WorldWideScience

Sample records for cdr3 oligoclonality frequently

  1. T-cell receptor Vbeta CDR3 oligoclonality frequently occurs in childhood refractory cytopenia (MDS-RC) and severe aplastic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vries, A.C. de; Langerak, A.W.; Verhaaf, B.

    2008-01-01

    (Very) severe acquired aplastic anemia ((v)SAA) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are rare diseases in childhood. (V)SAA is a bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome characterized by immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic progenitors. MDS is a malignant clonal stem cell disorder, of which...

  2. A normal T cell receptor beta CDR3 length distribution in patients with APECED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Heikki J; Laakso, Sini; Salminen, Jukka T; Arstila, T Petteri; Tuulasvaara, Anni

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene. Murine studies suggest that AIRE controls thymic expression of tissue-restricted antigens, its absence allowing nonselected autoreactive cells to escape. We tested this in humans using the TCRβ CDR3 length repertoire as a surrogate of thymic selection, as it shortens during the process. Analysis of healthy thymuses showed an altogether 1.9 base pair shortening, starting at the CD4(+)CD8(+)CD3(low) stage and continuing until the CD4(+) subset, likely encompassing both the positive and negative selection. Comparison of five APECED patients with eight healthy controls showed a skewed repertoire with oligoclonal expansions in the patients' CD4(+) and CD8(+) populations. The average CDR3 length, however, was normal and unaffected by the skewing. This was also true of the hypothesized autoreactive CD8(+)CD45RA(+) population. We failed to detect a subset with an abnormally long CDR3 repertoire, as would be predicted by a failure in selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic significance of bi/oligoclonality in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia as determined by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scrideli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The CDR-3 region of heavy-chain immunoglobulin has been used as a clonal marker in the study of minimal residual disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction studies have demonstrated the occurrence of bi/oligoclonality in a variable number of cases of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a fact that may strongly interfere with the detection of minimal residual disease. Oligoclonality has also been associated with a poorer prognosis and a higher chance of relapse. OBJECTIVES: To correlate bi/oligoclonality, detected by polymerase chain reaction in Brazilian children with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a chance of relapse, with immunophenotype, risk group, and disease-free survival. DESIGN: Prospective study of patients’ outcome. SETTING: Pediatric Oncology Unit of the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: 47 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers for the CDR-3 region of heavy chain immunoglobulin (FR3A, LJH and VLJH for the detection of clonality. RESULTS: Bi/oligoclonality was detected in 15 patients (31.9%. There was no significant difference between the groups with monoclonality and biclonality in terms of the occurrence of a relapse (28.1% versus 26.1%, presence of CALLA+ (81.2% versus 80% or risk group (62.5% versus 60%. Disease-free survival was similar in both groups, with no significant difference (p: 0.7695. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that bi/oligoclonality was not associated with the factors investigated in the present study and that its detection in 31.9% of the patients may be important for the study and monitoring of minimal residual disease.

  4. Characterization of the CDR3 structure of the Vβ21 T cell clone in patients with P210(BCR-ABL)-positive chronic myeloid leukemia and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xianfeng; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Li, Bo; Chen, Yu; Yan, Xiaojuan; Li, Yangqiu

    2011-10-01

    The clonally expanded T cells identified in most cancer patients that respond to tumor-associated antigen such as P210(BCR-ABL) protein have definite, specific antitumor cytotoxicity. T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ CDR3 repertoire diversity was analyzed in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and BCR-ABL(+) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) by GeneScan. A high frequency of oligoclonal expansion of the TCR Vβ21 subfamily was observed in the peripheral blood of CML and B-ALL patients. These clonally expanded Vβ21 T cells were correlated with the pathophysiologic process of CML. A conserved amino acid motif (SLxxV) was observed within the CDR3 region in only 3 patients with CML. Preferential usage of the Jβ segments was also observed in a minority of patients. The 3-dimensional structures of the CDR3 region containing the same motif or using the same Jβ segment displayed low similarity; on the contrary, the conformation of the CDR3 region containing no conserved motif in some T cell clones was highly similar. In conclusion, our findings indicate a high frequency of TCR Vβ21 subfamily expansion in p210(BCR-ABL)-positive CML and B-ALL patients. The characterization of the CDR3 structure was complex. Regrettably, at this time it was not possible to confirm that the Vβ21 T cell clones were derived from the stimulation of p210(BCR-ABL) protein. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular mimicry between anti-dsDNA CDR3 idiotype, microbial and self peptides as antigens for Th cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eAas-Hanssen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is marked by a T helper (Th cell dependent B cell hyperresponsiveness, with frequent germinal center reactions, and gammaglobulinemia. A hallmark of SLE is the finding of IgG autoantibodies specific for dsDNA. The specificity of the Th cells that drive the expansion of anti-dsDNA B cells is unresolved. However, anti-microbial, anti-histone and anti-idiotype Th cell responses have been hypothesized to play a role. It has been entirely unclear if these seemingly disparate Th cell responses and hypotheses could be related or unified. Here we describe that H chain CDR3 idiotypes from IgG+ B cells of lupus mice have sequence similarities with both microbial and other self peptides, matched sequences were increased within the mutated CDR3 repertoire and when sequences were derived from lupus mice with expanded anti-dsDNA B cells. Analyses of histone sequences showed that particular histone peptides were similar to VDJ junctions. Moreover, lupus mice had Th cell responses towards histone peptides similar to anti-dsDNA CDR3 sequences. The results suggest that Th cell in lupus may have multiple cross-reactive specificities linked to the IgVH CDR3 Id-peptide sequences as well as similar DNA-associated protein motifs.

  6. Ontogeny of the avian intestinal immunoglobulin repertoire: modification in CDR3 length and conserved VH-pseudogene usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Gerco; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Parmentier, Henk K; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Bos, Nicolaas A; Lammers, Aart

    2013-12-01

    Immunoglobulins play an important role in maintenance of mucosal homeostasis in the gut. The antigen binding specificity of these immunoglobulins depends for a large part on the hypervariable CDR3 region. To gain knowledge about isotype-specific development of the CDR3 repertoire we examined CDR3 spectratypes at multiple time points between 4 and 70 days post hatch. In order to identify clonal expansions deviation from the normal distribution (SS) and the average CDR3 length was calculated. IgA-CDR3 regions were studied in more detail by DNA sequence analysis at day 7 and 70 and preferential VH pseudogene usage was estimated. The SS of CDR3 repertoires of the IgM, IgG and IgA isotypes successively increased, but for each isotype this increase was transiently. The length of the CDR3 regions decreased with age for IgM becoming similar to the CDR3 length of IgA at day 70. The IgA- and IgG-CDR3 lengths did not change with age. On average, the CDR3 length of IgA was the shortest. IgA CDR3 sequences were similar between animals aged 7 and 70 days. A limited number of pseudogenes was used, and no differences in pseudogene usage were observed between animals aged 7 and 70 days. Of the identified VH pseudogenes, half of the sequences used VH15, whilst a number of the pseudogenes were not used at all. We conclude that CDR3 spectratype profiles change during aging, whilst at the CDR3-sequence level, variation in VH pseudogene usage for ileal IgA is limited suggesting conservation during ontogeny. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BCR CDR3 length distributions differ between blood and spleen and between old and young patients, and TCR distributions can be used to detect myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickman, Yishai; Mehr, Ramit; Dunn-Walters, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) is the most hyper-variable region in B cell receptor (BCR) and T cell receptor (TCR) genes, and the most critical structure in antigen recognition and thereby in determining the fates of developing and responding lymphocytes. There are millions of different TCR Vβ chain or BCR heavy chain CDR3 sequences in human blood. Even now, when high-throughput sequencing becomes widely used, CDR3 length distributions (also called spectratypes) are still a much quicker and cheaper method of assessing repertoire diversity. However, distribution complexity and the large amount of information per sample (e.g. 32 distributions of the TCRα chain, and 24 of TCRβ) calls for the use of machine learning tools for full exploration. We have examined the ability of supervised machine learning, which uses computational models to find hidden patterns in predefined biological groups, to analyze CDR3 length distributions from various sources, and distinguish between experimental groups. We found that (a) splenic BCR CDR3 length distributions are characterized by low standard deviations and few local maxima, compared to peripheral blood distributions; (b) healthy elderly people's BCR CDR3 length distributions can be distinguished from those of the young; and (c) a machine learning model based on TCR CDR3 distribution features can detect myelodysplastic syndrome with approximately 93% accuracy. Overall, we demonstrate that using supervised machine learning methods can contribute to our understanding of lymphocyte repertoire diversity. (paper)

  8. Significant differences in physicochemical properties of human immunoglobulin kappa and lambda CDR3 regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Townsend

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain and in humans there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain CDR-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 - light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains, and probed the Protein Data Bank (PDB to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors, but can differ between donors. This indicates that TdT may work with differing efficiencies between different people, but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  9. Human TCR-MHC coevolution after divergence from mice includes increased nontemplate-encoded CDR3 diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojing; Poncette, Lucia; Blankenstein, Thomas

    2017-11-06

    For thymic selection and responses to pathogens, T cells interact through their αβ T cell receptor (TCR) with peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on antigen-presenting cells. How the diverse TCRs interact with a multitude of MHC molecules is unresolved. It is also unclear how humans generate larger TCR repertoires than mice do. We compared the TCR repertoire of CD4 T cells selected from a single mouse or human MHC class II (MHC II) in mice containing the human TCR gene loci. Human MHC II yielded greater thymic output and a more diverse TCR repertoire. The complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) length adjusted for different inherent V-segment affinities to MHC II. Humans evolved with greater nontemplate-encoded CDR3 diversity than did mice. Our data, which demonstrate human TCR-MHC coevolution after divergence from rodents, explain the greater T cell diversity in humans and suggest a mechanism for ensuring that any V-J gene combination can be selected by a single MHC II. © 2017 Chen et al.

  10. A gp41 MPER-specific llama VHH requires a hydrophobic CDR3 for neutralization but not for antigen recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lutje Hulsik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The membrane proximal external region (MPER of the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp41 is targeted by the broadly neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. To date, no immunization regimen in animals or humans has produced HIV-1 neutralizing MPER-specific antibodies. We immunized llamas with gp41-MPER proteoliposomes and selected a MPER-specific single chain antibody (VHH, 2H10, whose epitope overlaps with that of mAb 2F5. Bi-2H10, a bivalent form of 2H10, which displayed an approximately 20-fold increased affinity compared to the monovalent 2H10, neutralized various sensitive and resistant HIV-1 strains, as well as SHIV strains in TZM-bl cells. X-ray and NMR analyses combined with mutagenesis and modeling revealed that 2H10 recognizes its gp41 epitope in a helical conformation. Notably, tryptophan 100 at the tip of the long CDR3 is not required for gp41 interaction but essential for neutralization. Thus bi-2H10 is an anti-MPER antibody generated by immunization that requires hydrophobic CDR3 determinants in addition to epitope recognition for neutralization similar to the mode of neutralization employed by mAbs 2F5 and 4E10.

  11. Oligoclonal immunoglobulins in cerebrospinal fluid during varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy are directed against VZV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Mark P; Hammack, Barbara N; Owens, Gregory P; Maybach, Amy L; Eikelenboom, M Judith; Gilden, Donald H

    2003-10-01

    Limited analyses of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system infections have shown that the oligoclonal IgG is antibody directed against the agent that causes disease. Using a new method involving binding of IgG to beads coated with lysates prepared from candidate infectious antigens, we showed that the oligoclonal IgG in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with chronic varicella zoster virus vasculopathy is directed against the causative virus. This approach holds promise in identifying and purifying the relevant oligoclonal IgGs in inflammatory central nervous system diseases of unknown cause.

  12. Oligoclonal Immunoglobulins in Cerebrospinal Fluid during Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Vasculopathy Are Directed against VZV

    OpenAIRE

    Burgoon, Mark P.; Hammack, Barbara N.; Owens, Gregory P.; Maybach, Amy L.; Judith Eikelenboom, M.; Gilden, Donald H.

    2003-01-01

    Limited analyses of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system infections have shown that the oligoclonal IgG is antibody directed against the agent that causes disease. Using a new method involving binding of IgG to beads coated with lysates prepared from candidate infectious antigens, we showed that the oligoclonal IgG in cerebro-spinal fluid of a patient with chronic varicella zoster virus vasculopathy is directed against the causative virus. This approach holds promise ...

  13. Identification of a public CDR3 motif and a biased utilization of T-cell receptor V beta and J beta chains in HLA-A2/Melan-A-specific T-cell clonotypes of melanoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Pier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of T-cell diversity, besides giving insights about the molecular basis of tumor antigen recognition, has clinical implications since it provides criteria for evaluating antigen-specific T cells clinically relevant for spontaneous and vaccine-induced anti-tumor activity. Melan-A is one of the melanoma antigens most frequently recognized by peripheral and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in HLA-A2+ melanoma patients. Many clinical trials involving anti-tumor vaccination have been conducted using modified versions of this peptide. Methods We conducted an in-depth characterization of 210 T-cell receptor beta chain (TRB clonotypes derived from T cells of HLA-A2+ melanoma patients displaying cytotoxic activity against natural and A27L-modified Melan-A peptides. One hundred and thirteen Melan-A-specific clonotypes from melanoma-free subjects, 199 clonotypes from T-cell clones from melanoma patients specific for melanoma antigens other than Melan-A, and 305 clonotypes derived from T cells of HLA-A2+ individuals showing unrelated specificities, were used as control. After sequence analysis, performed according to the IMGT definitions, TRBV and TRBJ usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition were compared in the four groups of clonotypes. Results TRB sequences of Melan-A-specific clonotypes obtained from melanoma patients were highly heterogeneous, but displayed a preferential usage of few TRBV and TRBJ segments. Furthermore, they included a recurrent "public" amino acid motif (Glycine-Leucine-Glycine at positions 110-112-113 of the CDR3 rearranged with dominant TRBV and TRBJ segments and, in one case, associated with a full conservation of the entire TRB sequence. Conclusion Contrary to what observed for public anti-Melan-A T-cell receptor alpha motifs, which had been identified in several clonotypes of both melanoma patients and healthy controls, the unexpectedly high contribution of a public TRB motif in the recognition

  14. Prospective Identification of Oligoclonal/Abnormal Band of the Same Immunoglobulin Type as the Malignant Clone by Differential Location of M-Spike and Oligoclonal Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Shikhar G; Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-10-01

    Serum and urine protein electrophoreses and immunofixation electrophoreses are the gold standards in diagnosing monoclonal gammopathy. Identification of oligoclonal bands in post-treatment patients has emerged as an important issue and recording the location of the malignant monoclonal peak may facilitate prospective identification of a new "monoclonal" spike as being distinct from the malignant peak. We recorded the locations of monoclonal spikes in descriptive terms, such as being in the cathodal region, mid-gamma region, anodal region, and beta region. The location of monoclonal or restricted heterogeneity bands in subsequent protein electrophoreses was compared to the location of the original malignant spike. In a patient with plasma cell myeloma, the original monoclonal IgG kappa band was located at the anodal end of gamma region. Post-treatment, an IgG kappa band was noted in mid-gamma region and the primary malignant clone was not detectable by serum protein immunofixation electrophoresis (SIFE) in post-treatment sample. Even though the κ/λ ratio remained abnormal, we were able to recognize stringent complete response by noting the different location of the new IgG kappa band as a benign regenerative process. Recording the location of the malignant monoclonal spike facilitates the identification of post-treatment oligoclonal bands, prospectively. Recognizing the regenerative, benign, bands in post-transplant patients facilitates the determination of stringent complete response despite an abnormal κ/λ ratio.

  15. Oligoclonal band status in Scandinavian multiple sclerosis patients is associated with specific genetic risk alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mero, Inger-Lise; Gustavsen, Marte W; Sæther, Hanne S

    2013-01-01

    The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a typical finding in multiple sclerosis (MS). We applied data from Norwegian, Swedish and Danish (i.e. Scandinavian) MS patients from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to search for genetic differences in MS relating...... at onset (AAO), MS outcome measures and gender. This study confirms both shared and distinct genetic risk for MS subtypes in the Scandinavian population defined by OCB status and indicates different clinical characteristics between the groups. This suggests differences in disease mechanisms between OCB...

  16. Neurofilament light chain and oligoclonal bands are prognostic biomarkers in radiologically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute-Blanch, Clara; Villar, Luisa M; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Rejdak, Konrad; Evdoshenko, Evgeniy; Makshakov, Gleb; Nazarov, Vladimir; Lapin, Sergey; Midaglia, Luciana; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Drulovic, Jelena; García-Merino, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Antonio J; Havrdova, Eva; Saiz, Albert; Llufriu, Sara; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Schroeder, Ina; Zettl, Uwe K; Galimberti, Daniela; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Robles, René; Quintana, Ester; Hegen, Harald; Deisenhammer, Florian; Río, Jordi; Tintoré, Mar; Sánchez, Alex; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The prognostic role of cerebrospinal fluid molecular biomarkers determined in early pathogenic stages of multiple sclerosis has yet to be defined. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of chitinase 3 like 1 (CHI3L1), neurofilament light chain, and oligoclonal bands for conversion to clinically isolated syndrome and to multiple sclerosis in 75 patients with radiologically isolated syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of CHI3L1 and neurofilament light chain were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Uni- and multivariable Cox regression models including as covariates age at diagnosis of radiologically isolated syndrome, number of brain lesions, sex and treatment were used to investigate associations between cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 and neurofilament light chain levels and time to conversion to clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis. Neurofilament light chain levels and oligoclonal bands were independent risk factors for the development of clinically isolated syndrome (hazard ratio = 1.02, P = 0.019, and hazard ratio = 14.7, P = 0.012, respectively) and multiple sclerosis (hazard ratio = 1.03, P = 0.003, and hazard ratio = 8.9, P = 0.046, respectively). The best cut-off to classify cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain levels into high and low was 619 ng/l, and high neurofilament light chain levels were associated with a trend to shorter time to clinically isolated syndrome (P = 0.079) and significant shorter time to multiple sclerosis (P = 0.017). Similarly, patients with radiologically isolated syndrome presenting positive oligoclonal bands converted faster to clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis (P = 0.005 and P = 0.008, respectively). The effects of high neurofilament light chain levels shortening time to clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis were more pronounced in radiologically isolated syndrome patients with ≥37 years compared to younger patients. Cerebrospinal fluid

  17. Detection of oligoclonal immunoglobulins in cerebrospinal fluid by an immunofixation-peroxidase method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Sophie; Miossec, Véronique; Moreau, Jean-François; Taupin, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    The detection of intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins is used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We tested the semiautomated immunofixation-peroxidase (IFPOD) technique, which uses high-resolution agarose gel electrophoresis (HRAGE) directly followed by immunofixation with a peroxidase-labeled anti-IgG antiserum to detect oligoclonal immunoglobulins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We analyzed 230 consecutive matched serum/CSF pairs that arrived in the laboratory over a 6-month period with both IFPOD and our routine techniques, immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) and HRAGE. For IFPOD, CSF samples were not concentrated before testing. Among the 230 samples were 12 clinically definite MS, 33 clinically probable, and 20 clinically possible MS samples. IFPOD and HRAGE + IFE each detected oligoclonal IgG in CSF in 10, 16, and 7 cases of these respective groups. For clinically definite MS, sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence intervals) were, respectively, 83% (51-97%) and 79% (73-84%). The IFPOD technique performs comparably to other analytical methods, without the requirement for sample concentration, and may represent an attractive alternative in testing for intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis.

  18. Comparison of neurophysiological and MRI findings of patients with multiple sclerosis using oligoclonal band technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellidag, Hamit Y; Eren, Esin; Erdogan, Nezahat; Ture, Sabiha; Yilmaz, Necat

    2013-10-01

    The correlation of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) and intrathecal IgG synthesis are not yet clear in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated the OCB situation and IgG index, cranial and cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and also compared visual evoked potentials (VEP) and somatosensorial evoked potentials (SEP) in order to better understand the OCB pattern and pathogenesis. Retrospective study included 40 patients (19 male, 21 female, mean age 29 ± 4,24) with precise MS diagnosis according to McDonald criteria. Sixteen of the patients were OCB negative, and 24 patients were positive. The different between the OCB situation and number of plaques in cranial and cervical MRI, atrophy, oedema and contrast material retention were insignificant. The different between the OCB situation and VEP and SEP were insignificant. These laboratory findings are all specific, all developing via independent mechanisms and are not related to each other during the silence periods of patients.

  19. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Eran; Lachmi, Bat-El; Keren, Adi; Barnea, Ada; Marcus, Hadar; Cohen, Shoshana; David, Alon Ben; Zichel, Ran

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc) of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  20. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Diamant

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  1. Early lymphocyte recovery after intensive timed sequential chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia: peripheral oligoclonal expansion of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakry, Christopher G; Hess, Allan D; Gocke, Christopher D; Thoburn, Christopher; Kos, Ferdynand; Meyer, Christian; Briel, Janet; Luznik, Leo; Smith, B Douglas; Levitsky, Hyam; Karp, Judith E

    2011-01-13

    Few published studies characterize early lymphocyte recovery after intensive chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte recovery mirrors ontogeny, we characterized early lymphocyte recovery in 20 consecutive patients undergoing induction timed sequential chemotherapy for newly diagnosed AML. Recovering T lymphocytes were predominantly CD4(+) and included a greatly expanded population of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Recovering CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells were phenotypically activated regulatory T cells and showed suppressive activity on cytokine production in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Despite an initial burst of thymopoiesis, most recovering regulatory T cells were peripherally derived. Furthermore, regulatory T cells showed marked oligoclonal skewing, suggesting that their peripheral expansion was antigen-driven. Overall, lymphocyte recovery after chemotherapy differs from ontogeny, specifically identifying a peripherally expanded oligoclonal population of activated regulatory T lymphocytes. These differences suggest a stereotyped immunologic recovery shared by patients with newly diagnosed AML after induction timed sequential chemotherapy. Further insight into this oligoclonal regulatory T-cell population will be fundamental toward developing effective immunomodulatory techniques to improve survival for patients with AML.

  2. Antiparasitic antibodies occur with similar frequency in patients with clinically established multiple sclerosis with or without oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cruz Gomes da Fonseca-Papavero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The "hygiene hypothesis" postulates an inverse relationship between the prevalence of parasitic infections and the frequency of multiple sclerosis (MS. Objective: It was to study whether antibodies against parasites could be demonstrated more frequently in blood serum from MS patients with oligoclonal bands (OCB than from MS patients without OCB. Methods: We studied serum samples from 164 patients who had previously been analyzed to investigate OCB. Parasitic antibodies were studied through unidimensional electrophoresis of proteins on polyacrylamide gel against Taenia antigens, searching for antiparasitic specific low molecular weight antibodies and also for antiparasitic nonspecific high molecular weight antibodies. Results: Two of the 103 patients with no evidence of OCB had antibodies of low molecular weight and 59 of them had antibodies of high molecular weight. Of the 61 patients with evidence of OCB, one showed antibodies of low molecular weight and 16 showed antibodies of high molecular weight. Conclusion: Antiparasitic antibodies are detected with similar frequency in MS patients with OCB and in MS patients without OCB.

  3. Development of oligoclonal nanobodies for targeting the tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    The tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) is a membrane mucin whose over-expression is correlated with advanced tumor stage and increased invasion and metastasis. In this study, we identified a panel of four nanobodies, single variable domains of dromedary heavy-chain antibodies that specific......The tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) is a membrane mucin whose over-expression is correlated with advanced tumor stage and increased invasion and metastasis. In this study, we identified a panel of four nanobodies, single variable domains of dromedary heavy-chain antibodies...... that specifically recognize the TAG-72 antigen. All selected nanobodies were shown to selectively bind to this cancer-related molecule with low-nanomolar affinities and do not cross-react with other antigens, such as MUC1 or HER2. Furthermore, they can detect TAG-72 in concentrations as low as 5 U/ml which...... nanobody recognizes a distinct epitope on the TAG-72 antigen that is different from the one recognized by the mouse anti-TAG-72 antibody, CC49. Considering their high specificity, reduced immunogenicity and multi-targeting behavior, these oligoclonal nanobodies represent a promising tool to target TAG-72...

  4. Oligoclonal Pattern/Abnormal Protein Bands in Post-Treatment Plasma Cell Myeloma Patients: Implications for Protein Electrophoresis and Serum Free Light Chain Assay Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-08-01

    The impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in plasma cell myeloma patients on the frequency, quality, and timing of oligoclonal pattern in serum protein electrophoresis/immunofixation electrophoresis (SPEP/SIFE) and serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) was evaluated. Laboratory results and clinical data for 251 patients with plasma cell myeloma, who had SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA performed between January 2010 and December 2016 were reviewed. The results for SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA were compared in patients with ASCT to those without ASCT. The implications of oligoclonal pattern in interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA - κ/λ ratio were addressed. In 251 patients, a total of 3,134 observations, of either SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA, were reviewed. One hundred fifty-nine patients received ASCT. The incidence of oligoclonal patterns was significantly higher after ASCT. More than half of the oligoclonal patterns developed in the first year after transplantation. In 13 of the 84 patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma, the κ/λ ratio was kappa dominant in the presence of oligoclonal pattern. There was no reversal of κ/λ ratio in patients with kappa chain restricted plasma cell myelomas. ASCT is associated with significantly higher incidence of oligoclonal patterns than with chemotherapy alone. The presence of oligoclonal patterns has the potential to interfere with the interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and ascertainment of complete remission. At a minimum, the oligoclonal pattern caused an incorrect kappa dominant κ/λ ratio in 15.5% of patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma. If a similar rate were to be applied to the 167 kappa chain myeloma patients, about 26 of these would have displayed an erroneous kappa chain dominant κ/λ ratio. The presence of oligoclonal pattern further degrades the performance of already dubious SFLCA. The need for recording the location of monoclonal spike in SPEP/SIFE and higher resolution protein

  5. Oligoclonal antibody targeting ghrelin increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake in fasted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Joseph S; Zorrilla, Eric P; Zhou, Bin; Mayorov, Alexander V; Janda, Kim D

    2012-02-06

    Ghrelin, an enteric peptide hormone linked to the pathophysiology of obesity has been a therapeutic target of great interest over the past decade. Many research efforts have focused on the antagonism of ghrelin's endogenous receptor GHSR1a, which is found along ascending vagal afferent fibers, as well as in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Additionally, peptidic inhibitors of ghrelin O-acyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for the paracrine activation of ghrelin, have recently been studied. Our research has taken an alternative immunological approach, studying both active and passive vaccination as a means to sequester ghrelin in the periphery, with the original discovery in rat of decreased feed efficiency and adiposity, as well as increased metabolic activity. Using our previous hapten designs as a stepping-stone, three monoclonal antibodies (JG2, JG3, and JG4) were procured against ghrelin and tested in vivo. While mAb JG4 had the highest affinity for ghrelin, it failed to attenuate the orexigenic effects of food deprivation on energy metabolism or food intake in mice. However, animals that were administered a combination of JG3:JG4 (termed a doublet) or JG2:JG3:JG4 (termed a triplet) demonstrated higher heat dispersion and rate of respiration (higher CO(2) emission and O(2) consumption) during a 24 h fast refeed. Mice administered the triplet cocktail of JG2:JG3:JG4 also demonstrated decreased food intake upon refeeding as compared to control animals. Recently, Lu and colleagues reported that a passive approach using a single, high affinity N-terminally directed monoclonal antibody did not abrogate the effects of endogenous ghrelin. Our current report corroborates this finding, yet, refutes that a monoclonal antibody approach cannot be efficacious. Rather, we find that a multiple monoclonal antibody (oligoclonal) approach can reproduce the underlying logic to previously reported efficacies using active vaccinations.

  6. Association of genetic markers with CSF oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio A Leone

    Full Text Available to explore the association between genetic markers and Oligoclonal Bands (OCB in the Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF of Italian Multiple Sclerosis patients.We genotyped 1115 Italian patients for HLA-DRB1*15 and HLA-A*02. In a subset of 925 patients we tested association with 52 non-HLA SNPs associated with MS susceptibility and we calculated a weighted Genetic Risk Score. Finally, we performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS with OCB status on a subset of 562 patients. The best associated SNPs of the Italian GWAS were replicated in silico in Scandinavian and Belgian populations, and meta-analyzed.HLA-DRB1*15 is associated with OCB+: p = 0.03, Odds Ratio (OR = 1.6, 95% Confidence Limits (CL = 1.1-2.4. None of the 52 non-HLA MS susceptibility loci was associated with OCB, except one SNP (rs2546890 near IL12B gene (OR: 1.45; 1.09-1.92. The weighted Genetic Risk Score mean was significantly (p = 0.0008 higher in OCB+ (7.668 than in OCB- (7.412 patients. After meta-analysis on the three datasets (Italian, Scandinavian and Belgian for the best associated signals resulted from the Italian GWAS, the strongest signal was a SNP (rs9320598 on chromosome 6q (p = 9.4×10(-7 outside the HLA region (65 Mb.genetic factors predispose to the development of OCB.

  7. Oligoclonal CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the development of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Daniel W; Thabet, Salim R; Kirabo, Annet; Saleh, Mohamed A; Itani, Hana; Norlander, Allison E; Wu, Jing; Goldstein, Anna; Arendshorst, William J; Madhur, Meena S; Chen, Wei; Li, Chung-I; Shyr, Yu; Harrison, David G

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies have emphasized a role of adaptive immunity, and particularly T cells, in the genesis of hypertension. We sought to determine the T-cell subtypes that contribute to hypertension and renal inflammation in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Using T-cell receptor spectratyping to examine T-cell receptor usage, we demonstrated that CD8(+) cells, but not CD4(+) cells, in the kidney exhibited altered T-cell receptor transcript lengths in Vβ3, 8.1, and 17 families in response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Clonality was not observed in other organs. The hypertension caused by angiotensin II in CD4(-/-) and MHCII(-/-) mice was similar to that observed in wild-type mice, whereas CD8(-/-) mice and OT1xRAG-1(-/-) mice, which have only 1 T-cell receptor, exhibited a blunted hypertensive response to angiotensin II. Adoptive transfer of pan T cells and CD8(+) T cells but not CD4(+)/CD25(-) cells conferred hypertension to RAG-1(-/-) mice. In contrast, transfer of CD4(+)/CD25(+) cells to wild-type mice receiving angiotensin II decreased blood pressure. Mice treated with angiotensin II exhibited increased numbers of kidney CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In response to a sodium/volume challenge, wild-type and CD4(-/-) mice infused with angiotensin II retained water and sodium, whereas CD8(-/-) mice did not. CD8(-/-) mice were also protected against angiotensin-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in the kidney. These data suggest that in the development of hypertension, an oligoclonal population of CD8(+) cells accumulates in the kidney and likely contributes to hypertension by contributing to sodium and volume retention and vascular rarefaction. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Relation of intrathecal oligoclonal band production to inflammatory mediator and immunotherapy response in 208 children with OMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; McGee, Nathan R; Tate, Elizabeth D

    2018-04-12

    In 208 children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), CSF IgG oligoclonal bands (OCB) and 22 immunomarkers in CSF and 21 in serum/blood were measured. In 36 untreated OMS, 58% were OCB(+), whereas 55% of treated OMS were OCB(-). OCB positivity or negativity did not alter concentrations or frequencies of immunomarkers. The phenotypes of OCB(+) and OCB(-) patients were not distinctive. CSF B cells were expanded in untreated OMS regardless of OCB positivity. These data reveal a much higher frequency of OCB positivity in untreated OMS than previously realized and a disconnect between intrathecal OCB and inflammatory mediator production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Oligoclonal band status in Scandinavian multiple sclerosis patients is associated with specific genetic risk alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger-Lise Mero

    Full Text Available The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is a typical finding in multiple sclerosis (MS. We applied data from Norwegian, Swedish and Danish (i.e. Scandinavian MS patients from a genome-wide association study (GWAS to search for genetic differences in MS relating to OCB status. GWAS data was compared in 1367 OCB positive and 161 OCB negative Scandinavian MS patients, and nine of the most associated SNPs were genotyped for replication in 3403 Scandinavian MS patients. HLA-DRB1 genotypes were analyzed in a subset of the OCB positive (n = 2781 and OCB negative (n = 292 MS patients and compared to 890 healthy controls. Results from the genome-wide analyses showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the HLA complex and six other loci were associated to OCB status. In SNPs selected for replication, combined analyses showed genome-wide significant association for two SNPs in the HLA complex; rs3129871 (p = 5.7×10(-15 and rs3817963 (p = 5.7×10(-10 correlating with the HLA-DRB1*15 and the HLA-DRB1*04 alleles, respectively. We also found suggestive association to one SNP in the Calsyntenin-2 gene (p = 8.83×10(-7. In HLA-DRB1 analyses HLA-DRB1*15∶01 was a stronger risk factor for OCB positive than OCB negative MS, whereas HLA-DRB1*04∶04 was associated with increased risk of OCB negative MS and reduced risk of OCB positive MS. Protective effects of HLA-DRB1*01∶01 and HLA-DRB1*07∶01 were detected in both groups. The groups were different with regard to age at onset (AAO, MS outcome measures and gender. This study confirms both shared and distinct genetic risk for MS subtypes in the Scandinavian population defined by OCB status and indicates different clinical characteristics between the groups. This suggests differences in disease mechanisms between OCB negative and OCB positive MS with implications for patient management, which need to be further studied.

  10. Oligoclonal band status in Scandinavian multiple sclerosis patients is associated with specific genetic risk alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mero, Inger-Lise; Gustavsen, Marte W; Sæther, Hanne S; Flåm, Siri T; Berg-Hansen, Pål; Søndergaard, Helle B; Jensen, Poul Erik H; Berge, Tone; Bjølgerud, Anja; Muggerud, Aslaug; Aarseth, Jan H; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Celius, Elisabeth G; Sellebjerg, Finn; Hillert, Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Oturai, Annette Bang; Kockum, Ingrid; Lie, Benedicte A; Andreassen, Bettina Kulle; Harbo, Hanne F

    2013-01-01

    The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a typical finding in multiple sclerosis (MS). We applied data from Norwegian, Swedish and Danish (i.e. Scandinavian) MS patients from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to search for genetic differences in MS relating to OCB status. GWAS data was compared in 1367 OCB positive and 161 OCB negative Scandinavian MS patients, and nine of the most associated SNPs were genotyped for replication in 3403 Scandinavian MS patients. HLA-DRB1 genotypes were analyzed in a subset of the OCB positive (n = 2781) and OCB negative (n = 292) MS patients and compared to 890 healthy controls. Results from the genome-wide analyses showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the HLA complex and six other loci were associated to OCB status. In SNPs selected for replication, combined analyses showed genome-wide significant association for two SNPs in the HLA complex; rs3129871 (p = 5.7×10(-15)) and rs3817963 (p = 5.7×10(-10)) correlating with the HLA-DRB1*15 and the HLA-DRB1*04 alleles, respectively. We also found suggestive association to one SNP in the Calsyntenin-2 gene (p = 8.83×10(-7)). In HLA-DRB1 analyses HLA-DRB1*15∶01 was a stronger risk factor for OCB positive than OCB negative MS, whereas HLA-DRB1*04∶04 was associated with increased risk of OCB negative MS and reduced risk of OCB positive MS. Protective effects of HLA-DRB1*01∶01 and HLA-DRB1*07∶01 were detected in both groups. The groups were different with regard to age at onset (AAO), MS outcome measures and gender. This study confirms both shared and distinct genetic risk for MS subtypes in the Scandinavian population defined by OCB status and indicates different clinical characteristics between the groups. This suggests differences in disease mechanisms between OCB negative and OCB positive MS with implications for patient management, which need to be further studied.

  11. Multiple sclerosis patients lacking oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid have less global and regional brain atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniel; Voevodskaya, Olga; Imrell, Kerstin; Stawiarz, Leszek; Spulber, Gabriela; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Hillert, Jan; Westman, Eric; Karrenbauer, Virginija Danylaité

    2014-09-15

    To investigate whether multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal immunoglobulin G bands (OCB) differ in brain atrophy. Twenty-eight OCB-negative and thirty-five OCB-positive patients were included. Larger volumes of total CSF and white matter (WM) lesions; smaller gray matter (GM) volume in the basal ganglia, diencephalon, cerebellum, and hippocampus; and smaller WM volume in corpus callosum, periventricular-deep WM, brainstem, and cerebellum, were observed in OCB-positives. OCB-negative patients, known to differ genetically from OCB-positives, are characterized by less global and regional brain atrophy. This finding supports the notion that OCB-negative MS patients may represent a clinically relevant MS subgroup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC) Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... frecuentes sobre la tosferina Q: Can vaccines prevent pertussis? A: Yes. Vaccines can prevent pertussis, or whooping ...

  13. Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Marte W; Viken, Marte K; Celius, Elisabeth G

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated the associ......Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated...... the association of HLA alleles and KIR ligands according to OCB status in MS patients (n=3876). Specific KIR ligands were associated with patients when compared to controls (n=3148), supporting a role for NK cells in MS pathogenesis. HLA class I alleles and KIR ligands did not differ between OCB phenotypes...

  14. McDonald Criteria 2010 and 2005 Compared: Persistence of High Oligoclonal Band Prevalence Despite Almost Doubled Diagnostic Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schwenkenbecher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 McDonald criteria were developed to allow a more rapid diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS by only one MRI of the brain. Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is not a mandatory part of the latest criteria, the evidence of an intrathecal humoral immunoreaction in the form of oligoclonal bands (OCB is crucial in the diagnostic workup. To date, the impact of the 2010 McDonald criteria on the prevalence of OCB has not been investigated. We retrospectively evaluated data of 325 patients with a clinical relapse suggestive of demyelination that were treated in a German university hospital between 2010 and 2015. One hundred thirty-six patients (42% were diagnosed with MS and 189 patients with CIS when the criteria of 2010 were applied. The criteria of 2005 allowed only 70 patients (22% to be designated as MS. In contrast, the prevalence of OCB was marginal affected in MS patients with 96% for the criteria of 2010 and 98.5% for the criteria of 2005. In conclusion, OCB are prevalent in most MS patients and reflect the chronic inflammatory nature of the disease. We recommend CSF examination to exclude alternative diagnoses and reevaluation of the diagnosis MS in patients with negative OCB.

  15. Oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased brain atrophy in early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of oligoclonal bands (OB at early stages of multiple sclerosis was associated with higher brain atrophy, when compared with patients without OB. METHODS: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients with less than two years of disease onset and OB detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were included. SIENAX was used for total brain volume (TBV, gray matter volume (GMV, and white matter volume (WMV. RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 29 had positive IgG-OB. No differences were found between positive and negative patients in gender, expanded disability status scale (EDSS, treatment received, and T2/T1 lesion load. TBV in positive IgG-OB patients was 1.5 mm³ x 10(6 compared with 1.64 mm³ x 10(6 in the negative ones (p=0.02. GMV was 0.51 mm³ x 10(6 in positive IgG-OB compared with 0.62 mm³ x 10(6 in negative ones (p=0.002. No differences in WMV (p=0.09 were seen. CONCLUSIONS: IgG-OB in the CSF was related to neurodegeneration magnetic resonance (MR markers in early RRMS.

  16. Among B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, MALT lymphomas express a unique antibody repertoire with frequent rheumatoid factor reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bende, Richard J.; Aarts, Wilhelmina M.; Riedl, Robert G.; de Jong, Daphne; Pals, Steven T.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the structure of antigen receptors of a comprehensive panel of mature B nonHodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHLs) by comparing, at the amino acid level, their immunoglobulin (Ig)V-H-CDR3s with CDR3 sequences present in GenBank. Follicular lymphomas, diffuse large B cell lymphomas, Burkitt's

  17. Primary progressive versus relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis: presence and prognostic value of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Patrizia; Mandrioli, Jessica; Simone, Anna M; Ferraro, Diana; Bedin, Roberta; Annecca, Rosanna; Venneri, Maria G; Nichelli, Paolo F; Merelli, Elisa

    2011-03-01

    There is increasing evidence on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgM (OCIgM) predicting a more aggressive disease course in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS), while there is a scarcity of data for primary progressive MS (PPMS). Our aim was to investigate the presence and possible prognostic value of CSF OCIgM in a group of PPMS and in a group of relapsing-onset MS patients. The possible prognostic role of other clinical and biological factors was also evaluated. We calculated the impact of single clinical and biological factors, including CSF OCIgM at onset, on the probability of reaching an Expanded Disability Status Scale of 3 and 4 in 45 PPMS and 104 relapsing-onset MS patients. CSF OCIgM were found in only 13% of PPMS patients and did not influence the time taken to reach an Expanded Disability Status Scale of 3 and 4. Conversely, they were present in 46% of relapsing-onset MS patients and increased the risk of reaching an Expanded Disability Status Scale of 4. Clinical factors with a negative prognostic value in PPMS were age at onset <30 years and onset with pyramidal symptoms, while onset with sensory symptoms in relapsing-onset MS predicted a more favourable course. This study confirms that, in relapsing-onset MS patients, the presence of CSF OCIgM at onset predicts a worse disease course. In the cohort of PPMS patients, however, CSF OCIgM were rare, suggesting that heterogeneous pathogenetic mechanisms may be involved in the different MS forms.

  18. Oligoclonal T-cell Receptor Repertoire in Colonic Biopsies of Patients with Microscopic Colitis and Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaltay, Sezin; Repsilber, Dirk; Helenius, Gisela; Nyhlin, Nils; Bohr, Johan; Hultgren, Olof; Hultgren Hörnquist, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC), comprising collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), is a type of variation of inflammatory bowel diseases. Local T-cell infiltration in the mucosa plays a major role in MC immunopathology. To understand diversity and clonality of infiltrating T cells, we analyzed the T-cell receptor beta (TCRβ) chains in colonic biopsies of MC, ulcerative colitis (UC), and their remission counterparts (CC/LC-HR [histological remission] or UC-R [remission]) compared with patients with noninflamed colons using next-generation sequencing. Compared with controls and patients with CC, patients with LC had significantly lower diversity with significantly lower evenness and richness in TCRVβ-Jβ gene segments. Similarly, patients with LC-HR had lower diversity because of significantly lower TCRVβ-Jβ clone richness. Patients with UC and UC-R showed significantly higher diversity and richness. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify TCRVβ-Jβ gene segments differentiating disease types from controls or their remission counterparts. Patients with LC were discriminated from controls by 12 clones and from patients with CC by 8 clones. Neither univariate nor multivariate analyses showed significance for patients with CC or CC-HR compared with controls. Patients with UC and UC-R had 16 and 14 discriminating clones, respectively, compared with controls. Altogether, patients with MC and UC showed an oligoclonal TCRβ distribution. TCRVβ-Jβ clone types and their diversity were distinctive between patients with CC and LC, as well as for patients with UC, suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms according to disease type and stage. This study suggests that CC and LC are different entities because of differences in immunoregulatory responses, as mirrored by their T-cell repertoire.

  19. Assessment of Intrathecal Free Light Chain Synthesis: Comparison of Different Quantitative Methods with the Detection of Oligoclonal Free Light Chains by Isoelectric Focusing and Affinity-Mediated Immunoblotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zeman

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare various methods for free light chain (fLC quantitation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum and to determine whether quantitative CSF measurements could reliably predict intrathecal fLC synthesis. In addition, we wished to determine the relationship between free kappa and free lambda light chain concentrations in CSF and serum in various disease groups.We analysed 166 paired CSF and serum samples by at least one of the following methods: turbidimetry (Freelite™, SPAPLUS, nephelometry (N Latex FLC™, BN ProSpec, and two different (commercially available and in-house developed sandwich ELISAs. The results were compared with oligoclonal fLC detected by affinity-mediated immunoblotting after isoelectric focusing.Although the correlations between quantitative methods were good, both proportional and systematic differences were discerned. However, no major differences were observed in the prediction of positive oligoclonal fLC test. Surprisingly, CSF free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were lower than those in serum in about 75% of samples with negative oligoclonal fLC test. In about a half of patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, profoundly increased free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were found in the CSF.Our results show that using appropriate method-specific cut-offs, different methods of CSF fLC quantitation can be used for the prediction of intrathecal fLC synthesis. The reason for unexpectedly low free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios in normal CSFs remains to be elucidated. Whereas CSF free kappa light chain concentration is increased in most patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, CSF free lambda light chain values show large interindividual variability in these patients and should be investigated further for possible immunopathological and prognostic significance.

  20. Assessment of Intrathecal Free Light Chain Synthesis: Comparison of Different Quantitative Methods with the Detection of Oligoclonal Free Light Chains by Isoelectric Focusing and Affinity-Mediated Immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, David; Kušnierová, Pavlína; Švagera, Zdeněk; Všianský, František; Byrtusová, Monika; Hradílek, Pavel; Kurková, Barbora; Zapletalová, Olga; Bartoš, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare various methods for free light chain (fLC) quantitation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum and to determine whether quantitative CSF measurements could reliably predict intrathecal fLC synthesis. In addition, we wished to determine the relationship between free kappa and free lambda light chain concentrations in CSF and serum in various disease groups. We analysed 166 paired CSF and serum samples by at least one of the following methods: turbidimetry (Freelite™, SPAPLUS), nephelometry (N Latex FLC™, BN ProSpec), and two different (commercially available and in-house developed) sandwich ELISAs. The results were compared with oligoclonal fLC detected by affinity-mediated immunoblotting after isoelectric focusing. Although the correlations between quantitative methods were good, both proportional and systematic differences were discerned. However, no major differences were observed in the prediction of positive oligoclonal fLC test. Surprisingly, CSF free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were lower than those in serum in about 75% of samples with negative oligoclonal fLC test. In about a half of patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, profoundly increased free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were found in the CSF. Our results show that using appropriate method-specific cut-offs, different methods of CSF fLC quantitation can be used for the prediction of intrathecal fLC synthesis. The reason for unexpectedly low free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios in normal CSFs remains to be elucidated. Whereas CSF free kappa light chain concentration is increased in most patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, CSF free lambda light chain values show large interindividual variability in these patients and should be investigated further for possible immunopathological and prognostic significance.

  1. Scalable Frequent Subgraph Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-06-19

    A graph is a data structure that contains a set of nodes and a set of edges connecting these nodes. Nodes represent objects while edges model relationships among these objects. Graphs are used in various domains due to their ability to model complex relations among several objects. Given an input graph, the Frequent Subgraph Mining (FSM) task finds all subgraphs with frequencies exceeding a given threshold. FSM is crucial for graph analysis, and it is an essential building block in a variety of applications, such as graph clustering and indexing. FSM is computationally expensive, and its existing solutions are extremely slow. Consequently, these solutions are incapable of mining modern large graphs. This slowness is caused by the underlying approaches of these solutions which require finding and storing an excessive amount of subgraph matches. This dissertation proposes a scalable solution for FSM that avoids the limitations of previous work. This solution is composed of four components. The first component is a single-threaded technique which, for each candidate subgraph, needs to find only a minimal number of matches. The second component is a scalable parallel FSM technique that utilizes a novel two-phase approach. The first phase quickly builds an approximate search space, which is then used by the second phase to optimize and balance the workload of the FSM task. The third component focuses on accelerating frequency evaluation, which is a critical step in FSM. To do so, a machine learning model is employed to predict the type of each graph node, and accordingly, an optimized method is selected to evaluate that node. The fourth component focuses on mining dynamic graphs, such as social networks. To this end, an incremental index is maintained during the dynamic updates. Only this index is processed and updated for the majority of graph updates. Consequently, search space is significantly pruned and efficiency is improved. The empirical evaluation shows that the

  2. CSF oligoclonal banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 396. Lechner-Scott J, Spencer B, de Malmanche T, et al. The frequency ... reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A. ...

  3. Frequent Itemset Hiding Algorithm Using Frequent Pattern Tree Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnatsheh, Rami

    2012-01-01

    A problem that has been the focus of much recent research in privacy preserving data-mining is the frequent itemset hiding (FIH) problem. Identifying itemsets that appear together frequently in customer transactions is a common task in association rule mining. Organizations that share data with business partners may consider some of the frequent…

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid anti-Epstein-Barr virus specific oligoclonal IgM and IgG bands in patients with clinically isolated and Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Diana; Galli, Veronica; Simone, Anna Maria; Bedin, Roberta; Vitetta, Francesca; Merelli, Elisa; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Sola, Patrizia

    2017-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the frequency of EBV-specific IgG and IgM oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 50 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and in 27 controls with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Furthermore, we assessed correlations between the presence of OCB and CIS patients' CSF, MRI, and clinical variables. There was no difference in the proportion of CIS and GB patients with positivity for anti-EBV-specific IgG/IgM OCB. There were no correlations between OCB and analyzed variables, nor were they predictive of a higher disability at 3 years.

  5. Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Marte W; Viken, Marte K; Celius, Elisabeth G; Berge, Tone; Mero, Inger-Lise; Berg-Hansen, Pål; Aarseth, Jan H; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Søndergaard, Helle B; Sellebjerg, Finn; Oturai, Annette B; Hillert, Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Kockum, Ingrid; Lie, Benedicte A; Harbo, Hanne F

    2014-09-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated the association of HLA alleles and KIR ligands according to OCB status in MS patients (n=3876). Specific KIR ligands were associated with patients when compared to controls (n=3148), supporting a role for NK cells in MS pathogenesis. HLA class I alleles and KIR ligands did not differ between OCB phenotypes, but HLA class II associations were convincingly replicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Rotavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Frequently Asked Questions About Rotavirus What is Rotavirus? Why can dehydration be serious ... I find information about the vaccine? What is Rotavirus? Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that infects ...

  8. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions Order this publication Printer- ... service or organization is open to working with LGBT families? Kudos to you for managing to “go ...

  9. The Most Frequent English Homonyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes homonymy, homophony, homography and polysemy, and provides a list of the most frequent homonyms using corpus-derived data. For most of the homonyms, the most common meaning accounts for 90% or more of the total uses of the form. The pedagogical and research implications of these findings are discussed. (Contains 5…

  10. In vitro production of human anti-sperm antibodies: effect of an oligoclonal antibody (F6) on sperm-egg interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, F M; Besuschio, F; De Santis, L; Lorenzetti, I; Ferrari, A

    1995-07-01

    A method has been developed to establish lines of transformed lymphocytes able to produce in vitro the same anti-sperm antibodies as those naturally occurring in immuno-infertile individuals. We utilized lymphocytes from a male donor whose serum contained anti-sperm antibodies of the IgG class up to the dilution 1:10,000, as detected by means of immunobead binding. T lymphocytes were separated from B lymphocytes using magnetic beads coated with anti-T antibody. B lymphocytes were then placed at a concentration of 5 x 10(6)/ml in a 96-well plate, stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and transformed with Epstein-Barr virus. After a few days, only transformed cells continued growing and these were collected. The supernatant was tested for production of anti-sperm antibodies and those transformed lymphocytes shown to be synthesising antibodies directed against the sperm head and the tail were cloned. We obtained a clone of cells producing antibodies of the IgG1 class directed against the head of the spermatozoon. This oligoclonal antibody (F6) recognized a 58-kDa band from a lysate of sperm membranes and was able to reduce the penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes by capacitated spermatozoa.

  11. Mining Frequent Max and Closed Sequential Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar, Ramin

    2002-01-01

    Although frequent sequential pattern mining has an important role in many data mining tasks, however, it often generates a large number of sequential patterns, which reduces its efficiency and effectiveness. For many applications mining all the frequent sequential patterns is not necessary, and mining frequent Max, or Closed sequential patterns will provide the same amount of information. Comparing to frequent sequential pattern mining, frequent Max, or Closed sequential pattern mining g...

  12. Anti-CDR3 Therapy for B-Cell Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purified antibodies via Flag affinity resins and size exclusion chromatography • Verified utility of ’Tomlinson’ phage library using model antigen... Resin (GenScript). The bound scFvs were then eluted and purified in soluble form. All five scFvs will be used in panning with the Tomlinson I+J...n CtiGAC·\\GGGTACUAGGictGAG.UC"-M TGA (iA.o\

  13. A gut-homing, oligoclonal CD4+ T cell population in severe-combined immunodeficient mice expressing a rearranged, transgenic class I-restricted alpha beta T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, J; Rudolphi, A; Spiess, S

    1995-01-01

    We studied the peripheral T cell compartment of H-2b severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice that express a transgenic (tg) alpha beta T cell receptor (TcR) specific for the H-Y (male) epitope presented by the H-2 class I Db molecule. Large populations of CD3+ NK1.1-TCR beta T+ T cells were......R alpha T-beta T+ cells were found in gut tissues of the immunodeficient host. Transplanted scid mice developed clinical and histological signs of IBD. An oligoclonal, gut-homing, memory/effector CD4+ CD44+ TcR beta T+ TcR alpha T-T cell subset from leaky tg scid mice thus has a pathogenic potential when...

  14. On finding frequent patterns in event sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagna, Andrea; Pagh, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    concerning finding frequent patterns in event sequences. Our motivation comes from working with a data set of 2 million RFID readings from baggage trolleys at Copenhagen Airport. The question of finding frequent passenger movement patterns is mapped to the above problem. We report on experimental findings...

  15. Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithms for Data Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimek, Arthur; Assent, Ira; Vreeken, Jilles

    2014-01-01

    Discovering clusters in subspaces, or subspace clustering and related clustering paradigms, is a research field where we find many frequent pattern mining related influences. In fact, as the first algorithms for subspace clustering were based on frequent pattern mining algorithms, it is fair to say...... that frequent pattern mining was at the cradle of subspace clustering—yet, it quickly developed into an independent research field. In this chapter, we discuss how frequent pattern mining algorithms have been extended and generalized towards the discovery of local clusters in high-dimensional data....... In particular, we discuss several example algorithms for subspace clustering or projected clustering as well as point out recent research questions and open topics in this area relevant to researchers in either clustering or pattern mining...

  16. Frequent flyer business travelers: major exposure hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Olga S; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S

    2005-02-01

    Bagshaw (2004) notes "the modern commercial aircraft cabin is maintained with adequate environmental control for the comfort of most healthy individuals" (p. 417). Occupational health nurses frequently deal with a population that may include unhealthy individuals or those with pre-existing conditions. It is critical for occupational health nurses to stay current with major hazards faced by frequent flyer business travelers to assist in identifying and preventing adverse health effects associated with these exposures.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Frequent Subgraph Discovery Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ur Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid development of the Internet technology and new scientific advances, the number of applications that model the data as graphs increases, because graphs have highly expressive power to model a complicated structure. Graph mining is a well-explored area of research which is gaining popularity in the data mining community. A graph is a general model to represent data and has been used in many domains such as cheminformatics, web information management system, computer network, and bioinformatics, to name a few. In graph mining the frequent subgraph discovery is a challenging task. Frequent subgraph mining is concerned with discovery of those subgraphs from graph dataset which have frequent or multiple instances within the given graph dataset. In the literature a large number of frequent subgraph mining algorithms have been proposed; these included FSG, AGM, gSpan, CloseGraph, SPIN, Gaston, and Mofa. The objective of this research work is to perform quantitative comparison of the above listed techniques. The performances of these techniques have been evaluated through a number of experiments based on three different state-of-the-art graph datasets. This novel work will provide base for anyone who is working to design a new frequent subgraph discovery technique.

  18. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  19. Frequent price changes under menu costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Svejstrup

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty on a single firm's pricing behaviour in a dynamic menu cost model that results in (S,s)-rules where the price is fixed inside a band. It will be demonstrated that even though the band of inaction widens in response to increased uncertainty......, the price may be changed more frequent in the short run, and in the long run it definitely will. Hence, observing frequent price changes is not necessarily inconsistent with a firm operating under menu costs. This paper relies on an article by Dixit (1991), (Review of Economic studies, 58, 141...

  20. On finding frequent patterns in event sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagna, Andrea; Pagh, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    concerning finding frequent patterns in event sequences. Our motivation comes from working with a data set of 2 million RFID readings from baggage trolleys at Copenhagen Airport. The question of finding frequent passenger movement patterns is mapped to the above problem. We report on experimental findings......Given a directed acyclic graph with labeled vertices, we consider the problem of finding the most common label sequences (``traces'') among all paths in the graph (of some maximum length $m$). Since the number of paths can be huge, we propose novel algorithms whose time complexity depends only...

  1. Chronic frequent headache in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiendels, Natalie Janette

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a large questionnaire-based study on the epidemiology of chronic frequent headache (CFH) in the Dutch adult population. It also includes information on triptan (over)use from the Drug Information Project (GIP database) and the results of a withdrawal trial in

  2. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  3. Auditory Training with Frequent Communication Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Sommers, Mitchell; Barcroft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with hearing loss engage in auditory training to improve their speech recognition. They typically practice listening to utterances spoken by unfamiliar talkers but never to utterances spoken by their most frequent communication partner (FCP)--speech they most likely desire to recognize--under the assumption that familiarity…

  4. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  5. Frequent methodological errors in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Aycaguer, L C

    2018-03-07

    Several errors that are frequently present in clinical research are listed, discussed and illustrated. A distinction is made between what can be considered an "error" arising from ignorance or neglect, from what stems from a lack of integrity of researchers, although it is recognized and documented that it is not easy to establish when we are in a case and when in another. The work does not intend to make an exhaustive inventory of such problems, but focuses on those that, while frequent, are usually less evident or less marked in the various lists that have been published with this type of problems. It has been a decision to develop in detail the examples that illustrate the problems identified, instead of making a list of errors accompanied by an epidermal description of their characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. [Dementia. Most frequent forms of beginning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizaga, Raúl L; Cristalli, Diana O; Golimstok, Angel; Saredo, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In the present chapter, that is part of a more comprehensive work performed by the Argentine Consortium for Dementia Study - Consortium Argentino para el Estudio de la Demencia (CAED), we describe the most frequent forms of beginning for the four more prevalent types of dementia: Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia). Despite this, it must be kept in mind, that frequently the clinical presentation is not typical and the diagnostic impression at the disease's beginning is controversial comparing it with the etiological diagnosis reached when the dementia is definitively installed. This issue must be considered when the initial impression is given to the patient and/or relatives. It must be clarified, in this instance, that this impression is based in statistical data of ways of presentation, but the definitive diagnosis could be different according to the dementia evolution.

  7. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  8. Botulism: A Frequently Forgotten Old Malady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Thajeb

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A frequently forgotten old malady called botulism has been recognized for more than a century. This ailment occurs worldwide, afflicts human of all age groups from infants to elderly and affects Oriental people more often in several regions of China. Occurrence in Taiwan is uncommon, and therefore, it is often overlooked. The outbreaks of human botulism in various regions of the world, the clinical types, the molecular mechanisms, and the electrophysiologic findings will be highlighted.

  9. Frequent users of the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Jade; Osmanlliu, Esli; Zhang, Xun; Clavel, Virginie; Eisman, Harley; Rodrigues, Robert; Oskoui, Maryam

    2017-04-06

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is multifactorial, and frequent ED use (defined as more or equal to five visits per year) is a major contributor to high patient volumes. Our primary objective is to characterize the frequent user population. Our secondary objective is to examine risk factors for frequent emergency use. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pediatric emergency department (PED) visits at the Montreal Children's Hospital using the Système Informatique Urgence (SIURGE), electronic medical record database. We analysed the relation between patient's characteristics and the number of PED visits over a 1-year period following the index visit. Patients totalling 52,088 accounted for 94,155 visits. Of those, 2,474 (4.7%) patients had five and more recurrent visits and accounted for 16.6% (15,612 visits) of the total PED visits. Lower level of acuity at index visit (odds ratio [OR] 0.85) was associated with a lower number of recurrent visits. Lower socioeconomic status (social deprivation index OR 1.09, material deprivation index OR 1.08) was associated with a higher number of recurrent visits. Asthma (OR 1.57); infectious ear, nose, and sinus disorders (OR 1.33); and other respiratory disorders (OR 1.56) were independently associated with a higher incidence of a recurrent visit within the year following the first visit. Our study is the first Canadian study to assess risk factors of frequent pediatric emergency use. The identified risk factors and diagnoses highlight the need for future evidence-based, targeted innovative research evaluating strategies to minimize ED crowding, to improve health outcomes and to improve patient satisfaction.

  10. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Aaron V; Cain, Matthew S; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT), a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  11. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron V Berard

    Full Text Available Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT, a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  12. Screening mammography interpretation test: more frequent mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, Gino; Ganzetti, Alessandra; Martinoli, Carlo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Bodini, Maria; Fiorentino, Carla; Marini, Ugo Paolo; Santini, Dolores

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the mammographic cases most commonly misinterpreted by the participants in the mammography self-test proposed by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) National Congress in Rimini, Italy, 2002, by analysing the findings responsible for errors, suggesting reasons for the errors, and assessing possible inadequacies in the format of the test. Materials and methods: The self-test was performed on the mammograms of 160 cases (32 positive and 128 negative for cancer as confirmed by histology). The mammograms had been taken in the four standard projections and placed on four multi-panel diaphanoscopes, each displaying a set of 40 cases comprising benign and malignant cases in equal proportions. The participants were given pre-printed forms on which to note down their diagnostic judgement. We evaluated a total of 134 fully-completed forms. Among these, we identified the 23 cases most frequently misread by over 15 participants in percentages varying between 40-90%. Of these cases, 10 were malignancies and 13 were negative mammograms. On review, we also assessed the diagnostic contribution of complementary investigations (not available the participants). The 134 fully-completed forms (all of the 40 cases) yielded a total of 5360 responses, 1180 of which (22.01%) were incorrect. Of these 823 out of the 4288 cases expected to be negative (19.2%) were false positive, and 357 out of the 1072 cases expected to be positive (33.3%) were false negative. As regards the 23 most frequently misread cases, these were 10/32 (31.25%) mammograms positive for malignancy and 13/128 (10.15%) negative mammograms or mammograms showing benign disease. The 10 malignancies included 7 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 1 infiltrating cribriform carcinoma, 1 infiltrating tubular carcinoma, and 1 carcinoma in situ. The 13 cases of benign disease - as established by histology or long-term follow-up - mistaken for malignancies by the test participants were fibrocystic breast

  13. Frequent adaptive immune responses against arginase-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Mortensen, Rasmus Erik Johansson; Hansen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    was examined in PBMCs from cancer patients and healthy individuals. IFNγ ELISPOT revealed frequent immune responses against multiple arginase-1-derived peptides. We further identified a hot-spot region within the arginase-1 protein sequence containing multiple epitopes recognized by T cells. Next, we examined......, and further demonstrated the specificity and reactivity of these T cells. Overall, we showed that arginase-1-specific T cells were capable of recognizing arginase-1-expressing cells. The activation of arginase-1-specific T cells by vaccination is an attractive approach to target arginase-1-expressing...... macrophages (TAMs), and its expression is associated with poor prognosis. In the present study, we divided the arginase-1 protein sequence into overlapping 20-amino-acid-long peptides, generating a library of 31 peptides covering the whole arginase-1 sequence. Reactivity towards this peptide library...

  14. Bladder injuries frequently missed in polytrauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanweer Karim, Margaret Topno, Vinod Sharma, Raymond Picardo, Ankur HastirSurgery, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Bladder injuries are very common in patients who have had road traffic accidents. The method of diagnosis and management of such injuries is well established and accepted. However, trauma to the bladder can be associated with other life-threatening injuries which are frequently missed, and often diagnosed during laparotomy for other reasons. The aim of this study was to diagnose bladder injury in polytrauma patients as early as possible, taking into consideration the fact that these patients are hemodynamically unstable and require rapid evaluation and management. In order to achieve our objective, we used bedside sonography with retrograde instillation of normal saline to diagnose bladder injury in addition to use of the conventional retrograde cystogram.Keywords: bladder injury, bladder rupture, retrograde cystogram

  15. [Pica during pregnancy: a frequently underestimated problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Laura Beatriz; Ortega Soler, Carlos Rafael; de Portela, María Luz Pita Martín

    2004-03-01

    Pica is the compulsive intake of non-nutritive substances such as earth, clay, chalk, soap and ice. The most common forms of pica are geophagia or the intake of earth and pagophagia or the intake of ice. The description of this peculiar phenomenon dates back to the Greco-Roman civilization. Its prevalence during pregnancy is generally underestimated. Published data reveal a prevalence of between 8% and 65%. Investigations from Latin America indicate a prevalence of 23% to 44%. It is not clear yet which are the causes that predispose to pica, but they are frequently associated with anemia or iron deficiency during pregnancy. Its diagnosis, which only consists in questioning pregnant women, is generally omitted during prenatal care, probably because health professionals have no knowledge about this disorder. The identification of pica in pregnant women could contribute to the detection of a risk group where it is necessary to implement strategies as regards both the evaluation and the nutritional education.

  16. Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Taylor M; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Groenewold, Matthew R; Lu, Ming-Lun

    2018-01-12

    Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders (1). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs (2). A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain (3). To determine which industry and occupation groups currently have the highest prevalence rates of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work, CDC analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Occupational Health Supplement (OHS) regarding currently employed adults in the United States. By industry, the highest prevalence of both frequent exertion and frequent standing at work was among those in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry group (70.9%); by occupation, the highest prevalence was among those in the construction and extraction occupation group (76.9%). Large differences among industry and occupation groups were found with regard to these ergonomic hazards, suggesting a need for targeted interventions designed to reduce workplace exposure.

  17. Nature of frequent deletions in CEBPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Ota; Kostecka, Arnost; Provaznikova, Dana; Krasna, Blazena; Brezinova, Jana; Filkukova, Jitka; Kotlin, Roman; Kouba, Michal; Kobylka, Petr; Neuwirtova, Radana; Jonasova, Anna; Caniga, Miroslav; Schwarz, Jiri; Markova, Jana; Maaloufova, Jacqueline; Sponerova, Dana; Novakova, Ludmila; Cermak, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    C/EBPalpha (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha) belongs to the family of leucine zipper transcription factors and is necessary for transcriptional control of granulocyte, adipocyte and hepatocyte differentiation, glucose metabolism and lung development. C/EBPalpha is encoded by an intronless gene. CEBPA mutations cause a myeloid differentiation block and were detected in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. In this study we identified in 41 individuals from 824 screened individuals (290 AML patients, 382 MDS patients, 56 NHL patients and 96 healthy individuals) a single class of 23 deletions in CEBPA gene which involved a direct repeat of at least 2 bp. These mutations are characterised by the loss of one of two same repeats at the ends of deleted sequence. Three most frequent repeats included in these deletions in CEBPA gene are CGCGAG (493-498_865-870), GCCAAGCAGC (508-517_907-916) and GG (486-487_885-886), all according to GenBank accession no. NM_004364.2. A mechanism for deletion formation between two repetitive sequences can be recombination events in the repair process. Double-stranded cut in DNA can initiate these recombination events of adjacent DNA sequences.

  18. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger RH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roland H Wenger,1,2 Vartan Kurtcuoglu,1,2 Carsten C Scholz,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs1,2,4 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, 2National Center of Competence in Research “Kidney.CH”, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. Keywords: gas laws, hypoxia-inducible factor, Krogh tissue cylinder, oxygen diffusion, partial pressure, tissue oxygen levels

  19. Most frequent calf diseases in industrial breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to conduct an analysis of the incidence of viral diseases in calves if these diseases are divided into two basic groups. One group comprises diseases of respiratory organs which are manifested by symptoms of a respiratory syndrome, and the second group comprises diseases of digestive tract organs in the form of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is considered that viruses have the dominant role in the complex etiology of the respiratory syndrome, primarily the IBR virus or the Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1, followed by the parainfluenza 3 virus (RSV, the Bovine Viral Diahrrea Virus (BVDV, the bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, but also other viruses, such as adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, can also influence the appearance of the respiratory syndrome. The respiratory syndrome is rarely caused by a single viral agent, but most frequently by mixed viruses, but also by bacterial infections. Mixed viral infections often have a lethal outcome. Investigations of the etiology of the gastrointestinal syndrome so far indicate that, in addition to bacteria, viruses can also be a significant etiological factor. Rotaviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses parvoviruses, herpesviruses (the IBR virus, pestiviruses (BVDV, can be the causes of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is believed that viruses can be the cause in about 10% cases in the ethiopathogenesis of this syndrome. The paper describes the etiopathogenesis of calf diseases of viral etiology which are most often found in the local conditions of industrial breeding of calves.

  20. The Effect of Frequent Hemodialysis on Nutrition and Body Composition: Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysen, George A.; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Mehta, Ravindra, L.; Lindsay, Robert; Depner, Tom A.; Hall, Yoshio N.; Daugirdas, John T.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of frequency of hemodialysis on nutritional status by analyzing the data in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial. We compared changes in albumin, body weight and composition among 245 patients randomized to 6- or 3-times per week in-center hemodialysis (Daily Trial) and 87 patients randomized to 6-times per week nocturnal or 3-times per week conventional hemodialysis, performed largely at home (Nocturnal Trial). In the Daily Trial, there were no significant diff...

  1. The Effect of Frequent Hemodialysis on Nutrition and Body Composition: Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, George A.; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Mehta, Ravindra, L.; Lindsay, Robert; Depner, Tom A.; Hall, Yoshio N.; Daugirdas, John T.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of frequency of hemodialysis on nutritional status by analyzing the data in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial. We compared changes in albumin, body weight and composition among 245 patients randomized to 6- or 3-times per week in-center hemodialysis (Daily Trial) and 87 patients randomized to 6-times per week nocturnal or 3-times per week conventional hemodialysis, performed largely at home (Nocturnal Trial). In the Daily Trial, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in serum albumin or the equilibrated protein catabolic rate by 12 months. There was a significant relative decrease in pre-dialysis body weight of 1.5 ± 0.2 kg in the 6 times per week group at one month, but this significantly rebounded by 1.3 ± 0.5 kg over the remaining 11 months. Extracellular water decreased in the 6 times per week compared to the 3 per week hemodialysis group. There were no significant between-group differences in phase angle, intracellular water or body cell mass. In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant between-group differences in any study parameter. Any gain in “dry” body weight corresponded to increased adiposity rather than muscle mass but was not statistically significant. Thus, frequent in-center hemodialysis reduced extracellular water but did not increase serum albumin or body cell mass while frequent nocturnal hemodialysis yielded no net effect on parameters of nutritional status or body composition. PMID:22456602

  2. TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON THE FREQUENT TEST: VOCABULARY COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Wulan Wahyuningtyas; Fransiska Selvy Wulandari

    2017-01-01

    Through frequent test, students have higher self-motivation to understand every material in order to make them prepared in attending frequent test. This paper aims to see the teachers’ and students’ perceptions on frequent test. In addition, as the further finding, the writers will focus on the benefits of frequent test. The paper is an observation paper that focused on students ‘and teachers’ perception through frequent test, and its benefits. The finding shows that both of the teachers and ...

  3. Guide and manual of frequent special radiological procedures pertaining frequent pediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Rodriguez, Marco V.

    2012-01-01

    A set of instructions and / or recommendations are afforded, developed in a systematic way, whose purpose is to help treating doctors to make decisions about the mode of study appropriate for a specialized clinical circumstance. The instructions are aimed at radiologists, in order to facilitate the selection and realization of special studies in the pediatric patient images, so that in this way, guide of the best and most efficient way to the resolution of the cases before diagnostic doubts that seek to clarify the treating clinician. The studies most frequently requested are exposed, as well as those with their prompt realization will lead to a quick and timely medical care and / or surgical of a specific problem [es

  4. Influence of Frequent Nocturnal Home Hemodialysis on Food Preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin; Franssen, Casper; van der Schans, Cees; Smit, Lianne; Noordman, Sabine; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective: Dialysis patients frequently report a change of taste that is reversible after renal transplantation, suggesting that uremic toxins may negatively influence taste. Currently, frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) is the most effective method of hemodialysis, and is associated with

  5. Perceived Quality of Social Relations and Frequent Drunkenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Thora M; Rivera, Francisco; Jiménez-Iglesias, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to examine, for female and male students separately, whether perceived quality of relationships with peers and parents and relations in school predict self-reported frequent drunkenness among Spanish adolescents. METHODS: The Spanish data from the Health Behaviour...... odds of frequent drunkenness compared with those with high level of satisfaction with friendships. CONCLUSION: We found different associations between perceived quality of social relations and frequent drunkenness among male and female students. Results showed that social relations seemed to better...... predictors of frequent drunkenness among female than male students and that other factors than social relations may contribute to explain excessive alcohol use among Spanish adolescents....

  6. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  7. Emergency Department Frequent Users for Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc L. Martel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A subset of frequent users of emergency services are those who use the emergency department (ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population and their ED encounters have not been previously described. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients presenting to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication between 2012 and 2016. We collected all data from the electronic medical record. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication were defined as those with greater than 20 visits for acute intoxication without additional medical chief complaints in the previous 12 months. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate characteristics of frequent users for alcohol intoxication, as well as their ED encounters. Results: We identified 32,121 patient encounters. Of those, 325 patients were defined as frequent users for alcohol intoxication, comprising 11,370 of the encounters during the study period. The median maximum number of encounters per person for alcohol intoxication in a one-year period was 47 encounters (range 20 to 169. Frequent users were older (47 years vs. 39 years, and more commonly male (86% vs. 71%. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities including liver disease, chronic kidney disease, ischemic vascular disease, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Conclusion: In this study, we identified a group of ED frequent users who use the ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities compared to non-frequent users.

  8. Iron Deficiency In Frequent And First Time Female Blood Donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency and relevant factors in frequent and first time female blood donors at Casablanca blood transfusion centre, Morocco. Methods: Between November 2005 and April 2006, twenty-one female first time and twenty-one frequent female blood ...

  9. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended...

  10. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is

  11. XML documents cluster research based on frequent subpatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tienan; Li, Wei; Li, Xiongfei

    2015-12-01

    XML data is widely used in the information exchange field of Internet, and XML document data clustering is the hot research topic. In the XML document clustering process, measure differences between two XML documents is time costly, and impact the efficiency of XML document clustering. This paper proposed an XML documents clustering method based on frequent patterns of XML document dataset, first proposed a coding tree structure for encoding the XML document, and translate frequent pattern mining from XML documents into frequent pattern mining from string. Further, using the cosine similarity calculation method and cohesive hierarchical clustering method for XML document dataset by frequent patterns. Because of frequent patterns are subsets of the original XML document data, so the time consumption of XML document similarity measure is reduced. The experiment runs on synthetic dataset and the real datasets, the experimental result shows that our method is efficient.

  12. Predictors of Frequent Emergency Room Visits among a Homeless Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinna Thakarar

    Full Text Available Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use.A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH. This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits.In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, p<0.01. HIV seropositivity was not predictive of frequent ER visits. In patients with history of illicit drug use, mental health (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.07-5.95 and hepatitis C (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.37-5.93 were predictors of frequent ER use. HIV seropositivity did not predict ER use (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 - 0.97.In a HCH population, hepatitis C predicted frequent ER visits in homeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population.

  13. Predictors of Frequent Emergency Room Visits among a Homeless Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakarar, Kinna; Morgan, Jake R; Gaeta, Jessie M; Hohl, Carole; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER) visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use. A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH). This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits. In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, phomeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population.

  14. Predictors of Frequent Emergency Room Visits among a Homeless Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakarar, Kinna; Morgan, Jake R.; Gaeta, Jessie M.; Hohl, Carole; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER) visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH). This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits. Results In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, phealth (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.07–5.95) and hepatitis C (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.37–5.93) were predictors of frequent ER use. HIV seropositivity did not predict ER use (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 – 0.97). Conclusions In a HCH population, hepatitis C predicted frequent ER visits in homeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population. PMID:25906394

  15. Social capital and frequent attenders in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Alexander A.; Mæhlisen, Maiken H.; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    and individual social capital. The aim of this study is to explore this association. METHODS: The analysis is conducted on responders to the North Denmark Region Health Profile 2010 (n = 23,384), individually linked with information from administrative registers. Social capital is operationalized......BACKGROUND: Frequent attendance to primary care constitutes a large use of resources for the health care system. The association between frequent attendance and illness-related factors has been examined in several studies, but little is known about the association between frequent attendance...

  16. Frequent Pairs in Data Streams: Exploiting Parallelism and Skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagna, Andrea; Kutzkow, Konstantin; Pagh, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the Pair Streaming Engine (PairSE) that detects frequent pairs in a data stream of transactions. Our algorithm finds the most frequent pairs with high probability, and gives tight bounds on their frequency. It is particularly space efficient for skewed distribution of pair supports...... items mining in data streams. We show how to efficiently scale these approaches to handle large transactions. We report experimental results showcasing precision and recall of our method. In particular, we find that often our method achieves excellent precision, returning identical upper and lower...... bounds on the supports of the most frequent pairs....

  17. Frequent Questions about the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent technical questions such Surface Impoundment Requires Corrections, How Do I Assess Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) or Leachability in a Liquid Waste Sample?, Aggregate Hazard Index and Cancer Risk Output Table Correction.

  18. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time...... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...... no additional years as frequent exacerbators, while the minority (6%) remained in this category each year. In conclusion, the rate of exacerbations shows considerable variation over time among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the general population. This might hold implications for chronic...

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Frequently Asked Questions about Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is a Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP)? Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a lung ...

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  1. THE FREQUENT SKIN DISEASES DIAGNOSED AT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim KAYMAK

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of some skin diseases are increasing at adolescent and early adulthood period. The most frequent disease at this period is acne vulgaris whereas fungal diseases, dermatitis, dermatosis which are due to stress and other reasons, oral mucosal lesions and herpetic lesions of perioral region are also frequent. In this research we aim to determine the frequent dermatologic diseases of university students and 147 female, 74 male, a total of 221 students are included. We questioned the dermatologic complaints of students, then examined dermatologically in detail and registered ages, sexes, findings of the dermatological examination and dermatological diagnostic informations. As a result it is found out that the most frequent diseases are acne vulgaris (34.1%, allergic and pruritic dermatosis (16.6%, fungal diseases ( 13.0%, and eritamatous-squamous disease (8.3%. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 313-320

  2. Injury patterns in children with frequent emergency department visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare injury patterns in children with many and few emergency department (ED) visits in order to reveal the causes for the frequent visits. METHODS: Three cohorts of Danish children (total 579 721 children) were followed for three years when their ages were 0-2, 6-8, and 12......-14 years. Information on all ED visits was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry. Injury type, place of accident, injury mechanism, admission, and distance to ED were compared between children with frequent ED visits (five or more during the three years) and children with only one visit....... RESULTS: Children with frequent visits had a different injury pattern with 0-46% more superficial injuries and 25-82% more dislocations, sprains, and strains. There was 20-30% fewer fractures and 12% fewer falls from a higher level. 15-51% fewer were admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Children with many ED visits had...

  3. Examination of Operation Quality for High-frequent Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of operation quality for high-frequent operation requires other approaches than the typical evaluation of punctuality (trains on time) and reliability (operated trains). This is because passengers in high-frequent railway systems do not necessarily notice train delays as they just...... take the first train in their direction. The article examines four different approaches to examine operation quality for high-frequent operation that are based on the experiences of the passengers. These approaches are the service frequency of the operation, travel time extension, a combination...... of the service frequency and travel time approaches, and passenger delays. The service frequency and travel time approaches are simple measurements with low complexity and complement each other. Therefore, the article recommends combining the service frequency and travel time approaches to get a more accurate...

  4. Frequently Used Coping Scales: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the frequency of the use of coping scales in academic journals published from 1998 to 2010. Two thousand empirical journal articles were selected from the EBSCO database. The COPE, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Religious-COPE and Coping Response Inventory were frequently mentioned. In particular, the COPE (20.2%) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (13.6%) were used the most frequently. In this literature reviewed, coping scales were most often used to assess coping with health issues (e.g. illness, pain and medical diagnoses) over other types of stressors, and patients were the most frequent participants. Further, alpha coefficients were estimated for the COPE subscales, and correlations between the COPE subscales and coping outcomes were calculated, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative affect, psychological distress, physical symptoms and well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Predictors of frequent visits to a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Aagaard, Andreas; Buus, Niels

    2014-01-01

    and social support. RESULTS: The study identified two overall trends of predictors of frequent use of the psychiatric emergency room. High use of psychiatric services: ≥5 visits to the psychiatric emergency room, ≥3 admissions or ≥60 bed days during the year, was and continued to be predictive of high use...... to psychiatric emergency services. OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of frequent use of a psychiatric emergency room at a Danish University Psychiatric Hospital through a 12-year period (1995-2007) and to speculate on how changes in the mental healthcare services affect predictors of frequent use through time....... DESIGN: A large-scale register based logistic regression analysis combined with a small-scale explorative, interpretative interview study. Register data were drawn from the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register. Four-year cohorts (1995, 1998, 2001 and 2004) of patients with at least one visit...

  6. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social...... inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross...... during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total...

  7. [Frequent visitors to psychiatric emergency service: Demographical and clinical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, S; Boyer, L; Henry, J-M; Belzeaux, R

    2015-04-01

    Frequent visitors of psychiatric emergency wards are an important health care problem. Previous studies underlined that 2 % to 9 % of patients induce 15 % to 33 % of total clinical activity. Those patients have chronic and severe mental illness such as schizophrenia, associated with social and financial difficulties. The aim of this study was to describe demographic and clinical characteristics of frequent visitors to a psychiatric emergency ward in a French Academic hospital over 6years in comparison to non-frequent visitors. The study is based on a retrospective review of the psychiatric emergency wards' administrative and medical computer databases; data that included demographic, financial, clinical, and management information. During this 6-year study, the psychiatric ward recorded 16,754 care episodes for 8800 different patients. We compared frequent visitors with other visitors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Frequent visitors were defined by a number of visits greater than 2 of the mean standard deviation. Two percent of patients (n=192) had nine or more visits during the period. These patients caused 21 % of the total number of the visits. In the univariate analysis, the most significant reasons for referral in frequent visitors versus others (Phomeless (OR=2.7, IC: 1.8-4). Factors associated with non-frequent visitors were mood disorders (OR=0.07, IC: 0.03-0.19) and neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders (OR=0.14, IC: 0.05-0.4). Sex and age were not significant in multivariate analysis. This study identifies significant demographic and clinical factors associated with frequent visits in psychiatric emergency ward in accordance with the large majority of previous studies. We found that psychotic disorders or schizophrenia were the main diagnosis of these patients. Moreover, precariousness (homeless, financial assistance) is an important demographic factor associated with recurrence. However, contrary to numerous studies, we found no

  8. Pigeon-Frequented Areas, Garbage Piles and Dog Faeces as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to establish the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species in two pigeon-frequented areas; garbage piles from two separate sites in Nairobi, and dog faeces from Small animal clinic, University of Nairobi, Kabete. The sampling included both solid materials and air. Potato Dextrose ...

  9. Demystifying the Electoral College: 12 Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    As the presidential election of 2012 draws closer, Americans will witness a resurgence of references to the Electoral College in news reports. Here, "Looking at the Law" hopes to demystify the Electoral College, and refresh many social studies memories--just in time for the next election--with some frequently asked questions about electing the…

  10. Less Frequently Taught Languages: Basic Information and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Marilyn; And Others

    The following articles are presented in the section of the Northeast Conference Report on less frequently taught languages: (1) "American Sign Language," by M. Conwell and A. Nelson; (2) "Chinese," by D. Gidman; (3) "Japanese," by J. P. Berwald and T. Phipps; (4) "Latin," by M. Cleary; (5) "Portuguese," by R. Pedro Carvalho; and (6) "Russian," by…

  11. Competence-Based Education and Training– about Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the author's previous piece on practical guidelines for the development of comprehensive competence-based education and training (Mulder, 2012). It is about the questions that have been and are still frequently asked in presentations, workshops and classes about the introduction

  12. Fraternity Membership & Frequent Drinking. NBER Working Paper No. 16291

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcing earlier findings from other data, college senior fraternity/sorority members are more likely to consume alcohol frequently. Large reductions in estimates upon controlling for time spent partying, and to a lesser extent cigarette use and intramural sports involvement, suggest considerable unobserved heterogeneity in the relationship.…

  13. Use of contraception among US women with frequent mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sherry L; Curtis, Kathryn M; Robbins, Cheryl L; Zapata, Lauren B; Dietz, Patricia M

    2011-02-01

    This study examines whether a woman's mental health is associated with use of contraception. We used national data from 2004 and 2006 to calculate the prevalence of contraceptive use among women with frequent mental distress. We examined associations among mental distress and permanent contraception and any highly or moderately effective, reversible contraceptive method. Women with (86%) and without (87%) frequent mental distress reported using contraception, but contraceptive type varied by mental distress and income. Among women who use contraception, those with frequent mental distress had 1.4 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.2-1.6) of using permanent contraception. Among lower income women who use reversible contraception, those with frequent mental distress had lower odds of using highly [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.5, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8] and moderately (aOR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) effective methods than less effective methods. Contraceptive providers should consider mental health when providing counseling about contraception. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The occurrences of chest pains and frequent coughing among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at establishing occurrences of chest pains and frequent coughing among different classes of residents within Selebi Phikwe, Botswana where there are on going nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) mining and smelting activities. Through the administration of questionnaires and structured questions to 600 individuals, ...

  15. An Adaptive Algorithm for Finding Frequent Sets in Landmark Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Ong, Kok-Leong; Lee, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We consider a CPU constrained environment for finding approximation of frequent sets in data streams using the landmark window. Our algorithm can detect overload situations, i.e., breaching the CPU capacity, and sheds data in the stream to “keep up”. This is done within a controlled error threshold...

  16. Frequent Errors in Chinese EFL Learners' Topic-Based Writings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated a large number of errors found in the topic-based writings of Chinese EFL learners, especially provided an analysis on frequent errors, to find useful pedagogical implications for English grammar teaching and writing instruction in Chinese EFL setting. Students' topic-based writings were examined by the author. The findings…

  17. Distinguishing the relevant features of frequent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria de las Mercedes; Jaussent, Isabelle; Alegria, Analucia A; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Freed, Peter; Guillaume, Sébastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Leiva-Murillo, Jose Miguel; Malafosse, Alain; Oquendo, Maria A; de Prado-Cumplido, Mario; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Courtet, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of suicide behaviours and the magnitude of the resultant burden, little is known about why individuals reattempt. We aim to investigate the relationships between clinical risk factors and the repetition of suicidal attempts. 1349 suicide attempters were consecutively recruited in the Emergency Room (ER) of two academic hospitals in France and Spain. Patients were extensively assessed and demographic and clinical data obtained. Data mining was used to determine the minimal number of variables that blinded the rest in relation to the number of suicide attempts. Using this set, a probabilistic graph ranking relationships with the target variable was constructed. The most common diagnoses among suicide attempters were affective disorders, followed by anxiety disorders. Risk of frequent suicide attempt was highest among middle-aged subjects, and diminished progressively with advancing age of onset at first attempt. Anxiety disorders significantly increased the risk of presenting frequent suicide attempts. Pathway analysis also indicated that frequent suicide attempts were linked to greater odds for alcohol and substance abuse disorders and more intensive treatment. Novel statistical methods found several clinical features that were associated with a history of frequent suicide attempts. The identified pathways may promote new hypothesis-driven studies of suicide attempts and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequent hypermethylation of DBC1 in malignant lymphoproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Karin Elmegård; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    Allelic loss at chromosome 9q31-34 is a frequent event in many lymphoproliferative malignancies. Here, we examined DBC1 at 9q33.1 as a potential target in lymphomagenesis. DBC1 is a putative tumor suppressor that has been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell growth and programmed cell d...

  19. The Most Frequently Listed Courses in the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Baron; McCann, Lee I.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the most frequently listed undergraduate psychology courses for four institutional types by analyzing 400 college catalogs. Reports that some segmentation continues in the research methodology and developmental areas, the balance of natural and social science courses appear stable, and there are no signs of a change toward vocationalism.…

  20. GRAMI: Generalized Frequent Subgraph Mining in Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    El Saeedy, Mohammed El Sayed

    2011-07-24

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs or protein-protein interaction in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. Interesting interactions in such applications may be transitive (e.g., friend of a friend). Existing methods, however, search for frequent isomorphic (i.e., exact match) subgraphs and cannot discover many useful patterns. In this paper we propose GRAMI, a framework that generalizes frequent subgraph mining in a large single graph. GRAMI discovers frequent patterns. A pattern is a graph where edges are generalized to distance-constrained paths. Depending on the definition of the distance function, many instantiations of the framework are possible. Both directed and undirected graphs, as well as multiple labels per vertex, are supported. We developed an efficient implementation of the framework that models the frequency resolution phase as a constraint satisfaction problem, in order to avoid the costly enumeration of all instances of each pattern in the graph. We also implemented CGRAMI, a version that supports structural and semantic constraints; and AGRAMI, an approximate version that supports very large graphs. Our experiments on real data demonstrate that our framework is up to 3 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches.

  1. Frequent visitors at the psychiatric emergency room - A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2018-03-01

    Frequent visitors at the psychiatric emergency room (PER) constitute a small subgroup of patients, yet they are responsible for a disproportionate number of visits and thus claim considerable resources. Their needs are often left unmet and their repetitive visits reflect their dissatisfaction as well as that of PERs' staff. Motivated by these dilemmas, this study systematically reviews the literature about frequent visitors at PER and seeks to answer two questions: What characterizes frequent visitors at PER in the literature? and What characterizes PER in the literature? Based on 29 studies, this paper offers answers to the two questions based on a strength weakness opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis. The results of the review and subsequent analysis of the literature revealed the multiplicity and complexity of frequent visitors' characteristics and how they appear to converge. Commonalities were more difficult to identify in PER characteristics. In some cases, this happened because the characteristics were poorly described or were context specific. As a result, it was not easy to compare the studies on PER. Based on SWOT and the findings of the analysis, the paper proposes new venues of research and suggests how the field of mental health might develop by taking into account its opportunities and threats.

  2. Readiness Assessment Tests versus Frequent Quizzes: Student Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Suzanne E.; Wu, Shao-Wei

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of two different assessment techniques; readiness assessment tests (RATs) and frequent quizzing. We report student perceptions of the impact of these techniques on the number of readings done prior to the class period, thorough reading of assignments, ability to follow class discussions, ability to participate…

  3. Frequent epigenetic inactivation of Wnt antagonist genes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Toyota, M; Caraway, H; Gabrielson, E; Ohmura, T; Fujikane, T; Nishikawa, N; Sogabe, Y; Nojima, M; Sonoda, T; Mori, M; Hirata, K; Imai, K; Shinomura, Y; Baylin, S B; Tokino, T

    2008-01-01

    Although mutation of APC or CTNNB1 (β-catenin) is rare in breast cancer, activation of Wnt signalling is nonetheless thought to play an important role in breast tumorigenesis, and epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonist genes, including the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) and Dickkopf (DKK) families, has been observed in various tumours. In breast cancer, frequent methylation and silencing of SFRP1 was recently documented; however, altered expression of other Wnt antagonist genes is largely unknown. In the present study, we found frequent methylation of SFRP family genes in breast cancer cell lines (SFRP1, 7 out of 11, 64%; SFRP2, 11 out of 11, 100%; SFRP5, 10 out of 11, 91%) and primary breast tumours (SFRP1, 31 out of 78, 40%; SFRP2, 60 out of 78, 77%; SFRP5, 55 out of 78, 71%). We also observed methylation of DKK1, although less frequently, in cell lines (3 out of 11, 27%) and primary tumours (15 out of 78, 19%). Breast cancer cell lines express various Wnt ligands, and overexpression of SFRPs inhibited cancer cell growth. In addition, overexpression of a β-catenin mutant and depletion of SFRP1 using small interfering RNA synergistically upregulated transcriptional activity of T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor. Our results confirm the frequent methylation and silencing of Wnt antagonist genes in breast cancer, and suggest that their loss of function contributes to activation of Wnt signalling in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:18283316

  4. Predictability of persistent frequent attendance in primary care: a temporal and geographical validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Frans T.; Brouwer, Henk J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van den Akker, Marjan; van Steenkiste, Ben; Mohrs, Jacob; Schene, Aart H.; van Weert, Henk C.; ter Riet, Gerben

    2013-01-01

    Frequent attenders are patients who visit their general practitioner exceptionally frequently. Frequent attendance is usually transitory, but some frequent attenders become persistent. Clinically, prediction of persistent frequent attendance is useful to target treatment at underlying diseases or

  5. Many Routes to an Antibody Heavy-Chain CDR3: Necessary, Yet Insufficient, for Specific Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Erasmus, M. Frank; Hraber, Peter; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.

    2018-01-01

    Because of its great potential for diversity, the immunoglobulin heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) is taken as an antibody molecule’s most important component in conferring binding activity and specificity. For this reason, HCDR3s have been used as unique identifiers to investigate adaptive immune responses in vivo and to characterize in vitro selection outputs where display systems were employed. Here, we show that many different HCDR3s can be identified within a target-specific antibody population after in vitro selection. For each identified HCDR3, a number of different antibodies bearing differences elsewhere can be found. In such selected populations, all antibodies with the same HCDR3 recognize the target, albeit at different affinities. In contrast, within unselected populations, the majority of antibodies with the same HCDR3 sequence do not bind the target. In one HCDR3 examined in depth, all target-specific antibodies were derived from the same VDJ rearrangement, while non-binding antibodies with the same HCDR3 were derived from many different V and D gene rearrangements. Careful examination of previously published in vivo datasets reveals that HCDR3s shared between, and within, different individuals can also originate from rearrangements of different V and D genes, with up to 26 different rearrangements yielding the same identical HCDR3 sequence. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that the same HCDR3 can be generated by many different rearrangements, but that specific target binding is an outcome of unique rearrangements and VL pairing: the HCDR3 is necessary, albeit insufficient, for specific antibody binding. PMID:29568296

  6. Many Routes to an Antibody Heavy-Chain CDR3: Necessary, Yet Insufficient, for Specific Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Erasmus, M Frank; Hraber, Peter; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2018-01-01

    Because of its great potential for diversity, the immunoglobulin heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) is taken as an antibody molecule's most important component in conferring binding activity and specificity. For this reason, HCDR3s have been used as unique identifiers to investigate adaptive immune responses in vivo and to characterize in vitro selection outputs where display systems were employed. Here, we show that many different HCDR3s can be identified within a target-specific antibody population after in vitro selection. For each identified HCDR3, a number of different antibodies bearing differences elsewhere can be found. In such selected populations, all antibodies with the same HCDR3 recognize the target, albeit at different affinities. In contrast, within unselected populations, the majority of antibodies with the same HCDR3 sequence do not bind the target. In one HCDR3 examined in depth, all target-specific antibodies were derived from the same VDJ rearrangement, while non-binding antibodies with the same HCDR3 were derived from many different V and D gene rearrangements. Careful examination of previously published in vivo datasets reveals that HCDR3s shared between, and within, different individuals can also originate from rearrangements of different V and D genes, with up to 26 different rearrangements yielding the same identical HCDR3 sequence. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that the same HCDR3 can be generated by many different rearrangements, but that specific target binding is an outcome of unique rearrangements and VL pairing: the HCDR3 is necessary, albeit insufficient, for specific antibody binding.

  7. Determinants of frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    .57-0.69, >4 years higher education vs. no vocational training) and employment (0.61; 0.57-0.65) were inversely associated with frequent attendance. Finally, obesity (1.54; 1.14-2.08), smoking (1.21; 1.12-1.30, current vs. never), physical activity (0.84; 0.80-89), alcohol consumption (0.83; 0.78-0.87 above vs....... below recommended level), and hormone therapy in women (1.52; 1.42-1.63) were all significant determinants of frequent attendance. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to pre-existing medical conditions, gender, socio-demographic and gender-specific factors, lifestyle (obesity, smoking, exercise and alcohol use...

  8. Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, H J; Cant, M A; Hoffman, J I; Sanderson, J L

    2014-12-01

    As breeding between relatives often results in inbreeding depression, inbreeding avoidance is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, inbreeding avoidance may entail fitness costs. For example, dispersal away from relatives may reduce survival. How these conflicting selection pressures are resolved is challenging to investigate, but theoretical models predict that inbreeding should occur frequently in some systems. Despite this, few studies have found evidence of regular incest in mammals, even in social species where relatives are spatio-temporally clustered and opportunities for inbreeding frequently arise. We used genetic parentage assignments together with relatedness data to quantify inbreeding rates in a wild population of banded mongooses, a cooperatively breeding carnivore. We show that females regularly conceive to close relatives, including fathers and brothers. We suggest that the costs of inbreeding avoidance may sometimes outweigh the benefits, even in cooperatively breeding species where strong within-group incest avoidance is considered to be the norm.

  9. Method presented for finding Frequent Itemsets in web data streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Kaviani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Continual data checking is considered as one of the most common search tools for frequent itemsets which requires storage on memory. On the other hand, according to properties of data stream which are unlimited productions with a high-speed, it is not possible saving these data on memory and we need for techniques which enables online processing and finding repetitive standards. One of the most popular techniques in this case is using sliding windows. The benefits of these windows can be reducing memory usage and also search acceleration. In this article, a new vertical display and an algorithm is provided based on the pins in order to find frequent itemsets in data streams. Since this new display has a compressed format itself so, the proposed algorithm in terms of memory consumption and processing is more efficient than any other similar algorithms.

  10. Frequent rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Tae-Joon; Moon, Jangsup; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation and provocation factors of rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Among the 16 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in our institutional cohort, nine patients had elevated CK enzyme levels and clinical evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis was more frequent after immunotherapy. The use of dopamine receptor blocker (DRB) increased the risk of rhabdomyolysis. None of the patients without rhabdomyolysis received DRBs. Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent complication in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and more common after immunotherapy and the use of DRBs increases the risk. Therefore, DRBs should be administered carefully in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Case Report Frequent malaria illness episodes in two Malawian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent malaria in two patients on ART after stopping CPT 57. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v29i1.12. Wongani J.S. Nyangulu1, Edson Mwinjiwa1, Titus H. Divala2, Randy G. Mungwira2,. Osward Nyirenda2, Maxwell Kanjala2, Gillian Mbambo3, Jane Mallewa4, Terrie E. Taylor2,.

  12. Longleaf pine restoration in context comparisons of frequent fire forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Bigelow; Michael C. Stambaugh; Joseph J. O' Brien; Andrew J. Larson; Michael A. Battaglia

    2018-01-01

    To see a frequent-fire forest burn for the first time is to experience a remarkable teat of nature. Most people are accustomed to the slow change of forests with the seasons, not the instantaneous conversion of green and brown plant mass to smoke and char. Yet to visit such a forest a week after it bums is to see bright green shoots emerging, highlighted against a...

  13. Rotavirus is frequent among adults hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Westh, Lena; Kristensen, Lena Hagelskjær; Lindberg, Jens; Tarp, Britta; Larsen, Carsten Schade

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most common aetiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among young children. In adults, diagnostics focus mainly on bacterial causes, though recent studies suggest that rotavirus is a frequent agent. The aim of this study was to examine the proportion of rotavirus in adults hospitalised with AGE and to identify possible predictors. During a 24-month period from 1 May 2010 adults (> 15 years) with AGE admitted to one of four hospitals in the Central Denmark Region were examined for rotavirus with VIKIA Rota-Adeno rapid test in addition to routine culture for bacterial pathogens. A total of 265 adult patients were included. 9.4% tested positive for rotavirus. Enteropathogenic bacteria were found in 24.5% of the cases. In the majority of cases (62.3%), no pathogen was found. Overall, rotavirus was the second-most frequent pathogen, exceeded only by Campylobacter spp. Immunosuppression and a C-reactive protein (CRP) below 50 mg/l (0-8 mg/l) were associated with rotavirus. The seasonality of rotavirus differed markedly from that of bacterial gastroenteritis. Rotavirus is the second-most frequently identified pathogen in adults hospitalised with AGE. Close contact to children or travel activity does not predict rotavirus gastroenteritis, but immunosuppression and a CRP below 50 mg/l do. The seasonality of rotavirus differs from that of bacterial gastroenteritis, making rotavirus the most frequently identified cause of AGE in adults admitted to hospital in the colder months. The trial was funded by an unrestricted grant from Sanofi Pasteur MSD. not relevant.

  14. Frequent Attenders with Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Szwamel, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Governments struggle to fund health services and there is a growing interest in the cost, clinical characteristics, and interventions for high utilizers of care, such as persistent frequent attenders to primary care. The purpose of this study was to determine the components shaping the phenomenon of frequent attendance in patients with chronic respiratory diseases in primary care settings. We examined 200 adult patients with chronic diseases (median age 65, range 18-90) recruited from 126 general practitioners. We conclude that, in patients with chronic respiratory diseases, frequent attendance can be expected among those with a low level of satisfaction with their quality of health, a low level of QoL in the physical domain as much as QoL in the social relationships domain, making multiple visits to a doctor (more than 4 visits), taking more than five drugs, being treated for more than three chronic diseases, waiting at the doctor's office for no more than 30 min, receiving a greater number of primary care services, and requiring the assistance of a district nurse. Such patients may need social support interventions and monitoring of their clinical status.

  15. Frequent DPH3 promoter mutations in skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Evgeniya; Heidenreich, Barbara; Nagore, Eduardo; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; Akrap, Ivana; Traves, Víctor; García-Casado, Zaida; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Requena, Celia; Sanmartin, Onofre; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Llombart, Beatriz; Guillén, Carlos; Ferrando, Jose; Gimeno, Enrique; Nordheim, Alfred; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-11-03

    Recent reports suggested frequent occurrence of cancer associated somatic mutations within regulatory elements of the genome. Based on initial exome sequencing of 21 melanomas, we report frequent somatic mutations in skin cancers in a bidirectional promoter of diphthamide biosynthesis 3 (DPH3) and oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain containing 1 (OXNAD1) genes. The UV-signature mutations occurred at sites adjacent and within a binding motif for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), at -8 and -9 bp from DPH3 transcription start site. Follow up screening of 586 different skin lesions showed that the DPH3 promoter mutations were present in melanocytic nevi (2/114; 2%), melanoma (30/304; 10%), basal cell carcinoma of skin (BCC; 57/137; 42%) and squamous cell carcinoma of skin (SCC; 12/31; 39%). Reporter assays carried out in one melanoma cell line for DPH3 and OXNAD1 orientations showed statistically significant increased promoter activity due to -8/-9CC > TT tandem mutations; although, no effect of the mutations on DPH3 and OXNAD1 transcription in tumors was observed. The results from this study show occurrence of frequent somatic non-coding mutations adjacent to a pre-existing binding site for Ets transcription factors within the directional promoter of DPH3 and OXNAD1 genes in three major skin cancers. The detected mutations displayed typical UV signature; however, the functionality of the mutations remains to be determined.

  16. Incremental Frequent Subgraph Mining on Large Evolving Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-08-22

    Frequent subgraph mining is a core graph operation used in many domains, such as graph data management and knowledge exploration, bioinformatics and security. Most existing techniques target static graphs. However, modern applications, such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem on a single large evolving graph. We adapt the notion of “fringe” to the graph context, that is the set of subgraphs on the border between frequent and infrequent subgraphs. IncGM+ maintains fringe subgraphs and exploits them to prune the search space. To boost the efficiency, we propose an efficient index structure to maintain selected embeddings with minimal memory overhead. These embeddings are utilized to avoid redundant expensive subgraph isomorphism operations. Moreover, the proposed system supports batch updates. Using large real-world graphs, we experimentally verify that IncGM+ outperforms existing methods by up to three orders of magnitude, scales to much larger graphs and consumes less memory.

  17. DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Ana R; Martins, Ana P; Brito, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    in cell differentiation and protection and has been proposed as a candidate tumour suppressor for brain and epithelial cancer. One study reported a loss of DMBT1 expression in 12.5% (5/40) of gastric cancer samples. Here, we examined in more detail DMBT1 protein and mRNA expression in 78 primary gastric...... preferentially take place in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma. However, an upregulation of DMBT1 expression is more frequently found across all gastric cancer types....

  18. Effects of frequent announced parasitology quizzes on the academic achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Zamini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frequent examinations on the students' learning has had inconsistent results. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of frequent announced quizzes on the learning of a representative sample of Iranian medical students.This experimental study was conducted among 37 fifth semester medical students who had taken the course in Protozoology and Helminthology, in which the same basic information were provided about different types of protozoa and worms. Initially, in the teaching of helminthology, ten routine sessions were handled with lectures and interactive questions and answers. Then at the beginning of the protozoology topic in the beginning of all of the next 9 sessions, the students were informed that they will have a quiz at the end of each session. At the end of the semester, the total scores of quizzes were compared with the mean final scores of protozoology and helminthology using paired t and repeated measure tests.The mean final scores of the protozoology lesson were not significantly different from that of the helminthology (10.45 ± 2.75 vs.11.25 ± 2.56 on the scale of 20, respectively, P=0.13. There was no significant difference in the mean score of the five quizzes compared with the mean final term score of protozoology. The overall mean scores in the helminthology lesson (11.25±2.56, protozoology lesson (10.45±2.75, and the quizzes (9.16 ± 3.55 were significantly different (P <0.0001.Frequent announced quizzes were not effective on increasing the medical students' motivation and learning.

  19. Managing for Old Growth in Frequent-fire Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl E. Fiedler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no one-size-fits-all approach to managing frequent-fire, old-growth forests. However, there are general guidelines to follow: 1 set objectives for both structure (tree density, diameter distribution, tree species composition, spatial arrangement, amount of coarse woody debris and function (nutrient cycling, desired tree species regeneration; 2 prioritize treatments according to ecological, economic, and social needs and risks; 3 identify the potential treatments (natural fire, prescribed fire, silvicultural cutting that best meet the objectives and scale of the project; and 4 implement the treatment(s. We discuss each of these guidelines in this article.

  20. Frequent cognitive activity compensates for education differences in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Margie E; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Murphy, Chandra; Tun, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that frequent participation in cognitive activities can moderate the effects of limited education on cognitive functioning. A national study of adult development and aging, Midlife in the United States, with assessments conducted at the second wave of measurement in 2004-2006. Assessments were made over the telephone (cognitive measures) and in a mail questionnaire (demographic variables, measures of cognitive and physical activity, and self-rated health). A total of 3,343 men and women between the ages of 32 and 84 with a mean age of 55.99 years. The dependent variables were Episodic Memory (Immediate and Delayed Word List Recall) and Executive Functioning (Category Fluency, Backward Digit Span, Backward Counting Speed, Reasoning, and Attention Switching Speed). The independent variables were years of education and frequency of cognitive activity (reading, writing, doing word games or puzzles, and attending lectures). The covariates were age, sex, self-rated health, income, and frequency of physical activity. The two cognitive measures were regressed on education, cognitive activity frequency, and their interaction, while controlling for the covariates. Education and cognitive activity were significantly correlated with both cognitive abilities. The interaction of education and cognitive activity was significant for episodic memory but not for executive functioning. Those with lower education had lower cognitive functioning, but this was qualified by level of cognitive activity. For those with lower education, engaging frequently in cognitive activities showed significant compensatory benefits for episodic memory, which has promise for reducing social disparities in cognitive aging.

  1. Analyzing the Number of Varieties in Frequently Found Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomura, Yusuke; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Kenichi

    Abnormal traffic that causes various problems on the Internet, such as P2P flows, DDoS attacks, and Internet worms, is increasing; therefore, the importance of methods that identify and control abnormal traffic is also increasing. Though the application of frequent-itemset-mining techniques is a promising way to analyze Internet traffic, the huge amount of data on the Internet prevents such techniques from being effective. To overcome this problem, we have developed a simple frequent-itemset-mining method that uses only a small amount of memory but is effective even with the large volumes of data associated with broadband Internet traffic. Using our method also involves analyzing the number of distinct elements in the itemsets found, which helps identify abnormal traffic. We used a cache-based implementation of our method to analyze actual data on the Internet and demonstrated that such an implementation can be used to provide on-line analysis of data while using only a small amount of memory.

  2. Cannabis consumption patterns among frequent consumers in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boidi, María Fernanda; Queirolo, Rosario; Cruz, José Miguel

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, Uruguay became the first country to fully regulate the cannabis market, which now operates under state control. Cannabis can be legally acquired in three ways: growing it for personal use (self-cultivation), cannabis club membership, and from pharmacies (not yet implemented). Users must be entered into a confidential official registry to gain access. This article presents findings of a Respondent Driven Sample survey of 294 high-frequency cannabis consumers in the Montevideo metropolitan area. Frequent consumers resort to more than one method for acquiring cannabis, with illegal means still predominating after 1 year of the new regulation law. Cannabis users overwhelmingly support the current regulation, but many of them are reluctant to register. Some of the attitudes and behaviors of the high-frequency consumers pose a challenge to the success of the cannabis law. Individuals relying on more than one method of access defy the single access clause, a prerequisite for legal use, while the maximum amount of cannabis individuals can access monthly seems too high even for most frequent consumers, which might promote the emergence of a grey market. Reluctance to register among a significant proportion of high-frequency consumers raises doubts about the law's ability to achieve its stated objectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fever of unknown origin: Most frequent causes in adults patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovska-Jovicić, Biljana; Canović, Predrag; Gajović, Olgica; Raković, Ivana; Mijailović, Zeljko

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin (FUO) includes more than 200 different diseases and conditions. The aim of this study was to identify the most frequent causes of FUO among adult patients according to gender and age. The study included 74 patients examined from June 2010 to June 2013 at the Infectious Disease Clinic, Clinical Center Kragujevac in Serbia, according to the defined criteria for FUO. The patients were divided according to the diagnosis into four groups: infectious, malignant, rheumatic and "other diseases". A cause of febricity could not be estabilshed in a portion of subjects, and they comprised the group of undiagnosed cases. Infectious diseases were dominant in the study, followed by rheumatic diseases, which were most frequently found in women and the elderly. The diseases recognised as the most common causes of febricity were subacute thyroiditis, subacute endocarditis, Still's disease, rheumatic polymyalgia with or without temporal arteritis, and cytomegalovirus infection. In 44% of the patients, the final diagnosis was composed of only six clinical entities. The importance of establishing the diagnosis of rheumatic disease is especially emphasised, in line with other authors' research indicating the number of these diseases is on the rise. The diagnostic approach to FUO should always be directed to the known frequency of diseases.

  4. Substance use treatment barriers for patients with frequent hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Maria C; Carrier, Emily R; Lee, Joshua; Billings, John C; Marr, Mollie; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2010-01-01

    Substance use (SU) disorders adversely impact health status and contribute to inappropriate health services use. This qualitative study sought to determine SU-related factors contributing to repeated hospitalizations and to identify opportunities for preventive interventions. Fifty Medicaid-insured inpatients identified by a validated statistical algorithm as being at high-risk for frequent hospitalizations were interviewed at an urban public hospital. Patient drug/alcohol history, experiences with medical, psychiatric and addiction treatment, and social factors contributing to readmission were evaluated. Three themes related to SU and frequent hospitalizations emerged: (a) barriers during hospitalization to planning long-term treatment and follow-up, (b) use of the hospital as a temporary solution to housing/family problems, and (c) unsuccessful SU aftercare following discharge. These data indicate that homelessness, brief lengths of stay complicating discharge planning, patient ambivalence regarding long-term treatment, and inadequate detox-to-rehab transfer resources compromise substance-using patients' likelihood of avoiding repeat hospitalization. Intervention targets included supportive housing, detox-to-rehab transportation, and postdischarge patient support.

  5. Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Therkildsen, Christina; Bernstein, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability......, but show few gross genomic alterations. We characterized expression of the Wnt signaling pathway markers β-catenin, E-cadherin, TCF-4, and PTEN using immunohistochemical staining in colorectal cancers from individuals with HNPCC. Reduced membranous staining for β-catenin was found in 64% and for E......% of the tumors. In summary, altered expression of target molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway was demonstrated in the vast majority of the HNPCC-associated tumors, which support deranged Wnt-signaling as a central tumorigenic mechanism also in MMR defective colorectal cancer....

  6. Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Therkildsen, Christina; Bernstein, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability......, but show few gross genomic alterations. We characterized expression of the Wnt signaling pathway markers ß-catenin, E-cadherin, TCF-4, and PTEN using immunohistochemical staining in colorectal cancers from individuals with HNPCC. Reduced membranous staining for ß-catenin was found in 64% and for E......% of the tumors. In summary, altered expression of target molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway was demonstrated in the vast majority of the HNPCC-associated tumors, which support deranged Wnt-signaling as a central tumorigenic mechanism also in MMR defective colorectal cancer....

  7. [Frequent nursing diagnoses and interventions for women under critical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mirna Fontenele de; Freitas, Maria Célia de

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the most frequent Nursing Diagnoses and propose interventions for women under critical care into a maternal intensive care unit in a public hospital in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Retrospective study conducted with women's hospital health records. Ten Nursing Diagnoses were elaborated, being four risk: risk of infection, risk of unbalance of liquids volume, risk of aspiration, risk of damaged skin integrity and six real: altered maternity, impaired physical mobility, anxiety and impaired verbal communication. For the referred Nursing Diagnoses, nursing interventions are proposed according to the link between NANDA, NIC and NOC. It was concluded that the use of ND is a necessary technology for the Nursing reality, as it makes possible the integral care.

  8. Frequently Asked Questions in Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Park, Gee Yong

    2010-05-01

    The FAQs(Frequently Asked Questions) in the Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment(FPSA) are the issues occurred during performing the engineering evaluation based on NFPA-805. In this report, the background and resolutions are reviewed and described for 17 FAQs related to FPSA among 57 FAQs. The current FAQs related to FPSA are the issues concerning to NUREG/CR-6850, and are almost resolved but for the some FAQ, the current resolutions would be changed depending on the results of the future or on-going research. Among FAQs related to FPSA, best estimate approaches are suggested concerning to the conservative method of NUREG/CR-6850. If these best estimate solutions are used in the FPSA of nuclear power plants, realistic evaluation results of fire risk would be obtained

  9. Frequent occurrence of uniparental disomy in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Wiuf, Carsten; Kruhøffer, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    , consisting of 17 normal mucosa and 66 adenocarcinoma samples. The transcriptional analysis revealed an unchanged expression level in areas with intact copy number, including regions with uniparental disomy, and a reduced expression level in the LOH regions representing factual losses (including 5q, 8p and 17......) and lymph node metastasis status (gain of 7q and 13q). Another subset of the identified alterations was shown to represent intratumor heterogeneity. In conclusion, we demonstrate that uniparental disomy is frequent in CRC, and identify genomic alterations associated with TP53 inactivation and lymph node...... LOH regions showed no evidence of a reduced copy number, indicating the presence of uniparental structures. The distribution of these structures was non-random, primarily involving 8q, 13q and 20q. This finding was supported by analysis of an independent set of array-based transcriptional profiles...

  10. Frequent upregulation of MYC in plasma cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiecchio, Laura; Dagrada, Gian Paolo; White, Helen E; Towsend, Mark R; Protheroe, Rebecca K M; Cheung, Kan Luk; Stockley, David M; Orchard, Kim H; Cross, Nicholas C P; Harrison, Christine J; Ross, Fiona M

    2009-07-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare form of monoclonal gammopathy, which can originate de novo or evolve from multiple myeloma (MM) as a terminal leukemic phase. Previous cytogenetic studies of PCL have reported the presence of complex karyotypes with involvement of multiple unidentified chromosomal regions. We report here the analysis of 12 PCL (10 primary and two secondary) by metaphase and FISH analysis combined with oligonucleotide array data (244 k, Agilent). Interphase-FISH results were compared with those from a series of 861 newly diagnosed patients with MM. Cytogenetic analysis was successful on 11 patients, all of whom showed clonal chromosomal abnormalities. Compared with MM, t(11;14)(q13;q32) (42% versus 15%; P = 0.027) and t(14;16)(q32;q23) (25% versus 4%; P = 0.010) were more frequent in PCL, although neither the specific partner chromosome involved in the IgH translocation nor the ploidy status predicted for survival. Chromosomes 1, 8, 13, and 16 showed the highest number of copy number alterations with 8q24 being the chromosomal region most frequently involved. In eight of 12 patients we found abnormalities (translocations, one amplification, small deletions, and duplications) that directly targeted or were very close to MYC. Only four of these changes were detected by routine FISH analysis using commercial probes with the others exclusively detected by arrays. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that these different abnormalities were associated with increased levels of MYC mRNA. We conclude that MYC dysregulation by complex mechanisms is one of the major molecular events in the oncogenesis of PCL.

  11. [Frequent attendance in a Primary Health Care District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Granados, Nicolás; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Toledano Estepa, Manuel; Pérez Díaz, Manuel Modesto; Redondo Pedraza, Rosa

    2017-10-09

    To describe the distribution of frequent attenders (FA) through the different primary care practices in Cordoba-Guadalquivir Health District (Córdoba, Spain). An ecological study was performed, including data from 2011 to 2015. Defining FA as those subjects who made12 or more appointments per year; independently analysed for nursing, general practice and paediatrics. Prevalence of frequent attendance and FA/professional ratio were used as dependent variables. Demographic characteristics from district population, number of health professionals and use of general facilities were also examinated. Aiming to understand FA distribution, primary health settings were classified according to facility size and environmental location (urban, suburban and rural). The mean prevalence for FA was 10.86% (0.5 SE) for nursing; general practice 21.70% (0.7 SE) and for paediatrics 16.96% (0.7 SE). FA/professional ratios for the different professional categories were: 101.07 (5.0 SE) for nursing, 239.74 (9.0 SE) for general practice and 159.54 (9.8 SE) for paediatrics. A major part of primary health care users make a high number of consultations. From this group, women overuse nursing and general practitioner services more compared to men. A higher prevalence of FAs was observed in smaller settings, in rural areas. Although taking the FAs:professional ratio as the bar, medium-size practices are more highly overused. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes

  13. Genomic catastrophes frequently arise in esophageal adenocarcinoma and drive tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, Katia; Waddell, Nicola; Wayte, Nicci; Patch, Ann-Marie; Bailey, Peter; Newell, Felicity; Holmes, Oliver; Fink, J Lynn; Quinn, Michael C J; Tang, Yue Hang; Lampe, Guy; Quek, Kelly; Loffler, Kelly A; Manning, Suzanne; Idrisoglu, Senel; Miller, David; Xu, Qinying; Waddell, Nick; Wilson, Peter J; Bruxner, Timothy J C; Christ, Angelika N; Harliwong, Ivon; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Anderson, Matthew; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Wood, Scott; Simpson, Peter T; Reid, Lynne E; Krause, Lutz; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I; Lord, Reginald V; Nancarrow, Derek; Phillips, Wayne A; Gotley, David; Smithers, B Mark; Whiteman, David C; Hayward, Nicholas K; Campbell, Peter J; Pearson, John V; Grimmond, Sean M; Barbour, Andrew P

    2014-10-29

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is rapidly increasing in Western countries. A better understanding of EAC underpins efforts to improve early detection and treatment outcomes. While large EAC exome sequencing efforts to date have found recurrent loss-of-function mutations, oncogenic driving events have been underrepresented. Here we use a combination of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and single-nucleotide polymorphism-array profiling to show that genomic catastrophes are frequent in EAC, with almost a third (32%, n=40/123) undergoing chromothriptic events. WGS of 22 EAC cases show that catastrophes may lead to oncogene amplification through chromothripsis-derived double-minute chromosome formation (MYC and MDM2) or breakage-fusion-bridge (KRAS, MDM2 and RFC3). Telomere shortening is more prominent in EACs bearing localized complex rearrangements. Mutational signature analysis also confirms that extreme genomic instability in EAC can be driven by somatic BRCA2 mutations. These findings suggest that genomic catastrophes have a significant role in the malignant transformation of EAC.

  14. [Loyal frequent users of hospital emergency departments: the FIDUR project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Alonso, Cesáreo; Romero Pareja, Rodolfo; Rivas García, Aristides; Jiménez Gallego, Rosa; Majo Carbajo, Yolanda; Aguilar Mulet, Juan Mariano

    2016-02-01

    To describe the characteristics of frequent users of hospital emergency departments and analyze whether characteristics varied in relation to how revisits were distributed over the course of the year studied. Retrospective study of patients over the age of 14 years who were treated in a hospital emergency department at least 10 times in 2013. Patients were identified in 17 public hospitals in the Spanish autonomous community of Madrid. Data related to the first and successive visits were gathered and analyzed by quarter year. We included 2340 patients with a mean (SD) age of 54 (21) years. A total of 1361 (58.%) were women, 1160 (50%) had no concomitant diseases, 1366 (58.2%) were substance abusers, and 25 (1.1%) were homeless. During the first visit, 2038 (87.1%) complained of a recent health problem, and 289 (12.4%) were admitted. Sixty (2.6%) patients concentrated their revisits in a single quarters 335 (14.3%) in 2 quarters, 914 (39.1%) in 3, and 1005 (42.9%) in 4. Patients whose revisits were distributed over more quarters were older (> 65 years), had more concomitant conditions, were on more medications (P women (P = .012) and more likely to have a specific diagnosis (P loyally comes to the same emergency department over the course of a year. Patients whose revisits are dispersed over a longer period have more complex problems and use more resources during their initial visit.

  15. Evidence and Implications of Frequent Fires in Ancient Shrub Tundra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, P E; Brubaker, L B; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Kennedy, A T; Hu, F S

    2008-03-06

    Understanding feedbacks between terrestrial and atmospheric systems is vital for predicting the consequences of global change, particularly in the rapidly changing Arctic. Fire is a key process in this context, but the consequences of altered fire regimes in tundra ecosystems are rarely considered, largely because tundra fires occur infrequently on the modern landscape. We present paleoecological data that indicate frequent tundra fires in northcentral Alaska between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago. Charcoal and pollen from lake sediments reveal that ancient birchdominated shrub tundra burned as often as modern boreal forests in the region, every 144 years on average (+/- 90 s.d.; n = 44). Although paleoclimate interpretations and data from modern tundra fires suggest that increased burning was aided by low effective moisture, vegetation cover clearly played a critical role in facilitating the paleo-fires by creating an abundance of fine fuels. These records suggest that greater fire activity will likely accompany temperature-related increases in shrub-dominated tundra predicted for the 21st century and beyond. Increased tundra burning will have broad impacts on physical and biological systems as well as land-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic, including the potential to release stored organic carbon to the atmosphere.

  16. Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of smartphone addiction in high school students. A total of 880 adolescents were recruited from a vocational high school in Taiwan in January 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and a survey of content and patterns of personal smartphone use. Of those recruited, 689 students (646 male) aged 14 to 21 and who owned a smartphone completed the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone gaming and frequent smartphone use were associated with smartphone addiction. Furthermore, both the smartphone gaming-predominant and gaming with multiple-applications groups showed a similar association with smartphone addiction. Gender, duration of owning a smartphone, and substance use were not associated with smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that smartphone use patterns should be part of specific measures to prevent and intervene in cases of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27428191

  17. Frequent interchromosomal template switches during gene conversion in S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaponina, Olga; Haber, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) by gene conversion is the most accurate way to repair such lesions, in budding yeast there is a thousand-fold increase in accompanying mutations, including interchromosomal template switches (ICTS) involving highly mismatched (homeologous) ectopic sequences. Although such events are rare and appear at a rate of 2×10−7 when template jumps occur between 71% identical sequences, they are surprisingly frequent (0.3% of all repair events) when the second template is identical to the first, revealing the remarkable instability of repair DNA synthesis. With homeologous donors, ICTS uses microhomologies as small as 2 bp. Cells lacking mismatch repair proteins Msh6 and Mlh1 form chimeric recombinants with two distinct patches of microhomology, implying that these proteins are crucial for strand discrimination of heteroduplex DNA formed during ICTS. We identify the chromatin remodeler Rdh54 as the first protein required for template switching that does not affect simple gene conversion. PMID:25066232

  18. Chest Pain: The Need to Consider Less Frequent Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is one of the most frequent patient’s complaints. The commonest underlying causes are well known, but, sometimes, in some clinical scenarios, it is necessary to consider other diagnoses. We report a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian male, chronically hypertensive, who complained of recurrent episodes of chest pain and fever with elevated acute phase reactants. The first investigation was negative for some of the most likely diagnosis and he quickly improved with anti-inflammatory drugs. Over a few months, his symptoms continued to recur periodically, his hypertension was aggravated, and he developed headaches and lower limbs claudication. After a temporal artery biopsy that was negative for vasculitis, he underwent a positron emission tomography suggestive of Takayasu Arteritis. Takayasu Arteritis is a rare chronic granulomatous vasculitis of the aorta and its first-order branches affecting mostly females up to 50 years old. Chest pain is experienced by >40% of the patients and results from the inflammation of the aorta, pulmonary artery, or coronaries.

  19. Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of smartphone addiction in high school students.A total of 880 adolescents were recruited from a vocational high school in Taiwan in January 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and a survey of content and patterns of personal smartphone use. Of those recruited, 689 students (646 male) aged 14 to 21 and who owned a smartphone completed the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with smartphone addiction.Smartphone gaming and frequent smartphone use were associated with smartphone addiction. Furthermore, both the smartphone gaming-predominant and gaming with multiple-applications groups showed a similar association with smartphone addiction. Gender, duration of owning a smartphone, and substance use were not associated with smartphone addiction.Our findings suggest that smartphone use patterns should be part of specific measures to prevent and intervene in cases of excessive smartphone use.

  20. The semiology of febrile seizures: Focal features are frequent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Michihiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Hirokazu; Numoto, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Akihisa

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures. The presence or absence of focal and limbic features was determined for each patient. The associations of certain focal and limbic features with patient characteristics were assessed. Information was obtained on FS in 106 children. Various events were recorded at seizure commencement. Behavioral changes were observed in 35 children, changes in facial expression in 53, ocular symptoms in 78, and oral symptoms in 90. In terms of events during seizures, autonomic symptoms were recognized in 78, and convulsive motor symptoms were recognized in 68 children. Focal features were evident in 81 children; 38 children had two or more such features. Limbic features were observed in 44 children, 9 of whom had two or more such features. There was no significant relationship between any patient characteristic and the numbers of focal or limbic features. The semiology of FS varied widely among children, and symptoms suggestive of focal onset were frequent. FS of focal onset may be more common than is generally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Frequently Occurring Reconnection Jets from Sunspot Light Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Peter, Hardi; Solanki, Sami K.; Young, Peter R.; Ni, Lei; Cao, Wenda; Ji, Kaifan; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Jingwen; Samanta, Tanmoy; Song, Yongliang; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua; Chen, Yajie

    2018-02-01

    Solid evidence of magnetic reconnection is rarely reported within sunspots, the darkest regions with the strongest magnetic fields and lowest temperatures in the solar atmosphere. Using the world’s largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m Goode Solar Telescope, we detect prevalent reconnection through frequently occurring fine-scale jets in the Hα line wings at light bridges, the bright lanes that may divide the dark sunspot core into multiple parts. Many jets have an inverted Y-shape, shown by models to be typical of reconnection in a unipolar field environment. Simultaneous spectral imaging data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph show that the reconnection drives bidirectional flows up to 200 km s‑1, and that the weakly ionized plasma is heated by at least an order of magnitude up to ∼80,000 K. Such highly dynamic reconnection jets and efficient heating should be properly accounted for in future modeling efforts of sunspots. Our observations also reveal that the surge-like activity previously reported above light bridges in some chromospheric passbands such as the Hα core has two components: the ever-present short surges likely to be related to the upward leakage of magnetoacoustic waves from the photosphere, and the occasionally occurring long and fast surges that are obviously caused by the intermittent reconnection jets.

  2. Alkali-silica reactivity of some frequently used lightweight aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenovic, A.; Suput, J.S.; Ducman, V.; Skapin, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight aggregates (LWAs) are frequently used in concrete as well as in thermally insulating mortars and grouts, so that information on their alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) is very important. Four LWAs - expanded vermiculite, expanded clay, expanded glass and perlite - were studied regarding their ASR, using the following test methods: the accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C 1260), the rapid chemical test (ASTM C 289) and the combined scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray technique (SEM-EDX). According to these methods, neither the expanded vermiculite nor the expanded clay exhibited any potential ASR. On the other hand, in the case of the aggregates containing a glassy phase (expanded glass and perlite), the results of SEM-EDX analysis showed serious decomposition of aggregate texture due to ASR, although no deleterious expansion was observed in the accelerated mortar bar test. Therefore, suitable test criteria for ASR need to be defined for LWAs of this type when the AMBT method is used, as has already been suggested for slowly reactive aggregates in Australia

  3. Zinc deficiency: a frequent and underestimated complication after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé, Agnès; Demarsy, Delphine; Poirier, Anne Lise; Lelièvre, Bénédicte; Topart, Philippe; Guilloteau, Gérard; Bécouarn, Guillaume; Rohmer, Vincent

    2010-12-01

    Although zinc deficiency is common after bariatric surgery, its incidence is underestimated. The objective was to monitor zinc and nutritional status before and 6, 12 and 24 months (M6, M12 and M24) after gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), sleeve gastrectomy and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (DS) in patients receiving systematised nutritional care. Data for 324 morbidly obese patients (mean body mass index 46.2 ± 7.3 kg/m(2)) were reviewed retrospectively. The follow-up period was 6 months for 272 patients, 12 months for 175, and 24 months for 70. Anthropometric, dietary and serum albumin, prealbumin, zinc, iron and transferrin saturation measures were determined at each timepoint. Nine percent of patients had zinc deficiency pre-operatively. Zinc deficiency was present in 42.5% of the population at M12 and then remained stable. Zinc deficiency was significantly more frequent after DS, with a prevalence of 91.7% at M12. Between M0 and M6, variation in plasma prealbumin, surgery type and zinc supplementation explained 27.2% of the variance in plasma zinc concentration. Surgery type explained 22.1% of this variance between M0 and M24. Mean supplemental zinc intake was low (22 mg/day). The percentage of patients taking zinc supplementation at M6, M12 and M24 was 8.9%, 20.6% and 29%, respectively. Reduced protein intake, impaired zinc absorption and worsening compensatory mechanisms contribute to zinc deficiency. The mechanisms involved differ according to the type of surgery and time since surgery. Zinc supplementation is necessary early after bariatric surgery, but this requirement is often underestimated or is inadequate.

  4. Pediatric autoimmune enteropathy: an entity frequently associated with immunodeficiency disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Aatur D; Goyal, Alka; Davison, Jon M; Regueiro, Miguel D; Roche, Robyn L; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan

    2014-04-01

    . Although anti-enterocyte antibodies were identified in the majority of the cases, their presence was variable and insensitive. In addition, pediatric autoimmune enteropathy was frequently encountered in the setting of immunodeficiency disorders.

  5. A population model of chaparral vegetation response to frequent wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy A; Johns, Garrett; Jiang, Wancen; Yang, Lucie

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase in wildfire frequency in the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) may substantially impact plant community structure. Species of Chaparral shrubs represent the dominant vegetation type in the SMM. These species can be divided into three life history types according to their response to wildfires. Nonsprouting species are completely killed by fire and reproduce by seeds that germinate in response to a fire cue, obligate sprouting species survive by resprouting from dormant buds in a root crown because their seeds are destroyed by fire, and facultative sprouting species recover after fire both by seeds and resprouts. Based on these assumptions, we developed a set of nonlinear difference equations to model each life history type. These models can be used to predict species survivorship under varying fire return intervals. For example, frequent fires can lead to localized extinction of nonsprouting species such as Ceanothus megacarpus while several facultative sprouting species such as Ceanothus spinosus and Malosma (Rhus) laurina will persist as documented by a longitudinal study in a biological preserve in the SMM. We estimated appropriate parameter values for several chaparral species using 25 years of data and explored parameter relationships that lead to equilibrium populations. We conclude by looking at the survival strategies of these three species of chaparral shrubs under varying fire return intervals and predict changes in plant community structure under fire intervals of short return. In particular, our model predicts that an average fire return interval of greater than 12 years is required for 50 % of the initial Ceanothus megacarpus population and 25 % of the initial Ceanothus spinosus population to survive. In contrast, we predict that the Malosma laurina population will have 90 % survivorship for an average fire return interval of at least 6 years.

  6. The Most Frequently Cited 100 Articles in Liver Transplantation Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbilgin, M; Ünek, T; Egeli, T; Ağalar, C; Özbilgin, Ş; Hancı, V; Ellidokuz, H; Astarcıoğlu, I

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the liver transplantation literature since 1975 and found the most frequently cited 100 articles and assessed the distribution of authors and journals of these articles. Using the advanced mode of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (WOS) search engine, the words "SU = transplantation AND TI = liver OR SU = transplantation AND TS = liver" were used to scan articles and determine the most-cited 100 articles on July 18, 2016. From 1975 to date, it appears a total of 43,369 articles were published in the field of liver transplantation in the WOS. Although the most cited article had 677 citations, the least cited article had 180 citations. The mean citation number for the 100 articles was 252.31 ± 96.75. The mean annual citation number for the articles varied from 61.55 to 5 and the mean was 15.31 ± 8.63. The most cited article was by Feng et al "Characteristics Associated With Liver Graft Failure: The Concept of a Donor Risk Index" published in the American Journal of Transplantation (677 citations). Bibliometric analysis highlights the key topics and publications that have shaped the understanding and management of liver transplantation. According to our research, this is the first study to investigate articles with most citations in the field of liver transplantation. In our study the article with the most citations was cited 677 times, whereas the 100th article was cited 180 times with a mean citation number for the 100 articles of 252.31 ± 96.75. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxic corneal ulcer: a frequent and sight-threatening disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Coassin, Marco; Bonini, Sergio; Bonini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Overtreatment with topical ophthalmic preparations can lead to toxic corneal ulcer development. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and visual impact of toxic corneal ulcers and the management and risk factors for their development and outcomes. Clinical records of 226 consecutive patients with corneal ulcers referred to our tertiary care center were retrospectively evaluated. Frequency, clinical features, and management of toxic corneal ulcers are described. The relationship between clinical severity and outcomes (healing time, corneal transparency, and visual acuity) of toxic corneal ulcers and the number and classes of topical drugs, the number of daily instillations, and the duration of treatment were statistically evaluated. Toxic corneal ulcer was diagnosed in 9% (21/226) of all patients. After topical treatment discontinuation, the cornea spontaneously healed in all patients in 2 to 21 days. A longer healing time was related to a greater number of topical drugs used (p=0.029), a greater frequency of daily instillations (p=0.042), and a longer duration of treatment (p=0.048). The specific drugs used did not significantly influence healing time. After resolution, 16 out of 21 patients showed corneal scarring and impairment of visual function. The severity of corneal haze was related to the number of drugs used (p=0.023), to the frequency of daily instillations (p=0.031), and to the healing time (p=0.008). Toxic corneal ulcer is a frequent disease that can potentially lead to permanent visual impairment. A high-dose regimen is the major risk factor for corneal toxic ulcer development and poor visual outcomes.

  8. Frequent food insecurity among injection drug users: correlates and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Carol; Rudzinski, Katherine; Patterson, Jessica; Millson, Margaret

    2012-12-08

    Food insecurity and nutrition are two topics that are under-researched among injection drug users (IDUs). Our study examined the extent and correlates of food insecurity among a sample of IDUs and explored whether there is an association between food insecurity and injection-related HIV risk. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data were collected at a needle exchange program in London, Ontario, Canada between September 2006 and January 2007. Participants included 144 English-speaking IDUs who had injected drugs in the past 30 days. Participants were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviours, food insecurity, and health/social service use. In the past 6 months, 54.5% of participants reported that on a daily/weekly basis they did not have enough to eat because of a lack of money, while 22.1% reported this type of food insecurity on a monthly basis. Moreover, 60.4% and 24.3% reported that they did not eat the quality or quantity of food they wanted on a daily/weekly or a monthly basis, respectively. Participants reported re-using someone else's injection equipment: 21% re-used a needle, 19% re-used water, and 37.3% re-used a cooker. The odds of sharing injection equipment were increased for food insecure individuals. Findings show that IDUs have frequent and variable experiences of food insecurity and these experiences are strongly correlated with sharing of injection-related equipment. Such behaviours may increase the likelihood of HIV and HCV transmission in this population. Addressing food-related needs among IDUs is urgently needed.

  9. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Ana R; Martins, Ana P; Brito, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Well-differentiated gastric carcinomas are considered to represent a distinct entity emerging via specific molecular changes different from those found in other gastric carcinoma types. The gene deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 codes for a protein presumably involved ...... preferentially take place in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma. However, an upregulation of DMBT1 expression is more frequently found across all gastric cancer types.......Well-differentiated gastric carcinomas are considered to represent a distinct entity emerging via specific molecular changes different from those found in other gastric carcinoma types. The gene deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 codes for a protein presumably involved...... in cell differentiation and protection and has been proposed as a candidate tumour suppressor for brain and epithelial cancer. One study reported a loss of DMBT1 expression in 12.5% (5/40) of gastric cancer samples. Here, we examined in more detail DMBT1 protein and mRNA expression in 78 primary gastric...

  11. Characterization of T cell receptors of Th1 cells infiltrating inflamed skin of a novel murine model of palladium-induced metal allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Metal allergy is categorized as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and is characterized by the recruitment of lymphocytes into sites of allergic inflammation. Because of the unavailability of suitable animal models for metal allergy, the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of metal allergy has not been explored. Thus, we developed a novel mouse model for metal allergy associated with infiltration of T cells by multiple injections of palladium (Pd plus lipopolysaccharide into the footpad. Using this model, we characterized footpad-infiltrating T cells in terms of phenotypic markers, T cell receptor (TCR repertoires and cytokine expression. CD3+ CD4+ T cells accumulated in the allergic footpads 7 days after Pd challenge. The expression levels of CD25, interleukin-2, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor, but not interleukin-4 and interleukin-5, increased in the footpads after challenge, suggesting CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1 cells locally expanded in response to Pd. Infiltrated T cells in the footpads frequently expressed AV18-1 and BV8-2 T cell receptor (TCR chains compared with T cells in the lymph nodes and exhibited oligoclonality. T-cell clones identified from Pd-allergic mouse footpads shared identical CDR3 sequences containing AV18-1 and BV8-2. These results suggest that TCR AV18-1 and BV8-2 play dominant and critical parts in the antigen specificity of Pd-specific Th1 cells.

  12. Insomnia is a frequent finding in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Alanko, Lauri; Appelberg, Björn; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2003-01-01

    Background Asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while there is scarcity of reports concerning adulthood of AS subjects despite the lifelong nature of this syndrome. In children with Asperger syndrome the initiation and continuity of sleep is disturbed because of the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS. It is probable that sleep difficulties are present in adulthood as well. Our hypothesis was that adults with AS suffer from difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep and nonrestorative sleep (insomnia). Methods 20 AS without medication were compared with 10 healthy controls devoid of neuropsychiatric anamnesis. Clinical examination, blood test battery and head MRI excluded confounding somatic illnesses. Structured psychiatric interview for axis-I and axis-II disorders were given to both groups as well as Beck Depression Inventory and Wechsler adult intelligence scale, revised version. Sleep quality was assessed with sleep questionnaire, sleep diary during 6 consecutive days and description of possible sleep problems by the participants own words was requested. Results compared with controls and with normative values of good sleep, AS adults had frequent insomnia. In sleep questionnaire 90% (18/20), in sleep diary 75% (15/20) and in free description 85% (17/20) displayed insomnia. There was a substantial psychiatric comorbidity with only 4 AS subject devoid of other axis-I or axis-II disorders besides AS. Also these persons displayed insomnia. It can be noted that the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses in AS subjects was virtually similar to that found among patient with chronic insomnia. Conclusions the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS predispose both to insomnia and to anxiety and mood disorders. Therefore a careful assessment of sleep quality should be an integral part of the treatment

  13. Childhood acute leukemias are frequent in Mexico City: descriptive epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekker-Méndez Vilma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, acute leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It is particularly common in the Hispanic populations residing in the United States, Costa Rica, and Mexico City. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute leukemia in children who were diagnosed and treated in public hospitals in Mexico City. Methods Included in this study were those children, under 15 years of age and residents of Mexico City, who were diagnosed in 2006 and 2007 with leukemia, as determined by using the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. The average annual incidence rates (AAIR, and the standardized average annual incidence rates (SAAIR per million children were calculated. We calculated crude, age- and sex-specific incidence rates and adjusted for age by the direct method with the world population as standard. We determined if there were a correlation between the incidence of acute leukemias in the various boroughs of Mexico City and either the number of agricultural hectares, the average number of persons per household, or the municipal human development index for Mexico (used as a reference of socio-economic level. Results Although a total of 610 new cases of leukemia were registered during 2006-2007, only 228 fit the criteria for inclusion in this study. The overall SAAIR was 57.6 per million children (95% CI, 46.9-68.3; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL was the most frequent type of leukemia, constituting 85.1% of the cases (SAAIR: 49.5 per million, followed by acute myeloblastic leukemia at 12.3% (SAAIR: 6.9 per million, and chronic myeloid leukemia at 1.7% (SAAIR: 0.9 per million. The 1-4 years age group had the highest SAAIR for ALL (77.7 per million. For cases of ALL, 73.2% had precursor B-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR: 35.8 per million and 12.4% had T-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR 6.3 per million. The peak ages for ALL were 2-6 years and 8-10 years. More than half the children (58.8% were

  14. Spatiotemporal Frequent Pattern Discovery from Solar Event Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, B.; Angryk, R.; Filali Boubrahimi, S.; Hamdi, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Solar physics researchers entered the big data era with the launch of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission, which captures approximately 60,000 high-resolution images every day and generates 0.55 petabytes of raster data each year. The big data trend in solar data is anticipated to be sustained by the ground-based DKIST telescope, which is expected to generate three to five petabytes of data each year. Many software modules continuously work on SDO's image data to detect spatial boundaries of solar events. Recently, a solar event tracking algorithm and interpolation methodologies have been proposed for creating large-scale solar event vector data sets in GSU's Data Mining Lab. The solar event tracking algorithm utilizes the spatial locations and corresponding image parameters for linking the polygon-based instances; therefore, creates spatiotemporal trajectory objects with extended geometric representations. Thus, we can access and make use of vector-based solar event metadata, which is in the form of continuously evolving region trajectories. Spatial and temporal patterns such as co-occurrences, sequences, periodicity and convergences frequently transpire among solar event instances. Here, we will concentrate on spatiotemporal co-occurrences and event sequences. Spatiotemporal co-occurrences are the spatial and temporal overlap among two or more solar event instances. On the other hand, spatiotemporal event sequences appear among the events that are temporally following each other and spatially in close-by locations. Our study includes approximately 120,000 trajectory-based instances of seven solar event types (Active Regions, Coronal Holes, Emerging Flux, Filaments, Flares, Sigmoids, and Sunspots) that occurred between January 2012 and December 2014. The tracked solar events are interpolated at each 10-minute interval. We will present the results of our spatiotemporal co-occurrence pattern mining and spatiotemporal event sequence mining algorithms

  15. Childhood acute leukemias are frequent in Mexico City: descriptive epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Martínez-Avalos, Armando; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Espinosa-Hernández, Laura; Flores-Chapa, José de Diego; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Francisco Javier; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Alvarado-Ibarra, Martha; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Duarte-Rodríguez, David Aldebarán; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Del Campo-Martínez, María de Los Ángeles; Cárdenas-Cardos, Rocío; Alamilla-Galicia, Paola Hillary; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel Carlos; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel

    2011-08-17

    Worldwide, acute leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It is particularly common in the Hispanic populations residing in the United States, Costa Rica, and Mexico City. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute leukemia in children who were diagnosed and treated in public hospitals in Mexico City. Included in this study were those children, under 15 years of age and residents of Mexico City, who were diagnosed in 2006 and 2007 with leukemia, as determined by using the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. The average annual incidence rates (AAIR), and the standardized average annual incidence rates (SAAIR) per million children were calculated. We calculated crude, age- and sex-specific incidence rates and adjusted for age by the direct method with the world population as standard. We determined if there were a correlation between the incidence of acute leukemias in the various boroughs of Mexico City and either the number of agricultural hectares, the average number of persons per household, or the municipal human development index for Mexico (used as a reference of socio-economic level). Although a total of 610 new cases of leukemia were registered during 2006-2007, only 228 fit the criteria for inclusion in this study. The overall SAAIR was 57.6 per million children (95% CI, 46.9-68.3); acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was the most frequent type of leukemia, constituting 85.1% of the cases (SAAIR: 49.5 per million), followed by acute myeloblastic leukemia at 12.3% (SAAIR: 6.9 per million), and chronic myeloid leukemia at 1.7% (SAAIR: 0.9 per million). The 1-4 years age group had the highest SAAIR for ALL (77.7 per million). For cases of ALL, 73.2% had precursor B-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR: 35.8 per million) and 12.4% had T-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR 6.3 per million). The peak ages for ALL were 2-6 years and 8-10 years. More than half the children (58.8%) were classified as high risk. There was a positive

  16. Insomnia is a frequent finding in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wendt Lennart

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while there is scarcity of reports concerning adulthood of AS subjects despite the lifelong nature of this syndrome. In children with Asperger syndrome the initiation and continuity of sleep is disturbed because of the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS. It is probable that sleep difficulties are present in adulthood as well. Our hypothesis was that adults with AS suffer from difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep and nonrestorative sleep (insomnia. Methods 20 AS without medication were compared with 10 healthy controls devoid of neuropsychiatric anamnesis. Clinical examination, blood test battery and head MRI excluded confounding somatic illnesses. Structured psychiatric interview for axis-I and axis-II disorders were given to both groups as well as Beck Depression Inventory and Wechsler adult intelligence scale, revised version. Sleep quality was assessed with sleep questionnaire, sleep diary during 6 consecutive days and description of possible sleep problems by the participants own words was requested. Results compared with controls and with normative values of good sleep, AS adults had frequent insomnia. In sleep questionnaire 90% (18/20, in sleep diary 75% (15/20 and in free description 85% (17/20 displayed insomnia. There was a substantial psychiatric comorbidity with only 4 AS subject devoid of other axis-I or axis-II disorders besides AS. Also these persons displayed insomnia. It can be noted that the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses in AS subjects was virtually similar to that found among patient with chronic insomnia. Conclusions the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS predispose both to insomnia and to anxiety and mood disorders. Therefore a careful assessment of sleep quality should be an

  17. Human oligoclonal recombinant antivenom against the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Karatt-­Vellatt, Aneesh; Slavny, Peter

    Snakebite envenoming is a major cause of death and morbidity in tropical parts of the world. Current therapies are based on animal-­derived antisera that are associated with a high degree of immunogenicity, high cost, and batch-to-batch variation. Here, we report the results of our ongoing efforts...... of developing the world’s first fully recombinant antivenom based on human IgGs targeting the key toxins from the notorious black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis)....

  18. Identification of oligoclonal agamospermous microspecies: taxonomic specialists versus microsatellites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Oplaat, C.; Verhoeven, K. J. F.; Zeisek, Vojtěch; Uhlemann, I.; Trávníček, B.; Räsänen, J.; Wilschut, R. A.; Štěpánek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-17 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 613697 - DRIVE4EU Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : agamospermy * clonality * microsatellites Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016

  19. Mental health differences between frequent cannabis users with and without dependence and the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of mental disorders between frequent cannabis users with and without dependence and the general population. Cross-sectional comparison of interview data. Enriched community sample of frequent cannabis users and a representative sample of non-users and non-frequent users

  20. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannabis users. A

  1. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent

  2. Frequent Users of Pornography. A Population Based Epidemiological Study of Swedish Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…

  3. AN EFFICIENT DATA MINING METHOD TO FIND FREQUENT ITEM SETS IN LARGE DATABASE USING TR- FCTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Suba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining association rules in large database is one of most popular data mining techniques for business decision makers. Discovering frequent item set is the core process in association rule mining. Numerous algorithms are available in the literature to find frequent patterns. Apriori and FP-tree are the most common methods for finding frequent items. Apriori finds significant frequent items using candidate generation with more number of data base scans. FP-tree uses two database scans to find significant frequent items without using candidate generation. This proposed TR-FCTM (Transaction Reduction- Frequency Count Table Method discovers significant frequent items by generating full candidates once to form frequency count table with one database scan. Experimental results of TR-FCTM shows that this algorithm outperforms than Apriori and FP-tree.

  4. СHILDREN OF MEGAPOLISES WHO FALL ILL FREQUENTLY: ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Torshkhoeva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to prevention and treatment of acute respiratory diseases children of megapolises who fall ill frequently. The authors prove the thesis that children falling ill frequently and residing in mega cities, and not only in Russia, have a similar immune status, according to which not only therapeutic but also preventive immunomodulatory treatment courses must be administered to them.Key words: frequently ill children, bacterial immunomodulation, cytokinic status.

  5. Mental health differences between frequent cannabis users with and without dependence and the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To compare the prevalence of mental disorders between frequent cannabis users with and without dependence and the general population. Design Cross-sectional comparison of interview data. Setting Enriched community sample of frequent cannabis users and a representative sample of non-users and

  6. Effects of frequent cannabis use on hippocampal activity during an associative memory task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Gerry; van Hell, Hendrika H.; de Win, Maartje M. L.; Kahn, Rene S.; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2007-01-01

    Interest is growing in the neurotoxic potential of cannabis on human brain function. We studied non-acute effects of frequent cannabis use on hippocampus-dependent associative memory, investigated with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in 20 frequent cannabis users and 20 non-users

  7. Measurements of radio frequent cavity volt ages by X-ray spectrum measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with X-ray spectrum measurement as a method for the measurement of radio frequent cavity voltage and the theory of X-ray spectrum calculation. Experimental results at 72 MHz for three different values of the radio frequent power of ACCEL K250 super conducting cyclotron are being presented.

  8. A construction scheme of web page comment information extraction system based on frequent subtree mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Bingfeng

    2017-08-01

    Based on the frequent sub-tree mining algorithm, this paper proposes a construction scheme of web page comment information extraction system based on frequent subtree mining, referred to as FSM system. The entire system architecture and the various modules to do a brief introduction, and then the core of the system to do a detailed description, and finally give the system prototype.

  9. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transporation Program - State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Factsheet answering frequently asked questions about the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (the Program) that implements provisions of Titles III–V of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Answers to questions that are frequently asked about the Program by managers of state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are provided in the factsheet.

  10. Frequent nightmares in children: familial aggregation and associations with parent-reported behavioral and mood problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shirley Xin; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Li, Albert Martin; Lai, Kelly Yee Ching; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2011-04-01

    To conduct a systematic investigation on the prevalence, correlates, and familial aggregation of frequent nightmares in children, and to scrutinize the associations between frequent nightmares and parent-reported behavioral and mood problems in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted by collecting the data on sociodemographic, sleep, behavioral, and family-related information from a total of 6359 children (age: mean [SD]=9.2 [1.8] years; girls: 49.9%) and their reported biological parents. Community. N/A. Prevalence of frequent nightmares with a criterion of at least once per week was 5.2%. Multinomial regression analysis indicated that monthly family income, paternal and maternal nightmares, insomnia symptoms, parasomniac symptoms, and daytime consequences were significantly associated with nightmares in children. Frequent nightmares in children were significantly associated with hyper-activity (odds ratio [OR]=1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.44), frequent temper outbursts/mood disturbance (OR=1.76, 95%CI 1.27-2.44), and poor academic performance (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.11-2.36), after controlling for potential confounding factors. Approximately 20% of children with frequent nightmares experienced comorbid frequent insomnia. Comorbid nightmares and insomnia were associated with increased odds of hyperactivity (OR=4.13, 95% CI 2.13-8.00) and frequent temper outbursts/mood disturbance (OR=2.41, 95%CI 1.27-4.60). Frequent nightmares in children are associated with a constellation of child-, sleep-, and family-related factors, including comorbid sleep problems, such as insomnia and parasomnia, family economic status, and parental predisposition. Frequent nightmares are independently associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children.

  11. Altered gene expression in blood and sputum in COPD frequent exacerbators in the ECLIPSE cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Singh

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are defined as frequent exacerbators suffer with 2 or more exacerbations every year. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype are poorly understood. We investigated gene expression profile patterns associated with frequent exacerbations in sputum and blood cells in a well-characterised cohort. Samples from subjects from the ECLIPSE COPD cohort were used; sputum and blood samples from 138 subjects were used for microarray gene expression analysis, while blood samples from 438 subjects were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing. Using microarray, 150 genes were differentially expressed in blood (>±1.5 fold change, p≤0.01 between frequent compared to non-exacerbators. In sputum cells, only 6 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially regulated genes in blood included downregulation of those involved in lymphocyte signalling and upregulation of pro-apoptotic signalling genes. Multivariate analysis of the microarray data followed by confirmatory PCR analysis identified 3 genes that predicted frequent exacerbations; B3GNT, LAF4 and ARHGEF10. The sensitivity and specificity of these 3 genes to predict the frequent exacerbator phenotype was 88% and 33% respectively. There are alterations in systemic immune function associated with frequent exacerbations; down-regulation of lymphocyte function and a shift towards pro-apoptosis mechanisms are apparent in patients with frequent exacerbations.

  12. Adaptations to short, frequent sessions of endurance and strength training are similar to longer, less frequent exercise sessions when the total volume is the same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels

    2015-01-01

    ]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular......Kilen, A, Hjelvang, LB, Dall, N, Kruse, NL, and Nordsborg, NB. Adaptations to short, frequent sessions of endurance and strength training are similar to longer, less frequent exercise sessions when the total volume is the same. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S46-S51, 2015-The hypothesis...... that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI...

  13. [Prevalence and factors associated with frequent attendence in family medicine clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo Maestre, N; Lendínez-de la Cruz, J M; Bermúdez-Torres, F M; Gónzalez-Contero, L; Gutierrez-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M P; Espejo-Almazán María, T

    2016-01-01

    The use of health services has seen a steep rise. The frequent users are responsible for significant economic, human and social impact. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of frequent attenders in our Health Center, in order to evaluate the possibility of taking corrective measures to improve the quality of care and efficiency in the use of resources. Descriptive observational study of a sample of 379 patients over 18 years old. The dependent variables were attendance (number of visits to their family doctor during the previous year), frequent attendance (10 or more visits to the family doctor in the last year), and persistent frequent attenders (10 or more visits to the family doctor in each of the last two years). Data were collected from medical records and by telephone interview. The mean attendance was 6.83 (95%CI: 6.13-7.53), frequent attendance reached 25.4% (95%CI: 21.4-29.6), and persistent frequent attenders, 1.6% (95%CI: 0.5-2.9). Frequent attendance was associated with sex, age, marital status, educational level, family structure, existence of chronic disease, use of anxiolytic and antidepressants, request for additional tests, and referrals to other specialists, proximity to the health center, and level of satisfaction with their family doctor. The low persistent frequent attenders found suggests that frequent attendance could be largely due to factors related to professional and organization. Studies are required to address the high level of consumption of psychotropic drugs, and improving professional skills in dealing with mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness........ In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders...

  15. Acute calcific tendonitis of dorsal interosseous muscles of the hand: uncommon site of a frequent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute calcific tendinopathy is one of the manifestations of hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease. While it is more frequent in the shoulder, it has been described in virtually all areas of the body, but rarely in the muscles of the hand. Its etiopathogenesis is not yet fully understood and despite being a fairly frequent condition, it is commonly misdiagnosed. The onset of the disease is usually acute and resolves spontaneously. Acute calcific tendinitis of the interosseous tendons of the hand is an uncommon site of a frequent condition. The clinical presentation is similar to other entities, thus errors in diagnosis frequently occur, resulting in over-treatment or unnecessary tests. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the interosseous muscles of the hand with a brief review of the current literature with emphasis on diagnostic imaging methods.

  16. Social and medical vulnerability factors of emergency department frequent users in a universal health insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, Gilles; Paroz, Sophie; Faouzi, Mohamed; Trueb, Lionel; Vaucher, Paul; Althaus, Fabrice; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify the social and medical factors associated with emergency department (ED) frequent use and to determine if frequent users were more likely to have a combination of these factors in a universal health insurance system. This was a retrospective chart review case-control study comparing randomized samples of frequent users and nonfrequent users at the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland. The authors defined frequent users as patients with four or more ED visits within the previous 12 months. Adult patients who visited the ED between April 2008 and March 2009 (study period) were included, and patients leaving the ED without medical discharge were excluded. For each patient, the first ED electronic record within the study period was considered for data extraction. Along with basic demographics, variables of interest included social (employment or housing status) and medical (ED primary diagnosis) characteristics. Significant social and medical factors were used to construct a logistic regression model, to determine factors associated with frequent ED use. In addition, comparison of the combination of social and medical factors was examined. A total of 359 of 1,591 frequent and 360 of 34,263 nonfrequent users were selected. Frequent users accounted for less than a 20th of all ED patients (4.4%), but for 12.1% of all visits (5,813 of 48,117), with a maximum of 73 ED visits. No difference in terms of age or sex occurred, but more frequent users had a nationality other than Swiss or European (n = 117 [32.6%] vs. n = 83 [23.1%], p = 0.003). Adjusted multivariate analysis showed that social and specific medical vulnerability factors most increased the risk of frequent ED use: being under guardianship (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 15.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7 to 147.3), living closer to the ED (adjusted OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 2.8 to 7.6), being uninsured (adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.1 to 5.8), being unemployed or dependent on

  17. An Efficient Approach to Mining Maximal Contiguous Frequent Patterns from Large DNA Sequence Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining interesting patterns from DNA sequences is one of the most challenging tasks in bioinformatics and computational biology. Maximal contiguous frequent patterns are preferable for expressing the function and structure of DNA sequences and hence can capture the common data characteristics among related sequences. Biologists are interested in finding frequent orderly arrangements of motifs that are responsible for similar expression of a group of genes. In order to reduce mining time and complexity, however, most existing sequence mining algorithms either focus on finding short DNA sequences or require explicit specification of sequence lengths in advance. The challenge is to find longer sequences without specifying sequence lengths in advance. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to mining maximal contiguous frequent patterns from large DNA sequence datasets. The experimental results show that our proposed approach is memory-efficient and mines maximal contiguous frequent patterns within a reasonable time.

  18. Interventions on frequent attenders in primary care. A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Frans Th. M.; Wittkampf, Karin A.; Schene, Aart H.; Bindels, Patrick J. E.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To analyse which interventions are effective in influencing morbidity, quality of life, and healthcare utilization of frequently attending patients (FAs) in primary care. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed for articles describing interventions on FAs in primary care

  19. Bayesian Method for Building Frequent Landsat-Like NDVI Datasets by Integrating MODIS and Landsat NDVI

    OpenAIRE

    Limin Liao; Jinling Song; Jindi Wang; Zhiqiang Xiao; Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Studies related to vegetation dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes often require Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets with both high spatial resolution and frequent coverage, which cannot be satisfied by a single sensor due to technical limitations. In this study, we propose a new method called NDVI-Bayesian Spatiotemporal Fusion Model (NDVI-BSFM) for accurately and effectively building frequent high spatial resolution Landsat-like NDVI datasets by integrating Moderate Resol...

  20. Social capital and frequent attenders in general practice: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasgaard, Alexander A; Mæhlisen, Maiken H; Overgaard, Charlotte; Ejlskov, Linda; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Bøggild, Henrik

    2018-03-02

    Frequent attendance to primary care constitutes a large use of resources for the health care system. The association between frequent attendance and illness-related factors has been examined in several studies, but little is known about the association between frequent attendance and individual social capital. The aim of this study is to explore this association. The analysis is conducted on responders to the North Denmark Region Health Profile 2010 (n = 23,384), individually linked with information from administrative registers. Social capital is operationalized at the individual level, and includes cognitive (interpersonal trust and norms of reciprocity) as well as structural (social network and civic engagement) dimensions. Frequent attendance is defined as the upper-quartile of the total number of measured consultations with a general practitioner over a period of 148 weeks. Using multiple logistic regression, we found that frequent attendance was associated with a lower score in interpersonal trust [OR 0.86 (0.79-0.94)] and social network [OR 0.88 (0.79-0.98)] for women, when adjusted for age, education, income and SF12 health scores. Norms of reciprocity and civic engagement were not significantly associated with frequent attendance for women [OR 1.05 (0.99-1.11) and OR 1.01 (0.92-1.11) respectively]. None of the associations were statistically significant for men. This study suggests that for women, some aspects of social capital are associated with frequent attendance in general practice, and the statistically significant dimensions belonged to both cognitive and structural aspects of social capital. This association was not seen for men. This indicates a multifaceted and heterogeneous relationship between social capital and frequent attendance among genders.

  1. BACTERIAL LYSATES IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN FREQUENTLY SICK CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Lupan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review analyzes the results of Imudon administration in pediatrics. The drug contains a mixture of purified lyzates of bacteria which are the most frequent causative agents of pathologic processes in oral cavity and throat. Presented data show high efficacy and safety of a drug.Key words: frequently sick children, respiratory infections, topical immunocorrector, clinical studies.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 41–46

  2. Frequent users of emergency services: associated factors and reasons for seeking care

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Aline Marques; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Aim: to identify the profile of frequent users of emergency services, to verify the associated factors and to analyze the reasons for the frequent use of the services. METHOD: An explanatory sequential type mixed method was adopted. Quantitative data were collected from the electronic medical records, with a sample of 385 users attended four or more times in an emergency service, during the year 2011. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 users, intentiona...

  3. A strategy to assess short and frequent skin contacts with nickel

    OpenAIRE

    Erfani, Behnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background. In order to protect the public health, the EU nickel regulation sets a limit for certain consumer products not to release more nickel than 0.5 μg/cm2/week. However, nickel remains the most frequent cause of skin allergy. Objectives. To design and develop an experimental strategy for assessment of short and frequent skin exposure to nickel containing consumer products in daily life. Methods. The research strategy includes: screening for nickel exposure in daily life using the...

  4. Effectiveness of interventions targeting frequent users of emergency departments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, Fabrice; Paroz, Sophie; Hugli, Olivier; Ghali, William A; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Frequent users of emergency departments (EDs) are a relatively small group of vulnerable patients accounting for a disproportionally high number of ED visits. Our objective is to perform a systematic review of the type and effectiveness of interventions to reduce the number of ED visits by frequent users. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, the Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Science for randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled trials, interrupted time series, and controlled and noncontrolled before-and-after studies describing interventions targeting adult frequent users of EDs. Primary outcome of interest was the reduction in ED use. We also explored costs analyses and various clinical (alcohol and drug use, psychiatric symptoms, mortality) and social (homelessness, insurance status, social security support) outcomes. We included 11 studies (3 randomized controlled trials, 2 controlled and 6 noncontrolled before-and-after studies). Heterogeneity in both study designs and definitions of frequent users precluded meta-analyses of the results. The most studied intervention was case management (n=7). Only 1 of 3 randomized controlled trials showed a significant reduction in ED use compared with usual care. Six of the 8 before-and-after studies reported a significant reduction in ED use, and 1 study showed a significant increase. ED cost reductions were demonstrated in 3 studies. Social outcomes such as reduction of homelessness were favorable in 3 of 3 studies, and clinical outcomes trended toward positive results in 2 of 3 studies. Interventions targeting frequent users may reduce ED use. Case management, the most frequently described intervention, reduced ED costs and seemed to improve social and clinical outcomes. It appears to be beneficial to patients and justifiable for hospitals to implement case management for frequent users in the framework of a clear and consensual definition of frequent users and standardized outcome measures

  5. Mining top-k frequent closed itemsets in data streams using sliding window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Z.; Shahbaz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Frequent itemset mining has become a popular research area in data mining community since the last few years. T here are two main technical hitches while finding frequent itemsets. First, to provide an appropriate minimum support value to start and user need to tune this minimum support value by running the algorithm again and again. Secondly, generated frequent itemsets are mostly numerous and as a result a number of association rules generated are also very large in numbers. Applications dealing with streaming environment need to process the data received at high rate, therefore, finding frequent itemsets in data streams becomes complex. In this paper, we present an algorithm to mine top-k frequent closed itemsets using sliding window approach from streaming data. We developed a single-pass algorithm to find frequent closed itemsets of length between user's defined minimum and maximum- length. To improve the performance of algorithm and to avoid rescanning of data, we have transformed data into bitmap based tree data structure. (author)

  6. The Frequent Unusual Headache Syndromes: A Proposed Classification Based on Lifetime Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Marcelo M; de Oliveira, Daniella A

    2016-01-01

    There is no agreement on a single cutoff point or prevalence for regarding a given disease as rare. The concept of what is a rare headache disorder is even less clear and the spectrum from a very frequent, frequent, occasional to rare headache syndrome is yet to be established. An attempt has been made to estimate the lifetime prevalence of each of the headache subtypes classified in the ICHD-II. Using the ICHD-II, 199 different headache subtypes were identified. The following classification was made according to the estimated lifetime prevalence of each headache disorder: very frequent (prevalence >10%); frequent (between 1 and 10%); occasional (between 0.07 and 1%); and unusual or rare (headache disorders, 7/199 (4%) as very frequent, 9/199 (5%) as frequent, and 29/199 (15%) as occasional forms of headache disorder. The unusual headache syndromes do not appear to be as infrequent in clinical practice as has been generally believed. About three-fourths of the classified headache disorders found in the ICHD-II can be considered as rare. This narrative review article may be regarded as an introduction to the concept of unusual headaches and a proposed classification of all headaches (at least those listed in the ICHD-II). © 2015 American Headache Society.

  7. The association between frequent alcohol drinking and opioid consumption after abdominal surgery: A retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chin Kao

    Full Text Available It is perceived that patients with a history of frequent alcohol consumption require more opioids for postoperative pain control and experience less postoperative nausea and vomiting than patients without such a history. However, there is scarce evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to assess association between frequent alcohol consumption and opioid requirement for postoperative pain control and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting.The medical records for 4143 patients using intravenous patient-control analgesia with opioids after abdominal surgery between January 2010 and September 2013 were obtained, and associations were sought between the cumulative opioid consumption (in intravenous morphine equivalence per body weight (mg/kg in the first 2 days after abdominal operation and several demographic and clinical variables by multiple regression analysis. The association between the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and several demographic and clinical variables was also sought by multiple logistic regression analysis.Frequent alcohol drinking, among other previously reported factors, was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control (p < 0.001. The estimate effect of frequent alcohol drinking was 0.117 mg/kg. Frequent alcohol drinking was also associated with decreased risks of postoperative nausea (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003 and vomiting (odds ratio = 0.49, p = 0.026.Frequent alcohol drinking was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control and decreased risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery.

  8. Consumo frequente de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes escolares: estudo de fatores associados Frequent consumption of alcohol by school age adolescents: study of associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analy Marquardt de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores associados ao consumo frequente de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes escolares em Feira de Santana, BA. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória, estratificada por conglomerado, totalizando 10 escolas de portes diferenciados e 776 estudantes de ambos os sexos que relataram consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, na faixa etária de 14 a 19 anos, assegurando representatividade das escolas e alunos. O instrumento auto-aplicável foi elaborado segundo a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS e questionários validados em outros estudos. A coleta garantiu procedimentos para anonimato e sigilo. Foram considerados expostos adolescentes que referiram consumo frequente (em pelo menos todo final de semana. RESULTADOS: O consumo frequente/pesado mostrou associações significantes com sexo masculino, consumo precoce, parceiro sexual pouco conhecido, problemas com substâncias psicoativas (SPAs na família, coabitação com companheiro, renda própria, tráfico de drogas, consumo com amigos, atividades na escola, motivações (ansiedade, animação/prazer; e consequências (outras SPAs, brigas, inadimplência ao trabalhoescola. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento dos fatores pessoais, interpessoais, familiares e ambientais associados ao consumo de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes devem ser considerados na implementação de programas escolares e políticas públicas de prevenção, visando comportamentos que minimizem a exposição ao risco associado.OBJECTIVES: To analyze factors associated with the frequent consumption of alcohol by school age adolescents in Feira de Santana, Bahia. METHOD: Cross sectional study with random sampling, stratified by clusters, totaling 10 schools of different sizes. Although 1,409 students were included in the sample, only 776 of both genders, aged 14 to 19 years who reported alcohol drinking were included in the analysis, providing representativeness of schools and students. Data collection tools

  9. Frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is an unrecognized risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahek Mirza

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea has been recognized as a factor predisposing to atrial fibrillation recurrence and progression. The effect of other sleep-disturbing conditions on atrial fibrillation progression is not known. We sought to determine whether frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is a risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation. In this retrospective study, patients with atrial fibrillation and a clinical suspicion of restless legs syndrome who were referred for polysomnography were divided into two groups based on severity of periodic leg movement during sleep: frequent (periodic movement index >35/h and infrequent (≤35/h. Progression of atrial fibrillation to persistent or permanent forms between the two groups was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. Of 373 patients with atrial fibrillation (77% paroxysmal, 23% persistent, 108 (29% progressed to persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation during follow-up (median, 33 months; interquartile range, 16-50. Compared to patients with infrequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=168, patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=205 had a higher rate of atrial fibrillation progression (23% vs. 34%; p=0.01. Patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep were older and predominantly male; however, there were no significant differences at baseline in clinical factors that promote atrial fibrillation progression between both groups. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of atrial fibrillation progression were persistent atrial fibrillation at baseline, female gender, hypertension and frequent periodic leg movement during sleep. In patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep, dopaminergic therapy for control of leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome reduced risk of atrial fibrillation progression. Frequent leg movement during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome is

  10. The normally expressed kappa immunoglobulin light chain gene repertoire and somatic mutations studied by single-sided specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR); frequent occurrence of features often assigned to autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, L; Hougs, L; Andersen, V

    1997-01-01

    . V genes from the Jkappa-proximal duplication unit of the kappa locus were almost exclusively used. A total of 65% of the sequences could be assigned to four or five genes: A27 (humkv325), L6 (Vg), L2 (humkv328), and A3 and/or A19. N additions and P nucleotides were quite common and found in 32......The expressed human kappa light chain gene repertoire utilized by healthy individuals was studied by two different single-sided specific PCR techniques to avoid bias for certain V genes. A total of 103 rearranged kappa sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals were...... agreement with those of previous repertoire studies using potentially V-gene-biased techniques. Thus, it is clear that restricted V-gene usage, common N and P additions, and extended CDR3 regions are normal features and not, as has been claimed, characteristics of pathological autoantibodies....

  11. Extremely frequent behavior in consumer research: theory and empirical evidence for chronic casino gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Ralph; Woodside, Arch G

    2009-09-01

    The present study informs understanding of customer segmentation strategies by extending Twedt's heavy-half propositions to include a segment of users that represent less than 2% of all households-consumers demonstrating extremely frequent behavior (EFB). Extremely frequent behavior (EFB) theory provides testable propositions relating to the observation that few (2%) consumers in many product and service categories constitute more than 25% of the frequency of product or service use. Using casino gambling as an example for testing EFB theory, an analysis of national survey data shows that extremely frequent casino gamblers do exist and that less than 2% of all casino gamblers are responsible for nearly 25% of all casino gambling usage. Approximately 14% of extremely frequent casino users have very low-household income, suggesting somewhat paradoxical consumption patterns (where do very low-income users find the money to gamble so frequently?). Understanding the differences light, heavy, and extreme users and non-users can help marketers and policymakers identify and exploit "blue ocean" opportunities (Kim and Mauborgne, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2005), for example, creating effective strategies to convert extreme users into non-users or non-users into new users.

  12. Clinical and Functional Lung Parameters Associated With Frequent Exacerbator Phenotype in Subjects With Severe COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzolo, Alberto; Carratù, Pierluigi; Dragonieri, Silvano; Falcone, Vito Antonio; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Liotino, Vito; D'Alba, Giuseppina; Castellana, Giorgio; Resta, Onofrio

    2017-05-01

    COPD is currently recognized as a syndrome associated with a high prevalence of comorbidities and various phenotypes. Exacerbations are very important events in the clinical history of COPD because they drive the decline in lung function. In the present study, we aim to identify whether there are any clinical and functional specific features of frequent exacerbators in a population of patients with severe COPD. We conducted a cross-sectional, case control study. All subjects had Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 3 or 4 COPD (FEV 1 lower inspiratory capacity percentage predicted. The Motley index (residual volume/total lung capacity percentage) was significantly increased in frequent exacerbators. Infrequent exacerbators had lower Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and BODE index than frequent exacerbators. In the multivariate model, a reduced inspiratory capacity percentage predicted and an increase of residual volume/total lung capacity percentage, BODE index and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale were associated with the frequent exacerbation phenotype. Static hyperinflation and respiratory disability, measured by Motley index and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, respectively, in the same way as the multidimensional BODE index staging system, were independently associated with frequent exacerbation status in subjects with severe COPD. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Contributing factors of frequent use of the emergency department: A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Timothy R

    2017-11-01

    Overcrowding in emergency departments is an issue that has a negative impact worldwide. As attendance in emergency departments has increased, the ability to provide critical services to patients suffering from actual medical emergencies in a timely manner has decreased as these departments are many times at or over capacity. One patient population whose negative influence has been researched with regard to their impact on the overcrowding issue is that of the frequent user. A search of two electronic databases was conducted to identify factors that frequent users state as their reasoning for using an emergency department. Peer reviewed articles in English were searched for in CINAHL Plus and PubMed, as well as a review of reference lists. A review of the literature identified two predominant factors related to frequent users in the emergency department: a lack of awareness of medical necessity and issues of access. To address the frequent users in emergency departments, implications for practice need to be explored and implemented. Implications for practice include education of medical necessity for the frequent users, expansion of the pre-hospital role in primary care and inappropriate use prevention, and improvement of access to alternative healthcare services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Frequent attenders in out-of-hours general practice care: attendance prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the use of out-of-hours service and analyse attendance prognosis for frequent attenders and other groups of attenders, and to present a concept describing frequent attendance over time. METHODS: All adult attenders in 1990 were included in a 4-year follow-up study....... Frequent attenders (FAs) were defined as those 10% among the attenders who most frequently used the out-of-hours service during a calendar year (12 months). This gave an intersection point of four or more contacts for frequent attenders. Three more groups were defined according to whether they had one, two......,321 individuals aged 18 years and over who contacted the out-of-hours service in 1990. Outcome measures were attendance per year, age and sex. RESULTS: FAs made 42% of the out-of-hours contacts in 1990, and 33% of those who were FAs in 1990 were also FAs in 1991. Among the 1990 FAs, 67% contacted the out...

  15. Frequent visits to a French psychiatric emergency service: diagnostic variability in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laurent; Dassa, Daniel; Belzeaux, Raoul; Henry, Jean-Marc; Samuelian, Jean-Claude; Baumstarck-Barrau, Karine; Lancon, Christophe

    2011-08-01

    This study examined characteristics of frequent visitors to a psychiatric emergency service in a French public teaching hospital over six years. Diagnostic variability of psychotic disorders was documented. A retrospective review of the service's administrative and medical databases identified 1,285 patients with more than one visit during the period who were given at least one diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. A total of 317 patients with six or more visits (frequent visitors) were compared with 968 patients with between two and five visits (occasional visitors). Frequent visitors were significantly more likely to be single and homeless and to have diagnostic variability, substance use disorders, and personality disorders. A total of 177 patients experienced diagnostic variability, which was found mainly in three diagnostic categories: schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychotic features. Future studies should further examine the link between increased use of emergency services and diagnostic variability.

  16. Negative and positive association rules mining from text using frequent and infrequent itemsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Guergachi, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Association rule mining research typically focuses on positive association rules (PARs), generated from frequently occurring itemsets. However, in recent years, there has been a significant research focused on finding interesting infrequent itemsets leading to the discovery of negative association rules (NARs). The discovery of infrequent itemsets is far more difficult than their counterparts, that is, frequent itemsets. These problems include infrequent itemsets discovery and generation of accurate NARs, and their huge number as compared with positive association rules. In medical science, for example, one is interested in factors which can either adjudicate the presence of a disease or write-off of its possibility. The vivid positive symptoms are often obvious; however, negative symptoms are subtler and more difficult to recognize and diagnose. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for discovering positive and negative association rules among frequent and infrequent itemsets. We identify associations among medications, symptoms, and laboratory results using state-of-the-art data mining technology.

  17. Integrating Entropy and Closed Frequent Pattern Mining for Social Network Modelling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhaimenul; Alhajj, Reda; Rokne, Jon

    The recent increase in the explicitly available social networks has attracted the attention of the research community to investigate how it would be possible to benefit from such a powerful model in producing effective solutions for problems in other domains where the social network is implicit; we argue that social networks do exist around us but the key issue is how to realize and analyze them. This chapter presents a novel approach for constructing a social network model by an integrated framework that first preparing the data to be analyzed and then applies entropy and frequent closed patterns mining for network construction. For a given problem, we first prepare the data by identifying items and transactions, which arc the basic ingredients for frequent closed patterns mining. Items arc main objects in the problem and a transaction is a set of items that could exist together at one time (e.g., items purchased in one visit to the supermarket). Transactions could be analyzed to discover frequent closed patterns using any of the well-known techniques. Frequent closed patterns have the advantage that they successfully grab the inherent information content of the dataset and is applicable to a broader set of domains. Entropies of the frequent closed patterns arc used to keep the dimensionality of the feature vectors to a reasonable size; it is a kind of feature reduction process. Finally, we analyze the dynamic behavior of the constructed social network. Experiments were conducted on a synthetic dataset and on the Enron corpus email dataset. The results presented in the chapter show that social networks extracted from a feature set as frequent closed patterns successfully carry the community structure information. Moreover, for the Enron email dataset, we present an analysis to dynamically indicate the deviations from each user's individual and community profile. These indications of deviations can be very useful to identify unusual events.

  18. Characteristics of frequent emergency department presenters to an Australian emergency medicine network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markham Donna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the characteristics of emergency department (ED patients defined as frequent presenters (FP presenting to an Australian emergency department network and compare these with a cohort of non-frequent presenters (NFP. Method A retrospective chart review utilising an electronic emergency medicine patient medical record database was performed on patients presenting to Southern Health EDs from March 2009 to March 2010. Non-frequent presenters were defined as patients presenting less than 5 times and frequent presenters as presenting 8 or more times in the study period. Characteristics of both groups were described and compared. Results During the 12-month study period there were 540 FP patients with 4549 admissions and 73,089 NFP patients with 100,943 admissions. FP patients were slightly older with a significant increase in frequency of patients between the ages of 70 to 79 years and they were more likely to be divorced or separated than NFP patients. Frequent presenters to the emergency department were more likely to utilise the ambulance service to arrive at the hospital, or in the custody of police than NFP patients. FPs were more likely to be admitted to hospital, more likely to have an admission to a mental health bed than NFP patients and more likely to self-discharge from the emergency department while waiting for care. Conclusions There are major implications for the utilisation of limited ED resources by frequent presenters. By further understanding the characteristics of FP we may be able to address the specific health care needs of this population in more efficient and cost effective ways. Further research analysing the effectiveness of targeted multidisciplinary interventions aiming to reduce the frequency of ED attendances may be warranted.

  19. Concomitant fibromyalgia in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the more frequent use of biological therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask Lage-Hansen, Philip; Chrysidis, S; Lage-Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and its components in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with and without concomitant fibromyalgia (FM), and to investigate the use of biological treatment in the two groups. METHOD: Questionnaires developed to diagnose FM were...... with a higher DAS28 due to subjective parameters and with the more frequent use of biological treatments. This raises the question of whether the more frequent use of biologics in these patients is justified by inflammation, or is instead due to persistent pain and other centrally mediated symptoms....

  20. Predictability of Persistent Frequent Attendance in Primary Care: A Temporal and Geographical Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Frans T.; Brouwer, Henk J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van den Akker, Marjan; van Steenkiste, Ben; Mohrs, Jacob; Schene, Aart H.; van Weert, Henk C.; ter Riet, Gerben

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent attenders are patients who visit their general practitioner exceptionally frequently. Frequent attendance is usually transitory, but some frequent attenders become persistent. Clinically, prediction of persistent frequent attendance is useful to target treatment at underlying diseases or problems. Scientifically it is useful for the selection of high-risk populations for trials. We previously developed a model to predict which frequent attenders become persistent. Aim To validate an existing prediction model for persistent frequent attendance that uses information solely from General Practitioners’ electronic medical records. Methods We applied the existing model (N = 3,045, 2003–2005) to a later time frame (2009–2011) in the original derivation network (N = 4,032, temporal validation) and to patients of another network (SMILE; 2007–2009, N = 5,462, temporal and geographical validation). Model improvement was studied by adding three new predictors (presence of medically unexplained problems, prescriptions of psychoactive drugs and antibiotics). Finally, we derived a model on the three data sets combined (N = 12,539). We expressed discrimination using histograms of the predicted values and the concordance-statistic (c-statistic) and calibration using the calibration slope (1 = ideal) and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests. Results The existing model (c-statistic 0.67) discriminated moderately with predicted values between 7.5 and 50 percent and c-statistics of 0.62 and 0.63, for validation in the original network and SMILE network, respectively. Calibration (0.99 originally) was better in SMILE than in the original network (slopes 0.84 and 0.65, respectively). Adding information on the three new predictors did not importantly improve the model (c-statistics 0.64 and 0.63, respectively). Performance of the model based on the combined data was similar (c-statistic 0.65). Conclusion This external validation study showed that

  1. Predictability of persistent frequent attendance in primary care: a temporal and geographical validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans T Smits

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent attenders are patients who visit their general practitioner exceptionally frequently. Frequent attendance is usually transitory, but some frequent attenders become persistent. Clinically, prediction of persistent frequent attendance is useful to target treatment at underlying diseases or problems. Scientifically it is useful for the selection of high-risk populations for trials. We previously developed a model to predict which frequent attenders become persistent. AIM: To validate an existing prediction model for persistent frequent attendance that uses information solely from General Practitioners' electronic medical records. METHODS: We applied the existing model (N = 3,045, 2003-2005 to a later time frame (2009-2011 in the original derivation network (N = 4,032, temporal validation and to patients of another network (SMILE; 2007-2009, N = 5,462, temporal and geographical validation. Model improvement was studied by adding three new predictors (presence of medically unexplained problems, prescriptions of psychoactive drugs and antibiotics. Finally, we derived a model on the three data sets combined (N = 12,539. We expressed discrimination using histograms of the predicted values and the concordance-statistic (c-statistic and calibration using the calibration slope (1 = ideal and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests. RESULTS: The existing model (c-statistic 0.67 discriminated moderately with predicted values between 7.5 and 50 percent and c-statistics of 0.62 and 0.63, for validation in the original network and SMILE network, respectively. Calibration (0.99 originally was better in SMILE than in the original network (slopes 0.84 and 0.65, respectively. Adding information on the three new predictors did not importantly improve the model (c-statistics 0.64 and 0.63, respectively. Performance of the model based on the combined data was similar (c-statistic 0.65. CONCLUSION: This external validation study showed that

  2. Distribution of native Legumes (Leguminoseae) in frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinaceae)-Wiregrass (Poaceae) ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Hainds; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Lindsay R. Boring; Dean H. Gjerstad

    1999-01-01

    Legume species distribution and abundance and selected environmental variables were quantified across a complex gradient (varying in both water-holding capacity and fertility) for frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Aristida stricta) ecosystems. Legumes were present in all months; however, abundance...

  3. Mining Productive-Associated Periodic-Frequent Patterns in Body Sensor Data for Smart Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Walaa N; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi

    2017-04-26

    The understanding of various health-oriented vital sign data generated from body sensor networks (BSNs) and discovery of the associations between the generated parameters is an important task that may assist and promote important decision making in healthcare. For example, in a smart home scenario where occupants' health status is continuously monitored remotely, it is essential to provide the required assistance when an unusual or critical situation is detected in their vital sign data. In this paper, we present an efficient approach for mining the periodic patterns obtained from BSN data. In addition, we employ a correlation test on the generated patterns and introduce productive-associated periodic-frequent patterns as the set of correlated periodic-frequent items. The combination of these measures has the advantage of empowering healthcare providers and patients to raise the quality of diagnosis as well as improve treatment and smart care, especially for elderly people in smart homes. We develop an efficient algorithm named PPFP-growth (Productive Periodic-Frequent Pattern-growth) to discover all productive-associated periodic frequent patterns using these measures. PPFP-growth is efficient and the productiveness measure removes uncorrelated periodic items. An experimental evaluation on synthetic and real datasets shows the efficiency of the proposed PPFP-growth algorithm, which can filter a huge number of periodic patterns to reveal only the correlated ones.

  4. PROGRAM RATIONALE OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION IN CHILDREN WITH FREQUENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Deryusheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex clinical and laboratory examination of 146 children aged 2—3 years attending kindergarten were presented. The leading predictors of frequent respiratory disease: disturbance of microbiocenosis oropharyngeal mucosa, immunoglobulins decrease, respiratory allergic pathology were established and scientifically substantiated. The results obtained prove the main directions of therapeutic and preventive measures.

  5. Increasing resiliency in frequent fire forests: Lessons from the Sierra Nevada and western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Stephens

    2014-01-01

    This paper will primarily focus on the management and restoration of forests adapted to frequent, low-moderate intensity fire regimes. These are the forest types that are most at risk from large, high-severity wildfires and in many regions their fire regimes are changing. Fire as a landscape process can exhibit self-limiting characteristics in some forests which can...

  6. Mining Productive-Associated Periodic-Frequent Patterns in Body Sensor Data for Smart Home Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa N. Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of various health-oriented vital sign data generated from body sensor networks (BSNs and discovery of the associations between the generated parameters is an important task that may assist and promote important decision making in healthcare. For example, in a smart home scenario where occupants’ health status is continuously monitored remotely, it is essential to provide the required assistance when an unusual or critical situation is detected in their vital sign data. In this paper, we present an efficient approach for mining the periodic patterns obtained from BSN data. In addition, we employ a correlation test on the generated patterns and introduce productive-associated periodic-frequent patterns as the set of correlated periodic-frequent items. The combination of these measures has the advantage of empowering healthcare providers and patients to raise the quality of diagnosis as well as improve treatment and smart care, especially for elderly people in smart homes. We develop an efficient algorithm named PPFP-growth (Productive Periodic-Frequent Pattern-growth to discover all productive-associated periodic frequent patterns using these measures. PPFP-growth is efficient and the productiveness measure removes uncorrelated periodic items. An experimental evaluation on synthetic and real datasets shows the efficiency of the proposed PPFP-growth algorithm, which can filter a huge number of periodic patterns to reveal only the correlated ones.

  7. Contact allergy in children with and without atopic dermatitis; which are the frequent allergens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbes, S.; Rustemeyer, T.; Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Sillevis Smitt, J.H.; Middelkamp-Hup, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on contact allergies in children are conflicting. This study aims to identify frequent contact allergens and their relevance in children with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). This will allow better identification of potential sensitizers and improve patients' care in children.

  8. "Thinspiration" vs. "fear of fat". Using prototypes to predict frequent weight-loss dieting in females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    This study examined whether frequent weight-loss dieting in females is predominantly a manifestation of being inspired to approach the cultural aesthetic thinness standard, or predominantly of a fear to avoid becoming over-fat. Female volunteers completed questionnaires concerning their perceptions

  9. A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Most Frequent Adjectives in Academic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Galip

    2017-01-01

    Based on a mega corpus, The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), this study aims to determine the most frequent adjectives used in academic texts and to investigate whether these adjectives differ in frequency and function in social sciences, technology, and medical sciences. It also identifies evaluative adjectives from a list of a…

  10. 25 CFR 115.405 - How frequently will a minor's statement of performance be mailed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How frequently will a minor's statement of performance be mailed? 115.405 Section 115.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL... minor's statement of performance be mailed? We will mail a minor's statement of performance to the...

  11. Identification of Small-Molecule Frequent Hitters from AlphaScreen High-Throughput Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorpp, Kenji; Rothenaigner, Ina; Salmina, Elena; Reinshagen, Jeanette; Low, Terence; Brenke, Jara K; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Tetko, Igor V; Gul, Sheraz; Hadian, Kamyar

    2014-06-01

    Although small-molecule drug discovery efforts have focused largely on enzyme, receptor, and ion-channel targets, there has been an increase in such activities to search for protein-protein interaction (PPI) disruptors by applying high-throughout screening (HTS)-compatible protein-binding assays. However, a disadvantage of these assays is that many primary hits are frequent hitters regardless of the PPI being investigated. We have used the AlphaScreen technology to screen four different robust PPI assays each against 25,000 compounds. These activities led to the identification of 137 compounds that demonstrated repeated activity in all PPI assays. These compounds were subsequently evaluated in two AlphaScreen counter assays, leading to classification of compounds that either interfered with the AlphaScreen chemistry (60 compounds) or prevented the binding of the protein His-tag moiety to nickel chelate (Ni(2+)-NTA) beads of the AlphaScreen detection system (77 compounds). To further triage the 137 frequent hitters, we subsequently confirmed by a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay that most of these compounds were only frequent hitters in AlphaScreen assays. A chemoinformatics analysis of the apparent hits provided details of the compounds that can be flagged as frequent hitters of the AlphaScreen technology, and these data have broad applicability for users of these detection technologies. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. The most frequently used tests for assessing executive functions in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Assis Faria

    Full Text Available There are numerous neuropsychological tests for assessing executive functions in aging, which vary according to the different domains assessed. OBJECTIVE: To present a systematic review of the most frequently used instruments for assessing executive functions in older adults with different educational levels in clinical and experimental research. METHODS: We searched for articles published in the last five years, using the PubMed database with the following terms: "neuropsychological tests", "executive functions", and "mild cognitive impairment". There was no language restriction. RESULTS: 25 articles fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The seven neuropsychological tests most frequently used to evaluate executive functions in aging were: [1] Trail Making Test (TMT Form B; [2] Verbal Fluency Test (VFT - F, A and S; [3] VFT Animals category; [4] Clock Drawing Test (CDT; [5] Digits Forward and Backward subtests (WAIS-R or WAIS-III; [6] Stroop Test; and [7] Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and its variants. The domains of executive functions most frequently assessed were: mental flexibility, verbal fluency, planning, working memory, and inhibitory control. CONCLUSION: The study identified the tests and domains of executive functions most frequently used in the last five years by research groups worldwide to evaluate older adults. These results can direct future research and help build evaluation protocols for assessing executive functions, taking into account the different educational levels and socio-demographic profiles of older adults in Brazil.

  13. Efficient frequent pattern mining algorithm based on node sets in cloud computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billa, V. N. Vinay Kumar; Lakshmanna, K.; Rajesh, K.; Reddy, M. Praveen Kumar; Nagaraja, G.; Sudheer, K.

    2017-11-01

    The ultimate goal of Data Mining is to determine the hidden information which is useful in making decisions using the large databases collected by an organization. This Data Mining involves many tasks that are to be performed during the process. Mining frequent itemsets is the one of the most important tasks in case of transactional databases. These transactional databases contain the data in very large scale where the mining of these databases involves the consumption of physical memory and time in proportion to the size of the database. A frequent pattern mining algorithm is said to be efficient only if it consumes less memory and time to mine the frequent itemsets from the given large database. Having these points in mind in this thesis we proposed a system which mines frequent itemsets in an optimized way in terms of memory and time by using cloud computing as an important factor to make the process parallel and the application is provided as a service. A complete framework which uses a proven efficient algorithm called FIN algorithm. FIN algorithm works on Nodesets and POC (pre-order coding) tree. In order to evaluate the performance of the system we conduct the experiments to compare the efficiency of the same algorithm applied in a standalone manner and in cloud computing environment on a real time data set which is traffic accidents data set. The results show that the memory consumption and execution time taken for the process in the proposed system is much lesser than those of standalone system.

  14. Exposure of Medical Students to Pharmaceutical Marketing in Primary Care Settings: Frequent and Influential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser

    2009-01-01

    It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts.…

  15. The Role of Old-growth Forests in Frequent-fire Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Binkley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic ecological concepts and forestry language regarding old growth are not well suited to frequent-fire landscapes. In frequent-fire, old-growth landscapes, there is a symbiotic relationship between the trees, the understory graminoids, and fire that results in a healthy ecosystem. Patches of old growth interspersed with younger growth and open, grassy areas provide a wide variety of habitats for animals, and have a higher level of biodiversity. Fire suppression is detrimental to these forests, and eventually destroys all old growth. The reintroduction of fire into degraded frequent-fire, old-growth forests, accompanied by appropriate thinning, can restore a balance to these ecosystems. Several areas require further research and study: 1 the ability of the understory to respond to restoration treatments, 2 the rate of ecosystem recovery following wildfires whose level of severity is beyond the historic or natural range of variation, 3 the effects of climate change, and 4 the role of the microbial community. In addition, it is important to recognize that much of our knowledge about these old-growth systems comes from a few frequent-fire forest types.

  16. 5-Fluorouracil in colorectal cancer: rationale and clinical results of frequently used schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamm, Y. J.; Wagener, D. J.; Rietjens, I. M.; Punt, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the western world. Approximately half of the patients will die of their disease because of metastases. The most active cytotoxic agent used to date is 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, clinical responses are achieved only in a minority of

  17. Frequent Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations Among Homeless People With Medicaid: Implications for Medicaid Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Chieh; Bharel, Monica; Zhang, Jianying; O'Connell, Elizabeth; Clark, Robin E

    2015-11-01

    We examined factors associated with frequent hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits among Medicaid members who were homeless. We included 6494 Massachusetts Medicaid members who received services from a health care for the homeless program in 2010. We used negative binomial regression to examine variables associated with frequent utilization. Approximately one third of the study population had at least 1 hospitalization and two thirds had 1 or more ED visits. More than 70% of hospitalizations and ED visits were incurred by only 12% and 21% of these members, respectively. Homeless individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders were at greatest risk for frequent hospitalizations and ED visits (e.g., incidence rate ratios [IRRs] = 2.9-13.8 for hospitalizations). Individuals living on the streets also had significantly higher utilization (IRR = 1.5). Despite having insurance coverage, homeless Medicaid members experienced frequent hospitalizations and ED visits. States could consider provisions under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (e.g., Medicaid expansion and Health Homes) jointly with housing programs to meet the needs of homeless individuals, which may improve the quality and cost effectiveness of care.

  18. The most frequently used tests for assessing executive functions in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Camila de Assis; Alves, Heloisa Veiga Dias; Charchat-Fichman, Helenice

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous neuropsychological tests for assessing executive functions in aging, which vary according to the different domains assessed. To present a systematic review of the most frequently used instruments for assessing executive functions in older adults with different educational levels in clinical and experimental research. We searched for articles published in the last five years, using the PubMed database with the following terms: "neuropsychological tests", "executive functions", and "mild cognitive impairment". There was no language restriction. 25 articles fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The seven neuropsychological tests most frequently used to evaluate executive functions in aging were:[1] Trail Making Test (TMT) Form B;[2] Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) - F, A and S;[3] VFT Animals category;[4] Clock Drawing Test (CDT);[5] Digits Forward and Backward subtests (WAIS-R or WAIS-III);[6] Stroop Test; and[7] Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and its variants. The domains of executive functions most frequently assessed were: mental flexibility, verbal fluency, planning, working memory, and inhibitory control. The study identified the tests and domains of executive functions most frequently used in the last five years by research groups worldwide to evaluate older adults. These results can direct future research and help build evaluation protocols for assessing executive functions, taking into account the different educational levels and socio-demographic profiles of older adults in Brazil.

  19. GRAMI: Frequent subgraph and pattern mining in a single large graph

    KAUST Repository

    Elseidy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs; it is defined as finding all subgraphs that appear frequently in a database according to a given frequency threshold. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs, or proteinprotein interactions in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. In this paper we present GRAMI, a novel framework for frequent subgraph mining in a single large graph. GRAMI undertakes a novel approach that only finds the minimal set of instances to satisfy the frequency threshold and avoids the costly enumeration of all instances required by previous approaches. We accompany our approach with a heuristic and optimizations that significantly improve performance. Additionally, we present an extension of GRAMI that mines frequent patterns. Compared to subgraphs, patterns offer a more powerful version of matching that captures transitive interactions between graph nodes (like friend of a friend) which are very common in modern applications. Finally, we present CGRAMI, a version supporting structural and semantic constraints, and AGRAMI, an approximate version producing results with no false positives. Our experiments on real data demonstrate that our framework is up to 2 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches. 2014 VLDB Endowment.

  20. GraMi: Generalized Frequent Pattern Mining in a Single Large Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Saeedy, Mohammed El

    2011-11-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs or protein-protein interaction in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. Interesting interactions in such applications may be transitive (e.g., friend of a friend). Existing methods, however, search for frequent isomorphic (i.e., exact match) subgraphs and cannot discover many useful patterns. In this paper the authors propose GRAMI, a framework that generalizes frequent subgraph mining in a large single graph. GRAMI discovers frequent patterns. A pattern is a graph where edges are generalized to distance-constrained paths. Depending on the definition of the distance function, many instantiations of the framework are possible. Both directed and undirected graphs, as well as multiple labels per vertex, are supported. The authors developed an efficient implementation of the framework that models the frequency resolution phase as a constraint satisfaction problem, in order to avoid the costly enumeration of all instances of each pattern in the graph. The authors also implemented CGRAMI, a version that supports structural and semantic constraints; and AGRAMI, an approximate version that supports very large graphs. The experiments on real data demonstrate that the authors framework is up to 3 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches.

  1. Viscosity of a classical gas: The rare-collision versus the frequent-collision regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, A G; Gorenstein, M I; Grygoriev, U V

    2017-05-01

    The shear viscosity η for a dilute classical gas of hard-sphere particles is calculated by solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation in terms of the weakly absorbed plane waves. For the rare-collision regime, the viscosity η as a function of the equilibrium gas parameters-temperature T, particle number density n, particle mass m, and hard-core particle diameter d-is quite different from that of the frequent-collision regime, e.g., from the well-known result of Chapman and Enskog. An important property of the rare-collision regime is the dependence of η on the external ("nonequilibrium") parameter ω, frequency of the sound plane wave, that is absent in the frequent-collision regime at leading order of the corresponding perturbation expansion. A transition from the frequent to the rare-collision regime takes place when the dimensionless parameter nd^{2}(T/m)^{1/2}ω^{-1} goes to zero. The scaled absorption coefficient for sound waves calculated in the rare and frequent-collision regimes is found to be in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Myenteric plexitis: A frequent feature in patients undergoing surgery for colonic diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Sidoni, Angelo; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Dore, Maria P; Binda, Gian A; Bandelloni, Roberto; Salemme, Marianna; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cadei, Moris; Manca, Alessandra; Bernardini, Nunzia; Maurer, Christoph A; Cathomas, Gieri

    2015-12-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is frequent in clinical practice, and a large number of patients each year undergo surgical procedures worldwide for their symptoms. Thus, there is a need for better knowledge of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease entity. Because patients with colonic diverticular disease have been shown to display abnormalities of the enteric nervous system, we assessed the frequency of myenteric plexitis (i.e. the infiltration of myenteric ganglions by inflammatory cells) in patients undergoing surgery for this condition. We analyzed archival resection samples from the proximal resection margins of 165 patients undergoing left hemicolectomy (60 emergency and 105 elective surgeries) for colonic diverticulitis, by histology and immunochemistry. Overall, plexitis was present in almost 40% of patients. It was subdivided into an eosinophilic (48%) and a lymphocytic (52%) subtype. Plexitis was more frequent in younger patients; and it was more frequent in those undergoing emergency surgery (50%), compared to elective (28%) surgery (p = 0.007). All the severe cases of plexitis displayed the lymphocytic subtype. In conclusion, myenteric plexitis is frequent in patients with colonic diverticular disease needing surgery, and it might be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  3. Role of smectite-rich shales in frequent foundation failures in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 6. Role of smectite-rich shales in frequent foundation failures in southeast Nigeria ... Department of Geology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Department of Geology, University of ...

  4. Frequent users of emergency services: associated factors and reasons for seeking care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marques Acosta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify the profile of frequent users of emergency services, to verify the associated factors and to analyze the reasons for the frequent use of the services. METHOD: An explanatory sequential type mixed method was adopted. Quantitative data were collected from the electronic medical records, with a sample of 385 users attended four or more times in an emergency service, during the year 2011. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 users, intentionally selected from the results of the quantitative stage. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and qualitative data using thematic analysis. RESULTS: It was found that 42.9% were elderly, 84.9% had chronic diseases, 63.5% were classified as urgent, 42.1% stayed for more than 24 hours in the service and 46.5% were discharged. Scheduled follow-up appointment, risk classification, length of stay and outcome were factors associated with frequent use. The reasons for seeking the services were mainly related to the exacerbation of chronic diseases, to easier access and concentration of technology, to the bond, and to the scheduled appointments. CONCLUSIONS: The results contribute to comprehending the repeated use of emergency services and provide additional data to plan alternatives to reduce frequent use.

  5. Cancer mortality among women frequently exposed to radiographic examinations for spinal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; Land, Charles E.; Miller, Jeremy S.; Stovall, Marilyn; Lonstein, John E.; Doody, Michele M.

    2010-01-01

    We studied cancer mortality in a cohort of 5,573 women with scoliosis and other spine disorders who were diagnosed between 1912 and 1965 and were exposed to frequent diagnostic X-ray procedures. Patients were identified from medical records in 14 orthopedic medical centers in the United States and

  6. Occupational Portrayal of Men and Women on the Most Frequently Mentioned Television Shows of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Stephen A.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of male vs. female occupational portrayals in terms of occupational prestige on the six television shows most frequently mentioned by preschool children. The following shows were viewed and analyzed six times: Sesame Street, Bugs Bunny, Roadrunner, Batman, Flintstones, and Happy Days.…

  7. Food for Thought: Frequent Interracial Dining Experiences as a Predictor of Students' Racial Climate Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Maria R.; Byron, Reginald A.; Ferry, Griffin; Garcia, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study that explored factors which influenced undergraduate students' perceptions of the racial climate at a predominantly white liberal arts university in the South. Mixed methods results suggest that race, aspects of the institutional climate, and frequent interracial dining experiences in the campus cafeteria…

  8. In a Manner of Speaking: Assessing Frequent Spoken Figurative Idioms to Assist ESL/EFL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lynn E.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines criteria to define a figurative idiom, and then compares the frequent figurative idioms identified in two sources of spoken American English (academic and contemporary) to their frequency in spoken British English. This is done by searching the spoken part of the British National Corpus (BNC), to see whether they are frequent…

  9. Frequent use of opioids in patients with dementia and nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Gasse, Christiane; Astrup, Aske

    2014-01-01

    -sectional study in the entire elderly (≥65 years) population in 2010 was conducted. Opioid use among elderly with dementia (N = 35,455) was compared with elderly without (N = 870,645), taking age, sex, comorbidity, and living status into account. RESULTS: Nursing home residents (NHRs) used opioids most frequently...

  10. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  11. The Role of Frequent Short Exams in Improving Student Performance in Hybrid Global Business Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, George; Whiting, Anita

    2018-01-01

    The authors investigate whether frequent in class exams can improve the performance of students in hybrid global business courses. An experiment was conducted in three hybrid sections of a global business course exposing students to short in class exams. The expectation of a short exam forces students to watch the online lectures and study the…

  12. Effectiveness of Interventions to Decrease Emergency Department Visits by Adult Frequent Users: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jessica; Kirkland, Scott W; Rawe, Erin; Ospina, Maria B; Vandermeer, Ben; Campbell, Sandy; Rowe, Brian H

    2017-01-01

    Frequent emergency department (ED) users are high-risk and high-resource-utilizing patients. This systematic review evaluates effectiveness of interventions targeting adult frequent ED users in reducing visit frequency and improving patient outcomes. An a priori protocol was published in PROSPERO. Two independent reviewers screened, selected, rated quality, and extracted data. Third-party adjudication resolved disagreements. Rate ratios of post- versus pre-intervention ED visits were calculated. Data sources were from a comprehensive search that included seven databases and the gray literature. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies included experimental studies assessing the effect of interventions on frequent users' ED visits and patient-oriented outcomes. A total of 6,865 citations were identified and 31 studies included. Designs were noncontrolled (n = 21) and controlled (n = 4) before-after studies and randomized controlled trials (n = 6). Frequent user definitions varied considerably and risk of bias was moderate to high. Studies examined general frequent users or those with psychiatric comorbidities, chronic disease, or low socioeconomic status or the elderly. Interventions included case management (n = 18), care plans (n = 8), diversion strategies (n = 3), printout case notes (n = 1), and social work visits (n = 1). Post- versus pre-intervention rate ratios were calculated for 25 studies and indicated a significant visit decrease in 21 (84%) of these studies. The median rate ratio was 0.63 (interquartile range = 0.41 to 0.71), indicating that the general effect of the interventions described was to decrease ED visits post-intervention. Significant visit decreases were found for a majority of studies in subgroup analyses based on 6- or 12-month follow-up, definition thresholds, clinical frequent user subgroups, and intervention types. Studies reporting homelessness found consistent improvements in stable housing. Overall, interstudy

  13. Risk factors for frequent high alcohol consumption among Swedish secondary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafström, Martin; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Larsson, Stig

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact and possible causal interrelationships of psychological, psychosocial and socioeconomic factors on frequent high consumption of alcoholic beverages in a Swedish secondary-school student population. A cross-sectional study via questionnaire was administered to 1,384 high school students in Trelleborg, Sweden, from 1999 to 2001 (658 boys, 726 girls; response rates, 84.6% in 1999, 89.3% in 2000 and 91.7% in 2001). Logistic regression analyzed the relationship between various risk factors and frequent high alcohol consumption. Interest in trying drugs was the strongest indicator for frequent high alcohol consumption, after adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and psychosocial risk factors (boys: odds ratio (OR) = 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5-6.0; girls: OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.8-3.9). This variable also had the highest population-attributable fraction (PAF; boys = 39%, girls = 29%). High purchasing power increased the risk of frequent high alcohol consumption (boys: OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0; PAF = 25%; girls: OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3; PAF = 16%). The association between high alcohol consumption and psychosocial factors differed by gender. Participation in organized team sports was associated with increased risk among boys (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 2.0-4.7; PAF = 32%), but not girls (OR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7-1.5; PAF = 0%). Parental acceptance of alcohol consumption was more important for the latter (girls: OR =1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3; PAF = 27%; boys: OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.1; PAF = 21%). Psychological, psychosocial and socioeconomic elements were independent risk factors for frequent high alcohol consumption. Discrepancies in risk factor patterns between boys and girls suggest alternate approaches be considered in interventiods.

  14. Oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations following controlled smoked cannabis in chronic frequent and occasional smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Desrosiers, Nathalie; Barnes, Allan J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-10-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an alternative biological matrix for monitoring cannabis intake in drug testing, and drugged driving (DUID) programs, but OF cannabinoid test interpretation is challenging. Controlled cannabinoid administration studies provide a scientific database for interpreting cannabinoid OF tests. We compared differences in OF cannabinoid concentrations from 19 h before to 30 h after smoking a 6.8% THC cigarette in chronic frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. OF was collected with the Statsure Saliva Sampler™ OF device. 2D-GC-MS was used to quantify cannabinoids in 357 OF specimens; 65 had inadequate OF volume within 3 h after smoking. All OF specimens were THC-positive for up to 13.5 h after smoking, without significant differences between frequent and occasional smokers over 30 h. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) had short median last detection times (2.5-4 h for CBD and 6-8 h for CBN) in both groups. THCCOOH was detected in 25 and 212 occasional and frequent smokers' OF samples, respectively. THCCOOH provided longer detection windows than THC in all frequent smokers. As THCCOOH is not present in cannabis smoke, its presence in OF minimizes the potential for false positive results from passive environmental smoke exposure, and can identify oral THC ingestion, while OF THC cannot. THC ≥ 1 μg/L, in addition to CBD ≥ 1 μg/L or CBN ≥ 1 μg/L suggested recent cannabis intake (≤13.5 h), important for DUID cases, whereas THC ≥ 1 μg/L or THC ≥ 2 μg/L cutoffs had longer detection windows (≥30 h), important for workplace testing. THCCOOH windows of detection for chronic, frequent cannabis smokers extended beyond 30 h, while they were shorter (0-24 h) for occasional cannabis smokers.

  15. Frequent marijuana use, binge drinking and mental health problems among undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Diana R; Hart, Carl L; McNeil, Michael P; Silver, Rae; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-09-01

    In light of the rapidly changing legal status of marijuana in the U.S., there has been increased interest in the potentially adverse outcomes of heavy marijuana use among young persons. The goal of this study was to investigate frequent marijuana use among undergraduates, and its association with the use of illicit substances, mental health problems, and stress. Undergraduates from one university in the Northeast were surveyed using a questionnaire derived from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (N = 1,776). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between frequency of marijuana use and other substance use, binge drinking, negative consequences of drinking, mental health problems, and perceived stress. Analyses were adjusted for demographics differences such as gender, race, year in school, and sorority/fraternity membership. Approximately 1 in 12 undergraduates (8.5%) reported using marijuana more than 10 days in the past month. Frequent marijuana use was associated with increased likelihood of other substance use and alcohol-related negative outcomes. Marijuana use was associated with increased reports of anxiety, and frequent use was associated with depression and substance use problems. Perceived stress was not associated with marijuana use. These findings, indicating that frequent use is related to depression, other substance use and negative outcomes, contribute to our understanding of marijuana use among undergraduates. Given the relatively high prevalence of marijuana use among young persons, future studies should seek to uncover potentially causal relationships between frequent marijuana use and a variety of negative outcomes. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Predictors of frequent exacerbations in (ex)smoking and never smoking adults with severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, Guus A; de Groot, Jantina C; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B; Ten Brinke, Anneke; Weersink, Els J; Bel, Elisabeth H

    2016-09-01

    Persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation is an important driver for asthma exacerbations in non-smokers with asthma. Whether eosinophilic inflammation is also a predictor of asthma exacerbations in (ex)smokers is not known. The aim was to investigate factors associated with frequent exacerbations in never smokers and (ex)smokers with asthma. (Ex)smoking (n = 83) and never smoking (n = 70) patients with uncontrolled asthma despite high dose asthma medication (GINA treatment step 4-5) were selected from a cohort of 571 adult-onset asthma patients. Clinical, functional and inflammatory parameters were used in multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with frequent exacerbations (≥3 oral corticosteroid (OCS) bursts in the previous year). Frequent exacerbations in (ex)smokers were independently associated with ICS dose (OR 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1-1.3) and blood neutrophil count (OR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.2-2.1). In never smokers frequent exacerbations were independently associated with blood eosinophil count (OR 18.9, 95%CI: 1.8-202.1). This study shows that never smoking and (ex)smoking patients with severe asthma have different predictors of frequent exacerbations: higher blood neutrophils in (ex)smokers versus higher blood eosinophils in never smokers. This suggests that different types of systemic background inflammation play a role in the aetiology of exacerbations in these patients. Netherlands Trial Register: NTR2217, NTR1846 and NTR1838. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Delayed graft function: a frequent but still unsolved problem in renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarc, Ilan; Garrigue, Valérie; Delmas, Sylvie; Deleuze, Sébastien; Chong, Guillaume; Mourad, Georges

    2005-12-01

    Delayed graft function (DGF) is a frequent and well-known complication of renal transplantation, which occurs in 30% of cadaver kidney allografts. It has an economic cost that is the result of prolonged patient hospitalization and the need for hemodialysis sessions; it also increases the risk of acute allograft rejection and may affect long-term graft survival. Lots of risk factors were identified, like donor hemodynamic compromise or prolonged cold ischemia time; however, incidence of DGF remains high due to the frequent use of marginal donors due to organ shortage. Recent advances in the pathophysiology of DGF point the importance of the ischemia-reperfusion injury mechanisms and some therapeutics that may reduce them are under investigation, like the use of new solutions to improve organ preservation and the use of some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  18. [Which are the most frequently occurring enteropathogenic bacteria in clinical practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, M; Gualzata, M D; Hollfelder, R; Viollier, A F; Viollier, M; Viollier, E H

    1988-12-10

    Diarrhea is an increasingly frequent clinical finding in Swiss medical practice. One reason is the volume of tourism in countries with different climatic and social circumstances. To obtain an overview of the enteropathogenic bacteria spectrum as a cause of diarrhea, we analyzed 11,163 stool specimens from a representative group of patients throughout Switzerland. Enteropathogenic bacteria were found in 15.2% of all specimens; 50% were Campylobacter jejuni/coli, 35% Salmonella spp., 8% Aeromonas hydrophila group, 4% Shigella spp. and 3% Yersinia enterocolitica. This distribution is taken for all age groups and for both sexes. In the infant age there was a maximum evidence of enteropathogenic bacteria of the female sex. In childhood this maximum concerned to the male sex. Patients older than fifty had no positive stool specimens. As expected the most frequent positive stool specimens were in summer.

  19. Communication Assessment of the Most Frequented Breast Cancer Websites: Evaluation of Design and Theoretical Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Pamela; Smith, Sandi; Munday, Samantha; LaPlante, Carolyn

    2008-07-01

    The internet is a prominent source of health information for the public. This research evaluated both basic use and design tenets and the presence of theoretical components to motivate healthy breast cancer behavior for users of the most frequented breast cancer websites. Each website was evaluated with 2 sets of questions. The first attends to the basic use and design tenets of the website. The second coding form assessed the websites use of 3 behavior change theories. The majority of the websites fared well with regards to their use of basic tenet and design principles. Theoretical components were used sparingly on the majority of websites. The most frequented breast cancer websites are currently well equipped with basic use and design tenets. However, their lack of behavioral change components is likely to impede users' motivations to protect themselves against breast cancer.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF SECRETOLYTIC THERAPY IN REHABILITATION PROGRAM IN FREQUENTLY AILING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kiselev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of rehabilitation of frequently ailing children (FAC is one of the actual problems in pediatrics. Disorders of mucosal immunity, depending on different factors including the state of mucociliary transport, play important role in formation of FAC group including patients with recurrent episodes of obstructive bronchitis. Morphological and functional unity of mucous tunic of respiratory tract allows determining the state of mucociliary clearance and effectiveness of secretolytic therapy by the state of mucosal tunic of nose and nasopharynx (it is the most accessible mucosal tunic for the objective examination. Specified rates of time of mucociliary transport in different groups of FAC are presented in this article. An effectiveness of mucoregulatory medication ambroxol in complex treatment of FAC with adenoids and recurrent episodes of obstructive bronchitis, and advisability of its prolonged (14–18 days use for the recovery of disturbed system of mucociliary transport were described in this article.Key words: frequently ailing children, somatotype, mucociliary clearance, treatment.

  1. Approximating Frequent Items in Asynchronous Data Stream over a Sliding Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Leung Chan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an asynchronous data stream, the data items may be out of order with respect to their original timestamps. This paper studies the space complexity required by a data structure to maintain such a data stream so that it can approximate the set of frequent items over a sliding time window with sufficient accuracy. Prior to our work, the best solution is given by Cormode et al. [1], who gave an O (1/ε log W log (εB/ log W min {log W, 1/ε} log |U|- space data structure that can approximate the frequent items within an ε error bound, where W and B are parameters of the sliding window, and U is the set of all possible item names. We gave a more space-efficient data structure that only requires O (1/ε log W log (εB/ logW log log W space.

  2. A Parallel Approach for Frequent Subgraph Mining in a Single Large Graph Using Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengcai Qiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequent subgraph mining (FSM plays an important role in graph mining, attracting a great deal of attention in many areas, such as bioinformatics, web data mining and social networks. In this paper, we propose SSiGraM (Spark based Single Graph Mining, a Spark based parallel frequent subgraph mining algorithm in a single large graph. Aiming to approach the two computational challenges of FSM, we conduct the subgraph extension and support evaluation parallel across all the distributed cluster worker nodes. In addition, we also employ a heuristic search strategy and three novel optimizations: load balancing, pre-search pruning and top-down pruning in the support evaluation process, which significantly improve the performance. Extensive experiments with four different real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing GraMi (Graph Mining algorithm by an order of magnitude for all datasets and can work with a lower support threshold.

  3. Estimated Bioaccessibility to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from Frequently Consumed Dried Fruits in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Rahimzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine levels of oral bioaccessibility of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF from frequently consumed dried fruits in Iran. Fifty samples from frequently consumed types of dried fruits were analyzed for moisture, acidity and HMF content before and after in vitro digestion. Besides, bioaccessibility of HMF in dried fruits using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestive model and HMF intake from dried fruits based on consumption of each dried fruit groups wasdetermined. The mean estimated intake of HMF was 72.90 mg/kg and the maximum intake was 240.23 mg/kg for fruit bread. The mean bioaccessibility was 60.26%. There was a correlation between HMF and acid content of fruit bread (r= 0.98, P<0.05. In conclusion, the HMF levels in dried fruits remains high even after the in vitro digestion.

  4. Frequent flyer business travelers. The role of the occupational health nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Olga S; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S

    2005-03-01

    When managing frequent flyer business travelers, occupational health nurses focus on health promotion and health protection goals. The three types of prevention (i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary) follow a timeline beginning with complete prevention, and proceeding through and ending with management of a disease process. Occupational health nurses design and implement practice strategies based on this progression. Travel health nursing is rapidly expanding as the number of travelers, immunizations, and modes of transportation increase. Physicians focus on disease, industrial hygienists focus on hazard exposure, and safety professionals address occupational issues related to illnesses and injuries. Occupational health nurses are the professionals who focus on all three areas, in addition to health promotion and health protection. Frequent flyer business travelers have specific and complex needs that occupational health nurses are in a unique position to address.

  5. [Metachronous Bilateral Testicular Tumors with Frequently Recurrent Hydrocele : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Satoshi; Sakka, Shotaro; Endo, Tsuyoshi; Komine, Manabu; Sakata, Akiko; Tsutsumi, Masakazu; Kawai, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of metachronous bilateral testicular tumors combined with hydrocele. A 46-year-old male presented with frequently recurrent left hydrocele. His medical history included a stage IIA right testicular tumor,which had been treated with right high orchiectomy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection 22 years ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hydrocele and a low intensity area in the left testis,and the patient underwent left high orchiectomy. After cytological examination of the hydrocele it was categorized as class V,and after a pathological study it was diagnosed as seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. Since postoperative computed tomography showed lung metastasis,treatment with bleomycin,etoposide,and cisplatin (BEP) was indicated. Three courses of BEP produced a complete response. No recurrent testicular tumor was seen at 3 months after the BEP therapy. A metachronous testicular tumor should be considered in patients with a history of testicular tumors who frequently develop recurrent hydrocele.

  6. Frequent nonprescription stimulant use and risky behaviors in college students: the role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Adam M; Graziano, Paulo A; Balkhi, Amanda M; McNamara, Joseph P H; Cottler, Linda B; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. A sample of 555 college students was collected between August 2010 and February 2012. Students completed several self-report measures assessing their drug use history, attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms, temperament, and risky behaviors beyond drug use. Those who reported more frequent NPSU were more likely to engage in high-risk behavior across all 4 domains studied. Further, effortful control abilities partially mediated the link between NPSU and risky behaviors. These results highlight the associated risks of frequent NPSU for college students as well as provide future directions for examining effortful control as a potentially important mechanism linking NPSU to other risky behaviors.

  7. Retrieval program system of Chinese Evaluated (frequently useful) Nuclear Decay Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Zhou Chunmei

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese Evaluated (frequently useful) Nuclear Decay Database has been set up in MICRO-VAX-11 computer at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC). For users' convenience, the retrieval program system of the database is written. Retrieval can be carried out for one nucleus or multi-nucleus. The retrieved results can be displayed on terminal screen or output to M3081 printer and laser printer in ENSDF format, table report or scheme diagrams

  8. BAGE Hypomethylation Is an Early Event in Colon Transformation and Is Frequent in Histologically Advanced Adenomas

    OpenAIRE

    Lana, Erica; Brun, Marie-Elisabeth; Rivals, Isabelle; Selves, Janick; Kirzin, Sylvain; Lutsyk, Andriy P.; Gordiyuk, Vasily V.; Bibeau, Frédéric; Rynditch, Alla; Sario, Albertina De

    2009-01-01

    We showed earlier that BAGE (B melanoma antigen) loci are hypermethylated in normal tissues and hypomethylated in 98% of human cancers. More recently, we provided evidence that hypomethylation of BAGE loci represents an informative marker for colon cancer detection. In this study, we show that hypomethylation of BAGE loci was an early event that occurred in 43% of colorectal adenomas. Interestingly, hypomethylation of BAGE loci was frequent (50%) in tubulo-villous and villous adenomas, these ...

  9. Impact of frequent evaluations in English in Modern Operating Systems lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Dasiel Alberto Pérez Suárez; Noichel Juan Hernández; Bertha Margarita Pérez Morilla

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the impact that frequent evaluations in English in Modern Operating Systems classes have over the students at the University of Informatics Sciences. The research allo wed showing that, despite of the initially rejection of the students, they gradually assimilated the importance of English in their future profession. This had a positive impact on English language study in order to solve academic problems by raising the academic performance and the self - confidence level ...

  10. A frequent tyrosinase gene mutation in classic, tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism.

    OpenAIRE

    Giebel, L B; Strunk, K M; King, R A; Hanifin, J M; Spritz, R A

    1990-01-01

    We have identified a tyrosinase gene mutation in several patients with classic, tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism. This mutation, which results in a proline----leucine substitution at codon 81 of the tyrosinase polypeptide (EC 1.14.18.1), was observed in 20% (6 of 30) of oculocutaneous albinism alleles from independent probands, but it was not observed in any normal individuals. This mutation thus appears to be a frequent cause of tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism.

  11. The 5000 most frequent words in the official textbooks of mexican basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Agustín Varela Barraza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper briefly describes the importance of the word's frequency lists used in school textbooks on the regulation of vocabulary. In addition its frequent use in various fields of knowledge is indicated. According with the classical definition of the Royal Spanish Language Academy, our aim is show the 2,000 mostly used words found in the official texts of basic education in Mexico are presented.

  12. Coital frequency and infertility: which male factors predict less frequent coitus among infertile couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Nathan; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Spencer, Leia; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-08-01

    To determine the coital frequency among infertile couples and which factors are associated with less frequent coitus. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-level male infertility clinic. A total of 1,298 infertile men. Administration of computer-based survey, semen analysis, and serum hormone evaluation. Monthly coital frequency. A total of 1,298 patients presented to clinic for infertility consultation and completed the computer-based survey. The median male age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-39 years) and the median duration of infertility was 2 years (IQR 1-4 years) before consultation. Median monthly coital frequency was seven (IQR 5-10; range 0-40); 24% of couples were having intercourse ≤ 4 times per month. Overall, 0.6%, 2.7%, 4.8%, 5.8%, and 10.8% of the men reported having intercourse 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times per month, respectively. When simultaneously taking into account the influence of age, libido, erectile function, and semen volume on coital frequency, older patients had 1.05 times higher odds (per year of age) of less frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.08). In addition, patients with better erectile function had 1.12 times higher odds (per point on Sexual Health Inventory for Men scale) of more frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.18). Similar to the general population, most infertile couples report having coitus more than four times per month. Older male age and erectile dysfunction are independent risk factors for less frequent coitus among infertile men, which could have an impact on fertility. Coital frequency should be considered in infertility assessments. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Input doses for patients undergoing frequent X-rays tests at policlinics in Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, D.G.; Borroto, M.; De la Mora, R.; Borras, C.

    1998-01-01

    This work gives results from the input dose for a reference patient in eight radiographic projections frequently employed at policlinics from Havana City. Its determination was achieved by measuring free air exposure in the ionization chamber. It also shows results on image quality evaluations for one radiographic projection. The study integrated a quality control project on X-ray diagnostic equipment carried out at a municipality from Havana City

  14. [Urinary infection in patients with neurogenic bladder: patterns of resistance to the most frequent uropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cullerés, G; Planells-Romeo, I; Martinez de Salazar-Muñoz, P; Conejero-Sugrañes, J

    2012-09-01

    To analyze the most frequent causes and resistances of the uropathogens in patients affected by neurogenic bladder. A total of 284 patients, in whom a total of 284 urinary cultures were performed, were included. Of these, 106 came from patients with neurological injuries, 28 from a non-neurogenic control group, 75 from patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of our Hospital and 75 patients who came into the emergency room with the symptoms of an acute urinary tract infection. A quantitative urine culture was performed in a chromogenic media and the resistances of all urine cultures that were positive for one or two micro-organisms were identified and studied. A total of 67% of the patients with neurological injuries had positive urine cultures compared to 25% of control group patients. The urine cultures of patients admitted into the ICU and those of the Emergency Room group were 100% positive, since the first 75 positive urine cultures were selected for the study. E.coli was the most-frequently microorganism isolated in the group of neurological patients, as well as among the patients from the Emergency Room and from the control group. In the ICU, the most-frequently isolated micro-organism was Enterococcus spp. (19.4%), followed by P. aeruginosa (16.5%). The study of resistances in general E. coli has high rates of resistance to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole and, although to a lesser degree to ciprofloxacin. E. coli is the micro-organism most frequently isolated among all of the groups except in the ICU, where it is surpassed by Enterococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa. The resistances among the four population groups studied have different features, overall showing a low rate of resistance to nitrofurantoin and especially to fosfomycin, observed in patients from the Emergency Room or admitted to the ICU and neurological patients. Copyright © 2011 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. ?Non-dipping? is equally frequent in narcoleptic patients and in patients with insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Sieminski, Mariusz; Partinen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a neurological sleep disorder characterized by very low or undetectable concentration of hypocretin-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has been recently found that patients with NC have disturbed circadian pattern of blood pressure, with more frequent non-dipping, compared to healthy controls. It has been hypothesized that lack of hypocretin may lead to increase in nocturnal blood pressure. This increase may result also from disturbed sleep architecture regardl...

  16. Small and frequent disasters due to climate variability and change: an accumulative development problem

    OpenAIRE

    Marulanda, Mabel C.; Cardona, Omar. D.; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Small disasters contrary to the extreme and extraordinary events are very often not visible at the national level and their effects are not relevant from a macro-economic point of view. They usually affect the livelihoods of poor people in rural areas and small municipalities, perpetuating their level of poverty and human insecurity as factors of social vulnerability. Risk regarding small disasters frequently is not considered as relevant, nevertheless due to their accumulated impact and recu...

  17. Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiwat Tantarangsee

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study are 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the cours...

  18. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene...

  19. Citation classics in nursing journals: the top 50 most frequently cited articles from 1956 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eliza L Y; Tam, Wilson W S; Wong, Faye C Y; Cheung, Annie W L

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the impact of individual journal articles provides information for understanding trends in science and translation of findings on practice. Citation analysis is an important way to highlight the contributions of individual author/investigator and journals on nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to identify the most frequently cited articles published in nursing journals from 1956 to 2011. The Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched for citations through 2011 to articles published in the 89 nursing journals listed on the Journal Citation Reports (2010 edition). The number of citations, topic, countries, and institutions of origin based on the first author affiliation, year of publication, study design, publishing journal, journal country, and journal impact factor were noted. The most frequently cited articles published in the 89 nursing journals from 1956 to 2011 were identified. The top 50 most frequently cited articles were published in 10 nursing journals between 1970 and 2005. The top cited article received 784 citations. The most common topics were methodology for qualitative studies, validation procedures for tool development, and nursing care and practices in cancer and mental health. The most common study designs were reviews including meta-analysis and instrument validation. Most of the top 50 cited articles were published from 1986 to 1995. The findings provide insights into priorities and trends in nursing research and translational science.

  20. A menudo / -ear: frequentative verbs in the Vocabulario (1513 by Nebrija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Vidal Díez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the particle of the metalanguage a menudo with which Nebrija accompanies some words of the revised Vocabulario (1513. In Spanish, this expression is used to denote frequentatives or iterative verbs. The analysis will show whether the metalanguage refers to the entry or to the definition. As has been previously demonstrated, the structure of the dictionary in many cases follows the Latin term. We will discuss the nature of the lexical items’ structure and how we expect it to be used. We also analyse the frequentative verbs ending in -ear which appear in the dictionary, as well as their definitions, in order to determine whether they are equivalent to the verbs studied before, i.e. those marked with the expression a menudo. The study will evidence the methodology underlying the Vocabulario in the area of frequentative verbs. It is important to remember that Nebrija’s dictionaries (the Dictionarium latinum-hispanicum and the Vocabulario de romance en latín were designed to translate Latin into Romance or vice versa. Therefore, the aspectual nuance of the verbs was absolutely necessary for a correct interpretation of the texts.

  1. Mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis frequently remains unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljula, Jussi; Cygnel, Hanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Tuomivaara, Veli; Karttunen, Vesa; Karttunen, Ari; Hillbom, Matti

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in subjects with craniofacial fractures are usually diagnosed by emergency room physicians. We investigated how often TBI remains unrecorded in these subjects, and whether diagnostic accuracy has improved after the implementation of new TBI guidelines. All subjects with craniofacial fractures admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 and in 2007 were retrospectively identified. New guidelines for improving the diagnostic accuracy of TBI were implemented between 2000 and 2006. Clinical symptoms of TBI were gathered from notes on hospital charts and compared to the recorded diagnoses at discharge. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for TBI to remain unrecorded. Of 194 subjects with craniofacial fracture, 111(57%) had TBI, 40 in 1999 and 71 in 2007. Fifty-one TBIs (46%) remained unrecorded at discharge, 48 being mild and 3 moderate-to-severe. Subjects with unrecorded TBI were significantly less frequently referred to follow-up visits. Failures to record the TBI diagnosis were less frequent (29/71, 41%) in 2007 than in 1999 (22/40, 55%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most significant independent predictor for this failure was the clinical specialty (other than neurology/neurosurgery) of the examining physician (palcohol intoxication did not hamper the diagnosis of TBI. TBIs remain frequently unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures. Recording of mild TBI slightly but insignificantly improved after the implementation of new guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A multidisciplinary team case management approach reduces the burden of frequent asthma admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Hannah; Davis, Jenny; Evans, Sian; Flower, Laura; Tan, Andrew; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J

    2016-07-01

    Up to 10% of asthmatics have "difficult asthma"; however, they account for 80% of asthma-related expenditure and run the highest risk of acute severe exacerbations. An estimated 75% of admissions for asthma are avoidable. Guidelines advise that these patients be managed by an experienced specialist multidisciplinary team (MDT). We aimed to assess the impact of a case management strategy delivered via specialist MDTs on acute healthcare utilisation of patients with frequent asthma admissions. An MDT (consultant, specialist nurse, physiotherapist and psychologist) case management strategy was introduced in 2010 at University Hospital Southampton Foundation Trust (Southampton, UK) to support patients with frequent asthma admissions during admission and then in clinic. To assess efficacy, we systematically searched the hospital database for patients acutely admitted for asthma on two or more occasions in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Data were collected retrospectively covering patient demographics, admission details, asthma severity and comorbidity. From 2010 to 2012, 84 patients were admitted on two or more occasions per year (80% female, mean body mass index 31 kg·m -2 and 55% psychological comorbidity). After introducing an MDT approach repeat asthma admissions fell by 33% from 127 in 2010 to 84 in 2012 (p=0.0004). In addition, bed days fell by 52% from 895 in 2010 to 430 in 2010 (p=0.015). An MDT case management approach significantly reduces hospitalisation in difficult asthma patients with prior frequent admission.

  3. Frequent coconut milk intake increases the risk of vascular disease in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Tuminah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Coconut milk is an essential ingredient of the Indonesian cuisine. In view of its saturated fatty acid content, coconut milk has frequently been blamed as a cause of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine any association between coconut milk intake and vascular disease among adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2012 on adults aged 25-65 years. Self-reported health and nutritional data were collected by means of questionnaire-based interviews, with the aid of 3-D food models. Medical data comprised blood pressure and anthropometry (waist circumference and body mass index, neurological status, ECG, blood glucose and lipid profile. Data analysis was done using multiple logistic regression. Results A total of 4,187 respondents fullfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequent coconut milk intake (>3 times/week significantly increased the risk of vascular disease by 1.3-fold compared with infrequent coconut milk intake (<2 times/week (OR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.11-1.60; p=0.002 after controlling for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and stress. The influence of coconut milk intake on vascular disease risk was lower than that of age, gender, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Frequent coconut milk intake increased the risk of vascular disease in adults. Further investigations are needed about the effect of coconut milk intake on noncommunicable diseases.

  4. Improving continuity of care for frequent users of emergency departments: service user and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremski, Daniel; Harris, Deborah Wise; Kahan, Deborah; Pauly, Daniel; Leszcz, Molyn; O'Campo, Patricia; Wasylenki, Donald; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This study explored service user and provider perspectives on barriers and facilitators of continuity of care for frequent users of emergency departments (ED) participating in a brief intensive case management intervention. We conducted semistructured interviews with 20 frequent ED users with mental health and addiction challenges participating in a brief intensive case management intervention, eliciting experiences of care and care continuity. We interviewed 13 service providers working with this population. We used thematic analysis to determine shared and unique barriers and facilitators to continuity of care, and we gave priority to themes reported by both service users and providers. Within fragmented systems of care, strong working relationships between service users and providers, timely access to coordinated services and seamless transitions to needed supports increased perceived care continuity. Barriers to continuity of care included difficulties engaging this population, short intervention duration and the lack of a single accountable service provider to address health and social needs. Although brief intensive case management interventions have the potential to improve continuity of care for frequent ED users, continuity of care, especially for people with complex health and social needs, may be compromised by program and personal characteristics as well as lack of broader system integration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors contributing to frequent attendance to the emergency department of a remote Northern Territory hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Simon; Shannon, Geordan; Yao, Anthony; Sargent, William; McVeigh, Michael F

    2016-02-15

    To determine the clinical and environmental variables associated with frequent presentations by adult patients to a remote Australian hospital emergency department (ED) for reasons other than chronic health conditions. Unmatched case-control study of all adult patients attending Katherine Hospital ED between 1 January and 31 December 2012. Cases were defined as frequent attenders (FAs) without a chronic health condition who presented to the ED six or more times during the 12-month period. A single presentation was randomly selected for data collection. Controls were patients who presented on only one occasion. Basic demographic data were collected, including clinical outcomes, Indigenous status, living arrangements, and whether alcohol and violence contributed to the presentation. Environmental variables were extracted from the Bureau of Meteorology database and mapped to each presentation. FAs were much more likely to be homeless (odds ratio [OR], 16.4; P homelessness and the involvement of alcohol, but alcohol was more likely to contribute to presentation by non-Aboriginal FAs who had stable living conditions. FAs and non-FAs had similar needs for emergency medical care, with strikingly higher death rates than the national average in both groups. As a result of this study, Katherine Hospital has initiated a Frequent Attender Pathway that automatically triggers a dedicated ED service for those at greatest clinical risk. Homelessness is a serious problem in the Northern Territory, and is associated with poor health outcomes.

  6. Implicit alcohol-relaxation associations in frequently drinking adolescents with high levels of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemink, E; van Lier, P A C; Meeus, W; Raaijmakers, S F; Wiers, R W

    2015-06-01

    Most individuals start drinking during adolescence, a period in which automatically activated or implicit cognitive processes play an important role in drinking behavior. The aim of this study was to examine personality-related antecedents of implicit associations between alcohol and positive or negative reinforcement motives in adolescents. It was hypothesized that frequent alcohol consumption in combination with specific personality traits (neuroticism for negative reinforcement and extraversion for positive reinforcement) could predict specific implicit alcohol-relaxation and arousal associations. Participants completed a brief Big Five Questionnaire and alcohol use questions at T1. Approximately eight months later (T2), two Brief Implicit Association Tests were completed to assess alcohol-relaxation (negative reinforcement, n=222) and alcohol-arousal (positive reinforcement, n=248) associations. Results indicated that frequently drinking adolescents who scored high on neuroticism had the strongest alcohol-relaxation associations eight months later. No significant predictors were observed for alcohol-arousal associations. The current study identified precursors of strong implicit alcohol-relaxation associations (i.e., high levels of neuroticism in combination with frequent alcohol consumption) which can inform future prevention and intervention studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid proportion comparison with spatial arrays of frequently used meaningful visual symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Naoto; Kimura, Eiji; Goryo, Ken

    2017-11-01

    It has been shown that when two arrays of Arabic numerals were briefly presented, observers could accurately indicate which array contained the larger number of a target numeral. This study investigated whether this rapid proportion comparison can be extended to other meaningful symbols that share some of notable properties of Arabic numerals. We tested mainly several Japanese Kanji letters, each of which represents a meaning and can work as a word. Using physically identical stimulus sets that could be interpreted as different types of letters, Experiment 1 first confirmed the rapid proportion comparison with Arabic numerals for Japanese participants. Experiment 2 showed that the rapid proportion comparison can be extended to Kanji numerals. Experiment 3 successfully demonstrated that rapid proportion judgments can be found with non-quantitative Kanji letters that are used frequently. Experiment 4 further demonstrated the rapid proportion comparison with frequently used meaningful non-letter symbols (gender icons). The rapid processing cannot be attributed to fluent processing of familiar items, because it was not found with familiar phonograms (Japanese Kana letters). These findings suggest that the rapid proportion comparison can be commonly found with frequently used meaningful symbols, even though their meaning is not relevant to the task.

  8. THE FREQUENT USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES/METHODS AMONG TEACHERS ACCORDING TO THE TEACHER CANDIDATES OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddes SAKALLI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to show the frequent use of teaching stratergies/methods amongteachers which has been observed by teacher candidates currently undergoing their own field/area teaching program.This study undertakes the general research model and the tools used to obtain the necessary data are personalinformation form and a questionaire. “Teachers frequent use of teaching methods/stratergies” to obtain necessarydata a 4 likert scale type of questionaire has been used. The scale developed on behalf of the researcher involves 35teaching methods/stratergies.The data obtained through 71 quetionaires where evaluated from 4 (always and 1(none as points and has been evaluated through the SPSS package program. In addition, the resultsof the data havebeen analysed through the following techniques: percentage (%, average (X and standard deviation (SS.According to the observations made by the teacher candidates the following teaching methods/stratergies wereundertaken by the teachers according to thier teaching field: lecturing, question-answer method were always used,homework, practice in the classroom, problem solving, showing and practicing methods were frequently used,project work, anaylsing example situations, debates, similarity, computer based education, observing privatetutorials, eduational games, cooperative learning, brainstroming, field trips and reflecting/miroring situations,group/team work, experiment, role play, micro-learning technique, statement, speech,meeting, display, drama,conference, formal debates, sempozium, seminar, panel, umbrella technique, forum and opposite panel

  9. Frequent gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous chromosomal regions in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hirohisa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian sex-chromosomes originated from a pair of autosomes. A step-wise cessation of recombination is necessary for the proper maintenance of sex-determination and, consequently, generates a four strata structure on the X chromosome. Each stratum shows a specific per-site nucleotide sequence difference (p-distance between the X and Y chromosomes, depending on the time of recombination arrest. Stratum 4 covers the distal half of the human X chromosome short arm and the p-distance of the stratum is ~10%, on average. However, a 100-kb region, which includes KALX and VCX, in the middle of stratum 4 shows a significantly lower p-distance (1-5%, suggesting frequent sequence exchanges or gene conversions between the X and Y chromosomes in humans. To examine the evolutionary mechanism for this low p-distance region, sequences of a corresponding region including KALX/Y from seven species of non-human primates were analyzed. Results Phylogenetic analysis of this low p-distance region in humans and non-human primate species revealed that gene conversion like events have taken place at least ten times after the divergence of New World monkeys and Catarrhini (i.e., Old World monkeys and hominoids. A KALY-converted KALX allele in white-handed gibbons also suggests a possible recent gene conversion between the X and Y chromosomes. In these primate sequences, the proximal boundary of this low p-distance region is located in a LINE element shared between the X and Y chromosomes, suggesting the involvement of this element in frequent gene conversions. Together with a palindrome on the Y chromosome, a segmental palindrome structure on the X chromosome at the distal boundary near VCX, in humans and chimpanzees, may mediate frequent sequence exchanges between X and Y chromosomes. Conclusion Gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous regions have been suggested, mainly in humans. Here, we found frequent gene conversions in the

  10. An novel frequent probability pattern mining algorithm based on circuit simulation method in uncertain biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Motif mining has always been a hot research topic in bioinformatics. Most of current research on biological networks focuses on exact motif mining. However, due to the inevitable experimental error and noisy data, biological network data represented as the probability model could better reflect the authenticity and biological significance, therefore, it is more biological meaningful to discover probability motif in uncertain biological networks. One of the key steps in probability motif mining is frequent pattern discovery which is usually based on the possible world model having a relatively high computational complexity. Methods In this paper, we present a novel method for detecting frequent probability patterns based on circuit simulation in the uncertain biological networks. First, the partition based efficient search is applied to the non-tree like subgraph mining where the probability of occurrence in random networks is small. Then, an algorithm of probability isomorphic based on circuit simulation is proposed. The probability isomorphic combines the analysis of circuit topology structure with related physical properties of voltage in order to evaluate the probability isomorphism between probability subgraphs. The circuit simulation based probability isomorphic can avoid using traditional possible world model. Finally, based on the algorithm of probability subgraph isomorphism, two-step hierarchical clustering method is used to cluster subgraphs, and discover frequent probability patterns from the clusters. Results The experiment results on data sets of the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) networks and the transcriptional regulatory networks of E. coli and S. cerevisiae show that the proposed method can efficiently discover the frequent probability subgraphs. The discovered subgraphs in our study contain all probability motifs reported in the experiments published in other related papers. Conclusions The algorithm of probability graph isomorphism

  11. Antibody deficiency in patients with frequent exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N McCullagh

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the third leading cause of death in the US, and is associated with periodic exacerbations, which account for the largest proportion of health care utilization, and lead to significant morbidity, mortality, and worsening lung function. A subset of patients with COPD have frequent exacerbations, occurring 2 or more times per year. Despite many interventions to reduce COPD exacerbations, there is a significant lack of knowledge in regards to their mechanisms and predisposing factors. We describe here an important observation that defines antibody deficiency as a potential risk factor for frequent COPD exacerbations. We report a case series of patients who have frequent COPD exacerbations, and who were found to have an underlying primary antibody deficiency syndrome. We also report on the outcome of COPD exacerbations following treatment in a subset with of these patients with antibody deficiency. We identified patients with COPD who had 2 or more moderate to severe exacerbations per year; immune evaluation including serum immunoglobulin levels and pneumococcal IgG titers was performed. Patients diagnosed with an antibody deficiency syndrome were treated with either immunoglobulin replacement therapy or prophylactic antibiotics, and their COPD exacerbations were monitored over time. A total of 42 patients were identified who had 2 or more moderate to severe COPD exacerbations per year. Twenty-nine patients had an underlying antibody deficiency syndrome: common variable immunodeficiency (8, specific antibody deficiency (20, and selective IgA deficiency (1. Twenty-two patients had a follow-up for at least 1 year after treatment of their antibody deficiency, which resulted in a significant reduction of COPD exacerbations, courses of oral corticosteroid use and cumulative annual dose of oral corticosteroid use, rescue antibiotic use, and hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations. This case series identifies

  12. Esomeprazole treatment of frequent heartburn: two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, David A; Traxler, Barry; Kocun, Christopher; Lind, Tore

    2014-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of a 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg for the treatment of frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications without consulting a health care provider. Adults with frequent heartburn ≥ 2 days per week in the past 4 weeks were randomly assigned to 14-day double-blind treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg once daily or placebo in 2 identical multicenter studies (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01370525, NCT01370538). The primary efficacy outcome was percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days across 14 days. Secondary efficacy outcomes included heartburn resolution, defined as heartburn ≤ 2 days over 14 days, and percentages of subjects reporting ≤ 1 day with heartburn in the first and final weeks of treatment. Subjects recorded data in daily self-assessment diaries. The percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days over 14 days was significantly higher (P esomeprazole 20 mg compared with placebo in study 1 (N = 331; 46.13% vs. 33.07%, respectively) and study 2 (N = 320; 48.00% vs 32.75%, respectively). Significantly more subjects treated with esomeprazole 20 mg had heartburn resolution over 14 days and in the first and final weeks compared with placebo. Within the first 4 days, the proportion of subjects with heartburn-free days was significantly greater with esomeprazole 20 mg versus placebo. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with a safety pattern consistent with the known profile for esomeprazole. A 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg once daily was effective for treating frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications.

  13. Most Frequently Reported Prescription Medications and Supplements in Couples Planning Pregnancy: The LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmsten, Kristin; Flores, Katrina F; Chambers, Christina D; Weiss, Lauren A; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2018-01-01

    To identify frequently reported prescription medications and supplements among couples planning pregnancy because there is a lack of descriptive information on these agents in women and men who are trying to conceive. Five hundred one couples enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Infertility and the Environment, which took place between 2005 and 2009. Participants reported prescription medications as well as prescription and over-the-counter supplements used through interviews at study enrollment and through daily dairies during the 12-month follow-up. We identified prescription medications and supplements prospectively reported by ≥1% of women and men at baseline and from daily journal information grouped into 3-month preconception follow-up intervals while couples tried for pregnancy. The 5 most reported prescription medications among women were levothyroxine (5.8%), cetirizine (2.6%), fluticasone (2.4%), escitalopram (1.8%), and fluoxetine (1.8%) and for men were lisinopril (2.0%), mometasone (2.0%), fexofenadine (1.8%), atorvastatin (1.6%), and montelukast (1.6%). The most reported supplements were multivitamins (63.3%, 43.5%) and fish oil (13.2%, 9.4%) for women and men, respectively, and prenatal vitamins (22.0%) for women. For women during the first 3 months of follow-up, prenatal vitamins (6.0%) and antibiotics (1.2%-2.6%) were among the most frequently started medications. During the next 3 months, clomiphene (4.5%) was the most frequently initiated medication. Couples trying for pregnancy reported a variety of prescription medications and supplements, and they differed by gender. Preconception guidance should address medication and supplement use to avoid potential exposures associated with adverse reproductive and perinatal outcomes.

  14. Copulatory behaviour and paternity in the American kestrel: the adaptive significance of frequent copulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel; Bird; Kuhnlein

    1998-08-01

    The adaptive significance of repeated withinpair copulations is not well understood. We analysed the copulatory behaviour of 16 pairs of solitary-nesting American kestrels, Falco sparverius, in southern Quebec (Canada), and the achieved reproductive success (paternity) of 21 kestrel families determined by DNA fingerprinting, in terms of four hypotheses. (1) The paternity assurance hypothesis, which suggests that males copulate frequently to avoid being cuckolded, was rejected because there were few extrapair copulation attempts (<1% of all copulations observed), withinpair copulations were not timed during the fertile period and mate attendance did not increase as the fertile period approached. (2) The immediate material benefits hypothesis, which suggests that females trade copulations for food, was refuted because copulations most often occurred without food transfers, especially outside the fertile period. (3) The female mate guarding of males hypothesis, which suggests that females distract their mates from other mating opportunities by copulating frequently, was rejected because extrapair copulation attempts were infrequent, male and female solicitation frequencies were similar and females did not differ in the timing or frequency of solicitations. (4) The mate assessment hypothesis, which suggests that assessment of mate quality is mediated via copulation, most closely predicted the behaviour observed since withinpair copulations were frequent outside the fertile period and at pair formation, males and females solicited similar numbers of copulations and pairs did not differ significantly in solicitation or copulation frequency. In line with this hypothesis we found that only one brood was extrapair, probably the result of mate replacement.Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  15. Association rules method and big data: Evaluating frequent medication combinations associated with fractures in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtala, Prasad S; Chyou, Te-Yuan; Held, Fabian; Le Couteur, David G; Gnjidic, Danijela

    2018-04-02

    The association rules method is a novel methodology to ascertain patterns of medication use and combinations associated with adverse drug events. The aim of this case-crossover study was to apply the association rules method to ascertain medication combinations contributing to the risk of fractures in older adults. A nationwide representative sample of New Zealanders aged ≥65 years was sourced from the pharmaceutical collection. The first-time coded diagnosis of fracture was extracted from the National Minimum Dataset. Association rule method is a data mining technique that can be used to quickly traverse big datasets to identify a combination of items that co-occur. The association rules method were applied to identify frequent 11 medication combinations in the case and the control periods (1-14 days as hazard period, with 35-day washout period), and the association of fractures with each frequent medication combination were tested by computing a matched odd ratio (OR) and its 95% CI. We identified a total of 72 184 individuals (mean age 81.5 years) from 2005 to 2014 with incident fracture and exposed to at least 1 medication of interest. The association rules method revealed codeine phosphate (aOR = 11.50, 95% CI, 7.09-15.20, concomitantly with ibuprofen), zopiclone (aOR = 2.34, 95% CI, 1.49-3.67, concomitantly with morphine) and quetiapine (OR = 1.95, 95% CI, 1.28-2.98, concomitantly with zopiclone) were associated with fractures. The association rules method identified medication exposure combinations containing psychotropic medications and codeine are frequently associated with fractures. This novel methodology applied to big data can be an important tool to ascertain medication combinations associated with adverse drug events. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid after controlled cannabis smoking in frequent and occasional smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Matthew N; Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Lee, Dayong; Mendu, Damodara R; Barnes, Allan J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-10-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an increasingly popular alternative matrix for drug testing, with cannabinoids being the most commonly identified illicit drug. Quantification of multiple OF cannabinoids and understanding differences in OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics between frequent and occasional smokers improve test interpretation. The new Oral-Eze® OF collection device has an elution buffer that stabilizes analytes and improves drug recovery from the collection pad; however, its performance has not been independently evaluated. After controlled smoking of a 6.8% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cannabis cigarette by frequent and occasional smokers, OF was collected with the Oral-Eze device for up to 30 h. Samples were analyzed for multiple cannabinoids by a validated 2D-GC-MS method. Frequent smokers had significantly greater OF THCCOOH concentrations than occasional smokers at all times, and showed positive results for a significantly longer time. We evaluated multiple cannabinoid cut-offs; the shortest last detection times were observed when THC ≥ 1 μg/L was combined with CBD or CBN ≥ 1 μg/L. With these cut-offs, last detection times(1-13.5 h) were not significantly different between groups, demonstrating suitability for short-term cannabinoid detection independent of smoking history. Cut-offs utilizing THC alone or combined with THCCOOH showed significantly different last detection times between groups. The widest detection windows were observed with THC ≥ 1 or 2 μg/L or THCCOOH ≥ 20 ng/L. Our data illustrate the effectiveness of the Oral-Eze® device for OF collection, the impact of self-administered smoked cannabis history on OF cannabinoid results, and the ability to improve interpretation and tailor OF cannabinoid cut-offs to fulfill the detection window needs of a given program. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Agitation After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Frequent Omen of Hospital Complications Associated with Worse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Michael E; Schmidt, J Michael; Mahta, Ali; Agarwal, Sachin; Roh, David J; Park, Soojin; Frey, Hans Peter; Claassen, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Agitated delirium is frequent following acute brain injury, but data are limited in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We examined incidence, risk factors, and consequences of agitation in these patients in a single-center retrospective study. We identified all patients treated with antipsychotics or dexmedetomidine from a prospective observational cohort of patients with spontaneous SAH. Agitation was confirmed by chart review. Outcomes were assessed at 12 months using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), and Lawton IADL (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) scores. Independent predictors were identified using logistic regression. From 309 SAH patients admitted between January 2011 and December 2015, 52 (17 %) developed agitation, frequently in the first 72 h (50 %) and in patients with Hunt-Hess grades 3-4 (12 % of grades 1-2, 28 % of grades 3-4, 8 % of grade 5). There was also a significant association between agitation and a history of cocaine use or prior psychiatric diagnosis. Agitated patients were more likely to develop multiple hospital complications; and in half of these patients, complications were diagnosed within 24 h of agitation onset. Agitation was associated with IADL impairment at 12 months (Lawton >8; p = 0.03, OR 2.7, 95 % CI, 1.1-6.8) in non-comatose patients (Hunt-Hess 1-4), but not with functional outcome (mRS >3), cognitive impairment (TICS ≤30), or ICU/hospital length of stay after controlling for other predictors. Agitation occurs frequently after SAH, especially in non-comatose patients with higher clinical grades. It is associated with the development of multiple hospital complications and may have an independent impact on long-term outcomes.

  18. Consistent discovery of frequent interval-based temporal patterns in chronic patients' data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shknevsky, Alexander; Shahar, Yuval; Moskovitch, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Increasingly, frequent temporal patterns discovered in longitudinal patient records are proposed as features for classification and prediction, and as means to cluster patient clinical trajectories. However, to justify that, we must demonstrate that most frequent temporal patterns are indeed consistently discoverable within the records of different patient subsets within similar patient populations. We have developed several measures for the consistency of the discovery of temporal patterns. We focus on time-interval relations patterns (TIRPs) that can be discovered within different subsets of the same patient population. We expect the discovered TIRPs (1) to be frequent in each subset, (2) preserve their "local" metrics - the absolute frequency of each pattern, measured by a Proportion Test, and (3) preserve their "global" characteristics - their overall distribution, measured by a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We also wanted to examine the effect on consistency, over a variety of settings, of varying the minimal frequency threshold for TIRP discovery, and of using a TIRP-filtering criterion that we previously introduced, the Semantic Adjacency Criterion (SAC). We applied our methodology to three medical domains (oncology, infectious hepatitis, and diabetes). We found that, within the minimal frequency ranges we had examined, 70-95% of the discovered TIRPs were consistently discoverable; 40-48% of them maintained their local frequency. TIRP global distribution similarity varied widely, from 0% to 65%. Increasing the threshold usually increased the percentage of TIRPs that were repeatedly discovered across different patient subsets within the same domain, and the probability of a similar TIRP distribution. Using the SAC principle, enhanced, for most minimal support levels, the percentage of repeating TIRPs, their local consistency and their global consistency. The effect of using the SAC was further strengthened as the minimal frequency threshold was raised. Copyright

  19. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Rudnicki, Erika; Usher, Crystal

    2017-11-13

    The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in-store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. 29.8% (n = 67) of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158) were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = -4.28 (280.8), p Breakfast cereal manufacturers need to consider reformulation of their breakfast cereals to improve their healthfulness and supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  20. Case Management Reduces Length of Stay, Charges, and Testing in Emergency Department Frequent Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Sughair

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Case management is an effective, short-term means to reduce emergency department (ED visits in frequent users of the ED. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of case management on frequent ED users, in terms of reducing ED and hospital length of stay (LOS, accrued costs, and utilization of diagnostic tests. Methods: The study consisted of a retrospective chart review of ED and inpatient visits in our hospital’s ED case management program, comparing patient visits made in the one year prior to enrollment in the program, to the visits made in the one year after enrollment in the program. We examined the LOS, use of diagnostic testing, and monetary charges incurred by these patients one year prior and one year after enrollment into case management. Results: The study consisted of 158 patients in case management. Comparing the one year prior to enrollment to the one year after enrollment, ED visits decreased by 49%, inpatient admissions decreased by 39%, the use of computed tomography imaging decreased 41%, the use of ultrasound imaging decreased 52%, and the use of radiographs decreased 38%. LOS in the ED and for inpatient admissions decreased by 39%, reducing total LOS for these patients by 178 days. ED and hospital charges incurred by these patients decreased by 5.8 million dollars, a 41% reduction. All differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Case management for frequent users of the ED is an effective method to reduce patient visits, the use of diagnostic testing, length of stay, and cost within our institution.

  1. Microbiological evaluation of bristles of frequently used toothbrushes Avaliação microbiológica das cerdas de escovas dentárias de uso frequente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso André Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brushing teeth is probably the practice of oral hygiene most common in the world; however, inadequate use can become a risk to the population health, once they may be contaminated with various microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination on toothbrush bristles using different methodologies. METHOD: We used 40 toothbrushes from healthy individuals aged 3 to 58 years. The samples were grown in test tubes containing trypticase soy broth sterile, and with the help of a tracking 0.1 μl samples were placed on plates containing sheep blood agar 5% and MacConkey agar then the samples were stored in a bacteriological incubator at 37°C for 24 hours for later analysis. It was counted the colony forming units and bacteria identification present in the brush. RESULTS: On the microbiological analysis, there was a growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus coagulase negative. CONCLUSION: According to the results presented in this study, we observed a high incidence of bacterial contamination in the brushes analyzed. The most frequent microorganisms were members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The usage time of toothbrushes may be related to contamination found and, therefore, not only good hygiene ensures the reduction of microbial load, but replacing the toothbrush can also ensure individuals better oral health.INTRODUÇÃO: a escovação de dentes é, provavelmente, a prática de higiene bucal mais comumente realizada no mundo; entretanto, o acondicionamento inadequado pode se transformar em um risco para a saúde da população, uma vez que podem estar contaminadas com vários tipos de microrganismos. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a contaminação bacteriana de cerdas de escovas dentais através de diferentes métodos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 40 escovas de dentes provenientes de indivíduos sadios, com idade entre 3 a 58 anos. As

  2. Effect of a reorganized after-hours family practice service on frequent attenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    of this reorganization on the use of services by frequent attenders (FAs). METHODS: From 1990 to 1994, methods of contact and annual costs per attender were analyzed in an ecological time-trend study based on aggregated administrative data collected from the database of the Public Health Insurance, Aarhus County......, Denmark (600,000 inhabitants). The study only included attenders ages 18 and over. FAs were defined as the group that, within each calendar year (12 months), had 4 or more contacts with the after-hours family practice service. RESULTS: FAs made up 9.5% of the attenders and accounted for more than 40...

  3. Cost of nursing most frequent procedures performed on severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Talita de Oliveira; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the mean direct cost (MDC) of the most frequent procedures performed by nursing professionals on severely burned patients in an Intensive Care Unit. Method: exploratory-descriptive quantitative single-case study. The MDC was calculated by multiplying time (timed) spent by nursing professionals in the performance of the procedures by the unit cost of direct labor, and adding the costs of material and medicine/solutions. Results: a MDC of US$ 0.65 (SD=0.36) wa...

  4. Supporting Frequent Updates in R-Trees: A Bottom-Up Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Mong Li; Hsu, Wynne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    locality. While the R-tree is the index of choice for multi-dimensional data with low dimensionality, and is thus relevant to these applications, R-tree updates are also relatively inefficient. We present a generalized bottom-up update strategy for R-trees that generalizes existing update techniques......Advances in hardware-related technologies promise to enable new data management applications that monitor continuous processes. In these applications, enormous amounts of state samples are obtained via sensors and are streamed to a database. Further, updates are very frequent and may exhibit...

  5. Frequent, Low-Intensity Fire Increases Tree Defense To Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, S.; Sala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire and bark beetles are the two largest disturbance agents in North American conifer forests and have interacted for millennia to drive forest composition, structure, and ecological processes. Recent widespread mortality in western coniferous forests due to bark beetle outbreaks have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures and drought associated with global climate change. In fire-dependent forests, fire exclusion has also led to uncharacteristically dense forests which are also thought to be more susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks due to increased drought stress in individual trees. These mortality events have spurred strong interest in the interaction of fire and bark beetles in driving forest dynamics under a changing climate. However, a fact that has not received adequate attention is whether fire exclusion in fire-dependent forests decreases allocation to tree defense, thereby making contemporary forests more prone to bark beetle outbreaks, regardless of climate and stand structure. Fire is known to increase constitutive resin production in many tree species, yet the impact of frequent fire on expression of better defended tree phenotypes has never been examined. We hypothesized that frequent, low-intensity fire increases tree resistance to bark beetle attack through systemic induced resistance. Using a combination of sampling in natural stands for which we had long-term fire history data and an experimental block design of four thinning and burning treatments, we examined the influence of fire and water stress on tree defense to determine if frequent fire increases tree defense and the degree to which water stress modulates this response. We used axial resin ducts as the measure of defense, as this is where resin is both stored and manufactured in Pinaceae. Resin duct production and density has also been shown to be a better indicator of mortality from bark beetle attacks than tree growth. Resin duct density increased after fire at all

  6. BAGE Hypomethylation Is an Early Event in Colon Transformation and Is Frequent in Histologically Advanced Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Erica; Brun, Marie-Elisabeth; Rivals, Isabelle; Selves, Janick; Kirzin, Sylvain; Lutsyk, Andriy P; Gordiyuk, Vasily V; Bibeau, Frédéric; Rynditch, Alla; De Sario, Albertina

    2009-11-18

    We showed earlier that BAGE (B melanoma antigen) loci are hypermethylated in normal tissues and hypomethylated in 98% of human cancers. More recently, we provided evidence that hypomethylation of BAGE loci represents an informative marker for colon cancer detection. In this study, we show that hypomethylation of BAGE loci was an early event that occurred in 43% of colorectal adenomas. Interestingly, hypomethylation of BAGE loci was frequent (50%) in tubulo-villous and villous adenomas, these adenomas having a high probability of being transformed into colorectal cancers.

  7. BAGE Hypomethylation Is an Early Event in Colon Transformation and Is Frequent in Histologically Advanced Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Rynditch

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We showed earlier that BAGE (B melanoma antigen loci are hypermethylated in normal tissues and hypomethylated in 98% of human cancers. More recently, we provided evidence that hypomethylation of BAGE loci represents an informative marker for colon cancer detection. In this study, we show that hypomethylation of BAGE loci was an early event that occurred in 43% of colorectal adenomas. Interestingly, hypomethylation of BAGE loci was frequent (50% in tubulo-villous and villous adenomas, these adenomas having a high probability of being transformed into colorectal cancers.

  8. Impact of frequent evaluations in English in Modern Operating Systems lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasiel Alberto Pérez Suárez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the impact that frequent evaluations in English in Modern Operating Systems classes have over the students at the University of Informatics Sciences. The research allo wed showing that, despite of the initially rejection of the students, they gradually assimilated the importance of English in their future profession. This had a positive impact on English language study in order to solve academic problems by raising the academic performance and the self - confidence level , to face the English language for professional purposes required in a career as Informatics Sciences Engineering.

  9. Conserving and Restoring Old Growth in Frequent-fire Forests: Cycles of Disruption and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Egan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available I provide a synthesis of the papers in the Special Issue, The Conservation and Restoration of Old Growth in Frequent-fire Forests of the American West. These papers - the product of an Old Growth Writing Workshop, held at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona on 18-19 April 2006 - represent the ideas of 25 workshop participants who argue for a new attitude toward managing old growth in the frequent-fire forests of the American West. Unlike the lush, old-growth rainforests of the Pacific Northwest, the dry, frequent-fire forests of the western United States evolved with surface fires that disturbed the system with such regularity that young trees were almost always killed. When saplings did survive, they grew beyond the harm of frequent surface fires and, ultimately, attained the characteristics that define old growth in these systems. This system worked well, producing old-growth trees in abundance, until the onset of Euro-American settlement in the mid- to late-19th century. The arrival of these settlers put in motion an interplay of unprecedented social, political, economic, and ecological forces (e.g., removal of Native Americans and their fire-based land management systems, overgrazing of the understory, aggressive logging, establishment of federal land management agencies, implementation of a federal fire suppression policy. These activities have culminated in 1 overly dense forested ecosystems that are now on the verge of collapse because of catastrophic fires (i.e., crown fire at the landscape level; the Rodeo-Chediski Fire and insect outbreaks, 2 the emergence of conservation-minded environmental legislation and policy, and 3 greater levels of interaction between citizens, federal agencies, and fire-prone landscapes. Recognizing the tenuous ecological situation of these forests, restoration ecologists, foresters, and others have developed ways to return historic ecological processes and lower tree densities to these forests

  10. The most frequent powdery mildews on forest woody species and their impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent fungus species known as powdery mildews, causing the diseases of forest trees, were studied. Among forest woody species, oaks are especially susceptible to powdery mildew attack, and among them pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L is highly endangered. This paper reports 49 species of powdery mildews. However, Microsphaera alphitoides has the greatest significance in forest economy, causing the decline of seedlings in nurseries and also aggravating the natural regeneration of pedunculate oak. This fungus, together with gypsy moth and honey fungus (Armillaria mellea participates in the dying of old oak trees. Powdery mildews can be successfully controlled by fungicides, and sulphur fungicides Karatan and Rubigan are especially effective.

  11. Frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling genes in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Yaoting; Guo, Guangwu; Huang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    frequently in tumors of low stages and grades, highlighting its potential role in the classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. Our results provide an overview of the genetic basis of TCC and suggest that aberration of chromatin regulation might be a hallmark of bladder cancer.......Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer. Here we sequenced the exomes of nine individuals with TCC and screened all the somatically mutated genes in a prevalence set of 88 additional individuals with TCC with different tumor stages and grades. In our study, we...

  12. Depressive symptoms are frequent among drug users, but not associated with hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone W; Fabricius, Thilde; Hjerrild, Simon

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among drug users with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey study carried out at the 2 major drug treatment centres on the island of Funen, Denmark. Participants were drug users......-infected 35%; p = 0.25). Forty-one percent (11/27) of the evaluated participants started antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among drug users, but this was not more frequent among HCV-infected patients. The high overall prevalence...... of depression underlines the relevance of screening for depression in patients who are drug users....

  13. Influence of frequent magnetic field on chlorophyll content in leaves of sugar beet plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chlorophyll content in plant leaves is correlated with the yield and nitrogen content in plants. Non-destructive investigations of chlorophyll content in leaves of 3 varieties of sugar beet grown from seeds revealed that a low frequent magnetic field, acting independently or in combination with other methods of seed improvement, increased chlorophyll content in leaves of the investigated plants. The treatment with the magnetic field increased nitrogen content in the examined plants. The effect was not connected with environmental conditions during vegetation seasons. (author)

  14. Genitourinary tuberculosis - a rare presentation of a still frequent infection in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Jardim Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in renal transplant recipients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Genitourinary tuberculosis is a less frequent presentation and a high level of suspicion is needed to avoid treatment delay. Management is challenging due to the interaction of calcineurin inhibitors with antituberculous medications and the known side effects of these drugs, with higher prevalence in this population. The authors present a case of a renal transplant recipient with urinary and constitutional symptoms whom is diagnosed with tuberculosis after a prostatic biopsy in an already disseminated stage and develops hepatotoxicity to antituberculous therapy.

  15. BAGE Hypomethylation Is an Early Event in Colon Transformation and Is Frequent in Histologically Advanced Adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lana, Erica [INSERM U827, Montpellier (France); Brun, Marie-Elisabeth [Institut de Génétique Humaine, CNRS UPR 1142, Montpellier (France); Rivals, Isabelle [Equipe de Statistique Appliquée, ESPCI ParisTech, Paris (France); Selves, Janick; Kirzin, Sylvain [CHU Purpan and INSERM U563, Toulouse (France); Lutsyk, Andriy P. [O.O. Bogomoletz National Medical University, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gordiyuk, Vasily V. [Department of Functional Genomics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Bibeau, Frédéric [CRLC, Montpellier (France); Rynditch, Alla [Department of Functional Genomics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); De Sario, Albertina, E-mail: albertina.de-sario@inserm.fr [INSERM U827, Montpellier (France)

    2009-11-18

    We showed earlier that BAGE (B melanoma antigen) loci are hypermethylated in normal tissues and hypomethylated in 98% of human cancers. More recently, we provided evidence that hypomethylation of BAGE loci represents an informative marker for colon cancer detection. In this study, we show that hypomethylation of BAGE loci was an early event that occurred in 43% of colorectal adenomas. Interestingly, hypomethylation of BAGE loci was frequent (50%) in tubulo-villous and villous adenomas, these adenomas having a high probability of being transformed into colorectal cancers.

  16. Self-reported and observed risky driving behaviors among frequent and infrequent cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Incorrect condom use and frequent breakage among female sex workers and their clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukenge-Tshibaka, Léonard; Alary, Michel; Geraldo, Nassirou; Lowndes, Catherine M

    2005-05-01

    Our objective was to assess if female sex workers (FSWs) and their potential male clients in Cotonou, Benin, know how to use male condoms correctly. From April to June 2000, 314 FSWs and 208 men were interviewed, and asked to demonstrate on a wooden penis how they usually use male condoms. In all, 27.6% of both women and men tore the condom envelope on the notch; 89.3% of the women versus 75.4% of the men easily found the correct side; 17.3% of the women versus 28.3% of the men held the top of the condom to avoid air entering; 91.4% of the women versus 75.6% of the men correctly unrolled the condom. Taking all the four criteria together, only approximately 11% of participants performed a correct condom use demonstration. FSWs frequently reported condom breakage, which was significantly associated with incorrect condom demonstration (P = 0.04). Correct condom use is suboptimal in these heavy consumers of male condoms in Benin. Condom breakage is frequent and is associated with incorrect use.

  18. Endodontic Procedural Errors: Frequency, Type of Error, and the Most Frequently Treated Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Yousuf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study is to determine the most common endodontically treated tooth and the most common error produced during treatment and to note the association of particular errors with particular teeth. Material and Methods. Periapical radiographs were taken of all the included teeth and were stored and assessed using DIGORA Optime. Teeth in each group were evaluated for presence or absence of procedural errors (i.e., overfill, underfill, ledge formation, perforations, apical transportation, and/or instrument separation and the most frequent tooth to undergo endodontic treatment was also noted. Results. A total of 1748 root canal treated teeth were assessed, out of which 574 (32.8% contained a procedural error. Out of these 397 (22.7% were overfilled, 155 (8.9% were underfilled, 16 (0.9% had instrument separation, and 7 (0.4% had apical transportation. The most frequently treated tooth was right permanent mandibular first molar (11.3%. The least commonly treated teeth were the permanent mandibular third molars (0.1%. Conclusion. Practitioners should show greater care to maintain accuracy of the working length throughout the procedure, as errors in length accounted for the vast majority of errors and special care should be taken when working on molars.

  19. Possibilities of Correction and Prophylaxis of Intestinal Microbiocenosis Disorders in Frequently Ill Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Surkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequently and protractedly ill children constitute a special for pediatricians group of patients. Acute respiratory infections with severe and frequently relapsing course badly affect children’s health and contribute to the decrease of the functional activity of the immune system. Risk factors of the high prevalence of acute respiratory infections are changes in the immune responses at the background of unfavorable ante- and perinatal conditions, numerous contacts with potential causative agents at the beginning of attendance of infant schools, widespread intra- and inter-family contacts as well as susceptibility to Th2 immune response (allergy and prolonged course of inflammatory process. Etiotropic treatment of acute respiratory infections often includes antibacterial drugs, which, however, have negative effects on intestinal microflora, such as dyspeptic syndrome and antibiotic-induced diarrhea. Intestinal dysbiosis affects homeostasis, leads to significant changes in functional activity of various organs and systems. That is why correction and prophylaxis of intestinal dysbacteriosis is very important in pediatric practice. In this article the main data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, forms, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and treatment of antibiotic-induced diarrhea in children.

  20. Illicit drug use, alcohol use and problem drinking among infrequent and frequent road ragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Jennifer E; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E; Asbridge, Mark

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between illicit drug and alcohol use, problem drinking, and road rage. Particular attention is devoted to the association between these behaviors and frequent involvement in road rage activities. The data are taken from the 2002 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative telephone survey with a sample of 2421 adults aged 18 and older in Ontario. A cluster analysis was performed and analysis of variance procedures were used to test for group differences. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groups involved in various types of road rage behavior. Frequent road ragers, accounting for 5.3% of the sample, were involved in the most severe forms of road rage behavior and were most likely (24%) to report problem drinking and past year cannabis (23.8%), cocaine (5.4%), and ecstasy (10%) use. These data indicate that illicit drug use and alcohol problems are significantly greater for those involved in the most serious forms of road rage behavior. Further work is needed to identify the mechanisms by which illicit drug use and problem drinking are linked to road rage.

  1. Lower life satisfaction related to materialism in children frequently exposed to advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opree, Suzanna J; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2012-09-01

    Research among adults suggests that materialism and life satisfaction negatively influence each other, causing a downward spiral. So far, cross-sectional research among children has indicated that materialistic children are less happy, but causality remains uncertain. This study adds to the literature by investigating the longitudinal relation between materialism and life satisfaction. We also investigated whether their relation depended on children's level of exposure to advertising. A sample of 466 children (aged 8-11; 55% girls) participated in a 2-wave online survey with a 1-year interval. We asked children questions about material possessions, life satisfaction, and advertising. We used structural equation modeling to study the relationship between these variables. For the children in our sample, no effect of materialism on life satisfaction was observed. However, life satisfaction did have a negative effect on materialism. Exposure to advertising facilitated this effect: We only found an effect of life satisfaction on materialism for children who were frequently exposed to advertising. Among 8- to 11-year-old children, life satisfaction leads to decreased materialism and not the other way around. However, this effect only holds for children who are frequently exposed to television advertising. It is plausible that the material values portrayed in advertising teach children that material possessions are a way to cope with decreased life satisfaction. It is important to reduce this effect, because findings among adults suggest that materialistic children may become less happy later in life. Various intervention strategies are discussed.

  2. Epileptic interictal discharges are more frequent during NREM slow wave downstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujma, Péter Przemyslaw; Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Fabó, Dániel; Erőss, Loránd

    2017-09-29

    Epileptiform activity in various but not all epilepsy and recording types and cerebral areas is more frequent in NREM sleep, and especially during sleep periods with high-amplitude EEG slow waves. Slow waves synchronize high-frequency oscillations: physiological activity from the theta through the gamma band usually appears during scalp-positive upstates while epileptiform activity occurs at transitory phases and the scalp-negative downstate. It has been proposed that interictal discharges (IIDs) are facilitated by the high degree of neuronal firing synchrony during slow wave transitory and downstates. This would suggest that their occurrence increases as a function of slow wave synchronization, indicated by greater amplitude, steeper slopes and higher EEG signal synchronization. We investigated the occurrence of IIDs during NREM sleep slow waves in epileptic patients undergoing presurgical electrophysiological monitoring. Intracranially registered IIDs preferentially occurred during the scalp-negative downstates of frontal scalp slow waves in all subjects. IID occurrence was more frequent during larger slow waves in the pooled sample and a subset of subjects. However, slow wave slope steepness and EEG signal synchronization between two frontal scalp channels was not significantly associated with IID occurrence. Our results indicate that IIDs indeed do not occur at the same slow wave phase as physiological rhythms, but contrary to previous hypotheses their occurrence is not strongly affected by EEG synchronization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequent gain and loss of introns in fungal cytochrome b genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Fen Yin

    Full Text Available In this study, all available cytochrome b (Cyt b genes from the GOBASE database were compiled and the evolutionary dynamics of the Cyt b gene introns was assessed. Cyt b gene introns were frequently present in the fungal kingdom and some lower plants, but generally absent or rare in Chromista, Protozoa, and Animalia. Fungal Cyt b introns were found at 35 positions in Cyt b genes and the number of introns varied at individual positions from a single representative to 32 different introns at position 131, showing a wide and patchy distribution. Many homologous introns were present at the same position in distantly related species but absent in closely related species, suggesting that introns of the Cyt b genes were frequently lost. On the other hand, highly similar intron sequences were observed in some distantly related species rather than in closely related species, suggesting that these introns were gained independently, likely through lateral transfers. The intron loss-and-gain events could be mediated by transpositions that might have occurred between nuclear and mitochondria. Southern hybridization analysis confirmed that some introns contained repetitive sequences and might be transposable elements. An intron gain in Botryotinia fuckeliana prevented the development of QoI fungicide resistance, suggesting that intron loss-and-gain events were not necessarily beneficial to their host organisms.

  4. Frequent Gain and Loss of Introns in Fungal Cytochrome b Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang-Fen; Hu, Meng-Jun; Wang, Fei; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Yu; Schnabel, Guido; Li, Guo-Qing; Luo, Chao-Xi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, all available cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes from the GOBASE database were compiled and the evolutionary dynamics of the Cyt b gene introns was assessed. Cyt b gene introns were frequently present in the fungal kingdom and some lower plants, but generally absent or rare in Chromista, Protozoa, and Animalia. Fungal Cyt b introns were found at 35 positions in Cyt b genes and the number of introns varied at individual positions from a single representative to 32 different introns at position 131, showing a wide and patchy distribution. Many homologous introns were present at the same position in distantly related species but absent in closely related species, suggesting that introns of the Cyt b genes were frequently lost. On the other hand, highly similar intron sequences were observed in some distantly related species rather than in closely related species, suggesting that these introns were gained independently, likely through lateral transfers. The intron loss-and-gain events could be mediated by transpositions that might have occurred between nuclear and mitochondria. Southern hybridization analysis confirmed that some introns contained repetitive sequences and might be transposable elements. An intron gain in Botryotinia fuckeliana prevented the development of QoI fungicide resistance, suggesting that intron loss-and-gain events were not necessarily beneficial to their host organisms. PMID:23145081

  5. Effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for frequent neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Saervoll, Charlotte A; Mortensen, Ole S

    2011-01-01

    symptoms; 174 women and 24 men working at least 30 h per week and with frequent neck/shoulder pain were randomly assigned to resistance training with elastic tubing for 2 or 12 minutes per day 5 times per week, or weekly information on general health (control group). Primary outcomes were changes......UNLABELLED: Regular physical exercise is a cornerstone in rehabilitation programs, but adherence to comprehensive exercise remains low. This study determined the effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for relieving neck/shoulder pain in healthy adults with frequent......, muscle strength increased 2.0 Nm (95% confidence interval 0.5 to 3.5Nm, p=0.01) in the 2-minute group and 1.7Nm (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 3.3 Nm, p=0.02) in the 12-minute group. In conclusion, as little as 2 minutes of daily progressive resistance training for 10 weeks results in clinically...

  6. Expressed Gene Fusions as Frequent Drivers of Poor Outcomes in Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matissek, Karina J; Onozato, Maristela L; Sun, Sheng; Zheng, Zongli; Schultz, Andrew; Lee, Jesse; Patel, Kristofer; Jerevall, Piiha-Lotta; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; Macleay, Allison; Tavallai, Mehrad; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Barrios, Carlos; Beşe, Nuran; Chan, Arlene; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Debiasi, Marcio; Demirdögen, Elif; Egeli, Ünal; Gökgöz, Sahsuvar; Gomez, Henry; Liedke, Pedro; Tasdelen, Ismet; Tolunay, Sahsine; Werutsky, Gustavo; St Louis, Jessica; Horick, Nora; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Le, Long Phi; Bardia, Aditya; Goss, Paul E; Sgroi, Dennis C; Iafrate, A John; Ellisen, Leif W

    2018-03-01

    We sought to uncover genetic drivers of hormone receptor-positive (HR + ) breast cancer, using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach for detecting expressed gene rearrangements without prior knowledge of the fusion partners. We identified intergenic fusions involving driver genes, including PIK3CA, AKT3, RAF1 , and ESR1 , in 14% (24/173) of unselected patients with advanced HR + breast cancer. FISH confirmed the corresponding chromosomal rearrangements in both primary and metastatic tumors. Expression of novel kinase fusions in nontransformed cells deregulates phosphoprotein signaling, cell proliferation, and survival in three-dimensional culture, whereas expression in HR + breast cancer models modulates estrogen-dependent growth and confers hormonal therapy resistance in vitro and in vivo Strikingly, shorter overall survival was observed in patients with rearrangement-positive versus rearrangement-negative tumors. Correspondingly, fusions were uncommon (fusions as frequent and potentially actionable drivers in HR + breast cancer. Significance: By using a powerful clinical molecular diagnostic assay, we identified expressed intergenic fusions as frequent contributors to treatment resistance and poor survival in advanced HR + breast cancer. The prevalence and biological and prognostic significance of these alterations suggests that their detection may alter clinical management and bring to light new therapeutic opportunities. Cancer Discov; 8(3); 336-53. ©2017 AACR. See related commentary by Natrajan et al., p. 272 See related article by Liu et al., p. 354 This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 253 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Long-term continuous N-carbamylglutamate treatment in frequently decompensated propionic acidemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummolo, Albina; Melpignano, Livio; Carella, Antonella; Di Mauro, Anna Maria; Piccinno, Elvira; Vendemiale, Marcella; Ortolani, Federica; Fedele, Stefania; Masciopinto, Maristella; Papadia, Francesco

    2018-04-22

    Propionic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder that can inhibit the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate, the obligatory activator in urea synthesis, leading to hyperammonemia. N-carbamylglutamate ameliorates hyperammonemia in decompensated propionic acidemia. The effects of long-term continuous N-acetylglutamate administration in such patients are unknown. We report our clinical experience with continuous administration of N-acetylglutamate for 6 years in a patient with propionic acidemia frequently presenting with hyperammonemia. A male Caucasian patient with frequently decompensated propionic acidemia and hyperammonemia was admitted 78 times for acute attacks during the first 9 years of his life. Continuous daily treatment with oral N-carbamylglutamate 100 mg/kg (50 mg/kg after 6 months) was initiated. During 6 years of treatment, he had a significant decrease in his mean plasma ammonia levels (75.7 μmol/L vs. 140.3 μmol/L before N-carbamylglutamate therapy, p N-acetylglutamate administration outside the emergency setting. If this observation is confirmed, future studies should aim to optimize the dosage and explore effects of the dosage requirements on other drugs and on protein tolerance.

  8. Frequent statement and dereference elimination for imperative and object-oriented distributed programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zawawy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces new approaches for the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination for imperative and object-oriented distributed programs running on parallel machines equipped with hierarchical memories. The paper uses languages whose address spaces are globally partitioned. Distributed programs allow defining data layout and threads writing to and reading from other thread memories. Three type systems (for imperative distributed programs) are the tools of the proposed techniques. The first type system defines for every program point a set of calculated (ready) statements and memory accesses. The second type system uses an enriched version of types of the first type system and determines which of the ready statements and memory accesses are used later in the program. The third type system uses the information gather so far to eliminate unnecessary statement computations and memory accesses (the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination). Extensions to these type systems are also presented to cover object-oriented distributed programs. Two advantages of our work over related work are the following. The hierarchical style of concurrent parallel computers is similar to the memory model used in this paper. In our approach, each analysis result is assigned a type derivation (serves as a correctness proof).

  9. Frequent Statement and Dereference Elimination for Imperative and Object-Oriented Distributed Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Zawawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new approaches for the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination for imperative and object-oriented distributed programs running on parallel machines equipped with hierarchical memories. The paper uses languages whose address spaces are globally partitioned. Distributed programs allow defining data layout and threads writing to and reading from other thread memories. Three type systems (for imperative distributed programs are the tools of the proposed techniques. The first type system defines for every program point a set of calculated (ready statements and memory accesses. The second type system uses an enriched version of types of the first type system and determines which of the ready statements and memory accesses are used later in the program. The third type system uses the information gather so far to eliminate unnecessary statement computations and memory accesses (the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination. Extensions to these type systems are also presented to cover object-oriented distributed programs. Two advantages of our work over related work are the following. The hierarchical style of concurrent parallel computers is similar to the memory model used in this paper. In our approach, each analysis result is assigned a type derivation (serves as a correctness proof.

  10. Frequent beneficial mutations during single-colony serial transfer of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E Stevens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of new mutations within a population provides the raw material for evolution. The consistent decline in fitness observed in classical mutation accumulation studies has provided support for the long-held view that deleterious mutations are more common than beneficial mutations. Here we present results of a study using a mutation accumulation design with the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae in which the fitness of the derived populations increased. This rise in fitness was associated specifically with adaptation to survival during brief stationary phase periods between single-colony population bottlenecks. To understand better the population dynamics behind this unanticipated adaptation, we developed a maximum likelihood model describing the processes of mutation and stationary-phase selection in the context of frequent population bottlenecks. Using this model, we estimate that the rate of beneficial mutations may be as high as 4.8×10(-4 events per genome for each time interval corresponding to the pneumococcal generation time. This rate is several orders of magnitude higher than earlier estimates of beneficial mutation rates in bacteria but supports recent results obtained through the propagation of small populations of Escherichia coli. Our findings indicate that beneficial mutations may be relatively frequent in bacteria and suggest that in S. pneumoniae, which develops natural competence for transformation, a steady supply of such mutations may be available for sampling by recombination.

  11. Seasonal Exacerbation of Asthma Is Frequently Associated with Recurrent Episodes of Acute Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasz, Zahava; Kessel, Aharon; Hershko, Alon Y; Maurer, Marcus; Toubi, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and urticaria are both partially mediated by an increased release of histamine from highly activated mast cells. They are pathophysiologically different, as mast cell degranulation in these 2 disorders results from different mechanisms. To assess the incidence of urticaria in patients with asthma, and of asthma in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Over 1 year of follow-up, asthma patients (n = 110) were assessed for the incidence and characteristics of urticaria, and a link, if it existed, to seasonal exacerbations and the severity of asthma was traced. We also prospectively assessed CSU patients (n = 95) during the same period of time for the incidence of asthma. Healthy individuals (n = 100), serving as a control group, were also assessed. Episodes of urticaria occurred in 26/110 asthma patients (23.6%), but in only 2/100 healthy control subjects (2%) (p urticaria were significantly more frequent in asthma patients with positive skin-prick test reactions (mainly seasonal pollens), and consequently occurred mostly during seasonal asthma exacerbation, i.e. during acute episodes of urticaria. The incidence of asthma in CSU patients was recorded in 10.5% of the group, similar to that in the healthy control population. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that asthma patients frequently develop acute urticaria, mainly during seasonal exacerbations. In contrast, CSU patients do not show an increased incidence of asthma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Pacific island tropical cyclones are more frequent and globally relevant, yet less studied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Haiyan devastated the Philippines in 2013 and illuminates the fact that the majority of tropical cyclone (TC research has focused on the Atlantic Basin, continental socio-ecological systems, affluent regions where the resilience attributes of the human element differ from that of the of majority the world’s population, and organized countries where research and relief capacities are among the best worldwide. I contend that this collective international bias minimizes the usefulness of global TC research in light of global change forecasts, which predict increased frequency of intense TCs. Moreover, paleoecological studies indicate ecosystem resilience following a TC is greatly increased within habitats that experienced a prior history of frequent TCs. When these retrospective and future visions are connected, science-based analysis of the influences of climate change on TC disturbance argues for an increase in contemporary research on TCs of developing island nations in the western Pacific where TCs are already relatively frequent. Otherwise the current research trajectory may further widen the disconnect between best available science and future management decisions.

  13. Better safe than sorry? Frequent attendance in a hospital emergency department: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jo; Osborn, Mike; Davis, Cara

    2018-02-01

    Pain accounts for the majority of attendances to the Emergency Department (ED), with insufficient alleviation of symptoms resulting in repeated attendance. People who frequently attend the ED are typically considered to be psychologically and socially vulnerable in addition to experiencing health difficulties. This service development study was commissioned to identify the defining characteristics and unmet needs of frequent attenders (FAs) in a UK acute district general hospital ED, with a view to developing strategies to meet the needs of this group. A mixed-methods multi-pronged exploratory approach was used, involving staff interviews, focus groups, business data and case note analysis. Findings reflect an absence of a coherent approach to meeting the needs of FAs in the ED, especially those experiencing pain. FAs to this ED tend to be vulnerable, complex and report significant worry and anxiety. Elevated anxiety on the part of the patient may be contributing to a 'better safe than sorry' culture within the ED and is reported to bear some influence on the clinical decision-making process. It is recommended that a systemic approach is taken to improve the quality and accessibility of individualised care plans, provision of patient education, psychological care and implementation of policies and procedures. Change on an organisational level is likely to improve working culture, staff satisfaction and staff relationships with this vulnerable group of patients. A structured care pathway and supportive changes are likely to lead to economic benefits. Further research should build on findings to implement and test the efficacy of these interventions.

  14. U.S. clinicians' perspectives on less frequent routine gynecologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T; Yu, Jean M; Harper, Cynthia C; Sawaya, George F

    2014-05-01

    With newer recommendations for less frequent cervical cancer screening, longer intervals between routine gynecologic examinations might also be considered. A nationally representative mailed survey of U.S. obstetrician-gynecologists (n=521, response rate 62%) was conducted in 2010-11. Clinicians were asked their views on annual gynecologic examinations and on the consequences of extending the interval from annually to every 3 years for asymptomatic patients. Over two-thirds considered annual gynecologic examination very important for women in their reproductive years (69%); fewer consider it very important for women in menopause (55%). Most anticipated that shifting examinations to every 3 years would result in lower patient satisfaction (78%), contraceptive provision (74%), and patient health and well-being (74%). Decreases in clinic volume (93%) and financial reimbursement (78%) were also expected. Anticipated effects of longer intervals varied by provider characteristics, geography, and practice setting. Obstetrician-gynecologists in the U.S. believed that longer intervals between routine examinations would have negative repercussions for patients and medical practice, but there were differences by region, practice, and personal characteristics. Redefining annual gynecologic visits as contraceptive counseling and health maintenance visits could address financial and patient volume concerns, and perspectives from patients and other providers might reveal possible benefits of less frequent gynecologic examinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequent Statement and Dereference Elimination for Imperative and Object-Oriented Distributed Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zawawy, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces new approaches for the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination for imperative and object-oriented distributed programs running on parallel machines equipped with hierarchical memories. The paper uses languages whose address spaces are globally partitioned. Distributed programs allow defining data layout and threads writing to and reading from other thread memories. Three type systems (for imperative distributed programs) are the tools of the proposed techniques. The first type system defines for every program point a set of calculated (ready) statements and memory accesses. The second type system uses an enriched version of types of the first type system and determines which of the ready statements and memory accesses are used later in the program. The third type system uses the information gather so far to eliminate unnecessary statement computations and memory accesses (the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination). Extensions to these type systems are also presented to cover object-oriented distributed programs. Two advantages of our work over related work are the following. The hierarchical style of concurrent parallel computers is similar to the memory model used in this paper. In our approach, each analysis result is assigned a type derivation (serves as a correctness proof). PMID:24892098

  16. Ileostomy Complications in Infants less than 1500 grams - Frequent but Manageable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, Simon; Wagner, Oliver; Pumberger, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    In very low birth weight infants abdominal emergency surgery may result in ileostomy formation. We observed a frequent stoma complications in these patients. This retrospective analysis put light on ileostomy-related problems and complications in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. In a seven-year retrospective chart review (2008 - 2014) infants with ileostomy formation weighing less than 1500 grams at time of operation were identified and reviewed. Data analysis included demographic data, complications and short term outcomes. Thirty patients were included. Ileostomy was formed for spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) (n=17), meconium obstruction of prematurity (MOP) (n=6), midgut volvulus (MV) (n=5), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (n=1) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) (n=1). Three patients died before ileostomy reversal was considered. In seven patients planned ileostomy reversal was done. Twenty infants had stoma related complications (stoma prolapse, prestomal obstruction, stoma retraction, high output stoma, peristomal skin excoriation, and stomal ischemia). Complications did not correlate with underlying diseases. Stomal complications necessitated earlier stoma reversal (mean 62 days). Postoperative complications after stoma reversal occurred in three children (wound dehiscence, adhesion ileus, anastomotic stricture). Although ileostomy related complications are frequent in very low birth weight infants, mortality is low. Morbidity is manageable.

  17. Oral Astragalus (Huang qi) for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guobin; Chen, Xiankun; Liu, Zhuangzhu; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, La; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Wen, Zehuai; Guo, Xinfeng; Qin, Xindong; Liang, Jueyao; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-12-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common in children and can involve both upper and lower airways. Many children experience frequent ARTI episodes or recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) in early life, which creates challenges for paediatricians, primary care physicians, parents and carers of children.In China, Astragalus (Huang qi), alone or in combination with other herbs, is used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in the form of a water extract, to reduce the risk of ARTIs; it is believed to stimulate the immune system. Better understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of Astragalus may provide insights into ARTI prevention, and consequently reduced antibiotic use. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral Astragalus for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children in community settings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 12, 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to 31 December 2015), Embase (Elsevier) (1974 to 31 December 2015), AMED (Ovid) (1985 to 31 December 2015), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to 31 December 2015) and Chinese Scientific Journals full text database (CQVIP) (1989 to 31 December 2015), China Biology Medicine disc (CBM 1976 to 31 December 2015) and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform (WanFang) (1998 to 31 December 2015). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral Astragalus as a sole Chinese herbal preparation with placebo to prevent frequent episodes of ARTIs in children. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures for this review. We assessed search results to identify relevant studies. We planned to extract data using standardised forms. Disagreements were to be resolved through discussion. Risk of bias was to be assessed using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We planned to use mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous data and risk

  18. Detection time for THC in oral fluid after frequent cannabis smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andås, Hilde T; Krabseth, Hege-Merete; Enger, Asle; Marcussen, Bjarne N; Haneborg, An-Magritt; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Vindenes, Vigdis; Øiestad, Elisabeth L

    2014-12-01

    The use of oral fluid for detecting drugs of abuse has become increasingly more frequent. Few studies have, however, investigated the detection times for drugs of abuse in oral fluid, compared with that of in urine or in blood. Cannabis is the world's most widely used drug of abuse, and the detection times for cannabis, in different types of matrixes, are therefore important information to the laboratories or institutions performing and evaluating drugs of abuse analyses. It is well known that frequent use of high dosages of cannabis, for longer periods of time, might lead to prolonged detection times for THC-COOH in urine. Cannabis intake is detected in oral fluid as THC, and a positive finding is considered to be a result of recent smoking, although some studies have already reported longer detection times. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection time for THC in oral fluid, collected from drug addicts admitted for detoxification. Findings in oral fluid were compared with findings in urine, among 26 patients admitted to a closed detoxification unit. The study, being the first in doing so, describes the concentration-time profiles for THC in oral fluid among chronic cannabis users, during monitored abstinence, using the Intercept collection kit. The study also includes the concentration-time profiles for creatinine-corrected THC-COOH ratios in urine samples, included to monitor for the possibility of new intakes. THC was detected in oral fluid collected from 11 of the 26 patients in the study. The elimination curves for THC in oral fluid revealed that negative samples could be interspersed among positive samples several days after cessation, whereas the THC-COOH concentrations in urine were decreasing. THC was, in this study, detected in oral fluid for up to 8 days after admission. The study shows that frequent use of high dosages of cannabis may lead to prolonged detection times, and that positive samples can be interspersed among negative samples

  19. "The medicine from behind": The frequent use of enemas in western African traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; van Onselen, Sabine; Myren, Britt; Towns, Alexandra; Quiroz, Diana

    2015-11-04

    Purgative enemas form an integral part of African traditional medicine. Besides possible benefits, serious health risks of rectal herbal therapy have been described in literature. To design appropriate health education programs, it is essential to understand traditional herbal practices and local perceptions of health and illness. Little is known about the herbal ingredients of enemas in Sub-Saharan Africa and consumers' personal reasons to use them. To analyze the importance of enema use with regard to plant species used and illnesses treated in West and Central Africa, to understand the local health beliefs that underlie frequent enema use and to evaluate which recipes and practices could be beneficial or harmful. We extracted data from 266 ethnobotanical questionnaires on medicinal (in particular women's health and childcare) and ritual plant use in Ghana, Benin and Gabon. Plants mentioned during interviews were vouchered and identified in herbaria. Health issues treated by means of enemas were ranked according to the number of plant species used for a specific illness. We compared our results with findings of medical research on benefits and risks of enema use in Sub-Saharan Africa. We recorded ca. 213 different plant species used in hundreds of recipes for rectal insertions, mostly in Ghana and Gabon. Stomachache, abdominal pain, female infertility and birth facilitation were treated with the highest number of plants species. Cleansing the intestines of young children to promote their health by getting rid of 'dirt', instead of treating constipation, was an important cultural practice that required the rectal application of herbal medicine, as well as other cultural bound health issues like stimulating children to walk at an early age. Tradition, the bitter taste of herbal medicine and the rapid effect of enemas were frequently mentioned reasons for enema use. Literature indicates that although enemas can help to improve the hygienic conditions of a household

  20. Effectiveness of simple balancing training program in elderly patients with history of frequent falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuptniratsaikul V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vilai Kuptniratsaikul1, Rungnirand Praditsuwan2, Prasert Assantachai3, Teerada Ploypetch1, Suthipol Udompunturak4, Julaporn Pooliam41Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, 4Office for Research and Development, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, ThailandObjective: To study the effectiveness of simply-performed balancing exercises in fall prevention.Design: Pre- and post-trial.Setting: University hospital from January 2009 to May 2010.Participants: Elderly with falls in the previous year.Intervention: Simple balancing exercise was performed at home every day and was recorded in the booklet.Measurements: New falling events and a battery of balancing abilities including the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT, chair stand, functional reach, and Berg balance scale-short form were evaluated at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month periods. Fear of falling and quality of life scores were assessed at baseline and 12-month periods.Results: 146 subjects were recruited, 116 female (79.5% with a mean age of 67.1 years. At the end of the study, 49% of participants had not fallen. All of the balancing abilities were compared between frequent and infrequent fallers and were significantly improved (P < 0.001 except for functional reach in the frequent fall group. Most subjects (72%–79% complied well with the exercise program. However, compliance had no effect on balancing abilities. About 36.4% of participants had adverse events from exercise, of which knee pain was the top ranked. The quality of life and the fall efficacy scores increased significantly at the end of the study. Factors affecting falling were compliance with exercise (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.55, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.04, 6.30 and a history of falling ≥3 times in the previous year (adjusted OR: 3.76, 95% CI: 1.18, 11.98.Conclusion: Performing simply-designed balancing exercises, at least 3 days per week, can increase

  1. Achieving more frequent and longer dialysis for the majority: wearable dialysis and implantable artificial kidney devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissell, William H; Roy, Shuvo; Davenport, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    The long-term survival for many chronic kidney failure patients who remain treated by dialysis in economically advanced countries remains similar to that of those with solid-organ malignancy, despite a disproportionate amount of health-care expenditure. As such, the current paradigm of three times weekly in-center hemodialysis for 4 h or shorter sessions needs to change to improve patient outcomes. Although more frequent and longer dialysis sessions have been reported to improve cardiovascular risk surrogates and short-term outcomes, these options are only practically available to a very small fraction of the total dialysis population. As such, radically new approaches are required to improve patient outcomes and quality of life for the majority of dialysis patients. Currently, two different approaches are being developed, wearable devices based on current dialysis techniques and more futuristic implantable devices modeled on the natural nephron.

  2. The frequent shift to intermediate flora in preterm delivery cases after abnormal vaginal flora screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Takanori; Akimoto, Yumiko; Tanimoto, Hirotoshi; Teramoto, Mitsue; Teramoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of screening and treatment for abnormal vaginal flora on the reduction of preterm deliveries remains controversial. We evaluated whether this screening and treatment reduces the preterm delivery rate for general-population pregnant women. Pregnant women of the Intervention group (n = 574) underwent the screening test and the treatment of vaginal metronidazole during the early second trimester, and those of the Control group (n = 1,161) did not. We compared the preterm delivery rate between these two groups. We also compared the profiles of vaginal flora of the preterm delivery cases with those of the pregnant women with a normal course. There was no significant difference in the preterm delivery rate between these two groups. However, in the preterm delivery cases, a frequent shift to intermediate flora was observed not before but after the screening in the Intervention group. This shift may explain why most of the previous studies failed in regard to the prevention of preterm deliveries. PMID:24762852

  3. Frequent left ventricular hypertrophy independent of blood pressure in 1851 pre-western Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig; Kjærgaard, Marie; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2011-01-01

    only after the age of 40 years in pre-western Inuit. Left ventricular hypertrophy peaked among 30-year olds and was independent of elevated blood pressure. It may be speculated that the common left ventricular hypertrophy was due to marked physical activity that contributed to the low occurrence......BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may be detected by left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in electrocardiogram (ECG). Pre-western Inuit had frequent signs of LVH in ECG predominantly in the 3rd decade while a low occurrence of ischemic heart disease....... METHODS: We evaluated the association between blood pressures and ECG signs of LVH, cardiac auscultation, and symptoms related to heart disease in the recently recovered data from the survey of 1851 Inuit conducted in 1962-1964 in East Greenland. RESULTS: The participation rate was 97%. Among the 812...

  4. PIDOTIMOD IN TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION IN FREQUENTLY AILING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Kharlamova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial studied effectiveness and safety of pidotimoid (Imunorix in complex treatment of children with acute respiratory infection (ARI. Treatment with pidotimoid during 2 weeks (n = 30 resulted in lesser duration of fever and intoxication symptoms, and symptoms of laryngo-tracheitis, compared to control group (n = 30. Besides, children from pidotimoid group showed more rapid transformation of dry cough to hydrated cough, and decrease of its intensity. This beneficial change was accompanied by improvement of microbiocenosis. Effectiveness of pidotimoid was estimated by 73% of doctors as «good» (67% in control group. There was no any complication, related to treatment with this medication. The rate of repeated cases of ARI was three times lower then in control group in 6 months. All patients with ARI had no recurrent laryngeal stenosis.Key words: frequently ailing children, acute respiratory infection, treatment, prophylaxis, pidotimoid.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:27-33

  5. Fitness and Health Effects of Frequent Intense Training in 8-10-Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst

    ) compared to children active in other sports. Paper III and IV described the long-term training effects of frequent intense small-sided ball games (SSG), interval running (IT) and circuit strength training (CST) for 8-10-year-old school children. Analysis of baseline-to-10-months change scores showed...... to CON and CST (SSG vs CON: 19 mg/cm2, 95%CI: 11-39, Ptraining resulted in higher change scores compared to CON in postural...... the intervention study demonstrate that significant structural and functional musculoskeletal adaptations can be achieved from well-controlled high-intensity training in a school-based setting, especially from 3x40 minutes of SSG and CST. The overall fitness effects of the low-volume training (5x12 minutes of SSG...

  6. Molecular and Genetic Basis of Hereditary Connective-Tissue Diseases Accompanied by Frequent Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Yakhyaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent bone fractures in infancy require the elimination of a large number (> 100 of genetic disorders. The modern diagnostic method of hereditary diseases characterized by debilitating course is a new generation sequencing. The article presents the results of molecular-genetic study conducted in 18 patients with clinical symptoms of connective tissue disorders. 10 (56% patients had mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen chains, leading to the development of osteogenesis imperfecta, 5 (28% — mutations in IV and V type collagen genes that are responsible for the development of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. 3 (17% patients had mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 protein, deficiency of which is manifested by Marfan syndrome. However, the correlation between patient's phenotype and discovered mutations in the investigated gene is established not in all cases.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study: Nutritional Polyamines in Frequently Consumed Foods of the Turkish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Buyukuslu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are the most abundant polycationic natural amines found in nearly all organisms. They are involved in regulation of gene expression, translation, cell proliferation and differentiation. They can be supplied by the endogenous synthesis inside the cell or by the intake from exogenous sources. There is a growing body of literature associated with the effects of bioactive amines on health and diseases, but limited information about polyamine content in foods is available. In the present study, the polyamine content of frequently consumed foods in a typical Turkish diet was estimated for adults, including tea, bread and yoghurt. The estimation of daily intake was defined as 93,057 nmol/day putrescine, 33,122 nmol/day spermidine, 13,685 nmol/day spermine. The contribution of foods to daily intake was: dairy products (47.32%, vegetables and grains (21.09% and wheat products (12.75%.

  8. Ingestive Skill Difficulties are Frequent Among Acutely-Hospitalized Frail Elderly Patients, and Predict Hospital Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Faber, Jens Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose : To examine the relationship between ingestive skill performance while eating and drinking and frailty status in acutely-hospitalized elderly patients and to examine whether there is a relationship between the proportion of ingestive skill difficulties and Length of Hospital Stay (LOS.......0%). When adjusting for frailty status, difficulties in self-feeding and texture management were related to prolonged LOS, and difficulties in positioning and liquid ingestion were related to discharge to institutional care. Conclusion : Ingestive skill difficulties among acutely-hospitalized frail elderly...... patients were frequent and characterized by great complexity. This necessitates a broad range of management strategies related to the patients’ ability in positioning, self-feeding skills, as well as oropharyngeal sensorimotor skills. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.3109/02703181.2012.736019...

  9. Mutations in the CEP290 (NPHP6) Gene Are a Frequent Cause of Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Anneke I.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Yzer, Suzanne; Lopez, Irma; Arends, Maarten L.; Voesenek, Krysta E. J.; Zonneveld, Marijke N.; Strom, Tim M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Brunner, Han G.; Hoyng, Carel B.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; Rohrschneider, Klaus; Cremers, Frans P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is one of the main causes of childhood blindness. To date, mutations in eight genes have been described, which together account for ∼45% of LCA cases. We localized the genetic defect in a consanguineous LCA-affected family from Quebec and identified a splice defect in a gene encoding a centrosomal protein (CEP290). The defect is caused by an intronic mutation (c.2991+1655A→G) that creates a strong splice-donor site and inserts a cryptic exon in the CEP290 messenger RNA. This mutation was detected in 16 (21%) of 76 unrelated patients with LCA, either homozygously or in combination with a second deleterious mutation on the other allele. CEP290 mutations therefore represent one of the most frequent causes of LCA identified so far. PMID:16909394

  10. Test-retest reliability of five frequently used executive tasks in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soveri, Anna; Lehtonen, Minna; Karlsson, Linda C; Lukasik, Karolina; Antfolk, Jan; Laine, Matti

    2018-01-01

    Executive tasks are important instruments for neuropsychological and cognitive research, but only a limited number of studies have investigated the test-retest reliability of these tasks. Such information is needed for optimizing task usage, for example, in longitudinal and intervention studies. In this study with healthy adults, we investigated the temporal stability of five executive tasks: the Simon task, a visuoverbal N-back task, a visuospatial N-back task, a running memory task, and the Number-letter task. These five tasks are frequently used in research, but previously published reliability data is very limited or totally lacking. The results from the present study showed considerable variability with the highest test-retest reliabilities amongst the three working memory tasks. Furthermore, reaction time measures indicated practice effects between the two sessions across the tasks. The present results set constraints to the interpretation of the results of longitudinal and intervention studies using these tasks.

  11. Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

    2013-09-26

    Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change.

  12. Set of Frequent Word Item sets as Feature Representation for Text with Indonesian Slang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adillah Maylawati, Dian; Putri Saptawati, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Indonesian slang are commonly used in social media. Due to their unstructured syntax, it is difficult to extract their features based on Indonesian grammar for text mining. To do so, we propose Set of Frequent Word Item sets (SFWI) as text representation which is considered match for Indonesian slang. Besides, SFWI is able to keep the meaning of Indonesian slang with regard to the order of appearance sentence. We use FP-Growth algorithm with adding separation sentence function into the algorithm to extract the feature of SFWI. The experiments is done with text data from social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and personal website. The result of experiments shows that Indonesian slang were more correctly interpreted based on SFWI.

  13. Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

  14. High frequent modelling of a modular multilevel converter using passive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khatib, Walid Ziad; Holbøll, Joachim; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2013-01-01

    ). This means that a high frequency model of the converter has to be designed, which gives a better overview of the impact of high frequency transients etc. The functionality of the model is demonstrated by application to grid connections of off-shore wind power plants. Grid connection of an offshore wind power...... plant using HVDC fundamentally changes the electrical environment for the power plant. Detailed knowledge and understanding of the characteristics and behavior of all relevant power system components under all conditions, including under transients, are required in order to develop reliable offshore...... wind power plant employing HVDC. In the present study, a back to back HVDC transmission system is designed in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulations and results showing the importance of high frequent modeling are presented....

  15. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  16. Protein-energy malnutrition is frequent and precocious in children with cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, Violaine; de Luca, Arnaud; Hankard, Régis

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is poorly reported in cri du chat syndrome (CDCS) (OMIM #123450), a genetic disease that causes developmental delay and global growth retardation. The objective was to determine the nutritional status at different ages in children with CDCS and factors associated with PEM. A questionnaire focused on growth and nutritional care was sent to 190 families. Among 36 analyzable questionnaires, growth and nutritional indices compatible with PEM occurred in 47% of patients: 19% before 6 months of age, 24% between 6-12 months and 34% after 12 months. Eight patients received enteral feeding. Speech therapy for swallowing education was performed more often in malnourished children (63% vs. 22%, P < 0.02). PEM is frequent and occurs early in this disease, requiring closed nutritional monitoring. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Frequent errors in the use of French in the economic domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMASAR Ioana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the didactic teaching-learning process of the specifically economic discourse in French, a first objective could be represented by the discovery of the difficult structures, which favor the appearance of interferences between Romanian and general French, the errors coming in particular from the usual language in the specialized language. The analysis of the most common errors in the use of French by native Romanian students could be a starting point, by the addition of the psycholinguistic dimension, in the thoroughgoing study of the complex process of teaching - learning. The prevention of the frequent errors by the speakers in the use of French while learning it can be done by the teacher's direct recommendations and by the selection and orientation of the educational material that s/he organized and based on clear criteria, oriented towards the needs and interests of his/ her students.

  18. FraudMiner: A Novel Credit Card Fraud Detection Model Based on Frequent Itemset Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Seeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers.

  19. Electrocardiographic changes in the most frequent endocrine disorders associated with cardiovascular diseases. Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Irina Iuliana; Ungureanu, Maria Christina; Iliescu, D; Petriş, A; Botnariu, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Car- diovascular abnormalities associated with endocrine diseases are often frequent and due to complex relationships between endocrine glands (with internal secretion) and cardiovascular system (heart and vessels). Certain hormones secreted by the endocrine glands (particularly the thyroid and pituitary gland) excesses or deficiencies, are involved in morphogenesis, growth processes and activity regulation of cardiovascular system, most often in connection with the autonomic nervous system. There are also a lot of electrocardiographic changes caused by hormonal disorders that requires differential diagnosis and represents the source of erroneous diagnosis. Endocrine pathology occurred later than a heart disease, may worse heart function. Ignoring the cardiovascular events that may occur in the evolution of endo- crine diseases, may induce increased mortality due to cardiovascular complications.

  20. Genital lesions after consensual sexual intercourse: They are frequent and they last for several days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lauritsen, Jens; Ravn, Pernille

    Introduction: The significance of genital lesions in victims of rape is currently under debate in many countries. Legal experts are pointing at the lack of comprehensive knowledge of lesions sustained during consensual sexual intercourse as a key problem. The aim of this study was to provide...... insight into the duration of lesions, frequency of lesions seen with different investigative techniques and to identify pitfalls in the diagnosis of lesions. Materials and Methods: 98 women were examined within 48 hours of consensual sexual intercourse using the naked eye, the colposcope and toluidine...... blue dye application. 50 of the women were re-examined after 3 or 4 days and again after 6 or 7 days, and Kaplan-Meier plots of the duration of lacerations were produced. Results: Lacerations were the most frequent lesion seen with all three techniques, seen in 31%, 41% and 49% of participants...

  1. Principles of etiopathogenetic therapy for acute respiratory viral infections in frequently ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kharitonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the impact of incorporation of cycloferon into a therapy regimen on the efficiency of treatment for acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in frequently ill children. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 117 children divided into three groups according to the therapy regimen. Thus, symptomatic and local antiviral therapies (interferon nasal ointment and viferon suppositories were prescribed to all the children; furthermore, Group 1 (control used antibiotic therapy; Group 2 (Comparison Group 1 took antibiotics and cycloferon (tablets, and Group 3 (Comparison Group 2 had Cycloferon. Results: At the beginning of treatment, there was a reduction in interferon-a and interferon-y values with preserved serum interferon levels, suggesting the diminished compensatory responses ensuring antiviral protection. Analysis of the immune status revealed that virtually half of the children exhibited activation of compensatory mechanisms (stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ production and an increase in NST test activity, one third displayed a disturbance (decreases in CD4+, CDlfrf, IgA, and NST test activity. After treatment, interferonogenesis was recovered in the majority (86,7% of the patients taking Cycloferon, in 74,1% of those who had a treatment regimen containing cycloferon and antibiotics, and only in 47,1 % of those who received antibiotics. Comparison of the immunological indicators during therapy with antibiotics alone or in combination with cycloferon demonstrated a more noticeable and balanced response to the latter: the normalized CD4+ and CD8+ values in the patients on antibiotic therapy was 8,9 and 5,8%, respectively, and 11,1 % in those who received antibiotics and cycloferon. Conclusion. Incorporation of cycloferon into ARVI treatment regimens for frequently ill patients has the positive effect on immunological indicators, which shows itself as recovery of initially diminished interferonogenesis

  2. Frequent gene flow blurred taxonomic boundaries of sections in Lilium L. (Liliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xun; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Ting, Yu-Wei; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Malikova, Lenka; Tran, Huyen Trang; Huang, Chao-Li; Liu, Shih-Hui; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2017-01-01

    Gene flow between species may last a long time in plants. Reticulation inevitably causes difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction. In this study, we looked into the genetic divergence and phylogeny of 20 Lilium species based on multilocus analyses of 8 genes of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), the internally transcribed nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrITS) spacer and 20 loci extracted from the expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of L. longiflorum Thunb. and L. formosanum Wallace. The phylogeny based on the combined data of the maternally inherited cpDNA and nrITS was largely consistent with the taxonomy of Lilium sections. This phylogeny was deemed the hypothetical species tree and uncovered three groups, i.e., Cluster A consisting of 4 taxa from the sections Pseudolirium and Liriotypus, Cluster B consisting of the 4 taxa from the sections Leucolirion, Archelirion and Daurolirion, and Cluster C comprising 10 taxa mostly from the sections Martagon and Sinomartagon. In contrast, systematic inconsistency occurred across the EST loci, with up to 19 genes (95%) displaying tree topologies deviating from the hypothetical species tree. The phylogenetic incongruence was likely attributable to the frequent genetic exchanges between species/sections, as indicated by the high levels of genetic recombination and the IMa analyses with the EST loci. Nevertheless, multilocus analysis could provide complementary information among the loci on the species split and the extent of gene flow between the species. In conclusion, this study not only detected frequent gene flow among Lilium sections that resulted in phylogenetic incongruence but also reconstructed a hypothetical species tree that gave insights into the nature of the complex relationships among Lilium species.

  3. Heart Rate Variability in Association with Frequent Use of Household Sprays and Scented Products in SAPALDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Carballo, David; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Rochat, Thierry; Schindler, Christian; Schwartz, Joel; Zock, Jan-Paul; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Team, SAPALDIA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Household cleaning products are associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, but the cardiovascular health effects are largely unknown. Objective: We determined if long-term use of household sprays and scented products at home was associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of autonomic cardiac dysfunction. Methods: We recorded 24-hr electrocardiograms in a cross-sectional survey of 581 Swiss adults, ≥ 50 years of age, who answered a detailed questionnaire regarding their use of household cleaning products in their homes. The adjusted average percent changes in standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals in 24 hr (24-hr SDNN) and total power (TP) were estimated in multiple linear regression in association with frequency [air freshening sprays, and scented products. Results: Decreases in 24-hr SDNN and TP were observed with frequent use of all product types, but the strongest reductions were associated with air freshening sprays. Compared with unexposed participants, we found that using air freshening sprays 4–7 days/week was associated with 11% [95% confidence interval (CI): –20%, –2%] and 29% (95% CI: –46%, –8%) decreases in 24-hr SDNN and TP, respectively. Inverse associations of 24-SDNN and TP with increased use of cleaning sprays, air freshening sprays, and scented products were observed mainly in participants with obstructive lung disease (p < 0.05 for interactions). Conclusions: In predominantly older adult women, long-term frequent use of household spray and scented products was associated with reduced HRV, which suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular health hazards. People with preexisting pulmonary conditions may be more susceptible. PMID:22538298

  4. Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela López-Villavicencio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Population models of host-parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use

  5. Frequent epigenetic silencing of the folate-metabolising gene cystathionine-beta-synthase in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    Full Text Available Both gastric and colorectal cancers (CRC are the most frequently occurring malignancies worldwide with the overall survival of these patients remains unsatisfied. Identification of tumor suppressor genes (TSG silenced by promoter CpG methylation uncovers mechanisms of tumorigenesis and identifies new epigenetic biomarkers for early cancer detection and prognosis assessment. Cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS functions in the folate metabolism pathway, which is intricately linked to methylation of genomic DNA. Dysregulation of DNA methylation contributes substantially to cancer development.To identify potential TSGs silenced by aberrant promoter methylation in CRC, we analyzed tumor and adjacent tissues from CRC cases using the Illumina Human Methylation45 BeadChip. We identified hypermethylation of the CBS gene in CRC samples, compared to adjacent tissues. Methylation and decreased mRNA expression of CBS were detected in most CRC cell lines by methylation-specific PCR and semiquantitative RT-PCR, as well as in gastric cancer. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin A reversed methylation and restored CBS mRNA expression indicating a direct effect. Aberrant methylation was further detected in 31% of primary CRCs (29 of 96 and 55% of gastric tumors (11 of 20. In contrast, methylation was seldom found in normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. CBS methylation was associated with KRAS mutations in primary CRCs (P = 0.04, by χ(2-test. However, no association was found between CBS methylation or KRAS mutations with cancer relapse/metastasis in Stage II CRC patients.A novel finding from this study is that the folate metabolism enzyme CBS mRNA levels are frequently downregulated through CpG methylation of the CBS gene in gastric cancer and CRC, suggesting that CBS functions as a tumor suppressor gene. These findings warrant further study of CBS as an epigenetic biomarker for molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers.

  6. Cannabis withdrawal in chronic, frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence within a closed residential environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Karschner, Erin L; Goodwin, Robert S; Hirvonen, Jussi; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic, frequent cannabis smokers may experience residual and offset effects, withdrawal, and craving when abstaining from the drug. We characterized the prevalence, duration, and intensity of these effects in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during abstinence on a closed research unit. Non-treatment-seeking participants (N = 29 on admission, 66% and 34% remaining after 2 and 4 weeks) provided subjective effects data. A battery of five instruments was computer-administered daily to measure psychological, sensory, and physical symptoms associated with cannabinoid intoxication and withdrawal. Plasma and oral fluid specimens were concurrently collected and analyzed for cannabinoids. Outcome variables were evaluated as change from admission (Day 0) with regression models. Most abstinence effects, including irritability and anxiety were greatest on Days 0-3 and decreased thereafter. Cannabis craving significantly decreased over time, whereas decreased appetite began to normalize on Day 4. Strange dreams and difficulty getting to sleep increased over time, suggesting intrinsic sleep problems in chronic cannabis smokers. Symptoms likely induced by residual drug effects were at maximum intensity on admission and positively correlated with plasma and oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations on admission but not afterward; these symptoms showed overall prevalence higher than cannabis withdrawal symptoms. The combined influence of residual/offset drug effects, withdrawal, and craving was observed in chronic cannabis smokers during monitored abstinence. Abstinence symptoms were generally more intense in the initial phase, implying importance of early intervention in cannabis quit attempts. Sleep disturbance persisting for an extended period suggests that hypnotic medications could be beneficial in treating cannabis dependence. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Colonic dysmotility and morphological abnormality frequently detected in Japanese patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Mizukami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Colonoscopy and computed tomography (CT are used primarily to exclude organic diseases in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, rather than to assess the pathophysiology of IBS. We aimed to evaluate colonic dysmotility and morphology in Japanese patients with IBS.Methods: One hundred eighty-four patients with IBS and 49 asymptomatic controls who underwent colonoscopy in combination with CT colonography or barium enema were retrospectively reviewed between 2008 and 2012. Water-aided colonoscopy was performed without sedation by a single endoscopist. The duration and pattern of colonic movement and cecal intubation time were recorded. To assess colonic morphology, barium enema or CT colonography were performed immediately after colonoscopy.Results: Colonic dysmotility was more frequent in the IBS group (28.8% vs. 2.0% in controls, P<0.001, especially in cases of IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D (IBS with constipation [IBS-C] 28.8% vs. IBS-D 60.0% vs. mixed IBS [IBS-M] 5.1%, P<0.001. Colonic morphological abnormality was more frequent in the IBS group than in the control group (77.7% vs. 24.5%, P<0.001, especially in IBS-M and IBS-C groups (IBS-C 77.5% vs. IBS-D 48.9% vs. IBS-M 100%, P<0.001. Most patients with IBS with colonic dysmotility had experienced stress related to their symptoms. Cecal intubation time was significantly longer in the IBS group than in the control group (12.1±6.9 minutes vs. 4.6±1.9 minutes, P<0.001.Conclusions: Unsedated colonoscopy, combined with radiographic findings, can detect colonic dysmotility and morphological abnormality. Technical difficulties observed during cecal intubation may partially explain the pathophysiology of IBS.

  8. Frequent fire promotes diversity and cover of biological soil crusts in a derived temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Katharine E; Prober, Suzanne Mary; Lunt, Ian D; Eldridge, David J

    2009-04-01

    The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts that species diversity is maximized at moderate disturbance levels. This model is often applied to grassy ecosystems, where disturbance can be important for maintaining vascular plant composition and diversity. However, effects of disturbance type and frequency on cover and diversity of non-vascular plants comprising biological soil crusts are poorly known, despite their potentially important role in ecosystem function. We established replicated disturbance regimes of different type (fire vs. mowing) and frequency (2, 4, 8 yearly and unburnt) in a high-quality, representative Themeda australis-Poa sieberiana derived grassland in south-eastern Australia. Effects on soil crust bryophytes and lichens (hereafter cryptogams) were measured after 12 years. Consistent with expectations under IDH, cryptogam richness and abundance declined under no disturbance, likely due to competitive exclusion by vascular plants as well as high soil turnover by soil invertebrates beneath thick grass. Disturbance type was also significant, with burning enhancing richness and abundance more than mowing. Contrary to expectations, however, cryptogam richness increased most dramatically under our most frequent and recent (2 year) burning regime, even when changes in abundance were accounted for by rarefaction analysis. Thus, from the perspective of cryptogams, 2-year burning was not an adequately severe disturbance regime to reduce diversity, highlighting the difficulty associated with expression of disturbance gradients in the application of IDH. Indeed, significant correlations with grassland structure suggest that cryptogam abundance and diversity in this relatively mesic (600 mm annual rainfall) grassland is maximised by frequent fires that reduce vegetation and litter cover, providing light, open areas and stable soil surfaces for colonisation. This contrasts with detrimental effects of 2-year burning on native perennial grasses

  9. Frequent attenders in general practice: problem solving treatment provided by nurses [ISRCTN51021015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for assistance from primary care mental health workers in general practice in the Netherlands. General practitioners (GPs experience an overload of frequent attenders suffering from psychological problems. Problem Solving Treatment (PST is a brief psychological treatment tailored for use in a primary care setting. PST is provided by nurses, and earlier research has shown that it is a treatment at least as effective as usual care. However, research outcomes are not totally satisfying. This protocol describes a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of PST provided by nurses for patients in general practice. The results of this study, which currently being carried out, will be presented as soon as they are available. Methods/design This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PST and usual care compared to usual care only. Patients, 18 years and older, who present psychological problems and are frequent attenders in general practice are recruited by the research assistant. The participants receive questionnaires at baseline, after the intervention, and again after 3 months and 9 months. Primary outcome is the reduction of symptoms, and other outcomes measured are improvement in problem solving skills, psychological and physical well being, daily functioning, social support, coping styles, problem evaluation and health care utilization. Discussion Our results may either confirm that PST in primary care is an effective way of dealing with emotional disorders and a promising addition to the primary care in the UK and USA, or may question this assumption. This trial will allow an evaluation of the effects of PST in practical circumstances and in a rather heterogeneous group of primary care patients. This study delivers scientific support for this use and therefore indications for optimal treatment and referral.

  10. Mining Frequent Item Sets in Asynchronous Transactional Data Streams over Time Sensitive Sliding Windows Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Q.; Memon, F.; Talpur, S.; Arif, M.; Awan, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    EPs (Extracting Frequent Patterns) from the continuous transactional data streams is a challenging and critical task in some of the applications, such as web mining, data analysis and retail market, prediction and network monitoring, or analysis of stock market exchange data. Many algorithms have been developed previously for mining FPs (Frequent Patterns) from a data stream. Such algorithms are currently highly required to develop new solutions and approaches to the precise handling of data streams. New techniques, solutions, or approaches are developed to address unbounded, ordered, and continuous sequences of data and for the generation of data at a rapid speed from data streams. Hence, extracting FPs using fresh or recent data involves the high-level analysis of data streams. We have suggested an efficient technique for the window sliding model; this technique extracts new and fresh FPs from high-speed data streams. In this study, a CPILT (Compacted Tree Compact Pattern Tree) is developed to capture the latest contents in the stream and to efficiently remove outdated contents from the data stream. The main concept introduced in this work on CPILT is the dynamic restructuring of a tree, which is helpful in producing a compacted tree and the frequency descending structure of a tree on runtime. With the help of the mining technique of FP growth, a complete list of new and fresh FPs is obtained from a CPILT using an existing window. The memory usage and time complexity of the latest FPs in high-speed data streams can efficiently be determined through proper experimentation and analysis. (author)

  11. Mapping the functional landscape of frequent phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotypes promotes personalised medicine in phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danecka, Marta K; Woidy, Mathias; Zschocke, Johannes; Feillet, François; Muntau, Ania C; Gersting, Søren W

    2015-03-01

    In phenylketonuria, genetic heterogeneity, frequent compound heterozygosity, and the lack of functional data for phenylalanine hydroxylase genotypes hamper reliable phenotype prediction and individualised treatment. A literature search revealed 690 different phenylalanine hydroxylase genotypes in 3066 phenylketonuria patients from Europe and the Middle East. We determined phenylalanine hydroxylase function of 30 frequent homozygous and compound heterozygous genotypes covering 55% of the study population, generated activity landscapes, and assessed the phenylalanine hydroxylase working range in the metabolic (phenylalanine) and therapeutic (tetrahydrobiopterin) space. Shared patterns in genotype-specific functional landscapes were linked to biochemical and pharmacological phenotypes, where (1) residual activity below 3.5% was associated with classical phenylketonuria unresponsive to pharmacological treatment; (2) lack of defined peak activity induced loss of response to tetrahydrobiopterin; (3) a higher cofactor need was linked to inconsistent clinical phenotypes and low rates of tetrahydrobiopterin response; and (4) residual activity above 5%, a defined peak of activity, and a normal cofactor need were associated with pharmacologically treatable mild phenotypes. In addition, we provide a web application for retrieving country-specific information on genotypes and genotype-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase function that warrants continuous extension, updates, and research on demand. The combination of genotype-specific functional analyses with biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic data of individual patients may serve as a powerful tool to enable phenotype prediction and to establish personalised medicine strategies for dietary regimens and pharmacological treatment in phenylketonuria. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Animal Maltreatment as a Risk Marker of More Frequent and Severe Forms of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Betty Jo; Fitzgerald, Amy; Stevenson, Rochelle; Cheung, Chi Ho

    2017-07-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature documenting the co-occurrence of animal abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV), only a few studies have examined the relationship between animal maltreatment, types of IPV, and abuse severity. The results of those studies have been inconclusive and in some cases even contradictory. The current study contributes new findings to that specific segment of the literature and sheds some light on the inconsistent findings in previous studies. Data were gathered from 86 abused women receiving services from domestic violence shelters across Canada via a structured survey about pet abuse and the level and types of IPV perpetrated by abusive partners. Type and severity of IPV was measured using subscales of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) and the Checklist of Controlling Behaviors (CCB). Animal maltreatment was measured using the Partner's Treatment of Animals Scale (PTAS). Participants were divided into three groups: women who did not have pets during their abusive relationship ( n = 31), women who had pets and reported little or no animal maltreatment ( n = 21), and women who had pets and reported frequent or severe animal maltreatment ( n = 34). Examining within-group variations in experiences of IPV and pet abuse using a series of one-way between-groups ANOVA tests, this study provides evidence to support the conclusion that women who report that their partner mistreated their pets are themselves at significantly greater risk of more frequent and severe forms of IPV, most specifically psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. The findings point to the urgency of better understanding and mitigating the unique barriers to leaving an abusive relationship faced by women with companion animals.

  13. The etiological structure of diseases in frequently ill children depending on age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Levina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the problem of frequently ill children is associated with a significant number of patients who can be assigned to this category. Objective: to present the nosological and etiological structure of diseases in frequently ill children depending on age.Subjects and methods. 243 children aged 1 to 17 years with recurrent respiratory infections were followed up. The children were examined using routine clinical, laboratory, and instrumental examinations. The etiological diagnosisincluded bacteriological examination of the upperrespiratory tract microflora; determination of IgM and IgG antibodies against Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Epstein–Barr virus(EBV, and cytomegalovirus(CMV in blood by enzyme immunoassay and that of Chlamydia and Mycoplasma DNA in pharyngealswabs and that of CMV, EBV and human herpesvirustype 6 DNA in blood by polymerase chain reaction.Results. Recurrentrespiratory diseases were found to be associated with herpesvirusinfection in 75% of the children aged 1 to 6 years, with Streptococcus, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia infections in 16, 10, and 4% of those aged 3 to 6 years, respectively, and to be accompanied by abnormal lymphoid tissue proliferation in 84% of the children aged 3 to 6 years, with the abundant growth of bacterial opportunistic pathogensin one half of the patients. Despite the continuing importance of infectious agents(herpesviruses and streptococci in 29 and 20%, respectively, the chronically ill school-aged children displayed a high incidence of somatic diseases: chronic tonsillitis (43% and chronic sinusitis (14% in children aged older than 12 years and allergic rhinitis (23% in those aged 7 to 17 years. The symptoms of autonomic vascular dystonia were observed in 21% of the patients; cardiac arrhythmias were diagnosed in 14%. 

  14. The Most Frequent Herbs Proposed by Iranian Traditional Medicine for Alopecia Areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezghi, Maedeh; Fahimi, Shirin; Zakerin, Sara

    2016-05-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common immune-mediated hair loss disorder. AA has a reported incidence of 0.1-0.2% with a lifetime risk of 1.7%. Histologically, AA is characterized by the accumulation of mononuclear cells around the bulb of the affected hair follicles. Corticosteroids are the most popular drugs for the treatment of this disease. Despite its high prevalence, currently available treatments are mostly unsatisfactory and inefficient for the more chronic and severe types of the AA. Alopecia areata is a well-known disorder in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). "Da oth-tha , lab" was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate AA. Traditional Iranian physicians believed that the presence of morbid matter in the scalps is the main cause of the disease, which blocks nutrients and causes hair roots to deteriorate. Herbal medicines in the form of topical preparations were applied by ITM scholars for the treatment of AA. This study was performed to determine the most frequent useful herbs for AA as mentioned in ITM. Seven ITM references such as Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo , men tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi,i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi) and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar) were studied for anti-AA medicines. Subsequent to our study, the herbal medicines were listed and scored based on the frequency of their prescriptibility. Moreover, we took the effort to provide the best scientific name for each plant. This study showed that Allium cepa L., Artemisia abrotonon L., Allium sativum L., and Asphodelus ramosus L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM references for the recovery of AA. These herbs can be introduced as new herbal medicines for clinical research in the field of alopecia areata treatment.

  15. Large-scale transcriptome analysis reveals arabidopsis metabolic pathways are frequently influenced by different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhong; He, Fei; Zhang, Ziding

    2017-07-01

    Through large-scale transcriptional data analyses, we highlighted the importance of plant metabolism in plant immunity and identified 26 metabolic pathways that were frequently influenced by the infection of 14 different pathogens. Reprogramming of plant metabolism is a common phenomenon in plant defense responses. Currently, a large number of transcriptional profiles of infected tissues in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been deposited in public databases, which provides a great opportunity to understand the expression patterns of metabolic pathways during plant defense responses at the systems level. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptome analysis based on 135 previously published expression samples, including 14 different pathogens, to explore the expression pattern of Arabidopsis metabolic pathways. Overall, metabolic genes are significantly changed in expression during plant defense responses. Upregulated metabolic genes are enriched on defense responses, and downregulated genes are enriched on photosynthesis, fatty acid and lipid metabolic processes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identifies 26 frequently differentially expressed metabolic pathways (FreDE_Paths) that are differentially expressed in more than 60% of infected samples. These pathways are involved in the generation of energy, fatty acid and lipid metabolism as well as secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Clustering analysis based on the expression levels of these 26 metabolic pathways clearly distinguishes infected and control samples, further suggesting the importance of these metabolic pathways in plant defense responses. By comparing with FreDE_Paths from abiotic stresses, we find that the expression patterns of 26 FreDE_Paths from biotic stresses are more consistent across different infected samples. By investigating the expression correlation between transcriptional factors (TFs) and FreDE_Paths, we identify several notable relationships. Collectively, the current study

  16. Salivary microbiomes of indigenous Tsimane mothers and infants are distinct despite frequent premastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cliff S; Martin, Melanie Ann; Dichosa, Armand E K; Daughton, Ashlynn R; Frietze, Seth; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael D; Alcock, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Premastication, the transfer of pre-chewed food, is a common infant and young child feeding practice among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon. Research conducted primarily with Western populations has shown that infants harbor distinct oral microbiota from their mothers. Premastication, which is less common in these populations, may influence the colonization and maturation of infant oral microbiota, including via transmission of oral pathogens. We collected premasticated food and saliva samples from Tsimane mothers and infants (9-24 months of age) to test for evidence of bacterial transmission in premasticated foods and overlap in maternal and infant salivary microbiota. We extracted bacterial DNA from two premasticated food samples and 12 matched salivary samples from maternal-infant pairs. DNA sequencing was performed with MiSeq (Illumina). We evaluated maternal and infant microbial composition in terms of relative abundance of specific taxa, alpha and beta diversity, and dissimilarity distances. The bacteria in saliva and premasticated food were mapped to 19 phyla and 400 genera and were dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The oral microbial communities of Tsimane mothers and infants who frequently share premasticated food were well-separated in a non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination (NMDS) plot. Infant microbiotas clustered together, with weighted Unifrac distances significantly differing between mothers and infants. Infant saliva contained more Firmicutes ( p  Tsimane infants and young children up to two years of age do not appear closely related to those of their mothers, despite frequent premastication and preliminary evidence that maternal bacteria is transmitted to premasticated foods. Infant physiology and diet may constrain colonization by maternal bacteria, including several oral pathogens.

  17. Students and Doctors are Unaware of the Cost of Drugs they Frequently Prescribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Tim; Tichelaar, Jelle; Nanayakkara, Prabath; Richir, Milan; van Agtmael, Michiel

    2017-03-01

    Given the increasing healthcare costs of an ageing population, there is growing interest in rational prescribing, which takes costs of medication into account. We aimed to gain insight into the attitude to and knowledge of medication costs of medical students and doctors in daily practice. This was a cross-sectional electronic survey among medical students (bachelor/master) and doctors (consultants/registrars). Attitude to costs was evaluated using a cost-consciousness scale. In open questions, the participants estimated the cost of commonly prescribed (generic/non-generic) drugs (including separate pharmacy dispensing costs). They were asked where they could find information about drug costs. Overall, a reasonable cost-consciousness was found. Students were less conscious of the cost than were doctors (15.56 SD 3.25 versus 17.81 SD 2.25; scale 0-24; p = 0.001). In contrast to this consciousness, actual estimated drug costs were within a 25% margin for only 5.4% of generic and 13.7% of proprietary drugs (Wilcoxon signed-rank, p price of generic drugs was frequently overestimated (77.5%) and that of proprietary drugs was underestimated (51.4%). The dispensing costs were estimated correctly for 30% of the drugs. Most doctors (84%) and a minority of students (40%) were able to identify at least one source of information about drug costs. While doctors and students considered it important to be aware of the cost of drugs, this attitude is not reflected in their ability to estimate the cost of frequently prescribed drugs. Cost awareness is important in therapeutic reasoning and cost-effective prescribing. Both should be better addressed in (undergraduate) pharmacotherapy education. © 2016 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  18. The Prevalence of Very Frequent Physical Fighting among Boys and Girls in 27 Countries and Cities: Regional and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Using nationally representative data, this study examined the prevalence of very frequent physical fighting (≥12 times per year among youth in 27 countries and cities. Frequent physical fighting has rarely been reported in the previous literature despite the implications for research and practice. Methods. Analyses were based on the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2003–2008 and the 2009 US Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Multinomial regression analyses were conducted to determine gender differences in frequent fighting. Countries were categorized into five regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, and the United States, and one-way ANOVA tests were used to determine regional differences. Results. The prevalence of frequent fighting was highest in Zambia (7.7% and lowest in Myanmar (0.5%. Gender differences were found in 20 countries, with boys being more likely to report frequent fighting than girls. The prevalence of frequent fighting varied by region (, , with the Eastern Mediterranean having a significantly higher prevalence of frequent fighting than Asia . Conclusion. The prevalence of frequent fighting varies by gender in many countries and varies across world regions. More cross-national research is needed to better understand the sociocultural context of frequent fighting and to inform youth violence prevention efforts.

  19. Periprosthetic Occult Fractures of the Acetabulum Occur Frequently During Primary THA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kabata, Tamon; Kajino, Yoshitomo; Inoue, Daisuke; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum occurring during primary THA are rare. Periprosthetic occult fractures are defined as those not identified by the surgeon during the procedure which might be missed on a routine postoperative radiograph. However, it is unclear how frequently these fractures occur and whether their presence affects functional recovery. In this study, using routine CT scans that were obtained as part of another primary hip arthroplasty study protocol, we retrospectively assessed (1) the prevalence of occult fractures of the acetabulum occurring during primary THA, (2) the location of occult fractures of the acetabulum during THA, and (3) risk factors contributing to such occult fractures. Between 2004 and 2013, our institute performed 585 primary THAs (cementless or hybrid) in 494 patients with DICOM pre- and postoperative CT; during the period in question, all patients undergoing THA underwent CT before and after surgery. Preoperative CT images were taken as part of a CT-based three-dimensional templating software and navigation system. Postoperative CT images were taken an average of 1 week after surgery as part of a different protocol to evaluate cup position, restoration of leg length and offset, volume of postoperative hematoma to assess anticoagulation effects after THA, and fractures that were not found on routine postoperative radiographs (which we defined as occult fractures). Patients with a history of prior pelvic osteotomy, trauma, and infection were excluded (88 patients/99 hips); 406 patients (102 males and 304 females; 486 hips) form the basis of this report. The mean age of the patients was 60 ± 11 years, with a mean BMI of 23 ± 4 kg/m 2 . The mean followup of the patients with periprosthetic fracture of the acetabulum was 58 ± 28 months (range, 12-131 months). Potential risk factors for occult acetabular fracture including age, sex, BMI, preoperative diagnosis, additional dome screw fixation, composition and size of each

  20. PIK3CA mutations frequently coexist with RAS and BRAF mutations in patients with advanced cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Janku

    Full Text Available Oncogenic mutations of PIK3CA, RAS (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF have been identified in various malignancies, and activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MEK pathways, respectively. Both pathways are critical drivers of tumorigenesis.Tumor tissues from 504 patients with diverse cancers referred to the Clinical Center for Targeted Therapy at MD Anderson Cancer Center starting in October 2008 were analyzed for PIK3CA, RAS (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations using polymerase chain reaction-based DNA sequencing.PIK3CA mutations were found in 54 (11% of 504 patients tested; KRAS in 69 (19% of 367; NRAS in 19 (8% of 225; and BRAF in 31 (9% of 361 patients. PIK3CA mutations were most frequent in squamous cervical (5/14, 36%, uterine (7/28, 25%, breast (6/29, 21%, and colorectal cancers (18/105, 17%; KRAS in pancreatic (5/9, 56%, colorectal (49/97, 51%, and uterine cancers (3/20, 15%; NRAS in melanoma (12/40, 30%, and uterine cancer (2/11, 18%; BRAF in melanoma (23/52, 44%, and colorectal cancer (5/88, 6%. Regardless of histology, KRAS mutations were found in 38% of patients with PIK3CA mutations compared to 16% of patients with wild-type (wtPIK3CA (p = 0.001. In total, RAS (KRAS, NRAS or BRAF mutations were found in 47% of patients with PIK3CA mutations vs. 24% of patients wtPIK3CA (p = 0.001. PIK3CA mutations were found in 28% of patients with KRAS mutations compared to 10% with wtKRAS (p = 0.001 and in 20% of patients with RAS (KRAS, NRAS or BRAF mutations compared to 8% with wtRAS (KRAS, NRAS or wtBRAF (p = 0.001.PIK3CA, RAS (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are frequent in diverse tumors. In a wide variety of tumors, PIK3CA mutations coexist with RAS (KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations.

  1. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng; Li, Wei; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Huang, Ou-Ping; He, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  2. Frequently Identified Gaps in Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Critical Access Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Philip; Nailon, Regina; Tyner, Kate; Beach, Sue; Bergman, Scott; Drake, Margaret; Fitzgerald, Teresa; Lyden, Elizabeth; Rupp, Mark E; Schwedhelm, Michelle; Tierney, Maureen; Schooneveld, Trevor Van; Ashraf, Muhammad Salman

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Nebraska (NE) Infection Control Assessment and Promotion Program (ICAP) is a CDC funded project. ICAP team works in collaboration with NE Department of Health and Human Services (NEDHHS) to assess and improve infection prevention and control programs (IPCP) in various health care settings including resource limited settings like critical access hospitals (CAH). Little is known about the existing gaps in antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) of CAH. Hence, we decided to study the current level of ASP activities and factors associated with these activities in CAH. Methods NE ICAP conducted on-site surveys in 36 CAH from October 2015 to February 2017. ASP activities related to the 7 CDC recommended core elements (CE) including leadership support (LS), accountability, drug expertise (DE), action, tracking, reporting, and education were assessed using a CDC Infection Control Assessment Tool for acute care hospitals. Descriptive analyses evaluated CAH characteristics and frequency of CE implementation. Fisher’s exact, Mann–Whitney, and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used for statistical analyses examining the association of various factors with level of ASP activities. Results The 36 surveyed CAH had a median of 20 (range 10–25) beds and employed a median of 0.4 (range 0.1–1.6) infection preventionist (IP) full-time equivalent (FTE)/25-bed. Frequency of CE implementation varied among CAH with action and LS as the most (69%) and least (28%) frequently implemented elements, respectively. Close to half (47%) of surveyed CAH had implemented ≥4 CE but only 14% of facilities had all 7 CE. Median bed size and IP FTE/25-bed were similar among CAH with 0–2, 3-5, or ≥6 CE in place. CAH with LS or accountability for ASP implemented higher median numbers of the remaining CE compared with CAH without LS or accountability (5 vs. 2, P < 0.01 and 4 vs. 2, P < 0.01, respectively). Facilities with The presence of LS, accountability and drug expertise

  3. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Li, Wei [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Mei-Zhen [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Xu, Xiao-Yun [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Ou-Ping, E-mail: huangouping@gmail.com [Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: jxhm56@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Nanchang University School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  4. Case management for frequent users of the emergency department: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Patrick; Velonaki, Venetia-Sofia; Ruggeri, Ornella; Hugli, Olivier; Burnand, Bernard; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Moschetti, Karine; Iglesias, Katia; Baggio, Stéphanie; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2014-06-17

    We devised a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an intervention based on case management care for frequent emergency department users. The aim of the intervention is to reduce such patients' emergency department use, to improve their quality of life, and to reduce costs consequent on frequent use. The intervention consists of a combination of comprehensive case management care and standard emergency care. It uses a clinical case management model that is patient-identified, patient-directed, and developed to provide high intensity services. It provides a continuum of hospital- and community-based patient services, which include clinical assessment, outreach referral, and coordination and communication with other service providers. We aim to recruit, during the first year of the study, 250 patients who visit the emergency department of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland. Eligible patients will have visited the emergency department 5 or more times during the previous 12 months. Randomisation of the participants to the intervention or control groups will be computer generated and concealed. The statistician and each patient will be blinded to the patient's allocation. Participants in the intervention group (N = 125), additionally to standard emergency care, will receive case management from a team, 1 (ambulatory care) to 3 (hospitalization) times during their stay and after 1, 3, and 5 months, at their residence, in the hospital or in the ambulatory care setting. In between the consultations provided, the patients will have the opportunity to contact, at any moment, the case management team. Participants in the control group (N = 125) will receive standard emergency care only. Data will be collected at baseline and 2, 5.5, 9, and 12 months later, including: number of emergency department visits, quality of life (EuroQOL and WHOQOL), health services use, and relevant costs. Data on feelings of discrimination

  5. Salivary microbiomes of indigenous Tsimane mothers and infants are distinct despite frequent premastication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliff S. Han

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Premastication, the transfer of pre-chewed food, is a common infant and young child feeding practice among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon. Research conducted primarily with Western populations has shown that infants harbor distinct oral microbiota from their mothers. Premastication, which is less common in these populations, may influence the colonization and maturation of infant oral microbiota, including via transmission of oral pathogens. We collected premasticated food and saliva samples from Tsimane mothers and infants (9–24 months of age to test for evidence of bacterial transmission in premasticated foods and overlap in maternal and infant salivary microbiota. We extracted bacterial DNA from two premasticated food samples and 12 matched salivary samples from maternal-infant pairs. DNA sequencing was performed with MiSeq (Illumina. We evaluated maternal and infant microbial composition in terms of relative abundance of specific taxa, alpha and beta diversity, and dissimilarity distances. Results The bacteria in saliva and premasticated food were mapped to 19 phyla and 400 genera and were dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The oral microbial communities of Tsimane mothers and infants who frequently share premasticated food were well-separated in a non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination (NMDS plot. Infant microbiotas clustered together, with weighted Unifrac distances significantly differing between mothers and infants. Infant saliva contained more Firmicutes (p < 0.01 and fewer Proteobacteria (p < 0.05 than did maternal saliva. Many genera previously associated with dental and periodontal infections, e.g. Neisseria, Gemella, Rothia, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, and Leptotrichia, were more abundant in mothers than in infants. Conclusions Salivary microbiota of Tsimane infants and young children up to two years of age do not appear closely

  6. Outcomes of a telemonitoring-based program (telEPOC in frequently hospitalized COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cristóbal Esteban,1,2 Javier Moraza,1 Milagros Iriberri,3 Urko Aguirre,2,4 Begoña Goiria,5 José M Quintana,2,4 Myriam Aburto,1 Alberto Capelastegui1 1Pneumology Department, Galdakao-Usansolo Hospital, Galdakao, 2Red de Investigación en Servicios Sanitarios y Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC, Bilbao, 3Pneumology Department, Cruces Hospital, Barakaldo, 4Research Unit, Galdakao-Usansolo Hospital, Galdakao, 5Primary Care Unit, Barrualde Integrated Healthcare Organisation (OSI-Barrualde, Spain Background: The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases requires changes in health care delivery. In COPD, telemedicine appears to be a useful tool. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy (in improving health care-resource use and clinical outcomes of a telemonitoring-based program (telEPOC in COPD patients with frequent hospitalizations. Materials and methods: We conducted a nonrandomized observational study in an intervention cohort of 119 patients (Galdakao-Usansolo Hospital and a control cohort of 78 patients (Cruces Hospital, followed up for 2 years (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02528370. The inclusion criteria were two or more hospital admissions in the previous year or three or more admissions in the previous 2 years. The intervention group received telemonitoring plus education and controls usual care. Results: Most participants were men (13% women, and the sample had a mean age of 70 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 45%, Charlson comorbidity index score of 3.5, and BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index score of 4.1. In multivariate analysis, the intervention was independently related to lower rates of hospital admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27–0.54; P<0.0001, emergency department attendance (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35–0.92; P<0.02, and 30-day readmission (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29–0.74; P<0.001, as well as cumulative length of stay (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0

  7. Is the Field of Numbers a Real Physical Field? On the Frequent Distribution and Masses of the Elementary Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the fractions of integers (rational numbers, local maxima which meet the ratios of masses of the elementary particles have been found.

  8. Is the Field of Numbers a Real Physical Field? On the Frequent Distribution and Masses of the Elementary Patricles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the fractions of integers (rational numbers, local maxima which meet the ratios of masses of the elementary particles have been found.

  9. Rhinocerebral zygomycosis: an increasingly frequent challenge: update and favorable outcomes in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed N; Cohen, Donald M; Celestina, Leslie J; Ojha, Junu; Claudio, Reinaldo; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel B

    2007-11-01

    Zygomycosis or mucormycosis is an increasingly frequent life-threatening infection caused by opportunistic fungal organisms of the class Zygomycetes. The pathognomonic feature is the presence of invasive aseptate mycelia that are larger than other filamentous fungi with the hyphae exhibiting right angle and haphazard branching. Usually classified as rhinocerebral, disseminated, and cutaneous types, this classification serves as important predictor of pathogenesis and outcome. These occur mostly in immunosuppressed patients including individuals with diabetes (43% exhibit the rhino-cerebral form) and patients with organ transplants and hematologic malignancies. Without early aggressive treatment, the disease follows a dismal and fatal course. The prognosis has not shown any appreciable change in the past 40 years with a stagnant mortality rate of 44%. We present 2 cases of rhinocerebral zygomycosis (RCZ), in a 58-year-old male and a 63-year-old female; both were poorly controlled diabetic patients with maxillary lesions suggestive of osteomyelitis. The patients were leading a near normal life with minimal discomfort or signs and symptoms of underlying mycosis. Most of the health care professionals treating these patients often overlooked the disease or recommended inadequate therapy. Despite long delays and inadequate initial therapy these patients survived with little outward morbidity. The prognosis for this condition may therefore be considered less dire than previously thought.

  10. Rodent-specific alternative exons are more frequent in rapidly evolving genes and in paralogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Andrey A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is an important mechanism for generating functional and evolutionary diversity of proteins in eukaryotes. Here, we studied the frequency and functionality of recently gained, rodent-specific alternative exons. Results We projected the data about alternative splicing of mouse genes to the rat, human, and dog genomes, and identified exons conserved in the rat genome, but missing in more distant genomes. We estimated the frequency of rodent-specific exons while controlling for possible residual conservation of spurious exons. The frequency of rodent-specific exons is higher among predominantly skipped exons and exons disrupting the reading frame. Separation of all genes by the rate of sequence evolution and by gene families has demonstrated that rodent-specific cassette exons are more frequent in rapidly evolving genes and in rodent-specific paralogs. Conclusion Thus we demonstrated that recently gained exons tend to occur in fast-evolving genes, and their inclusion rate tends to be lower than that of older exons. This agrees with the theory that gain of alternative exons is one of the major mechanisms of gene evolution.

  11. Castration resistance in human prostate cancer is conferred by a frequently occurring androgen receptor splice variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shihua; Sprenger, Cynthia C.T.; Vessella, Robert L.; Haugk, Kathleen; Soriano, Kathryn; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Page, Stephanie T.; Coleman, Ilsa M.; Nguyen, Holly M.; Sun, Huiying; Nelson, Peter S.; Plymate, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Progression of prostate cancer following castration is associated with increased androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling despite AR blockade. Recent studies suggest that these activities are due to the generation of constitutively active AR splice variants, but the mechanisms by which these splice variants could mediate such effects are not fully understood. Here we have identified what we believe to be a novel human AR splice variant in which exons 5, 6, and 7 are deleted (ARv567es) and demonstrated that this variant can contribute to cancer progression in human prostate cancer xenograft models in mice following castration. We determined that, in human prostate cancer cell lines, ARv567es functioned as a constitutively active receptor, increased expression of full-length AR (ARfl), and enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR. In human xenografts, human prostate cancer cells transfected with ARv567es cDNA formed tumors that were resistant to castration. Furthermore, the ratio of ARv567es to ARfl expression within the xenografts positively correlated with resistance to castration. Importantly, we also detected ARv567es frequently in human prostate cancer metastases. In summary, these data indicate that constitutively active AR splice variants can contribute to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancers and may serve as biomarkers for patients who are likely to suffer from early recurrence and are candidates for therapies directly targeting the AR rather than ligand. PMID:20644256

  12. Major venous anomalies are frequently associated with horseshoe kidneys. Value of multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tamaki; Kawada, Shuichi; Koizumi, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Several cases of horseshoe kidney with anomalous inferior vena cava (IVC) have been described, but there have been no reports of the incidence and variation of anomalous IVC in patients with horseshoe kidneys detected using multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). 105 patients with horseshoe kidneys were evaluated with MDCT and a variety of venous anomalies were identified in 30 patients (28.6%). Anatomical variations of the renal vein were identified in 24 patients (22.9%), which was no higher than the reported incidence in the general population. However, variations of the IVC were identified in 6 patients (5.7%), which was a higher incidence than expected to be found in the general population: 1 pre-isthmic IVC with retrocaval ureter, 2 double IVCs posterior to the horseshoe kidney, 2 left IVCs posterior to the horseshoe kidney, and 1 azygos continuation of the IVC. Horseshoe kidneys are frequently found in patients with other venous, and particularly IVC, anomalies, which should be evaluated using MDCT as part of treatment planning. (author)

  13. Factors Influencing Electronic Government Adoption Perspectives Of Less Frequent Internet Users Of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Alam Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much literature on electronic government services research could be found on adoptability issues from government and service providers point of view. Many studies have looked into adoptability factors from user perspectives and majority captured adoptability perspectives of frequent Internet users the ones who use Internet applications for more than 10 hours a week. On the contrary the perspectives of majority of Pakistani users which use Internet applications for less than 10 hours per week are never inquired. This paper tries to fill this gap by looking into electronic government adoptability perspectives and expectations of such Internet users of Pakistan which are much greater in numbers than others. An amended UTAUT model with all its moderators is used in this study and the results demonstrate that performance level ease of effort and social influence strongly effect behavioral intention of users in using electronic government services in Pakistan. The individuals behavioral intention along with presence of appropriate facilitating conditions triggers use behavior of users. The results show that only gender moderates majority of UTAUT relationships and accordingly a modified UTAUT model is presented. The paper provides certain insights for people making policies and academicians for performing further research while it stresses for service proliferation with special attention towards female population.

  14. Do poor people sue doctors more frequently? Confronting unconscious bias and the role of cultural competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Frank M; White, Augustus A; Jimenez, Ramon L; Fahmy, Sherin

    2012-05-01

    There is a perception that socioeconomically disadvantaged patients tend to sue their doctors more frequently. As a result, some physicians may be reluctant to treat poor patients or treat such patients differently from other patient groups in terms of medical care provided. We (1) examined existing literature to refute the notion that poor patients are inclined to sue doctors more than other patients, (2) explored unconscious bias as an explanation as to why the perception of the poor being more litigious may exist despite evidence to the contrary, and (3) assessed the role of culturally competent awareness and knowledge in confronting physician bias. We reviewed medical and social literature to identify studies that have examined differences in litigation rates and related medical malpractice claims among socioeconomically disadvantaged patients versus other groups of patients. Contrary to popular perception, existing studies show poor patients, in fact, tend to sue physicians less often. This may be related to a relative lack of access to legal resources and the nature of the contingency fee system in medical malpractice claims. Misperceptions such as the one examined in this article that assume a relationship between patient poverty and medical malpractice litigation may arise from unconscious physician bias and other social variables. Cultural competency can be helpful in mitigating such bias, improving medical care, and addressing the risk of medical malpractice claims.

  15. The 101 most frequently cited articles in ophthalmology journals from 1850 to 1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Norio; Nakao, Kumiko

    2010-12-01

    We screened 32 ophthalmology journals that had published articles during the period from 1850 through 1949 to identify top-cited articles in the field of ophthalmology (hereafter referred to as citation classics) using the online database Science Citation Index Expanded (Thompson Reuters, Chicago, Illinois). The 101 most frequently cited articles were published in 16 journals. Archives of Ophthalmology had the most top-cited articles (n = 31), followed by American Journal of Ophthalmology (n = 24) and Albrecht von Graefe's Archiv für Ophthalmologie (n = 9). These articles originated from 14 countries, with the United States publishing the majority (n = 58). Most of the citation classics are clinical studies on topics such as rubella cataract, retinopathy of prematurity, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, sympathetic ophthalmia, and the first report of eponymous diseases (eg, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, Duane retraction syndrome, and Stargardt disease). A considerable number of these articles were ignored initially and for several decades after publication, but, like the classic fairy tale Sleeping Beauty, they have been rediscovered. Our study provides a historical perspective on the classic papers in the literature that are still influential in ophthalmology.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnoea is frequent in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banghoej, Anne Margareta; Nerild, Henriette Holst; Kristensen, Peter Lommer

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is frequent in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence of OSA in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, all patients with type 1 diabetes attending the outpatient clinic were offered screening...... for OSA for one night with the ApneaLink+ home-monitoring device. OSA was classified by the Apnoea-Hypopnea index (AHI; apnoeas/hypopneas per hour sleep). Symptoms of OSA were scored using the Epworth Sleepiness Score. Presence of autonomic neuropathy was evaluated by the Vagus® device. RESULTS: A total...... of 200 of 518 eligible patients with type 1 diabetes (39%) participated (68% men; age 52±15years (mean±SD), diabetes duration 24±14years and BMI 25.3±3.3kg/m(2)). OSA was diagnosed in 92 patients (46% (95% CI: 40-53)). Five patients had known OSA, and OSA was newly diagnosed in 87 patients, predominantly...

  17. Myelitis in systemic lupus erythematosus frequently manifests as longitudinal and sometimes occurs at low disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X-Y; Xiao, P; Xiao, H-B; Zhang, L-J; Pai, P; Chu, P; Chan, T-M

    2014-10-01

    Transverse myelitis (TM) is a relatively infrequent but severe complication in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Owing to its rarity and unfavorable outcome, we investigated its general features on MRI and incidence in the context of lupus activity, to facilitate early recognition and treatment. We report a case of a young man with clinically inactive lupus nephritis but who presented with a sudden attack of myelitis. We performed systematic literature search in Medline to study the clinical features of SLE-related TM. From 1960 to April 2013, a total of 72 articles containing 194 cases of lupus myelitis were found. Among acquired articles, 93 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of the cases (88.8%) were female. Longitudinal myelitis was the predominant imaging finding on MRI (71.4%, 45/63). Nearly two-thirds (61/94) of lupus myelitis occurred in association with active lupus, and one-third (33/94) occurred in low disease activity. Upon literature review, we found myelitis in SLE more frequently manifested as longitudinal on MRI. Although lupus myelitis often presented at an active phase of SLE, one-third of events happened in the presence of low disease activity. Early initiation of effective immunosuppressive therapy facilitated recovery. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Interference of the new oral anticoagulant dabigatran with frequently used coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbmayer, Walter-Michael; Weigel, Guenter; Quehenberger, Peter; Tomasits, Josef; Haushofer, Alexander C; Aspoeck, Gerold; Loacker, Lorin; Schnapka-Koepf, Mirjam; Goebel, Georg; Griesmacher, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Dabigatran etexilate is a new oral anticoagulant for the therapy and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. To investigate the extent of interactions of this new anticoagulant with frequently used coagulation assays, we completed a multicenter in vitro trial with Conformité Européenne(CE)-labeled dabigatran-spiked plasma samples. Lyophilized plasma samples with dabigatran concentrations ranging from 0.00 to 0.48 μg/mL were sent to the coagulation laboratories of six major Austrian hospitals for evaluation. Coagulation assays were performed under routine conditions using standard reagents and analyzer. Dabigatran led to a dose-dependent prolongation of the clotting times in coagulometric tests and influenced the majority of the parameters measured. Statistically significant interference could be observed with the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and PT/aPTT-based assays (extrinsic/intrinsic factors, APC-resistance test) as well as lupus anticoagulant testing. Even non-clotting tests, such as the colorimetric factor XIII activity assay and to a minor extent the amidolytic antithrombin activity assay (via factor IIa) were affected. This multicenter trial confirms and also adds to existing data, demonstrating that laboratories should expect to observe strong interferences of coagulation tests with increasing concentrations of dabigatran. This finding might become particularly important in the elderly and in patients with renal impairment as well as patients whose blood is drawn at peak levels of dabigatran.

  19. Sialorrhoea: How to Manage a Frequent Complication of Motor Neuron Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pellegrini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sialorrhoea, the unintentional loss of saliva through the mouth, is the frequent complication of neurological disorders affecting strength or coordination of oropharyngeal muscles, such as motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS or Parkinson’s disease. Sialorrhoea might affect up to 42% of ALS patients, with almost half of them having poorly managed symptoms. Sialorrhoea can impair patients’ social life, while dermatological complications, such as skin rashes, may arise due to constant exposure to moisture. Moreover, the excess mouth-retained saliva in ALS patients may lead to serious complications, such as choking, which causes anxiety, and aspiration with the consequent pneumonia. The inclusion of a sialorrhoea-related item in the ALS functional rating scale testifies both the incidence and importance of sialorrhoea during the ALS clinical course. Because of the progressive nature of ALS, presence and severity of sialorrhoea should be assessed at every visit and, when present, active treatment pursued. Available treatments include behavioural therapy, i.e. techniques to enhance periodic swallowing of saliva, systemic or local anticholinergic medications, botulinum toxin injection, electron beam irradiation, and surgical techniques. This review paper briefly describes the available options with related side-effects and current guideline recommendations for managing sialorrhoea in ALS patients.

  20. An efficient, versatile and scalable pattern growth approach to mine frequent patterns in unaligned protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kai; Kosters, Walter A; Ijzerman, Adriaan P

    2007-03-15

    Pattern discovery in protein sequences is often based on multiple sequence alignments (MSA). The procedure can be computationally intensive and often requires manual adjustment, which may be particularly difficult for a set of deviating sequences. In contrast, two algorithms, PRATT2 (http//www.ebi.ac.uk/pratt/) and TEIRESIAS (http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/) are used to directly identify frequent patterns from unaligned biological sequences without an attempt to align them. Here we propose a new algorithm with more efficiency and more functionality than both PRATT2 and TEIRESIAS, and discuss some of its applications to G protein-coupled receptors, a protein family of important drug targets. In this study, we designed and implemented six algorithms to mine three different pattern types from either one or two datasets using a pattern growth approach. We compared our approach to PRATT2 and TEIRESIAS in efficiency, completeness and the diversity of pattern types. Compared to PRATT2, our approach is faster, capable of processing large datasets and able to identify the so-called type III patterns. Our approach is comparable to TEIRESIAS in the discovery of the so-called type I patterns but has additional functionality such as mining the so-called type II and type III patterns and finding discriminating patterns between two datasets. The source code for pattern growth algorithms and their pseudo-code are available at http://www.liacs.nl/home/kosters/pg/.

  1. MOXD2, a Gene Possibly Associated with Olfaction, Is Frequently Inactivated in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chul Jun; Choi, Dongjin; Park, Dong-Bin; Kim, Hyein; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate MOXD2 encodes a monooxygenase DBH-like 2 protein that could be involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, potentially during olfactory transduction. Loss of MOXD2 in apes and whales has been proposed to be associated with evolution of olfaction in these clades. We analyzed 57 bird genomes to identify MOXD2 sequences and found frequent loss of MOXD2 in 38 birds. Among the 57 birds, 19 species appeared to have an intact MOXD2 that encoded a full-length protein; 32 birds had a gene with open reading frame-disrupting point mutations and/or exon deletions; and the remaining 6 species did not show any MOXD2 sequence, suggesting a whole-gene deletion. Notably, among 10 passerine birds examined, 9 species shared a common genomic deletion that spanned several exons, implying the gene loss occurred in a common ancestor of these birds. However, 2 closely related penguin species, each of which had an inactive MOXD2, did not share any mutation, suggesting an independent loss after their divergence. Distribution of the 38 birds without an intact MOXD2 in the bird phylogenetic tree clearly indicates that MOXD2 loss is widespread and independent in bird lineages. We propose that widespread MOXD2 loss in some bird lineages may be implicated in the evolution of olfactory perception in these birds.

  2. ACME: A scalable parallel system for extracting frequent patterns from a very long sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Sahli, Majed

    2014-10-02

    Modern applications, including bioinformatics, time series, and web log analysis, require the extraction of frequent patterns, called motifs, from one very long (i.e., several gigabytes) sequence. Existing approaches are either heuristics that are error-prone, or exact (also called combinatorial) methods that are extremely slow, therefore, applicable only to very small sequences (i.e., in the order of megabytes). This paper presents ACME, a combinatorial approach that scales to gigabyte-long sequences and is the first to support supermaximal motifs. ACME is a versatile parallel system that can be deployed on desktop multi-core systems, or on thousands of CPUs in the cloud. However, merely using more compute nodes does not guarantee efficiency, because of the related overheads. To this end, ACME introduces an automatic tuning mechanism that suggests the appropriate number of CPUs to utilize, in order to meet the user constraints in terms of run time, while minimizing the financial cost of cloud resources. Our experiments show that, compared to the state of the art, ACME supports three orders of magnitude longer sequences (e.g., DNA for the entire human genome); handles large alphabets (e.g., English alphabet for Wikipedia); scales out to 16,384 CPUs on a supercomputer; and supports elastic deployment in the cloud.

  3. Intestinal parasites of Tolypeutes matacus, the most frequently consumed armadillo in the Chaco region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Ríos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest, 1804 is distributed from eastern Bolivia, south-west Brazil, the Gran Chaco of Paraguay and Argentina, and lives in areas with dry vegetation. This armadillo is one of the most frequently consumed species by people in this area. The objective of this work was test for zoonotic species among helminths in 12 intestinal tracts of T. matacus in a locality from the Argentinean Chaco (Chamical, La Rioja province. The parasites were studied with conventional parasite morphology and morphometrics, and prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance were calculated for each species encountered. In the small intestine, seven species of nematodes and two species of cestodes were identified. In the large intestine, two species of nematodes were recorded. We did not find zoonotic species but have added new host records. This study in the Chaco region thus contributes to growing knowledge of the parasite fauna associated with armadillo species in this region.

  4. Next-Gen Sequencing Exposes Frequent MED12 Mutations and Actionable Therapeutic Targets in Phyllodes Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Andi K.; Hovelson, Daniel H.; McDaniel, Andrew S.; Sadis, Seth; Haller, Michaela J.; Yadati, Venkata; Amin, Anmol M.; Bratley, Jarred; Bandla, Santhoshi; Williams, Paul D.; Rhodes, Kate; Liu, Chia-Jen; Quist, Michael J.; Rhodes, Daniel R.; Grasso, Catherine S.; Kleer, Celina G.; Tomlins, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors with variable clinical behavior accounting for a small subset of all breast neoplasms, yet little is known about the genetic alterations that drive tumor initiation and/or progression. Here targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify somatic alterations in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) patient specimens from malignant, borderline and benign cases. NGS revealed mutations in mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) affecting the G44 hotspot residue in the majority (67%) of cases spanning all three histological grades. In addition, loss-of-function mutations in p53 (TP53) as well as deleterious mutations in the tumor suppressors retinoblastoma (RB1) and neurofibromin 1 (NF1) were identified exclusively in malignant tumors. High-level copy number alterations (CNAs) were nearly exclusively confined to malignant tumors, including potentially clinically actionable gene amplifications in IGF1R and EGFR. Taken together, this study defines the genomic landscape underlying phyllodes tumor development, suggests potential molecular correlates to histologic grade, expands the spectrum of human tumors with frequent recurrent MED12 mutations, and identifies IGF1R and EGFR as potential therapeutic targets in malignant cases. PMID:25593300

  5. Oral cannabidiol does not produce a signal for abuse liability in frequent marijuana smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalonis, Shanna; Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J; Lofwall, Michelle R; Votaw, Victoria R; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L

    2017-03-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of the marijuana plant. In the past few years, there has been great interest in the therapeutic effects of isolated CBD and it is currently being explored for numerous disease conditions (e.g., pain, epilepsy, cancer, various drug dependencies). However, CBD remains a Schedule I drug on the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Despite its status, there are no well-controlled data available regarding its abuse liability. Healthy, frequent marijuana users (n=31) were enrolled in this within subject, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multisite study that administered oral cannabidiol (0, 200, 400, 800mg) alone and in combination with smoked marijuana (0.01%, 5.3-5.8% THC). Participants received one dose combination across 8 once-weekly outpatient sessions (7.5h). The primary findings on the drug interaction effects were previously reported (Haney et al., 2016). The present study is a secondary analysis of the data to examine the abuse liability profile of oral cannabidiol (200, 400, 800mg) in comparison to oral placebo and active smoked marijuana (5.3-5.8% THC). Active marijuana reliably produced abuse-related subjective effects (e.g., high) (p0.05). Overall, CBD did not display any signals of abuse liability at the doses tested and these data may help inform U.S. regulatory decisions regarding CBD schedule on the CSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H.; Foroghi, M.; Farhadkhani, M.; Vahid Dastjerdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  7. The Most Frequent Metacognitive Strategies Used in Reading Comprehension among ESP Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading strategies are plans for solving problems encountered during reading while learners are deeply engage with the text. So, comprehension is not a simple decoding of symbols, but a complex multidimensional process in which the leaner draws on previous schemata applying strategies consciously. In fact, metacognitive strategies are accessible versatile vehicles if the readers are aware and cognizant of their applications. This paper studied the most frequent used strategies by Iranian ESP students. Fifty six students completed 30-item questionnaire of MARSI (2002. It included three strategy categories: Problem Solving strategies (PROB, Global Reading strategies (GLOB, and Support strategies (SUP. Results indicated that students at the highest level perceived PROB strategies up to 58.93%, SUP strategies up to 32.14%, and GLOB strategies up to 30.37%. Ranking the individual strategies represented that the highest used strategies are strategy 8 (overall mean= 3.51, strategy 20 (overall mean=3.52 and strategy 11 (overall mean=3.77. Keywords: ESP, Metacognitive strategies, Problem Solving strategies, Global Reading strategies, Support strategies

  8. DeBi: Discovering Differentially Expressed Biclusters using a Frequent Itemset Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingron Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of massive high throughput data via clustering algorithms is very important for elucidating gene functions in biological systems. However, traditional clustering methods have several drawbacks. Biclustering overcomes these limitations by grouping genes and samples simultaneously. It discovers subsets of genes that are co-expressed in certain samples. Recent studies showed that biclustering has a great potential in detecting marker genes that are associated with certain tissues or diseases. Several biclustering algorithms have been proposed. However, it is still a challenge to find biclusters that are significant based on biological validation measures. Besides that, there is a need for a biclustering algorithm that is capable of analyzing very large datasets in reasonable time. Results Here we present a fast biclustering algorithm called DeBi (Differentially Expressed BIclusters. The algorithm is based on a well known data mining approach called frequent itemset. It discovers maximum size homogeneous biclusters in which each gene is strongly associated with a subset of samples. We evaluate the performance of DeBi on a yeast dataset, on synthetic datasets and on human datasets. Conclusions We demonstrate that the DeBi algorithm provides functionally more coherent gene sets compared to standard clustering or biclustering algorithms using biological validation measures such as Gene Ontology term and Transcription Factor Binding Site enrichment. We show that DeBi is a computationally efficient and powerful tool in analyzing large datasets. The method is also applicable on multiple gene expression datasets coming from different labs or platforms.

  9. Two frequent mutations associated with the classic form of propionic acidemia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yen-Hui; Liu, Yu-Ning; Liao, Wei-Ling; Chang, Ying-Chen; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chiu, Pao-Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming; Wang, Chung-Hsing; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Liu, Tze-Tze

    2014-10-01

    Propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) is involved in the catabolism of branched chain amino acids, odd-numbered fatty acids, cholesterol, and other metabolites. PCC consists of two subunits, α and β, encoded by the PCCA and PCCB genes, respectively. Mutations in the PCCA or PCCB subunit gene may lead to propionic acidemia. In this study, we performed mutation analysis on ten propionic acidemia patients from eight unrelated and nonconsanguineous families in Taiwan. Two PCCA mutations, c.229C→T (p.R77W) and c.1262A→C (p.Q421P), were identified in a PCCA-deficient patient. Six mutations in the PCCB gene, including c.-4156_183+3713del, c.580T→C (p.S194P), c.838dup (p.L280Pfs 11), c.1301C→T (p.A434V), c.1316A→G (P.Y439C), and c.1534C→T (p.R512C), were identified in seven PCCB-deficient families. The c.-4156_183+3713del mutation is the first known large deletion that affects the PCCB gene functions. Furthermore, the c.1301C→T and c.-4156_183+3713del mutations in the PCCB gene have not been reported previously. Clinical features demonstrated that these two frequent mutations are associated with low enzyme activity and a classic propionic acidemia phenotype.

  10. Phylogeny and genomics of SAUL, an enigmatic bacterial lineage frequently associated with marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-García, Carmen; Slaby, Beate M; Waite, David W; Bayer, Kristina; Hentschel, Ute; Taylor, Michael W

    2018-02-01

    Many marine sponges contain dense and diverse communities of associated microorganisms. Members of the 'sponge-associated unclassified lineage' (SAUL) are frequently recorded from sponges, yet little is known about these bacteria. Here we investigated the distribution and phylogenetic status of SAUL. A meta-analysis of the available literature revealed the widespread distribution of this clade and its association with taxonomically varied sponge hosts. Phylogenetic analyses, conducted using both 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny and concatenated marker protein sequences, revealed that SAUL is a sister clade of the candidate phylum 'Latescibacteria'. Furthermore, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of two draft genomes assembled from sponge metagenomes, revealing novel insights into the physiology of this symbiont. Metabolic reconstruction suggested that SAUL members are aerobic bacteria with facultative anaerobic metabolism, with the capacity to degrade multiple sponge- and algae-derived carbohydrates. We described for the first time in a sponge symbiont the putative genomic capacity to transport phosphate into the cell and to produce and store polyphosphate granules, presumably constituting a phosphate reservoir for the sponge host in deprivation periods. Our findings suggest that the lifestyle of SAUL is symbiotic with the host sponge, and identify symbiont factors which may facilitate the establishment and maintenance of this relationship. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Frequent Change Request From User to Handle Cost on Project in Agile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Aziz Butt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agile has invented to improve and overcome Draw backs of software development. Now agile model is using in software development very vastly. It is facilitating the developer and client both very resourcefully. It is getting popularity than the other Software Development Life Cycle models because of its characteristics and most owing to allow change request at any level of the project. The client in the software development is the main part and asset of the company. The software house always focuses on its client because client is an asset. Thus developer has major concern with the client’s requirement and change request. Agile is getting popularity because of allow change request at any stage of project, on the other hand it is also a drawback in agile model because when project starts the project’s completion time and cost is decided. But due to frequent change of requests come from client the cost and completion time both increase eventually which is not good for software house’s business and reputation. So there is need a cost and time estimation technique to solve change request issue in agile model.

  12. [Chemical composition, dietary fiber and mineral content of frequently consumed foods in northwest Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, M I; Caire, G; Sánchez, A; Valencia, M E

    1995-06-01

    Nutrient composition in foods is very important specially in evaluation of nutritional status in populations. In this study the proximate composition, dietary fiber (DF) and mineral content of 15 frequently consumed foods in Northwest Mexico were determined. The procedures used were AOAC (1984) official methods, chemical-enzymatic method for DF and atomic absorption spectrophometry for minerals. Foods were grouped into cereals, legumes, meat and dairy products, fat was the most variable component in all foods (0,41 to 21,1 g/100 g). Fired beans (Phaseolus vulgaris: variedad pinto) had the highest DF content (9,21 g/100g); as is basis). Sodium among the minerales was also highly variable mainly due to the addition of salt during preparation of foods, except in corn tortillas were salt is not added. In contrast wheat flour tortillas had the highest sodium content of the foods analysed. Fresh white cheese had the highest calcium content (563 mg/100g). The meat group had the highest content of Fe and Zn (2,4-5,4 and 4,2-5,4 mg/100 g respectively). This study has provided information with current analytical techniques of important foods in northwest Mexico that will contribute to food composition tables in Latin America.

  13. Oral cannabidiol does not produce a signal for abuse liability in frequent marijuana smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalonis, Shanna; Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Votaw, Victoria R.; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of the marijuana plant. In the past few years, there has been great interest in the therapeutic effects of isolated CBD and it is currently being explored for numerous disease conditions (e.g., pain, epilepsy, cancer, various drug dependencies). However, CBD remains a Schedule I drug on the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Despite its status, there are no well-controlled data available regarding its abuse liability. Methods Healthy, frequent marijuana users (n=31) were enrolled in this within subject, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multisite study that administered oral cannabidiol (0, 200, 400, 800 mg) alone and in combination with smoked marijuana (0.01%, 5.3-5.8% THC). Participants received one dose combination across 8 once-weekly outpatient sessions (7.5 hrs). The primary findings on the drug interaction effects were previously reported (Haney et al., 2016). The present study is a secondary analysis of the data to examine the abuse liability profile of oral cannabidiol (200, 400, 800 mg) in comparison to oral placebo and active smoked marijuana (5.3-5.8% THC). Results Active marijuana reliably produced abuse-related subjective effects (e.g., high) (p.05). Conclusions Overall, CBD did not display any signals of abuse liability at the doses tested and these data may help inform U.S. regulatory decisions regarding CBD schedule on the CSA. PMID:28088032

  14. How frequent are overactive bladder symptoms in women with urodynamic verification of an overactive bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergenoğlu, Mete Ahmet; Meseri, Reci; Aşkar, Niyazi; Itil, Ismail Mete

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between overactive bladder symptoms and urodynamic verification of overactive bladder. Between June 2011 and November 2011, 159 patients underwent urodynamics (UDS) at our urogynecology unit in the Ege University Hospital. Of these, 95 patients who complained of urgency, did not have any overt neurological diseases, bladder outlet obstruction and did not take any medication affecting the lower urinary tract function were evaluated. SPSS (ver. 15.0) was used to evaluate the data and the chi-square test and t test for independent samples were used for analysis. The mean age was found to be 54.5±12. Frequency was the most frequent symptom in women with overactive bladder (OAB) (82.1%), nocturia (57.8%) and (57.8%) urgency urinary incontinence followed in frequency. Detrusor over activity incidence was found to be 38.9%. There was no significant relationship between the presence of detrusor over activity (DOA) and OAB symptoms. Leak at urodynamics was found in 46.3% and there is no significant association with detrusor overactivity. Total bladder capacity was found to be significantly lower in women who had DOA (p=0.000). It appears that overactive bladder symptoms do not predict detrusor over activity. Urodynamic investigation is not mandatory in the initial management of women with only OAB symptoms.

  15. A survey on abnormal uterine bleeding among radiographers with frequent MRI exposure using intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, A; Schaap, K; Kromhout, H

    2018-02-01

    Based on a previous case report of menometrorrhagia (prolonged/excessive uterine bleeding, occurring at irregular and/or frequent intervals) in MRI workers with intrauterine devices (IUDs), it was evaluated whether this association could be confirmed. A survey was performed among 381 female radiographers registered with their national association. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations of abnormal uterine bleeding with the frequency of working with MRI scanners, presence near the scanner/in the scanner room during image acquisition, and with scanner strength or type. A total of 68 women reported using IUDs, and 72 reported abnormal uterine bleeding. Compared with unexposed women not using IUDs, the odds ratio in women with IUDs working with MRI scanners was 2.09 (95% confidence interval 0.83-3.66). Associations were stronger if women working with MRI reported being present during image acquisition (odds ratio 3.43, 95% CI 1.26-9.34). Associations with scanner strength or type were not consistent. Radiographers using IUDs who are occupationally exposed to stray fields from MRI scanners report abnormal uterine bleeding more often than their co-workers without an IUD, or nonexposed co-workers with an IUD. In particular, radiographers present inside the scanner room during image acquisition showed an increased risk. Magn Reson Med 79:1083-1089, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Application-Specific Graph Sampling for Frequent Subgraph Mining and Community Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Sumit; Choudhury, Sutanay; Holder, Lawrence B.

    2017-12-11

    Graph mining is an important data analysis methodology, but struggles as the input graph size increases. The scalability and usability challenges posed by such large graphs make it imperative to sample the input graph and reduce its size. The critical challenge in sampling is to identify the appropriate algorithm to insure the resulting analysis does not suffer heavily from the data reduction. Predicting the expected performance degradation for a given graph and sampling algorithm is also useful. In this paper, we present different sampling approaches for graph mining applications such as Frequent Subgrpah Mining (FSM), and Community Detection (CD). We explore graph metrics such as PageRank, Triangles, and Diversity to sample a graph and conclude that for heterogeneous graphs Triangles and Diversity perform better than degree based metrics. We also present two new sampling variations for targeted graph mining applications. We present empirical results to show that knowledge of the target application, along with input graph properties can be used to select the best sampling algorithm. We also conclude that performance degradation is an abrupt, rather than gradual phenomena, as the sample size decreases. We present the empirical results to show that the performance degradation follows a logistic function.

  17. Profile of frequent attenders to a Dublin inner city emergency department

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasubbu, B

    2016-04-01

    A retrospective review of the demographics, co-morbidities and substance misuse of the 20 most frequent presenters to the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital emergency department during 2014 was carried out in an attempt to better understand the epidemiology of their presentations. Eighty-five percent were male and 15% female (p<0.001). The average age was 40.6 years with a median 38.5 years. All were unemployed and 7 (35%) had no fixed abode. Thirteen patients (65%) lived an average of 4.5 kilometres from the ED. In this study the presence of a mental illness, homelessness, alcohol or drug misuse were associated with significantly higher attendance rates (p=0.001, p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). Early identification of these patients and targeting them for effective case-based community-led treatment strategies could improve their quality of life, decrease their cost of care and ultimately lead to more effective utilisation of our already overburdened emergency departments.

  18. Frequent EGFR Positivity and Overexpression in High-Grade Areas of Human MPNSTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Tabone-Eglinger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs are highly malignant and resistant. Transformation might implicate up regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Fifty-two MPNST samples were studied for EGFR, Ki-67, p53, and survivin expression by immunohistochemistry and for EGFR amplification by in situ hybridization. Results were correlated with clinical data. EGFR RNA was also quantified by RT-PCR in 20 other MPNSTs and 14 dermal neurofibromas. Half of the patients had a neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. EGFR expression, detected in 86% of MPNSTs, was more frequent in NF1 specimens and closely associated with high-grade and p53-positive areas. MPNSTs expressed more EGFR transcripts than neurofibromas. No amplification of EGFR locus was observed. NF1 status was the only prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, with median survivals of 18 and 43 months for patients with or without NF1. Finally, EGFR might become a new target for MPNSTs treatment, especially in NF1-associated MPNSTs.

  19. Childhood trauma and emotional reactivity to daily life stress in adult frequent attenders of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Jean-Paul; van Os, Jim; Portegijs, Piet J M; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2006-08-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) has consistently been associated with neuroticism--a personality trait reflecting vulnerability to stress. However, not much is known about the impact of a history of trauma on moment-to-moment emotions and experiences in the flow of daily life. The relationship between CT and emotional reactivity to daily life stress was investigated. Ninety frequent attenders of general practitioners, of which 29 fulfilled criteria for CT (sexual and/or physical trauma before the age of 19 years), were studied with the Experience Sampling Method (a structured diary technique assessing current context and mood in daily life) to assess: (a) appraised subjective stress related to daily events and activities, and (b) emotional reactivity conceptualized as changes in negative affect (NA). Multilevel regression analysis revealed that subjects with a history of CT reported significantly increased emotional reactivity to daily life stress, as reflected in an increase in NA. This effect was significantly stronger for subjects who experienced trauma before the age of 10 years. These results confirm that CT may have long-lasting and enduring effects on adult psychological functioning, as exposed individuals continually react more strongly to small stressors occurring in the natural flow of everyday life. The finding that emotional stress reactivity is most pronounced for subjects who experienced trauma early in life confirms prior evidence suggesting that the effects of trauma are more detrimental when trauma occurs at a younger age.

  20. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-04-25

    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending ~20 m towards the wave trough and descending from the wave crest. At the trough, the downward displacement of upper waters and the upward migration of fish created an overlapping zone. Near-bottom fish correspondingly left the benthic boundary zone at the wave trough, ascending into an acoustic scattering layer likely consisting of zooplankton and then descending to the benthic boundary zone at the wave crest. We suggest that this vertical fish migration is a response to fluctuations in light intensity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude caused by shading from a turbid surface layer that had chlorophyll a values of 3 to 4 mg m−3 and varied in thickness from ~15 to 50 m at a temporal scale corresponding to the internal wave period (30 min). This migration frequency thus is much higher than that of the common and widespread light-associated diel vertical migration. Vertical movements affect prey encounters, growth, and survival. We hypothesize that FVM increase the likelihood of prey encounters and the time for safe visual foraging among planktivorous fish, thereby contributing to efficient trophic transfer in major upwelling areas.

  1. Molecular Strain Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a Review of Frequently Used Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ei, Phyu Win; Aung, Wah Wah; Lee, Jong Seok; Choi, Go Eun; Chang, Chulhun L

    2016-11-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains one of the most serious global health problems. Molecular typing of M. tuberculosis has been used for various epidemiologic purposes as well as for clinical management. Currently, many techniques are available to type M. tuberculosis. Choosing the most appropriate technique in accordance with the existing laboratory conditions and the specific features of the geographic region is important. Insertion sequence IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis is considered the gold standard for the molecular epidemiologic investigations of tuberculosis. However, other polymerase chain reaction-based methods such as spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping), which detects 43 spacer sequence-interspersing direct repeats (DRs) in the genomic DR region; mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats, (MIRU-VNTR), which determines the number and size of tandem repetitive DNA sequences; repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), which provides high-throughput genotypic fingerprinting of multiple Mycobacterium species; and the recently developed genome-based whole genome sequencing methods demonstrate similar discriminatory power and greater convenience. This review focuses on techniques frequently used for the molecular typing of M. tuberculosis and discusses their general aspects and applications.

  2. Comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analyses frequently agree on value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Henry A; McElligott, Sean; Pauly, Mark V; Willke, Richard J; Bergquist, Henry; Doshi, Jalpa; Fleisher, Lee A; Kinosian, Bruce; Perfetto, Eleanor; Polsky, Daniel E; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2015-05-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, known as PCORI, was established by Congress as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to promote evidence-based treatment. Provisions of the ACA prohibit the use of a cost-effectiveness analysis threshold and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) in PCORI comparative effectiveness studies, which has been understood as a prohibition on support for PCORI's conducting conventional cost-effectiveness analyses. This constraint complicates evidence-based choices where incremental improvements in outcomes are achieved at increased costs of care. How frequently this limitation inhibits efficient cost containment, also a goal of the ACA, depends on how often more effective treatment is not cost-effective relative to less effective treatment. We examined the largest database of studies of comparisons of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to see how often there is disagreement between the more effective treatment and the cost-effective treatment, for various thresholds that may define good value. We found that under the benchmark assumption, disagreement between the two types of analyses occurs in 19 percent of cases. Disagreement is more likely to occur if a treatment intervention is musculoskeletal and less likely to occur if it is surgical or involves secondary prevention, or if the study was funded by a pharmaceutical company. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Cyclophosphamide and rituximab in frequently relapsing/steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Hazel; Jaureguiberry, Graciana; Dufek, Stephanie; Tullus, Kjell; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome is the most common form of nephrotic syndrome in childhood, defined by the response to treatment with glucocorticoids with consequent remission. While most children eventually experience spontaneous resolution of the disease, some have a difficult course with frequent relapses or steroid dependence nephrotic syndrome (FRSDNS). The consequent steroid toxicity often prompts administration of other immunosuppressive drugs, traditionally cyclophosphamide. Recently, rituximab has been reported as effective in this disorder, but long-term experience is lacking. Retrospective note review of all children with FRSDNS treated with a first course of cyclophosphamide and/or rituximab in our center between December 2006 and April 2015. We reviewed time to first relapse after treatment, co-medications, and side effects. A total of 102 children were treated with cyclophosphamide (79) and/or rituximab (42). Of these, 34 received cyclophosphamide prior to rituximab. Median time to first relapse was 7 months after cyclophosphamide and 14 months after rituximab. Documented side effects of cyclophosphamide included neutropenia, hair loss, and hemorrhagic cystitis (1). Rituximab was associated with an allergic reaction at infusion in two patients. Rituximab was used in children with the most difficult to treat FRSDNS, yet was associated with longer remission time and less side effects than cyclophosphamide. A randomized controlled trial is needed to directly compare these drugs.

  4. [High expression of p15 antisense RNA is a frequent event in acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yufeng; Le, Donghai; Zhu, Zhankun

    2016-04-01

    To detect the presence of p15 antisense RNA(p15AS) in acute myeloid leukemia(AML). p15AS and p15 mRNA in two leukemia cell lines was detected with strand-specific primer RT-qPCR. To explore the connection between p15AS and AML, 43 patients with newly diagnosed AML and 21 patients with benign diseases (Iron deficiency anemia) as controls were enrolled. The expression level of p15AS in bone marrow cells derived from the patients and the controls were determined by strand-specific primer RT-qPCR, and its relationship with clinical features was analyzed. The two AML lines displayed high p15AS and low p15 expression. Samples derived from the AML patients showed relatively increased expression of p15AS and down-regulated p15 expression in their bone cells. In contrast, the 21 controls showed high expression of p15 but relatively low expression of the p15AS. Compared with the normal controls, the expression levels of p15 protein were significantly lower among the AML patients (PFAB subtype, total white blood cell count, platelet count, proliferative degree of bone marrow cell and karyotype classification (P>0.05 for all comparisons). High expression of p15 antisense RNA was frequently found among AML patients, and may play an important role in epigenetic silencing of p15.

  5. Cancer/testis antigen SPATA19 is frequently expressed in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah Keng; Hussain, Faezahtul Arbaeyah; Loo, Suet Kee; López, José I

    2017-12-01

    Spermatogenesis-associated 19 (SPATA19) is a cancer/testis antigen overexpressed in various cancers. However, its protein expression profile in malignant or non-malignant tissues remains unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated SPATA19 protein expression patterns in a panel of non-malignant human samples and primary prostate cancer (PCa) with or without benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues. SPATA19 was absent in all non-malignant tissues investigated (n=14) except testis and prostate tissues. In terms of malignancies, all PCa cases were positive for SPATA19 exhibiting frequency between 20 and 100% (median 85%) with 63 (52.5%) and 57 (47.5%) cases demonstrating weak/moderate and strong intensities, respectively. Thirty-nine PCa cases (32.5%) contained BPH, and all BPH glands were SPATA19 positive (frequency between 20 and 100%; median 90%) with 13 (33.3%) demonstrating strong SPATA19 expression. Higher SPATA19 expression (higher frequency, intensity, or H-score) was not associated with overall survival or disease-specific survival (DFS) in all PCa cases. However, biochemical recurrence (BR) was associated with worse DFS (p = 0.005) in this cohort of 120 patients, and cases with strong SPATA19 intensity were associated with BR (p = 0.020). In conclusion, we showed that SPATA19 protein was frequently expressed in both BPH and PCa glands, and this warrants future investigations on its pathogenic roles in the disease. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Frequent Embolization in Peripheral Angioplasty: Detection with an Embolism Protection Device (Angio Guard) and Electron Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Claudius W.; Pusich, Benjamin; Tepe, Gunnar; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Hahn, Ulrich; Schneider, Wilke; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the deliverability and protection capabilities of an embolism protection filter in angioplasty of peripheral arteries. Methods: The Angioguard emboli capture guidewire system was applied in 11 patients with femoropopliteal lesions (6 stenoses, 3 occlusions, 2 controls).Data on lesion crossing, flow deceleration and macroembolization were recorded. Filter membranes were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: System delivery was successful in all patients. Primary lesion crossing was feasible in four of six stenoses; predilatation was required in two of six. Marked flow deceleration was recorded in six patients. Emboli next to the filter were detected in each patient with concentric plaques, but could not reliably be removed with the filter. Downstream macroembolization was also present in all patients with concentric stenoses, but in none with chronic occlusion. None of the patients had clinical signs of ischemia. SEM analysis demonstrated only small particles on control group filters and non-obliterating fibrinous conglomerates on filters used in chronic occlusion. Substantial obliteration was seen on several filters used in stenotic lesions. Conclusion:Microembolization of fibrin aggregates is a common incident in balloon angioplasty of femoropopliteal stenoses. Macroembolization occurred more frequently than previously reported. The use of embolism protection filters aided in the detection but not in the removal of larger emboli

  7. Demand on Temporary Parallel Route Recovery for Frequent Link Failure in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthi Ganesh, M.; Venkata krishna, P.

    2015-03-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is an upcoming technology for communication between vehicles during the trip, which provides Internet connectivity resulting in safer roads giving access important alerts and comfort during the slip. VANET technology integrates wireless cellular and ad hoc for seamless connectivity between vehicles. VANETs are organizations that allow vehicles to communicate with each other. Wireless-vice can send data to nearby vehicles, and messages can be transported from one vehicle to another, so that the information can be broadcast throughout the metropolis. In the network, link failure is very common due to the high mobility of clients. Frequent link failure occurs as packets do not arrive at the respective goals. The mechanism proposed here establishes a form of route discovery packet parallel to the real time application to be extradited to the destination, while minimizing losses. The primary aim is to establish parallel paths during link failure scenarios for real-time applications to provide information to their destination safely. During link failures, the recovery road is parallel to the fixed temporary parallel path between the nodes. The node before the link failure packet buffers, after setting the new parallel paths before the packets stored in the buffer via the destination newly created path.

  8. [Prevalence of depression among the elderly population who frequent community centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Deise A A P; Gomes, Lucy; Oliveira, Rodrigo F

    2006-08-01

    The objective of the study was to establish the prevalence rate of depression among the elderly population (those 60 and older) who frequent community centers. From February to July of 2001, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with elderly people from community centers in Taguatinga, Brasilia, FD (Federal District). The sample included 118 elderly people, distributed in five-year age brackets, who responded to a simplified version of the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale with 15 questions. Anova and the Tukey test were performed to analyze differences between the age groups with 95% confidence intervals. The sample was predominantly female (90%) with the majority reporting being in the age bracket of 60 to 64 years old (31%). Depression was reported by 36 respondents (31%) and severe depression was reported by 4% of those interviewed, all of whom were in the age bracket of 60 to 64 (representing 14% of this group). National programs should be developed in community centers focused on decreasing depression among the elderly population.

  9. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging. Frequent incidental cerebral findings; Klinische Magnetresonanztomographie. Haeufige zerebrale Zufallsbefunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.; Ditter, P.; Schild, H.H.; Hattingen, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, Funktionseinheit Neuroradiologie der Klinik fuer Radiologie, Bonn (Germany); Weidauer, S. [St.-Katharinen-Krankenhaus, Neurologische Klinik, Frankfurt/M (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    The increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in clinical diagnostics means that patients and physicians are confronted more often with incidental findings. In the literature there are fluctuating data on the incidence of such findings and guidelines concerning the further procedure exist in only very few cases, such as incidental aneurysms and pituitary adenomas. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications which can be derived from incidental findings depend on multiple factors, such as anatomical location, patient age, comorbidity and patient wishes. For this reason it often makes sense to refer patients with incidental findings to an interdisciplinary neurological center at an early stage. In this review frequent incidental cerebral findings, epidemiological data, imaging criteria and, where possible, recommendations for the further procedure are shown. (orig.) [German] Durch den gehaeuften Einsatz der MRT in der zerebralen Diagnostik werden Arzt und Patienten in zunehmendem Masse mit Zufallsbefunden, auch Nebenbefunde genannt, konfrontiert. In der Literatur existieren sehr schwankende Angaben zur Haeufigkeit solcher Zufallsbefunde. Nur fuer einzelne dieser Befunde, wie z. B. das inzidentelle Aneurysma oder das Hypophysenadenom, existieren Leitlinien fuer das weitere Prozedere. Die aus einem Zufallsbefund abzuleitenden diagnostischen und therapeutischen Konsequenzen sind von vielen Faktoren, wie z. B. der anatomischen Lage, dem Patientenalter, den Komorbiditaeten und dem Patientenwunsch abhaengig. Daher ist es oft sinnvoll, den Patienten mit einem Zufallsbefund fruehzeitig in einem interdisziplinaeren Neurozentrum vorzustellen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden haeufige zerebrale Zufallsbefunde mit epidemiologischen Daten, bildgebenden Kriterien und - wenn moeglich - Empfehlungen bzgl. des weiteren Vorgehens gezeigt. (orig.)

  10. Frequently updated noise threat maps created with use of supercomputing grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczodrak Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative supercomputing grid services devoted to noise threat evaluation were presented. The services described in this paper concern two issues, first is related to the noise mapping, while the second one focuses on assessment of the noise dose and its influence on the human hearing system. The discussed serviceswere developed within the PL-Grid Plus Infrastructure which accumulates Polish academic supercomputer centers. Selected experimental results achieved by the usage of the services proposed were presented. The assessment of the environmental noise threats includes creation of the noise maps using either ofline or online data, acquired through a grid of the monitoring stations. A concept of estimation of the source model parameters based on the measured sound level for the purpose of creating frequently updated noise maps was presented. Connecting the noise mapping grid service with a distributed sensor network enables to automatically update noise maps for a specified time period. Moreover, a unique attribute of the developed software is the estimation of the auditory effects evoked by the exposure to noise. The estimation method uses a modified psychoacoustic model of hearing and is based on the calculated noise level values and on the given exposure period. Potential use scenarios of the grid services for research or educational purpose were introduced. Presentation of the results of predicted hearing threshold shift caused by exposure to excessive noise can raise the public awareness of the noise threats.

  11. Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a frequent cause of dyspnea in the short telomere disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgy, Amany I; Jonassaint, Naudia L; Stanley, Susan E; Koteish, Ayman; DeZern, Amy E; Walter, Jolan E; Sopha, Sabrina C; Hamilton, James P; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Chen, Allen R; Anders, Robert A; Kamel, Ihab R; Armanios, Mary

    2015-10-01

    Telomere syndromes have their most common manifestation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The short telomere defect in these patients may manifest systemically as bone marrow failure and liver disease. We sought to understand the causes of dyspnea in telomerase and telomere gene mutation carriers who have no parenchymal lung disease. Clinical and pathologic data were reviewed as part of a Johns Hopkins-based natural history study of short telomere syndromes including dyskeratosis congenita. Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) was diagnosed in nine of 42 cases (21%). Their age at presentation was significantly younger than that of cases initially presenting with pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (median, 25 years vs 55 years; P time to death or liver transplantation was 6 years (range, 4-10 years; n = 6). In cases that underwent liver transplantation, dyspnea and hypoxia improved, but pulmonary fibrosis subsequently developed. This report identifies HPS as a frequent cause of dyspnea in telomerase and telomere gene mutation carriers. While it usually precedes the development of parenchymal lung disease, HPS may also co-occur with pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Recognizing this genetic diagnosis is critical for management, especially in the lung and liver transplantation setting.

  12. TFPI-2 is a putative tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shumin; Ma, Ning; Murata, Mariko; Huang, Guangwu; Zhang, Zhe; Xiao, Xue; Zhou, Xiaoying; Huang, Tingting; Du, Chunping; Yu, Nana; Mo, Yingxi; Lin, Longde; Zhang, Jinyan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes play important roles in NPC tumorgenesis. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), is a protease inhibitor. Recently, TFPI-2 was suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis in some cancers. In this study, we investigated whether TFPI-2 was inactivated epigenetically in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Transcriptional expression levels of TFPI-2 was evaluated by RT-PCR. Methylation status were investigated by methylation specific PCR and bisulfate genomic sequencing. The role of TFPI-2 as a tumor suppressor gene in NPC was addressed by re-introducing TFPI-2 expression into the NPC cell line CNE2. TFPI-2 mRNA transcription was inactivated in NPC cell lines. TFPI-2 was aberrantly methylated in 66.7% (4/6) NPC cell lines and 88.6% (62/70) of NPC primary tumors, but not in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia. TFPI-2 expression could be restored in NPC cells after demethylation treatment. Ectopic expression of TFPI-2 in NPC cells induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and cell migration. Epigenetic inactivation of TFPI-2 by promoter hypermethylation is a frequent and tumor specific event in NPC. TFPI-2 might be considering as a putative tumor suppressor gene in NPC

  13. Which Are the Most Frequently Used Outcome Instruments in Studies on Total Ankle Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M.; Rippstein, Pascal F.

    2009-01-01

    The number of studies reporting on outcomes after total ankle arthroplasty is continuously increasing. As the use of valid outcome measures represents the cornerstone for successful clinical research, we aimed to identify the most frequently used outcome instruments in ankle arthroplasty studies and to analyze the evidence to support their use in terms of different quality criteria. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 outcome instruments reported in 79 original studies. The most commonly used measures were the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score (n = 41), the Kofoed ankle score (n = 21), a visual analog scale assessing pain (n = 15), and the generic SF-36 (n = 6). Eight additional instruments were used only once or twice. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Kofoed instruments include a clinical examination and score up to 100 points. Evidence to support their use in terms of validity, reliability, responsiveness, and interpretability is limited, raising the question whether their use is justified. Self-reported questionnaires related to ankle osteoarthritis or arthroplasty are rather disregarded in the current literature, and only the Foot Function Index is associated with evidence in terms of the above-mentioned quality criteria. Future research is warranted to improve the outcome assessment after total ankle arthroplasty. PMID:19672670

  14. Recessive TBC1D24 Mutations Are Frequent in Moroccan Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss Pedigrees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Bakhchane

    Full Text Available Mutations in the TBC1D24 gene are responsible for four neurological presentations: infantile epileptic encephalopathy, infantile myoclonic epilepsy, DOORS (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation and seizures and NSHL (non-syndromic hearing loss. For the latter, two recessive (DFNB86 and one dominant (DFNA65 mutations have so far been identified in consanguineous Pakistani and European/Chinese families, respectively. Here we report the results of a genetic study performed on a large Moroccan cohort of deaf patients that identified three families with compound heterozygote mutations in TBC1D24. Four novel mutations were identified, among which, one c.641G>A (p.Arg214His was present in the three families, and has a frequency of 2% in control Moroccan population with normal hearing, suggesting that it acts as an hypomorphic variant leading to restricted deafness when combined with another recessive severe mutation. Altogether, our results show that mutations in TBC1D24 gene are a frequent cause (>2% of NSHL in Morocco, and that due to its possible compound heterozygote recessive transmission, this gene should be further considered and screened in other deaf cohorts.

  15. Cost of nursing most frequent procedures performed on severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita de Oliveira Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the mean direct cost (MDC of the most frequent procedures performed by nursing professionals on severely burned patients in an Intensive Care Unit. Method: exploratory-descriptive quantitative single-case study. The MDC was calculated by multiplying time (timed spent by nursing professionals in the performance of the procedures by the unit cost of direct labor, and adding the costs of material and medicine/solutions. Results: a MDC of US$ 0.65 (SD=0.36 was obtained for "vital signs monitoring"; US$ 10.00 (SD=24.23 for "intravenous drug administration"; US$ 5.90 (SD=2.75 for "measurement of diuresis"; US$ 0.93 (SD=0.42 for "capillary blood glucose monitoring"; and US$ 99.75 (SD=129.55 for "bandaging". Conclusion: the knowledge developed can support managerial decision-making, contribute to the efficiency distribution of the resources involved and, when possible, provide cost-containment or cost-minimization strategies without impairing the quality of nursing care.

  16. Immortal time bias: a frequently unrecognized threat to validity in the evaluation of postoperative radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Henry S; Gross, Cary P; Makarov, Danil V; Yu, James B

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of immortal time bias on observational cohort studies of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and the effectiveness of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias. First, we reviewed previous studies of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to determine how frequently this bias was considered. Second, we used SEER to select three tumor types (glioblastoma multiforme, Stage IA-IVM0 gastric adenocarcinoma, and Stage II-III rectal carcinoma) for which prospective trials demonstrated an improvement in survival associated with PORT. For each tumor type, we calculated conditional survivals and adjusted hazard ratios of PORT vs. postoperative observation cohorts while restricting the sample at sequential monthly landmarks. Sixty-two percent of previous SEER publications evaluating PORT failed to use a landmark analysis. As expected, delivery of PORT for all three tumor types was associated with improved survival, with the largest associated benefit favoring PORT when all patients were included regardless of survival. Preselecting a cohort with a longer minimum survival sequentially diminished the apparent benefit of PORT. Although the majority of previous SEER articles do not correct for it, immortal time bias leads to altered estimates of PORT effectiveness, which are very sensitive to landmark selection. We suggest the routine use of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immortal Time Bias: A Frequently Unrecognized Threat to Validity in the Evaluation of Postoperative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Henry S.; Gross, Cary P.; Makarov, Danil V.; Yu, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of immortal time bias on observational cohort studies of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and the effectiveness of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias. Methods and Materials: First, we reviewed previous studies of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to determine how frequently this bias was considered. Second, we used SEER to select three tumor types (glioblastoma multiforme, Stage IA–IVM0 gastric adenocarcinoma, and Stage II–III rectal carcinoma) for which prospective trials demonstrated an improvement in survival associated with PORT. For each tumor type, we calculated conditional survivals and adjusted hazard ratios of PORT vs. postoperative observation cohorts while restricting the sample at sequential monthly landmarks. Results: Sixty-two percent of previous SEER publications evaluating PORT failed to use a landmark analysis. As expected, delivery of PORT for all three tumor types was associated with improved survival, with the largest associated benefit favoring PORT when all patients were included regardless of survival. Preselecting a cohort with a longer minimum survival sequentially diminished the apparent benefit of PORT. Conclusions: Although the majority of previous SEER articles do not correct for it, immortal time bias leads to altered estimates of PORT effectiveness, which are very sensitive to landmark selection. We suggest the routine use of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias.

  18. Immortal Time Bias: A Frequently Unrecognized Threat to Validity in the Evaluation of Postoperative Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Henry S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of immortal time bias on observational cohort studies of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and the effectiveness of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias. Methods and Materials: First, we reviewed previous studies of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to determine how frequently this bias was considered. Second, we used SEER to select three tumor types (glioblastoma multiforme, Stage IA-IVM0 gastric adenocarcinoma, and Stage II-III rectal carcinoma) for which prospective trials demonstrated an improvement in survival associated with PORT. For each tumor type, we calculated conditional survivals and adjusted hazard ratios of PORT vs. postoperative observation cohorts while restricting the sample at sequential monthly landmarks. Results: Sixty-two percent of previous SEER publications evaluating PORT failed to use a landmark analysis. As expected, delivery of PORT for all three tumor types was associated with improved survival, with the largest associated benefit favoring PORT when all patients were included regardless of survival. Preselecting a cohort with a longer minimum survival sequentially diminished the apparent benefit of PORT. Conclusions: Although the majority of previous SEER articles do not correct for it, immortal time bias leads to altered estimates of PORT effectiveness, which are very sensitive to landmark selection. We suggest the routine use of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias.

  19. Widespread Use and Frequent Detection of Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Wetlands of Canada's Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R.; Headley, John V.; Peru, Kerry M.; Michel, Nicole L.; Cessna, Allan J.; Morrissey, Christy A.

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoids currently dominate the insecticide market as seed treatments on Canada's major Prairie crops (e.g., canola). The potential impact to ecologically significant wetlands in this dominantly agro-environment has largely been overlooked while the distribution of use, incidence and level of contamination remains unreported. We modelled the spatial distribution of neonicotinoid use across the three Prairie Provinces in combination with temporal assessments of water and sediment concentrations in wetlands to measure four active ingredients (clothianidin, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and acetamiprid). From 2009 to 2012, neonicotinoid use was increasing; by 2012, applications covered an estimated ∼11 million hectares (44% of Prairie cropland) with >216,000 kg of active ingredients. Thiamethoxam, followed by clothianidin, were the dominant seed treatments by mass and area. Areas of high neonicotinoid use were identified as high density canola or soybean production. Water sampled four times from 136 wetlands (spring, summer, fall 2012 and spring 2013) across four rural municipalities in Saskatchewan similarly revealed clothianidin and thiamethoxam in the majority of samples. In spring 2012 prior to seeding, 36% of wetlands contained at least one neonicotinoid. Detections increased to 62% in summer 2012, declined to 16% in fall, and increased to 91% the following spring 2013 after ice-off. Peak concentrations were recorded during summer 2012 for both thiamethoxam (range: neonicotinoid concentrations (which did not exceed 20 ng/L). Wetlands situated in barley, canola and oat fields consistently contained higher mean concentrations of neonicotinoids than in grasslands, but no individual crop singularly influenced overall detections or concentrations. Distribution maps indicate neonicotinoid use is increasing and becoming more widespread with concerns for environmental loading, while frequently detected neonicotinoid concentrations in Prairie wetlands suggest high

  20. Double somatic mutations in mismatch repair genes are frequent in colorectal cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigter, Lisanne S; Snaebjornsson, Petur; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Atmodimedjo, Peggy N; Aleman, Berthe M; Ten Hoeve, Jelle; Geurts-Giele, Willemina R; van Ravesteyn, Thomas W; Hoeksel, Johan; Meijer, Gerrit A; Te Riele, Hein; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Dinjens, Winand N; van Leerdam, Monique E

    2018-03-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors who were treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy or procarbazine-containing chemotherapy have a fivefold increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aims to provide insight into the development of therapy-related CRC (t-CRC) by evaluating histopathological and molecular characteristics. 54 t-CRCs diagnosed in a Hodgkin's lymphoma survivor cohort were analysed for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins by immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability (MSI) and KRAS / BRAF mutations. MSI t-CRCs were evaluated for promoter methylation and mutations in MMR genes. Pathogenicity of MMR gene mutations was evaluated by in silico predictions and functional analyses. Frequencies were compared with a general population cohort of CRC (n=1111). KRAS and BRAF mutations were present in 41% and 15% t-CRCs, respectively. Compared with CRCs in the general population, t-CRCs had a higher MSI frequency (24% vs 11%, p=0.003) and more frequent loss of MSH2/MSH6 staining (13% vs 1%, p<0.001). Loss of MLH1/PMS2 staining and MLH1 promoter methylation were equally common in t-CRCs and the general population. In MSI CRCs without MLH1 promoter methylation, double somatic MMR gene mutations (or loss of heterozygosity as second hit) were detected in 7/10 (70%) t-CRCs and 8/36 (22%) CRCs in the general population (p=0.008). These MMR gene mutations in t-CRCs were classified as pathogenic. MSI t-CRC cases could not be ascribed to Lynch syndrome. We have demonstrated a higher frequency of MSI among t-CRCs, which results from somatic MMR gene mutations. This suggests a novel association of somatic MMR gene mutations with prior anticancer treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Frequent house invasion of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected triatomines in a suburban area of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demographic transition of populations from rural areas to large urban centers often results in a disordered occupation of forest remnants and increased economic pressure to develop high-income buildings in these areas. Ecological and socioeconomic factors associated with these urban transitions create conditions for the potential transmission of infectious diseases, which was demonstrated for Chagas disease.We analyzed 930 triatomines, mainly Triatoma tibiamaculata, collected in artificial and sylvatic environments (forests near houses of a suburban area of the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil between 2007 and 2011. Most triatomines were captured at peridomiciles. Adult bugs predominated in all studied environments, and nymphs were scarce inside houses. Molecular analyses of a randomly selected sub-sample (n=212 of triatomines showed Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates of 65%, 50% and 56% in intradomestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments, respectively. We detected the T. cruzi lineages I and II and mixed infections. We also showed that T. tibiamaculata fed on blood from birds (50%, marsupials (38%, ruminants (7% and rodents (5%. The probability of T. cruzi infection was higher in triatomines that fed on marsupial blood (odds ratio (OR = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.22-3.11. Moreover, we observed a protective effect against infection in bugs that fed on bird blood (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.30-0.73.The frequent invasion of houses by infected triatomines indicates a potential risk of T. cruzi transmission to inhabitants in this area. Our results reinforce that continuous epidemiological surveillance should be performed in areas where domestic transmission is controlled but enzootic transmission persists.

  2. Persistent pulmonary arterial hypertension in the newborn (PPHN): a frequent manifestation of TMEM70 defective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteruccia, Michela; Verrigni, Daniela; Martinelli, Diego; Torraco, Alessandra; Agovino, Teresa; Bonafé, Luisa; D'Amico, Adele; Donati, Maria Alice; Adorisio, Rachele; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Bertini, Enrico; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Mutations in the TMEM70 are the most common cause of nuclear ATP synthase deficiency resulting in a distinctive phenotype characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP), facial dysmorphism, severe lactic acidosis, hyperammonemia and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (3-MGA). We collected 9 patients with genetically confirmed TMEM70 defect from 8 different families. Six were homozygous for the c.317-2A>G mutation, 2 were compound heterozygous for mutations c.317-2A>G and c.628A>C and 1 was homozygous for the novel c.701A>C mutation. Generalized hypotonia, lactic acidosis, hyperammonemia and 3-MGA were present in all since birth. Five patients presented acute respiratory distress at birth requiring intubation and ventilatory support. HCMP was detected in 5 newborns and appeared a few months later in 3 additional children. Five patients showed a severe and persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) requiring Nitric Oxide (NO) and/or sildenafil administration combined in 2 cases with high-frequency oscillatory (HFO) ventilation. In 3 of these patients, echocardiography detected signs of HCMP at birth. PPHN is a life-threatening poorly understood condition with bad prognosis if untreated. Pulmonary hypertension has rarely been reported in mitochondrial disorders and, so far, it has been described in association with TMEM70 deficiency only in one patient. This report further expands the clinical and genetic spectrum of the syndrome indicating PPHN as a frequent and life-threatening complication regardless of the type of mutation. Moreover, in these children PPHN appears even in the absence of an overt cardiomyopathy, thus representing an early sign and a clue for diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Secondary invasions of noxious weeds associated with control of invasive Tamarix are frequent, idiosyncratic and persistent

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A.; Anderson, Robert M.; Bay, Robin F.; Bean, Daniel W.; Bissonnete, Gabriel J.; Cooper, David J.; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D.; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K.; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L.; Makarick, Lori J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Robinson, W. Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Tabacchi, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Control of invasive species within ecosystems may induce secondary invasions of non-target invaders replacing the first alien. We used four plant species listed as noxious by local authorities in riparian systems to discern whether 1) the severity of these secondary invasions was related to the control method applied to the first alien; and 2) which species that were secondary invaders persisted over time. In a collaborative study by 16 research institutions, we monitored plant species composition following control of non-native Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers using defoliation by an introduced biocontrol beetle, and three physical removal methods: mechanical using saws, heavy machinery, and burning in 244 treated and 79 untreated sites across six U.S. states. Physical removal favored secondary invasions immediately after Tamarix removal (0–3 yrs.), while in the biocontrol treatment, secondary invasions manifested later (> 5 yrs.). Within this general trend, the response of weeds to control was idiosyncratic; dependent on treatment type and invader. Two annual tumbleweeds that only reproduce by seed (Bassia scoparia and Salsola tragus) peaked immediately after physical Tamarix removal and persisted over time, even after herbicide application. Acroptilon repens, a perennial forb that vigorously reproduces by rhizomes, and Bromus tectorum, a very frequent annual grass before removal that only reproduces by seed, were most successful at biocontrol sites, and progressively spread as the canopy layer opened. These results demonstrate that strategies to control Tamarix affect secondary invasions differently among species and that time since disturbance is an important, generally overlooked, factor affecting response.

  4. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsem, Edouard; Rua, Réjane; Tortevoye, Patricia; Froment, Alain; Gessain, Antoine

    2011-10-01

    Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV) can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP) or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (pro)viral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men) and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436) or Bantus (1085) live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR) were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2%) persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6%) persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39) FV (mainly gorilla). Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39). The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83%) are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (pro)viral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  5. Widespread use and frequent detection of neonicotinoid insecticides in wetlands of Canada's Prairie Pothole Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anson R Main

    and becoming more widespread with concerns for environmental loading, while frequently detected neonicotinoid concentrations in Prairie wetlands suggest high persistence and transport into wetlands.

  6. Prenatal origin of childhood AML occurs less frequently than in childhood ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burjanivova, Tatiana; Madzo, Jozef; Muzikova, Katerina; Meyer, Claus; Schneider, Bjoern; Votava, Felix; Marschalek, Rolf; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zuna, Jan

    2006-04-21

    While there is enough convincing evidence in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the data on the pre-natal origin in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are less comprehensive. Our study aimed to screen Guthrie cards (neonatal blood spots) of non-infant childhood AML and ALL patients for the presence of their respective leukemic markers. We analysed Guthrie cards of 12 ALL patients aged 2-6 years using immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (n = 15) and/or intronic breakpoints of TEL/AML1 fusion gene (n = 3). In AML patients (n = 13, age 1-14 years) PML/RARalpha (n = 4), CBFbeta/MYH11 (n = 3), AML1/ETO (n = 2), MLL/AF6 (n = 1), MLL/AF9 (n = 1) and MLL/AF10 (n = 1) fusion genes and/or internal tandem duplication of FLT3 gene (FLT3/ITD) (n = 2) were used as clonotypic markers. Assay sensitivity determined using serial dilutions of patient DNA into the DNA of a healthy donor allowed us to detect the pre-leukemic clone in Guthrie card providing 1-3 positive cells were present in the neonatal blood spot. In 3 patients with ALL (25%) we reproducibly detected their leukemic markers (Ig/TCR n = 2; TEL/AML1 n = 1) in the Guthrie card. We did not find patient-specific molecular markers in any patient with AML. In the largest cohort examined so far we used identical approach for the backtracking of non-infant childhood ALL and AML. Our data suggest that either the prenatal origin of AML is less frequent or the load of pre-leukemic cells is significantly lower at birth in AML compared to ALL cases.

  7. Systematic identification and analysis of frequent gene fusion events in metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christopher S; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Gerdes, Svetlana Y; Mullen, Jeffrey D; Colasanti, Ric; Zhukov, Aleksey; Frelin, Océane; Thiaville, Jennifer J; Zallot, Rémi; Niehaus, Thomas D; Hasnain, Ghulam; Conrad, Neal; Hanson, Andrew D; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-06-24

    Gene fusions are the most powerful type of in silico-derived functional associations. However, many fusion compilations were made when fusions need updating to handle the current avalanche of sequenced genomes. The availability of a large fusion dataset would help probe functional associations and enable systematic analysis of where and why fusion events occur. Here we present a systematic analysis of fusions in prokaryotes. We manually generated two training sets: (i) 121 fusions in the model organism Escherichia coli; (ii) 131 fusions found in B vitamin metabolism. These sets were used to develop a fusion prediction algorithm that captured the training set fusions with only 7 % false negatives and 50 % false positives, a substantial improvement over existing approaches. This algorithm was then applied to identify 3.8 million potential fusions across 11,473 genomes. The results of the analysis are available in a searchable database at http://modelseed.org/projects/fusions/ . A functional analysis identified 3,000 reactions associated with frequent fusion events and revealed areas of metabolism where fusions are particularly prevalent. Customary definitions of fusions were shown to be ambiguous, and a stricter one was proposed. Exploring the genes participating in fusion events showed that they most commonly encode transporters, regulators, and metabolic enzymes. The major rationales for fusions between metabolic genes appear to be overcoming pathway bottlenecks, avoiding toxicity, controlling competing pathways, and facilitating expression and assembly of protein complexes. Finally, our fusion dataset provides powerful clues to decipher the biological activities of domains of unknown function.

  8. Frequent Transient Hepatitis C viremia without Seroconversion among Healthcare Workers in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Aline; Marzouk, Diaa; Abravanel, Florence; El-Daly, Mai; Taylor, Sylvia; Mamdouh, Rasha; Eldin, Waleed Salah; El-Arab, Hanan Ezz; Sos, Dalia Gaber; Momen, Mohamed; Okasha, Omar; Le Fouler, Lenaig; El-Hosini, Mostafa; Izopet, Jacques; Rafik, Mona; Albert, Matthew; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mohamed, Mostafa Kamal; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds With 10% of the general population aged 15–59 years chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), Egypt is the country with the highest HCV prevalence worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are therefore at particularly high risk of HCV infection. Our aim was to study HCV infection risk after occupational blood exposure among HCWs in Cairo. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 2008–2010 at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo. HCWs reporting an occupational blood exposure at screening, having neither anti-HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) nor HCV RNA, and exposed to a HCV RNA positive patient, were enrolled in a 6-month prospective cohort with follow-up visits at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24. During follow-up, anti-HCV, HCV RNA and ALT were tested. Among 597 HCWs who reported a blood exposure, anti-HCV prevalence at screening was 7.2%, not different from that of the general population of Cairo after age-standardization (11.6% and 10.4% respectively, p = 0.62). The proportion of HCV viremia among index patients was 37%. Of 73 HCWs exposed to HCV RNA from index patients, nine (12.3%; 95%CI, 5.8–22.1%) presented transient viremia, the majority of which occurred within the first two weeks after exposure. None of the workers presented seroconversion or elevation of ALT. Conclusions/Significance HCWs of a general University hospital in Cairo were exposed to a highly viremic patient population. They experienced frequent occupational blood exposures, particularly in early stages of training. These exposures resulted in transient viremic episodes without established infection. These findings call for further investigation of potential immune protection against HCV persistence in this high risk group. PMID:23469082

  9. Early recruitment responses to interactions between frequent fires, nutrients, and herbivory in the southern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Tara Joy; Balch, Jennifer K; Mews, Cândida Lahís; Porto, Pábio; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; Brando, P M; Vieira, Simone A; Trumbore, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Understanding tropical forest diversity is a long-standing challenge in ecology. With global change, it has become increasingly important to understand how anthropogenic and natural factors interact to determine diversity. Anthropogenic increases in fire frequency are among the global change variables affecting forest diversity and functioning, and seasonally dry forest of the southern Amazon is among the ecosystems most affected by such pressures. Studying how fire will impact forests in this region is therefore important for understanding ecosystem functioning and for designing effective conservation action. We report the results of an experiment in which we manipulated fire, nutrient availability, and herbivory. We measured the effects of these interacting factors on the regenerative capacity of the ecotone between humid Amazon forest and Brazilian savanna. Regeneration density, diversity, and community composition were severely altered by fire. Additions of P and N + P reduced losses of density and richness in the first year post-fire. Herbivory was most important just after germination. Diversity was positively correlated with herbivory in unburned forest, likely because fire reduced the number of reproductive individuals. This contrasts with earlier results from the same study system in which herbivory was related to increased diversity after fire. We documented a significant effect of fire frequency; diversity in triennially burned forest was more similar to that in unburned than in annually burned forest, and the community composition of triennially burned forest was intermediate between unburned and annually burned areas. Preventing frequent fires will therefore help reduce losses in diversity in the southern Amazon's matrix of human-altered landscapes.

  10. Apriori Versions Based on MapReduce for Mining Frequent Patterns on Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Jose Maria; Padillo, Francisco; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Ventura, Sebastian

    2017-09-27

    Pattern mining is one of the most important tasks to extract meaningful and useful information from raw data. This task aims to extract item-sets that represent any type of homogeneity and regularity in data. Although many efficient algorithms have been developed in this regard, the growing interest in data has caused the performance of existing pattern mining techniques to be dropped. The goal of this paper is to propose new efficient pattern mining algorithms to work in big data. To this aim, a series of algorithms based on the MapReduce framework and the Hadoop open-source implementation have been proposed. The proposed algorithms can be divided into three main groups. First, two algorithms [Apriori MapReduce (AprioriMR) and iterative AprioriMR] with no pruning strategy are proposed, which extract any existing item-set in data. Second, two algorithms (space pruning AprioriMR and top AprioriMR) that prune the search space by means of the well-known anti-monotone property are proposed. Finally, a last algorithm (maximal AprioriMR) is also proposed for mining condensed representations of frequent patterns. To test the performance of the proposed algorithms, a varied collection of big data datasets have been considered, comprising up to 3 · 10#x00B9;⁸ transactions and more than 5 million of distinct single-items. The experimental stage includes comparisons against highly efficient and well-known pattern mining algorithms. Results reveal the interest of applying MapReduce versions when complex problems are considered, and also the unsuitability of this paradigm when dealing with small data.

  11. Frequent downregulation of the transcription factor Foxa2 in lung cancer through epigenetic silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basseres, Daniela S; D'Alò, Francesco; Yeap, Beow Y; Löwenberg, Ester C; Gonzalez, David A; Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Dayaram, Tajhal; Kocher, Olivier N; Godleski, John J; Richards, William G; Meyerson, Matthew; Kobayashi, Susumu; Tenen, Daniel G; Halmos, Balázs; Costa, Daniel B

    2012-07-01

    We sought to determine the mechanisms of downregulation of the airway transcription factor Foxa2 in lung cancer and the expression status of Foxa2 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A series of 25 lung cancer cell lines were evaluated for Foxa2 protein expression, FOXA2 mRNA levels, FOXA2 mutations, FOXA2 copy number changes and for evidence of FOXA2 promoter hypermethylation. In addition, 32 NSCLCs were sequenced for FOXA2 mutations and 173 primary NSCLC tumors evaluated for Foxa2 expression using an immunohistochemical assay. Out of the 25 cell lines, 13 (52%) had undetectable FOXA2 mRNA. The expression of FOXA2 mRNA and Foxa2 protein were congruent in 19/22 cells (p = 0.001). FOXA2 mutations were not identified in primary NSCLCs and were infrequent in cell lines. Focal or broad chromosomal deletions involving FOXA2 were not present. The promoter region of FOXA2 had evidence of hypermethylation, with an inverse correlation between FOXA2 mRNA expression and presence of CpG dinucleotide methylation (p Foxa2. In 130 patients with stage I NSCLC there was a trend towards decreased survival in tumors with no/low expression of Foxa2 (HR of 1.6, 95%CI 0.9-3.1; p = 0.122). Loss of expression of Foxa2 is frequent in lung cancer cell lines and NSCLCs. The main mechanism of downregulation of Foxa2 is epigenetic silencing through promoter hypermethylation. Further elucidation of the involvement of Foxa2 and other airway transcription factors in the pathogenesis of lung cancer may identify novel therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The FOXA2 transcription factor is frequently somatically mutated in uterine carcinosarcomas and carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gallo, Matthieu; Rudd, Meghan L; Urick, Mary Ellen; Hansen, Nancy F; Merino, Maria J; Mutch, David G; Goodfellow, Paul J; Mullikin, James C; Bell, Daphne W

    2018-01-01

    Uterine carcinosarcomas (UCSs) are a rare but clinically aggressive form of cancer. They are biphasic tumors consisting of both epithelial and sarcomatous components. The majority of uterine carcinosarcomas are clonal, with the carcinomatous cells undergoing metaplasia to give rise to the sarcomatous component. The objective of the current study was to identify novel somatically mutated genes in UCSs. We whole exome sequenced paired tumor and nontumor DNAs from 14 UCSs and orthogonally validated 464 somatic variants using Sanger sequencing. Fifteen genes that were somatically mutated in at least 2 tumor exomes were Sanger sequenced in another 39 primary UCSs. Overall, among 53 UCSs in the current study, the most frequently mutated of these 15 genes were tumor protein p53 (TP53) (75.5%), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) (34.0%), protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, alpha (PPP2R1A) (18.9%), F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBXW7) (18.9%), chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4 (CHD4) (17.0%), and forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) (15.1%). FOXA2 has not previously been implicated in UCSs and was predominated by frameshift and nonsense mutations. One UCS with a FOXA2 frameshift mutation expressed truncated FOXA2 protein by immunoblotting. Sequencing of FOXA2 in 160 primary endometrial carcinomas revealed somatic mutations in 5.7% of serous, 22.7% of clear cell, 9% of endometrioid, and 11.1% of mixed endometrial carcinomas, the majority of which were frameshift mutations. Collectively, the findings of the current study provide compelling genetic evidence that FOXA2 is a pathogenic driver gene in the etiology of primary uterine cancers, including UCSs. Cancer 2018;124:65-73. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Internet as a source of medicines information (MI) among frequent internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämeen-Anttila, K; Pietilä, K; Pylkkänen, L; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, M

    2017-09-30

    The internet is widely and increasingly used to search for health information. Previous studies have focused mainly on health information on the internet and not specifically on medicines information (MI). The aim of this study was to explore the internet as a source of MI compared to other sources of MI; to identify those who use the internet as a source of MI; and to describe patterns of use of the internet as a source of MI. A cross-sectional design employed a web-based questionnaire posted by patients' and other organizations as well as pharmacies on their websites during six weeks in the beginning of 2014. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations of background variables to the use of different MI sources. The most frequently used MI sources among respondents (n = 2489) were package leaflets (90%), pharmacists (83%), physicians (72%), and the internet (68%). According to a multivariate analysis, internet use for MI was associated with female gender, age internet, and continuous use of vitamins or herbals. MI was most commonly searched from a Finnish health portal (56%) and websites of pharmacies (41%). Of the respondents, nearly half (43%) used search engines to find information from the internet. The names of the medicinal product, symptom or disease were the most commonly used search terms. Well-educated, young women tend to search MI on the internet. Health care professionals should discuss reliable MI websites and tools that can help patients evaluate the reliability of information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intra-articular Physeal Fractures of the Distal Femur: A Frequently Missed Diagnosis in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Andrew T; Ellis, Henry B; Willimon, Samuel C; Wyatt, Charles; Broida, Samuel E; Dennis, M Morgan; Bastrom, Tracey

    2017-10-01

    Intra-articular physeal fractures of the distal femur are an uncommon injury pattern, with only a few small case series reported in the literature. To pool patients from 3 high-volume pediatric centers to better understand this injury pattern, to determine outcomes of surgical treatment, and to assess risk factors for complications. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A multicenter retrospective review of all patients presenting with an intra-articular physeal fracture between 2006 and 2016 was performed. Patient demographic and injury data, surgical data, and postoperative outcomes were documented. Radiographs were evaluated for fracture classification (Salter-Harris), location, and displacement. Differences between patients with and without complications were compared by use of analysis of variance or chi-square tests. A total of 49 patients, with a mean age of 13.5 years (range, 7-17 years), met the inclusion criteria. The majority of fractures were Salter-Harris type III fractures (84%) involving the medial femoral condyle (88%). Football was responsible for 50% of the injuries. The initial diagnosis was missed in 39% of cases, and advanced imaging showed greater mean displacement (6 mm) compared with radiographs (3 mm). All patients underwent surgery and returned to sport with "good to excellent" results after 2 years. Complications were more common in patients with wide-open growth plates, patients with fractures involving the lateral femoral condyle, and patients who were casted ( P < .05). Clinicians evaluating skeletally immature athletes (particularly football players) with acute knee injuries should maintain a high index of suspicion for an intra-articular physeal fracture. These fractures are frequently missed, and advanced imaging may be required to establish the diagnosis. Leg-length discrepancies and angular deformities are not uncommon, and patients should be monitored closely. Surgical outcomes are good when fractures are identified, with high rates

  15. Energy Efficient in-Sensor Data Cleaning for Mining Frequent Itemsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. BAHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy, storage, computational power represent the main constraint of sensor networks. Development of algorithms that take into consideration this extremely demanding and constrained environment of sensor networks became a major challenge. Communicating messages over a sensor network consume far more energy than processing it and mining sensors data should respect the characteristics of sensor networks in terms of energy and computation constraints, network dynamics, and faults. This lead us to think of a data cleaning pre processing phase to reduce the packet size transmitted and prepare the data for an efficient and scalable data mining. This paper introduces a tree-based bi-level periodic data cleaning approach implemented on both the source node and the aggregator levels. Our contribution in this paper is two folds. First we look on a periodic basis at each data measured and periodically clean it while taking into consideration the number of occurrences of the measures captured which we shall call weight. Then, a data cleaning is performed between groups of nodes on the level of the aggregator, which contains lists of measures along with their weights. The quality of the information should be preserved during the in-network transmission through the weight of each measure captured by the sensors. This weight will constitute the key optimization of the frequent pattern tree. The result set will constitute a perfect training set to mine without higher CPU consumption allowing us to send only the useful information to the sink. The experimental results show the effectiveness of this technique in terms of energy efficiency and quality of the information by focusing on a periodical data cleaning while taking into consideration the weight of the data captured.

  16. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Betsem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (proviral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436 or Bantus (1085 live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2% persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6% persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39 FV (mainly gorilla. Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39. The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83% are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (proviral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5 cells in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  17. Frequent detection of pancreatic lesions in asymptomatic high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Marcia Irene; Hruban, Ralph H; Fishman, Elliot K; Kamel, Ihab R; Schulick, Richard; Zhang, Zhe; Topazian, Mark; Takahashi, Naoki; Fletcher, Joel; Petersen, Gloria; Klein, Alison P; Axilbund, Jennifer; Griffin, Constance; Syngal, Sapna; Saltzman, John R; Mortele, Koenraad J; Lee, Jeffrey; Tamm, Eric; Vikram, Raghunandan; Bhosale, Priya; Margolis, Daniel; Farrell, James; Goggins, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The risk of pancreatic cancer is increased in patients with a strong family history of pancreatic cancer or a predisposing germline mutation. Screening can detect curable, noninvasive pancreatic neoplasms, but the optimal imaging approach is not known. We determined the baseline prevalence and characteristics of pancreatic abnormalities using 3 imaging tests to screen asymptomatic, high-risk individuals (HRIs). We screened 225 asymptomatic adult HRIs at 5 academic US medical centers once, using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). We compared results in a blinded, independent fashion. Ninety-two of 216 HRIs (42%) were found to have at least 1 pancreatic mass (84 cystic, 3 solid) or a dilated pancreatic duct (n = 5) by any of the imaging modalities. Fifty-one of the 84 HRIs with a cyst (60.7%) had multiple lesions, typically small (mean, 0.55 cm; range, 2-39 mm), in multiple locations. The prevalence of pancreatic lesions increased with age; they were detected in 14% of subjects younger than 50 years old, 34% of subjects 50-59 years old, and 53% of subjects 60-69 years old (P HRIs, respectively. Among these abnormalities, proven or suspected neoplasms were identified in 85 HRIs (82 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and 3 pancreatic endocrine tumors). Three of 5 HRIs who underwent pancreatic resection had high-grade dysplasia in less than 3 cm intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and in multiple intraepithelial neoplasias. Screening of asymptomatic HRIs frequently detects small pancreatic cysts, including curable, noninvasive high-grade neoplasms. EUS and MRI detect pancreatic lesions better than CT. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experiencing frequent acute exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Parkash Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aimed at clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD to anticipate future exacerbations. Methods: The study included 80 COPD patients; 40 patients had ≥2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (frequent exacerbation [FECOPD] group and 40 patients had <2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (infrequent exacerbation [I-FECOPD] group. Clinical profile, sputum microbiology, blood gas analysis, spirometric indices, and diffusion capacity (transfer test variables were assessed. Groups' comparison was performed using an independent t-test for numeric scale parameters and Chi-square test for nominal parameters. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were derived for numeric scale parameters and numeric nominal parameters, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: FECOPD group contained younger patients than in I-FECOPD group although the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding smoking pack-years and duration of illness. FECOPD group had significantly more expectoration score and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scores. Cough score and wheeze score did not differ significantly between two groups. More patients in FECOPD group (12/40 vs. 4/40 had lower airway bacterial colonization. Arterial blood gas parameters were more deranged in FECOPD group. Spirometric indices (forced expiratory volume during 1st s as well as transfer test (both diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and transfer coefficient of the lung values were significantly reduced in FECOPD group. Conclusions: The patients in FECOPD group had clinical, spirometric, and transfer test profiling suggestive of a severe COPD phenotype, the recognition will help in predicting future exacerbations and a better management.

  19. Observation and analysis of high-speed human motion with frequent occlusion in a large area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Guojun; Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Peng

    2009-12-01

    The use of computer vision technology in collecting and analyzing statistics during sports matches or training sessions is expected to provide valuable information for tactics improvement. However, the measurements published in the literature so far are either unreliably documented to be used in training planning due to their limitations or unsuitable for studying high-speed motion in large area with frequent occlusions. A sports annotation system is introduced in this paper for tracking high-speed non-rigid human motion over a large playing area with the aid of motion camera, taking short track speed skating competitions as an example. The proposed system is composed of two sub-systems: precise camera motion compensation and accurate motion acquisition. In the video registration step, a distinctive invariant point feature detector (probability density grads detector) and a global parallax based matching points filter are used, to provide reliable and robust matching across a large range of affine distortion and illumination change. In the motion acquisition step, a two regions' relationship constrained joint color model and Markov chain Monte Carlo based joint particle filter are emphasized, by dividing the human body into two relative key regions. Several field tests are performed to assess measurement errors, including comparison to popular algorithms. With the help of the system presented, the system obtains position data on a 30 m × 60 m large rink with root-mean-square error better than 0.3975 m, velocity and acceleration data with absolute error better than 1.2579 m s-1 and 0.1494 m s-2, respectively.

  20. Prenatal origin of childhood AML occurs less frequently than in childhood ALL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burjanivova, Tatiana; Zuna, Jan; Madzo, Jozef; Muzikova, Katerina; Meyer, Claus; Schneider, Bjoern; Votava, Felix; Marschalek, Rolf; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    While there is enough convincing evidence in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the data on the pre-natal origin in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are less comprehensive. Our study aimed to screen Guthrie cards (neonatal blood spots) of non-infant childhood AML and ALL patients for the presence of their respective leukemic markers. We analysed Guthrie cards of 12 ALL patients aged 2–6 years using immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (n = 15) and/or intronic breakpoints of TEL/AML1 fusion gene (n = 3). In AML patients (n = 13, age 1–14 years) PML/RARalpha (n = 4), CBFbeta/MYH11 (n = 3), AML1/ETO (n = 2), MLL/AF6 (n = 1), MLL/AF9 (n = 1) and MLL/AF10 (n = 1) fusion genes and/or internal tandem duplication of FLT3 gene (FLT3/ITD) (n = 2) were used as clonotypic markers. Assay sensitivity determined using serial dilutions of patient DNA into the DNA of a healthy donor allowed us to detect the pre-leukemic clone in Guthrie card providing 1–3 positive cells were present in the neonatal blood spot. In 3 patients with ALL (25%) we reproducibly detected their leukemic markers (Ig/TCR n = 2; TEL/AML1 n = 1) in the Guthrie card. We did not find patient-specific molecular markers in any patient with AML. In the largest cohort examined so far we used identical approach for the backtracking of non-infant childhood ALL and AML. Our data suggest that either the prenatal origin of AML is less frequent or the load of pre-leukemic cells is significantly lower at birth in AML compared to ALL cases

  1. Frequent down-regulation of ABC transporter genes in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidenko, Rita; Razanauskas, Deividas; Daniunaite, Kristina; Lazutka, Juozas Rimantas; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Jarmalaite, Sonata

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins responsible for the efflux of a wide variety of substrates, including steroid metabolites, through the cellular membranes. For better characterization of the role of ABC transporters in prostate cancer (PCa) development, the profile of ABC transporter gene expression was analyzed in PCa and noncancerous prostate tissues (NPT). TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) human ABC transporter plates were used for the gene expression profiling in 10 PCa and 6 NPT specimens. ABCB1 transcript level was evaluated in a larger set of PCa cases (N = 78) and NPT (N = 15) by real-time PCR, the same PCa cases were assessed for the gene promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of eight ABC transporter genes (ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCC6, ABCC9, ABCC10, ABCD2, ABCG2, and ABCG4) was significantly down-regulated in PCa as compared to NPT, and only two genes (ABCC4 and ABCG1) were up-regulated. Down-regulation of ABC transporter genes was prevalent in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative cases. A detailed analysis of ABCB1 expression confirmed TLDA results: a reduced level of the transcript was identified in PCa in comparison to NPT (p = 0.048). Moreover, the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative PCa cases showed significantly lower expression of ABCB1 in comparison to NPT (p = 0.003) or the fusion-positive tumors (p = 0.002). Promoter methylation of ABCB1 predominantly occurred in PCa and was rarely detected in NPT (p < 0.001). The study suggests frequent down-regulation of the ABC transporter genes in PCa, especially in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative tumors. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1689-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  2. Frequent house invasion of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected triatomines in a suburban area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Gilmar; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Carlos Gustavo Silva Dos; Amorim, Alekhine; Andrade, Sônia Gumes; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2015-04-01

    The demographic transition of populations from rural areas to large urban centers often results in a disordered occupation of forest remnants and increased economic pressure to develop high-income buildings in these areas. Ecological and socioeconomic factors associated with these urban transitions create conditions for the potential transmission of infectious diseases, which was demonstrated for Chagas disease. We analyzed 930 triatomines, mainly Triatoma tibiamaculata, collected in artificial and sylvatic environments (forests near houses) of a suburban area of the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil between 2007 and 2011. Most triatomines were captured at peridomiciles. Adult bugs predominated in all studied environments, and nymphs were scarce inside houses. Molecular analyses of a randomly selected sub-sample (n=212) of triatomines showed Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates of 65%, 50% and 56% in intradomestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments, respectively. We detected the T. cruzi lineages I and II and mixed infections. We also showed that T. tibiamaculata fed on blood from birds (50%), marsupials (38%), ruminants (7%) and rodents (5%). The probability of T. cruzi infection was higher in triatomines that fed on marsupial blood (odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-3.11). Moreover, we observed a protective effect against infection in bugs that fed on bird blood (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.30-0.73). The frequent invasion of houses by infected triatomines indicates a potential risk of T. cruzi transmission to inhabitants in this area. Our results reinforce that continuous epidemiological surveillance should be performed in areas where domestic transmission is controlled but enzootic transmission persists.

  3. A Comparative Study of Frequent and Maximal Periodic Pattern Mining Algorithms in Spatiotemporal Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulesu, O.; Rama Mohan Reddy, A., Dr; Mahendra, M.

    2017-08-01

    Detecting regular and efficient cyclic models is the demanding activity for data analysts due to unstructured, vigorous and enormous raw information produced from web. Many existing approaches generate large candidate patterns in the occurrence of huge and complex databases. In this work, two novel algorithms are proposed and a comparative examination is performed by considering scalability and performance parameters. The first algorithm is, EFPMA (Extended Regular Model Detection Algorithm) used to find frequent sequential patterns from the spatiotemporal dataset and the second one is, ETMA (Enhanced Tree-based Mining Algorithm) for detecting effective cyclic models with symbolic database representation. EFPMA is an algorithm grows models from both ends (prefixes and suffixes) of detected patterns, which results in faster pattern growth because of less levels of database projection compared to existing approaches such as Prefixspan and SPADE. ETMA uses distinct notions to store and manage transactions data horizontally such as segment, sequence and individual symbols. ETMA exploits a partition-and-conquer method to find maximal patterns by using symbolic notations. Using this algorithm, we can mine cyclic models in full-series sequential patterns including subsection series also. ETMA reduces the memory consumption and makes use of the efficient symbolic operation. Furthermore, ETMA only records time-series instances dynamically, in terms of character, series and section approaches respectively. The extent of the pattern and proving efficiency of the reducing and retrieval techniques from synthetic and actual datasets is a really open & challenging mining problem. These techniques are useful in data streams, traffic risk analysis, medical diagnosis, DNA sequence Mining, Earthquake prediction applications. Extensive investigational outcomes illustrates that the algorithms outperforms well towards efficiency and scalability than ECLAT, STNR and MAFIA approaches.

  4. Latent infections are the most frequent form of paratuberculosis in slaughtered Friesian cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vazquez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is a chronic mycobacterial infection causing granulomatous enteritis in ruminants, whose pathogenesis and epidemiology poses numerous challenges, including latency and reactivation. The most recent and complete classification of paratuberculosis immunopathological types in cattle recognized five categories. In this study, 1031 slaughtered Friesian cattle were submitted to serological, microbiological and pathological examinations with the aim of maximizing the rate of case detection. In most cases, infected animals had minimal lesions and almost no other proof of infection (38.9%, while the more characteristic types with the whole constellation of microbiological and immunological evidences accounted for a lower proportion (7.7%. As these findings in cattle suggest similarities with the epidemiology of tuberculosis in humans, we propose to re-group the original immunopathological types into two broader paratuberculosis epidemio-pathogenic forms or states: latent and patent. The former term would define infections with focal lesions and might constitute an apparent resilience status representing a difficult to detect reservoir of infection whose role could become critical if later immune-compromising factors lead to re-activation. The latter would group those cases with multifocal and diffuse inflammatory lesions with higher mycobacterial load and viability suggestive of a more immediate epidemiological risk. Interestingly, the relative frequency of presentation of each profile varied with age. The proportion of latent forms remained relatively constant between 33.8% and 54.3% through adulthood from 3 years of age, while patent forms were more frequent during the first years of age and tended to decrease among the oldest individuals.

  5. Mining frequent patterns for AMP-activated protein kinase regulation on skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yi-Ping

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has emerged as a significant signaling intermediary that regulates metabolisms in response to energy demand and supply. An investigation into the degree of activation and deactivation of AMPK subunits under exercise can provide valuable data for understanding AMPK. In particular, the effect of AMPK on muscle cellular energy status makes this protein a promising pharmacological target for disease treatment. As more AMPK regulation data are accumulated, data mining techniques can play an important role in identifying frequent patterns in the data. Association rule mining, which is commonly used in market basket analysis, can be applied to AMPK regulation. Results This paper proposes a framework that can identify the potential correlation, either between the state of isoforms of α, β and γ subunits of AMPK, or between stimulus factors and the state of isoforms. Our approach is to apply item constraints in the closed interpretation to the itemset generation so that a threshold is specified in terms of the amount of results, rather than a fixed threshold value for all itemsets of all sizes. The derived rules from experiments are roughly analyzed. It is found that most of the extracted association rules have biological meaning and some of them were previously unknown. They indicate direction for further research. Conclusion Our findings indicate that AMPK has a great impact on most metabolic actions that are related to energy demand and supply. Those actions are adjusted via its subunit isoforms under specific physical training. Thus, there are strong co-relationships between AMPK subunit isoforms and exercises. Furthermore, the subunit isoforms are correlated with each other in some cases. The methods developed here could be used when predicting these essential relationships and enable an understanding of the functions and metabolic pathways regarding AMPK.

  6. Frequent alteration of MLL3 frameshift mutations in microsatellite deficient colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Watanabe

    Full Text Available MLL3 is a histone 3-lysine 4 methyltransferase with tumor-suppressor properties that belongs to a family of chromatin regulator genes potentially altered in neoplasia. Mutations in MLL3 were found in a whole genome analysis of colorectal cancer but have not been confirmed by a separate study.We analyzed mutations of coding region and promoter methylation in MLL3 using 126 cases of colorectal cancer. We found two isoforms of MLL3 and DNA sequencing revealed frameshift and other mutations affecting both isoforms of MLL3 in colorectal cancer cells and 19 of 134 (14% primary colorectal samples analyzed. Moreover, frameshift mutations were more common in cases with microsatellite instability (31% both in CRC cell lines and primary tumors. The largest isoform of MLL3 is transcribed from a CpG island-associated promoter that has highly homology with a pseudo-gene on chromosome 22 (psiTPTE22. Using an assay which measured both loci simultaneously we found prominent age related methylation in normal colon (from 21% in individuals less than 25 years old to 56% in individuals older than 70, R = 0.88, p<0.001 and frequent hypermethylation (83% in both CRC cell lines and primary tumors. We next studied the two loci separately and found that age and cancer related methylation was solely a property of the pseudogene CpG island and that the MLL3 loci was unmethylated.We found that frameshift mutations of MLL3 in both CRC cells and primary tumor that were more common in cases with microsatellite instability. Moreover, we have shown CpG island-associated promoter of MLL3 gene has no DNA methylation in CRC cells but also primary tumor and normal colon, and this region has a highly homologous of pseudo gene (psiTPTE22 that was age relate DNA methylation.

  7. Exposure of medical students to pharmaceutical marketing in primary care settings: frequent and influential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser

    2009-12-01

    It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts. Considering the move toward early clinical encounters and community-based education, which expose students early to pharmaceutical representatives, the influence of those gifts is becoming a matter of concern. This study examines the frequency and influence of student exposure to drug marketing in primary care settings, as well as student perceptions of physician-pharmaceutical company relationships. This was a two-phase study consisting of qualitative research followed by a cross-sectional survey. Clinical experience logbooks of 280 second-year students in one school were analysed, and the themes that emerged were used to develop a survey that was administered to 308 third-year students from two medical schools. Survey results showed a 91.2% exposure to any type of marketing, and 56.8% of students were exposed to all classes of marketing methods studied. Deliberate targeting of students by pharmaceutical representatives, in particular, was correlated with being less sensitive to the negative effects of and having positive opinions about interactions with pharmaceutical companies. The vast majority of students are exposed to drug marketing in primary care settings, and may become more vulnerable to that strategy. Considering that medical students are vulnerable and are targeted deliberately by pharmaceutical companies, interventions aimed at developing skills in the rational use of medicines and in strategies for coping with drug marketing should be devised.

  8. [Crushing drugs in geriatric units: an "handicraft" practice with frequent errors which imposed recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caussin, M; Mourier, W; Philippe, S; Capet, C; Adam, M; Reynero, N; Jouini, C; Colombier, A-S; Kadri, K; Landrin, I; Gréboval, E; Rémy, E; Marc, F; Touflet, M; Wirotius, F; Delabre, N; Le Hiress, C; Rorteau, V; Vimard, M; Dufour, M; Tharasse, C; Dieu, B; Varin, R; Doucet, J

    2012-10-01

    Swallowing disorders or psycho-behavioural distress frequently interfere on drug administration in elderly inpatients. Crushing drugs is a common although non validated practice. The objective of this first prospective study, performed in all geriatric units of the Rouen university hospital by a multidisciplinary group, was to assess the crushing practice, from the prescription to the administration of the drugs in order to elaborate corrective measures. A survey was performed in June 2009 and included 683 inpatients, 65 years and above, in 23 geriatric units. If a patient received drugs after crushing, we recorded the reason for crushing, what drugs were crushed, the galenic presentations and the technique used for preparation and administration. Two hundred and twenty-one patients (32.3%) (85.5 ± 6.5 years, females 74.2%) received 1528 drugs (6.9 ± 4 per patient) including 966 drugs (63.2%) after crushing (crushed pills or crushed content of opened capsules), mainly in the morning (50.4%). The main reasons for crushing drugs were swallowing disorders and psycho-behavioural distress. Forty-two percent of crushed drugs had a galenic presentation which did not allow crushing. The patient's drugs were crushed together three out of four times and mixed with different vehicules for administration. The material used for crushing (a mortar, 92.6%) was often the same for several patients (59.4%); 83.5% of crushed drugs were immediately administered to the patients, though there were important variations about schedules of administration. Crushing drugs expose both to iatrogenic hazards and professional risks. Regional and national recommendations were developed in order to correct the errors linked to this practice. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnoea is frequent in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banghoej, Anne Margareta; Nerild, Henriette Holst; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Fleischer, Jesper; Jensen, Andreas Emil Kryger; Laub, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Tarnow, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is frequent in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence of OSA in patients with type 1 diabetes. In a cross-sectional design, all patients with type 1 diabetes attending the outpatient clinic were offered screening for OSA for one night with the ApneaLink+ home-monitoring device. OSA was classified by the Apnoea-Hypopnea index (AHI; apnoeas/hypopneas per hour sleep). Symptoms of OSA were scored using the Epworth Sleepiness Score. Presence of autonomic neuropathy was evaluated by the Vagus® device. A total of 200 of 518 eligible patients with type 1 diabetes (39%) participated (68% men; age 52±15years (mean±SD), diabetes duration 24±14years and BMI 25.3±3.3kg/m 2 ). OSA was diagnosed in 92 patients (46% (95% CI: 40-53)). Five patients had known OSA, and OSA was newly diagnosed in 87 patients, predominantly mild OSA (60 patients (69%)). OSA was present in 32% of the patients with normal BMI, in 60% of overweight patients, and in 61% of obese patients. Patients with type 1 diabetes and OSA were largely asymptomatic and did not report more sleepiness than patients without OSA. At multivariate analysis, age, BMI and presence of nephropathy were positively associated with risk of OSA. The prevalence of asymptomatic OSA is high in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes. Older age, overweight, and presence of nephropathy are associated with OSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dysautonomia is frequent in Machado-Joseph disease: clinical and neurophysiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazaki, Karen A G; D'Abreu, Anelyssa; Nucci, Anamarli; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; França, Marcondes C

    2013-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction has been already described in patients with SCA3/MJD, but several important questions remain unanswered. The objectives of this study are to determine the frequency and the intensity of autonomic manifestations in SCA3/MJD, as well as to identify possible correlations between autonomic manifestations and genetic and clinical parameters. We have performed clinical and electrophysiological evaluations of 40 patients with SCA3/MJD and 38 healthy controls. We used the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease: Autonomic Questionnaire to quantify the severity of ataxia and autonomic complaints, respectively. We also studied heart rate variability at rest, during orthostatic challenge (30:15 ratio), Valsalva maneuver (Valsalva index), and deep breathing (E/I ratio). We evaluated spectral analyses of RR intervals at rest and the sympathetic skin response. Mean RR intervals at rest and the 30:15 ratio were different between patients and controls (811.8 versus 933.4 ms; p = 0.001 and 1.10 versus 1.15; p = 0.038, respectively). The Valsalva index and the E/I ratio were similar between the groups (p = 0.373 and p = 0.08). Spectral analysis presented distinct results in patients and controls, related to low- and high-frequency power (p < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). We found cardiovascular and sympathetic sweat disautonomia in 30 % and 45 % of the patients with SCA3/MJD. Autonomic manifestations were related neither to genetic (CAG repeat length) nor clinical parameters (age, disease duration, SARA scores). Autonomic dysfunction is frequent and sometimes disabling in SCA3/MJD. We found evidence of both cardiovascular and sudomotor dysfunction in the disease.

  11. Gastrointestinal and Nutritional Problems Occur Frequently Throughout Life in Girls and Women with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Kathleen J.; Caeg, Erwin; Barrish, Judy O.; Geerts, Suzanne; Lane, Jane B.; Percy, Alan K.; Annese, Fran; McNair, Lauren; Skinner, Steven A.; Lee, Hye-Seung; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Glaze, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We conducted a nationwide survey to determine the prevalence of common gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders in Rett syndrome (RTT) based on parental reporting and related the occurrence of these problems to age and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) status. Methods We designed a questionnaire that probed symptoms, diagnoses, diagnostic tests, and treatment interventions related to gastrointestinal and nutritional problems in RTT. The International Rett Syndrome Foundation distributed the questionnaire to 1666 family-based members and forwarded their responses for our review. We interrogated the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network database to supplement findings related to medications used to treat gastrointestinal problems in RTT. Results Parents of 983 RTT females (59%) responded and identified symptoms and diagnoses associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility (92%); chewing and swallowing difficulties (81%); weight deficits or excess (47%); growth deficits (45%); low bone mineral content or fractures (37%); biliary tract disorders (3%). Height, weight, and BMI z-scores decreased significantly with age; height and weight, but not BMI, z-scores were significantly lower in females with MECP2 mutations than those without. Vomiting, nighttime awakening, gastroesophageal reflux, chewing difficulty, and choking with feeding were significantly less likely to occur with increasing age. Short stature, low bone mineral content, fractures, and gastrostomy placement were significantly more likely to occur with increasing age. Chewing difficulty, choking with feeding, and nighttime awakening were significantly less likely to occur, whereas short stature was significantly more likely to occur, in females with MECP2 mutations than those without. Diagnostic evaluations and therapeutic interventions were utilized less frequently than the occurrence of symptoms or diagnoses in the RTT cohort. Conclusion Gastrointestinal and nutritional problems perceived by

  12. Diencephalic syndrome: a frequently neglected cause of failure to thrive in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahlee; Moon, Jin Soo; Yang, Hye Ran; Chang, Ju Young; Ko, Jae Sung; Seo, Jeong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Diencephalic syndrome is an uncommon cause of failure to thrive in early childhood that is associated with central nervous system neoplasms in the hypothalamic-optic chiasmatic region. It is characterized by complex signs and symptoms related to hypothalamic dysfunction; such nonspecific clinical features may delay diagnosis of the brain tumor. In this study, we analyzed a series of cases in order to define characteristic features of diencephalic syndrome. We performed a retrospective study of 8 patients with diencephalic syndrome (age, 5-38 months). All cases had presented to Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 1995 and 2013, with the chief complaint of poor weight gain. Diencephalic syndrome with central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm was identified in 8 patients. The mean age at which symptoms were noted was 18±10.5 months, and diagnosis after symptom onset was made at the mean age of 11±9.7 months. The mean z score was -3.15±1.14 for weight, -0.12±1.05 for height, 1.01±1.58 for head circumference, and -1.76±1.97 for weight-for-height. Clinical features included failure to thrive (n=8), hydrocephalus (n=5), recurrent vomiting (n=5), strabismus (n=2), developmental delay (n=2), hyperactivity (n=1), nystagmus (n=1), and diarrhea (n=1). On follow-up evaluation, 3 patients showed improvement and remained in stable remission, 2 patients were still receiving chemotherapy, and 3 patients were discharged for palliative care. Diencephalic syndrome is a rare cause of failure to thrive, and diagnosis is frequently delayed. Thus, it is important to consider the possibility of a CNS neoplasm as a cause of failure to thrive and to ensure early diagnosis.

  13. Frequent attenders in general practice and immigrant status in Norway: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Esperanza; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    To compare the likelihood of being a frequent attender (FA) to general practice among native Norwegians and immigrants, and to study socioeconomic and morbidity factors associated with being a FA for natives and immigrants. Linked register data for all inhabitants in Norway with at least one visit to the general practitioner (GP) in 2008 (2 967 933 persons). Immigrants were grouped according to their country of origin into low- (LIC), middle- (MIC), and high-income countries (HIC). FAs were defined as patients whose attendance rate ranked in the top 10% (cut-off point > 7 visits). FAs were compared with other GP users by means of multivariate binary logistic analyses adjusting for socioeconomic and morbidity factors. Among GP users during the daytime, immigrants had a higher likelihood of being a FA compared with natives (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.09-1.17) and 1.15 (1.12-1.18) for HIC, 1.84 (1.78-1.89) and 1.66 (1.63-1.70) for MIC, and 1.77 (1.67-1.89) and 1.65 (1.57-1.74) for LIC for men and women respectively). Pregnancy, middle income earned in Norway, and having cardiologic and psychiatric problems were the main factors associated with being a FA. Among immigrants, labour immigrants and the elderly used GPs less often, while refugees were overrepresented among FAs. Psychiatric, gastroenterological, endocrine, and non-specific drug morbidity were relatively more prevalent among immigrant FA compared with natives. Although immigrants account for a small percentage of all FAs, GPs and policy-makers should be aware of differences in socioeconomic and morbidity profiles to provide equality of health care.

  14. WIF1 is a frequent target for epigenetic silencing in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Amber L; Riggs, Bridget M; Pardo, Carolina E; Dyer, Lisa M; Darst, Russell P; Izumchenko, Eugene G; Monroe, Mänette; Hakam, Ardeshir; Kladde, Michael P; Siegel, Erin M; Brown, Kevin D

    2011-11-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling axis is a prominent oncogenic mechanism in numerous cancers including cervical cancer. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF1) is a secreted protein that binds Wnt and antagonizes Wnt activity. While the WIF1 gene is characterized as a target for epigenetic silencing in some tumor types, WIF1 expression has not been examined in human cervical tissue and cervical cancer. Here, we show that WIF1 is unmethylated and its gene product is expressed in normal cervical epithelium and some cultured cervical tumor lines. In contrast, several cervical cancer lines contained dense CpG methylation within the WIF1 gene, and expression of both WIF1 transcript and protein was restored by culturing cells in the presence of the global DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Using single-molecule MAPit methylation footprinting, we observed differences in chromatin structure within the WIF1 promoter region between cell lines that express and those that do not express WIF1, consistent with transcriptional activity and repression, respectively. The WIF1 promoter was aberrantly methylated in ∼60% (10 of 17) high-grade highly undifferentiated squamous cell cervical tumors examined, whereas paired normal tissue showed significantly lower levels of CpG methylation. WIF1 protein was not detectable by immunohistochemistry in tumors with quantitatively high levels of WIF1 methylation. Of note, WIF1 protein was not detectable in two of the seven unmethylated cervical tumors examined, suggesting other mechanisms may contribute WIF1 repression. Our findings establish the WIF1 gene as a frequent target for epigenetic silencing in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

  15. Observation and analysis of high-speed human motion with frequent occlusion in a large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Guojun; Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Peng

    2009-01-01

    The use of computer vision technology in collecting and analyzing statistics during sports matches or training sessions is expected to provide valuable information for tactics improvement. However, the measurements published in the literature so far are either unreliably documented to be used in training planning due to their limitations or unsuitable for studying high-speed motion in large area with frequent occlusions. A sports annotation system is introduced in this paper for tracking high-speed non-rigid human motion over a large playing area with the aid of motion camera, taking short track speed skating competitions as an example. The proposed system is composed of two sub-systems: precise camera motion compensation and accurate motion acquisition. In the video registration step, a distinctive invariant point feature detector (probability density grads detector) and a global parallax based matching points filter are used, to provide reliable and robust matching across a large range of affine distortion and illumination change. In the motion acquisition step, a two regions' relationship constrained joint color model and Markov chain Monte Carlo based joint particle filter are emphasized, by dividing the human body into two relative key regions. Several field tests are performed to assess measurement errors, including comparison to popular algorithms. With the help of the system presented, the system obtains position data on a 30 m × 60 m large rink with root-mean-square error better than 0.3975 m, velocity and acceleration data with absolute error better than 1.2579 m s −1 and 0.1494 m s −2 , respectively

  16. Recovery of nonpathogenic mutant bacteria from tumors caused by several Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains: a frequent event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Pablo; Murillo, Jesús; Lastra, Beatriz; López, María M

    2009-10-01

    We have evaluated the interaction that bacterial genotypes and plant hosts have with the loss of pathogenicity in tumors, using seven Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains inoculated on 12 herbaceous and woody hosts. We performed a screening of the agrobacteria present inside the tumors, looking for nonpathogenic strains, and found a high variability of those strains in this niche. To verify the origin of the putative nonpathogenic mutant bacteria, we applied an efficient, reproducible, and specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis method. In contrast with previous studies, we recovered a very small percentage (0.01%) of nonpathogenic strains that can be considered true mutants. Of 5,419 agrobacterial isolates examined, 662 were nonpathogenic in tomato, although only 7 (from pepper and tomato tumors induced by two A. tumefaciens strains) could be considered to derive from the inoculated strain. Six mutants were affected in the transferred DNA (T-DNA) region; one of them contained IS426 inserted into the iaaM gene, whereas the whole T-DNA region was apparently deleted in three other mutants, and the virulence of the remaining two mutants was fully restored with the T-DNA genes as well. The plasmid profile was altered in six of the mutants, with changes in the size of the Ti plasmid or other plasmids and/or the acquisition of new plasmids. Our results also suggest that the frequent occurrence of nonpathogenic clones in the tumors is probably due to the preferential growth of nonpathogenic agrobacteria, of either endophytic or environmental origin, but different from the bacterial strain inducing the tumor.

  17. Frequent Nuclear/Cytoplasmic Localization of β-Catenin without Exon 3 Mutations in Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm, David L.; Caca, Karel; Hu, Gang; Harrison, Frank B.; Fearon, Eric R.

    1999-01-01

    β-Catenin has a critical role in E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, and it also functions as a downstream signaling molecule in the wnt pathway. Mutations in the putative glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylation sites near the β-catenin amino terminus have been found in some cancers and cancer cell lines. The mutations render β-catenin resistant to regulation by a complex containing the glycogen synthase kinase 3β, adenomatous polyposis coli, and axin proteins. As a result, β-catenin accumulates in the cytosol and nucleus and activates T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor transcription factors. Previously, 6 of 27 melanoma cell lines were found to have β-catenin exon 3 mutations affecting the N-terminal phosphorylation sites (Rubinfeld B, Robbins P, Elgamil M, Albert I, Porfiri E, Polakis P: Stabilization of beta-catenin by genetic defects in melanoma cell lines. Science 1997, 275:1790–1792). To assess the role of β-catenin defects in primary melanomas, we undertook immunohistochemical and DNA sequencing studies in 65 melanoma specimens. Nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin, a potential indicator of wnt pathway activation, was seen focally within roughly one third of the tumors, though a clonal somatic mutation in β-catenin was found in only one case (codon 45 Ser→Pro). Our findings demonstrate that β-catenin mutations are rare in primary melanoma, in contrast to the situation in melanoma cell lines. Nonetheless, activation of β-catenin, as indicated by its nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization, appears to be frequent in melanoma, and in some cases, it may reflect focal and transient activation of the wnt pathway within the tumor. PMID:10027390

  18. [Resistence of Escherichia coli, the most frequent cause of urinary tract infection in children, to antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Vesna; Milosević, Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) take the second place in the incidence of bacterial infection in children. Escherichia coli is a cause of infection in 85-90%. A periodic evaluation of the resistance to antimicrobial drugs has to be performed in each geographic region, since investigations confirmed that the resistance of bacteria causing UTI has been in progress. A retrospective investigation has been performed, comprising the two time periods in the range of 10 years in order to identify the prevalence and resistance of the bacteria causing UTI in the patients treated at the Department of Nephrology of Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina. During the first investigated period from January 1996 up to December 1997, there were 163 urin analyses performed vs 134 urine analyses in the second period, starting from January 2006 to December 2007. In both periods, Escherichia coli, was the most frequent cause of UTI (82.1% in 1996/97 vs 86.50% in 2006/07). During this ten-year period, the resistance of Escherichia coli increased both to ampicillin (from 53% to 69% (p > 0.05) and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (34% vs 55%; p resistance to ceftazidim, gentamycin and nalidixic acid, but significant increase to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and cephalexin. For the initial therapy of UTI in the Province of Vojvodina we recommend: perorally--ephalosporins I, II and III generation, and in case when the child is not capable to get therapy perorally, or in the case of highly febrile infant--ephalosporins III generation parenterally.

  19. Compound effects of temperature and precipitation in making droughts more frequent in Marathwada, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, A.; Zachariah, M.; Achutarao, K. M.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Marathwada region in Maharashtra, India is known to suffer significantly from agrarian crisis including farmer suicides resulting from persistent droughts. Drought monitoring in India is commonly based on univariate indicators that consider the deficiency in precipitation alone. However, droughts may involve complex interplay of multiple physical variables, necessitating an integrated, multivariate approach to analyse their behaviour. In this study, we compare the behaviour of drought characteristics in Marathwada in the recent years as compared to the first half of the twentieth century, using a joint precipitation and temperature-based Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI). Drought events in the recent times are found to exhibit exceptional simultaneous anomalies of high temperature and precipitation deficits in this region, though studies on precipitation alone show that these events are within the range of historically observed variability. Additionally, we also develop multivariate copula-based Severity-Duration-Frequency (SDF) relationships for droughts in this region and compare their natures pre- and post- 1950. Based on multivariate return periods considering both temperature and precipitation anomalies, as well as the severity and duration of droughts, it is found that droughts have become more frequent in the post-1950 period. Based on precipitation alone, such an observation cannot be made. This emphasizes the sensitivity of droughts to temperature and underlines the importance of considering compound effects of temperature and precipitation in order to avoid an underestimation of drought risk. This observation-based analysis is the first step towards investigating the causal mechanisms of droughts, their evolutions and impacts in this region, particularly those influenced by anthropogenic climate change.

  20. Characterizing the vulnerability of frequent emergency department users by applying a conceptual framework: a controlled, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Patrick; Baggio, Stéphanie; Iglesias, Katia; Althaus, Fabrice; Velonaki, Venetia-Sofia; Stucki, Stephanie; Ansermet, Corine; Paroz, Sophie; Trueb, Lionel; Hugli, Olivier; Griffin, Judith L; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2015-12-09

    Frequent emergency department (ED) users meet several of the criteria of vulnerability, but this needs to be further examined taking into consideration all vulnerability's different dimensions. This study aimed to characterize frequent ED users and to define risk factors of frequent ED use within a universal health care coverage system, applying a conceptual framework of vulnerability. A controlled, cross-sectional study comparing frequent ED users to a control group of non-frequent users was conducted at the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland. Frequent users were defined as patients with five or more visits to the ED in the previous 12 months. The two groups were compared using validated scales for each one of the five dimensions of an innovative conceptual framework: socio-demographic characteristics; somatic, mental, and risk-behavior indicators; and use of health care services. Independent t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Pearson's Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used for the comparison. To examine the -related to vulnerability- risk factors for being a frequent ED user, univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. We compared 226 frequent users and 173 controls. Frequent users had more vulnerabilities in all five dimensions of the conceptual framework. They were younger, and more often immigrants from low/middle-income countries or unemployed, had more somatic and psychiatric comorbidities, were more often tobacco users, and had more primary care physician (PCP) visits. The most significant frequent ED use risk factors were a history of more than three hospital admissions in the previous 12 months (adj OR:23.2, 95%CI = 9.1-59.2), the absence of a PCP (adj OR:8.4, 95%CI = 2.1-32.7), living less than 5 km from an ED (adj OR:4.4, 95%CI = 2.1-9.0), and household income lower than USD 2,800/month (adj OR:4.3, 95%CI = 2.0-9.2). Frequent ED users within a universal health coverage system form a highly

  1. Acute unstable depressive syndrome (AUDS is associated more frequently with epilepsy than major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iversen Valentina C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorders are frequent in epilepsy and associated with reduced seizure control. Almost 50% of interictal depressive disorders have to be classified as atypical depressions according to DSM-4 criteria. Research has mainly focused on depressive symptoms in defined populations with epilepsy (e.g., patients admitted to tertiary epilepsy centers. We have chosen the opposite approach. We hypothesized that it is possible to define by clinical means a subgroup of psychiatric patients with higher than expected prevalence of epilepsy and seizures. We hypothesized further that these patients present with an Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS that does not meet DSM-IV criteria of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE. In a previous publication we have documented that AUDS patients indeed have more often a history of epileptic seizures and abnormal EEG recordings than MDE patients (Vaaler et al. 2009. This study aimed to further classify the differences of depressive symptoms at admittance and follow-up of patients with AUDS and MDE. Methods 16 AUDS patients and 16 age- and sex-matched MDE patients were assessed using the Symptomatic Organic Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (SOMAS, the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, and the Mini-Mental State Test (MMST, at day 2, day 4-6, day 14-16 and 3 months after admittance to a psychiatric emergency unit. Life events were assessed with The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS and The Life Experience Survey (LES. We also screened for medication serum levels and illicit drug metabolites in urine. Results AUDS patients had significantly higher SOMAS scores (average score at admission 6.6 ± 0.8, reflecting increased symptom fluctuation and motor agitation, and decreased insight and concern compared to MDE patients (2.9 ± 0.7; p Conclusions AUDS patients present with rapidly fluctuating mood symptoms, motor agitation and relative lack of insight and concern. Seizures

  2. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Laszlo [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Mammography; Tot, Tibor [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology and Clinical Cytology; Dean, Peter B. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  3. Frequent Application of the New Gelatin-Collagen Nonwoven Accelerates Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Jennifer L; Rath, Rebekka; Held, Manuel; Petersen, Wiebke; Werner, Jan-Ole; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin

    2016-02-01

    Mortality after chronic wounds is high. Thus, proper and effective therapy is of critical importance. Adult mammalian skin cannot regenerate spontaneously. It heals under scar formation in a process of repair. In general, wound closure is achieved through a combination of contraction, scar formation, and regeneration. To enhance wound healing, research groups are continuously inventing and evaluating novel skin replacement products. A single application of a new gelatin-collagen nonwoven accelerates wound closure of full-thickness skin defects. Therefore, the authors' objective was to evaluate the effect of a higher application frequency of the nonwoven on wound closure in a minipig model. Four full-thickness skin defects were created surgically on the dorsum of 12 Göttingen minipigs. Next, 3 wounds were treated randomly with a novel gelatin-collagen nonwoven in different thicknesses, while the fourth wound was left untreated and served as the control wound. Moreover, 6 minipigs achieved multiple applications of the wound dressing. During the experimental period of 21 days, a close-up photographic documentation was performed. Finally, the areas of the initial wounds were excised and examined histologically. More frequent application of the nonwoven achieved accelerated wound healing and better epidermis quality compared with a single application. Mean time until wound closure of all wounds treated with a multiple application of the nonwoven was 11.0 (± 1.2) days, compared with a single application of the nonwoven with 12.4 (± 1.26) days and control wounds with 13.5 (± 1.19) days. Furthermore, the epidermal thickness of all wounds treated with multiple applications of the nonwoven was increased by 10.67 μm (31.89 ± 8.86 μm, P = .0007) compared with a single application of the nonwoven and by 6.53 μm (27.75 ± 7.24 μm, P = .0435) compared with the control group. Multiple applications of the gelatin-collagen nonwoven may be an appropriate treatment for

  4. Frequent Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Contamination of Gloves, Gowns, and Hands of Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel J.; Liang, Stephen Y.; Smith, Catherine L.; Johnson, J. Kristie; Harris, Anthony D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Thom, Kerri A.; Snyder, Graham M.; Day, Hannah R.; Perencevich, Eli N.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli are important nosocomial pathogens. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of transmission of MDR Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients to healthcare workers (HCWs) during routine patient care. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Medical and surgical intensive care units. METHODS We observed HCWs who entered the rooms of patients colonized with MDR A. baumannii or colonized with both MDR A. baumannii and MDR P. aeruginosa. We examined their hands before room entry, their disposable gloves and/or gowns upon completion of patient care, and their hands after removal of gloves and/or gowns and before hand hygiene. RESULTS Sixty-five interactions occurred with patients colonized with MDR A. baumannii and 134 with patients colonized with both MDR A. baumannii and MDR P. aeruginosa. Of 199 interactions between HCWs and patients colonized with MDR A. baumannii, 77 (38.7% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 31.9%–45.5%]) resulted in HCW contamination of gloves and/or gowns, and 9 (4.5% [95% CI, 1.6%–7.4%]) resulted in contamination of HCW hands after glove removal before hand hygiene. Of 134 interactions with patients colonized with MDR P. aeruginosa, 11 (8.2% [95% CI, 3.6%–12.9%]) resulted in HCW contamination of gloves and/or gowns, and 1 resulted in HCW contamination of hands. Independent risk factors for contamination with MDR A. baumannii were manipulation of wound dressing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 25.9 [95% CI, 3.1–208.8]), manipulation of artificial airway (aOR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1–4.0]), time in room longer than 5 minutes (aOR, 4.3 [95% CI, 2.0–9.1]), being a physician or nurse practitioner (aOR, 7.4 [95% CI, 1.6–35.2]), and being a nurse (aOR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1–4.8]). CONCLUSIONS Gowns, gloves, and unwashed hands of HCWs were frequently contaminated with MDR A. baumannii. MDR A. baumannii appears to be more easily transmitted than MDR P. aeruginosa and perhaps more

  5. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, Laszlo; Central Hospital, Falun; Tot, Tibor; Central Hospital, Falun; Dean, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  6. Episodes of injuries and frequent usage of traditional Chinese medicine for Taiwanese elite wrestling athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zen-Pin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chia, Fan; Wu, Huey-June; Lan, Lawrence W; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2011-01-01

    Wrestling normally places extreme demands on the body and thus may cause various kinds of injuries. An in-depth understanding of the episodes of injured sites, types, timings, and treatment modalities would help participants be aware of wrestling-related injury occurrences so as to develop effective preventive measures. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the gender-specific injuries among elite wrestling athletes. Subjects were selected from the 2009 Taiwanese National Wrestling Sport Championship. Participants were adolescent wrestling athletes, ages 16-18, who must have received at least one bronze medal at national level tournaments in 2008. A total of 118 respondents, 96 males and 22 females, completed and returned the questionnaire in which demographic data and information about the types, sites, and timings of injuries suffered and treatment modalities adopted were elicited. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests. The questionnaire results revealed a significantly higher injury rate for males than for females. The top three injured sites for males were waist (11.1%), ankle joint (10.1%) and finger (9.6%); while for females were ankle joint (13.6%), knee (12.5%) and waist (11.3%). Contusions were the most frequent type of injury: for males (73.5%) and for females (70.6%); followed by tendon inflammation for males (10.7%) and accumulated injuries for females (15.2%). During training and matching periods, the frequency of injuries for males (69.0%) is lower than that for females (81.8%). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with acupuncture and moxibustion was the most common treatment modalities used for males (51.8%) and for females (68.0%); followed by orthopedics: for males (29.5%) and for females (18.0%). The present study contributed as the first effort to reveal the potency of using TCM with acupuncture and moxibustion in wrestling competitions. To prevent possible brain and body injuries in wrestling, safety education, skills and rules, and

  7. Cost of nursing most frequent procedures performed on severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Talita de Oliveira; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa

    2017-01-01

    to identify the mean direct cost (MDC) of the most frequent procedures performed by nursing professionals on severely burned patients in an Intensive Care Unit. exploratory-descriptive quantitative single-case study. The MDC was calculated by multiplying time (timed) spent by nursing professionals in the performance of the procedures by the unit cost of direct labor, and adding the costs of material and medicine/solutions. a MDC of US$ 0.65 (SD=0.36) was obtained for "vital signs monitoring"; US$ 10.00 (SD=24.23) for "intravenous drug administration"; US$ 5.90 (SD=2.75) for "measurement of diuresis"; US$ 0.93 (SD=0.42) for "capillary blood glucose monitoring"; and US$ 99.75 (SD=129.55) for "bandaging". the knowledge developed can support managerial decision-making, contribute to the efficiency distribution of the resources involved and, when possible, provide cost-containment or cost-minimization strategies without impairing the quality of nursing care. identificar o custo direto médio (CDM) dos procedimentos realizados, com maior frequência, por profissionais de enfermagem, em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, aos pacientes grandes queimados. pesquisa quantitativa, exploratório-descritiva, do tipo estudo de caso único. O CDM foi calculado multiplicando-se o tempo (cronometrado) despendido por profissionais de enfermagem na execução dos procedimentos, objeto de estudo, pelo custo unitário da mão de obra direta, somando-se ao custo dos materiais e soluções/medicamentos. obteve-se o CDM de US$ 0.65 (SD=0.36) para "controle dos sinais vitais"; US$ 10.00 (SD=24.23) para "administração de medicamentos via intravenosa"; US$ 5.90 (SD=2.75) para "mensuração de diurese"; US$ 0.93 (SD=0.42) para "verificação de glicemia capilar"; e US$ 99.75 (SD=129.55) para "curativo". o conhecimento desenvolvido pode fundamentar as tomadas de decisão gerenciais subsidiando a eficiência alocativa dos recursos envolvidos e, quando possível, indicar estratégias de conten

  8. More frequent, more costly? Health economic modelling aspects of monitoring glaucoma patients in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodhna, Trishal; Crabb, David P

    2016-10-22

    Chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) is an age-related eye disease causing irreversible loss of visual field (VF). Health service delivery for COAG is challenging given the large number of diagnosed patients requiring lifelong periodic monitoring by hospital eye services. Yet frequent examination better determines disease worsening and speed of VF loss under treatment. We examine the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency of VF examinations during follow-up using a health economic model. Two different VF monitoring schemes defined as current practice (annual VF testing) and proposed practice (three VF tests per year in the first 2 years after diagnosis) were examined. A purpose written health economic Markov model is used to test the hypothesis that cost effectiveness improves by implementing proposed practice on groups of patients stratified by age and severity of COAG. Further, a new component of the model, estimating costs of visual impairment, was added. Results were derived from a simulated cohort of 10000 patients with quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) used as main outcome measures. An ICER of £21,392 per QALY was derived for proposed practice improving to a value of £11,382 once savings for prevented visual impairment was added to the model. Proposed practice was more cost-effective in younger patients. Proposed practice for patients with advanced disease at diagnosis generated ICERs > £60,000 per QALY; these cases would likely be on the most intensive treatment pathway making clinical information on speed of VF loss redundant. Sensitivity analysis indicated results to be robust in relation to hypothetical willingness to pay threshold identified by national guidelines, although greatest uncertainty was allied to estimates of implementation and visual impairment costs. Increasing VF monitoring at the earliest stages of follow-up for COAG appears to be cost-effective depending on reasonable

  9. More frequent, more costly? Health economic modelling aspects of monitoring glaucoma patients in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishal Boodhna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG is an age-related eye disease causing irreversible loss of visual field (VF. Health service delivery for COAG is challenging given the large number of diagnosed patients requiring lifelong periodic monitoring by hospital eye services. Yet frequent examination better determines disease worsening and speed of VF loss under treatment. We examine the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency of VF examinations during follow-up using a health economic model. Methods Two different VF monitoring schemes defined as current practice (annual VF testing and proposed practice (three VF tests per year in the first 2 years after diagnosis were examined. A purpose written health economic Markov model is used to test the hypothesis that cost effectiveness improves by implementing proposed practice on groups of patients stratified by age and severity of COAG. Further, a new component of the model, estimating costs of visual impairment, was added. Results were derived from a simulated cohort of 10000 patients with quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs used as main outcome measures. Results An ICER of £21,392 per QALY was derived for proposed practice improving to a value of £11,382 once savings for prevented visual impairment was added to the model. Proposed practice was more cost-effective in younger patients. Proposed practice for patients with advanced disease at diagnosis generated ICERs > £60,000 per QALY; these cases would likely be on the most intensive treatment pathway making clinical information on speed of VF loss redundant. Sensitivity analysis indicated results to be robust in relation to hypothetical willingness to pay threshold identified by national guidelines, although greatest uncertainty was allied to estimates of implementation and visual impairment costs. Conclusion Increasing VF monitoring at the earliest stages of follow-up for COAG

  10. Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Chenpi): Botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Sun, Shuang; Guo, Yuyan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Dayu; Li, Guoyu; Lü, Shaowa

    2018-04-05

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Rutaceae, CRP), commonly called as Chenpi () in Chinese, is most frequently used as a qi-regulating drug in thousands of Chinese medicine prescriptions. CRP is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. Since thousands of years in China, CRP has been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, anepithymia, diarrhea, cough, expectoration, and so on. Currently, CRP is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The present paper reviews the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, and toxicology of CRP. Information on CRP was gathered from various sources including the books on traditional Chinese herbal medicine; scientific databases including Elsevier, PubMed, and ScienceDirect; Baidu Scholar; CNKI; and others and from different professional websites. Approximately 140 chemical compounds have been isolated and identified from CRP. Among them, volatile oils and flavonoids are generally considered as the main bioactive and characteristic ingredients. CRP possesses wide pharmacological effects such as having a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties; and a protective effect on the liver and nerve. Moreover, hesperidin is chosen as an indicator in the quantitative determination of CRP, and the quantity of aflatoxin in CRP must not exceed the standard limit mentioned in the pharmacopoeia. In brief, CRP has a warming nature, and hence, it can be used in harmony with a lot of medicines. CRP not only exhibits its effects individually but also aids other medicines exhibit a better effect. CRP can be consumed with tea, food, alcohol, and medicine. Irrespective of the form it is being consumed, CRP not only shows a synergistic effect but also has strengths on its own. Modern pharmacological

  11. Identifying Characteristics of Airline Frequent-Fliers in Australia: Implications for Market Segmentation, Target Marketing, and Product Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Airlines can cultivate new business, enjoy repeat patronage through progressively attractive awards given directly to frequent fliers, deter emerging airlines from entering established markets, and compile the demographic profiles and travel characte...

  12. Relationship between frequent knee pain, obesity, and gait speed in older adults: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M

    2016-01-01

    Knee pain (KP) causes gait difficulties in older adults and is associated with slow gait speed (GS). Obesity has negative effects on health. GS is an important indicator of health, well-being, and mean life span in older adults and is a strong predictor of future disability and mortality. The relationship between frequent KP, obesity, and GS in older adults remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed at examining the relationship between baseline frequent KP and obesity status on GS over time. We hypothesized that frequent KP, obesity, or both would be associated with decreased GS over time. The data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used for this 6-year longitudinal cohort study. We studied 3,118 adults aged between 45 years and 79 years. We grouped the participants into the following four categories according to KP frequency and obesity status at baseline: 1) no KP and nonobese, 2) frequent KP and nonobese, 3) no KP and obese, and 4) frequent KP and obese. GS measurements were based on a 20 m walking test timed using a stopwatch; testing was performed at baseline and over a 6-year follow-up period. Walk pace (m/sec) was calculated as the average pace over two trials conducted at clinic visits. General linear mixed models were used to examine the relationships between frequent KP, obesity, and GS. After adjusting for all covariates, at baseline, all the nonobese group with frequent KP (β=-0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.07 to -0.04), the obese group with no KP (β=-0.07, 95% CI: -0.1 to -0.04), and the obese group with frequent KP (β=-0.08, 95% CI: -0.1 to -0.05) exhibited decreased GS compared with the nonobese and no KP group. However, the associations between frequent KP, obesity, and GS over time were not statistically significant. Frequent KP alone, obesity alone, and the combination of frequent KP and obesity were all associated with decreased GS in older adults. These associations did not change in any of the groups longitudinally; as

  13. Relationships Between Housing and Food Insecurity, Frequent Mental Distress, and Insufficient Sleep Among Adults in 12 US States, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yong; Njai, Rashid S.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Housing insecurity and food insecurity may be psychological stressors associated with insufficient sleep. Frequent mental distress may mediate the relationships between these variables. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between housing insecurity and food insecurity, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep. Methods We analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 12 states. Housing insecurity and food insecurity were...

  14. Determinants of frequent Internet use in an urban kidney transplant population in the United States: characterizing the digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Mark; Saunders, Milda; Josephson, Michelle A; Becker, Yolanda T; Lee, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The Internet is a staple of electronic communication and is essential to the emerging telemonitoring and health information technology interventions for adults with chronic diseases. To identify determinants of frequent Internet use in an urban kidney transplant population in the United States. A single center, cross-sectional survey study. An urban Midwestern transplant center. 78 pretransplant and 177 posttransplant patients. Frequent Internet use, defined as using the Internet more than 5 hours per week. Only 38% of participants reported being frequent Internet users. Non-Hispanic blacks and participants who reported their race/ethnicity as "other" were significantly less likely than whites to report being frequent Internet users. Women were 59% less likely than men to be frequent users of the Internet. Those who reported having kidney disease for more than 3 years were more likely to report being frequent Internet users. As education increased, Internet use increased. As age increased, Internet use decreased. Alternatives to electronic information sources and/or additional resources should be considered for those who may fall in the so-called digital divide.

  15. [Would the Screening of Common Mental Disorders in Primary-Care Health Services Hyper-Frequent Patients Be Useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Hoyos, Hernán G; López, Mérida R Rodríguez; Ruiz, Ana María Villa; Hernández, Carlos Augusto; Ramos, Martha Lucía

    2012-12-01

    Hyper-frequentation in health services is a problem for patients, their families and the institutions. This study is aimed at determining the frequency and characteristics of common mental disorders in hyper-frequent patients showing vague symptoms and signs at a primary healthcare service during the year 2007 in the city of Cali (Colombia). Cross sectional. The most frequent mental disorders in hyper-frequent patients were detected through a telephone interview which included several modules of the PRIME MD instrument. In general, healthcare service hyper-frequenters are working women, 38,7-year old in average. Basically, the consultation is due to cephalalgia but they also exhibit a high prevalence of common mental disorders (somatization, depression and anxiety) not easily diagnosed by physicians in primary care. Expenses for additional health activities generated by these patients are attributed basically to medical consultation and required procedures. Considering hyper-frequenters in health care services as a risk group in terms of common mental disorders involves screening as an efficient strategy to prevent abuse in service use and to improve satisfaction with the attention received. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Mass Flux of Tephra Sampled Frequently During the Ongoing Halema`uma`u Eruption (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, D.; Wooten, K.; Orr, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    The ongoing summit eruption of Kilauea provides an unparalleled opportunity to track, almost daily, the production of tephra. The eruption began on 19 March 2008, and tephra has been erupted every day since then to the end of August 2009. Most of the time, tephra is ejected quasi-continuously from the vent accompanied by a light gray to white gas plume, occasionally broken by a more vigorous pulse (“brown plume”) richer in ejecta. In early April 2008, an array of 10 plastic buckets was placed within 400 m of the new vent in Halema`uma`u down the prevailing NE wind direction. The configuration of the array, spanning an area of about 73,000 m2, has not changed since then. Buckets are emptied frequently, initially every day and, since summer 2008, on all weekdays. The contents are dried and weighed, and an “average network accumulation rate” is calculated in g/m2/hour. In addition, componentry analyses are made of the >0.5-mm size fraction from a bucket near the vent, in order to categorize the tephra into juvenile and lithic fractions. To estimate the total mass of tephra ejected from the vent for a given collection, we first drew isomass contours for several daily collections and plotted isomass versus square root of area to obtain the total mass of the deposit. From this, we developed an empirical multiplication factor that allows us to estimate, within ~25 percent, the total ejected mass per day in kilograms from the total collected mass in grams. The tephra is a mix of vitric and lithic pyroclasts, mostly ash in size. The vitric clasts, interpreted as juvenile, include Pele’s hair and tears, hollow spherules, dumbbells, pumice, and bits of coarsely vesicular glass. All these clasts were probably produced by weak spattering at the top of the lava column, which has rarely been seen. Especially since fall 2008, some vitric clasts are partly coated with secondary minerals or rock dust. We interpret such clasts as recycled, first erupted during spattering

  17. Gneisses of Brazil's cultural heritage buildings and its most frequent degradations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Costa, Antônio

    2017-04-01

    significant loss of components. Still related to minerals of these rocks, degradations occurred due to the oxidation of the iron present in these rocks in the silicates and oxides. This process, which was more intense in hot, tropical regions, was responsible for chromatic alterations with predominance of reddish color. When the action of this process occurs in conjunction with hydration, it becomes much more effective and manifests itself in much more extensive areas. In these cases, minerals containing iron, for example, have changed to hematite or limonite, causing important chromatic variations identified by the appearance of a yellow-brown coloration in the studied materials. In relation to the structural arrangements, the influence of these in the degradation processes was verified. Here we highlight the exfoliations and detachments parallel to the structures of these materials. Other detachments observed result from the formation of black crusts that end up leading to the appearance of bubbles or spells that eventually evolve into the detachments. Contrary to what is observed for others rocks with feldspar quartz composition, but with hypidiomorphic granular texture, rounding is not frequent.

  18. CD30 ligand is frequently expressed in human hematopoietic malignancies of myeloid and lymphoid origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattei, V; Degan, M; Gloghini, A; De Iuliis, A; Improta, S; Rossi, F M; Aldinucci, D; Perin, V; Serraino, D; Babare, R; Zagonel, V; Gruss, H J; Carbone, A; Pinto, A

    1997-03-15

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) is a type-II membrane glycoprotein capable of transducing signals leading to either cell death or proliferation through its specific counterstructure CD30. Although several lines of evidence indicate that CD30L plays a key role as a paracrine- or autocrine-acting surface molecule in the deregulated cytokine cascade of Hodgkin's disease, little is known regarding its distribution and biologic significance in other human hematopoietic malignancies. By analyzing tumor cells from 181 patients with RNA studies and immunostaining by the anti-CD30L monoclonal antibody M80, we were able to show that human hematopoietic malignancies of different lineage and maturation stage display a frequent and broad expression of the ligand. CD30L mRNA and surface protein were detected in 60% of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), 54% of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs), and in a consistent fraction (68%) of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. In this latter group, hairy cell leukemia and high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) expressed a higher surface density of CD30L as compared with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and low-grade B-NHL. Purified plasmacells from a fraction of multiple myeloma patients also displayed CD30L mRNA and protein. A more restricted expression of CD30L was found in T-cell tumors that was mainly confined to neoplasms with an activated peripheral T-cell phenotype, such as T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, peripheral T-NHL, and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. In contrast, none of the T-lineage ALLs analyzed expressed the ligand. In AML, a high cellular density of CD30L was detected in French-American-British M3, M4, and M5 phenotypes, which are directly associated with the presence on tumor cells of certain surface structures, including the p55 interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain, the alpha(M) (CD11b) chain of beta2 integrins, and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54). Analysis of normal hematopoietic cells

  19. Lie Detection Using fNIRS Monitoring of Inhibition-Related Brain Regions Discriminates Infrequent but not Frequent Liars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS was used to test whether monitoring inhibition-related brain regions is a feasible method for detecting both infrequent liars and frequent liars. Thirty-two participants were divided into two groups: the deceptive group (liars and the non-deceptive group (ND group, innocents. All the participants were required to undergo a simulated interrogation by a computer. The participants from the deceptive group were instructed to tell a mix of lies and truths and those of the ND group were instructed always to tell the truth. Based on the number of deceptions, the participants of the deceptive group were further divided into a infrequently deceptive group (IFD group, infrequent liars and a frequently deceptive group (FD group, frequent liars. The infrequent liars exhibited greater neural activities than the frequent liars and the innocents in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG when performing the deception detection tasks. While performing deception detection tasks, infrequent liars showed significantly greater neural activation in the left MFG than the baseline, but frequent liars and innocents did not exhibit this pattern of neural activation in any area of inhibition-related brain regions. The results of individual analysis showed an acceptable accuracy of detecting infrequent liars, but an unacceptable accuracy of detecting frequent liars. These results suggest that using fNIRS monitoring of inhibition-related brain regions is feasible for detecting infrequent liars, for whom deception may be more effortful and therefore more physiologically marked, but not frequent liars.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1 times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly