infections and malignancies. The critical aspect of lymphedema therapy is to start as soon as possible to prevent the irreversible tissue damage. Patients and methods We performed a retrospective study of patients with lymphedema, treated at the Department of Dermatovenereology, University Me...

  14. Frequent-Itemset Mining using Locality-Sensitive Hashing

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, Debajyoti; Pratap, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    The Apriori algorithm is a classical algorithm for the frequent itemset mining problem. A significant bottleneck in Apriori is the number of I/O operation involved, and the number of candidates it generates. We investigate the role of LSH techniques to overcome these problems, without adding much computational overhead. We propose randomized variations of Apriori that are based on asymmetric LSH defined over Hamming distance and Jaccard similarity.

  15. Frequent Data Itemset Mining Using VS_Apriori Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    N. Badal,; Shruti Tripathi

    2010-01-01

    The organization, management and accessing of information in better manner in various data warehouse applications have been active areas of research for many researchers for more than last two decades. The work presented in this paper is motivated from their work and inspired to reduce complexity involved in data mining from data warehouse. A new algorithm named VS_Apriori is introduced as the extension of existing Apriori Algorithm that intelligently mines the frequent data itemset in large ...

  16. Frequentism and Bayesianism: A Python-driven Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderplas, Jake

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brief, semi-technical comparison of the essential features of the frequentist and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference, with several illustrative examples implemented in Python. The differences between frequentism and Bayesianism fundamentally stem from differing definitions of probability, a philosophical divide which leads to distinct approaches to the solution of statistical problems as well as contrasting ways of asking and answering questions about unknown p...

  17. Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, H. J.; Cant, M. A.; Hoffman, J I; Sanderson, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    As breeding between relatives often results in inbreeding depression, inbreeding avoidance is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, inbreeding avoidance may entail fitness costs. For example, dispersal away from relatives may reduce survival. How these conflicting selection pressures are resolved is challenging to investigate, but theoretical models predict that inbreeding should occur frequently in some systems. Despite this, few studies have found evidence of regular incest in mammals,...

  18. Frequent DPH3 promoter mutations in skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Evgeniya; Heidenreich, Barbara; Nagore, Eduardo; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; Akrap, Ivana; Traves, Víctor; García-Casado, Zaida; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Requena, Celia; Sanmartin, Onofre; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Llombart, Beatriz; Guillén, Carlos; Ferrando, Jose; Gimeno, Enrique; Nordheim, Alfred; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Recent reports suggested frequent occurrence of cancer associated somatic mutations within regulatory elements of the genome. Based on initial exome sequencing of 21 melanomas, we report frequent somatic mutations in skin cancers in a bidirectional promoter of diphthamide biosynthesis 3 (DPH3) and oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain containing 1 (OXNAD1) genes. The UV-signature mutations occurred at sites adjacent and within a binding motif for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), at -8 and -9 bp from DPH3 transcription start site. Follow up screening of 586 different skin lesions showed that the DPH3 promoter mutations were present in melanocytic nevi (2/114; 2%), melanoma (30/304; 10%), basal cell carcinoma of skin (BCC; 57/137; 42%) and squamous cell carcinoma of skin (SCC; 12/31; 39%). Reporter assays carried out in one melanoma cell line for DPH3 and OXNAD1 orientations showed statistically significant increased promoter activity due to -8/-9CC > TT tandem mutations; although, no effect of the mutations on DPH3 and OXNAD1 transcription in tumors was observed. The results from this study show occurrence of frequent somatic non-coding mutations adjacent to a pre-existing binding site for Ets transcription factors within the directional promoter of DPH3 and OXNAD1 genes in three major skin cancers. The detected mutations displayed typical UV signature; however, the functionality of the mutations remains to be determined. PMID:26416425

  19. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  20. Prediction of Risk Factors of Frequent Relapse Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, I; Hanif, M; Ali, M A; Hoque, M M

    2015-10-01

    This case control study was aimed to identify the predictive risk factors for frequent relapse idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and conducted in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka and at Renal and Dialysis Unit of Dhaka Shishu Hospital and Bangladesh Institute of Child Health (BICH), Dhaka, from January 2006 to December 2006. We examined retrospectively the clinical course of fifty cases of frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) as cases and fifty cases of infrequent relapse nephrotic syndrome (IRNS) as control who met the predefined enrollment criteria, followed for at least one year after initial onset of disease. After enrollment following parameters were studied as predictors of frequent relapse: i) Socio-demographic variables: age, sex, socio-economic condition, number of living room ii) Disease related variables i.e. age of onset, duration of illness, frequency of relapse within the 1st year, regimen of initial steroid therapy, total cumulative dose of steroid for remission, day of remission after starting steroid, association with atopy and infection, concomitant upper respiratory illness iii) Biochemical and pathological variables (at the time of initial attack) i.e. Serum albumin, serum cholesterol, blood urea, 24 hours urinary protein, serum creatinine, complete blood count, urine RBC, urine pus cell, urine culture. The test statistics used to analyses the data were descriptive statistics, Chi-square probability test, Student's t-test and Binary logistic regression analysis for Odds ratio. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age of onset (P<0.001, OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.85-0.95), poor socioeconomic status (P<0.034, OR=0.5.8, 95% CI=1.14-29.5) and low serum albumin level at the time of initial presentation (P<0.022, OR=0.8, 95% CI=0.65-0.97) were independent predictors of frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome. In conclusion, we demonstrated that age at onset, poor socioeconomic condition and low

  1. Effects of frequent announced parasitology quizzes on the academic achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Zamini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frequent examinations on the students' learning has had inconsistent results. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of frequent announced quizzes on the learning of a representative sample of Iranian medical students.This experimental study was conducted among 37 fifth semester medical students who had taken the course in Protozoology and Helminthology, in which the same basic information were provided about different types of protozoa and worms. Initially, in the teaching of helminthology, ten routine sessions were handled with lectures and interactive questions and answers. Then at the beginning of the protozoology topic in the beginning of all of the next 9 sessions, the students were informed that they will have a quiz at the end of each session. At the end of the semester, the total scores of quizzes were compared with the mean final scores of protozoology and helminthology using paired t and repeated measure tests.The mean final scores of the protozoology lesson were not significantly different from that of the helminthology (10.45 ± 2.75 vs.11.25 ± 2.56 on the scale of 20, respectively, P=0.13. There was no significant difference in the mean score of the five quizzes compared with the mean final term score of protozoology. The overall mean scores in the helminthology lesson (11.25±2.56, protozoology lesson (10.45±2.75, and the quizzes (9.16 ± 3.55 were significantly different (P <0.0001.Frequent announced quizzes were not effective on increasing the medical students' motivation and learning.

  2. Genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes in chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-07-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ∼8 Mb segment at 3p21.1-p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (∼23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (∼40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072194

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Compulsions to Urinate Frequently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwanmall, Stephen Amarjeet; Kattula, Dheeraj

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder which is easily recognized. However, sometimes patients of OCD present in such an atypical presentation of symptoms and a pathway to care involving multiple specialities. We report a case of a girl who had consulted several physicians and a urologist for frequent micturition, who was treated as a case of OCD after clarifying the compulsive nature of her symptom. There was significant improvement in her condition following 8 weeks of treatment with 200 mg of Sertraline and behaviour therapy. PMID:27570353

  4. Retention Indices for Frequently Reported Compounds of Plant Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babushok, V. I.; Linstrom, P. J.; Zenkevich, I. G.

    2011-12-01

    Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.

  5. Ten Years of Frequent Users in an Urban Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gerard B; Stephanie A Stokes-Buzzelli; Jennifer M Peltzer-Jones; Lonni R Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:The purpose of this study was to determine if differences could be detected in the presentation patterns and admission rates among frequent emergency department users (FEDU) of an urban emergency department over a 10-year period.Methods: This was an IRB approved, retrospective review of all patients who presented to the ED 5 or more times for 3 distinct time periods: “year 0” 11/98-10/99, “year 5” 11/03–10/04, and “year 10” 11/08–10/9. FEDU were grouped into those with 5–9, 10–14...

  6. FLCW: Frequent Itemset Based Text Clustering with Window Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Chong; LU Yansheng; ZOU Lei; HU Rong

    2006-01-01

    Most of the existing text clustering algorithms overlook the fact that one document is a word sequence with semantic information.There is some important semantic information existed in the positions of words in the sequence.In this paper, a novel method named Frequent Itemset-based Clustering with Window (FICW) was proposed, which makes use of the semantic information for text clustering with a window constraint.The experimental results obtained from tests on three (hypertext) text sets show that FICW outperforms the method compared in both clustering accuracy and efficiency.

  7. Do short, frequent DNA sequence motifs mould the epigenome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quante, Timo; Bird, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    'Epigenome' refers to the panoply of chemical modifications borne by DNA and its associated proteins that locally affect genome function. Epigenomic patterns are thought to be determined by external constraints resulting from development, disease and the environment, but DNA sequence is also a potential influence. We propose that domains of relatively uniform DNA base composition may modulate the epigenome through cell type-specific proteins that recognize short, frequent sequence motifs. Differential recruitment of epigenomic modifiers may adjust gene expression in multigene blocks as an alternative to tuning the activity of each gene separately, thus simplifying gene expression programming. PMID:26837845

  8. Obsessive-compulsive disorder presenting with compulsions to urinate frequently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Amarjeet Jiwanmall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common psychiatric disorder which is easily recognized. However, sometimes patients of OCD present in such an atypical presentation of symptoms and a pathway to care involving multiple specialities. We report a case of a girl who had consulted several physicians and a urologist for frequent micturition, who was treated as a case of OCD after clarifying the compulsive nature of her symptom. There was significant improvement in her condition following 8 weeks of treatment with 200 mg of Sertraline and behaviour therapy.

  9. Managing for Old Growth in Frequent-fire Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Denton

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no one-size-fits-all approach to managing frequent-fire, old-growth forests. However, there are general guidelines to follow: 1 set objectives for both structure (tree density, diameter distribution, tree species composition, spatial arrangement, amount of coarse woody debris and function (nutrient cycling, desired tree species regeneration; 2 prioritize treatments according to ecological, economic, and social needs and risks; 3 identify the potential treatments (natural fire, prescribed fire, silvicultural cutting that best meet the objectives and scale of the project; and 4 implement the treatment(s. We discuss each of these guidelines in this article.

  10. Frequentism and Bayesianism: A Python-driven Primer

    CERN Document Server

    VanderPlas, Jake

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brief, semi-technical comparison of the essential features of the frequentist and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference, with several illustrative examples implemented in Python. The differences between frequentism and Bayesianism fundamentally stem from differing definitions of probability, a philosophical divide which leads to distinct approaches to the solution of statistical problems as well as contrasting ways of asking and answering questions about unknown parameters. After an example-driven discussion of these differences, we briefly compare several leading Python statistical packages which implement frequentist inference using classical methods and Bayesian inference using Markov Chain Monte Carlo.

  11. TIFIM: Tree based Incremental Frequent Itemset Mining over Streaming Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.sidda Reddy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Data Stream Mining algorithms performs under constraints called space used and time taken, which is due to the streaming property. The relaxation in these constraints is inversely proportional to the streaming speed of the data. Since the caching and mining the streaming-data is sensitive, here in this paper a scalable, memory efficient caching and frequent itemset mining model is devised. The proposed model is an incremental approach that builds single level multi node trees called bushes from each window of the streaming data; henceforth we refer this proposed algorithm as a Tree (bush based Incremental Frequent Itemset Mining (TIFIM over data streams. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Graph Based New Approach for Frequent Pattern Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Choubey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule mining is a function of data mining research domain and frequent pattern mining is anessential part of it. Most of the previous studies on mining frequent patterns based on an Apriori approach, which required more number of database scans and operations for counting pattern supports in the database. Since the size of each set of transaction may be massive that it makes difficult to perform traditional data mining tasks. This research intends to propose a graph structure that captures only those itemsets that needs to define a sufficiently immense dataset into a submatrix representing important weights and does not give any chance to outliers. We have devised a strategy that covers significant facts of data by drilling down the large data into a succinct form of an Adjacency Matrix at different stages of mining process. The graph structure is so designed that it can be easily maintained and the trade off in compressing the large data values is reduced. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our graphbased approach.

  13. WEB DOCUMENT SEGMENTATION USING FREQUENT TERM SETS FOR SUMMARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukesi Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Query sensitive summarization aims at extracting the query relevant contents from web documents. Web page segmentation focuses on reducing the run time overhead of the summarization systems by grouping the related contents of a web page into segments. At query time, query relevant segments of the web page are identified and important sentences from these segments are extracted to compose the summary. DOM tree structures of the web documents are utilized to perform the segmentation of the contents. Leaf nodes of DOM tress are merged to form segments according to the statistical and linguistic similarity measure. The proposed system has been evaluated by intrinsic approach making use of user satisfaction index. The performance of the system is compared with summarization without using preprocessed segments. Performance of this system is more promising than the other measures like cosine similarity, jaccard measure which make use of sparse term-frequent vectors, since the most frequent term sets are considered to measure the relevance. Relevant segments alone need to be processed at run time for summarization which reduces the time complexity of the summarization process.

  14. Getting into hot water: sick guppies frequent warmer thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ryan S; Reynolds, Michael; James, Joanna; Williams, Chris; Mohammed, Azad; Ramsubhag, Adesh; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Ectotherms depend on the environmental temperature for thermoregulation and exploit thermal regimes that optimise physiological functioning. They may also frequent warmer conditions to up-regulate their immune response against parasite infection and/or impede parasite development. This adaptive response, known as 'behavioural fever', has been documented in various taxa including insects, reptiles and fish, but only in response to endoparasite infections. Here, a choice chamber experiment was used to investigate the thermal preferences of a tropical freshwater fish, the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), when infected with a common helminth ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli, in female-only and mixed-sex shoals. The temperature tolerance of G. turnbulli was also investigated by monitoring parasite population trajectories on guppies maintained at a continuous 18, 24 or 32 °C. Regardless of shoal composition, infected fish frequented the 32 °C choice chamber more often than when uninfected, significantly increasing their mean temperature preference. Parasites maintained continuously at 32 °C decreased to extinction within 3 days, whereas mean parasite abundance increased on hosts incubated at 18 and 24 °C. We show for the first time that gyrodactylid-infected fish have a preference for warmer waters and speculate that sick fish exploit the upper thermal tolerances of their parasites to self medicate. PMID:26965895

  15. DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Ana R; Martins, Ana P; Brito, Miguel;

    2007-01-01

    -differentiated gastric tumours (6/18 well-differentiated tumours vs. 5/53 other subtypes; P=0.025). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed a downregulation of the DMBT1 mRNA for 8/21 (38%) cases, while the remaining 13 cases (62%) displayed a substantial upregulation. Our data suggest that a loss of DMBT1 expression may...... preferentially take place in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma. However, an upregulation of DMBT1 expression is more frequently found across all gastric cancer types....

  16. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes

  17. Practical Approaches for Mining Frequent Patterns in Molecular Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulaerts, Stefan; Moens, Sandy; Engelen, Kristof; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Goethals, Bart; Laukens, Kris; Meysman, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Pattern detection is an inherent task in the analysis and interpretation of complex and continuously accumulating biological data. Numerous itemset mining algorithms have been developed in the last decade to efficiently detect specific pattern classes in data. Although many of these have proven their value for addressing bioinformatics problems, several factors still slow down promising algorithms from gaining popularity in the life science community. Many of these issues stem from the low user-friendliness of these tools and the complexity of their output, which is often large, static, and consequently hard to interpret. Here, we apply three software implementations on common bioinformatics problems and illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of each, as well as inherent pitfalls of biological data mining. Frequent itemset mining exists in many different flavors, and users should decide their software choice based on their research question, programming proficiency, and added value of extra features. PMID:27168722

  18. Finding Neural Assemblies with Frequent Item Set Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Borgelt

    2013-05-01

    conditions with which candidate assemblies may be assessed and filtered. It turns out that a core challenge of assembly detection is multiple testing, which causes a large number of false discoveries. Unfortunately, criteria that address individual candidate assemblies and try to assess them with statistical tests and/or subset conditions do not help much to tackle this problem. The core idea of our method is to shift the focus of statistical testing from specific assemblies (consisting of a specific set of neurons to spike patterns of a certain size (i.e. with a certain number of neurons. This significantly reduces the number of necessary tests, thus alleviating the multiple testing problem. We demonstrate that our method is able to reliably suppress false discoveries, while it is still very sensitive in discovering synchronous activity. Since we exploit high-speed computational techniques from frequent item set mining (FIM for the tests, our method is also computationally efficient.

  19. Frequent itemsets mining for database auto-administration

    CERN Document Server

    Aouiche, Kamel; Gruenwald, Le

    2008-01-01

    With the wide development of databases in general and data warehouses in particular, it is important to reduce the tasks that a database administrator must perform manually. The aim of auto-administrative systems is to administrate and adapt themselves automatically without loss (or even with a gain) in performance. The idea of using data mining techniques to extract useful knowledge for administration from the data themselves has existed for some years. However, little research has been achieved. This idea nevertheless remains a very promising approach, notably in the field of data warehousing, where queries are very heterogeneous and cannot be interpreted easily. The aim of this study is to search for a way of extracting useful knowledge from stored data themselves to automatically apply performance optimization techniques, and more particularly indexing techniques. We have designed a tool that extracts frequent itemsets from a given workload to compute an index configuration that helps optimizing data acce...

  20. Network Intrusion Detection Evading System using Frequent Pattern Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Dhurpate#1 , L.M.R.J. Lobo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Signature based NIDS are efficient at detecting attacks for what they are prepared for. This makes an intruderto focus on the new evasion technique to remain undetected. Emergence of new evasion technique may cause NIDS to fail. Unfortunately, most of these techniques are based on network protocols ambiguities, so NIDS designers must take them into account when updating their tools. This paper presents a framework for evading network intrusion detection system and detection over NIDS using frequent element pattern matching. The core of the framework is to model the NIDS using Adaboost algorithm that allows the understanding of how the NIDS classifies network data. We look for some way of evading the NIDS detection by changing some of the fields of the packets. We use publicly available dataset (KDD-99 for showing the proof of our concept. For real time evasion detection NIDS is build with Apriori algorithm to analyze NIDS robustness with high detection rate accuracy

  1. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH AND ALGORITHM FOR FREQUENT DATA ITEMSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidushi Singhal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research in data mining is developing fast and efficient algorithm to derive knowledge from huge databases. There are several data mining algorithms available to solve diverse data mining problems. They are mainly classified as Associations, Classifications, Sequential Patterns and Clustering. Apriori is one of the most important algorithms used in Rule Association Mining. In this paper, we discuss the limitations of the Existing Apriori algorithm and then propose an enhancement for improving its efficiency. The drawbacks of the existing system may produce a larger number of candidate item sets and scan the database many times. The proposed algorithm is based on the reverse scan of a given database. If certain conditions are satisfied, the proposed algorithm can greatly reduce the scanning times required for the discovery of candidate itemsets. Therefore, much time and space has been saved while searching frequent itemsets.

  2. New techniques for mining frequent patterns in unordered trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Du, Zhihui; Wang, Jason T L

    2015-06-01

    We consider a new tree mining problem that aims to discover restrictedly embedded subtree patterns from a set of rooted labeled unordered trees. We study the properties of a canonical form of unordered trees, and develop new Apriori-based techniques to generate all candidate subtrees level by level through two efficient rightmost expansion operations: 1) pairwise joining and 2) leg attachment. Next, we show that restrictedly embedded subtree detection can be achieved by calculating the restricted edit distance between a candidate subtree and a data tree. These techniques are then integrated into an efficient algorithm, named frequent restrictedly embedded subtree miner (FRESTM), to solve the tree mining problem at hand. The correctness of the FRESTM algorithm is proved and the time and space complexities of the algorithm are discussed. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25137740

  3. Frequently Asked Questions in Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAQs(Frequently Asked Questions) in the Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment(FPSA) are the issues occurred during performing the engineering evaluation based on NFPA-805. In this report, the background and resolutions are reviewed and described for 17 FAQs related to FPSA among 57 FAQs. The current FAQs related to FPSA are the issues concerning to NUREG/CR-6850, and are almost resolved but for the some FAQ, the current resolutions would be changed depending on the results of the future or on-going research. Among FAQs related to FPSA, best estimate approaches are suggested concerning to the conservative method of NUREG/CR-6850. If these best estimate solutions are used in the FPSA of nuclear power plants, realistic evaluation results of fire risk would be obtained

  4. Characterization of T cell receptors of Th1 cells infiltrating inflamed skin of a novel murine model of palladium-induced metal allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Metal allergy is categorized as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and is characterized by the recruitment of lymphocytes into sites of allergic inflammation. Because of the unavailability of suitable animal models for metal allergy, the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of metal allergy has not been explored. Thus, we developed a novel mouse model for metal allergy associated with infiltration of T cells by multiple injections of palladium (Pd plus lipopolysaccharide into the footpad. Using this model, we characterized footpad-infiltrating T cells in terms of phenotypic markers, T cell receptor (TCR repertoires and cytokine expression. CD3+ CD4+ T cells accumulated in the allergic footpads 7 days after Pd challenge. The expression levels of CD25, interleukin-2, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor, but not interleukin-4 and interleukin-5, increased in the footpads after challenge, suggesting CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1 cells locally expanded in response to Pd. Infiltrated T cells in the footpads frequently expressed AV18-1 and BV8-2 T cell receptor (TCR chains compared with T cells in the lymph nodes and exhibited oligoclonality. T-cell clones identified from Pd-allergic mouse footpads shared identical CDR3 sequences containing AV18-1 and BV8-2. These results suggest that TCR AV18-1 and BV8-2 play dominant and critical parts in the antigen specificity of Pd-specific Th1 cells.

  5. Conjunctival Changes in Wearers of Frequent Replacement Hydrogel and Frequent Replacement Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses: Comparison Using Impression Cytology Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Aydın FEBO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the level of conjunctival changes using conjunctival impression cytology in wearers of frequent replacement hydrogel (FRHL and frequent replacement silicone hydrogel contact lens FRSHL. Materials and Methods: Forty-two contact lens users who were seen at the Cornea and Contact Lens Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Dokuz Eylül University were evaluated in this study. The first group consisted of wearers of FRHL used for minimum one year and maximum five years. The second group consisted of wearers who used FRSHL for minimum one year and maximum 5 years. Twenty healthy individuals with no contact lens history were included in the control group. Conjunctival impression cytology was applied to all contact lens users and the control group in order to evaluate the conjunctival changes, and the results of impression cytology were graded by the Nelson’s method. Results: In the comparison of the groups according to impression cytology scoring, there was no difference between the users of FRHL and FRSHL. Similar amounts of squamous metaplasia and goblet cell loss were encountered in both groups. Nonetheless, impression cytology grading was significantly lower in the control group than in the other two groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the use of FRHL and FRSHL for over a year causes some histological changes in the conjunctiva such as squamous metaplasia and goblet cell loss eventually leading to dry eye symptoms. However, no differences were determined between FRHL and FRSHL users with regard to severity of conjunctival changes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 47-52

  6. Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of smartphone addiction in high school students.A total of 880 adolescents were recruited from a vocational high school in Taiwan in January 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and a survey of content and patterns of personal smartphone use. Of those recruited, 689 students (646 male) aged 14 to 21 and who owned a smartphone completed the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with smartphone addiction.Smartphone gaming and frequent smartphone use were associated with smartphone addiction. Furthermore, both the smartphone gaming-predominant and gaming with multiple-applications groups showed a similar association with smartphone addiction. Gender, duration of owning a smartphone, and substance use were not associated with smartphone addiction.Our findings suggest that smartphone use patterns should be part of specific measures to prevent and intervene in cases of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27428191

  7. Distortion Based Algorithms For Privacy Preserving Frequent Item Set Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Srinivasa Rao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Data mining services require accurate input data for their results to be meaningful, but privacy concerns may influence users to provide spurious information. In order to preserve the privacy of the client in data mining process, a variety of techniques based on random perturbation of data records have been proposed recently. We focus on an improved distortion process that tries to enhance the accuracy by selectively modifying the list of items. The normal distortion procedure does not provide the flexibility of tuning the probability parameters for balancing privacy and accuracy parameters, and each item's presence/absence is modified with an equal probability. In improved distortion technique, frequent one item-sets, and nonfrequent one item-sets are modified with a different probabilities controlled by two probability parameters fp, nfp respectively. The owner of the data has a flexibility to tune these two probability parameters (fp and nfp based on his/her requirement for privacy and accuracy. The experiments conducted on real time datasets confirmed that there is a significant increase in the accuracy at a very marginal cost in privacy.

  8. Evidence and Implications of Frequent Fires in Ancient Shrub Tundra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, P E; Brubaker, L B; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Kennedy, A T; Hu, F S

    2008-03-06

    Understanding feedbacks between terrestrial and atmospheric systems is vital for predicting the consequences of global change, particularly in the rapidly changing Arctic. Fire is a key process in this context, but the consequences of altered fire regimes in tundra ecosystems are rarely considered, largely because tundra fires occur infrequently on the modern landscape. We present paleoecological data that indicate frequent tundra fires in northcentral Alaska between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago. Charcoal and pollen from lake sediments reveal that ancient birchdominated shrub tundra burned as often as modern boreal forests in the region, every 144 years on average (+/- 90 s.d.; n = 44). Although paleoclimate interpretations and data from modern tundra fires suggest that increased burning was aided by low effective moisture, vegetation cover clearly played a critical role in facilitating the paleo-fires by creating an abundance of fine fuels. These records suggest that greater fire activity will likely accompany temperature-related increases in shrub-dominated tundra predicted for the 21st century and beyond. Increased tundra burning will have broad impacts on physical and biological systems as well as land-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic, including the potential to release stored organic carbon to the atmosphere.

  9. The most frequent short sequences in non-coding DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirana, Juan A; Messeguer, Xavier

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the most frequent short sequences in non-coding DNA. They may play a role in maintaining the structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes. We present a simple method for the detection and analysis of such sequences in several genomes, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. We also study two chromosomes of man and mouse with a length similar to the whole genomes of the other species. We provide a list of the most common sequences of 9-14 bases in each genome. As expected, they are present in human Alu sequences. Our programs may also give a graph and a list of their position in the genome. Detection of clusters is also possible. In most cases, these sequences contain few alternating regions. Their intrinsic structure and their influence on nucleosome formation are not known. In particular, we have found new features of short sequences in C. elegans, which are distributed in heterogeneous clusters. They appear as punctuation marks in the chromosomes. Such clusters are not found in either A. thaliana or D. melanogaster. We discuss the possibility that they play a role in centromere function and homolog recognition in meiosis. PMID:19966278

  10. Genomic catastrophes frequently arise in esophageal adenocarcinoma and drive tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, Katia; Waddell, Nicola; Wayte, Nicci; Patch, Ann-Marie; Bailey, Peter; Newell, Felicity; Holmes, Oliver; Fink, J Lynn; Quinn, Michael C J; Tang, Yue Hang; Lampe, Guy; Quek, Kelly; Loffler, Kelly A; Manning, Suzanne; Idrisoglu, Senel; Miller, David; Xu, Qinying; Waddell, Nick; Wilson, Peter J; Bruxner, Timothy J C; Christ, Angelika N; Harliwong, Ivon; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Anderson, Matthew; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Wood, Scott; Simpson, Peter T; Reid, Lynne E; Krause, Lutz; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I; Lord, Reginald V; Nancarrow, Derek; Phillips, Wayne A; Gotley, David; Smithers, B Mark; Whiteman, David C; Hayward, Nicholas K; Campbell, Peter J; Pearson, John V; Grimmond, Sean M; Barbour, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is rapidly increasing in Western countries. A better understanding of EAC underpins efforts to improve early detection and treatment outcomes. While large EAC exome sequencing efforts to date have found recurrent loss-of-function mutations, oncogenic driving events have been underrepresented. Here we use a combination of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and single-nucleotide polymorphism-array profiling to show that genomic catastrophes are frequent in EAC, with almost a third (32%, n=40/123) undergoing chromothriptic events. WGS of 22 EAC cases show that catastrophes may lead to oncogene amplification through chromothripsis-derived double-minute chromosome formation (MYC and MDM2) or breakage-fusion-bridge (KRAS, MDM2 and RFC3). Telomere shortening is more prominent in EACs bearing localized complex rearrangements. Mutational signature analysis also confirms that extreme genomic instability in EAC can be driven by somatic BRCA2 mutations. These findings suggest that genomic catastrophes have a significant role in the malignant transformation of EAC. PMID:25351503

  11. Learning from failure in health care: frequent opportunities, pervasive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, A C

    2004-12-01

    The notion that hospitals and medical practices should learn from failures, both their own and others', has obvious appeal. Yet, healthcare organisations that systematically and effectively learn from the failures that occur in the care delivery process, especially from small mistakes and problems rather than from consequential adverse events, are rare. This article explores pervasive barriers embedded in healthcare's organisational systems that make shared or organisational learning from failure difficult and then recommends strategies for overcoming these barriers to learning from failure, emphasising the critical role of leadership. Firstly, leaders must create a compelling vision that motivates and communicates urgency for change; secondly, leaders must work to create an environment of psychological safety that fosters open reporting, active questioning, and frequent sharing of insights and concerns; and thirdly, case study research on one hospital's organisational learning initiative suggests that leaders can empower and support team learning throughout their organisations as a way of identifying, analysing, and removing hazards that threaten patient safety. PMID:15576689

  12. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. [Adherence to chronic medication: also a frequent problem in Belgium!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liekens, S; Hulshagen, L; Dethier, M; Laekeman, G; Foulon, V

    2013-12-01

    Medication adherence in chronic conditions such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer appears to be a frequent problem. However, the literature on adherence in patients who use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), oral hypoglycemic agents, drugs for heart failure, antiretrovirals or oral chemotherapy, contains little or no relevant data for Belgium. In the context of a Master thesis in Pharmaceutical care at KU Leuven, a quantitative study was performed to determine the prevalence of adherence to chronic medication in Belgium. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a database containing refill data of a regional pharmacists' association (KLAV). Out of the 603 pharmacies affiliated with this association, all 50 pharmacies where HIV medication was delivered, were selected. Dispensing data from the selected pharmacies were collected from 01/07/2008 to 31/12/2009 for five pathologies, i.e.; asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer. Adherence (TT) was calculated with the Medication Refill Adherence (MRA) method. In order to determine whether there were associations between age, gender, drug class and adherence, Chi-square tests were used. Compared with the other patients, cancer patients were the most adherent in taking their drugs (median adherence rate = 88%). In addition, this was the only group in which the median adherence rate was above the set limit of 80%. The patients who were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were the least adherent (median adherence rate = 38%). More than 50% of patients with asthma/COPD, heart failure and diabetes were classified as "under-users". Furthermore, the results showed a significant association within asthma patients between gender and adherence. In asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure and HIV patients there was a significant relationship between age and adherence and drug class and adherence. As the current study has some limitations, the results should be handled with caution. Nevertheless

  14. Frequent underwater volcanism in the central Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebscher, C.; Ruhnau, M.; Dehghani, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The extinction of the Minoan culture in the mid second millennium BCE is a well known consequence of the Plinian eruption of Thera volcano (Santorini Island). Santorini is a member of the South Aegean arc forming a chain from the Gulf of Saronikos (Susaki, Egina, Poros, Methana) at West, to an area close to the Anatolian coast at East (Kos, Nisyros and minor islands), through the central part (Milos and Santorini island groups). Underwater volcanic activity was manifested historically only once. During 1649-1650 CE the Kolumbo underwater volcano evolved about 8 km northeast of Santorini. As a consequence of this eruption volcanic ash covered the entire Aegean area and a hazardous tsunami was triggered. Here we show by means of reflection seismic and magnetic data that underwater volcanism occurred more frequently in the central Aegean Sea than previously assumed. Seismic data show that Kolumbo constitutes of five vertically stacked cones of pyroclastic sediment plus at least four smaller cones on the flank of the volcano. The formation of Kolumbo started synchronous with Santorini Island. The entire volume of the Kolumbo pyroclastic cones is estimated to more than 15 cubic-kilometers. Several small-scale cones have been detected in the Anyhdros Basin some km north-east of Kolumbo, being previously interpreted as mud volcanoes by other authors. However, the similarity of seismic and magnetic signatures of these cones and Kolumbo strongly suggest that these cones were also created by underwater volcanism. Volcanic cones, Kolumbo and Santorini are situated along a NE-SW striking graben system that evolved during five extensional tectonic pulses in the Pliocene.

  15. Hyperlipidemia in migraine: Is it more frequent in migraineurs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Ghorbannejad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some coincidental disorders with migrainehave been introduced that may have role in itspathogenesis or aggravation. In this study we determinedthe relative frequency of hyperlipidemia as a coincidentaldisorder in patients affected by migraine.Methods: A total of 102 migraine-affected patientsaccording to International Headache Society (HIS criteriaand 103 control subjects adjusted for age participated inthis case-control study. Their serum level of triglyceride,total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Cand high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C weremeasured.Results: A total of 84 women and 18 men with mean age of34.9 ± 11.8 years and 79 women and 24 men with mean ageof 32.8 ± 5.7 years constituted case and control groups,respectively. The means of serum triglyceride, totalcholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels in case and controlgroups were 177.0 ± 118.2 versus 108.7 ± 37.2 mg/dl(P = 0.0001, 186.2 ± 44.1 versus 152.9 ± 3.7 mg/dl(P = 0.0001, 49.9 ± 12.5 versus 46.1 ± 10.7 mg/dl (P = 0.023and 104.8 ± 33.7 versus 84.1 ± 34.0 mg/dl (P = 0.0001,respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia andhypercholesterolemia in case and control groups were41.2% versus 18.4 % (P = 0.0001, and 36.3% versus 9.7%(P = 0.0001. According to multivariate analysis, odds ratioswere 3.11 (95% CI: 1.4 -6.6 and 17.4 (95% CI: 2.12-138.3,respectively. Odds ratio for low HDL-C was 0.2 (95% CI:0.08-0.49.Conclusion: Hypertriglyceridemia andhypercholesterolemia were more frequent inmigraineurs. Conversely, low HDL-C was less frequentamong the patients compared with non-migraineurs.

  16. Two Years of Frequent Users in an Urban Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard B Martin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The purpose of this study was to determine if differences could be detected in the presentation patterns and admission rates among frequent emergency department users (FEDU of an urban emergency department over a 10-year period.Methods: This was an IRB approved, retrospective review of all patients who presented to the ED 5 or more times for 3 distinct time periods: “year 0” 11/98-10/99, “year 5” 11/03–10/04, and “year 10” 11/08–10/9. FEDU were grouped into those with 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, and ≥ 20 visits per year. Variables analyzed included number of visits, disposition, and insurance status. We performed comparisons using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and chi-square tests. A P < 0.05 was considered significant.Results: We found a a 66% increase in FEDU patients over the decade studied, with a significant increase in both the number of FEDU in each visit frequency category over the 3 time periods (P < 0.0001, as well as the total number of visits by each group of FEDU (P < 0.0001. The proportion of FEDU visits for the 5–9 group resulting in admission increased from 25.9% to 29% from year 0 to year 10 (P < 0.001, but not for the other visit groups. In comparing admission rates between FEDU groups, the admission rate for the 5–9 group was significantly higher than the ≥ 20 group for the year 5 time period (P < 0.001 and the year 10 time period (P < 0.001 and showed a similar trend, but not significant, at year 0 (P = 0.052. The overall hospital admission rate for emergency patients over the same time span remained stable at 22-24%. The overall proportion of uninsured FEDU was stable over the decade studied, while the uninsured rate for the overall ED population for the same time periods increased.Conclusion: The results demonstrate the FEDU population is not a homogeneous group of patients. Increased attention to differences among FEDU groups is necessary in order to plan more effective interventions. [West J Emerg

  17. Childhood acute leukemias are frequent in Mexico City: descriptive epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekker-Méndez Vilma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, acute leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It is particularly common in the Hispanic populations residing in the United States, Costa Rica, and Mexico City. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute leukemia in children who were diagnosed and treated in public hospitals in Mexico City. Methods Included in this study were those children, under 15 years of age and residents of Mexico City, who were diagnosed in 2006 and 2007 with leukemia, as determined by using the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. The average annual incidence rates (AAIR, and the standardized average annual incidence rates (SAAIR per million children were calculated. We calculated crude, age- and sex-specific incidence rates and adjusted for age by the direct method with the world population as standard. We determined if there were a correlation between the incidence of acute leukemias in the various boroughs of Mexico City and either the number of agricultural hectares, the average number of persons per household, or the municipal human development index for Mexico (used as a reference of socio-economic level. Results Although a total of 610 new cases of leukemia were registered during 2006-2007, only 228 fit the criteria for inclusion in this study. The overall SAAIR was 57.6 per million children (95% CI, 46.9-68.3; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL was the most frequent type of leukemia, constituting 85.1% of the cases (SAAIR: 49.5 per million, followed by acute myeloblastic leukemia at 12.3% (SAAIR: 6.9 per million, and chronic myeloid leukemia at 1.7% (SAAIR: 0.9 per million. The 1-4 years age group had the highest SAAIR for ALL (77.7 per million. For cases of ALL, 73.2% had precursor B-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR: 35.8 per million and 12.4% had T-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR 6.3 per million. The peak ages for ALL were 2-6 years and 8-10 years. More than half the children (58.8% were

  18. Insomnia is a frequent finding in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wendt Lennart

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while there is scarcity of reports concerning adulthood of AS subjects despite the lifelong nature of this syndrome. In children with Asperger syndrome the initiation and continuity of sleep is disturbed because of the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS. It is probable that sleep difficulties are present in adulthood as well. Our hypothesis was that adults with AS suffer from difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep and nonrestorative sleep (insomnia. Methods 20 AS without medication were compared with 10 healthy controls devoid of neuropsychiatric anamnesis. Clinical examination, blood test battery and head MRI excluded confounding somatic illnesses. Structured psychiatric interview for axis-I and axis-II disorders were given to both groups as well as Beck Depression Inventory and Wechsler adult intelligence scale, revised version. Sleep quality was assessed with sleep questionnaire, sleep diary during 6 consecutive days and description of possible sleep problems by the participants own words was requested. Results compared with controls and with normative values of good sleep, AS adults had frequent insomnia. In sleep questionnaire 90% (18/20, in sleep diary 75% (15/20 and in free description 85% (17/20 displayed insomnia. There was a substantial psychiatric comorbidity with only 4 AS subject devoid of other axis-I or axis-II disorders besides AS. Also these persons displayed insomnia. It can be noted that the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses in AS subjects was virtually similar to that found among patient with chronic insomnia. Conclusions the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS predispose both to insomnia and to anxiety and mood disorders. Therefore a careful assessment of sleep quality should be an

  19. Identifying Frequent Users of an Urban Emergency Medical Service Using Descriptive Statistics and Regression Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Chenelle Norman, MPH; Michael Mello, MD, MPH; Bryan Choi, MD, MPH

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study provides a descriptive analysis of a population that frequently uses an urban emergency medical service (EMS) and identifies factors that contribute to use among all frequent users. For purposes of this study we divided frequent users into the following groups: low- frequent users (4 EMS transports in 2012), medium-frequent users (5 to 6 EMS transports in 2012), high-frequent users (7 to 10 EMS transports in 2012) and super-frequent users (11 or more EMS transp...

  20. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cemal Yazici; John Losurdo; Michael D Brown; Scott Oosterveen; Robert Rahimi; Ali Keshavarzian; Leila Bozorgnia

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rate (CECR) including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status.METHODS:We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005.Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure.CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses.After retrospective analysis,21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction,prior gastric surgery,endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data.Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP),70 in-patient (IP)],CE indications,findings,location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU) vs general medical floor (GMF)] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed.Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago,IL).Chi-square,t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams.RESULTS:The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years.Sixty-one percent of the study population was female,and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P =0.07).The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study.Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) was significantly more common for the IP CE (P =0.0001),while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P =0.002 and P =0.01,respectively).Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs.The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB) in 6/70 IPs and 8/264OPs (P =0.04).The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70) of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264) of OP examinations (P < 0.001).The mean gastric transit time (GTT) was delayed in IPs compared to OPs,98.5 ±139.5 min vs 60.4

  1. Construction of a synthetic phage-displayed Nanobody library with CDR3 regions randomized by trinucleotide cassettes for diagnostic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Junrong; LI, GUANGHUI; Hu, Yonghong; Ou, Weijun; Wan, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Background Nanobodies (Nbs) have proved their great value as therapeutic molecules and clinical diagnostic tools. Although the routine procedure to obtain Nbs is to immunize camels with antigens, it is unavailable to immunize a camel when the antigens are highly toxic, pathogenic or nonimmunogenic. A synthetic phage display library is an alternative to generate Nbs against such targets, besides all the other ones. Methods We constructed a large and diverse synthetic phage display Nanobody (Nb...

  2. Adaptations to short, frequent sessions of endurance and strength training are similar to longer, less frequent exercise sessions when the total volume is the same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    Kilen, A, Hjelvang, LB, Dall, N, Kruse, NL, and Nordsborg, NB. Adaptations to short, frequent sessions of endurance and strength training are similar to longer, less frequent exercise sessions when the total volume is the same. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S46-S51, 2015-The hypothesis that the di...

  3. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, van der, J.P.; Liebregts, N.; Graaf, de, G.; Korf, D.J.; Brink, van den, A Arno; van de Laar,

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannabis users. Methods A prospective cohort of frequent cannabis users (aged 18-30, n = 600) with baseline and two follow-up assessments (18 and 36 months) was used. Only participants without lifetime d...

  4. Frequent Users of Pornography. A Population Based Epidemiological Study of Swedish Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…

  5. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Pol; N. Liebregts; R. de Graaf; D.J. Korf; W. van den Brink; M. van Laar

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannab

  6. Top Down Approach to find Maximal Frequent Item Sets using Subset Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jnanamurthy HK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Association rule has been an area of active research in the field of knowledge discovery. Data mining researchers had improved upon the quality of association rule mining for business development by incorporating influential factors like value (utility, quantity of items sold (weight and more for the mining of association patterns. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to find maximal frequent item set first. Most of the algorithms in literature used to find minimal frequent item first, then with the help of minimal frequent item sets derive the maximal frequent item sets. These methods consume more time to find maximal frequent item sets. To overcome this problem, we propose a navel approach to find maximal frequent item set directly using the concepts of subsets. The proposed method is found to be efficient in finding maximal frequent item sets.

  7. Frequent Urination

    Science.gov (United States)

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  8. AN EFFICIENT DATA MINING METHOD TO FIND FREQUENT ITEM SETS IN LARGE DATABASE USING TR- FCTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Suba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining association rules in large database is one of most popular data mining techniques for business decision makers. Discovering frequent item set is the core process in association rule mining. Numerous algorithms are available in the literature to find frequent patterns. Apriori and FP-tree are the most common methods for finding frequent items. Apriori finds significant frequent items using candidate generation with more number of data base scans. FP-tree uses two database scans to find significant frequent items without using candidate generation. This proposed TR-FCTM (Transaction Reduction- Frequency Count Table Method discovers significant frequent items by generating full candidates once to form frequency count table with one database scan. Experimental results of TR-FCTM shows that this algorithm outperforms than Apriori and FP-tree.

  9. Associations between perceived discrimination and health status among frequent Emergency Department users

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio S.; Iglesias K.; Hugli O.; Burnand B.; Ruggeri O.; Wasserfallen J.B.; Moschetti K.; Staeger P.; Alary S.; Canepa Allen M.; Daeppen J.B.; Bodenmann P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective : Frequent Emergency Department (ED) users are vulnerable individuals and discrimination is usually associated with increased vulnerability. The aim of this study was to investigate frequent ED users' perceptions of discrimination and to test whether they were associated with increased vulnerability. Methods : In total, 250 adult frequent ED users were interviewed in Lausanne University Hospital. From a previously published questionnaire, we assessed 15 dichotomous sources of per...

  10. An Efficient Method for extracting Frequent Pattern Using Transposition of Database

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar Birla

    2012-01-01

    Apriori is a classical algorithm for frequent patterns extraction. Apriori is designed to operate on databases containing transactions. The purpose of the Apriori Algorithm is to find frequent itemsets between different transaction sets of data. The aim of this research is to improve the performance of the conventional Apriori algorithm that extracts frequent patterns for binary transaction dataset. An approach implemented in Transposed database then result is very fast. Recently, different w...

  11. An Enhanced Apriori Algorithm for Discovering Frequent Patterns with Optimal Number of Scans

    OpenAIRE

    Tirumalasetty, Sudhir; Jadda, Aruna; Edara, Sreenivasa Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Data mining is wide spreading its applications in several areas. There are different tasks in mining which provides solutions for wide variety of problems in order to discover knowledge. Among those tasks association mining plays a pivotal role for identifying frequent patterns. Among the available association mining algorithms Apriori algorithm is one of the most prevalent and dominant algorithm which is used to discover frequent patterns. This algorithm is used to discover frequent patterns...

  12. Identifying Frequent Users of an Urban Emergency Medical Service Using Descriptive Statistics and Regression Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenelle Norman, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective cohort study provides a descriptive analysis of a population that frequently uses an urban emergency medical service (EMS and identifies factors that contribute to use among all frequent users. For purposes of this study we divided frequent users into the following groups: low- frequent users (4 EMS transports in 2012, medium-frequent users (5 to 6 EMS transports in 2012, high-frequent users (7 to 10 EMS transports in 2012 and super-frequent users (11 or more EMS transports in 2012. Overall, we identified 539 individuals as frequent users. For all groups of EMS frequent users (i.e. low, medium, high and super one or more hospital admissions, receiving a referral for follow-up care upon discharge, and having no insurance were found to be statistically significant with frequent EMS use (P<0.05. Within the diagnostic categories, 41.61% of super-frequent users had a diagnosis of “primarily substance abuse/misuse” and among low-frequent users a majority, 53.33%, were identified as having a “reoccurring (medical diagnosis.” Lastly, relative risk ratios for the highest group of users, super-frequent users, were 3.34 (95% CI [1.90-5.87] for obtaining at least one referral for follow-up care, 13.67 (95% CI [5.60-33.34] for having four or more hospital admissions and 5.95 (95% CI [1.80-19.63] for having a diagnoses of primarily substance abuse/misuse. Findings from this study demonstrate that among low- and medium-frequent users a majority of patients are using EMS for reoccurring medical conditions. This could potentially be avoided with better care management. In addition, this study adds to the current literature that illustrates a strong correlation between substance abuse/misuse and high/super-frequent EMS use. For the subgroup analysis among individuals 65 years of age and older, we did not find any of the independent variables included in our model to be statistically significant with frequent EMS use.

  13. Identifying Frequent Users of an Urban Emergency Medical Service Using Descriptive Statistics and Regression Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Chenelle; Mello, Michael; Choi, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study provides a descriptive analysis of a population that frequently uses an urban emergency medical service (EMS) and identifies factors that contribute to use among all frequent users. For purposes of this study we divided frequent users into the following groups: low- frequent users (4 EMS transports in 2012), medium-frequent users (5 to 6 EMS transports in 2012), high-frequent users (7 to 10 EMS transports in 2012) and super-frequent users (11 or more EMS transports in 2012). Overall, we identified 539 individuals as frequent users. For all groups of EMS frequent users (i.e. low, medium, high and super) one or more hospital admissions, receiving a referral for follow-up care upon discharge, and having no insurance were found to be statistically significant with frequent EMS use (P<0.05). Within the diagnostic categories, 41.61% of super-frequent users had a diagnosis of “primarily substance abuse/misuse” and among low-frequent users a majority, 53.33%, were identified as having a “reoccurring (medical) diagnosis.” Lastly, relative risk ratios for the highest group of users, super-frequent users, were 3.34 (95% CI [1.90–5.87]) for obtaining at least one referral for follow-up care, 13.67 (95% CI [5.60–33.34]) for having four or more hospital admissions and 5.95 (95% CI [1.80–19.63]) for having a diagnoses of primarily substance abuse/misuse. Findings from this study demonstrate that among low- and medium-frequent users a majority of patients are using EMS for reoccurring medical conditions. This could potentially be avoided with better care management. In addition, this study adds to the current literature that illustrates a strong correlation between substance abuse/misuse and high/super-frequent EMS use. For the subgroup analysis among individuals 65 years of age and older, we did not find any of the independent variables included in our model to be statistically significant with frequent EMS use. PMID:26823929

  14. arules - A Computational Environment for Mining Association Rules and Frequent Item Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hahsler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Mining frequent itemsets and association rules is a popular and well researched approach for discovering interesting relationships between variables in large databases. The R package arules presented in this paper provides a basic infrastructure for creating and manipulating input data sets and for analyzing the resulting itemsets and rules. The package also includes interfaces to two fast mining algorithms, the popular C implementations of Apriori and Eclat by Christian Borgelt. These algorithms can be used to mine frequent itemsets, maximal frequent itemsets, closed frequent itemsets and association rules.

  15. Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis is more frequently seen in women than in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukran Erten

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion SpA are frequent diseases and physicians other than rheumatologists should also be aware of them. uSpA is more frequent in women than men. Early diagnosis of SpA is important because early treatment with new biological therapies may lead to much better Results than applying them in the advanced stages.

  16. Restrictions of frequent frames as cues to categories: the case of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Erkelens

    2008-01-01

    Why Dutch 12-month-old infants do not use frequent frames in early categorization Mintz (2003) proposes that very local distributional contexts of words in the input-so-called 'frequent frames'-function as reliable cues for categories corresponding to the adult verb and noun. He shows that categorie

  17. Measurements of radio frequent cavity volt ages by X-ray spectrum measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with X-ray spectrum measurement as a method for the measurement of radio frequent cavity voltage and the theory of X-ray spectrum calculation. Experimental results at 72 MHz for three different values of the radio frequent power of ACCEL K250 super conducting cyclotron are being presented.

  18. The degree of parental awareness of using means of physical rehabilitation on the frequently ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmyla Demchenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the degree of parental awareness of using means of physical rehabilitation on the frequently ill children with acute respiratory viral infections. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, surveys and questionnaires. Results: the research involved 54 families with the frequently ill children. The paper characterizes and establishes the degree of parental awareness in the sphere of physical rehabilitation of the frequently ill children, determines the level of parental interest in cooperation, presents the plan of seminars with parents. Conclusions: increasing the degree of parental awareness by studying and explaining is a prerequisite to achieve high effectiveness in health recovery process of the frequently ill children. Keywords: frequently ill children, parental awareness, physical rehabilitation.

  19. Altered gene expression in blood and sputum in COPD frequent exacerbators in the ECLIPSE cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Singh

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are defined as frequent exacerbators suffer with 2 or more exacerbations every year. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype are poorly understood. We investigated gene expression profile patterns associated with frequent exacerbations in sputum and blood cells in a well-characterised cohort. Samples from subjects from the ECLIPSE COPD cohort were used; sputum and blood samples from 138 subjects were used for microarray gene expression analysis, while blood samples from 438 subjects were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing. Using microarray, 150 genes were differentially expressed in blood (>±1.5 fold change, p≤0.01 between frequent compared to non-exacerbators. In sputum cells, only 6 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially regulated genes in blood included downregulation of those involved in lymphocyte signalling and upregulation of pro-apoptotic signalling genes. Multivariate analysis of the microarray data followed by confirmatory PCR analysis identified 3 genes that predicted frequent exacerbations; B3GNT, LAF4 and ARHGEF10. The sensitivity and specificity of these 3 genes to predict the frequent exacerbator phenotype was 88% and 33% respectively. There are alterations in systemic immune function associated with frequent exacerbations; down-regulation of lymphocyte function and a shift towards pro-apoptosis mechanisms are apparent in patients with frequent exacerbations.

  20. Categorizing "frequent visitors" in the psychiatric emergency room: a semistructured interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Nurses can become demoralized and hostile toward frequent visitors in psychiatric emergency rooms because of the number of visits. The aim of this study was to develop more knowledge about the ways in which nurses categorize frequent visitors. Eleven nurses were interviewed, and their categorizing...... practices were examined from a social constructionist perspective. The results showed that the nurses did not categorize frequent visitors as particularly unlikeable or difficult to treat. Like other visitors, they could be categorized as difficult if they obstructed a smooth flow of successful referrals...... through the emergency room and/or there was poor rapport with the nurses....

  1. AN ENHANCED FREQUENT PATTERN GROWTH BASED ON MAPREDUCE FOR MINING ASSOCIATION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARKAN A. G. AL-HAMODI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In mining frequent itemsets, one of most important algorithm is FP-growth. FP-growth proposes an algorithm to compress information needed for mining frequent itemsets in FP-tree and recursively constructs FP-trees to find all frequent itemsets. In this paper, we propose the EFP-growth (enhanced FPgrowth algorithm to achieve the quality of FP-growth. Our proposed method implemented the EFPGrowth based on MapReduce framework using Hadoop approach. New method has high achieving performance compared with the basic FP-Growth. The EFP-growth it can work with the large datasets to discovery frequent patterns in a transaction database. Based on our method, the execution time under different minimum supports is decreased..

  2. Frequent visitors to psychiatric emergency services: staff attitudes and temporal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia; Zeman, Lori Lackman; Yeager, Lindsay; Mischel, Edward; Amirsadri, Alireza

    2002-11-01

    Providing quality psychiatric emergency services is becoming more difficult as utilization rates soar, especially by individuals who are frequent visitors. To address this issue, a staff survey and analysis of admission patterns were conducted. Staff were more likely to believe that frequent visitors sought care because they had difficulty accessing alternative services, had basic needs unmet, were substance abusers, wanted inpatient admission, and were noncompliant with treatment plans. The 1999 temporal admission pattern documented that frequent visitors' admissions were higher during the first week of the month and inclement weather. Surprisingly, the infrequent visitors' admissions also were higher during the first week of the month. Together, these findings suggest that, in this urban location, frequent visitors are disadvantaged individuals lacking support and alternative treatment settings who use psychiatric emergency services to meet basic needs. PMID:12404943

  3. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede;

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice. In.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness....... 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders...

  4. Diagnostic Guidelines for Alzheimer's Disease -- Frequently Asked Questions for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Diagnostic Guidelines for Alzheimer's Disease: Frequently Asked Questions for the General Public ... main differences between the 1984 diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease and the new guidelines? The new guidelines ...

  5. 41 CFR 301-53.3 - How may I use promotional materials and frequent traveler benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES, PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT 53-USING PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS AND FREQUENT... benefits earned on official travel to obtain travel services for a subsequent official travel...

  6. A Frequent Closed Itemsets Lattice-based Approach for Mining Minimal Non-Redundant Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Vo, Bay

    2011-01-01

    There are many algorithms developed for improvement the time of mining frequent itemsets (FI) or frequent closed itemsets (FCI). However, the algorithms which deal with the time of generating association rules were not put in deep research. In reality, in case of a database containing many FI/FCI (from ten thousands up to millions), the time of generating association rules is much larger than that of mining FI/FCI. Therefore, this paper presents an application of frequent closed itemsets lattice (FCIL) for mining minimal non-redundant association rules (MNAR) to reduce a lot of time for generating rules. Firstly, we use CHARM-L for building FCIL. After that, based on FCIL, an algorithm for fast generating MNAR will be proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is much faster than frequent itemsets lattice-based algorithm in the mining time.

  7. Mechanisms and impact of the frequent exacerbator phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wedzicha, J A; Brill, S E; Allinson, J. P.; Donaldson, G C

    2013-01-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important events that carry significant consequences for patients. Some patients experience frequent exacerbations, and are now recognized as a distinct clinical subgroup, the ‘frequent exacerbator’ phenotype. This is relatively stable over time, occurs across disease severity, and is associated with poorer health outcomes. These patients are therefore a priority for research and treatment. The pathophysiology underlying the fr...

  8. Frequent meiotic recombination between the ends of truncated chromosome fragments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Arbel, T; Shemesh, R; Simchen, G.

    1999-01-01

    A single truncated chromosome fragment (TCF) in diploid cells undergoes frequent ectopic recombination during meiosis between markers located near the ends of the fragment. Tetrads produced by diploids with a single TCF show frequent loss of one of the two markers. This marker loss could result either from recombination of the TCF with one of the two copies of the chromosome from which it was derived or from ectopic recombination between the ends of the TCF. The former would result in shorten...

  9. Efficient Mining of Frequent Closures with Precedence Links and Associated Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Szathmary, Laszlo; Valtchev, Petko; Napoli, Amedeo

    2008-01-01

    The effective construction of many association rule bases require the computation of frequent closures, generators, and precedence links between closures. However, these tasks are rarely combined, and no scalable algorithm exists at present for their joint computation. We propose here a method that solves this challenging problem in two separated steps. First, we introduce a new algorithm called Touch for finding frequent closed itemsets (FCIs) and their generators (FGs). Touch applies depth-...

  10. Improvised Apriori Algorithm using frequent pattern tree for real time applications in data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Akshita; Gupta, Ashutosh; Das, Debasis

    2014-01-01

    Apriori Algorithm is one of the most important algorithm which is used to extract frequent itemsets from large database and get the association rule for discovering the knowledge. It basically requires two important things: minimum support and minimum confidence. First, we check whether the items are greater than or equal to the minimum support and we find the frequent itemsets respectively. Secondly, the minimum confidence constraint is used to form association rules. Based on this algorithm...

  11. Generating Frequent Patterns from Large Datasets using Improved Apriori and Support Chaining Method

    OpenAIRE

    P. Alagesh Kannan; E. Ramaraj

    2015-01-01

    In this study, generating association rules with improved Apriori algorithm is proposed. Apriori is one of the most popular association rule mining algorithm that extracts frequent item sets from large databases. The traditional Apriori algorithm contains a major drawback. This algorithm wastes time in scanning the database to generate frequent item sets. The objective of any association rule mining algorithm is to generate association rules in a fast manner with great accuracy. In this study...

  12. The Role of Old-growth Forests in Frequent-fire Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Judy Springer; Carol Chambers; Tom Sisk; Daniel Binkley; William Block

    2007-01-01

    Classic ecological concepts and forestry language regarding old growth are not well suited to frequent-fire landscapes. In frequent-fire, old-growth landscapes, there is a symbiotic relationship between the trees, the understory graminoids, and fire that results in a healthy ecosystem. Patches of old growth interspersed with younger growth and open, grassy areas provide a wide variety of habitats for animals, and have a higher level of biodiversity. Fire suppression is detrimental to these fo...

  13. Mechanisms and impact of the frequent exacerbator phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Brill, Simon E; Allinson, James P; Donaldson, Gavin C

    2013-01-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important events that carry significant consequences for patients. Some patients experience frequent exacerbations, and are now recognized as a distinct clinical subgroup, the 'frequent exacerbator' phenotype. This is relatively stable over time, occurs across disease severity, and is associated with poorer health outcomes. These patients are therefore a priority for research and treatment. The pathophysiology underlying the frequent exacerbator phenotype is complex, with increased airway and systemic inflammation, dynamic lung hyperinflation, changes in lower airway bacterial colonization and a possible increased susceptibility to viral infection. Frequent exacerbators are also at increased risk from comorbid extrapulmonary diseases including cardiovascular disease, gastroesophageal reflux, depression, osteoporosis and cognitive impairment. Overall these patients have poorer health status, accelerated forced expiratory volume over 1 s (FEV1) decline, worsened quality of life, and increased hospital admissions and mortality, contributing to increased exacerbation susceptibility and perpetuation of the frequent exacerbator phenotype. This review article sets out the definition and importance of the frequent exacerbator phenotype, with a detailed examination of its pathophysiology, impact and interaction with other comorbidities. PMID:23945277

  14. Using Unique-Prime-Factorization Theorem to Mine Frequent Patterns without Generating Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tohidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ffrequent patterns are patterns that appear in a data set frequently. Finding such frequent patterns plays an essential role in mining associations, correlations and many other interesting relationships among data. Approach: Most of the previous studies adopt an Apriorilike approach. For huge database it may need to generate a huge number of candidate sets. An interest solution is to design an approach that without generating candidate is able to mine frequent patterns. Results: An interesting method to frequent pattern mining without generating candidate pattern is called frequent-pattern growth, or simply FP-growth, which adopts a divide-and-conquer strategy as follows. However, for a large database, constructing a large tree in the memory is a time consuming task and increase the time of execution. In this study we introduce an algorithm to generate frequent patterns without generating a tree and therefore improve the time complexity and memory complexity as well. Our algorithm works based on prime factorization and is called Prime Factor Miner (PFM. Conclusion/Recommendations: This algorithm is able to achieve low memory order at O(1 which is significantly better than FP-growth.

  15. Clustering Web Documents based on Efficient Multi-Tire Hashing Algorithm for Mining Frequent Termsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Negm

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Document Clustering is one of the main themes in text mining. It refers to the process of grouping documents with similar contents or topics into clusters to improve both availability and reliability of text mining applications. Some of the recent algorithms address the problem of high dimensionality of the text by using frequent termsets for clustering. Although the drawbacks of the Apriori algorithm, it still the basic algorithm for mining frequent termsets. This paper presents an approach for Clustering Web Documents based on Hashing algorithm for mining Frequent Termsets (CWDHFT. It introduces an efficient Multi-Tire Hashing algorithm for mining Frequent Termsets (MTHFT instead of Apriori algorithm. The algorithm uses new methodology for generating frequent termsets by building the multi-tire hash table during the scanning process of documents only one time. To avoid hash collision, Multi Tire technique is utilized in this proposed hashing algorithm. Based on the generated frequent termset the documents are partitioned and the clustering occurs by grouping the partitions through the descriptive keywords. By using MTHFT algorithm, the scanning cost and computational cost is improved moreover the performance is considerably increased and increase up the clustering process. The CWDHFT approach improved accuracy, scalability and efficiency when compared with existing clustering algorithms like Bisecting K-means and FIHC.

  16. Targeting frequent users of emergency departments: Prominent risk factors and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporatti, Lucia; Ameri, Marta; Trinchero, Chiara; Orcamo, Patrizia; Montefiori, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of frequent users of accident and emergency departments (AEDs) and recommends alternative medical services for such patients. Prominent demographic and clinical risk factors for individuals accessing seven AEDs located in the metropolitan area of Genoa, Italy are identified and analysed. A truncated count data model is implemented to establish the determinants of access, while a multinomial logistic regression is used to highlight potential differences among different user categories. According to previous studies, empirical findings suggest that despite the relevance of demographic drivers, vulnerability conditions (e.g. abuse of alcohol and drugs, chronic conditions, and psychological distress) are the main reasons behind frequent AED use; the analysis seems to confirm an association between AED frequent use and lower level of urgency. Since frequent and highly frequent users are found responsible for disproportionate resource absorption with respect to total amount of AED costs (they represent roughly 10% of the total number of patients, but contribute to more than 19% of the total annual AED cost), policies aiming to reduce frequent use of AEDs could bring significant savings in economic resources. Thus, efficient actions could be oriented toward extending primary care services outside AED and toward instituting local aid services specifically addressed to people under the influence of substances or in conditions of mental distress. PMID:27033015

  17. Mining top-k frequent closed itemsets in data streams using sliding window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequent itemset mining has become a popular research area in data mining community since the last few years. T here are two main technical hitches while finding frequent itemsets. First, to provide an appropriate minimum support value to start and user need to tune this minimum support value by running the algorithm again and again. Secondly, generated frequent itemsets are mostly numerous and as a result a number of association rules generated are also very large in numbers. Applications dealing with streaming environment need to process the data received at high rate, therefore, finding frequent itemsets in data streams becomes complex. In this paper, we present an algorithm to mine top-k frequent closed itemsets using sliding window approach from streaming data. We developed a single-pass algorithm to find frequent closed itemsets of length between user's defined minimum and maximum- length. To improve the performance of algorithm and to avoid rescanning of data, we have transformed data into bitmap based tree data structure. (author)

  18. Consumo frequente de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes escolares: estudo de fatores associados Frequent consumption of alcohol by school age adolescents: study of associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analy Marquardt de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores associados ao consumo frequente de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes escolares em Feira de Santana, BA. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória, estratificada por conglomerado, totalizando 10 escolas de portes diferenciados e 776 estudantes de ambos os sexos que relataram consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, na faixa etária de 14 a 19 anos, assegurando representatividade das escolas e alunos. O instrumento auto-aplicável foi elaborado segundo a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS e questionários validados em outros estudos. A coleta garantiu procedimentos para anonimato e sigilo. Foram considerados expostos adolescentes que referiram consumo frequente (em pelo menos todo final de semana. RESULTADOS: O consumo frequente/pesado mostrou associações significantes com sexo masculino, consumo precoce, parceiro sexual pouco conhecido, problemas com substâncias psicoativas (SPAs na família, coabitação com companheiro, renda própria, tráfico de drogas, consumo com amigos, atividades na escola, motivações (ansiedade, animação/prazer; e consequências (outras SPAs, brigas, inadimplência ao trabalhoescola. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento dos fatores pessoais, interpessoais, familiares e ambientais associados ao consumo de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes devem ser considerados na implementação de programas escolares e políticas públicas de prevenção, visando comportamentos que minimizem a exposição ao risco associado.OBJECTIVES: To analyze factors associated with the frequent consumption of alcohol by school age adolescents in Feira de Santana, Bahia. METHOD: Cross sectional study with random sampling, stratified by clusters, totaling 10 schools of different sizes. Although 1,409 students were included in the sample, only 776 of both genders, aged 14 to 19 years who reported alcohol drinking were included in the analysis, providing representativeness of schools and students. Data collection tools

  19. Frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is an unrecognized risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahek Mirza

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea has been recognized as a factor predisposing to atrial fibrillation recurrence and progression. The effect of other sleep-disturbing conditions on atrial fibrillation progression is not known. We sought to determine whether frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is a risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation. In this retrospective study, patients with atrial fibrillation and a clinical suspicion of restless legs syndrome who were referred for polysomnography were divided into two groups based on severity of periodic leg movement during sleep: frequent (periodic movement index >35/h and infrequent (≤35/h. Progression of atrial fibrillation to persistent or permanent forms between the two groups was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. Of 373 patients with atrial fibrillation (77% paroxysmal, 23% persistent, 108 (29% progressed to persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation during follow-up (median, 33 months; interquartile range, 16-50. Compared to patients with infrequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=168, patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=205 had a higher rate of atrial fibrillation progression (23% vs. 34%; p=0.01. Patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep were older and predominantly male; however, there were no significant differences at baseline in clinical factors that promote atrial fibrillation progression between both groups. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of atrial fibrillation progression were persistent atrial fibrillation at baseline, female gender, hypertension and frequent periodic leg movement during sleep. In patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep, dopaminergic therapy for control of leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome reduced risk of atrial fibrillation progression. Frequent leg movement during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome is

  20. Differentially Private Frequent Sequence Mining via Sampling-based Candidate Pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengzhi; Cheng, Xiang; Li, Zhengyi; Xiong, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of mining frequent sequences under the rigorous differential privacy model. We explore the possibility of designing a differentially private frequent sequence mining (FSM) algorithm which can achieve both high data utility and a high degree of privacy. We found, in differentially private FSM, the amount of required noise is proportionate to the number of candidate sequences. If we could effectively reduce the number of unpromising candidate sequences, the utility and privacy tradeoff can be significantly improved. To this end, by leveraging a sampling-based candidate pruning technique, we propose a novel differentially private FSM algorithm, which is referred to as PFS2. The core of our algorithm is to utilize sample databases to further prune the candidate sequences generated based on the downward closure property. In particular, we use the noisy local support of candidate sequences in the sample databases to estimate which sequences are potentially frequent. To improve the accuracy of such private estimations, a sequence shrinking method is proposed to enforce the length constraint on the sample databases. Moreover, to decrease the probability of misestimating frequent sequences as infrequent, a threshold relaxation method is proposed to relax the user-specified threshold for the sample databases. Through formal privacy analysis, we show that our PFS2 algorithm is ε-differentially private. Extensive experiments on real datasets illustrate that our PFS2 algorithm can privately find frequent sequences with high accuracy. PMID:26973430

  1. Extremely frequent behavior in consumer research: theory and empirical evidence for chronic casino gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Ralph; Woodside, Arch G

    2009-09-01

    The present study informs understanding of customer segmentation strategies by extending Twedt's heavy-half propositions to include a segment of users that represent less than 2% of all households-consumers demonstrating extremely frequent behavior (EFB). Extremely frequent behavior (EFB) theory provides testable propositions relating to the observation that few (2%) consumers in many product and service categories constitute more than 25% of the frequency of product or service use. Using casino gambling as an example for testing EFB theory, an analysis of national survey data shows that extremely frequent casino gamblers do exist and that less than 2% of all casino gamblers are responsible for nearly 25% of all casino gambling usage. Approximately 14% of extremely frequent casino users have very low-household income, suggesting somewhat paradoxical consumption patterns (where do very low-income users find the money to gamble so frequently?). Understanding the differences light, heavy, and extreme users and non-users can help marketers and policymakers identify and exploit "blue ocean" opportunities (Kim and Mauborgne, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2005), for example, creating effective strategies to convert extreme users into non-users or non-users into new users. PMID:19597974

  2. The normally expressed kappa immunoglobulin light chain gene repertoire and somatic mutations studied by single-sided specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR); frequent occurrence of features often assigned to autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, L; Hougs, L; Andersen, V; Svejgaard, A; Barington, T

    1997-01-01

    The expressed human kappa light chain gene repertoire utilized by healthy individuals was studied by two different single-sided specific PCR techniques to avoid bias for certain V genes. A total of 103 rearranged kappa sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals were...... cloned from cDNA and assigned to the Vkappa and Jkappa germ-line genes with the closest overall homology. The use of cDNA rather than genomic DNA focused the analysis on activated B cells rich in mRNA. Accordingly, the sequences represented the applied repertoire and almost all were somatically mutated...... agreement with those of previous repertoire studies using potentially V-gene-biased techniques. Thus, it is clear that restricted V-gene usage, common N and P additions, and extended CDR3 regions are normal features and not, as has been claimed, characteristics of pathological autoantibodies....

  3. Generating Frequent Patterns from Large Datasets using Improved Apriori and Support Chaining Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alagesh Kannan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, generating association rules with improved Apriori algorithm is proposed. Apriori is one of the most popular association rule mining algorithm that extracts frequent item sets from large databases. The traditional Apriori algorithm contains a major drawback. This algorithm wastes time in scanning the database to generate frequent item sets. The objective of any association rule mining algorithm is to generate association rules in a fast manner with great accuracy. In this study, a modification over the traditional Apriori algorithm is introduced. This improved Apriori algorithm searches frequent item sets from the large databases with less time. Experimental results shows that this improved Apriori algorithm reduces the scanning time as much as 67% and this algorithm is more efficient than the existing algorithm.

  4. Frequent nightmares are associated with blunted cortisol awakening response in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tamás; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Simor, Péter; Purebl, György; Bódizs, Róbert; Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Nightmares are relatively common sleep complaints that seem to be associated with affective distress. To date, few attempts have been made to link nightmares to the biological markers of the stress response, and the HPA response in particular. The present study examined the relationship between frequent nightmares and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in a cross-sectional study of working women (N=188). Analysis revealed that those who reported frequent nightmares (N=13) showed a blunted CAR on a working day, compared to those who did not report nightmares. This result was independent of psychiatric symptoms, demographic variables, and lifestyle. Our preliminary findings suggest that decreased HPA reactivity might be a trait-like feature of women with frequent nightmares. PMID:25953663

  5. Sensorimotor recovery following spaceflight may be due to frequent square-wave saccadic intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Leigh, R. John; Krnavek, Jody M.; Kornilova, Ludmila; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Paloski, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Square-wave jerks (SWJs) are small, involuntary saccades that disrupt steady fixation. We report the case of an astronaut (approximately 140 d on orbit) who showed frequent SWJs, especially postflight, but who showed no impairment of vision or decrement of postflight performance. These data support the view that SWJs do not impair vision because they are paired movements, consisting of a small saccade away from the fixation position followed, within 200 ms, by a corrective saccade that brings the eye back on target. Since many returning astronauts show a decrement of dynamic visual function during postflight locomotion, it seems possible that frequent SWJs improved this astronaut's visual function by providing postsaccadic enhancement of visual fixation, which aided postflight performance. Certainly, frequent SWJs did not impair performance in this astronaut, who had no other neurological disorder.

  6. Integrating Entropy and Closed Frequent Pattern Mining for Social Network Modelling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhaimenul; Alhajj, Reda; Rokne, Jon

    The recent increase in the explicitly available social networks has attracted the attention of the research community to investigate how it would be possible to benefit from such a powerful model in producing effective solutions for problems in other domains where the social network is implicit; we argue that social networks do exist around us but the key issue is how to realize and analyze them. This chapter presents a novel approach for constructing a social network model by an integrated framework that first preparing the data to be analyzed and then applies entropy and frequent closed patterns mining for network construction. For a given problem, we first prepare the data by identifying items and transactions, which arc the basic ingredients for frequent closed patterns mining. Items arc main objects in the problem and a transaction is a set of items that could exist together at one time (e.g., items purchased in one visit to the supermarket). Transactions could be analyzed to discover frequent closed patterns using any of the well-known techniques. Frequent closed patterns have the advantage that they successfully grab the inherent information content of the dataset and is applicable to a broader set of domains. Entropies of the frequent closed patterns arc used to keep the dimensionality of the feature vectors to a reasonable size; it is a kind of feature reduction process. Finally, we analyze the dynamic behavior of the constructed social network. Experiments were conducted on a synthetic dataset and on the Enron corpus email dataset. The results presented in the chapter show that social networks extracted from a feature set as frequent closed patterns successfully carry the community structure information. Moreover, for the Enron email dataset, we present an analysis to dynamically indicate the deviations from each user's individual and community profile. These indications of deviations can be very useful to identify unusual events.

  7. Characteristics of frequent emergency department presenters to an Australian emergency medicine network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markham Donna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the characteristics of emergency department (ED patients defined as frequent presenters (FP presenting to an Australian emergency department network and compare these with a cohort of non-frequent presenters (NFP. Method A retrospective chart review utilising an electronic emergency medicine patient medical record database was performed on patients presenting to Southern Health EDs from March 2009 to March 2010. Non-frequent presenters were defined as patients presenting less than 5 times and frequent presenters as presenting 8 or more times in the study period. Characteristics of both groups were described and compared. Results During the 12-month study period there were 540 FP patients with 4549 admissions and 73,089 NFP patients with 100,943 admissions. FP patients were slightly older with a significant increase in frequency of patients between the ages of 70 to 79 years and they were more likely to be divorced or separated than NFP patients. Frequent presenters to the emergency department were more likely to utilise the ambulance service to arrive at the hospital, or in the custody of police than NFP patients. FPs were more likely to be admitted to hospital, more likely to have an admission to a mental health bed than NFP patients and more likely to self-discharge from the emergency department while waiting for care. Conclusions There are major implications for the utilisation of limited ED resources by frequent presenters. By further understanding the characteristics of FP we may be able to address the specific health care needs of this population in more efficient and cost effective ways. Further research analysing the effectiveness of targeted multidisciplinary interventions aiming to reduce the frequency of ED attendances may be warranted.

  8. Mining of Users Access Behaviour for Frequent Sequential Pattern From Web Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Vijayalakshmi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sequential Pattern mining is the process of applying data mining techniques to asequential database for the purposes of discovering the correlation relationships that existamong an ordered list of events. The task of discovering frequent sequences ischallenging, because the algorithm needs to process a combinatorially explosive numberof possible sequences. Discovering hidden information from Web log data is called Webusage mining. One common usage in web applications is the mining of users’ accessbehaviour for the purpose of predicting and hence pre-fetching the web pages that theuser is likely to visit. The aim of discovering frequent Sequential patterns in Web log datais to obtain information about the access behaviour of the users.Finding Frequent Sequential Pattern (FSP is an important problem in web usagemining. In this paper, we explore a new frequent sequence pattern technique calledAWAPT (Adaptive Web Access Pattern Tree, for FSP mining. An AWAPT combinesSuffix tree and Prefix tree for efficient storage of all the sequences that contain a givenitem. It eliminates recursive reconstruction of intermediate WAP tree during the miningby assigning the binary codes to each node in the WAP Tree. Web access pattern tree(WAP-tree mining is a sequential pattern mining technique for web log accesssequences, which first stores the original web access sequence database(WASD on aprefix tree, similar to the frequent pattern tree (FP-tree for storing non-sequential data.WAP-tree algorithm then, mines the frequent sequences from the WAP-tree byrecursively re-constructing intermediate trees, starting with suffix sequences and endingwith prefix sequences. An attempt has been made to AWAPT approach for improvingefficiency. AWAPT totally eliminates the need to engage in numerous reconstructions ofintermediate WAP-trees during mining and considerably reduces execution time.

  9. An Integrated Framework for Relational and Hierarchical Mining of Frequent Closed Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Pravin; Divakar, V.; Vinoth, E.; Senthilkumar, Radha

    This paper addresses an Integrated Framework for relational and hierarchical mining of Frequent Closed Pattern. Large data banks have created the necessity to formulate a system for effective retrieval of data patterns. The major issues that have to be dealt here are granularity of patterns, effectiveness of patterns and time taken for retrieval. Here we discuss Inter-related generalized self-organizing map (IGSOM) and relational attribute-oriented induction (RAOI), which are focused on pattern extraction along with CC-MINER, a hierarchical mining technique for exploring Frequent Closed Pattern from very dense data sets. We further provide implementation results for education data set and prostrate cancer data set.

  10. Comorbidity as a contributor to frequent severe acute exacerbation in COPD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Suk Hyeon; Lee, Hyun; Carriere, KC; Shin, Sun Hye; Moon, Seong Mi; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Comorbidities have a serious impact on the frequent severe acute exacerbations (AEs) in patients with COPD. Previous studies have used the Charlson comorbidity index to represent a conglomerate of comorbidities; however, the respective contribution of each coexisting disease to the frequent severe AEs remains unclear. Methods A retrospective, observational study was performed in 77 COPD patients who experienced severe AE between January 2012 and December 2014 and had at least 1-year follow-up period from the date of admission for severe AE. We explored the incidence of frequent severe AEs (≥2 severe AEs during 1-year period) in these patients and investigated COPD-related factors and comorbidities as potential risk factors of these exacerbations. Results Out of 77 patients, 61 patients (79.2%) had at least one comorbidity. During a 1-year follow-up period, 29 patients (37.7%) experienced frequent severe AEs, approximately two-thirds (n=19) of which occurred within the first 90 days after admission. Compared with patients not experiencing frequent severe AEs, these patients were more likely to have poor lung function and receive home oxygen therapy and long-term oral steroids. In multiple logistic regression analysis, coexisting asthma (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =4.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30–12.46, P=0.016), home oxygen therapy (adjusted OR =9.39, 95% CI =1.60–55.30, P=0.013), and C-reactive protein (adjusted OR =1.09, 95% CI =1.01–1.19, P=0.036) were associated with frequent severe AEs. In addition, poor lung function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (adjusted OR =0.16, 95% CI =0.04–0.70, P=0.015), was inversely associated with early (ie, within 90 days of admission) frequent severe AEs. Conclusion Based on our study, among COPD-related comorbidities, coexisting asthma has a significant impact on the frequent severe AEs in COPD patients. PMID:27536097

  11. Frequent attenders in out-of-hours general practice care: attendance prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the use of out-of-hours service and analyse attendance prognosis for frequent attenders and other groups of attenders, and to present a concept describing frequent attendance over time. METHODS: All adult attenders in 1990 were included in a 4-year follow-up study...... or three contacts per year. The setting was out-of-hours general practice in Aarhus County, Denmark. Data were collected from the database of the Public Health Insurance, Aarhus County. The county had approximately 600,000 inhabitants, of whom 465,000 were aged 18 years and over. The subjects were...

  12. An Intelligent Approach For Mining Frequent Spatial Objects In Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Tripathy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial Data Mining is based on correlation of spatial objects in space. Mining frequent pattern fromspatial databases systems has always remained a challenge for researchers. In the light of the first law ofgeography “everything is related to everything else but nearby things is more related than distant things”suggests that values taken from samples of spatial data near to each other tend to be more similar thanthose taken farther apart. This tendency is termed spatial autocorrelation or spatial dependence. It’snatural that most spatial data are not independent, they have high autocorrelation. In this paper, wepropose an enhancement of existing mining algorithm for efficiently mining frequent patterns for spatialobjects occurring in space such as a city is located near a river. The frequency of each spatial object inrelation to other object tends to determine multiple occurrence of the same object. We further enhancethe proposed approach by using a numerical method. This method uses a tree structure basedmethodology for mining frequent patterns considering the frequency of each object stored at each node ofthe tree. Experimental results suggest significant improvement in finding valid frequent patterns overexisting methods.

  13. The Core List Mirage: A Comparison of the Journals Frequently Consulted by Faculty and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joswick, Kathleen E.; Stierman, Jeanne Koekkoek

    1997-01-01

    Citation analysis of freshman papers and faculty publications provided ranked order lists of journals: (1) retrieved from InfoTrac stations; (2) cited in freshman papers; (3) in which faculty publish; (4) cited in faculty articles; and (5) most frequently cited in published articles worldwide. Results emphasized the importance of recognizing…

  14. Competence-Based Education and Training--About Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the author's previous piece on practical guidelines for the development of comprehensive competence-based education and training (Mulder, 2012). It is about the questions that have been and are still frequently asked in presentations, workshops and classes about the introduction of competence-based education. Here, the author…

  15. Methods for frequent pattern mining in data streams within the MOA system

    OpenAIRE

    Quadrana, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    IncMine is a robust, efficient, practical, usable and extendable solution to perform Frequent Itemset mining over data streams. It is implementend under the Massive Online Analysis framework. It includes an analysis over its performances and its reaction to synthetic and real concept drift.

  16. The Role of Old-growth Forests in Frequent-fire Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Springer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic ecological concepts and forestry language regarding old growth are not well suited to frequent-fire landscapes. In frequent-fire, old-growth landscapes, there is a symbiotic relationship between the trees, the understory graminoids, and fire that results in a healthy ecosystem. Patches of old growth interspersed with younger growth and open, grassy areas provide a wide variety of habitats for animals, and have a higher level of biodiversity. Fire suppression is detrimental to these forests, and eventually destroys all old growth. The reintroduction of fire into degraded frequent-fire, old-growth forests, accompanied by appropriate thinning, can restore a balance to these ecosystems. Several areas require further research and study: 1 the ability of the understory to respond to restoration treatments, 2 the rate of ecosystem recovery following wildfires whose level of severity is beyond the historic or natural range of variation, 3 the effects of climate change, and 4 the role of the microbial community. In addition, it is important to recognize that much of our knowledge about these old-growth systems comes from a few frequent-fire forest types.

  17. 78 FR 68460 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... About Medical Foods; Second Edition; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition.'' We are reopening the comment period in response... ``Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition.'' (We had published earlier versions of...

  18. GraMi: Generalized Frequent Pattern Mining in a Single Large Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Saeedy, Mohammed El

    2011-11-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs or protein-protein interaction in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. Interesting interactions in such applications may be transitive (e.g., friend of a friend). Existing methods, however, search for frequent isomorphic (i.e., exact match) subgraphs and cannot discover many useful patterns. In this paper the authors propose GRAMI, a framework that generalizes frequent subgraph mining in a large single graph. GRAMI discovers frequent patterns. A pattern is a graph where edges are generalized to distance-constrained paths. Depending on the definition of the distance function, many instantiations of the framework are possible. Both directed and undirected graphs, as well as multiple labels per vertex, are supported. The authors developed an efficient implementation of the framework that models the frequency resolution phase as a constraint satisfaction problem, in order to avoid the costly enumeration of all instances of each pattern in the graph. The authors also implemented CGRAMI, a version that supports structural and semantic constraints; and AGRAMI, an approximate version that supports very large graphs. The experiments on real data demonstrate that the authors framework is up to 3 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches.

  19. GRAMI: Frequent subgraph and pattern mining in a single large graph

    KAUST Repository

    Elseidy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs; it is defined as finding all subgraphs that appear frequently in a database according to a given frequency threshold. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs, or proteinprotein interactions in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. In this paper we present GRAMI, a novel framework for frequent subgraph mining in a single large graph. GRAMI undertakes a novel approach that only finds the minimal set of instances to satisfy the frequency threshold and avoids the costly enumeration of all instances required by previous approaches. We accompany our approach with a heuristic and optimizations that significantly improve performance. Additionally, we present an extension of GRAMI that mines frequent patterns. Compared to subgraphs, patterns offer a more powerful version of matching that captures transitive interactions between graph nodes (like friend of a friend) which are very common in modern applications. Finally, we present CGRAMI, a version supporting structural and semantic constraints, and AGRAMI, an approximate version producing results with no false positives. Our experiments on real data demonstrate that our framework is up to 2 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches. 2014 VLDB Endowment.

  20. Frequent users of emergency services: associated factors and reasons for seeking care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marques Acosta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify the profile of frequent users of emergency services, to verify the associated factors and to analyze the reasons for the frequent use of the services. METHOD: An explanatory sequential type mixed method was adopted. Quantitative data were collected from the electronic medical records, with a sample of 385 users attended four or more times in an emergency service, during the year 2011. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 users, intentionally selected from the results of the quantitative stage. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and qualitative data using thematic analysis. RESULTS: It was found that 42.9% were elderly, 84.9% had chronic diseases, 63.5% were classified as urgent, 42.1% stayed for more than 24 hours in the service and 46.5% were discharged. Scheduled follow-up appointment, risk classification, length of stay and outcome were factors associated with frequent use. The reasons for seeking the services were mainly related to the exacerbation of chronic diseases, to easier access and concentration of technology, to the bond, and to the scheduled appointments. CONCLUSIONS: The results contribute to comprehending the repeated use of emergency services and provide additional data to plan alternatives to reduce frequent use.

  1. Control of airborne radioactive emissions for frequently performed TWRS work activities (ALARACT demonstrations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains ALARACT Demonstrations identifying agreements made between LMHC, FDH, DOE-RL, and the Washington State Department of Health for frequently performed work activities in TWRS. These ALARACTs do not cover new activities, modifications, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning activities

  2. A Novel Incremental Mining Algorithm of Frequent Patterns for Web Usage Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yihong; ZHUANG Yueting; TAI Xiaoying

    2007-01-01

    Because data warehouse is frequently changing, incremental data leads to old knowledge which is mined formerly unavailable. In order to maintain the discovered knowledge and patterns dynamically, this study presents a novel algorithm updating for global frequent patterns-IPARUC. A rapid clustering method is introduced to divide database into n parts in IPARUC firstly, where the data are similar in the same part. Then, the nodes in the tree are adjusted dynamically in inserting process by "pruning and laying back" to keep the frequency descending order so that they can be shared to approaching optimization. Finally local frequent itemsets mined from each local dataset are merged into global frequent itemsets. The results of experimental study are very encouraging. It is obvious from experiment that IPARUC is more effective and efficient than other two contrastive methods. Furthermore, there is significant application potential to a prototype of Web log Analyzer in web usage mining that can help us to discover useful knowledge effectively, even help managers making decision.

  3. 42 CFR 414.222 - Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing. 414.222 Section 414.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH...

  4. The role of leisure and delinquency in frequent cannabis use and dependence trajectories among young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Liebregts; P. van der Pol; M. van Laar; R. de Graaf; W. van den Brink; D.J. Korf

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between leisure and cannabis use has been widely studied, but less so for young adults, and rarely with a focus on frequent cannabis use. Also, little is known about how changes in leisure develop over time and how they are related to transitions in cannabis use and dependence. M

  5. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Buy America & FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...'s High Speed Intercity ] Passenger Rail Program. The Answers to Frequently Asked Questions can be... to support intercity passenger rail service (Sec. 301), high-speed corridor development (Sec....

  6. 78 FR 49271 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing the availability of the...

  7. Exposure of Medical Students to Pharmaceutical Marketing in Primary Care Settings: Frequent and Influential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser

    2009-01-01

    It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts.…

  8. Professionalization of Dutch PRGs and volume and costs of frequently prescribed drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Bakker, D.H. de

    2002-01-01

    This article examines professionality of Dutch Peer Review Groups (PRGs) and its relationship with volume and costs of frequently prescribed drugs. Data collected in a written survey in 1999 from 618 out of 835 PRGs showed that most PRGs in the Netherlands function in an informal way and that only a

  9. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-11-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist.

  10. Connecting with Frequent Adolescent Visitors to the School Nurse through the Use of Intentional Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavletic, Adria C.

    2011-01-01

    Nurses as accessible, helping adults within schools have daily opportunities to reach adolescents with unmet mental health needs. Understanding the relationship between frequent clinic visits or somatic complaints as a sign of underlying problems, which may be organic or psychoemotional in origin, requires the unique skill set of the school nurse.…

  11. Frequent Deadlines: Evaluating the Effect of Learner Control on Healthcare Executives' Performance in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Ivanitskaya, Lana V.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Erofeev, Dmitry A.; Mendez, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    In a three-group, gender-matched, preexisting knowledge-controlled, randomized experiment, we evaluated the effect of learner control over study pace on healthcare executives' performance in an online statistics course. Overall, frequent deadlines enhanced distribution of practice and improved learning. Students with less control over pace (in…

  12. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist. PMID:26607033

  13. Association Rule Mining for Both Frequent and Infrequent Items Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR MD. JAHANGIR KABIR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In data mining research, generating frequent items from large databases is one of the important issues and the key factor for implementing association rule mining tasks. Mining infrequent items such as relationships among rare but expensive products is another demanding issue which have been shown in some recent studies. Therefore this study considers user assigned threshold values as a constraint which helps users mine those rules which are more interesting for them. In addition, in real world users may prefer to know relationships among frequent items along with infrequent ones. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is an important heuristic technique in recent years and this study uses this technique to mine association rules effectively. If this technique considers user defined threshold values, interesting association rules can be generated more efficiently. Therefore this study proposes a novel approach which includes using particle swarm optimization algorithm to mine association rules from databases. Our implementation of the search strategy includes bitmap representation of nodes in a lexicographic tree and from superset-subset relationship of the nodes it classifies frequent items along with infrequent itemsets. In addition, this approach avoids extra calculation overhead for generating frequent pattern trees and handling large memory which store the support values of candidate item sets. Our experimental results show that this approach efficiently mines association rules. It accesses a database to calculate a support value for fewer numbers of nodes to find frequent itemsets and from that it generates association rules, which dramatically reduces search time. The main aim of this proposed algorithm is to show how heuristic method works on real databases to find all the interesting association rules in an efficient way.

  14. Approximating Frequent Items in Asynchronous Data Stream over a Sliding Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ting, Hing-Fung; Lee, Lap Kei; Chan, Ho-Leung;

    2011-01-01

    In an asynchronous data stream, the data items may be out of order with respect to their original timestamps. This paper studies the space complexity required by a data structure to maintain such a data stream so that it can approximate the set of frequent items over a sliding time window...... with sufficient accuracy. Prior to our work, the best solution is given by Cormode et al. [1], who gave an O (1/ε log W log (εB/ log W) min {log W, 1/ε} log |U|)- space data structure that can approximate the frequent items within an ε error bound, where W and B are parameters of the sliding window, and U...

  15. Bit-Table Based Biclustering and Frequent Closed Itemset Mining in High-Dimensional Binary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Király

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade various algorithms have been developed and proposed for discovering overlapping clusters in high-dimensional data. The two most prominent application fields in this research, proposed independently, are frequent itemset mining (developed for market basket data and biclustering (applied to gene expression data analysis. The common limitation of both methodologies is the limited applicability for very large binary data sets. In this paper we propose a novel and efficient method to find both frequent closed itemsets and biclusters in high-dimensional binary data. The method is based on simple but very powerful matrix and vector multiplication approaches that ensure that all patterns can be discovered in a fast manner. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in the commonly used MATLAB environment and freely available for researchers.

  16. Bit-table based biclustering and frequent closed itemset mining in high-dimensional binary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, András; Gyenesei, Attila; Abonyi, János

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade various algorithms have been developed and proposed for discovering overlapping clusters in high-dimensional data. The two most prominent application fields in this research, proposed independently, are frequent itemset mining (developed for market basket data) and biclustering (applied to gene expression data analysis). The common limitation of both methodologies is the limited applicability for very large binary data sets. In this paper we propose a novel and efficient method to find both frequent closed itemsets and biclusters in high-dimensional binary data. The method is based on simple but very powerful matrix and vector multiplication approaches that ensure that all patterns can be discovered in a fast manner. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in the commonly used MATLAB environment and freely available for researchers. PMID:24616651

  17. Zeno Effect (FREQUENT Inhibition of the Effector Cells Regulators) in Cancer Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Glavatovic, Rade

    2009-01-01

    Recently Brutovsky and Horvath suggested a strategy of pure evolutionary self-destroying of the cancer without any active medical treatment. In this work we suggest a completely opposite strategy for cancer inhibition and eventually elimination. It is based by frequent (many times repeated) application of an especial active medical treatment. This treatment represents such inhibition of the regulator cells (Th1, Th2,...) which cause hyper-activity of the effector cells (citotoxic limfocits, nature killer cells,...) that eliminate cancer cells (dirty inspector Harry effect). Conceptually, our strategy is similar to Zeno effect theoretically predicted and experimentally verified in the quantum mechanics (but which can be realized in practically any domain of the physics). According to Zeno effect a non-stable system, that during time evolves from initial non-decayed in the final decayed state can never decay by frequent (many times repeated) perturbation by measurement (representing an active evolution breaking...

  18. Classification of Approaches and Challenges of Frequent Subgraphs Mining in Biological Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza; Azizani, Fereshteh

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of biological networks is one of the important challenges in system biology. In addition, increasing amount of experimental data in biological networks necessitate the use of efficient methods to analyze these huge amounts of data. Such methods require to recognize common patterns to analyze data. As biological networks can be modeled by graphs, the problem of common patterns recognition is equivalent with frequent sub graph mining in a set of graphs. ...

  19. Frequent expression of PD-L1 on circulating breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mazel, Martine; Jacot, William; Pantel, Klaus; Bartkowiak, Kai; Topart, Delphine; Cayrefourcq, Laure; Rossille, Delphine; Maudelonde, Thierry; Fest, Thierry; Alix-Panabières, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Immune checkpoint regulators such as PD-L1 have become exciting new therapeutic targets leading to long lasting remissions in patients with advanced malignancies. However, in view of the remarkable costs and the toxicity profiles of these therapies, predictive biomarkers able to discriminate responders from non-responders are urgently needed. In the present paper, we provide evidence that PD-L1 is frequently expressed on metastatic cells circulating in the blood of hormone receptor-positive, ...

  20. Bit-Table Based Biclustering and Frequent Closed Itemset Mining in High-Dimensional Binary Data

    OpenAIRE

    András Király; Attila Gyenesei; János Abonyi

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade various algorithms have been developed and proposed for discovering overlapping clusters in high-dimensional data. The two most prominent application fields in this research, proposed independently, are frequent itemset mining (developed for market basket data) and biclustering (applied to gene expression data analysis). The common limitation of both methodologies is the limited applicability for very large binary data sets. In this paper we propose a novel and efficien...

  1. FraudMiner: A Novel Credit Card Fraud Detection Model Based on Frequent Itemset Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Seeja, K. R.; Masoumeh Zareapoor

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud) the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to han...

  2. Ischaemia-induced (symptomatic) migraine attacks may be more frequent than migraine-induced ischaemic insults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes; Friberg, L; Olsen, T S; Andersen, A R; Lassen, N A; Hansen, P E; Karle, A

    Fifteen consecutive patients with a diagnostic problem of ischaemia-induced migraine with aura (symptomatic migraine) or migraine-associated ischaemia (migrainous infarction) were studied in order to elucidate the mechanisms. Three had a 1 month flurry of daily attacks of migraine auras with or w...... ischaemia-induced migraine attacks may be more frequent than migraine-induced ischaemic insults. Therefore, migraine is not as strong a risk factor for stroke as indicated by the mere coincidence of the two disorders....

  3. Towards a Text Mining Methodology Using Frequent Itemsets and Association Rule Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Cherfi, Hacène; Napoli, Amedeo; Toussaint, Yannick

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for text mining relying on the classical knowledge discovery loop, with a number of adaptations. First, texts are indexed and prepared to be processed by frequent itemset levelwise search. Association rules are then extracted and interpreted, with respect to a set of quality measures and domain knowledge, under the control of an analyst. The article includes an experimentation on a real-world text corpus holding on molecular biology.

  4. THE FREQUENT LABOUR TURNOVER IN INSURANCE COMPANIES IN NIGERIA : (Case : Nigerian Insurance sector)

    OpenAIRE

    Onashile, Ademola

    2012-01-01

    The essence of this thesis is to ascertain the causes, effects and solutions to the frequent labour turnover in the Nigerian insurance companies. Incessant labour turnover has become a phenomenon which many insurance companies have been vehemently battling with as this has undermined their potentials and strengths. The research methodology adopted is the qualitative method which involves the use of telephone interview with the aid of a voice recorder gadget. Therefore, the telepho...

  5. Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Narayan Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin toxicity or adverse drug reaction is common due to its narrow therapeutic window. Mild and moderate toxicity require supportive care and enteral activated charcoal. In severe toxicity, charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP have been shown to decrease serum phenytoin half-life and early recovery. Here, we report two cases with phenytoin toxicity who showed marked clinical improvement after early and frequent CHP treatment.

  6. Frequent items in streaming data: An experimental evaluation of the state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Manerikar N.; Palpanas T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of detecting frequent items in streaming data is relevant to many different applications across many domains. Several algorithms, diverse in nature, have been proposed in the literature for the solution of the above problem. In this paper, we review these algorithms, and we present the results of the first extensive comparative experimental study of the most prominent algorithms in the literature. The algorithms were comprehensively tested using a common test framework on a variet...

  7. Static Load Balancing of Parallel Mining of Frequent Itemsets Using Reservoir Sampling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kessl, Robert

    Berlin: Springer, 2011 - (Perner, P.), s. 553-567. (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence . 6871). ISBN 978-3-642-23198-8. ISSN 0302-9743. [MLDM 2011. International Conference /7./. New York (US), 30.08.2011-03.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : frequent itemset mining * parallel algorithms * association rules * approximate counting Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  8. Frequent deletions of JARID2 in leukemic transformation of chronic myeloid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puda, Ana; Milosevic, Jelena D; Berg, Tiina; Klampfl, Thorsten; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Gisslinger, Bettina; Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Malcovati, Luca; Elena, Chiara; Doubek, Michael; Steurer, Michael; Tosic, Natasa; Pavlovic, Sonja; Guglielmelli, Paola; Pieri, Lisa; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Gisslinger, Heinz; Cazzola, Mario; Kralovics, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have an inherent tendency to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using high-resolution SNP microarrays, we studied a total of 517 MPN and MDS patients in different disease stages, including 77 AML cases with previous history of MPN (N = 46) or MDS (N = 31). Frequent chromosomal deletions of variable sizes were detected, allowing the mapping of putative tumor suppressor genes involved in the leukemic transformation process. We detected frequent deletions on the short arm of chromosome 6 (del6p). The common deleted region on 6p mapped to a 1.1-Mb region and contained only the JARID2 gene--member of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). When we compared the frequency of del6p between chronic and leukemic phase, we observed a strong association of del6p with leukemic transformation (P = 0.0033). Subsequently, analysis of deletion profiles of other PRC2 members revealed frequent losses of genes such as EZH2, AEBP2, and SUZ12; however, the deletions targeting these genes were large. We also identified two patients with homozygous losses of JARID2 and AEBP2. We observed frequent codeletion of AEBP2 and ETV6, and similarly, SUZ12 and NF1. Using next generation exome sequencing of 40 patients, we identified only one somatic mutation in the PRC2 complex member SUZ12. As the frequency of point mutations in PRC2 members was found to be low, deletions were the main type of lesions targeting PRC2 complex members. Our study suggests an essential role of the PRC2 complex in the leukemic transformation of chronic myeloid disorders. PMID:22190018

  9. Top Down Approach to find Maximal Frequent Item Sets using Subset Creation

    OpenAIRE

    HK, Jnanamurthy; Vishesh HV; Vishruth Jain; Preetham Kumar; Radhika M. Pai

    2012-01-01

    Association rule has been an area of active research in the field of knowledge discovery. Data mining researchers had improved upon the quality of association rule mining for business development by incorporating influential factors like value (utility), quantity of items sold (weight) and more for the mining of association patterns. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to find maximal frequent item set first. Most of the algorithms in literature used to find minimal...

  10. Small and frequent disasters due to climate variability and change: an accumulative development problem

    OpenAIRE

    Marulanda, Mabel C.; Omar D. Cardona; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Small disasters contrary to the extreme and extraordinary events are very often not visible at the national level and their effects are not relevant from a macro-economic point of view. They usually affect the livelihoods of poor people in rural areas and small municipalities, perpetuating their level of poverty and human insecurity as factors of social vulnerability. Risk regarding small disasters frequently is not considered as relevant, nevertheless due to their accumulated impact and recu...

  11. Risk factors for frequent readmissions and barriers to transplantation in patients with cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaytha Ganesh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission rate is receiving increasing regulatory scrutiny. Patients with cirrhosis have high hospital readmissions rates but the relationship between frequent readmissions and barriers to transplantation remains unexplored. The goal of this study was to determine risk factors for frequent readmissions among patients with cirrhosis and identify barriers to transplantation in this population. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 587 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of cirrhosis admitted to a large tertiary care center between May 1, 2008 and May 1, 2009. Demographics, clinical factors, and outcomes were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for high readmission rates. Transplant-related factors were assessed for patients in the high readmission group. RESULTS: The 587 patients included in the study had 1557 admissions during the study period. A subset of 87 (15% patients with 5 or more admissions accounted for 672 (43% admissions. The factors associated with frequent admissions were non-white race (OR = 2.45, p = 0.01, diabetes (OR = 2.04, p = 0.01, higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score (OR = 35.10, p30 and younger age (OR = 0.98, p = 0.02. Among the 87 patients with ≥5 admissions, only 14 (16% underwent liver transplantation during the study period. Substance abuse, medical co-morbidities, and low (<15 MELD scores were barriers to transplantation in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A small group of patients with cirrhosis account for a disproportionately high number of hospital admissions. Interventions targeting this high-risk group may decrease frequent hospital readmissions and increase access to transplantation.

  12. Extracting and Summarizing the Frequent Emerging Graph Patterns from a Dataset of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Poezevara, Guillaume; Cuissart, Bertrand; Crémilleux, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    International audience Emerging patterns are patterns of great interest for discovering information from data and characterizing classes. Mining emerging patterns remains a challenge, especially with graph data. In this paper, we propose a method to mine the whole set of frequent emerging graph patterns, given a frequency threshold and an emergence threshold. Our results are achieved thanks to a change of the description of the initial problem so that we are able to design a process combin...

  13. Input doses for patients undergoing frequent X-rays tests at policlinics in Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work gives results from the input dose for a reference patient in eight radiographic projections frequently employed at policlinics from Havana City. Its determination was achieved by measuring free air exposure in the ionization chamber. It also shows results on image quality evaluations for one radiographic projection. The study integrated a quality control project on X-ray diagnostic equipment carried out at a municipality from Havana City

  14. Absence of Frequent Herpesvirus Transmission in a Nonhuman Primate Predator-Prey System in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Sripriya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Metzger, Sonja; Nowak, Kathrin; De Nys, Helene; Boesch, Christophe; Wittig, Roman; Jarvis, Michael A.; Leendertz, Fabian; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of viruses into the human population by transmission from nonhuman primates (NHPs) represents a serious potential threat to human health that is primarily associated with the increased bushmeat trade. Transmission of RNA viruses across primate species appears to be relatively frequent. In contrast, DNA viruses appear to be largely host specific, suggesting low transmission potential. Herein, we use a primate predator-prey system to study the risk of herpesvirus transmission between ...

  15. Corals escape bleaching in regions that recently and historically experienced frequent thermal stress

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, D M; R. van Woesik

    2009-01-01

    The response of coral-reef ecosystems to contemporary thermal stress may be in part a consequence of recent or historical sea-surface temperature (SST) variability. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether: (i) there was a relationship between the historical frequency of SST variability and stress experienced during the most recent thermal-stress events (in 1998 and 2005–2006) and (ii) coral reefs that historically experienced frequent thermal anomalies were less likely to experience cora...

  16. Clinical Characteristics and Features of Frequent Idiopathic Ventricular Premature Complexes in the Korean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jin Kyung; Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Kyoung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) increase the risk of cardiomyopathy (CMP). However, most data regarding VPCs have been obtained from Western population and in-hospital patient-based studies. The objective of this study was to define the clinical characteristics and features of idiopathic VPCs in the Korean population. Subjects and Methods We investigated subjects undergoing transthoracic echocardiography and documented VPC burdens >1% by Holter monito...

  17. Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan

    2016-02-01

    Phenytoin toxicity or adverse drug reaction is common due to its narrow therapeutic window. Mild and moderate toxicity require supportive care and enteral activated charcoal. In severe toxicity, charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP) have been shown to decrease serum phenytoin half-life and early recovery. Here, we report two cases with phenytoin toxicity who showed marked clinical improvement after early and frequent CHP treatment. PMID:27076716

  18. On When and How to use SAT to Mine Frequent Itemsets

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Rui; Lynce, Inês; Manquinho, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    A new stream of research was born in the last decade with the goal of mining itemsets of interest using Constraint Programming (CP). This has promoted a natural way to combine complex constraints in a highly flexible manner. Although CP state-of-the-art solutions formulate the task using Boolean variables, the few attempts to adopt propositional Satisfiability (SAT) provided an unsatisfactory performance. This work deepens the study on when and how to use SAT for the frequent itemset mining (...

  19. Unravelling associations between unassigned mass spectrometry peaks with frequent itemset mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Trung Nghia, Vu; Mrzic, Aida; Valkenborg, Dirk; Maes, Evelyne; Lemiere, Filip; Goethals, Bart; Laukens, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass spectrometry-based proteomics experiments generate spectra that are rich in information. Often only a fraction of this information is used for peptide/protein identification, whereas a significant proportion of the peaks in a spectrum remain unexplained. In this paper we explore how a specific class of data mining techniques termed “frequent itemset mining” can be employed to discover patterns in the unassigned data, and how such patterns can help us interpret the origin of th...

  20. MOST FREQUENT CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.) DISEASES IN PONDS FROM 1994. TO 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravko Petrinec; Milan Božić; A Berc; Ante Jelić

    1999-01-01

    Fish health monitoring was carried out in the period from 1994. to 1998. for 252 fresh water ponds. Findings about health status depended upon the quality of health control measures such as ichthyotechnic, ichthyosanitary and ichthyohygieni methods. Most frequently diagnosed diseases and their percentages of incidence were: carp erythrodermatytis in 5,82 %, ichthyophtiriasis in 13,51 %, trihodiniasis in 33,568 %, dactylogirosis and gyrodactilosis in 35,75 %, botriocephalosis in 14,99 % and sw...

  1. The Most Frequent Metacognitive Strategies Used in Reading Comprehension among ESP Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Hooshang Khoshsima; Elham Amiri Samani

    2015-01-01

    Reading strategies are plans for solving problems encountered during reading while learners are deeply engage with the text. So, comprehension is not a simple decoding of symbols, but a complex multidimensional process in which the leaner draws on previous schemata applying strategies consciously. In fact, metacognitive strategies are accessible versatile vehicles if the readers are aware and cognizant of their applications. This paper studied the most frequent used strategies by Iranian ESP ...

  2. Getting into hot water:sick guppies frequent warmer thermal conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Ryan S; Reynolds, Michael; James, Joanna; Williams, Chris; Mohammed, Azad; Ramsubhag, Adesh; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Ectotherms depend on the environmental temperature for thermoregulation and exploit thermal regimes that optimise physiological functioning. They may also frequent warmer conditions to up-regulate their immune response against parasite infection and/or impede parasite development. This adaptive response, known as ‘behavioural fever’, has been documented in various taxa including insects, reptiles and fish, but only in response to endoparasite infections. Here, a choice chamber experiment was ...

  3. A frequent tyrosinase gene mutation in classic, tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism.

    OpenAIRE

    Giebel, L.B.; Strunk, K M; King, R A; Hanifin, J. M.; Spritz, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    We have identified a tyrosinase gene mutation in several patients with classic, tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism. This mutation, which results in a proline----leucine substitution at codon 81 of the tyrosinase polypeptide (EC 1.14.18.1), was observed in 20% (6 of 30) of oculocutaneous albinism alleles from independent probands, but it was not observed in any normal individuals. This mutation thus appears to be a frequent cause of tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism.

  4. THE FREQUENT USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES/METHODS AMONG TEACHERS ACCORDING TO THE TEACHER CANDIDATES OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddes SAKALLI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to show the frequent use of teaching stratergies/methods amongteachers which has been observed by teacher candidates currently undergoing their own field/area teaching program.This study undertakes the general research model and the tools used to obtain the necessary data are personalinformation form and a questionaire. “Teachers frequent use of teaching methods/stratergies” to obtain necessarydata a 4 likert scale type of questionaire has been used. The scale developed on behalf of the researcher involves 35teaching methods/stratergies.The data obtained through 71 quetionaires where evaluated from 4 (always and 1(none as points and has been evaluated through the SPSS package program. In addition, the resultsof the data havebeen analysed through the following techniques: percentage (%, average (X and standard deviation (SS.According to the observations made by the teacher candidates the following teaching methods/stratergies wereundertaken by the teachers according to thier teaching field: lecturing, question-answer method were always used,homework, practice in the classroom, problem solving, showing and practicing methods were frequently used,project work, anaylsing example situations, debates, similarity, computer based education, observing privatetutorials, eduational games, cooperative learning, brainstroming, field trips and reflecting/miroring situations,group/team work, experiment, role play, micro-learning technique, statement, speech,meeting, display, drama,conference, formal debates, sempozium, seminar, panel, umbrella technique, forum and opposite panel

  5. A menudo / -ear: frequentative verbs in the Vocabulario (1513 by Nebrija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Vidal Díez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the particle of the metalanguage a menudo with which Nebrija accompanies some words of the revised Vocabulario (1513. In Spanish, this expression is used to denote frequentatives or iterative verbs. The analysis will show whether the metalanguage refers to the entry or to the definition. As has been previously demonstrated, the structure of the dictionary in many cases follows the Latin term. We will discuss the nature of the lexical items’ structure and how we expect it to be used. We also analyse the frequentative verbs ending in -ear which appear in the dictionary, as well as their definitions, in order to determine whether they are equivalent to the verbs studied before, i.e. those marked with the expression a menudo. The study will evidence the methodology underlying the Vocabulario in the area of frequentative verbs. It is important to remember that Nebrija’s dictionaries (the Dictionarium latinum-hispanicum and the Vocabulario de romance en latín were designed to translate Latin into Romance or vice versa. Therefore, the aspectual nuance of the verbs was absolutely necessary for a correct interpretation of the texts.

  6. Diversity of Bacterial Communities on Four Frequently Used Surfaces in a Large Brazilian Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Felix, Alvina Clara; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Frequently used hand-touch surfaces in hospital settings have been implicated as a vehicle of microbial transmission. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population on four frequently used surfaces using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Surface samples were collected from four sites, namely elevator buttons (EB), bank machine keyboard buttons (BMKB), restroom surfaces, and the employee biometric time clock system (EBTCS), in a large public and teaching hospital in São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with a total of 926 bacterial families and 2832 bacterial genera. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera, including Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of these pathogens in frequently used surfaces enhances the risk of exposure to any susceptible individuals. Some of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity on these surfaces are poor personal hygiene and ineffective routine schedules of cleaning, sanitizing, and disinfecting. Strict standards of infection control in hospitals and increased public education about hand hygiene are recommended to decrease the risk of transmission in hospitals among patients. PMID:26805866

  7. Diversity of Bacterial Communities on Four Frequently Used Surfaces in a Large Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequently used hand-touch surfaces in hospital settings have been implicated as a vehicle of microbial transmission. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population on four frequently used surfaces using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Surface samples were collected from four sites, namely elevator buttons (EB, bank machine keyboard buttons (BMKB, restroom surfaces, and the employee biometric time clock system (EBTCS, in a large public and teaching hospital in São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with a total of 926 bacterial families and 2832 bacterial genera. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera, including Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of these pathogens in frequently used surfaces enhances the risk of exposure to any susceptible individuals. Some of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity on these surfaces are poor personal hygiene and ineffective routine schedules of cleaning, sanitizing, and disinfecting. Strict standards of infection control in hospitals and increased public education about hand hygiene are recommended to decrease the risk of transmission in hospitals among patients.

  8. OPCML is a broad tumor suppressor for multiple carcinomas and lymphomas with frequently epigenetic inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cui

    Full Text Available Identification of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs silenced by CpG methylation uncovers the molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis and potential tumor biomarkers. Loss of heterozygosity at 11q25 is common in multiple tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. OPCML, located at 11q25, is one of the downregulated genes we identified through digital expression subtraction.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed frequent OPCML silencing in NPC and other common tumors, with no homozygous deletion detected by multiplex differential DNA-PCR. Instead, promoter methylation of OPCML was frequently detected in multiple carcinoma cell lines (nasopharyngeal, esophageal, lung, gastric, colon, liver, breast, cervix, prostate, lymphoma cell lines (non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma, nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma and primary tumors, but not in any non-tumor cell line and seldom weakly methylated in normal epithelial tissues. Pharmacological and genetic demethylation restored OPCML expression, indicating a direct epigenetic silencing. We further found that OPCML is stress-responsive, but this response is epigenetically impaired when its promoter becomes methylated. Ecotopic expression of OPCML led to significant inhibition of both anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of carcinoma cells with endogenous silencing.Thus, through functional epigenetics, we identified OPCML as a broad tumor suppressor, which is frequently inactivated by methylation in multiple malignancies.

  9. Frequent gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous chromosomal regions in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hirohisa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian sex-chromosomes originated from a pair of autosomes. A step-wise cessation of recombination is necessary for the proper maintenance of sex-determination and, consequently, generates a four strata structure on the X chromosome. Each stratum shows a specific per-site nucleotide sequence difference (p-distance between the X and Y chromosomes, depending on the time of recombination arrest. Stratum 4 covers the distal half of the human X chromosome short arm and the p-distance of the stratum is ~10%, on average. However, a 100-kb region, which includes KALX and VCX, in the middle of stratum 4 shows a significantly lower p-distance (1-5%, suggesting frequent sequence exchanges or gene conversions between the X and Y chromosomes in humans. To examine the evolutionary mechanism for this low p-distance region, sequences of a corresponding region including KALX/Y from seven species of non-human primates were analyzed. Results Phylogenetic analysis of this low p-distance region in humans and non-human primate species revealed that gene conversion like events have taken place at least ten times after the divergence of New World monkeys and Catarrhini (i.e., Old World monkeys and hominoids. A KALY-converted KALX allele in white-handed gibbons also suggests a possible recent gene conversion between the X and Y chromosomes. In these primate sequences, the proximal boundary of this low p-distance region is located in a LINE element shared between the X and Y chromosomes, suggesting the involvement of this element in frequent gene conversions. Together with a palindrome on the Y chromosome, a segmental palindrome structure on the X chromosome at the distal boundary near VCX, in humans and chimpanzees, may mediate frequent sequence exchanges between X and Y chromosomes. Conclusion Gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous regions have been suggested, mainly in humans. Here, we found frequent gene conversions in the

  10. MIRAGE: An Iterative MapReduce based FrequentSubgraph Mining Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiyan, Mansurul A; Hasan, Mohammad Al

    2013-01-01

    Frequent subgraph mining (FSM) is an important task for exploratory data analysis on graph data. Over the years, many algorithms have been proposed to solve this task. These algorithms assume that the data structure of the mining task is small enough to fit in the main memory of a computer. However, as the real-world graph data grows, both in size and quantity, such an assumption does not hold any longer. To overcome this, some graph database-centric methods have been proposed in recent years...

  11. Supporting Frequent Updates in R-Trees: A Bottom-Up Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Mong Li; Hsu, Wynne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard;

    2003-01-01

    locality. While the R-tree is the index of choice for multi-dimensional data with low dimensionality, and is thus relevant to these applications, R-tree updates are also relatively inefficient. We present a generalized bottom-up update strategy for R-trees that generalizes existing update techniques and......Advances in hardware-related technologies promise to enable new data management applications that monitor continuous processes. In these applications, enormous amounts of state samples are obtained via sensors and are streamed to a database. Further, updates are very frequent and may exhibit...

  12. Long-lasting patch reactions to gold sodium thiosulfate occurs frequently in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus E; Jensen, Charlotte D

    2007-01-01

    In a skin irritancy study in healthy volunteers with 3 metal salts, aqueous gold sodium thiosulfate (GSTS) in a dilution series caused unexpectedly frequent and strong patch test reactions on volar forearm skin in 22 of 31 participants (71%). The reactions showed morphological features consistent...... form of skin and/or mucosal complaints related to exposure to gold items. The results indicate that inclusion of GSTS in routine patch testing may cause problems regarding interpretation and clinical relevance of positive GSTS patch tests, which fulfil the clinical criteria of a contact allergy....

  13. Effectiveness of interventions targeting frequent users of emergency departments: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus F.

    2012-01-01

    L'article publié de le cadre de cette thèse est intitulé "Effectiveness of interventions targeting frequent users of emergency departments: A systematic review." Il a été publié par les "Annals of Emergency Medicine (AEM)" en juillet 2011. Le titre en français pourrait être: "Efficacité des interventions ciblant les utilisateurs fréquents des services d'urgence: Une revue systématique." Le titre du journal américain pourrait être: "Annales de Médecine d'Urgence". Il s'agit du journal du "Coll...

  14. Influence of frequent magnetic field on chlorophyll content in leaves of sugar beet plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorophyll content in plant leaves is correlated with the yield and nitrogen content in plants. Non-destructive investigations of chlorophyll content in leaves of 3 varieties of sugar beet grown from seeds revealed that a low frequent magnetic field, acting independently or in combination with other methods of seed improvement, increased chlorophyll content in leaves of the investigated plants. The treatment with the magnetic field increased nitrogen content in the examined plants. The effect was not connected with environmental conditions during vegetation seasons. (author)

  15. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nourmoradi, H.; M. Foroghi; Farhadkhani, M.; M Vahid Dastjerdi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2  µ g/g and 4.08–60.20  µ g/g, respectiv...

  16. Conserving and Restoring Old Growth in Frequent-fire Forests: Cycles of Disruption and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Egan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available I provide a synthesis of the papers in the Special Issue, The Conservation and Restoration of Old Growth in Frequent-fire Forests of the American West. These papers—the product of an Old Growth Writing Workshop, held at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona on 18–19 April 2006—represent the ideas of 25 workshop participants who argue for a new attitude toward managing old growth in the frequent-fire forests of the American West. Unlike the lush, old-growth rainforests of the Pacific Northwest, the dry, frequent-fire forests of the western United States evolved with surface fires that disturbed the system with such regularity that young trees were almost always killed. When saplings did survive, they grew beyond the harm of frequent surface fires and, ultimately, attained the characteristics that define old growth in these systems. This system worked well, producing old-growth trees in abundance, until the onset of Euro-American settlement in the mid- to late-19th century. The arrival of these settlers put in motion an interplay of unprecedented social, political, economic, and ecological forces (e.g., removal of Native Americans and their fire-based land management systems, overgrazing of the understory, aggressive logging, establishment of federal land management agencies, implementation of a federal fire suppression policy. These activities have culminated in 1 overly dense forested ecosystems that are now on the verge of collapse because of catastrophic fires (i.e., crown fire at the landscape level; the Rodeo-Chediski Fire and insect outbreaks, 2 the emergence of conservation-minded environmental legislation and policy, and 3 greater levels of interaction between citizens, federal agencies, and fire-prone landscapes. Recognizing the tenuous ecological situation of these forests, restoration ecologists, foresters, and others have developed ways to return historic ecological processes and lower tree densities to these forests

  17. Supporting Frequent Updates in R-Trees: A Bottom-Up Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Mong Li; Hsu, Wynne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Cui, Bin; Teo, Keng Lik

    2004-01-01

    Advances in hardware-related technologies promise to enable new data management applications that monitor continuous processes. In these applications, enormous amounts of state samples are obtained via sensors and are streamed to a database. Further, updates are very frequent and may exhibit...... improve update performance. It has different levels of reorganization - ranging from global to local - during updates, avoiding expensive top-down updates. A compact main-memory summary structure that allows direct access to the R-tree index nodes is used together with efficient bottom-up algorithms...

  18. Endodontic Procedural Errors: Frequency, Type of Error, and the Most Frequently Treated Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Waqas; Khan, Moiz; Mehdi, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study is to determine the most common endodontically treated tooth and the most common error produced during treatment and to note the association of particular errors with particular teeth. Material and Methods. Periapical radiographs were taken of all the included teeth and were stored and assessed using DIGORA Optime. Teeth in each group were evaluated for presence or absence of procedural errors (i.e., overfill, underfill, ledge formation, perforations, apical transportation, and/or instrument separation) and the most frequent tooth to undergo endodontic treatment was also noted. Results. A total of 1748 root canal treated teeth were assessed, out of which 574 (32.8%) contained a procedural error. Out of these 397 (22.7%) were overfilled, 155 (8.9%) were underfilled, 16 (0.9%) had instrument separation, and 7 (0.4%) had apical transportation. The most frequently treated tooth was right permanent mandibular first molar (11.3%). The least commonly treated teeth were the permanent mandibular third molars (0.1%). Conclusion. Practitioners should show greater care to maintain accuracy of the working length throughout the procedure, as errors in length accounted for the vast majority of errors and special care should be taken when working on molars. PMID:26347779

  19. Tumor suppressor genes are frequently methylated in lymph node metastases of breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Metastasis represents a major adverse step in the progression of breast carcinoma. Lymph node invasion is the most relevant prognostic factor; however little is known on the molecular events associated with lymph node metastasis process. This study is to investigate the status and role of methylation in lymph node metastatic tumors. Materials and methods Bisulfite pyrosequencing is used to screen 6 putative tumor suppressor genes (HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL, CDH13, RARβ2 and E-cadherin in 38 pairs of primary breast tumors and lymph node metastases. Results We found that HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, RASSF1A and RARβ2 were frequently methylated both in primary and metastatic tissues (range: 55.3%~89.5%. E-cadherin was not frequently methylated in either setting (range: 18.4%~23.7%. The methylation status of HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, and RARβ2 in lymph nodes metastasis were correlated with that in primary tumors. The Pearson correlation values ranged from 0.624 to 0.472 (p values HIN-1 methylation and hormone status in metastatic lymph nodes. Hypermethylation of HIN-1 in metastasis lymph nodes was significantly associated with expression of ER (odds ratio, 1.070; P = 0.024 and with PR (odds ratio, 1.046; P = 0.026. Conclusions This study suggests that hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is extended from primary to metastatic tumors during tumor progression.

  20. Effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for frequent neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Saervoll, Charlotte A; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2011-01-01

    , muscle strength increased 2.0 Nm (95% confidence interval 0.5 to 3.5Nm, p=0.01) in the 2-minute group and 1.7Nm (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 3.3 Nm, p=0.02) in the 12-minute group. In conclusion, as little as 2 minutes of daily progressive resistance training for 10 weeks results in clinically......UNLABELLED: Regular physical exercise is a cornerstone in rehabilitation programs, but adherence to comprehensive exercise remains low. This study determined the effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for relieving neck/shoulder pain in healthy adults with frequent...... symptoms; 174 women and 24 men working at least 30 h per week and with frequent neck/shoulder pain were randomly assigned to resistance training with elastic tubing for 2 or 12 minutes per day 5 times per week, or weekly information on general health (control group). Primary outcomes were changes in...

  1. Enhancing the Search Results through Web Structure Mining Using Frequent Pattern Analysis and Linear Correlation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krishna Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this e-world, information is growing at an enormous rate due to voluminous amount of data is updated every day on the WWW. Moreover the popularity of web grows immensely as it covers wide spectrum in all domains ranging education, business, health, retail and surveillance. As the web serves as a connected medium to propagate information quickly with less cost, everyone depends on the WWW for retrieving relevant information for strategic decision making as well for their day to day operations. During these information retrieval, most of the users loss temper in navigating more number of links without getting the exact information catering to their needs. These issues create an interest among researchers to work on the area of Web mining. Generally, web mining is categorized into web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. This research work mainly focuses on web structure mining to retrieve the relevant links through frequent pattern analysis and linear correlation method. In this proposed work, based on the user query adjacency matrix is constructed for the extracted documents (links and then parent document(link among these input documents is found out using frequent pattern analysis . Then statistical algorithm based on linear correlation is applied between the parent document and the remaining input document to rank the relevant links. The experimental results revealed that the performance of proposed approach in terms of precision and accuracy is high which improves the quality of search results

  2. Why eat at fast-food restaurants: reported reasons among frequent consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Sarah A; Harnack, Lisa J; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary; Jeffery, Robert W; French, Simone A

    2008-12-01

    A convenience sample of adolescents and adults who regularly eat at fast-food restaurants were recruited to participate in an experimental trial to examine the effect of nutrition labeling on meal choices. As part of this study, participants were asked to indicate how strongly they agreed or disagreed with 11 statements to assess reasons for eating at fast-food restaurants. Logistic regression was conducted to examine whether responses differed by demographic factors. The most frequently reported reasons for eating at fast-food restaurants were: fast food is quick (92%), restaurants are easy to get to (80%), and food tastes good (69%). The least frequently reported reasons were: eating fast food is a way of socializing with family and friends (33%), restaurants have nutritious foods to offer (21%), and restaurants are fun and entertaining (12%). Some differences were found with respect to the demographic factors examined. It appears that in order to reduce fast-food consumption, food and nutrition professionals need to identify alternative quick and convenient food sources. As motivation for eating at fast-food restaurants appears to differ somewhat by age, sex, education, employment status, and household size, tailored interventions could be considered. PMID:19027410

  3. Frequent gain and loss of introns in fungal cytochrome b genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Fen Yin

    Full Text Available In this study, all available cytochrome b (Cyt b genes from the GOBASE database were compiled and the evolutionary dynamics of the Cyt b gene introns was assessed. Cyt b gene introns were frequently present in the fungal kingdom and some lower plants, but generally absent or rare in Chromista, Protozoa, and Animalia. Fungal Cyt b introns were found at 35 positions in Cyt b genes and the number of introns varied at individual positions from a single representative to 32 different introns at position 131, showing a wide and patchy distribution. Many homologous introns were present at the same position in distantly related species but absent in closely related species, suggesting that introns of the Cyt b genes were frequently lost. On the other hand, highly similar intron sequences were observed in some distantly related species rather than in closely related species, suggesting that these introns were gained independently, likely through lateral transfers. The intron loss-and-gain events could be mediated by transpositions that might have occurred between nuclear and mitochondria. Southern hybridization analysis confirmed that some introns contained repetitive sequences and might be transposable elements. An intron gain in Botryotinia fuckeliana prevented the development of QoI fungicide resistance, suggesting that intron loss-and-gain events were not necessarily beneficial to their host organisms.

  4. Relationship between leukocyte population and nutritive conditions in dairy herds with frequently appearing mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomohito; Katsuda, Ken; Matsuda, Kei-ichi; Masui, Machiko; Abe, Ryo; Kawamura, Sei-ichi

    2006-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between cellular immune status and nutritive condition, feeding program, blood profiles, and leukocyte populations were analyzed in two dairy herds experiencing frequent mastitis. Fourteen of the 35 lactating cows in herd A, and 18 of the 50 lactating cows in herd B scored positive on the California Mastitis Test (CMT), and 3 of the 73 lactating cows were CMT positive in herd C, which was the control. All herds were evaluated during five different milking stages, and blood was collected from five cows at each stage. With regard to feed content, the percentages of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) were found to be lower in herds A and B than in herd C. Levels of serum total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen were lower in herds A and B than those in herd C. Neutrophil counts in herds A and B were increased compared to the neutrophil counts in herd C. On the other hand, the numbers of CD3(+) T cells and CD14-MHC class(+) cells were lower in herd A and B than in herd C. A decrease in peripheral lymphocytes and undernourishment were observed in the herds with frequent occurring mastitis. PMID:16520531

  5. Large Scale Frequent Pattern Mining using MPI One-Sided Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, we propose a work-stealing runtime --- Library for Work Stealing LibWS --- using MPI one-sided model for designing scalable FP-Growth --- {\\em de facto} frequent pattern mining algorithm --- on large scale systems. LibWS provides locality efficient and highly scalable work-stealing techniques for load balancing on a variety of data distributions. We also propose a novel communication algorithm for FP-growth data exchange phase, which reduces the communication complexity from state-of-the-art O(p) to O(f + p/f) for p processes and f frequent attributed-ids. FP-Growth is implemented using LibWS and evaluated on several work distributions and support counts. An experimental evaluation of the FP-Growth on LibWS using 4096 processes on an InfiniBand Cluster demonstrates excellent efficiency for several work distributions (87\\% efficiency for Power-law and 91% for Poisson). The proposed distributed FP-Tree merging algorithm provides 38x communication speedup on 4096 cores.

  6. Frequent Statement and Dereference Elimination for Imperative and Object-Oriented Distributed Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Zawawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new approaches for the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination for imperative and object-oriented distributed programs running on parallel machines equipped with hierarchical memories. The paper uses languages whose address spaces are globally partitioned. Distributed programs allow defining data layout and threads writing to and reading from other thread memories. Three type systems (for imperative distributed programs are the tools of the proposed techniques. The first type system defines for every program point a set of calculated (ready statements and memory accesses. The second type system uses an enriched version of types of the first type system and determines which of the ready statements and memory accesses are used later in the program. The third type system uses the information gather so far to eliminate unnecessary statement computations and memory accesses (the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination. Extensions to these type systems are also presented to cover object-oriented distributed programs. Two advantages of our work over related work are the following. The hierarchical style of concurrent parallel computers is similar to the memory model used in this paper. In our approach, each analysis result is assigned a type derivation (serves as a correctness proof.

  7. Basidiobolus haptosporus is frequently associated with the gamasid mite Leptogamasus obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sebastian; Peršoh, Derek; Rambold, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Two species of mites inhabiting a pine forest soil were screened for associated fungi. The fungal community composition was assessed in 49 mite and 19 soil samples by environmental PCR with a focus on fungi of the genus Basidiobolus. PCR products of the fungal ITS rRNA gene were analyzed by sub-cloning, RFLP-analysis, and sequencing. Thereby Basidiobolus haptosporus was found for the first time to be frequently associated with the gamasid mite species Leptogamasus obesus, while being absent from the oribatid mite Oppiella subpectinata, and from the surrounding soil. The fungus was isolated in pure culture for a detailed morphological characterization and experimental approaches concerning the nature of this fungus-mite association. The experiments and a supporting microscopic screening of freshly captured gamasid mites revealed no indications for the fungus being localized in the mites' gut or haemocoel, but a single spore was found attached to an individual of L. obesus. However, an exclusive phoretic association does not satisfactorily explain the frequent detection of B. haptosporus DNA on or in L. obesus, and the absence of the fungus from soil samples seems not to be in line with its assumed ecology as a widespread saprobic soil fungus. Therefore, a second host species in the life cycle of B. haptosporus is discussed as a working hypothesis. PMID:22208604

  8. Concurrent Edge Prevision and Rear Edge Pruning Approach for Frequent Closed Itemset Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Choubey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Past observations have shown that a frequent item set mining algorithm are purported to mine the closed ones because the finish provides a compact and a whole progress set and higher potency. Anyhow, the newest closed item set mining algorithms works with candidate maintenance combined with check paradigm that is pricey in runtime yet as space usage when support threshold is a smaller amount or the item sets gets long. Here, we show, CEG&REP that could be a capable algorithm used for mining closed sequences while not candidate. It implements a completely unique sequence finality verification model by constructing a Graph structure that build by an approach labeled “Concurrent Edge Prevision and Rear Edge Pruning” briefly will refer as CEG&REP. a whole observation having sparse and dense real-life knowledge sets proved that CEG&REP performs bigger compared to older algorithms because it takes low memory and is quicker than any algorithms those cited in literature frequently.

  9. Whole exome analysis identifies frequent CNGA1 mutations in Japanese population with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Katagiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate frequent disease-causing gene mutations in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP in the Japanese population. METHODS: In total, 99 Japanese patients with non-syndromic and unrelated arRP or sporadic RP (spRP were recruited in this study and ophthalmic examinations were conducted for the diagnosis of RP. Among these patients, whole exome sequencing analysis of 30 RP patients and direct sequencing screening of all CNGA1 exons of the other 69 RP patients were performed. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing of 30 arRP/spRP patients identified disease-causing gene mutations of CNGA1 (four patients, EYS (three patients and SAG (one patient in eight patients and potential disease-causing gene variants of USH2A (two patients, EYS (one patient, TULP1 (one patient and C2orf71 (one patient in five patients. Screening of an additional 69 arRP/spRP patients for the CNGA1 gene mutation revealed one patient with a homozygous mutation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first identification of CNGA1 mutations in arRP Japanese patients. The frequency of CNGA1 gene mutation was 5.1% (5/99 patients. CNGA1 mutations are one of the most frequent arRP-causing mutations in Japanese patients.

  10. The Geo Quick Ride (GQR) Program: Providing Inexpensive and Frequent Access to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Robert; Baniszewski, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines piggybacking NASA, university, and industry payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites. NASA's RSDO Office awarded Geo Quick Ride (GQR) study contracts in 1998 to spacecraft manufactures to examine the issues with flying secondary payloads. The study results were very promising. Commercial communication satellites have frequent flights and significant unused resources that could be used to fly secondary payloads. However, manifesting secondary payloads on a commercial revenue-generating satellite is a complex problem to solve. The solution requires multiple simultaneous approaches in order to be successful. There are business, economic, technical, schedule, and organizational issues to be resolved. This paper examines the Geo Quick Ride (GQR) concept, discusses the development issues, and describes how this concept solves many of these issues.

  11. FraudMiner: a novel credit card fraud detection model based on frequent itemset mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeja, K R; Zareapoor, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud) the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced) and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers. PMID:25302317

  12. Incremental frequent tree-structured pattern mining from semi-structured data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Enhong; Lin Le; Wu Gongqing; Wang Shu

    2005-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of incremental pattern mining from semi-structrued data. When a new dataset is added into the original dataset, it is difficult for existing pattern mining algorithms to incrementally update the mined results. To solve the problem, an incremental pattern mining algorithm based on the rightmost expansion technique is proposed here to improve the mining performance by utilizing the original mining results and information obtained in the previous mining process. To improve the efficiency, the algorithm adopts a pruning technique by using the frequent pattern expansion forest obtained in mining processes. Comparative experiments with different volume of initial datasets, incremental datasets and different minimum support thresholds demonstrate that the algorithm has a great improvement in the efficiency compared with that of non-incremental pattern mining algorithm.

  13. FraudMiner: A Novel Credit Card Fraud Detection Model Based on Frequent Itemset Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Seeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study: Nutritional Polyamines in Frequently Consumed Foods of the Turkish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Buyukuslu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are the most abundant polycationic natural amines found in nearly all organisms. They are involved in regulation of gene expression, translation, cell proliferation and differentiation. They can be supplied by the endogenous synthesis inside the cell or by the intake from exogenous sources. There is a growing body of literature associated with the effects of bioactive amines on health and diseases, but limited information about polyamine content in foods is available. In the present study, the polyamine content of frequently consumed foods in a typical Turkish diet was estimated for adults, including tea, bread and yoghurt. The estimation of daily intake was defined as 93,057 nmol/day putrescine, 33,122 nmol/day spermidine, 13,685 nmol/day spermine. The contribution of foods to daily intake was: dairy products (47.32%, vegetables and grains (21.09% and wheat products (12.75%.

  15. Genital lesions after consensual sexual intercourse: They are frequent and they last for several days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lauritsen, Jens; Ravn, Pernille;

    insight into the duration of lesions, frequency of lesions seen with different investigative techniques and to identify pitfalls in the diagnosis of lesions. Materials and Methods: 98 women were examined within 48 hours of consensual sexual intercourse using the naked eye, the colposcope and toluidine......, respectively. The median survival time for lacerations was 24 hours (n=19) seen with the naked eye, 40 hours seen with the colposcope (n=28) and 80 hours seen with toluidine blue dye (n=26). Several important pitfalls in the diagnosis of lesions using the three techniques were identified. We propose a model...... for the interpretation of lesions Conclusions: Lesions are frequently seen after consensual sexual intercourse and they last for several days. Interpretation of genital lesions is not straightforward and care must be taken in both research and praxis to make the right conclusions....

  16. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict maintenance of a frequently repeated behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, A; Conner, M; Bodansky, H J

    2007-03-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behaviour to predict self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes. Sixty-four adult patients with type 1 diabetes completed a questionnaire assessing the variables of the TPB in addition to demographic variables and a measure of conscientiousness. Self-report measures of daily self-monitoring behaviour were obtained for a two-week period. The extended model predicted 46% of the variance in behavioural intention and 57% of variance in self-monitoring behaviour, suggesting that the TPB is able to predict useful levels of variance, comparable to initiation, even in familiar and frequently repeated maintenance behaviours. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:17365901

  17. Frequent use of menfegol spermicidal vaginal foaming tablets associated with a high incidence of genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeman, J; Ndoye, I; Sakho, L M; Mboup, S; Piot, P; Karam, M; Belsey, E; Lange, J M; Laga, M; Perriëns, J H

    1995-06-01

    Menfegol is a spermicide with in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A randomized placebo-controlled safety study covered the use of menfegol foaming tablets for 14 days at increasing frequencies of insertion by 125 prostitutes in Dakar, Senegal. The frequencies of colposcopically diagnosed genital lesions were 5.0%, 11.8%, 27.8%, 49.7%, and 29.4% among menfegol recipients when tablets were used once every other day or 1, 2, 4, or 8 times a day, respectively (P foaming tablets were used more than once daily suggests that their frequent use should not be recommended to prevent HIV transmission. In use at low frequency, the tablets' toxicity might be balanced by anti-HIV properties. Safety studies on vaginal microbicides should use objective methods, such as colposcopy, to assess the incidence of lesions. PMID:7769301

  18. Depressive symptoms are frequent among drug users, but not associated with hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone W; Fabricius, Thilde; Hjerrild, Simon; Hansen, Thomas M; Mössner, Belinda K; Birkemose, Inge; Skamling, Merete; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among drug users with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey study carried out at the 2 major drug treatment centres on the island of Funen, Denmark. Participants were drug users...... presenting to the 2 treatment centres. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus or HIV infection were excluded. Participants completed the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) questionnaire when presenting at the centres. Patients with MDI scores indicating severe depression (total MDI score ≥ 35) were......-infected 35%; p = 0.25). Forty-one percent (11/27) of the evaluated participants started antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among drug users, but this was not more frequent among HCV-infected patients. The high overall prevalence of...

  19. Pair production by Schwinger and Breit-Wheeler processes in bi-frequent fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, A.; Nousch, T.; Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.; Blaschke, D.; Panferov, A. D.; Smolyansky, S. A.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    Counter-propagating and suitably polarized light (laser) beams can provide conditions for pair production. Here, we consider in more detail the following two situations: (i) in the homogeneity regions of anti-nodes of linearly polarized ultra-high intensity laser beams, the Schwinger process is dynamically assisted by a second high-frequency field, e.g. by an XFEL beam; and (ii) a high-energy probe photon beam colliding with a superposition of co-propagating intense laser and XFEL beams gives rise to the laser-assisted Breit-Wheeler process. The prospects of such bi-frequent field constellations with respect to the feasibility of conversion of light into matter are discussed.

  20. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  1. Pair production by Schwinger and Breit-Wheeler processes in bi-frequent fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, A.; Nousch, T.; Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.; Blaschke, D.; Panferov, A. D.; Smolyansky, S. A.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    > Counter-propagating and suitably polarized light (laser) beams can provide conditions for pair production. Here, we consider in more detail the following two situations: (i) in the homogeneity regions of anti-nodes of linearly polarized ultra-high intensity laser beams, the Schwinger process is dynamically assisted by a second high-frequency field, e.g. by an XFEL beam; and (ii) a high-energy probe photon beam colliding with a superposition of co-propagating intense laser and XFEL beams gives rise to the laser-assisted Breit-Wheeler process. The prospects of such bi-frequent field constellations with respect to the feasibility of conversion of light into matter are discussed.

  2. Adverse weather conditions for European wheat production will become more frequent with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Miroslav; Rötter, Reimund P.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita;

    2014-01-01

    Europe is the largest producer of wheat, the second most widely grown cereal crop after rice. The increased occurrence and magnitude of adverse and extreme agroclimatic events are considered a major threat for wheat production. We present an analysis that accounts for a range of adverse weather...... events that might significantly affect wheat yield in Europe. For this purpose we analysed changes in the frequency of the occurrence of 11 adverse weather events. Using climate scenarios based on the most recent ensemble of climate models and greenhouse gases emission estimates, we assessed the...... probability of single and multiple adverse events occurring within one season. We showed that the occurrence of adverse conditions for 14 sites representing the main European wheat-growing areas might substantially increase by 2060 compared to the present (1981–2010). This is likely to result in more frequent...

  3. Stellar spectra association rule mining method based on the weighted frequent pattern tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective extraction of data association rules can provide a reliable basis for classification of stellar spectra. The concept of stellar spectrum weighted itemsets and stellar spectrum weighted association rules are introduced, and the weight of a single property in the stellar spectrum is determined by information entropy. On that basis, a method is presented to mine the association rules of a stellar spectrum based on the weighted frequent pattern tree. Important properties of the spectral line are highlighted using this method. At the same time, the waveform of the whole spectrum is taken into account. The experimental results show that the data association rules of a stellar spectrum mined with this method are consistent with the main features of stellar spectral types. (research papers)

  4. Frequent summer nuptial flights of ants provide a primary food source for bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eran; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Barnea, Anat

    2009-04-01

    In many ant species, nuptial flight tends to be short in time and assumed to be synchronous across a large area. Here, we report that, in the upper Jordan Valley, northern Israel, massive nuptial flights of Carpenter ants ( Camponotus sp.) occur frequently throughout the summer, and their alates form up to 90% of the diet of the greater mouse-tailed bat ( Rhinopoma microphyllum) during this period. This fat and protein-rich diet enables female bats to lactate during summer, and the large amount of fat that both sexes accumulate may serve as an energy source for their following winter hibernation and posthibernation mating in early spring (March-April). We suggest that the annual movement of these bats to the Mediterranean region of Israel may have evolved in order to enable them to exploit the extremely nutritious forms of ant alates when the bats’ energetic demands are highest.

  5. Pair production by Schwinger and Breit-Wheeler processes in bi-frequent fields

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, A; Kämpfer, D Seipt B; Blaschke, D; Panferov, A D; Smolyansky, S A; Titov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Counter-propagating and suitably polarized light (laser) beams can provide conditions for pair production. Here, we consider in more detail the following two situations: (i) In the homogeneity regions of anti-nodes of linearly polarized ultra-high intensity laser beams, the Schwinger process is dynamically assisted by a second high-frequency field, e.g. by a XFEL beam. (ii) A high-energy probe photon beam colliding with a superposition of co-propagating intense laser and XFEL beams gives rise to the laser assisted Breit-Wheeler process. Prospects of such bi-frequent field constellations with respect to the feasibility of conversion of light into matter are discussed.

  6. Frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling genes in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Yaoting; Guo, Guangwu; Huang, Yi;

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer. Here we sequenced the exomes of nine individuals with TCC and screened all the somatically mutated genes in a prevalence set of 88 additional individuals with TCC with different tumor stages and grades. In our study, we...... discovered a variety of genes previously unknown to be mutated in TCC. Notably, we identified genetic aberrations of the chromatin remodeling genes (UTX, MLL-MLL3, CREBBP-EP300, NCOR1, ARID1A and CHD6) in 59% of our 97 subjects with TCC. Of these genes, we showed UTX to be altered substantially more...... frequently in tumors of low stages and grades, highlighting its potential role in the classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. Our results provide an overview of the genetic basis of TCC and suggest that aberration of chromatin regulation might be a hallmark of bladder cancer....

  7. Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) is associated more frequently with epilepsy than major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaler, Arne E; Morken, Gunnar; Iversen, Valentina C; Kondziella, Daniel; Linaker, Olav M

    2010-01-01

    Depressive disorders are frequent in epilepsy and associated with reduced seizure control. Almost 50% of interictal depressive disorders have to be classified as atypical depressions according to DSM-4 criteria. Research has mainly focused on depressive symptoms in defined populations with epilepsy...... (e.g., patients admitted to tertiary epilepsy centers). We have chosen the opposite approach. We hypothesized that it is possible to define by clinical means a subgroup of psychiatric patients with higher than expected prevalence of epilepsy and seizures. We hypothesized further that these patients...... present with an Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) that does not meet DSM-IV criteria of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE). In a previous publication we have documented that AUDS patients indeed have more often a history of epileptic seizures and abnormal EEG recordings than MDE patients (Vaaler et...

  8. Exploration of English Idioms about Fruit and the Frequent Usage in Different Language Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Jiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available English idioms are commonly found in the oral and written English, which are quite vivid, concise and carried with a large amount of information. It makes up the major part of English language. In English idioms, fruit ones are a unique expression, which are widely accepted and applied in the daily life of English-speaking countries and carried with heavy cultural connotations. This study made an exploration of the historical origins of English idioms about fruit based on Greek mythology and Bible of Christianity. Besides, it made a detailed analysis of their frequent usage from the perspective of daily life. With the deeper understanding of culture of English-speaking countries, there will be gradually enhanced skills of interpersonal communication between different cultures.

  9. High frequent modelling of a modular multilevel converter using passive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khatib, Walid Ziad; Holbøll, Joachim; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of High Voltage direct current (HVDC) based on Voltage source converters (VSC) has made it necessary to investigate the behavior of the converter under various fault conditions. In this paper we will deal with the transient characteristics of a modular multilevel converter (MMC). This...... plant using HVDC fundamentally changes the electrical environment for the power plant. Detailed knowledge and understanding of the characteristics and behavior of all relevant power system components under all conditions, including under transients, are required in order to develop reliable offshore...... wind power plant employing HVDC. In the present study, a back to back HVDC transmission system is designed in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulations and results showing the importance of high frequent modeling are presented....

  10. [Is human Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens parasitosis mor frequent than it appears on the Mediterranean coast?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, A; Lauraire, M C; Eglin, G

    1995-01-01

    Some observations of human parasitism by Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens are frequently enough reported but they are also individually reported by different authors. Nïmes's geographical situation makes of it a privileged observatory for this helminthiasis. The worm's maturity varies depending on the subjects: the sensitivity of those and the clinical reactions are of a large variety. The ones that seem to be constant are the parasit's migrations in the different territories during a lot of months. It is the case in the observation reported here; in another article, we have shown the possibility of an intraperitoneal migration which discovery can be only of an extreme fate. Next to some noisy manifestations, other cases stayed quiet advise the adaptation of some autochtones submissed to iteratif infestations. PMID:8555774

  11. Efficient Realization of Frequently Used Bijections on Cube—Connected Cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 刘群; 等

    1995-01-01

    CCC has lower hardware complexity than hypercube and is suited for current VLSI technology.LC-permutations are a large set of important permutations frequently used in various parallel computations.Existing routing algorithms for CCC cannot realize LC-permutations without network conflict.We present an algorithm to realize LC-permutations on CCC.The algorithm consists of two periods of inter-cycle transmissions and one period of inner-cycle transmissions.In the inter-cycle transmissions the dimensional links of CCC are used in a “pipeline” manner and in the inner-cycle transmissions the data packets are sorted by a part of its destination address.The algorithm is fast (O(log2N)) and no conflict will occur.

  12. Construction of Learning Path Using Ant Colony Optimization from a Frequent Pattern Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Souvik; Dasgupta, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    In an e-Learning system a learner may come across multiple unknown terms, which are generally hyperlinked, while reading a text definition or theory on any topic. It becomes even harder when one tries to understand those unknown terms through further such links and they again find some new terms that have new links. As a consequence they get confused where to initiate from and what are the prerequisites. So it is very obvious for the learner to make a choice of what should be learnt before what. In this paper we have taken the data mining based frequent pattern graph model to define the association and sequencing between the words and then adopted the Ant Colony Optimization, an artificial intelligence approach, to derive a searching technique to obtain an efficient and optimized learning path to reach to a unknown term.

  13. Epigenetic silencing of miR-137 is a frequent event in gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steponaitiene, Ruta; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Langner, Cosima; Balaguer, Francesc; Venclauskas, Linas; Pauzas, Henrikas; Tamelis, Algimantas; Skieceviciene, Jurgita; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Link, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and are dysregulated during carcinogenesis. CpG island methylation of miR-137 is a common event in different cancers; however, the role of miR-137 in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unexplored. In this study we aimed to characterize the epigenetic alterations of miR-137 in gastric carcinogenesis. We analyzed total 295 tissues including paired primary gastric cancer (T-GC) with corresponding adjacent gastric mucosa (N-GC), paired primary colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues with corresponding non-tumorous mucosa, gastric tissues from controls (N), and patients with chronic/atrophic gastritis (CG) with and without Helicobacter pylori infection. Bisulfite pyrosequencing and TaqMan RT-PCR were used to analyze miR-137 methylation and expression, respectively. Survival differences were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. miR-137 CpG island methylation was more frequent in tumorous compared to non-tumorous conditions and higher in CRC than in GC. In comparison to N-GC, miR 137 methylation level was lower in N and CG tissues, which correlates with Correas cascade. MiR-137 methylation inversely correlates with global LINE-1 methylation and miR-137 expression. miR-137 methylation was higher in intestinal type GC compared to diffuse one, and higher in antrum compared to cardia and corpus, however, miR-137 methylation was associated with worse prognosis in diffuse, but not in intestinal type of GC. The expression in colon was significantly higher compared to any gastric tissues suggesting functional difference. In summary, miR-137 methylation is a frequent event in gastrointestinal cancers which occurs early in stepwise manner during gastric carcinogenesis and inversely correlates with global methylation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25663388

  14. Frequent attenders in general practice: problem solving treatment provided by nurses [ISRCTN51021015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for assistance from primary care mental health workers in general practice in the Netherlands. General practitioners (GPs experience an overload of frequent attenders suffering from psychological problems. Problem Solving Treatment (PST is a brief psychological treatment tailored for use in a primary care setting. PST is provided by nurses, and earlier research has shown that it is a treatment at least as effective as usual care. However, research outcomes are not totally satisfying. This protocol describes a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of PST provided by nurses for patients in general practice. The results of this study, which currently being carried out, will be presented as soon as they are available. Methods/design This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PST and usual care compared to usual care only. Patients, 18 years and older, who present psychological problems and are frequent attenders in general practice are recruited by the research assistant. The participants receive questionnaires at baseline, after the intervention, and again after 3 months and 9 months. Primary outcome is the reduction of symptoms, and other outcomes measured are improvement in problem solving skills, psychological and physical well being, daily functioning, social support, coping styles, problem evaluation and health care utilization. Discussion Our results may either confirm that PST in primary care is an effective way of dealing with emotional disorders and a promising addition to the primary care in the UK and USA, or may question this assumption. This trial will allow an evaluation of the effects of PST in practical circumstances and in a rather heterogeneous group of primary care patients. This study delivers scientific support for this use and therefore indications for optimal treatment and referral.

  15. Distance-based identification of structure motifs in proteins using constrained frequent subgraph mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Jun; Bandyopadhyay, Deepak; Prins, Jan; Snoeyink, Jack; Tropsha, Alexander; Wang, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Structure motifs are amino acid packing patterns that occur frequently within a set of protein structures. We define a labeled graph representation of protein structure in which vertices correspond to amino acid residues and edges connect pairs of residues and are labeled by (1) the Euclidian distance between the C(alpha) atoms of the two residues and (2) a boolean indicating whether the two residues are in physical/chemical contact. Using this representation, a structure motif corresponds to a labeled clique that occurs frequently among the graphs representing the protein structures. The pairwise distance constraints on each edge in a clique serve to limit the variation in geometry among different occurrences of a structure motif. We present an efficient constrained subgraph mining algorithm to discover structure motifs in this setting. Compared with contact graph representations, the number of spurious structure motifs is greatly reduced. Using this algorithm, structure motifs were located for several SCOP families including the Eukaryotic Serine Proteases, Nuclear Binding Domains, Papain-like Cysteine Proteases, and FAD/NAD-linked Reductases. For each family, we typically obtain a handful of motifs within seconds of processing time. The occurrences of these motifs throughout the PDB were strongly associated with the original SCOP family, as measured using a hyper-geometric distribution. The motifs were found to cover functionally important sites like the catalytic triad for Serine Proteases and co-factor binding sites for Nuclear Binding Domains. The fact that many motifs are highly family-specific can be used to classify new proteins or to provide functional annotation in Structural Genomics Projects. PMID:17369641

  16. Extensive antibiotic prescription rate among hospitalized patients in Uganda: but with frequent missed-dose days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguba, Ronald; Karamagi, Charles; Bird, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the patterns of systemic antibiotic use and missed-dose days and detail the prescription, dispensing and administration of frequently used hospital-initiated antibiotics among Ugandan inpatients. Methods This was a prospective cohort of consented adult inpatients admitted on the medical and gynaecological wards of the 1790 bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Results Overall, 79% (603/762; 95% CI: 76%–82%) of inpatients received at least one antibiotic during hospitalization while 39% (300/762; 95% CI: 36%–43%) had used at least one antibiotic in the 4 weeks pre-admission; 1985 antibiotic DDDs, half administered parenterally, were consumed in 3741 inpatient-days. Two-fifths of inpatients who received at least one of the five frequently used hospital-initiated antibiotics (ceftriaxone, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin and azithromycin) missed at least one antibiotic dose-day (44%, 243/558). The per-day risk of missed antibiotic administration was greatest on day 1: ceftriaxone (36%, 143/398), metronidazole (27%, 67/245), ciprofloxacin (34%, 39/114) and all inpatients who missed at least one dose-day of prescribed amoxicillin and azithromycin. Most patients received fewer doses than were prescribed: ceftriaxone (74%, 273/371), ciprofloxacin (90%, 94/105) and metronidazole (97%, 222/230). Of prescribed doses, only 62% of ceftriaxone doses (1178/1895), 35% of ciprofloxacin doses (396/1130) and 27% of metronidazole doses (1043/3862) were administered. Seven percent (13/188) of patients on intravenous metronidazole and 6% (5/87) on intravenous ciprofloxacin switched to oral route. Conclusions High rates of antibiotic use both pre-admission and during hospitalization were observed, with low parenteral/oral switch of hospital-initiated antibiotics. Underadministration of prescribed antibiotics was common, especially on the day of prescription, risking loss of efficacy and antibiotic resistance. PMID:26945712

  17. Exome Sequencing of Uterine Leiomyosarcomas Identifies Frequent Mutations in TP53, ATRX, and MED12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netta Mäkinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMSs are aggressive smooth muscle tumors associated with poor clinical outcome. Despite previous cytogenetic and molecular studies, their molecular background has remained elusive. To examine somatic variation in ULMS, we performed exome sequencing on 19 tumors. Altogether, 43 genes were mutated in at least two ULMSs. Most frequently mutated genes included tumor protein P53 (TP53; 6/19; 33%, alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX; 5/19; 26%, and mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12; 4/19; 21%. Unlike ATRX mutations, both TP53 and MED12 alterations have repeatedly been associated with ULMSs. All the observed ATRX alterations were either nonsense or frameshift mutations. ATRX protein levels were reliably analyzed by immunohistochemistry in altogether 44 ULMSs, and the majority of tumors (23/44; 52% showed clearly reduced expression. Loss of ATRX expression has been associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT, and thus the telomere length was analyzed with telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization. The ALT phenotype was confirmed in all ULMSs showing diminished ATRX expression. Exome data also revealed one nonsense mutation in death-domain associated protein (DAXX, another gene previously associated with ALT, and the tumor showed ALT positivity. In conclusion, exome sequencing revealed that TP53, ATRX, and MED12 are frequently mutated in ULMSs. ALT phenotype was commonly seen in tumors, indicating that ATR inhibitors, which were recently suggested as possible new drugs for ATRX-deficient tumors, could provide a potential novel therapeutic option for ULMS.

  18. Exome Sequencing of Uterine Leiomyosarcomas Identifies Frequent Mutations in TP53, ATRX, and MED12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Netta; Aavikko, Mervi; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Taipale, Minna; Taipale, Jussi; Koivisto-Korander, Riitta; Bützow, Ralf; Vahteristo, Pia

    2016-02-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMSs) are aggressive smooth muscle tumors associated with poor clinical outcome. Despite previous cytogenetic and molecular studies, their molecular background has remained elusive. To examine somatic variation in ULMS, we performed exome sequencing on 19 tumors. Altogether, 43 genes were mutated in at least two ULMSs. Most frequently mutated genes included tumor protein P53 (TP53; 6/19; 33%), alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX; 5/19; 26%), and mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12; 4/19; 21%). Unlike ATRX mutations, both TP53 and MED12 alterations have repeatedly been associated with ULMSs. All the observed ATRX alterations were either nonsense or frameshift mutations. ATRX protein levels were reliably analyzed by immunohistochemistry in altogether 44 ULMSs, and the majority of tumors (23/44; 52%) showed clearly reduced expression. Loss of ATRX expression has been associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), and thus the telomere length was analyzed with telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization. The ALT phenotype was confirmed in all ULMSs showing diminished ATRX expression. Exome data also revealed one nonsense mutation in death-domain associated protein (DAXX), another gene previously associated with ALT, and the tumor showed ALT positivity. In conclusion, exome sequencing revealed that TP53, ATRX, and MED12 are frequently mutated in ULMSs. ALT phenotype was commonly seen in tumors, indicating that ATR inhibitors, which were recently suggested as possible new drugs for ATRX-deficient tumors, could provide a potential novel therapeutic option for ULMS. PMID:26891131

  19. The Most Frequent Herbs Proposed by Iranian Traditional Medicine for Alopecia Areata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezghi, Maedeh; Fahimi, Shirin; Zakerin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common immune-mediated hair loss disorder. AA has a reported incidence of 0.1-0.2% with a lifetime risk of 1.7%. Histologically, AA is characterized by the accumulation of mononuclear cells around the bulb of the affected hair follicles. Corticosteroids are the most popular drugs for the treatment of this disease. Despite its high prevalence, currently available treatments are mostly unsatisfactory and inefficient for the more chronic and severe types of the AA. Alopecia areata is a well-known disorder in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). “Da oth-tha,lab” was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate AA. Traditional Iranian physicians believed that the presence of morbid matter in the scalps is the main cause of the disease, which blocks nutrients and causes hair roots to deteriorate. Herbal medicines in the form of topical preparations were applied by ITM scholars for the treatment of AA. This study was performed to determine the most frequent useful herbs for AA as mentioned in ITM. Methods: Seven ITM references such as Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo,men tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi,i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi) and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar) were studied for anti-AA medicines. Subsequent to our study, the herbal medicines were listed and scored based on the frequency of their prescriptibility. Moreover, we took the effort to provide the best scientific name for each plant. Results: This study showed that Allium cepa L., Artemisia abrotonon L., Allium sativum L., and Asphodelus ramosus L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM references for the recovery of AA. Conclusion: These herbs can be introduced as new herbal medicines for clinical research in the field of alopecia areata treatment.

  20. Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela López-Villavicencio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Population models of host-parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use

  1. Is the Field of Numbers a Real Physical Field? On the Frequent Distribution and Masses of the Elementary Patricles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the fractions of integers (rational numbers, local maxima which meet the ratios of masses of the elementary particles have been found.

  2. Carriage of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria on Frequently Contacted Surfaces and Hands of Health Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalachy, Sowndarya; Kopula, Sridharan Sathyamoorthy; Sekar, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maximal contact between the patients and Health Care Workers (HCWs) happens in the Intensive Care Units (ICU). Control of nosocomial infections requires compliance with hand hygiene and contamination free surfaces. Aim To determine the colonization of potential pathogens in the hands of HCWs and frequent contacted environmental surfaces. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between September 2012 and May 2013 at Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital. A total of 327 samples were collected using Glove juice technique from hands and swabs from frequently contacted surfaces. A sum of 157 samples were collected by glove juice technique from the hands of HCWs which included Consultants (20), Internees (3), Residents (10), Staff nurse (102) and support staff (22). A total of 170 samples were collected through swabbing which included frequently touched surfaces of apron and dress (140 which included 10 consultants, 3 internees, 9 Residents, 101 Staff nurse and 17 support staff), 9 door handle, 4 key board, 12 tap handles and 5 monitors. The samples were inoculated into Blood agar, Chocolate agar and Mac-Conkey agar plates and incubated at 370C aerobically. The plates showing growth were further processed to identify the organisms by Gram staining and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for the isolates by Kirby-baur disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. Results Out of the 157 hand sampling done by glove juice method 67(42.7%) of them showed growth and 90(57.3%) showed no growth. The potential pathogens grown were 13 (8.3%), consisting of Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) 6(3.8%), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 2(1.3%), Pseudomonas spp 4(2.6%) and Acenitobacter spp 1 (0.6%). The MRSA was seen in Consultant 1(5%; n=20) and Staff nurse 1(0.9%; n= 102). Among the 140 sampling from the dress of HCWs growth was observed in 69(49.3%) and growth was absent in 71

  3. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  4. SISTEM REKOMENDASI INDEKS WEB DENGAN METODE FREQUENT TERMS BERBASIS MULTI INSTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlis Herumurti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Web index page is well known as page that arranges information by giving the title and short explanation about the information, where the complete information will be presented in other page. However since the amount of information become accumulate, the existence of a lot of index page exactly cause difficulty on getting information because it is possible to direct users into a mount of irrelevant information. Without a system which can help user navigation, the process of seeking the expected information is equal to a trial and error processing. In this paper, web index recommendation system is investigated which involved the activity of user on accessing the index page. This system will arrange the frequent term in index page and then implement Multi Instance Learning to give recommendation of the new index page automatically. The algorithm is citation kNN that will be adapted into fretCit kNN by implementing the minimal Hausdorff distance in measuring the distance. The experiments show that from the several test of users, the system give performance in average recommendation until 82,41% accuracy with 66,71% recall. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Halaman indeks dikenal sebagai halaman yang mengelompokkan informasi-informasi, dengan memberikan judul serta penjelasan singkat tentang suatu informasi, dimana informasi lengkap akan dipresentasikan pada halaman-halaman lain. Namun dengan ketersediaan informasi yang menjadi semakin menumpuk, keberadaan halaman indeks yang semakin banyak justru menyebabkan kesulitan dalam mendapatkan informasi karena mungkin akan mengarahkan pada banyak informasi yang tidak relevan. Tanpa adanya sebuah sistem yang dapat membantu navigasi user, untuk mencari informasi yang diinginkan sama saja dengan sebuah kegiatan trial dan error. Dalam penelitian ini, dirancang sebuah sistem rekomendasi indeks web yang melibatkan aktifitas user dalam mengakses halaman indeks. Sistem ini mengelompokkan frequent terms pada halaman

  5. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Li, Wei [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Mei-Zhen [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Xu, Xiao-Yun [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Ou-Ping, E-mail: huangouping@gmail.com [Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: jxhm56@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Nanchang University School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  6. Innovative High-Accuracy Lidar Bathymetric Technique for the Frequent Measurement of River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, A.; Crowley, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Thompson, G. S.; Barton-Grimley, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar (light detection and ranging) provides absolute depth and topographic mapping capability compared to other remote sensing methods, which is useful for mapping rapidly changing environments such as riverine systems. Effectiveness of current lidar bathymetric systems is limited by the difficulty in unambiguously identifying backscattered lidar signals from the water surface versus the bottom, limiting their depth resolution to 0.3-0.5 m. Additionally these are large, bulky systems that are constrained to expensive aircraft-mounted platforms and use waveform-processing techniques requiring substantial computation time. These restrictions are prohibitive for many potential users. A novel lidar device has been developed that allows for non-contact measurements of water depth down to 1 cm with an accuracy and precision of lidar bathymetric systems, which provides for potential applications currently unavailable to the community. The high laser pulse repetition rate allows for very fine horizontal resolution while the photon-counting technique permits real-time depth measurement and object detection. The enhanced measurement capability, portability, scalability, and relatively low-cost creates the opportunity to perform frequent high-accuracy monitoring and measuring of aquatic environments which is crucial for understanding how rivers evolve over many timescales. Results from recent campaigns measuring water depth in flowing creeks and murky ponds will be presented which demonstrate that the method is not limited by rough water surfaces and can map underwater topology through moderately turbid water.

  7. Factors Influencing Electronic Government Adoption Perspectives Of Less Frequent Internet Users Of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Alam Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much literature on electronic government services research could be found on adoptability issues from government and service providers point of view. Many studies have looked into adoptability factors from user perspectives and majority captured adoptability perspectives of frequent Internet users the ones who use Internet applications for more than 10 hours a week. On the contrary the perspectives of majority of Pakistani users which use Internet applications for less than 10 hours per week are never inquired. This paper tries to fill this gap by looking into electronic government adoptability perspectives and expectations of such Internet users of Pakistan which are much greater in numbers than others. An amended UTAUT model with all its moderators is used in this study and the results demonstrate that performance level ease of effort and social influence strongly effect behavioral intention of users in using electronic government services in Pakistan. The individuals behavioral intention along with presence of appropriate facilitating conditions triggers use behavior of users. The results show that only gender moderates majority of UTAUT relationships and accordingly a modified UTAUT model is presented. The paper provides certain insights for people making policies and academicians for performing further research while it stresses for service proliferation with special attention towards female population.

  8. [Care for the elderly with frequent falls: the fall clinic in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen, the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, M; Vet-Heijne, F

    2005-09-01

    A fall-clinic forms part of the fall-prevention program in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. In this paper it is explained how elderly who are prone to falling are examined in the fall-clinic to find the underlying cause of their fall problem. The complete examination is termed the fall-risk analysis (FRA). In a six year period 121 elderly visited the fall-clinic. On average they were 78 +/- 8 years of age (mean +/- standarddeviation) and 76% was female. An insufficient muscle force of the hip flexors was the most prominent limitation that could be related to the increased fall risk. Based on the FRA on average 4.3 +/- 1.7 actions were proposed, where a referral to a specialist or physical therapist was most frequently proposed. The fall-clinic is integrated into existing structures of the Dutch health care services. Additional attention is given to case finding by means of district-nurses and family physicians. In this way a highly qualitative health care chain is being created for the falling elderly. PMID:16194064

  9. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-04-25

    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending ~20 m towards the wave trough and descending from the wave crest. At the trough, the downward displacement of upper waters and the upward migration of fish created an overlapping zone. Near-bottom fish correspondingly left the benthic boundary zone at the wave trough, ascending into an acoustic scattering layer likely consisting of zooplankton and then descending to the benthic boundary zone at the wave crest. We suggest that this vertical fish migration is a response to fluctuations in light intensity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude caused by shading from a turbid surface layer that had chlorophyll a values of 3 to 4 mg m−3 and varied in thickness from ~15 to 50 m at a temporal scale corresponding to the internal wave period (30 min). This migration frequency thus is much higher than that of the common and widespread light-associated diel vertical migration. Vertical movements affect prey encounters, growth, and survival. We hypothesize that FVM increase the likelihood of prey encounters and the time for safe visual foraging among planktivorous fish, thereby contributing to efficient trophic transfer in major upwelling areas.

  10. Skin collagen reproduction increased by ascorbic acid derivative iontophoresis by frequent-reversal bipolar electric stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yusuke; Akimoto, Ryuji; Hori, Akiko; Kato, Katsuhiko; Chino, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Shohei; Kamiya, Shohei; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the iontophoresis of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C; VC) derivative with frequent-reversal bipolar electric stimulation on the production of collagen in rat skin was evaluated in terms of hydroxyproline content through high-performance liquid chromatography. First, a control group was not given electrical stimulation and four groups were stimulated with a unipolar pulse for 0.5-10 min every day for one week. The hydroxyproline level in the skin was increased depending on the length of the stimulation. Second, a control group was not given any electrical stimulation, and three groups were treated with (a) VC solution without any stimulation, (b) a bipolar pulse for 10 min with saline, or (c) a bipolar pulse for 5 min with the VC solution. Significant increases were found in all the stimulation groups, although these treated with the VC solution without any stimulation did not have any effects compared to the control. Thus, in order to increase the hydroxyproline levels in skin, a VC must be delivered with bipolar stimulation as a method of iontophoresis. These results suggest that our newly developed electric stimulation is effective at increasing skin collagen content, and that bipolar stimulation is more effective on the iontophoresis of not only VC but also some medicines such as low- and high-molecular drugs directed to the target organ (7). PMID:19691937

  11. Frequent and simultaneous epigenetic inactivation of TP53 pathway genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Vilas-Zornoza

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation is one of the most frequent alterations in patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL. Using methylation bead arrays we analyzed the methylation status of 807 genes implicated in cancer in a group of ALL samples at diagnosis (n = 48. We found that 154 genes were methylated in more than 10% of ALL samples. Interestingly, the expression of 13 genes implicated in the TP53 pathway was downregulated by hypermethylation. Direct or indirect activation of TP53 pathway with 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine, Curcumin or Nutlin-3 induced an increase in apoptosis of ALL cells. The results obtained with the initial group of 48 patients was validated retrospectively in a second cohort of 200 newly diagnosed ALL patients. Methylation of at least 1 of the 13 genes implicated in the TP53 pathway was observed in 78% of the patients, which significantly correlated with a higher relapse (p = 0.001 and mortality (p<0.001 rate being an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS (p = 0.006 and overall survival (OS (p = 0.005 in the multivariate analysis. All these findings indicate that TP53 pathway is altered by epigenetic mechanisms in the majority of ALL patients and correlates with prognosis. Treatments with compounds that may reverse the epigenetic abnormalities or activate directly the p53 pathway represent a new therapeutic alternative for patients with ALL.

  12. Rapid expansion of preexisting nonleukemic hematopoietic clones frequently follows induction therapy for de novo AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terrence N; Miller, Christopher A; Klco, Jeffery M; Petti, Allegra; Demeter, Ryan; Helton, Nichole M; Li, Tiandao; Fulton, Robert S; Heath, Sharon E; Mardis, Elaine R; Westervelt, Peter; DiPersio, John F; Walter, Matthew J; Welch, John S; Graubert, Timothy A; Wilson, Richard K; Ley, Timothy J; Link, Daniel C

    2016-02-18

    There is interest in using leukemia-gene panels and next-generation sequencing to assess acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) response to induction chemotherapy. Studies have shown that patients with AML in morphologic remission may continue to have clonal hematopoiesis with populations closely related to the founding AML clone and that this confers an increased risk of relapse. However, it remains unknown how induction chemotherapy influences the clonal evolution of a patient's nonleukemic hematopoietic population. Here, we report that 5 of 15 patients with genetic clearance of their founding AML clone after induction chemotherapy had a concomitant expansion of a hematopoietic population unrelated to the initial AML. These populations frequently harbored somatic mutations in genes recurrently mutated in AML or myelodysplastic syndromes and were detectable at very low frequencies at the time of AML diagnosis. These results suggest that nonleukemic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, harboring specific aging-acquired mutations, may have a competitive fitness advantage after induction chemotherapy, expand, and persist long after the completion of chemotherapy. Although the clinical importance of these "rising" clones remains to be determined, it will be important to distinguish them from leukemia-related populations when assessing for molecular responses to induction chemotherapy. PMID:26631115

  13. Immortal Time Bias: A Frequently Unrecognized Threat to Validity in the Evaluation of Postoperative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of immortal time bias on observational cohort studies of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and the effectiveness of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias. Methods and Materials: First, we reviewed previous studies of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to determine how frequently this bias was considered. Second, we used SEER to select three tumor types (glioblastoma multiforme, Stage IA–IVM0 gastric adenocarcinoma, and Stage II–III rectal carcinoma) for which prospective trials demonstrated an improvement in survival associated with PORT. For each tumor type, we calculated conditional survivals and adjusted hazard ratios of PORT vs. postoperative observation cohorts while restricting the sample at sequential monthly landmarks. Results: Sixty-two percent of previous SEER publications evaluating PORT failed to use a landmark analysis. As expected, delivery of PORT for all three tumor types was associated with improved survival, with the largest associated benefit favoring PORT when all patients were included regardless of survival. Preselecting a cohort with a longer minimum survival sequentially diminished the apparent benefit of PORT. Conclusions: Although the majority of previous SEER articles do not correct for it, immortal time bias leads to altered estimates of PORT effectiveness, which are very sensitive to landmark selection. We suggest the routine use of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias.

  14. SUSD2 is frequently downregulated and functions as a tumor suppressor in RCC and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yingying; Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Pingzhang; Li, Ting; Hu, Fengzhan; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jun; Xu, Tao; Han, Wenling

    2016-07-01

    Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2) is type I membrane protein containing domains inherent to adhesion molecules. There have been few reported studies on SUSD2, and they have mainly focused on breast cancer, colon cancer, and HeLa cells. However, the expression and function of SUSD2 in other cancers remain unclear. In the present study, we conducted an integrated bioinformatics analysis based on the array data from the GEO database and found a significant downregulation of SUSD2 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and lung cancer. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed that SUSD2 was frequently decreased in RCC and lung cancer tissues compared with the corresponding levels in normal adjacent tissues. The restoration of SUSD2 expression inhibited the proliferation and clonogenicity of RCC and lung cancer cells, whereas the knockdown of SUSD2 promoted A549 cell growth. Our findings suggested that SUSD2 functions as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in RCC and lung cancer. PMID:26815503

  15. DeBi: Discovering Differentially Expressed Biclusters using a Frequent Itemset Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingron Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of massive high throughput data via clustering algorithms is very important for elucidating gene functions in biological systems. However, traditional clustering methods have several drawbacks. Biclustering overcomes these limitations by grouping genes and samples simultaneously. It discovers subsets of genes that are co-expressed in certain samples. Recent studies showed that biclustering has a great potential in detecting marker genes that are associated with certain tissues or diseases. Several biclustering algorithms have been proposed. However, it is still a challenge to find biclusters that are significant based on biological validation measures. Besides that, there is a need for a biclustering algorithm that is capable of analyzing very large datasets in reasonable time. Results Here we present a fast biclustering algorithm called DeBi (Differentially Expressed BIclusters. The algorithm is based on a well known data mining approach called frequent itemset. It discovers maximum size homogeneous biclusters in which each gene is strongly associated with a subset of samples. We evaluate the performance of DeBi on a yeast dataset, on synthetic datasets and on human datasets. Conclusions We demonstrate that the DeBi algorithm provides functionally more coherent gene sets compared to standard clustering or biclustering algorithms using biological validation measures such as Gene Ontology term and Transcription Factor Binding Site enrichment. We show that DeBi is a computationally efficient and powerful tool in analyzing large datasets. The method is also applicable on multiple gene expression datasets coming from different labs or platforms.

  16. Frequently updated noise threat maps created with use of supercomputing grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczodrak Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative supercomputing grid services devoted to noise threat evaluation were presented. The services described in this paper concern two issues, first is related to the noise mapping, while the second one focuses on assessment of the noise dose and its influence on the human hearing system. The discussed serviceswere developed within the PL-Grid Plus Infrastructure which accumulates Polish academic supercomputer centers. Selected experimental results achieved by the usage of the services proposed were presented. The assessment of the environmental noise threats includes creation of the noise maps using either ofline or online data, acquired through a grid of the monitoring stations. A concept of estimation of the source model parameters based on the measured sound level for the purpose of creating frequently updated noise maps was presented. Connecting the noise mapping grid service with a distributed sensor network enables to automatically update noise maps for a specified time period. Moreover, a unique attribute of the developed software is the estimation of the auditory effects evoked by the exposure to noise. The estimation method uses a modified psychoacoustic model of hearing and is based on the calculated noise level values and on the given exposure period. Potential use scenarios of the grid services for research or educational purpose were introduced. Presentation of the results of predicted hearing threshold shift caused by exposure to excessive noise can raise the public awareness of the noise threats.

  17. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdal, Silje; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2009-07-01

    The herbal remedies Natto K2, Agaricus, mistletoe, noni juice, green tea and garlic, frequently used by cancer patients, were investigated for their in vitro inhibition potential of cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism. To our knowledge, only garlic and green tea had available data on the possible inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Metabolic studies were performed with human c-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4. Testosterone was used as a substrate and ketoconazole as a positive quantitative inhibition control. The formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone was quantified by a validated HPLC methodology. Green tea was the most potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 metabolism (IC(50): 73 microg/mL), followed by Agaricus, mistletoe and noni juice (1324, 3594, >10 000 microg/mL, respectively). All IC(50) values were high compared with those determined for crude extracts of other herbal remedies. The IC(50)/IC(25) ratios for the inhibiting herbal remedies ranged from 2.15 to 2.67, indicating similar inhibition profiles of the herbal inhibitors of CYP3A4. Garlic and Natto K2 were classified as non-inhibitors. Although Agaricus, noni juice, mistletoe and green tea inhibited CYP3A4 metabolism in vitro, clinically relevant systemic or intestinal interactions with CYP3A4 were considered unlikely, except for a probable inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 by the green tea product. PMID:19170155

  18. Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region are frequent in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sunesh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is known for high mutation rates caused by lack of protective histones, inefficient DNA repair systems, and continuous exposure to mutagenic effects of oxygen radicals. Alterations in the non-coding displacement (D loop of mitochondrial DNA are present in many cancers. It has been suggested that the extent of mitochondrial DNA mutations might be useful in the prognosis of cancer outcome and/or the response to certain therapies. In order to investigate whether a high incidence of mutations exist in mitochondrial DNA of cervical cancer patients, we examined the frequency of mutations in the D-loop region in 19 patients of cervical cancer. Results Mutations, often multiple, were detected in 18 of 19 (95% patients. The presence of mutations correlated with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection in these patients. Mutations were also detected in normal samples and lymphocytes obtained from cervical cancer patients, but their frequency of occurrence was much lower as compared to the cervical cancer tissues. Conclusion Our findings indicate that D-loop alterations are frequent in cervical cancers and are possibly caused by HPV infection. There was no association of mtDNA D-loop mutations with the histopathological grade and tumor staging.

  19. Identification of Small-Molecule Frequent Hitters of Glutathione S-Transferase-Glutathione Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenke, Jara K; Salmina, Elena S; Ringelstetter, Larissa; Dornauer, Scarlett; Kuzikov, Maria; Rothenaigner, Ina; Schorpp, Kenji; Giehler, Fabian; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Kieser, Arnd; Gul, Sheraz; Tetko, Igor V; Hadian, Kamyar

    2016-07-01

    In high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns, the binding of glutathione S-transferase (GST) to glutathione (GSH) is used for detection of GST-tagged proteins in protein-protein interactions or enzyme assays. However, many false-positives, so-called frequent hitters (FH), arise that either prevent GST/GSH interaction or interfere with assay signal generation or detection. To identify GST-FH compounds, we analyzed the data of five independent AlphaScreen-based screening campaigns to classify compounds that inhibit the GST/GSH interaction. We identified 53 compounds affecting GST/GSH binding but not influencing His-tag/Ni(2+)-NTA interaction and general AlphaScreen signals. The structures of these 53 experimentally identified GST-FHs were analyzed in chemoinformatic studies to categorize substructural features that promote interference with GST/GSH binding. Here, we confirmed several existing chemoinformatic filters and more importantly extended them as well as added novel filters that specify compounds with anti-GST/GSH activity. Selected compounds were also tested using different antibody-based GST detection technologies and exhibited no interference clearly demonstrating specificity toward their GST/GSH interaction. Thus, these newly described GST-FH will further contribute to the identification of FH compounds containing promiscuous substructures. The developed filters were uploaded to the OCHEM website (http://ochem.eu) and are publicly accessible for analysis of future HTS results. PMID:27044684

  20. Frequent fires in ancient shrub tundra: implications of paleorecords for arctic environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, Philip E; Brubaker, Linda B; Anderson, Patricia M; Brown, Thomas A; Kennedy, Alison T; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Understanding feedbacks between terrestrial and atmospheric systems is vital for predicting the consequences of global change, particularly in the rapidly changing Arctic. Fire is a key process in this context, but the consequences of altered fire regimes in tundra ecosystems are rarely considered, largely because tundra fires occur infrequently on the modern landscape. We present paleoecological data that indicate frequent tundra fires in northcentral Alaska between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago. Charcoal and pollen from lake sediments reveal that ancient birch-dominated shrub tundra burned as often as modern boreal forests in the region, every 144 years on average (+/- 90 s.d.; n = 44). Although paleoclimate interpretations and data from modern tundra fires suggest that increased burning was aided by low effective moisture, vegetation cover clearly played a critical role in facilitating the paleofires by creating an abundance of fine fuels. These records suggest that greater fire activity will likely accompany temperature-related increases in shrub-dominated tundra predicted for the 21(st) century and beyond. Increased tundra burning will have broad impacts on physical and biological systems as well as on land-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic, including the potential to release stored organic carbon to the atmosphere. PMID:18320025

  1. Frequent fires in ancient shrub tundra: implications of paleorecords for arctic environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E Higuera

    Full Text Available Understanding feedbacks between terrestrial and atmospheric systems is vital for predicting the consequences of global change, particularly in the rapidly changing Arctic. Fire is a key process in this context, but the consequences of altered fire regimes in tundra ecosystems are rarely considered, largely because tundra fires occur infrequently on the modern landscape. We present paleoecological data that indicate frequent tundra fires in northcentral Alaska between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago. Charcoal and pollen from lake sediments reveal that ancient birch-dominated shrub tundra burned as often as modern boreal forests in the region, every 144 years on average (+/- 90 s.d.; n = 44. Although paleoclimate interpretations and data from modern tundra fires suggest that increased burning was aided by low effective moisture, vegetation cover clearly played a critical role in facilitating the paleofires by creating an abundance of fine fuels. These records suggest that greater fire activity will likely accompany temperature-related increases in shrub-dominated tundra predicted for the 21(st century and beyond. Increased tundra burning will have broad impacts on physical and biological systems as well as on land-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic, including the potential to release stored organic carbon to the atmosphere.

  2. Equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable: the imperative for improved safety awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Kristina; Houchen-Wise, Emily; Peck, Ellen; Mayberry, John

    2013-01-01

    Horse-related injury can be severe and disabling. We investigated the causes, severity, and costs of equestrian injury with the goal of injury prevention. A retrospective review of horse-related injuries from 2001 to 2008 identified 231 patients with a mean age of 38 years and a mean Injury Severity Score of 11 (range, 1 to 45). Mean length of stay was 5.5 days. Fifty-nine patients (25%) required 84 surgeries. Helmet use was 20 per cent and of the 172 patients not wearing a helmet while mounted, 38 per cent received potentially preventable head injuries. There were three deaths of which two were the result of intracranial hemorrhage in riders not wearing a helmet. Mean hospital charge was $29,800 for a total of $6.9 million. Ninety-one patients completed a survey regarding causation and disability. Thirty-four per cent reported wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Forty per cent reported that poor environmental factors contributed, 30 per cent reported poor horse and rider pairing, and 9 per cent reported equipment failure. Fifty-nine per cent reported long-term disabilities. Compared with the general population, respondents had diminution in their ability to perform usual daily activities associated with physical problems, diminution in social function, and higher bodily pain. We conclude that equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable. PMID:23317616

  3. Secondhand smoke is associated with more frequent hospitalizations in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadreameli, S Christy; Eakin, Michelle N; Robinson, Kayin T; Alade, Rachel O; Strouse, John J

    2016-03-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure has been associated with more frequent hospitalizations in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), but previous studies have not quantified the exposure by objective methods. We enrolled 50 children and young adults with SCD in a retrospective and prospective cohort study and quantified tobacco smoke exposure by objective (salivary cotinine) and survey measures. We used a multivariable negative binomial regression model to evaluate the association between salivary cotinine and hospital admissions. Forty-five percent (22/49) of participants had significant elevation of salivary cotinine (≥ 0.5 ng/ml). The incidence risk ratio (IRR) for hospital admission for those with elevated cotinine was 3.7 (95% CI 1.8-8). Those exposed to secondhand smoke but not primary smokers (cotinine between 0.5 and 10 ng/ml) had a similarly increased risk of hospitalization [IRR 4.3 (95% CI 1.8-10)]. We show that an objective measure of tobacco smoke exposure, salivary cotinine, is strongly associated with the rate of hospital admissions in children and young adults with SCD. This association underscores the importance of screening for tobacco smoke exposure in people with SCD. Further investigation is warranted to determine the mechanisms of and to evaluate interventions to decrease tobacco smoke exposure. Am. J. Hematol. 91:313-317, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26690323

  4. Energy content estimation by collegians for portion standardized foods frequently consumed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sun Ha; Yun, Jee-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate Korean collegians' knowledge of energy content in the standard portion size of foods frequently consumed in Korea and to investigate the differences in knowledge between gender groups. A total of 600 collegians participated in this study. Participants' knowledge was assessed based on their estimation on the energy content of 30 selected food items with their actual-size photo images. Standard portion size of food was based on 2010 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes, and the percentage of participants who accurately estimated (that is, within 20% of the true value) the energy content of the standard portion size was calculated for each food item. The food for which the most participants provided the accurate estimation was ramyun (instant noodles) (67.7%), followed by cooked rice (57.8%). The proportion of students who overestimated the energy content was highest for vegetables (68.8%) and beverages (68.1%). The proportion of students who underestimated the energy content was highest for grains and starches (42.0%) and fruits (37.1%). Female students were more likely to check energy content of foods that they consumed than male students. From these results, it was concluded that the knowledge on food energy content was poor among collegians, with some gender difference. Therefore, in the future, nutrition education programs should give greater attention to improving knowledge on calorie content and to helping them apply this knowledge in order to develop effective dietary plans. PMID:24527417

  5. The prewarning value of Alexandrium tamarense PSP in an area with frequent outburst of red tide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Weidong; HUANG Deqiang; LI Yang; ZHOU Qiulin; HUO Wenmian; CHEN Weifen; LIN Hui; HE Qing; CHEN Baohong; LIANG Junrong; GAO Yahui

    2007-01-01

    The PSP toxicity of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from the western waters of Xiamen in China was studied by following the standard method of PSP mouse bioassay developed by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The results showed that the mice survived when the density of A. tamarense cells was lower than 1×105 cells per cubic decimetre and died when the density was higher than 1×106 cells per cubic decimetre. The past record of red tide events in the western waters of Xiamen showed a general trend of starting from the bloom of non-toxic planktonic diatoms in local waters and resulting in a harmful algal bloom due to the fade of planktonic diatoms which failed in the survival competition in the unfavorable and deteriorated eco-environment. On the basis of experimental results and natural environment of Xiamen waters and by making reference to the critical criteria of shellfish toxins in various states, a prewarning value 1×105 cells per cubic decimetre of A. tamarense PSP toxicity was proposed for the areas in South China where red tides frequently occur.

  6. Major venous anomalies are frequently associated with horseshoe kidneys. Value of multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several cases of horseshoe kidney with anomalous inferior vena cava (IVC) have been described, but there have been no reports of the incidence and variation of anomalous IVC in patients with horseshoe kidneys detected using multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). 105 patients with horseshoe kidneys were evaluated with MDCT and a variety of venous anomalies were identified in 30 patients (28.6%). Anatomical variations of the renal vein were identified in 24 patients (22.9%), which was no higher than the reported incidence in the general population. However, variations of the IVC were identified in 6 patients (5.7%), which was a higher incidence than expected to be found in the general population: 1 pre-isthmic IVC with retrocaval ureter, 2 double IVCs posterior to the horseshoe kidney, 2 left IVCs posterior to the horseshoe kidney, and 1 azygos continuation of the IVC. Horseshoe kidneys are frequently found in patients with other venous, and particularly IVC, anomalies, which should be evaluated using MDCT as part of treatment planning. (author)

  7. Case studies on forecasting for innovative technologies: frequent revisions improve accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jeffrey C; Robertson, Diane C; Goldstein, Sara M

    2015-02-01

    Health technology forecasting is designed to provide reliable predictions about costs, utilization, diffusion, and other market realities before the technologies enter routine clinical use. In this article we address three questions central to forecasting's usefulness: Are early forecasts sufficiently accurate to help providers acquire the most promising technology and payers to set effective coverage policies? What variables contribute to inaccurate forecasts? How can forecasters manage the variables to improve accuracy? We analyzed forecasts published between 2007 and 2010 by the ECRI Institute on four technologies: single-room proton beam radiation therapy for various cancers; digital breast tomosynthesis imaging technology for breast cancer screening; transcatheter aortic valve replacement for serious heart valve disease; and minimally invasive robot-assisted surgery for various cancers. We then examined revised ECRI forecasts published in 2013 (digital breast tomosynthesis) and 2014 (the other three topics) to identify inaccuracies in the earlier forecasts and explore why they occurred. We found that five of twenty early predictions were inaccurate when compared with the updated forecasts. The inaccuracies pertained to two technologies that had more time-sensitive variables to consider. The case studies suggest that frequent revision of forecasts could improve accuracy, especially for complex technologies whose eventual use is governed by multiple interactive factors. PMID:25646112

  8. Demand on Temporary Parallel Route Recovery for Frequent Link Failure in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthi Ganesh, M.; Venkata krishna, P.

    2015-03-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is an upcoming technology for communication between vehicles during the trip, which provides Internet connectivity resulting in safer roads giving access important alerts and comfort during the slip. VANET technology integrates wireless cellular and ad hoc for seamless connectivity between vehicles. VANETs are organizations that allow vehicles to communicate with each other. Wireless-vice can send data to nearby vehicles, and messages can be transported from one vehicle to another, so that the information can be broadcast throughout the metropolis. In the network, link failure is very common due to the high mobility of clients. Frequent link failure occurs as packets do not arrive at the respective goals. The mechanism proposed here establishes a form of route discovery packet parallel to the real time application to be extradited to the destination, while minimizing losses. The primary aim is to establish parallel paths during link failure scenarios for real-time applications to provide information to their destination safely. During link failures, the recovery road is parallel to the fixed temporary parallel path between the nodes. The node before the link failure packet buffers, after setting the new parallel paths before the packets stored in the buffer via the destination newly created path.

  9. Evolution of dengue virus in Mexico is characterized by frequent lineage replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Valenzo, Erik; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Velasco-Hernández, Jorge X; Sánchez-Burgos, Gilma; Alpuche, Celia; López, Irma; Rosales, Claudia; Baronti, Cécile; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Holmes, Edward C; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2010-09-01

    Both dengue fever and its more serious clinical manifestation, dengue hemorrhagic fever, represent major public health concerns in the Americas. To understand the patterns and dynamics of virus transmission in Mexico, a country characterized by a marked increase in dengue incidence in recent years, we undertook a molecular evolutionary analysis of the largest sample of Mexican strains of dengue virus compiled to date. Our E gene data set comprises sequences sampled over a period of 27 years and representing all of the Mexican states that are endemic for dengue. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that, for each of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to DENV-4), there have been multiple introductions of viral lineages in Mexico, with viruses similar to those observed throughout the Americas, but there has been strikingly little co-circulation. Rather, dengue virus evolution in Mexico is typified by frequent lineage replacement, such that only a single viral lineage dominates in a specific serotype at a specific time point. Most lineage replacement events involve members of the same viral genotype, although a replacement event involving different genotypes was observed with DENV-2, and viral lineages that are new to Mexico are described for DENV-1, DENV-3 and DENV-4. PMID:20549264

  10. MOXD2, a Gene Possibly Associated with Olfaction, Is Frequently Inactivated in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chul Jun; Choi, Dongjin; Park, Dong-Bin; Kim, Hyein; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate MOXD2 encodes a monooxygenase DBH-like 2 protein that could be involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, potentially during olfactory transduction. Loss of MOXD2 in apes and whales has been proposed to be associated with evolution of olfaction in these clades. We analyzed 57 bird genomes to identify MOXD2 sequences and found frequent loss of MOXD2 in 38 birds. Among the 57 birds, 19 species appeared to have an intact MOXD2 that encoded a full-length protein; 32 birds had a gene with open reading frame-disrupting point mutations and/or exon deletions; and the remaining 6 species did not show any MOXD2 sequence, suggesting a whole-gene deletion. Notably, among 10 passerine birds examined, 9 species shared a common genomic deletion that spanned several exons, implying the gene loss occurred in a common ancestor of these birds. However, 2 closely related penguin species, each of which had an inactive MOXD2, did not share any mutation, suggesting an independent loss after their divergence. Distribution of the 38 birds without an intact MOXD2 in the bird phylogenetic tree clearly indicates that MOXD2 loss is widespread and independent in bird lineages. We propose that widespread MOXD2 loss in some bird lineages may be implicated in the evolution of olfactory perception in these birds. PMID:27074048

  11. Correlates of Frequent Mental Distress among Active and Former Military Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor DiBiasio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Millions of veterans living in the United States suffer from mental illness. Understanding the correlates of mental illness can help target treatment to individuals in need and prevent mental distress, leading to healthier veterans and lower healthcare costs. Objective: To examine risk factors for mental illness among those who have served or currently serve in active duty military service in the U.S. armed forces. Methods: Data were from the 2010 Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between mental distress and age, race, gender, education, income, employment, time since service, marital status, number of dependent children, physical health, sleep, and emotional support among former or active duty military population. Results: Almost 9% of respondents reported frequent mental distress (FMD. Those with FMD were more likely to be minorities, young, single and female. The unemployed and those in poor physical health also had greater odds of FMD. Conclusion: Because individuals with physical ailments and lacking employment were most likely to report distress, physical therapy services and programs to address unemployment and poverty can have a positive impact on the mental health of veterans. Education and training programs and physical therapy offices may be excellent sites for FMD screening.

  12. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H; Foroghi, M; Farhadkhani, M; Vahid Dastjerdi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08-5.2  µ g/g and 4.08-60.20  µ g/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85-6.90  µ g/g and a cadmium level of 1.54-55.59  µ g/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  13. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nourmoradi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics.

  14. Effects of fire on small mammal communities in frequent-fire forests in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan L.; Kelt, Douglas A.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Meyer, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a natural, dynamic process that is integral to maintaining ecosystem function. The reintroduction of fire (e.g., prescribed fire, managed wildfire) is a critical management tool for protecting many frequent-fire forests against stand-replacing fires while restoring an essential ecological process. Understanding the effects of fire on forests and wildlife communities is important in natural resource planning efforts. Small mammals are key components of forest food webs and essential to ecosystem function. To investigate the relationship of fire to small mammal assemblages, we live trapped small mammals in 10 burned and 10 unburned forests over 2 years in the central Sierra Nevada, California. Small mammal abundance was higher in unburned forests, largely reflecting the greater proportion of closed-canopy species such as Glaucomys sabrinus in unburned forests. The most abundant species across the entire study area was the highly adaptable generalist species, Peromyscus maniculatus. Species diversity was similar between burned and unburned forests, but burned forests were characterized by greater habitat heterogeneity and higher small mammal species evenness. The use and reintroduction of fire to maintain a matrix of burn severities, including large patches of unburned refugia, creates a heterogeneous and resilient landscape that allows for fire-sensitive species to proliferate and, as such, may help maintain key ecological functions and diverse small mammal assemblages.

  15. ACME: A scalable parallel system for extracting frequent patterns from a very long sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Sahli, Majed

    2014-10-02

    Modern applications, including bioinformatics, time series, and web log analysis, require the extraction of frequent patterns, called motifs, from one very long (i.e., several gigabytes) sequence. Existing approaches are either heuristics that are error-prone, or exact (also called combinatorial) methods that are extremely slow, therefore, applicable only to very small sequences (i.e., in the order of megabytes). This paper presents ACME, a combinatorial approach that scales to gigabyte-long sequences and is the first to support supermaximal motifs. ACME is a versatile parallel system that can be deployed on desktop multi-core systems, or on thousands of CPUs in the cloud. However, merely using more compute nodes does not guarantee efficiency, because of the related overheads. To this end, ACME introduces an automatic tuning mechanism that suggests the appropriate number of CPUs to utilize, in order to meet the user constraints in terms of run time, while minimizing the financial cost of cloud resources. Our experiments show that, compared to the state of the art, ACME supports three orders of magnitude longer sequences (e.g., DNA for the entire human genome); handles large alphabets (e.g., English alphabet for Wikipedia); scales out to 16,384 CPUs on a supercomputer; and supports elastic deployment in the cloud.

  16. Dyshormonogenesis seems to be more frequent in a group of Cameroonian children with congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um Sap, Suzanne Ngo; Koki, Paul; Dongmo, Felicité Nguefack; De Djob, Louis; Tedga, Annie; Awa, Hubert Mbassi; Chelo, David; Boula, Angeline

    2015-09-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a main congenital endocrine disorder, affecting 1 in 4000 births. It is not well described in sub-Saharan countries, and to draw attention to that issue, we decided to describe affected pediatric patients. We retrospectively analyzed the records of eight patients over a period of 6 years. We analyzed clinical sings of hypothyroidism and psychomotor development; hormonal assays and thyroid ultrasound were performed. We included four boys and four girls aged from 3 to 84 months at diagnosis with a median thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 156.5 mUI/L. All except one present with a moderate psychomotor delay. Other clinical signs were classical for hypothyroidism. Thyroid ultrasound performed showed a goiter in half of patients, a normal gland in three of them and a hypoplasic gland in the last one, consonant with dyshormonogenesis. We therefore concluded that dyshormonogenesis seems to be more frequent in our context, and this raised the issue of neonatal screening of hypothyroidism in Africa. PMID:26030782

  17. Recessive TBC1D24 Mutations Are Frequent in Moroccan Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss Pedigrees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Bakhchane

    Full Text Available Mutations in the TBC1D24 gene are responsible for four neurological presentations: infantile epileptic encephalopathy, infantile myoclonic epilepsy, DOORS (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation and seizures and NSHL (non-syndromic hearing loss. For the latter, two recessive (DFNB86 and one dominant (DFNA65 mutations have so far been identified in consanguineous Pakistani and European/Chinese families, respectively. Here we report the results of a genetic study performed on a large Moroccan cohort of deaf patients that identified three families with compound heterozygote mutations in TBC1D24. Four novel mutations were identified, among which, one c.641G>A (p.Arg214His was present in the three families, and has a frequency of 2% in control Moroccan population with normal hearing, suggesting that it acts as an hypomorphic variant leading to restricted deafness when combined with another recessive severe mutation. Altogether, our results show that mutations in TBC1D24 gene are a frequent cause (>2% of NSHL in Morocco, and that due to its possible compound heterozygote recessive transmission, this gene should be further considered and screened in other deaf cohorts.

  18. GPR101 Mutations are not a Frequent Cause of Congenital Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castinetti, F; Daly, A F; Stratakis, C A; Caberg, J-H; Castermans, E; Trivellin, G; Rostomyan, L; Saveanu, A; Jullien, N; Reynaud, R; Barlier, A; Bours, V; Brue, T; Beckers, A

    2016-06-01

    Patients with Xq26.3 microduplication present with X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome, an early-childhood form of gigantism due to marked growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion from mixed GH-PRL adenomas and hyperplasia. The microduplication includes GPR101, which is upregulated in patients' tumor tissue. The GPR101 gene codes for an orphan G protein coupled receptor that is normally highly expressed in the hypothalamus. Our aim was to determine whether GPR101 loss of function mutations or deletions could be involved in patients with congenital isolated GH deficiency (GHD). Taking advantage of the cohort of patients from the GENHYPOPIT network, we studied 41 patients with unexplained isolated GHD. All patients had Sanger sequencing of the GPR101 gene and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) to look for deletions. Functional studies (cell culture with GH secretion measurements, cAMP response) were performed. One novel GPR101 variant, c.589 G>T (p.V197L), was seen in the heterozygous state in a patient with isolated GHD. In silico analysis suggested that this variant could be deleterious. Functional studies did not show any significant difference in comparison with wild type for GH secretion and cAMP response. No truncating, frameshift, or small insertion-deletion (indel) GPR101 mutations were seen in the 41 patients. No deletion or other copy number variation at chromosome Xq26.3 was found on aCGH. We found a novel GPR101 variant of unknown significance, in a patient with isolated GH deficiency. Our study did not identify GPR101 abnormalities as a frequent cause of GH deficiency. PMID:26797872

  19. Early recruitment responses to interactions between frequent fires, nutrients, and herbivory in the southern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Tara Joy; Balch, Jennifer K; Mews, Cândida Lahís; Porto, Pábio; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; Brando, P M; Vieira, Simone A; Trumbore, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Understanding tropical forest diversity is a long-standing challenge in ecology. With global change, it has become increasingly important to understand how anthropogenic and natural factors interact to determine diversity. Anthropogenic increases in fire frequency are among the global change variables affecting forest diversity and functioning, and seasonally dry forest of the southern Amazon is among the ecosystems most affected by such pressures. Studying how fire will impact forests in this region is therefore important for understanding ecosystem functioning and for designing effective conservation action. We report the results of an experiment in which we manipulated fire, nutrient availability, and herbivory. We measured the effects of these interacting factors on the regenerative capacity of the ecotone between humid Amazon forest and Brazilian savanna. Regeneration density, diversity, and community composition were severely altered by fire. Additions of P and N + P reduced losses of density and richness in the first year post-fire. Herbivory was most important just after germination. Diversity was positively correlated with herbivory in unburned forest, likely because fire reduced the number of reproductive individuals. This contrasts with earlier results from the same study system in which herbivory was related to increased diversity after fire. We documented a significant effect of fire frequency; diversity in triennially burned forest was more similar to that in unburned than in annually burned forest, and the community composition of triennially burned forest was intermediate between unburned and annually burned areas. Preventing frequent fires will therefore help reduce losses in diversity in the southern Amazon's matrix of human-altered landscapes. PMID:25676107

  20. Observation and analysis of high-speed human motion with frequent occlusion in a large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of computer vision technology in collecting and analyzing statistics during sports matches or training sessions is expected to provide valuable information for tactics improvement. However, the measurements published in the literature so far are either unreliably documented to be used in training planning due to their limitations or unsuitable for studying high-speed motion in large area with frequent occlusions. A sports annotation system is introduced in this paper for tracking high-speed non-rigid human motion over a large playing area with the aid of motion camera, taking short track speed skating competitions as an example. The proposed system is composed of two sub-systems: precise camera motion compensation and accurate motion acquisition. In the video registration step, a distinctive invariant point feature detector (probability density grads detector) and a global parallax based matching points filter are used, to provide reliable and robust matching across a large range of affine distortion and illumination change. In the motion acquisition step, a two regions' relationship constrained joint color model and Markov chain Monte Carlo based joint particle filter are emphasized, by dividing the human body into two relative key regions. Several field tests are performed to assess measurement errors, including comparison to popular algorithms. With the help of the system presented, the system obtains position data on a 30 m × 60 m large rink with root-mean-square error better than 0.3975 m, velocity and acceleration data with absolute error better than 1.2579 m s−1 and 0.1494 m s−2, respectively

  1. Frequent biphasic cellular responses of permanent fish cell cultures to deoxynivalenol (DON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins is a major problem for fish feed mainly due to usage of contaminated ingredients for production and inappropriate storage of feed. The use of cereals for fish food production further increases the risk of a potential contamination. Potential contaminants include the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) which is synthesized by globally distributed fungi of the genus Fusarium. The toxicity of DON is well recognized in mammals. In this study, we confirm cytotoxic effects of DON in established permanent fish cell lines. We demonstrate that DON is capable of influencing the metabolic activity and cell viability in fish cells as determined by different assays to indicate possible cellular targets of this toxin. Evaluation of cell viability by measurement of membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and lysosomal function after 24 h of exposure of fish cell lines to DON at a concentration range of 0-3000 ng ml-1 shows a biphasic effect on cells although differences in sensitivity occur. The cell lines derived from rainbow trout are particularly sensitive to DON. The focus of this study lies, furthermore, on the effects of DON at different concentrations on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different fish cell lines. The results show that DON mainly reduces ROS production in all cell lines that were used. Thus, our comparative investigations reveal that the fish cell lines show distinct species-related endpoint sensitivities that also depend on the type of tissue from which the cells were derived and the severity of exposure. - Highlights: → DON uptake by cells is not extensive. → All fish cell lines are sensitive to DON. → DON is most cytotoxic to rainbow trout cells. → Biphasic cellular responses were frequently observed. → Our results are similar to studies on mammalian cell lines.

  2. EGFR mutations are more frequent in well-differentiated than in poor-differentiated lung adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Mei Lin; Zhong, Hao Hao; Heng, Wan Jie; Wu, Bing Quan

    2008-12-01

    Somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain, particularly deletions in exon 19 and point mutation in exon 21, are associated with clinical outcome in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, suggesting that EGFR mutation would have an important role in clinical decision making. DNA was extracted from the excised specimens of 60 lung adenocarcinoma patients with phenol-chloroform and ethanol precipitation. Exon 19 and 21 were amplified by PCR, and direct sequenced from both sense and antisense directions. EGFR somatic mutations were present in 13 of 60 patients (21.67%), including seven cases of in-frame deletion in exon 19 around codon 746 and six cases of amino acid substitution in exon 21. Exon 21 mutation is more frequent in adenocarcinomas with bronchi-alveolar component than exon 19 deletions. Mutations were more prevalent in well-differentiated adenocarcinomas (9/27, 33.33%) than in moderate to poor-differentiated adenocarcinomas (4/33, 12.12%) (P < 0.05). Adenocarcinomas with bronchi-alveolar components had higher mutation frequency (8/22,36. 36%) than those without bronchi-alveolar components (5/38, 13.16%) (P < 0.05). In this study, female patients had more mutation rate than male patients. This trend was also observed in the patients with pathologic stage I-II compared with stage III-IV, but neither of them was statistically significant. Patients with cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy had no significantly prolonged survival compared with single radical resection. But patients with EGFR mutation had relative longer survival. In conclusion, our study suggest that EGFR mutations may be a valuable prognostic factor for disease free survival of surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma patients independently from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:18985444

  3. Frequent amplification of CENPF, GMNN and CDK13 genes in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Eun Kim

    Full Text Available Genomic changes frequently occur in cancer cells during tumorigenesis from normal cells. Using the Illumina Human NS-12 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip to screen for gene copy number changes in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs, we initially detected amplification of 35 genes from four genomic regions (1q21-41, 6p21.2-24.1, 7p13 and 8q13-23. By integrated screening of these genes for both DNA copy number and gene expression in HCC and colorectal cancer, we selected CENPF (centromere protein F/mitosin, GMNN (geminin, DNA replication inhibitor, CDK13 (cyclin-dependent kinase 13, and FAM82B (family with sequence similarity 82, member B as common cancer genes. Each gene exhibited an amplification frequency of ~30% (range, 20-50% in primary HCC (n = 57 and colorectal cancer (n = 12, as well as in a panel of human cancer cell lines (n = 70. Clonogenic and invasion assays of NIH3T3 cells transfected with each of the four amplified genes showed that CENPF, GMNN, and CDK13 were highly oncogenic whereas FAM82B was not. Interestingly, the oncogenic activity of these genes (excluding FAM82B was highly correlated with gene-copy numbers in tumor samples (correlation coefficient, r>0.423, indicating that amplifications of CENPF, GMNN, and CDK13 genes are tightly linked and coincident in tumors. Furthermore, we confirmed that CDK13 gene copy number was significantly associated with clinical onset age in patients with HCC (P = 0.0037. Taken together, our results suggest that coincidently amplified CDK13, GMNN, and CENPF genes can play a role as common cancer-driver genes in human cancers.

  4. Long-distance and frequent movements of the flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus: implications for management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billie J Roberts

    Full Text Available Flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are large bats capable of long-distance flight. Many species are threatened; some are considered pests. Effective conservation and management of flying-foxes are constrained by lack of knowledge of their ecology, especially of movement patterns over large spatial scales. Using satellite telemetry, we quantified long-distance movements of the grey-headed flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus among roost sites in eastern Australia. Fourteen adult males were tracked for 2-40 weeks (mean 25 weeks. Collectively, these individuals utilised 77 roost sites in an area spanning 1,075 km by 128 km. Movement patterns varied greatly between individuals, with some travelling long distances. Five individuals travelled cumulative distances >1,000 km over the study period. Five individuals showed net displacements >300 km during one month, including one movement of 500 km within 48 hours. Seasonal movements were consistent with facultative latitudinal migration in part of the population. Flying-foxes shifted roost sites frequently: 64% of roost visits lasted 12 weeks, 10 moved >100 km in one or more weeks. Median cumulative displacement distances over 1, 10 and 30 weeks were 0 km, 260 km and 821 km, respectively. On average, over increasing time-periods, one additional roost site was visited for each additional 100 km travelled. These findings explain why culling and relocation attempts have had limited success in resolving human-bat conflicts in Australia. Flying-foxes are highly mobile between camps and regularly travel long distances. Consequently, local control actions are likely to have only temporary effects on local flying-fox populations. Developing alternative methods to manage these conflicts remains an important challenge that should be informed by a better understanding of the species' movement patterns.

  5. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation in children with frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayi Dilla Septarini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Children with frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (FRNS/SDNS are at risk for osteoporosis due to impaired metabolism of calcium and vitamin D. Objective To determine the effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density, serum ionized calcium levels and serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in children with FRNS and SDNS. Methods A clinical trial with a before and after design was performed. Subjects were SDNS or FRNS pediatric patients ≥ 5 years of age. Subjects received 800 mg elemental calcium and 400 IU vitamin D supplementation for 8 weeks. Serum ionized calcium, serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OHD], and bone mineral density (BMD were determined before and after the supplementation. Results Of the 30 subjects, 28 completed the study. However, only 20 subjects underwent BMD determination before and after supplementation. Oof the 28 subjects, 22 had hypocalcemia and 26 had low vitamin D levels. Osteopenia was found in 14/20 subjects and osteoporosis was in 2/20 subjects. After 8 weeks of supplementation, mean serum ionized calcium increased from low [1.15 mmol/L (SD 0.03] to normal [1.18 mmol/L (SD 0.04] (P<0.001 levels, but mean serum 25(OHD only increased from vitamin D deficiency category [20 ng/mL (SD 7.7] to vitamin D insufficiency category [25.5 ng/mL (7.7] (P=0.010. Mean z-score BMD increased from -1.1 (SD 0.9 to -0.7 (SD 0.2 after supplementation (P<0.001. Conclusion Calcium vitamin D supplementation effectively increased serum ionized calcium, serum 25(OHD, and BMD in subjects with FRNS and SDNS. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:16-21].

  6. The Frequent Fliers of New Mexico: Hospital Readmissions among the Homeless Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmyer, Victoria F

    2016-07-01

    It is estimated that there are 1.7 million homeless individuals in the United States; 36% are families with children under the age of 18. Due to lack of resources, individuals who are homeless frequent emergency departments for immediate health care needs. The aim of this study was to examine a homeless population over a 3-year time period who were admitted to an Albuquerque area hospital at any time during the time period. A comparison of demographic characteristics as well as hospitalization characteristics between two populations was analyzed: individuals who were homeless and had a 30-day readmission compared to those that did not have a 30-day readmission. There were 850 unique homeless patients that were admitted to an Albuquerque area hospital during the 3-year time period. The mean age was 43.8 years with the majority of the population being male. The 3-year average 30-day readmission rate was 30.1%. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that homeless patients older than 19 years, individuals with more than 1 admission during the time period, and individuals who left against medical advice had increased odds of a 30-day readmission. Individuals who were homeless who were admitted for respiratory conditions or cardiovascular disease had decreased odds of a 30-day readmission compared to patients admitted for neuropsychiatric conditions. In New Mexico, patients who were homeless experienced a high 30-day readmission rate. These results suggest a need for further research into the healthcare needs of this population and how to improve discharge protocols to prevent future readmissions. PMID:27105057

  7. Alternative lengthening of telomeres and loss of ATRX are frequent events in pleomorphic and dedifferentiated liposarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Chieh; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Liau, Jau-Yu; Tsai, Jia-Huei; Hsu, Hung-Han; Yang, Ching-Yao

    2015-08-01

    Telomerase activation and alternative lengthening of telomeres are two major mechanisms of telomere length maintenance. Soft tissue sarcomas appear to use the alternative lengthening of telomeres more frequently. Loss of α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated protein 6 (DAXX) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alternative telomere lengthening in pancreatic endocrine neoplasm and glioma. The mechanism leading to the alternative lengthening of telomeres in liposarcoma remains unknown. Whereas alternative telomere lengthening was determined to be an indicator of poor prognosis in liposarcomas as a whole, its prognostic power has not been verified in any subtype of liposarcoma. In this study, we characterized the status of alternative telomere lengthening and expression of ATRX and DAXX in 111 liposarcomas (28 well-differentiated, 52 dedifferentiated, 20 myxoid or round cell, and 11 pleomorphic liposarcomas) by telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Alternative lengthening of telomere was observed in 0% (0/16) of well-differentiated, 30% (14/46) of dedifferentiated, 5% (1/19) of myxoid or round cell, and 80% (8/10) of pleomorphic liposarcomas. Eighteen (16%) and one (1%) tumors were negative for ATRX and DAXX immunostaining, respectively. Remarkably, all cases with loss of either ATRX or DAXX expression had alternative lengthening of telomeres, and 83% (19/23) of tumors that had alternative lengthening of telomeres showed loss of either protein. The correlation between loss of either ATRX or DAXX and alternative telomere lengthening was 100% in dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The presence of alternative telomere lengthening in dedifferentiated liposarcoma suggested poor overall survival (hazard ratio=1.954, P=0.077) and was the most significant indicator of short progression-free survival (hazard ratio=3.119, P=0.003). In conclusion, we found that ATRX loss was

  8. A novel meta-analytic approach: mining frequent co-activation patterns in neuroimaging databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Julian; Zilles, Karl; Beierle, Christoph; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, coordinate-based meta-analyses have become a powerful and widely used tool to study co-activity across neuroimaging experiments, a development that was supported by the emergence of large-scale neuroimaging databases like BrainMap. However, the evaluation of co-activation patterns is constrained by the fact that previous coordinate-based meta-analysis techniques like Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) and Multilevel Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) reveal all brain regions that show convergent activity within a dataset without taking into account actual within-experiment co-occurrence patterns. To overcome this issue we here propose a novel meta-analytic approach named PaMiNI that utilizes a combination of two well-established data-mining techniques, Gaussian mixture modeling and the Apriori algorithm. By this, PaMiNI enables a data-driven detection of frequent co-activation patterns within neuroimaging datasets. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by means of several analyses on simulated data as well as a real application. The analyses of the simulated data show that PaMiNI identifies the brain regions underlying the simulated activation foci and perfectly separates the co-activation patterns of the experiments in the simulations. Furthermore, PaMiNI still yields good results when activation foci of distinct brain regions become closer together or if they are non-Gaussian distributed. For the further evaluation, a real dataset on working memory experiments is used, which was previously examined in an ALE meta-analysis and hence allows a cross-validation of both methods. In this latter analysis, PaMiNI revealed a fronto-parietal "core" network of working memory and furthermore indicates a left-lateralization in this network. Finally, to encourage a widespread usage of this new method, the PaMiNI approach was implemented into a publicly available software system. PMID:24365675

  9. Prenatal origin of childhood AML occurs less frequently than in childhood ALL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While there is enough convincing evidence in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the data on the pre-natal origin in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are less comprehensive. Our study aimed to screen Guthrie cards (neonatal blood spots) of non-infant childhood AML and ALL patients for the presence of their respective leukemic markers. We analysed Guthrie cards of 12 ALL patients aged 2–6 years using immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (n = 15) and/or intronic breakpoints of TEL/AML1 fusion gene (n = 3). In AML patients (n = 13, age 1–14 years) PML/RARalpha (n = 4), CBFbeta/MYH11 (n = 3), AML1/ETO (n = 2), MLL/AF6 (n = 1), MLL/AF9 (n = 1) and MLL/AF10 (n = 1) fusion genes and/or internal tandem duplication of FLT3 gene (FLT3/ITD) (n = 2) were used as clonotypic markers. Assay sensitivity determined using serial dilutions of patient DNA into the DNA of a healthy donor allowed us to detect the pre-leukemic clone in Guthrie card providing 1–3 positive cells were present in the neonatal blood spot. In 3 patients with ALL (25%) we reproducibly detected their leukemic markers (Ig/TCR n = 2; TEL/AML1 n = 1) in the Guthrie card. We did not find patient-specific molecular markers in any patient with AML. In the largest cohort examined so far we used identical approach for the backtracking of non-infant childhood ALL and AML. Our data suggest that either the prenatal origin of AML is less frequent or the load of pre-leukemic cells is significantly lower at birth in AML compared to ALL cases

  10. Subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy closely related to cytomegalovirus infection preceded by frequent syncopal attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Koichi; Namekawa, Michito; Kondo, Soichi; Ono, Sayaka; Nakano, Imaharu

    2016-08-31

    A 73-year-old woman who had hypertension developed a slight fever and general malaise with laboratory-proven hepatic dysfunction as well as frequent syncopal attacks 3 months before admission to our hospital. One month later, she developed urinary retention and distal limb numbness. Upon admission, her neurological examination showed reduced limb tendon reflexes, glove and stocking-type numbness, and diminished senses of touch, temperature, pain, and distal leg vibration and position. Serum cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM antibody and CMV IgG antibody were elevated on admission, and both decreased thereafter, confirming CMV infection. No serum anti-ganglioside antibody was detected. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed a mild pleocytosis and elevated proteins. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes of the tibial and peroneal nerve were slightly reduced. Sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes of the median and ulnar nerves were reduced, and sural SNAP was not evoked. Systolic blood pressure dropped 48 mmHg when the patient assumed a standing position from a supine one, demonstrating orthostatic hypotension, and a cold pressor test was abnormal, both indicating an obvious hypofunction of the sympathetic nerve. The postganglionic autonomic nerve appeared to be damaged because the accumulation of [(123)I] meta-iodobenzylguanidine was reduced on myocardial scintigraphy. These findings combined together led us to make a diagnosis of subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy associated with CMV infection in this case. Following an eventless administration of oral fludrocortisones, intravenous immuno-globulin (IVIg) was given after one month of the hospitalization with a remarkable reduction of the syncope. This case is instructive in two points. One is that there may be a couple of months with syncope alone before the sensory disturbance appearance, and the other is that IVIg may be considerably effective for the patient-annoying syncopes. To our knowledge, this

  11. Variability of tropical cyclone in high frequent occurrence regions over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxing; Huang, Fei; Wang, Faming

    2014-06-01

    In this study, three high frequent occurrence regions of tropical cyclones (TCs), i.e., the northern South China Sea (the region S), the south Philippine Sea (the region P) and the region east of Taiwan Island (the region E), are defined with frequency of TC's occurrence at each grid for a 45-year period (1965-2009), where the frequency of occurrence (FO) of TCs is triple the mean value of the whole western North Pacific. Over the region S, there are decreasing trends in the FO of TCs, the number of TCs' tracks going though this region and the number of TCs' genesis in this region. Over the region P, the FO and tracks demonstrate decadal variation with periods of 10-12 year, while over the region E, a significant 4-5 years' oscillation appears in both FO and tracks. It is demonstrated that the differences of TCs' variation in these three different regions are mainly caused by the variation of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) at different time scales. The westward shift of WPSH is responsible for the northwesterly anomaly over the region S which inhibits westward TC movement into the region S. On the decadal timescale, the WPSH stretches northwestward because of the anomalous anticyclone over the northwestern part of the region P, and steers more TCs reaching the region P in the greater FO years of the region P. The retreating of the WPSH on the interannual time scale is the main reason for the FO's oscillation over the region E.

  12. Mining frequent patterns for AMP-activated protein kinase regulation on skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yi-Ping

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has emerged as a significant signaling intermediary that regulates metabolisms in response to energy demand and supply. An investigation into the degree of activation and deactivation of AMPK subunits under exercise can provide valuable data for understanding AMPK. In particular, the effect of AMPK on muscle cellular energy status makes this protein a promising pharmacological target for disease treatment. As more AMPK regulation data are accumulated, data mining techniques can play an important role in identifying frequent patterns in the data. Association rule mining, which is commonly used in market basket analysis, can be applied to AMPK regulation. Results This paper proposes a framework that can identify the potential correlation, either between the state of isoforms of α, β and γ subunits of AMPK, or between stimulus factors and the state of isoforms. Our approach is to apply item constraints in the closed interpretation to the itemset generation so that a threshold is specified in terms of the amount of results, rather than a fixed threshold value for all itemsets of all sizes. The derived rules from experiments are roughly analyzed. It is found that most of the extracted association rules have biological meaning and some of them were previously unknown. They indicate direction for further research. Conclusion Our findings indicate that AMPK has a great impact on most metabolic actions that are related to energy demand and supply. Those actions are adjusted via its subunit isoforms under specific physical training. Thus, there are strong co-relationships between AMPK subunit isoforms and exercises. Furthermore, the subunit isoforms are correlated with each other in some cases. The methods developed here could be used when predicting these essential relationships and enable an understanding of the functions and metabolic pathways regarding AMPK.

  13. Latent infections are the most frequent form of paratuberculosis in slaughtered Friesian cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vazquez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is a chronic mycobacterial infection causing granulomatous enteritis in ruminants, whose pathogenesis and epidemiology poses numerous challenges, including latency and reactivation. The most recent and complete classification of paratuberculosis immunopathological types in cattle recognized five categories. In this study, 1031 slaughtered Friesian cattle were submitted to serological, microbiological and pathological examinations with the aim of maximizing the rate of case detection. In most cases, infected animals had minimal lesions and almost no other proof of infection (38.9%, while the more characteristic types with the whole constellation of microbiological and immunological evidences accounted for a lower proportion (7.7%. As these findings in cattle suggest similarities with the epidemiology of tuberculosis in humans, we propose to re-group the original immunopathological types into two broader paratuberculosis epidemio-pathogenic forms or states: latent and patent. The former term would define infections with focal lesions and might constitute an apparent resilience status representing a difficult to detect reservoir of infection whose role could become critical if later immune-compromising factors lead to re-activation. The latter would group those cases with multifocal and diffuse inflammatory lesions with higher mycobacterial load and viability suggestive of a more immediate epidemiological risk. Interestingly, the relative frequency of presentation of each profile varied with age. The proportion of latent forms remained relatively constant between 33.8% and 54.3% through adulthood from 3 years of age, while patent forms were more frequent during the first years of age and tended to decrease among the oldest individuals.

  14. Research of the Occupational Psychological Impact Factors Based on the Frequent Item Mining of the Transactional Database

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Dongmei; Zuo Xuejun; Liu Zhaohua

    2015-01-01

    Based on the massive reading of data mining and association rules mining documents, this paper will start from compressing transactional database and propose the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. According to the previous analysis, this paper will also study the association rules mining algorithm based on the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. At last, this paper will apply this mining algorithm in the test r...

  15. Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liwen; Ren, Jiwei; Shi, Lei; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming; Li, Shenghui

    2014-01-01

    Background Nocturnal awakening is the most frequent insomnia complaint in the general population. In contrast to a growing knowledge based on adults, little is known about its prevalence, correlated factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness in children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and the correlate factors of frequent nocturnal awakening (FNA) among Chinese school-aged children. Furthermore, the associations of FNA with subjective s...

  16. Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network for Frequently Changing Application Traffic in Content-Based Publish/Subscribe System

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Chi; Shufen Liu; Changhong Hu

    2014-01-01

    In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strat...

  17. Threshold bedrock channels in tectonically active mountains with frequent mass wasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, O.; Hayakawa, Y. S.; Codilean, A.; Oguchi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of how mountain belts grow and erode through time largely rely on the paradigm of fluvial bedrock incision as the main motor of response to differences in rock uplift, thus setting base levels of erosion in tectonically active landscapes. Dynamic feedbacks between rock uplift, bedrock river geometry, and mass wasting have been encapsulated within the concept of threshold hillslopes that attain a mechanically critical inclination capable of adjusting to fluvial incision rates via decreased stability and commensurately more frequent landsliding. Here we provide data that challenge the widely held view that channel steepness records tectonic forcing more faithfully than hillslope inclination despite much robust empirical evidence of such links between bedrock-river geometry and hillslope mass wasting. We show that the volume mobilized by mass wasting depends more on local topographic relief and the sinuosity of bedrock rivers than their mean normalized channel steepness. We derive this counterintuitive observation from an unprecedented inventory of ~300,000 landslides covering the tectonically active Japanese archipelago with substantial differences in seismicity, lithology, vertical surface deformation, topography, and precipitation variability. Both total landslide number and volumes increase nonlinearly with mean local relief even in areas where the fraction of steepest channel segments attains a constant threshold well below the maximum topographic relief. Our data document for the first time that mass wasting increases systematically with preferential steepening of flatter channel segments. Yet concomitant changes in mean channel steepness are negligible such that it remains a largely insensitive predictor of landslide denudation. Further, minute increases in bedrock-river sinuosity lead to substantial reduction in landslide abundance and volumes. Our results underline that sinuosity (together with mean local relief) is a key morphometric variable for

  18. Towards a New Approach for Mining Frequent Itemsets on Data Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Jain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From the advent of association rule mining, it has become one of the most researched areas of data exploration schemes. In recent years, implementing association rule mining methods in extracting rules from a continuous flow of voluminous data, known as Data Stream has generated immense interest due to its emerging applications such as network-traffic analysis, sensor-network data analysis. For such typical kinds of application domains, the facility to process such enormous amount of stream data in a single pass is critical. Nowadays, many organizations generate and utilize vast data streams (Huang, 2002. Employing data mining schemes on such massive data streams can unearth real-time trends and patterns which can be utilized for dynamic and timely decisions. Mining in such a high speed, enormous data streams significantly differs from traditional data mining in several ways. Firstly, the response time of the mining algorithm should be as small as possible due to the online nature of the data and limited resources dedicated to mining activities (Charikar, 2004. Second, the underlying data is highly volatile and subject to change over period of time (Chang, 2003. Moreover, since there is no time for preprocessing the data in order to remove noise, the streamed data can have noise inherent in it. Due to all aforementioned problems, data stream mining is receiving increasing attention and current research is now focused on the efficient resolution to the problem cited above. Although, the field of data stream mining is being heavily investigated, there is still a lack of a holistic and generic approach for mining association rules from data streams. Thus, this research attempts to fill this gap by integrating ideas from previous work in data stream mining. This investigation focuses on the degree of effectiveness of using a probabilistic approach of sampling in the data stream together with an incremental approach to maintenance of frequent

  19. Acute unstable depressive syndrome (AUDS is associated more frequently with epilepsy than major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iversen Valentina C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorders are frequent in epilepsy and associated with reduced seizure control. Almost 50% of interictal depressive disorders have to be classified as atypical depressions according to DSM-4 criteria. Research has mainly focused on depressive symptoms in defined populations with epilepsy (e.g., patients admitted to tertiary epilepsy centers. We have chosen the opposite approach. We hypothesized that it is possible to define by clinical means a subgroup of psychiatric patients with higher than expected prevalence of epilepsy and seizures. We hypothesized further that these patients present with an Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS that does not meet DSM-IV criteria of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE. In a previous publication we have documented that AUDS patients indeed have more often a history of epileptic seizures and abnormal EEG recordings than MDE patients (Vaaler et al. 2009. This study aimed to further classify the differences of depressive symptoms at admittance and follow-up of patients with AUDS and MDE. Methods 16 AUDS patients and 16 age- and sex-matched MDE patients were assessed using the Symptomatic Organic Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (SOMAS, the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, and the Mini-Mental State Test (MMST, at day 2, day 4-6, day 14-16 and 3 months after admittance to a psychiatric emergency unit. Life events were assessed with The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS and The Life Experience Survey (LES. We also screened for medication serum levels and illicit drug metabolites in urine. Results AUDS patients had significantly higher SOMAS scores (average score at admission 6.6 ± 0.8, reflecting increased symptom fluctuation and motor agitation, and decreased insight and concern compared to MDE patients (2.9 ± 0.7; p Conclusions AUDS patients present with rapidly fluctuating mood symptoms, motor agitation and relative lack of insight and concern. Seizures

  20. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  1. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Laszlo [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Mammography; Tot, Tibor [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology and Clinical Cytology; Dean, Peter B. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1 times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly

  3. Interactive effects of frequent burning and timber harvesting on above ground carbon biomass in temperate eucalypt forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Luke; Penman, Trent; Ximenes, Fabiano; Bradstock, Ross

    2015-04-01

    The sequestration of carbon has been identified as an important strategy to mitigate the effects of climate change. Fuel reduction burning and timber harvesting are two common co-occurring management practices within forests. Frequent burning and timber harvesting may alter forest carbon pools through the removal and redistribution of biomass and demographic and structural changes to tree communities. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions between frequent burning and harvesting are likely to occur, adding further complexity to the management of forest carbon stocks. Research aimed at understanding the interactive effects of frequent fire and timber harvesting on carbon biomass is lacking. This study utilised data from two long term (25 - 30 years) manipulative burning experiments conducted in southern Australia in temperate eucalypt forests dominated by resprouting canopy species. Specifically we examined the effect of fire frequency and harvesting on (i) total biomass of above ground carbon pools and (ii) demographic and structural characteristics of live trees. We also investigated some of the mechanisms driving these changes. Frequent burning reduced carbon biomass by up to 20% in the live tree carbon pool. Significant interactions occurred between fire and harvesting, whereby the reduction in biomass of trees >20 cm diameter breast height (DBH) was amplified by increased fire frequency. The biomass of trees DBH increased with harvesting intensity in frequently burnt areas, but was unaffected by harvesting intensity in areas experiencing low fire frequency. Biomass of standing and fallen coarse woody debris was relatively unaffected by logging and fire frequency. Fire and harvesting significantly altered stand structure over the study period. Comparison of pre-treatment conditions to current conditions revealed that logged sites had a significantly greater increase in the number of small trees (DBH) than unlogged sites. Logged sites showed a significant

  4. Impacts of Frequent Burning on Live Tree Carbon Biomass and Demography in Post-Harvest Regrowth Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Collins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of forest ecosystems to increase carbon storage is a global concern. Fire frequency has the potential to shift considerably in the future. These shifts may alter demographic processes and growth of tree species, and consequently carbon storage in forests. Examination of the sensitivity of forest carbon to the potential upper and lower extremes of fire frequency will provide crucial insight into the magnitude of possible change in carbon stocks associated with shifts in fire frequency. This study examines how tree biomass and demography of a eucalypt forest regenerating after harvest is affected by two experimentally manipulated extremes in fire frequency (i.e., ~3 year fire intervals vs. unburnt sustained over a 23 year period. The rate of post-harvest biomass recovery of overstorey tree species, which constituted ~90% of total living tree biomass, was lower within frequently burnt plots than unburnt plots, resulting in approximately 20% lower biomass in frequently burnt plots by the end of the study. Significant differences in carbon biomass between the two extremes in frequency were only evident after >15–20 years of sustained treatment. Reduced growth rates and survivorship of smaller trees on the frequently burnt plots compared to unburnt plots appeared to be driving these patterns. The biomass of understorey trees, which constituted ~10% of total living tree biomass, was not affected by frequent burning. These findings suggest that future shifts toward more frequent fire will potentially result in considerable reductions in carbon sequestration across temperate forest ecosystems in Australia.

  5. Frequent intragenic deletion of the P gene in Tanzanian patients with type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2).

    OpenAIRE

    Spritz, R A; Fukai, K; Holmes, S A; Luande, J

    1995-01-01

    Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. OCA2, which results from mutations of the P gene, is the most frequent type of albinism in African and African-American patients. OCA2 is especially frequent in Tanzania, where it occurs with an incidence of approximately 1/1,400. We have identified abnormalities of the P gene in each of 13 unrelated patients with OCA2 from Tanzania. On...

  6. Research of the Occupational Psychological Impact Factors Based on the Frequent Item Mining of the Transactional Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the massive reading of data mining and association rules mining documents, this paper will start from compressing transactional database and propose the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. According to the previous analysis, this paper will also study the association rules mining algorithm based on the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. At last, this paper will apply this mining algorithm in the test results analysis module of team psychological health assessment system, and will extract the relationship between each psychological impact factor, so as to provide certain guidance for psychologists in their mental illness treatment.

  7. An Assessment of Student Perceptions and Responses to Frequent Low-Stakes Testing in Introductory Sociology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Common concerns for many instructors of introductory college courses are that their students do not prepare for or attend class, are minimally engaged, and exhibit poor reading comprehension and writing skills. How can instructors respond to these challenges? Research finds that frequent testing improves the learning outcomes of students. Can it…

  8. Effect of Frequent Peer-Monitored Testing and Personal Goal Setting on Fitnessgram Scores of Hispanic Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Grant; Downing, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of frequent peer-monitored Fitnessgram testing, with student goal setting, on the PACER and push-up performance of middle school students. Subjects were 176 females and 189 males in 10 physical education classes at a middle school with an 83.7% Hispanic student population. Students were…

  9. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW) - similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions - show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers. PMID:25426039

  10. Supplementary Material for "Should we sample a time series more frequently? Decision support via multirate spectrum estimation (with discussion)"

    OpenAIRE

    Guy P. Nason; Powell, Ben; Elliott, Duncan; Paul A. Smith

    2016-01-01

    This technical report includes an assortment of technical details and extended discussions related to paper "Should we sample a time series more frequently? Decision support via multirate spectrum estimation (with discussion)", which introduces a model for estimating the log-spectral density of a stationary discrete time process given systematically missing data and models the cost implication for changing the sampling rate.

  11. Frequent mutations of genes encoding ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway components in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Guangwu; Gui, Yaoting; Gao, Shengjie;

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced whole exomes of ten clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and performed a screen of similar to 1,100 genes in 88 additional ccRCCs, from which we discovered 12 previously unidentified genes mutated at elevated frequencies in ccRCC. Notably, we detected frequent mutations in the u...... of the hypoxia regulatory network....

  12. Does Ethnic Identity Buffer or Exacerbate the Effects of Frequent Racial Discrimination on Situational Well-Being of Asian Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental vignette study was conducted to test whether ethnic identity moderated the effects of frequent racial discrimination on situational positive and negative affect of Asian American college students. Results showed that imagining multiple incidents of racial discrimination was related to higher negative affect than imagining a…

  13. The Most Frequently-Used Multi-Word Constructions in Academic Written English: A Multi-Corpus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dilin

    2012-01-01

    Using the academic writing sub-corpora of the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and building on previous research, this study strives to identify the most frequently-used multi-word constructions (MWCs) of various types (e.g., idioms, lexical bundles, and phrasal/prepositional verbs) in general…

  14. Loss of heterozygosity, a frequent but a non-exclusive mechanism responsible for HLA dysregulation in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenou, B; Tilanus, M; Semana, G; Alizadeh, M; Birebent, B; Grosset, JM; Dias, P; van Wichen, D; Arts, Y; De Santis, D; Fauchet, R; Amiot, L

    2004-01-01

    The frequent alteration of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule expression observed in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), similarly to solid tumours, has been reported to favour tumoral escape from the immune system. In order to identify the underlying mechanisms, we analysed 15 HLA defective

  15. Food for Thought: Frequent Interracial Dining Experiences as a Predictor of Students' Racial Climate Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Maria R.; Byron, Reginald A.; Ferry, Griffin; Garcia, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study that explored factors which influenced undergraduate students' perceptions of the racial climate at a predominantly white liberal arts university in the South. Mixed methods results suggest that race, aspects of the institutional climate, and frequent interracial dining experiences in the campus cafeteria…

  16. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Benschop; N. Liebregts; P. van der Pol; R. Schaap; R. Buisman; M. van Laar; W. van den Brink; R. de Graaf; D.J. Korf

    2014-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥3 days per week) c

  17. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2' NUREG-0683

  18. Expression and clinical significance of genes frequently mutated in small cell lung cancers defined by whole exome/RNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Iwakawa, Reika; Kohno, Takashi; Totoki, Yasushi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Mimaki, Sachiyo; Tsuta, Koji; NARITA, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Ryo; Noguchi, Masayuki; Harris, Curtis C.; Robles, Ana I.; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    We identified the TMEM132D, SPTA1 and VPS13B genes as frequently mutated and expressed in any progression stage of SCLC, in addition to known tumor suppressor genes, TP53, RB1 and PTEN. These genes could be involved in SCLC development, and their mutated gene products will be promising therapeutic targets in SCLC patients.

  19. Lower Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex Density Associated with More Frequent Exposure to Television and Movie Violence in Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Pulaski, Sarah J.; Openshaw, Anne E.; Zamboni, Giovanna; Meer, Elke van der; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between cortical grey matter density and media violence exposure in healthy male adolescents was investigated using voxel-based morphometry and the Childrens’ Report of Exposure to Violence. Adolescents with more frequent exposure have lower left lateral orbitofrontal cortex density - a possible risk factor for altered socio-emotional functioning.

  20. Oncogene mutations, copy number gains and mutant allele specific imbalance (MASI frequently occur together in tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Soh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activating mutations in one allele of an oncogene (heterozygous mutations are widely believed to be sufficient for tumorigenesis. However, mutant allele specific imbalance (MASI has been observed in tumors and cell lines harboring mutations of oncogenes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined 1 mutational status, 2 copy number gains (CNGs and 3 relative ratio between mutant and wild type alleles of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and EGFR genes by direct sequencing and quantitative PCR assay in over 400 human tumors, cell lines, and xenografts of lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. Examination of a public database indicated that homozygous mutations of five oncogenes were frequent (20% in 833 cell lines of 12 tumor types. Our data indicated two major forms of MASI: 1 MASI with CNG, either complete or partial; and 2 MASI without CNG (uniparental disomy; UPD, due to complete loss of wild type allele. MASI was a frequent event in mutant EGFR (75% and was due mainly to CNGs, while MASI, also frequent in mutant KRAS (58%, was mainly due to UPD. Mutant: wild type allelic ratios at the genomic level were precisely maintained after transcription. KRAS mutations or CNGs were significantly associated with increased ras GTPase activity, as measured by ELISA, and the two molecular changes were synergistic. Of 237 lung adenocarcinoma tumors, the small number with both KRAS mutation and CNG were associated with shortened survival. CONCLUSIONS: MASI is frequently present in mutant EGFR and KRAS tumor cells, and is associated with increased mutant allele transcription and gene activity. The frequent finding of mutations, CNGs and MASI occurring together in tumor cells indicates that these three genetic alterations, acting together, may have a greater role in the development or maintenance of the malignant phenotype than any individual alteration.

  1. Patterns of magnetic resonance imaging bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis--which bones are most frequently involved and show the most change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Møller Døhn, Uffe; Duer-Jensen, A;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which bones in wrists and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints most frequently show bone erosions, and which most frequently demonstrate erosive progression, in early and established rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which bones in wrists and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints most frequently show bone erosions, and which most frequently demonstrate erosive progression, in early and established rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  2. Patterns of magnetic resonance imaging bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis - which bones are most frequently involved and show the most change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Mikkel; Møller Døhn, Uffe; Duer-Jensen, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which bones in wrists and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints most frequently show bone erosions, and which most frequently demonstrate erosive progression, in early and established rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which bones in wrists and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints most frequently show bone erosions, and which most frequently demonstrate erosive progression, in early and established rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  3. Frequent intragenic deletion of the P gene in Tanzanian patients with Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spritz, R.; Fukai, K.; Holmes, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. OCA2, which results from mutations of the P gene, is the most frequent type of albinism in African and African-American patients. OCA2 is especially frequent in Tanzania, where it occurs with an incidence of {approximately}1/1,400. We have identified abnormalities of the P gene in each of 13 unrelated patients with OCA2 from Tanzania. One of these, a deletion of exon 7, is strongly predominant, accounting for {approximately}77% of mutant alleles in this group of patients. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network for Frequently Changing Application Traffic in Content-Based Publish/Subscribe System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strategy reconfigures the topology of the overlay network based on this predicting information to reduce the overall traffic cost. A predicting path is also introduced in this paper to reduce the reconfiguration numbers in the process of the reconfigurations. Compared to other strategies, the experimental results show that the strategy proposed in this paper could reduce the overall traffic cost of the publish/subscribe system in less reconfigurations.

  5. Highly frequent promoter methylation and PIK3CA amplification in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified frequently in lung cancer, such as promoter methylation, gene mutations and genomic amplification. However, the interaction between genetic and epigenetic events and their significance in lung tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. We determined the promoter methylation of 6 genes and PIK3CA amplification using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP) and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively, and explore the association of promoter methylation with PIK3CA amplification in a large cohort of clinically well-characterized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Highly frequent promoter methylation was observed in NSCLC. With 100% diagnostic specificity, excellent sensitivity, ranging from 45.8 to 84.1%, was found for each of the 6 genes. The promoter methylation was associated with histologic type. Methylation of CALCA, CDH1, DAPK1, and EVX2 was more common in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) compared to adenocarcinomas (ADC). Conversely, there was a trend toward a higher frequency of RASSF1A methylation in ADC than SCC. In addition, PIK3CA amplification was frequently found in NSCLC, and was associated with certain clinicopathologic features, such as smoking history, histologic type and pleural indentation. Importantly, aberrant promoter methylation of certain genes was significantly associated with PIK3CA amplification. Our data showed highly frequent promoter methylation and PIK3CA amplification in Chinese NSCLC population, and first demonstrated the associations of gene methylation with PIK3CA amplification, suggesting that these epigenetic events may be a consequence of overactivation of PI3K/Akt pathway

  6. How Frequent is Chronic Multiyear Delusional Activity and Recovery in Schizophrenia: A 20-Year Multi–follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Martin; Jobe, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine how frequent chronic multiyear delusional activity is in modern-day schizophrenia, we studied 200 patients over a 20-year period. We also studied the relation of delusions to hallucinations and thought disorder-disorganization, to work disability, and to later periods of global recovery and assessed several protective factors against delusional activity. The sample was assessed 6 times over 20 years and includes 43 patients with schizophrenia. Participants were evaluated at each ...

  7. Highly frequent promoter methylation and PIK3CA amplification in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Bingyin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified frequently in lung cancer, such as promoter methylation, gene mutations and genomic amplification. However, the interaction between genetic and epigenetic events and their significance in lung tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Methods We determined the promoter methylation of 6 genes and PIK3CA amplification using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively, and explore the association of promoter methylation with PIK3CA amplification in a large cohort of clinically well-characterized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Results Highly frequent promoter methylation was observed in NSCLC. With 100% diagnostic specificity, excellent sensitivity, ranging from 45.8 to 84.1%, was found for each of the 6 genes. The promoter methylation was associated with histologic type. Methylation of CALCA, CDH1, DAPK1, and EVX2 was more common in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC compared to adenocarcinomas (ADC. Conversely, there was a trend toward a higher frequency of RASSF1A methylation in ADC than SCC. In addition, PIK3CA amplification was frequently found in NSCLC, and was associated with certain clinicopathologic features, such as smoking history, histologic type and pleural indentation. Importantly, aberrant promoter methylation of certain genes was significantly associated with PIK3CA amplification. Conclusions Our data showed highly frequent promoter methylation and PIK3CA amplification in Chinese NSCLC population, and first demonstrated the associations of gene methylation with PIK3CA amplification, suggesting that these epigenetic events may be a consequence of overactivation of PI3K/Akt pathway.

  8. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: Converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people regularly play so-called Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs. Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions – show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW-players and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed 1 trait sensitivity to reward, 2 BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum and 3 ventral-striatal resting state dynamics. We find a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state. On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait sensitivity to reward, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers.

  9. Hypopigmentation Induced by Frequent Low-Fluence, Large-Spot-Size QS Nd:YAG Laser Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Yisheng; Lee, Siong See Joyce; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-01-01

    The Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG) laser is increasingly used for nonablative skin rejuvenation or "laser toning" for melasma. Multiple and frequent low-fluence, large-spot-size treatments are used to achieve laser toning, and these treatments are associated with the development of macular hypopigmentation as a complication. We present a case series of three patients who developed guttate hypomelanotic macules on the face after receiving laser t...

  10. Asymptotics and estimates for the eigenelements of the Laplacian with frequently alternating non-periodic boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, D I

    2003-12-31

    We consider a singularly perturbed spectral boundary-value problem for the Laplace operator in a two-dimensional domain with frequently alternating non-periodic boundary conditions. Under certain very weak restrictions on the alternation structure of the boundary conditions, we obtain the first terms of the asymptotic expansions of the eigenelements of this problem. Under still weaker restrictions, we obtain estimates for the rate of convergence of the eigenvalues.

  11. Reproductive status of Onchocerca volvulus after ivermectin treatment in an ivermectin-naive and a frequently treated population from Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues C Nana-Djeunga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For two decades, onchocerciasis control has been based on mass treatment with ivermectin (IVM, repeated annually or six-monthly. This drug kills Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf present in the skin and the eyes (microfilaricidal effect and prevents for 3-4 months the release of new mf by adult female worms (embryostatic effect. In some Ghanaian communities, the long-term use of IVM was associated with a more rapid than expected skin repopulation by mf after treatment. Here, we assessed whether the embryostatic effect of IVM on O. volvulus has been altered following frequent treatment in Cameroonian patients.Onchocercal nodules were surgically removed just before (D0 and 80 days (D80 after a standard dose of IVM in two cohorts with different treatment histories: a group who had received repeated doses of IVM over 13 years, and a control group with no history of large-scale treatments. Excised nodules were digested with collagenase to isolate adult worms. Embryograms were prepared with females for the evaluation of their reproductive capacities.Oocyte production was not affected by IVM. The mean number of intermediate embryos (morulae and coiled mf decreased similarly in the two groups between D0 and D80. In contrast, an accumulation of stretched mf, either viable or degenerating, was observed at D80. However, it was observed that the increase in number of degenerating mf between D0 and D80 was much lower in the frequently treated group than in the control one (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10-0.63; p = 0.003, which may indicate a reduced sequestration of mf in the worms from the frequently treated group.IVM still had an embryostatic effect on O. volvulus, but the effect was reduced in the frequently treated cohort compared with the control population.

  12. The effects of frequent electroejaculation on the semen characteristics of a captive Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Daisuke; Nagano, Masashi; NAKAMURA, Ryohei; BANDO, Gen; NAKATA, Shinichi; KOSUGE, Masao; SAKAMOTO, Hideyuki; MATSUI, Motozumi; YANAGAWA, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) can help to avoid inbreeding and genetic degeneration for sustaining genetically healthy populations of endangered species in captivity. Collection of a sufficient quantity of viable sperm is an essential first step in the AI process. In the present study, we examined the effects of frequent electroejaculation on semen characteristics in a Siberian tiger. We collected semen in all 17 trials during 6 breeding seasons (6 years). The mean number of sperm and the perc...

  13. The Effects of Frequent Electroejaculation on the Semen Characteristics of a Captive Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Daisuke; Nagano, Masashi; NAKAMURA, Ryohei; BANDO, Gen; NAKATA, Shinichi; KOSUGE, Masao; SAKAMOTO, Hideyuki; MATSUI, Motozumi; YANAGAWA, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) can help to avoid inbreeding and genetic degeneration for sustaining genetically healthy populations of endangered species in captivity. Collection of a sufficient quantity of viable sperm is an essential first step in the AI process. In the present study, we examined the effects of frequent electroejaculation on semen characteristics in a Siberian tiger. We collected semen in all 17 trials during 6 breeding seasons (6 years). The mean number of sperm and the perc...

  14. Emergency Department Frequent Utilization for Non-Emergent Presentments: Results from a Regional Urban Trauma Center Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua G Behr

    Full Text Available First, to test a model of the drivers of frequent emergency department utilization conceptualized as falling within predisposing, enabling, and need dimensions. Second, to extend the model to include social networks and service quality as predictors of frequent utilization. Third, to illustrate the variation in thresholds that define frequent utilization in terms of the number of emergency department encounters by the predictors within the model.Primary data collection over an eight week period within a level-1 trauma urban hospital's emergency department.Representative randomized sample of 1,443 adult patients triaged ESI levels 4-5. Physicians and research staff interviewed patients as they received services. Relationships with the outcome variable, utilization, were tested using logistic regression to establish odds-ratios.70.6 percent of patients have two or more, 48.3 percent have three or more, 25.3 percent have four or more, and 14.9 percent have five or more emergency department visits within 12 months. Factors associated with frequent utilization include gender, race, poor mental health, mental health drugs, prescription drug abuse, social networks, employment, perceptions of service quality, seriousness of condition, persistence of condition, and previous hospital admittance.Interventions targeting associated factors will change global emergency department encounters, although the mutability varies. Policy interventions to address predisposing factors such as substance abuse or access to mental health treatment as well as interventions that speak to enabling factors such as promoting the resiliency of social networks may result in decreased frequency of emergency department utilization.

  15. Floral miniaturisation and autogamy in boreal-arctic plants are epitomised by Iceland’s most frequent orchid, Platanthera hyperborea

    OpenAIRE

    Richard M. Bateman; Gábor Sramkó; Rudall, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. This paper concludes our series of publications comparing island and mainland speciation in European butterfly-orchids, by studying the morphology, phylogenetics and reproductive biology of the controversial circum-arctic species Platanthera (Limnorchis) hyperborea—the most frequent of seven Icelandic orchids. We draw particular attention to its phylogenetic placement, remarkable reproductive biology and morphological convergence on other Platanthera lineages through flor...

  16. Frequent and specific immunity to the embryonal stem cell–associated antigen SOX2 in patients with monoclonal gammopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Spisek, Radek; Kukreja, Anjli; Chen, Lin-Chi; Matthews, Phillip; Mazumder, Amitabha; Vesole, David; Jagannath, Sundar; Zebroski, Henry A.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Ritter, Gerd; Durie, Brian; Crowley, John; Shaughnessy, John D.; Scanlan, Matthew J; Gure, Ali O.

    2007-01-01

    Specific targets of cellular immunity in human premalignancy are largely unknown. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) represents a precursor lesion to myeloma (MM). We show that antigenic targets of spontaneous immunity in MGUS differ from MM. MGUS patients frequently mount a humoral and cellular immune response against SOX2, a gene critical for self-renewal in embryonal stem cells. Intranuclear expression of SOX2 marks the clonogenic CD138− compartment in MGUS. SOX2 exp...

  17. The Role of Study and Work in Cannabis Use and Dependence Trajectories among Young Adult Frequent Cannabis Users

    OpenAIRE

    Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; van Laar, Margriet; de Graaf, Ron; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.

    2013-01-01

    Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interv...

  18. Rural residence is not a risk factor for frequent mental distress: a behavioral risk factor surveillance survey

    OpenAIRE

    Borders Tyrone F; Rohrer James E; Blanton Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Residents of rural areas may be at increased risk of mental health problems. If so, public health programs aimed at preventing poor mental health may have to be customized for delivery to rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between residing in a rural area and frequent mental distress, which is one indicator of poor mental health. Methods The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey for the state of Texas was the source o...

  19. Adjunctive long-acting risperidone in patients with bipolar disorder who relapse frequently and have active mood symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Haskins John T; Turkoz Ibrahim; Adler Caleb M; Macfadden Wayne; Turner Norris; Alphs Larry

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this exploratory analysis was to characterize efficacy and onset of action of a 3-month treatment period with risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI), adjunctive to an individual's treatment regimen, in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapsed frequently and had significant symptoms of mania and/or depression. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder with ≥4 mood episodes in the past 12 months entered the open-label stabilization phase preced...

  20. A Framework for automatic generation of answers to conceptual questions in Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) based Question Answering System

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Pal; Sudipta Bhattacharya; Indrani Datta; Arindam Chakravorty

    2012-01-01

    Question Answering System [QAS] generates answer to various questions imposed by users. The QAS uses documents or knowledge base for extracting the answers to factoid questions and conceptual questions. Use of Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) base gives a satisfying results to QAS, but the limitation with FAQ base system is in the preparation of Question and Answer set as most of the questions are not predetermined.QAS using FAQ base fails if no semantically related questions are found in base...

  1. Linking Online Gaming and Addictive Behavior: Converging Evidence for a General Reward Deficiency in Frequent Online Gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW) – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addict...

  2. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online garners

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Tim; Karolien, Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG "World of VVarcraft" (WoW) similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addicti...

  3. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: Converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Hahn; Karolien Hilde Notebaert; Thomas Dresler; Linda Kowarsch

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW) – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictio...

  4. Learning support for mature, part-time, evening students: providing feedback via frequent, computer-based assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, Glenn K.; Rayne, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    A new module in our first year Biology curriculum was used as a vehicle to test strategies for improving learning support. To this end, we have administered frequent CBA, incorporating extensive feedback, both to pace the students’ study efforts and to pinpoint areas in which additional help from lecturers may be required. Three of the 7 CBA provided through the 15-week course were initially given as open-book summative tests, thus contributing to the overall mark for the module. Oth...

  5. How oligoclonal are germinal centers? A new method for estimating clonal diversity from immunohistological sections

    OpenAIRE

    Faro, Jose; Or-Guil, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Background The germinal center (GC) reaction leads to antibody affinity maturation and generation of memory B cells, but its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To assemble this puzzle, several key pieces of information are needed, one in particular being the number of participating B cell clones. Since this clonal diversity cannot be observed directly, earlier studies resorted to interpreting two types of available experimental data: Immunohistology of GCs containing two phenotypica...

  6. Oligoclonal band status in Scandinavian multiple sclerosis patients is associated with specific genetic risk alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mero, Inger-Lise; Gustavsen, Marte W; Sæther, Hanne S;

    2013-01-01

    OCB status. GWAS data was compared in 1367 OCB positive and 161 OCB negative Scandinavian MS patients, and nine of the most associated SNPs were genotyped for replication in 3403 Scandinavian MS patients. HLA-DRB1 genotypes were analyzed in a subset of the OCB positive (n = 2781) and OCB negative (n...... = 292) MS patients and compared to 890 healthy controls. Results from the genome-wide analyses showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the HLA complex and six other loci were associated to OCB status. In SNPs selected for replication, combined analyses showed genome-wide significant...... association for two SNPs in the HLA complex; rs3129871 (p = 5.7×10(-15)) and rs3817963 (p = 5.7×10(-10)) correlating with the HLA-DRB1*15 and the HLA-DRB1*04 alleles, respectively. We also found suggestive association to one SNP in the Calsyntenin-2 gene (p = 8.83×10(-7)). In HLA-DRB1 analyses HLA-DRB1...

  7. T cells expressing VHH-directed oligoclonal chimeric HER2 antigen receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamnani, Fatemeh Rahimi; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali;

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) originated from antibodies is a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy. Several unsuccessful trials, however, highlight the need for alternative conventional binding domains and the better combination of...... costimulatory endodomains for CAR construction to improve the effector functions of the engineered T cells. Camelid single-domain antibodies (VHHs), which are the smallest single domain antibodies, can endow great targeting ability to CAR-engineered T cells....

  8. Development of oligoclonal nanobodies for targeting the tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali;

    2013-01-01

    The tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) is a membrane mucin whose over-expression is correlated with advanced tumor stage and increased invasion and metastasis. In this study, we identified a panel of four nanobodies, single variable domains of dromedary heavy-chain antibodies that specific...

  9. Mining frequent items on stream data%流数据上的频繁项挖掘算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠莉; 陈崚

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种流数据上的频繁项挖掘算法(SW-COUNT).该算法通过数据采样技术挖掘滑动窗口下的数据流频繁项.给定的误差ε,SW-COUNT可以在O(ε-1)空间复杂度下,检测误差在εn内的数据流频繁项,对每个数据项的平均处理时间为O(1).大量的实验证明,该算法比其他类似算法具有较好的精度质量以及时间和空间效率.%A frequent items mining algorithm of stream data (SW-COUNT) was proposed, which used data sampling technique to mine frequent items of data flow under sliding windows. Given an error thresholdε, SW-COUNT can detect ε-approximate frequent items of a data stream using O(ε-1) memory space and the processing time for each data item was 0(1). A lot of experiments show that SW-COUNT outperforms other methods in terms of the accuracy, memory requirement, and time and space efficiency.

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms Are More Frequent in Female than Male Young Healthy Japanese Volunteers as Evaluated by Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Hiroharu; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tsuruoka, Nanae; Hara, Megumi; Yamamoto, Koji; Hidaka, Hidenori; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Shimoda, Ryo; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Kusano, Motoyasu; Fujimoto, Kazuma

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Upper gastrointestinal symptoms are more frequent and severe in female than in male outpatients in Japan. This study compared the upper gastrointestinal symptoms between healthy male and female young adult volunteers using a questionnaire. Methods In total, 581 third-grade medical students at Saga Medical School aged 22 to 30 years underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and completed a questionnaire (frequency scale for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease) from 2007 to 2013. Of these 581 students, 298 who were negative for Helicobacter pylori infection and had no particular lesions on endoscopic examination were enrolled in the present evaluation. A symptom was defined as positive when the subject evaluated the frequency of the symptom as sometimes, often, or always. Results The subjects comprised of 163 males (average age, 23.7 years) and 135 females (average age, 23.1 years). Upper gastrointestinal symptoms were more frequent in the females (75 of 135, 55.6%) than males (69 of 163, 42.3%; P eating meals). Of the 144 subjects (69 males and 75 females) who complained of these symptoms, the females complained of dysmotility symptoms more often than did the males, but this was not true for reflux symptoms. Conclusions This study suggests that females develop upper gastrointestinal symptoms more frequently than do males among the young healthy Japanese population. PMID:26755685

  11. The effects of frequent electroejaculation on the semen characteristics of a captive Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Daisuke; Nagano, Masashi; Nakamura, Ryohei; Bando, Gen; Nakata, Shinichi; Kosuge, Masao; Sakamoto, Hideyuki; Matsui, Motozumi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) can help to avoid inbreeding and genetic degeneration for sustaining genetically healthy populations of endangered species in captivity. Collection of a sufficient quantity of viable sperm is an essential first step in the AI process. In the present study, we examined the effects of frequent electroejaculation on semen characteristics in a Siberian tiger. We collected semen in all 17 trials during 6 breeding seasons (6 years). The mean number of sperm and the percentage of motile sperm were 294.3 ± 250.2 × 10⁶/ejaculate and 82.4 ± 11.4%, respectively. The number of motile sperm tended to increase during frequent electroejaculation in the same breeding season. Semen collection by electroejaculation can be performed effectively up to the fourth sequential ejaculate, which contained the most sperm in the study. In conclusion, frequent collection of sperm by electroejaculation from tigers may be effective for collection of a large number of motile sperm. PMID:23774799

  12. Acupuncture for Frequent Migraine: A Randomized, Patient/Assessor Blinded, Controlled Trial with One-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of manual acupuncture as a prophylaxis for frequent migraine. Methods. Fifty frequent migraineurs were randomly allocated to receive 16 sessions of either real acupuncture (RA = 26 or sham acupuncture (SA = 24 during 20 weeks. The primary outcomes were days with migraine over four weeks, duration, and intensity of migraine and the number of responders with more than 50% reduction of migraine days. The secondary outcomes were the relief medication, quality of migraine, quality of life, and pressure pain thresholds. Results. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At the end of the treatment, when compared with the SA group, the RA group reported significant less migraine days (RA: 5.2 ± 5.0; SA: 10.1 ± 7.1; P=0.008, less severe migraine (RA: 2.18 ± 1.05; SA: 2.93 ± 0.61; P=0.004, more responders (RA: 19 versus SA: 7, and increased pressure pain thresholds. No other group difference was found. Group differences were maintained at the end of the three-month follow-up, but not at the one-year follow-up. No severe adverse event was reported. Blinding was successful. Discussion. Manual acupuncture was an effective and safe treatment for short-term relief of frequent migraine in adults. Larger trials are warranted.

  13. Rural residence is not a risk factor for frequent mental distress: a behavioral risk factor surveillance survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borders Tyrone F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residents of rural areas may be at increased risk of mental health problems. If so, public health programs aimed at preventing poor mental health may have to be customized for delivery to rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between residing in a rural area and frequent mental distress, which is one indicator of poor mental health. Methods The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS survey for the state of Texas was the source of information about obesity, demographic characteristics, and frequent mental distress (FMD. FMD was defined as poor self-rated mental health during at least half of the days in the last month. Adjusted odds for FMD were computed for rural and suburban respondents relative to urban respondents. Results FMD was found to be independently associated with lower education, being younger, being non-Hispanic, being unmarried, and being female. FMD also was associated with being obese or underweight and suburban residence (relative to metro-central city. FMD was not more common among rural respondents than in the metro-central city. Conclusion Rural respondents were not at greater risk of frequent mental distress than urban respondents in this sample. Programs seeking to improve community mental health should target persons with less education and extremes in body weight, along with women and single persons, regardless of whether they live in rural or urban areas.

  14. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intimacy & IC Support for Men Children & IC La Cistitis Intersticial IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and ... Intimacy & IC Support for Men Children & IC La Cistitis Intersticial IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and ...

  15. Keratoconus Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help orient us in space. Anything that disturbs inner ear function or vision can disrupt balance. ... National Keratoconus Foundation The NKCF is an educational program of The Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, UC Irvine , ...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions: Hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pictures Young Voices Compendium of Assessment Tools Educational Games Video Library Find a Treatment Centre Haemophilia Journal About Bleeding Disorders Bleeding Disorders The Clotting Process Drugs That Can Cause Bleeding Hemophilia How Do You ...

  17. Physicians: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a doctor as well. How do I finance my studies in medicine? See Paying for medical ... Wire® AMA Newsletters The JAMA Network JAMA (The Journal of the American Medical Association) JAMA Cardiology JAMA ...

  18. Arthritis: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to complications from the flu? 1. What is arthritis? The word arthritis actually means joint inflammation, but ... for you. 2. Who is at risk for arthritis? Certain factors are associated with a greater risk ...

  19. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemovigilance Membership AABB HUB Membership Directory Corporate Supporters Advertise Copyright © AABB. Privacy Statement | Terms of Use | About AABB | Contact Us Facebook Twitter Youtube LinkedIn

  20. Frequent pattern mining

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2014-01-01

    Proposes numerous methods to solve some of the most fundamental problems in data mining and machine learning Presents various simplified perspectives, providing a range of information to benefit both students and practitioners Includes surveys on key research content, case studies and future research directions

  1. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and infection . Q: Do pertussis vaccines protect from serious disease? A: If you've been vaccinated and get ... of any age can catch this very contagious disease. But if you've been vaccinated, your infection is usually less serious. If you or your child develops a cold ...

  2. The analysisof frequent adjustments of legal deposit reserve ratio of People's Bank of Ghina%The analysisof frequent adjustments of legal deposit reserve ratio of People's Bank of Ghina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓敏

    2012-01-01

    In China, there are three effective weapons of central bank's monetary policy namely open market operations, discount lending and reserve deposit requirement.According to history record, PBOC has a preference to use reserve deposit requirement to achieve the desired economic goal. Reserve deposit requirement system plays a crucial role in controlling the volume of monetary credit and adjusting liquidity and interest rate of monetary market. Since 2008, due to the unsteady economic status, the legal deposit reserve ratio has been adjusted for 25 times. An thorough research to the reasons for such frequent adjustment and its effects is highly needed.

  3. Immunological characteristics and T-cell receptor clonal diversity in children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis undergoing T-cell-depleted autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Pesenacker, Anne M; Stansfield, Alka; King, Douglas; Barge, Dawn; Foster, Helen E; Abinun, Mario; Wedderburn, Lucy R

    2014-06-01

    Children with systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA), the most severe subtype of JIA, are at risk from destructive polyarthritis and growth failure, and corticosteroids as part of conventional treatment can result in osteoporosis and growth delay. In children where there is failure or toxicity from drug therapies, disease has been successfully controlled by T-cell-depleted autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). At present, the immunological basis underlying remission after ASCT is unknown. Immune reconstitution of T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells and monocytes, in parallel with T-cell receptor (TCR) diversity by analysis of the β variable region (TCRVb) complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) using spectratyping and sequencing, were studied in five children with sJIA before and after ASCT. At time of follow up (mean 11.5 years), four patients remain in complete remission, while one child relapsed within 1 month of transplant. The CD8(+) TCRVb repertoire was highly oligoclonal early in immune reconstitution and re-emergence of pre-transplant TCRVb CDR3 dominant peaks was observed after transplant in certain TCRVb families. Further, re-emergence of pre-ASCT clonal sequences in addition to new sequences was identified after transplant. These results suggest that a chimeric TCR repertoire, comprising T-cell clones developed before and after transplant, can be associated with clinical remission from severe arthritis. PMID:24405357

  4. Adjunctive long-acting risperidone in patients with bipolar disorder who relapse frequently and have active mood symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haskins John T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this exploratory analysis was to characterize efficacy and onset of action of a 3-month treatment period with risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI, adjunctive to an individual's treatment regimen, in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapsed frequently and had significant symptoms of mania and/or depression. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder with ≥4 mood episodes in the past 12 months entered the open-label stabilization phase preceding a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Subjects with significant depressive or manic/mixed symptoms at baseline were analyzed. Significant depressive symptoms were defined as Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS ≥16 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS t tests; categorical differences were assessed using Fisher exact test. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Results 162 subjects who relapsed frequently met criteria for significant mood symptoms at open-label baseline; 59/162 (36.4% had depressive symptoms, 103/162 (63.6% had manic/mixed symptoms. Most subjects (89.5% were receiving ≥1 medication for bipolar disorder before enrollment. Significant improvements were observed for the total population on the CGI-BP-S, MADRS, and YMRS scales (p Conclusions Exploratory analysis of changes in overall clinical status and depression/mania symptoms in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapse frequently showed improvements in each of these areas after treatment with RLAI, adjunctive to a subject's individualized treatment. Prospective controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  5. 一种新的频繁子图挖掘算法%New Algorithm of Mining Frequent Subgraph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敦景峰; 张伟; 柴然

    2011-01-01

    传统Aprior频繁子图挖掘算法中存在大量冗余子图.针对该问题,提出一种新的频繁子图挖掘算法(GAI).介绍一种三层MADI索引结构,用于存储图集的信息,以减少图集的扫描次数,通过扩展ETree树构造频繁子图,并用表来存储候选子图,避免扩展过程中冗余图的产生以及对整个数据库的扫描,从而简化支持度的计算,提高图/子图同构的查询效率.实验结果表明,与Aprior算法相比,GAI 的挖掘效率更高.%In order to resolve the problem of traditional Apriori algorithm that exists redundancy subgraphs when mining frequent subgraph, a new frequent subgraph mining algorithm called GAI is proposed. To reduce the number of scanning database, MADI index structure of three levels is proposed to store the information of graphs. It uses the expansion of the Etree to construct the frequent graph, and uses tables to store candidate subgraphs. It is avoided the redundancy subgraphs in expansion processing and scanning the entire database. It greatly simplifies the calculation of support degree and improves the query efficiency of graph isomorphism and subgraph isomorphism. Experimental results show GAI has the higher mining efficiency than Apriori algorithm.

  6. Population structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from five Mediterranean countries: evidence for frequent recombination and epidemic occurrence of CC235.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaoui Maatallah

    Full Text Available Several studies in recent years have provided evidence that Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a non-clonal population structure punctuated by highly successful epidemic clones or clonal complexes. The role of recombination in the diversification of P. aeruginosa clones has been suggested, but not yet demonstrated using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from five Mediterranean countries (n = 141 were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, serotyping and PCR targeting the virulence genes exoS and exoU. The occurrence of multi-resistance (≥ 3 antipseudomonal drugs was analyzed with disk diffusion according to EUCAST. MLST was performed on a subset of strains (n = 110 most of them had a distinct PFGE variant. MLST data were analyzed with Bionumerics 6.0, using minimal spanning tree (MST as well as eBURST. Measurement of clonality was assessed by the standardized index of association (I(A (S. Evidence of recombination was estimated by ClonalFrame as well as SplitsTree4.0. The MST analysis connected 70 sequence types, among which ST235 was by far the most common. ST235 was very frequently associated with the O11 serotype, and frequently displayed multi-resistance and the virulence genotype exoS⁻/exoU⁺. ClonalFrame linked several groups previously identified by eBURST and MST, and provided insight to the evolutionary events occurring in the population; the recombination/mutation ratio was found to be 8.4. A Neighbor-Net analysis based on the concatenated sequences revealed a complex network, providing evidence of frequent recombination. The index of association when all the strains were considered indicated a freely recombining population. P. aeruginosa isolates from the Mediterranean countries display an epidemic population structure, particularly dominated by ST235-O11, which has earlier also been coupled to the spread of ß-lactamases in many countries.

  7. Hypopigmentation Induced by Frequent Low-Fluence, Large-Spot-Size QS Nd:YAG Laser Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yisheng; Lee, Siong See Joyce; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-12-01

    The Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG) laser is increasingly used for nonablative skin rejuvenation or "laser toning" for melasma. Multiple and frequent low-fluence, large-spot-size treatments are used to achieve laser toning, and these treatments are associated with the development of macular hypopigmentation as a complication. We present a case series of three patients who developed guttate hypomelanotic macules on the face after receiving laser toning treatment with QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG. PMID:26719647

  8. Frequently asked questions in the interpretation of preoperative and postoperative chest CT scans related to lung cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of multidetector-row CT, lung cancer imaging is much more promising than before. However, the effectiveness of multidetector-row CT in making an initial diagnosis, staging, and evaluating post-treatment changes of lung cancer still remains to be proved. Fast imaging along with volumetric data set and attendant multi-planar imaging provide much more details on the anatomic changes and pathology associated with lung cancer. However, with images showing anatomic and pathologic changes only, radiologists confront with several questions the answers of which may help evaluate lung cancer more thoroughly. The frequent questions that I have in daily practice of chest CT interpretation are as follows

  9. Liquid Metal Flow Can Be One Clue to Explain the Frequently Observed Fluid-Like Matters on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jing; Gao, Yunxia; Li, Huangde

    2013-01-01

    The frequently discovered flooding structure on Mars and other planets has long been an intriguing mystery remained un-disclosed so far. Considering that on Earth, quite a few low melting point liquid metals or their alloy can be candidates of fluid like matters, we proposed here that there might also exists certain liquid metal instead of water or methane alone on Mars or the like planets. Compared with water, such liquid metal would be much easier to stay at the Mars surface because of its ...

  10. Trace metal ions in hair from frequent hair dyers in China and the associated effects on photo-oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Dyer, Jolon M; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Li, Qiao

    2016-03-01

    Human hairs are subject to oxidative modification when exposed to sunlight. In the present study, samples of human hair from Chinese volunteers that included frequent hair dyers and non-dyers were analyzed for metal ions such as iron, copper, magnesium, aluminum, zinc and lead. The generation of hydroxyl radicals during UVA (315-400nm) photoageing was quantified and oxidative damages characterized by proteomic and SEM analysis. It was concluded that high levels of metal ions, particularly those derived from iron and copper, identified in the dyed hairs are associated with enhanced photoformation of hydroxyl radicals and resultant photooxidative damage of the hair. Reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals, generated via an electron transfer mechanism with hair photosensitizers react with hair proteins. Proteomic analysis of hair samples from frequent hair dyers, regardless of age and gender, showed an almost 1.6 fold increase in the protein oxidative modification levels compared to the undyed samples. As a result, a more pronounced physical damage including fragmentation and cross-linkage of cuticle scales was observed on the surface of dyed hair samples during the photoageing. This work is aimed at better understanding the role of metal ions in dyed hairs and their possible role in photosensitizing hair proteins. The results from this study are anticipated to contribute to the improved development of hair coloring cosmetics and hair care products. PMID:26803274

  11. Positive selection results in frequent reversible amino acid replacements in the G protein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane F Botosso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age and the elderly, causing annual disease outbreaks during the fall and winter. Multiple lineages of the HRSVA and HRSVB serotypes co-circulate within a single outbreak and display a strongly temporal pattern of genetic variation, with a replacement of dominant genotypes occurring during consecutive years. In the present study we utilized phylogenetic methods to detect and map sites subject to adaptive evolution in the G protein of HRSVA and HRSVB. A total of 29 and 23 amino acid sites were found to be putatively positively selected in HRSVA and HRSVB, respectively. Several of these sites defined genotypes and lineages within genotypes in both groups, and correlated well with epitopes previously described in group A. Remarkably, 18 of these positively selected tended to revert in time to a previous codon state, producing a "flip-flop" phylogenetic pattern. Such frequent evolutionary reversals in HRSV are indicative of a combination of frequent positive selection, reflecting the changing immune status of the human population, and a limited repertoire of functionally viable amino acids at specific amino acid sites.

  12. How Honey Bee Colonies Survive in the Wild: Testing the Importance of Small Nests and Frequent Swarming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, J Carter; Smith, Michael L; Seeley, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, and the viruses that it transmits, kill the colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera) kept by beekeepers unless the bees are treated with miticides. Nevertheless, there exist populations of wild colonies of European honey bees that are persisting without being treated with miticides. We hypothesized that the persistence of these wild colonies is due in part to their habits of nesting in small cavities and swarming frequently. We tested this hypothesis by establishing two groups of colonies living either in small hives (42 L) without swarm-control treatments or in large hives (up to 168 L) with swarm-control treatments. We followed the colonies for two years and compared the two groups with respect to swarming frequency, Varroa infesttion rate, disease incidence, and colony survival. Colonies in small hives swarmed more often, had lower Varroa infestation rates, had less disease, and had higher survival compared to colonies in large hives. These results indicate that the smaller nest cavities and more frequent swarming of wild colonies contribute to their persistence without mite treatments. PMID:26968000

  13. How Honey Bee Colonies Survive in the Wild: Testing the Importance of Small Nests and Frequent Swarming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carter Loftus

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, and the viruses that it transmits, kill the colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera kept by beekeepers unless the bees are treated with miticides. Nevertheless, there exist populations of wild colonies of European honey bees that are persisting without being treated with miticides. We hypothesized that the persistence of these wild colonies is due in part to their habits of nesting in small cavities and swarming frequently. We tested this hypothesis by establishing two groups of colonies living either in small hives (42 L without swarm-control treatments or in large hives (up to 168 L with swarm-control treatments. We followed the colonies for two years and compared the two groups with respect to swarming frequency, Varroa infesttion rate, disease incidence, and colony survival. Colonies in small hives swarmed more often, had lower Varroa infestation rates, had less disease, and had higher survival compared to colonies in large hives. These results indicate that the smaller nest cavities and more frequent swarming of wild colonies contribute to their persistence without mite treatments.

  14. Post-mortem whole body computed tomography of opioid (heroin and methadone) fatalities: frequent findings and comparison to autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Surer, Eddie; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael; Schweitzer, Wolf [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Bern, Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Elliott, Marina [Simon Fraser University, Department of Archaeology, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Oestreich, Andrea; Kraemer, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)

  15. Yeast diversity in a traditional French cheese "Tomme d'orchies" reveals infrequent and frequent species with associated benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceugniez, Alexandre; Drider, Djamel; Jacques, Philippe; Coucheney, Françoise

    2015-12-01

    This study is aimed at unrevealing the yeast diversity of handmade cheese, Tomme d'orchies, produced and marketed in the north of France. A total of 185 yeast colonies were isolated from the surface and core of this cheese. From these, 80 morphologically different colonies were selected and subjected to rep-PCR analysis. The isolates were clustered into six distinct groups based on their DNA fingerprints. From each group, at least 30% of isolates were selected and identified to species level by biochemical characteristics (ID32C Api system) and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 26S rDNA regions. The isolates belonged to Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Kluyveromyces marxianus, frequently isolated, and less frequently isolated Saturnispora mendoncae and Clavispora lusitaniae. Two isolates designated as Kluyveromyces lactis (isolate S-3-05) and Kluyveromyces marxianus (isolate S-2-05) were non-hemolytic, sensitive to antifungal compounds and able to inhibit the growth of pathogens including Candida albicans, Listeria monocytogenes and some bacilli. PMID:26338133

  16. Post-mortem whole body computed tomography of opioid (heroin and methadone) fatalities: frequent findings and comparison to autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of Medical Domain Using CMARM: Confabulation Mapreduce Association Rule Mining Algorithm for Frequent and Rare Itemsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jyoti Gautam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Human Life span, disease is a major cause of illness and death in the modern society. There are various factors that are responsible for diseases like work environment, living and working conditions, agriculture and food production, housing, unemployment, individual life style etc. The early diagnosis of any disease that frequently and rarely occurs with the growing age can be helpful in curing the disease completely or to some extent. The long-term prognosis of patient records might be useful to find out the causes that are responsible for particular diseases. Therefore, human being can take early preventive measures to minimize the risk of diseases that may supervene with the growing age and hence increase the life expectancy chances. In this paper, a new CMARM: Confabulation-MapReduce based association rule mining algorithm is proposed for the analysis of medical data repository for both rare and frequent itemsets using an iterative MapReduce based framework inspired by cogency. Cogency is the probability of the assumed facts being true if the conclusion is true, means it is based on pairwise item conditional probability, so the proposed algorithm mine association rules by only one pass through the file. The proposed algorithm is also valuable for dealing with infrequent items due to its cogency inspired approach.

  18. Expression and clinical significance of genes frequently mutated in small cell lung cancers defined by whole exome/RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakawa, Reika; Kohno, Takashi; Totoki, Yasushi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Mimaki, Sachiyo; Tsuta, Koji; Narita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Ryo; Noguchi, Masayuki; Harris, Curtis C; Robles, Ana I; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru; Totsuka, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Yokota, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive type of lung cancer. Only 15% of SCLC patients survive beyond 2 years after diagnosis. Therefore, for the improvement of patients' outcome in this disease, it is necessary to identify genetic alterations applicable as therapeutic targets in SCLC cells. The purpose of this study is the identification of genes frequently mutated and expressed in SCLCs that will be targetable for therapy of SCLC patients. Exome sequencing was performed in 28 primary tumors and 16 metastatic tumors from 38 patients with SCLCs. Expression of mutant alleles was verified in 19 cases by RNA sequencing. TP53, RB1 and PTEN were identified as being significantly mutated genes. Additional 36 genes were identified as being frequently (≥10%) mutated in SCLCs by combining the results of this study and two recent studies. Mutated alleles were expressed in 8 of the 36 genes, TMEM132D, SPTA1, VPS13B, CSMD2, ANK2, ASTN1, ASPM and FBN3. In particular, the TMEM132D, SPTA1 and VPS13B genes were commonly mutated in both early and late stage tumors, primary tumors and metastases, and tumors before and after chemotherapy, as in the case of the TP53 and RB1 genes. Therefore, in addition to TP53, RB1 and PTEN, TMEM132D, SPTA1 and VPS13B could be also involved in SCLC development, with the products from their mutated alleles being potential therapeutic targets in SCLC patients. PMID:25863124

  19. Frequent and recent retrotransposition of orthologous genes plays a role in the evolution of sperm glycolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villena Fernando

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central metabolic pathway of glycolysis converts glucose to pyruvate, with the net production of 2 ATP and 2 NADH per glucose molecule. Each of the ten reactions in this pathway is typically catalyzed by multiple isozymes encoded by a multigene family. Several isozymes in this pathway are expressed only during spermatogenesis, and gene targeting studies indicate that they are essential for sperm function and male fertility in mouse. At least three of the novel glycolytic isozymes are encoded by retrogenes (Pgk2, Aldoart1, and Aldoart2. Their restricted expression profile suggests that retrotransposition may play a significant role in the evolution of sperm glycolytic enzymes. Results We conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of glycolytic enzymes in the human and mouse genomes and identified several intronless copies for all enzymes in the pathway, except Pfk. Within each gene family, a single orthologous gene was typically retrotransposed frequently and independently in both species. Several retroposed sequences maintained open reading frames (ORFs and/or provided evidence of alternatively spliced exons. We analyzed expression of sequences with ORFs and Gpi1 transcript in mouse spermatogenic cells. Conclusions Our analysis detected frequent, recent, and lineage-specific retrotransposition of orthologous glycolytic enzymes in the human and mouse genomes. Retrotransposition events are associated with LINE/LTR and genomic integration is random. We found evidence for the alternative splicing of parent genes. Many retroposed sequences have maintained ORFs, suggesting a functional role for these genes.

  20. Electrocardiogram PR Interval Is a Surrogate Marker to Predict New Occurrence of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Frequent Premature Atrial Contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Kwang Jin; Hwang, Jin Kyung; Choi, So Ra; Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Kyoung-Min

    2016-01-01

    The clinical significance of prolonged PR interval has not been evaluated in patients with frequent premature atrial contractions (PACs). We investigated whether prolonged PR interval could predict new occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with frequent PACs. We retrospectively analyzed 684 patients with frequent PACs (> 100 PACs/day) who performed repeated 24-hour Holter monitoring. Prolonged PR interval was defined as longer than 200 msec. Among 684 patients, 626 patients had n...

  1. Frequent seizures are associated with a network of gray matter atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Coan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS have diffuse subtle gray matter (GM atrophy detectable by MRI quantification analyses. However, it is not clear whether the etiology and seizure frequency are associated with this atrophy. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of GM atrophy and the influence of seizure frequency in patients with TLE and either normal MRI (TLE-NL or MRI signs of HS (TLE-HS. METHODS: We evaluated a group of 172 consecutive patients with unilateral TLE-HS or TLE-NL as defined by hippocampal volumetry and signal quantification (122 TLE-HS and 50 TLE-NL plus a group of 82 healthy individuals. Voxel-based morphometry was performed with VBM8/SPM8 in 3T MRIs. Patients with up to three complex partial seizures and no generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the previous year were considered to have infrequent seizures. Those who did not fulfill these criteria were considered to have frequent seizures. RESULTS: Patients with TLE-HS had more pronounced GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral mesial temporal structures, temporal lobe, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Patients with TLE-NL had more subtle GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Both TLE-HS and TLE-NL showed increased GM volume in the contralateral pons. TLE-HS patients with frequent seizures had more pronounced GM atrophy in extra-temporal regions than TLE-HS with infrequent seizures. Patients with TLE-NL and infrequent seizures had no detectable GM atrophy. In both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, the duration of epilepsy correlated with GM atrophy in extra-hippocampal regions. CONCLUSION: Although a diffuse network GM atrophy occurs in both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, this is strikingly more evident in TLE-HS and in patients with frequent seizures. These findings suggest that neocortical atrophy in TLE is related to the ongoing seizures and epilepsy duration, while thalamic

  2. Electrical PR Interval Variation Predicts New Occurrence of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Frequent Premature Atrial Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kwang Jin; Hwang, Jin Kyung; Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Kyoung-Min

    2016-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and fluctuation of autonomic tone is more prominent in patients with AF. As autonomic tone affects the heart rate (HR), and there is an inverse relationship between HR and PR interval, PR interval variation could be greater in patients with AF than in those without AF. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between PR interval variation and new-onset AF in patients with frequent PACs.We retrospectively enrolled 207 patients with frequent PACs who underwent electrocardiographs at least 4 times during the follow-up period. The PR variation was calculated by subtracting the minimum PR interval from the maximum PR interval. The outcomes were new occurrence of AF and all-cause mortality during the follow-up period.During a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 24 patients (11.6%) developed new-onset AF. Univariate analysis showed that prolonged PR interval (PR interval > 200 ms, P = 0.021), long PR variation (PR variation > 36.5 ms, P = 0.018), and PR variation (P = 0.004) as a continuous variable were associated with an increased risk of AF. Cox regression analysis showed that prolonged PR interval (hazard ratio = 3.321, 95% CI 1.064-10.362, P = 0.039) and PR variation (hazard ratio = 1.013, 95% CI 1.002-1.024, P = 0.022) were independent predictors for new-onset AF. However, PR variation and prolonged PR interval were not associated with all-cause mortality (P = 0.465 and 0.774, respectively).PR interval variation and prolonged PR interval are independent risk factors for new-onset AF in patients with frequent PACs. However we were unable to determine a cut-off value of PR interval variation for new-onset AF. PMID:27057868

  3. Hip pain is more frequent in severe hip displacement: a population-based study of 77 children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, Kjersti; Terjesen, Terje

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether hip pain was associated with radiographic hip displacement (migration percentage, MP) in a population-based cohort of children with cerebral palsy. Seventy-seven children, mean age 9.5 (SD 1.6) years and Gross Motor Function Classification System level III-V, were assessed. Caregivers responded to the Child Health Questionnaire pain questions and located recurrent pain on a body map. Hip pain was reported in 22 children (29%) and 27 hips (18%). Hip pain was significantly more frequent in hips with MP more than or equal to 50%, in children with spastic quadriplegia, and in those with Gross Motor Function Classification System level V. We conclude that severe hip displacement with MP more than or equal to 50% was associated with hip pain, whereas slight or moderate subluxation did not influence the occurrence of such pain. PMID:26895291

  4. Frequent inactivation of the retinoblastoma anti-oncogene is restricted to a subset of human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have used polyclonal anti-synthetic peptide serum to study the role of retinoblastoma gene (RB) inactivation in a variety of human tumor cell lines. The analysis indicates that inactivation of the RB protein, p105-Rb, is universal in retinoblastoma cells, vindicating the predictions of the Knudson two-hit hypothesis. In addition, the analysis has shown that inactivations of the RB gene are nearly as frequent in a more common human tumor, small cell lung carcinoma. One-third of bladder carcinomas surveyed also carry altered or absent p105-Rb. Other human tumors by contrast demonstrate only infrequent inactivation of the RB gene. These results suggest that inactivation of the RB gene is a critical step in the pathogenesis of a subset of human tumors

  5. Do Adolescents Who Live or Go to School Near Fast Food Restaurants Eat More Frequently From Fast Food Restaurants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents’ eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2,724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adolescents and also ate at fast food restaurants more often. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographics, adolescent males living near high numbers fast food restaurants ate more frequently from these venues compared to their peers. PMID:23064515

  6. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥ 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users. PMID:25240105

  7. From frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana: the impact of regulatory change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether adaptations to past disasters can impede adaptation to new disasters of a different type or intensity will be analyzed by examining the transition from frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana. In particular, the effects of changed regulatory structures from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are investigated. The article describes how the federal, state, and local governments adjust. In addition, it illustrates the shifting focus on the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. It wraps up with a discussion of the uncertainty that is pervasive in the case of the oil spill derived from changed regulations and the novelty of the disaster.

  8. Somatostatin- and enkephalin-like immunoreactivities are frequently colocalized in neurons in the caudal brain stem of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Terenius, L; Buchan, A; Brown, J C

    1987-01-01

    The medulla oblongata and pons of colchicine treated rats were analyzed with a double-staining technique using mouse monoclonal antibodies to somatostatin and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against methionine-enkephalin. Numerous cells reacted with both antisera but cells reacting with only one antiserum were also observed. Double-stained cells were most frequently encountered at all levels of the nucleus tractus solitarii, in a well defined group in the caudal medullary reticular formation, along the lateral ventral surface of the medulla oblongata, dorsolateral to the inferior olive and in the nucleus raphe magnus. These findings provide further examples of coexistence of two peptides and indicate the possibility that somatostatin- and enkephalin-like peptides are co-released. PMID:2887451

  9. Past, Present, and Future Old Growth in Frequent-fire Conifer Forests of the Western United States

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    Andrew J. Sánchez Meador

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Old growth in the frequent-fire conifer forests of the western United States, such as those containing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi, giant sequoia (Sequioa giganteum and other species, has undergone major changes since Euro-American settlement. Understanding past changes and anticipating future changes under different potential management scenarios are fundamental to developing ecologically based fuel reduction or ecological restoration treatments. Some of the many changes that have occurred in these forests include shifts from historically frequent surface fire to no fire or to stand-replacing fire regimes, increases in tree density, increased abundance of fire-intolerant trees, decreases in understory productivity, hydrological alterations, and accelerated mortality of old trees. Although these changes are widespread, the magnitude and causes of changes may vary within and among landscapes. Agents of change, such as fire exclusion or livestock grazing, likely interacted and had multiple effects. For example, historical ranching operations may have altered both fire regimes and understory vegetation, and facilitated institutional fire exclusion through fragmentation and settlement. Evidence exists for large variation in presettlement characteristics and current condition of old growth across this broad forest region, although there are many examples of striking similarities on widely distant landscapes. Exotic species, climate change, unnatural stand-replacing wildfires, and other factors will likely continue to degrade or eradicate old growth in many areas. As a policy of fire exclusion is proving to be unsustainable, mechanical tree thinning, prescribed fire, or wildland fire use will likely be key options for forestalling continued eradication of old growth by severe crown fires. For many practical and societal reasons, the wildland–urban interface may afford some of the most immediate opportunities for re

  10. Chronic hyper-hemolysis in sickle cell anemia: association of vascular complications and mortality with less frequent vasoocclusive pain.

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    James G Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravascular hemolysis in sickle cell anemia could contribute to complications associated with nitric oxide deficiency, advancing age, and increased mortality. We have previously reported that intense hemolysis is associated with increased risk of vascular complications in a small cohort of adults with sickle cell disease. These observations have not been validated in other populations. METHODS: The distribution of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH values was used as a surrogate measure of intravascular hemolysis in a contemporaneous patient group and an historical adult population from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD, all with sickle cell anemia. Chronic hyper-hemolysis was defined by the top LDH quartile and was compared to the lowest LDH quartile. RESULTS: Hyper-hemolysis subjects had higher systolic blood pressure, higher prevalence of leg ulcers (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.92-5.53, P<0.0001, priapism (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.13-6.90, P = 0.03 and pulmonary hypertension (OR 4.32, 95% CI 2.12-8.60, P<0.0001, while osteonecrosis (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19-0.54, P<0.0001 and pain (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.09-0.55, P = 0.0004 were less prevalent. Hyper-hemolysis was influenced by fetal hemoglobin and alpha thalassemia, and was a risk factor for early death in the CSSCD population (Hazard Ratio = 1.97, P = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Steady state LDH measurements can identify a chronic hyper-hemolysis phenotype which includes less frequent vasooclusive pain and earlier mortality. Clinicians should consider sickle cell specific therapies for these patients, as is done for those with more frequent acute pain. The findings also suggest that an important class of disease modifiers in sickle cell anemia affect the rate of hemolysis.

  11. S100A4 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and promotes cell growth and cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We observed frequent overexpression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines. • Knockdown of S100A4 suppressed proliferation in lung cancer cells. • Forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility in lung cancer cells. • PRDM2 was found to be one of the downstream suppressed genes of S100A4. - Abstract: S100A4, a small calcium-binding protein belonging to the S100 protein family, is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types and is widely accepted to associate with metastasis by regulating the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, its biological role in lung carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that S100A4 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells, irrespective of histological subtype. Then we performed knockdown and forced expression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines and found that specific knockdown of S100A4 effectively suppressed cell proliferation only in lung cancer cells with S100A4-overexpression; forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility only in S100A4 low-expressing lung cancer cells. PRDM2 and VASH1, identified as novel upregulated genes by microarray after specific knockdown of S100A4 in pancreatic cancer, were also analyzed, and we found that PRDM2 was significantly upregulated after S100A4-knockdown in one of two analyzed S100A4-overexpressing lung cancer cells. Our present results suggest that S100A4 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis by means of cell proliferation and motility by a pathway similar to that in pancreatic cancer

  12. 灾害频发和地磁减弱的关系%Relationship of frequent disasters with geomagnetic weakening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬红; 杨学祥

    2011-01-01

    Recently, global earthquakes occur frequently, which may be caused by geomagnetic weakening. The study showed that the reasons of geomagnetic weakening were the increase of crust-mantle rotatioanal inertia and the reduction of earth rotation led by polar ices melting, which caused the change of core-mantle differential rotation on numerical value and direction. During the process of geomagnetic weakening and polarity reversal, the increase of solar radiation and the release of core-mantle thermal energy were in one-to-one correspondence with disasters. This conclusion was consistent to the "shallow core field" discovered by American scholars. The correlation of global warming to geomagnetic weakening showed that climate wanning not only caused sea level rise, but also led to frequent earthquakes and volcanic activities.%近年来全球强震频发,其灾难发生的原因可能是由地磁减弱引起的.研究表明,地磁减弱的原因在于两极冰盖融化导致地壳和地幔转动惯量增大及自转减慢,由此引发核幔差异旋转在数值和方向上的改变.在磁场减弱和磁极反向过程中,太阳辐射的增强和核幔热能的释放与灾害有一一对应关系.这一研究结论与美国学者最近发现的“浅核磁场”相一致.全球变暖与地磁减弱的相关性表明,气候变暖不仅会导致海平面上升,而且会导致频繁的地震、火山活动.

  13. S100A4 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and promotes cell growth and cell motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Na; Sato, Daisuke; Saiki, Yuriko; Sunamura, Makoto; Fukushige, Shinichi; Horii, Akira, E-mail: horii@med.tohoku.ac.jp

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • We observed frequent overexpression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines. • Knockdown of S100A4 suppressed proliferation in lung cancer cells. • Forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility in lung cancer cells. • PRDM2 was found to be one of the downstream suppressed genes of S100A4. - Abstract: S100A4, a small calcium-binding protein belonging to the S100 protein family, is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types and is widely accepted to associate with metastasis by regulating the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, its biological role in lung carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that S100A4 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells, irrespective of histological subtype. Then we performed knockdown and forced expression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines and found that specific knockdown of S100A4 effectively suppressed cell proliferation only in lung cancer cells with S100A4-overexpression; forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility only in S100A4 low-expressing lung cancer cells. PRDM2 and VASH1, identified as novel upregulated genes by microarray after specific knockdown of S100A4 in pancreatic cancer, were also analyzed, and we found that PRDM2 was significantly upregulated after S100A4-knockdown in one of two analyzed S100A4-overexpressing lung cancer cells. Our present results suggest that S100A4 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis by means of cell proliferation and motility by a pathway similar to that in pancreatic cancer.

  14. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

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    Mulu Andargachew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215. C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81% patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177 of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177, C. krusei 5.6% (10 and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177. Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90, 7.7% (7/90 and 4.7% (4 of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  15. The novel RASSF6 and RASSF10 candidate tumour suppressor genes are frequently epigenetically inactivated in childhood leukaemias

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    Maher Eamonn R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ras-assocation family (RASSF of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs contains 10 members that encode proteins containing Ras-assocation (RA domains. Several members of the RASSF family are frequently epigenetically inactivated in cancer, however, their role in leukaemia has remained largely uninvestigated. Also, RASSF10 is a predicted gene yet to be experimentally verified. Here we cloned, characterised and demonstrated expression of RASSF10 in normal human bone marrow. We also determined the methylation status of CpG islands associated with RASSF1–10 in a series of childhood acute lymphocytic leukaemias (ALL and normal blood and bone marrow samples. Results COBRA and bisulphite sequencing revealed RASSF6 and RASSF10 were the only RASSF members with a high frequency of leukaemia-specific methylation. RASSF6 was methylated in 94% (48/51 B-ALL and 41% (12/29 T-ALL, whilst RASSF10 was methylated in 16% (8/51 B-ALL and 88% (23/26 T-ALL. RASSF6 and RASSF10 expression inversely correlated with methylation which was restored by treatment with 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5azaDC. Conclusion This study shows the hypermethylation profile of RASSF genes in leukaemias is distinct from that of solid tumours and represents the first report of inactivation of RASSF6 or RASSF10 in cancer. These data show epigenetic inactivation of the candidate TSGs RASSF6 and RASSF10 is an extremely frequent event in the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. This study also warrants further investigation of the newly identified RASSF member RASSF10 and its potential role in leukaemia.

  16. MIR-9-1 ABERRANT METHYLATION IS A FREQUENT EVENT IN BREAST CANCER AND IS ASSOCIATED WITH BONE METASTASES

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    Anca Florescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background. Aberrant promoter methylation of classical tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during carcinogenesis. Several lines of evidences suggest that this epigenetic change also regulates microRNAs expression and may represent a potential molecular marker for cancer.Methods. We examined the methylation status at the hsa-miR-9-1 gene promoter in a series of 66 breast cancer cases by methylation sensitive PCR (MSP analysis. For 43 of the 66 patients paired normal breast tissue and/or pre invasive (ADH, DCIS lesions were also available. As control methylation status was determined on 6 normal breast tissues obtained from reductive mammoplasty.  Results. Methylation at mir-9-1 gene was detected in 32 out of 66 breast tumours (49% and in none of the 6 normal breast tissues derived from reductive mammoplasty (P=0.02 χ2- Test. In all cases the same methylation status was demonstrated in tumour specimen, paired normal breast tissues and/or pre-invasive (ADH and DCIS lesions. An higher frequency of methylation was found in patients showing metastases at diagnosis as compared with non metastatic patients (P=0.03 χ2-Test. Moreover, methylation at mir-9-1 gene was more frequent in patients showing bone metastases as first metastatic sites (P=0.04 χ2-Test, and in the subgroup of patients developing only bone metastases as compared with patients developing metastases  to visceral organs (P=0.03 χ2-Test.Conclusions. This study give further evidence of epigenetic mechanisms as regulators of miR-9 expression in breast cancer. Moreover, our results suggest an association between hypermethylation  at the miR-9-1 gene and metastatic site.

  17. Is adenomyosis, a frequent association of abnormal uterine bleeding? : a retrospective study on hysterectomy samples in the rural area of Melmaruvathur

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    Sumathi S.

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Adenomyosis is a frequent association of abnormal uterine bleeding and it commonly affects perimenopausal age group patients of 43-46years. Benign pathology is a frequent finding and malignant lesion is very rare. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1192-1195

  18. [Morbidity and doctor characteristics only partly explain the substantial healthcare expenditures of frequent attenders: a record linkage study between patient data and reimbursements data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, F.T.; Brouwer, H.J.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Mohrs, J.; Smeets, H.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Schene, A.H.; Weert, H.C. van; Riet, G. ter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frequently attending patients to primary care (FA) are likely to cost more in primary care than their nonfrequently attending counterparts. But how much is spent on specialist care of FAs? We describe the healthcare expenditures of frequently attending patients during 1, 2 or 3 years and

  19. Frequent combination of antimicrobial multiresistance and extraintestinal pathogenicity in Escherichia coli isolates from urban rats (Rattus norvegicus in Berlin, Germany.

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    Sebastian Guenther

    Full Text Available Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs, indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC, such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95, which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1, and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9, pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public

  20. Frequent extreme cold exposure and brown fat and cold-induced thermogenesis: a study in a monozygotic twin.

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    Maarten J Vosselman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as 'the Iceman', who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a 'normal' sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. METHODS: The Iceman (subject A and his brother (subject B were studied during mild cold (13°C and thermoneutral conditions (31°C. Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. RESULTS: Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal, within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G. CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%, but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. CONCLUSION: No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the