WorldWideScience

Sample records for cdm permit trading

  1. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  2. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  3. Scoping paper on new CDM baseline methodology for cross-border power trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poeyry has been sub-contracted by Carbon Limits, under the African Development Bank CDM Support Programme, to prepare a new CDM baseline methodology for cross border trade, based on a transmission line from Ethiopia to Kenya. The first step in that process is to review the response of the UNFCCC, particularly the Methodologies Panel ('Meth Panel') of the CDM Executive Board, to the various proposals on cross-border trade and interconnection of grids. This report reviews the Methodology Panel and Executive Board decisions on 4 requests for revisions of ACM2 'Consolidated baseline methodology for grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources', and 5 proposed new baseline methodologies (NM255, NM269, NM272, NM318, NM342), all of which were rejected. We analyse the reasons the methodologies were rejected, and whether the proposed draft Approved Methodology (AM) that the Methodology Panel created in response to NM269 and NM272 is a suitable basis for a new methodology proposal.(auth)

  4. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HMS international trade permit. 300.182... FISHERIES REGULATIONS International Trade Documentation and Tracking Programs for Highly Migratory Species § 300.182 HMS international trade permit. (a) General. An importer, entering for consumption fish or...

  5. Trade of permits for greenhouse gas emissions: Bilateral trade need not be the answer

    OpenAIRE

    Burguet, Roberto; Sempere, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets national quotas on GHG emissions and allows international trade of these quotas. Taking terms-of-trade effects into account, we argue that this trade is characterized by asymmetric, identity-dependent externalities, and show that bilateral trade of permits may not be sufficient for an efficient allocation of emissions. We derive conditions under which bilateral trade does improve the allocation of permits. The conditions are strong. In this sense, we argue that, for em...

  6. Permit Allocation in Emissions Trading using the Boltzmann Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Ji-Won; Isard, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In emissions trading, the initial permit allocation is an intractable issue because it needs to be essentially fair to the participating countries. There are many ways to distribute a given total amount of emissions permits among countries, but the existing distribution methods such as auctioning and grandfathering have been debated. Here we describe a new model for permit allocation in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution. The Boltzmann distribution is introduced to permit allocation by combining it with concepts in emissions trading. A price determination mechanism for emission permits is then developed in relation to the {\\beta} value in the Boltzmann distribution. Finally, it is demonstrated how emissions permits can be practically allocated among participating countries in empirical results. The new allocation model using the Boltzmann distribution describes a most probable, natural, and unbiased distribution of emissions permits among multiple countries. Based on its simplicity and versati...

  7. Cameron Trading Post; Proposed NPDES Permit NN0021610

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to issue NPDES permit (No. NN0021610) to Cameron Trading Post for the wastewater treatment facility located on private land in Cameron (Township 29N, Range 9E, Section 22), Coconino County, Arizona.

  8. Impacts on CO{sub 2} emission allowance of EU emission trading scheme (ETS) in a Swedish steel plant by clean development mechanism (CDM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.; Dahl, J. [Lulea Univ. of Technology, Lulea (Sweden). Division of Energy Engineering; Larsson, M. [MEFOS, Lulea (Sweden). Metallurgical Research Institute AB; Yan, J. [Lulea Univ. of Technology, Lulea (Sweden). Division of Energy Engineering]|[Malarden Univ., Vesteras (Sweden). Dept. IST

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the optimum solutions for steel mills in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) to meet their emission allowance with low reduction cost. The study developed a computer-based optimization model that was used as part of a case study in a Swedish steel plant. The model used three different scenarios, including internal changes in the steel plant, allowance purchases via the Emission Trading Scheme, and buying credits through the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The model was used to simulate carbon dioxide emission in order to determine which solution offers the lowest cost coupled with high emission reduction. It was concluded that internal changes and the CDM scenarios will both contribute to assisting the Swedish plant to meet the emission trading allowance and Kyoto Protocol commitments. It was also concluded that the plant will face a carbon dioxide emission reduction burden from the third year of ETC onward. 14 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  10. Watershed-based point sources permitting strategy and dynamic permit-trading analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2007-09-01

    Permit-trading policy in a total maximum daily load (TMDL) program may provide an additional avenue to produce environmental benefit, which closely approximates what would be achieved through a command and control approach, with relatively lower costs. One of the important considerations that might affect the effective trading mechanism is to determine the dynamic transaction prices and trading ratios in response to seasonal changes of assimilative capacity in the river. Advanced studies associated with multi-temporal spatially varied trading ratios among point sources to manage water pollution hold considerable potential for industries and policy makers alike. This paper aims to present an integrated simulation and optimization analysis for generating spatially varied trading ratios and evaluating seasonal transaction prices accordingly. It is designed to configure a permit-trading structure basin-wide and provide decision makers with a wealth of cost-effective, technology-oriented, risk-informed, and community-based management strategies. The case study, seamlessly integrating a QUAL2E simulation model with an optimal waste load allocation (WLA) scheme in a designated TMDL study area, helps understand the complexity of varying environmental resources values over space and time. The pollutants of concern in this region, which are eligible for trading, mainly include both biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). The problem solution, as a consequence, suggests an array of waste load reduction targets in a well-defined WLA scheme and exhibits a dynamic permit-trading framework among different sub-watersheds in the study area. Research findings gained in this paper may extend to any transferable dynamic-discharge permit (TDDP) program worldwide.

  11. A game theoretic approach for trading discharge permits in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Kerachian, Reza; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new Cooperative Trading Discharge Permit (CTDP) methodology is designed for estimating equitable and efficient treatment cost allocation among dischargers in a river system considering their conflicting interests. The methodology consists of two main steps: (1) initial treatment cost allocation and (2) equitable treatment cost reallocation. In the first step, a Pareto front among objectives is developed using a powerful and recently developed multi-objective genetic algorithm known as Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The objectives of the optimization model are considered to be the average treatment level of dischargers and a fuzzy risk of violating the water quality standards. The fuzzy risk is evaluated using the Monte Carlo analysis. The best non-dominated solution on the Pareto front, which provides the initial cost allocation to dischargers, is selected using the Young Bargaining Theory (YBT). In the second step, some cooperative game theoretic approaches are utilized to investigate how the maximum saving cost of participating dischargers in a coalition can be fairly allocated to them. The final treatment cost allocation provides the optimal trading discharge permit policies. The practical utility of the proposed methodology for river water quality management is illustrated through a realistic case study of the Zarjub river in the northern part of Iran.

  12. Implementing CDM projects. A guidebook to host country legal issues; CDM - Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curnow, P. (Baker and McKenzie, London (United Kingdom)); Hodes, G. (UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, DTU, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) continues to evolve organically, and many legal issues remain to be addressed in order to maximise its effectiveness. This Guidebook explains through case studies how domestic laws and regulatory frameworks in CDM Host Countries interact with international rules on carbon trading, and how the former can be enhanced to facilitate the implementation and financing of CDM projects. (author)

  13. Emission Permits trade between the Nordic and Baltic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-05-01

    A bottom-up technology oriented model of the energy systems in the Nordic and Baltic countries have been constructed and used for analysing an optimal set of energy and emission trading within the region. The model used is MARKAL, which has been developed within the IEA-ETSAP. The analyses are based on national emission levels agreed on in the Kyoto protocol (and the following burden sharing negotiations within the European Union), and with an additional strengthening after 2010. Only energy related CO{sub 2} emissions are explicitly considered. Nuclear power in Sweden is assumed to be phased out. The results show that especially Norway and Sweden have large abatement costs when acting alone, whale the Baltic countries will probably not need to take domestic actions due to the Kyoto protocol if they act alone, as the restructuring of their economies in the beginning of the 1990ties cut emissions (and their economies) dramatically. It is shown that emission trading among the Nordic and Baltic countries can reduce abatement costs among the Nordic countries significantly, possibly down to a level equivalent to a world market (Annex I) permit price. Extending the Nordic common electricity market to Balticum will have minor influence on overall energy system costs. There is no pronounced direction for net electricity flow between the Nordic and Baltic countries. High marginal costs during peak hours in Balticum indicate that imports of Nordic hydro power during peak-hours could be a cost-effective option. This possibility could be implemented with a subsea AC/DC connection between Sweden and Latvia. It is politically viable to develop more hydropower in Norway, this country will be the major electricity exporter in the region, while Sweden will be the main importer. Changing scenario assumptions, i.e. no more Norwegian hydropower, but life extension of Swedish nuclear power, could change this picture. (author)

  14. The trade in emission permits; Der Handel mit Emissionszertifikaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Aynur

    2011-07-01

    The emissions trading system creates a market incentive to reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, a climate-damaging gas, in those places where their avoidance is least expensive. This way of optimising resource efficiency is the basic idea underlying the emissions trading system. However, in practice the concept of emissions trading has failed. A fundamental legislative reform is needed in order to eliminate the existing ambiguities and risks associated with emissions trading. The present dissertation examines the complex problems encountered at the interface between European legislation and its implementation at national level as well as the imperfect meshing between public and private law with its resulting legal uncertainties.

  15. Permit trading and stability of international climate agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Finus, M.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the implication of different allocation schemes of CO2-emission permits for stability and the success of international climate agreements. Our model combines a game theoretical with an empirical module that comprises 12 world regions and captures important dynamic aspects of the climate c

  16. Impacts on CO{sub 2} emission allowance of EU emission trading scheme (ETS) in a Swedish steel plant by clean development mechanism (CDM). Paper no. IGEC-1-058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. [Lulea Univ. of Technology, Div. of Energy Engineering, Lulea (Sweden)]. E-mail: chuan.wang@ltu.se; Larsson, M. [MEFOS-Metallurgical Research Inst. AB, Lulea (Sweden)]. E-mail: mikael.larsson@mefos.se; Yan, J. [Lulea Univ. of Technology, Div. of Energy Engineering, Lulea (Sweden)]|[Malardalen Univ., Dept. IST, Vasteras (Sweden)]. E-mail: yanjy@ket.kth.se; Dahl, J. [Lulea Univ. of Technology, Div. of Energy Engineering, Lulea (Sweden)]. E-mail: jan.dahl@ltu.se

    2005-07-01

    The implementation of EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) started on January 1st 2005 according to national plans for allocating emissions rights. The steel industry is one of the industrial sectors included in this scheme. The objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the optimum solution(s) in the steel mills to meet their emission allowance with low reduction cost. An optimization model is developed and used for a case study in a Swedish steel plant. Three scenarios were created in the model, i.e. internal changes within the steel plant, ETS, and the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM). For the last scenario, China was selected as a country of the non-Annex I Party for the emission trading by CDM. The modeling results show that the studied plant will face an emission gap between allowed and calculated emissions in the near future. Compared to the ETS, the implementation of CDM projects will make the plant reduce CO{sub 2} emission at a lower cost. The internal changes within the plant will also play an important role for the solution of low abatement cost. (author)

  17. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations sati...

  18. Modeling and computation of mean field equilibria in producers' game with emission permits trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Shanain, Aleksandr

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a mean field game to model the production behaviors of a very large number of producers, whose carbon emissions are regulated by government. Especially, an emission permits trading scheme is considered in our model, in which each enterprise can trade its own permits flexibly. By means of the mean field equilibrium, we obtain a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation coupled with a Kolmogorov equation, which are satisfied by the adjoint state and the density of producers (agents), respectively. Then, we propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve the HJB equation and the Kolmogorov equation. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. Under different conditions, the equilibrium states as well as the effects of the emission permits price are examined, which demonstrates that the emission permits trading scheme influences the producers' behaviors, that is, more populations would like to choose a lower rather than a higher emission level when the emission permits are expensive.

  19. A stochastic conflict resolution model for trading pollutant discharge permits in river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Kerachian, Reza; Amin, Pedram

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an efficient methodology for developing pollutant discharge permit trading in river systems considering the conflict of interests of involving decision-makers and the stakeholders. In this methodology, a trade-off curve between objectives is developed using a powerful and recently developed multi-objective genetic algorithm technique known as the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The best non-dominated solution on the trade-off curve is defined using the Young conflict resolution theory, which considers the utility functions of decision makers and stakeholders of the system. These utility functions are related to the total treatment cost and a fuzzy risk of violating the water quality standards. The fuzzy risk is evaluated using the Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, an optimization model provides the trading discharge permit policies. The practical utility of the proposed methodology in decision-making is illustrated through a realistic example of the Zarjub River in the northern part of Iran.

  20. On the use of exchange rates as trading rules in a bilateral system of transferable discharge permits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, F. [Department Economia Aplicada, Facultad de Derecho, Campus ' Miguel de Unamuno' , University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain)

    2000-04-01

    The use of a system of transferable discharge permits to control the harmful effects of non-uniformly mixed pollutants requires the application of trading rules in order to prevent permit trading among sources from violating environmental standards. The elements and properties of bilateral trading rules can be analyzed more easily once formulated as exchange rates, which would convert, in a cost-effective way, the emission right potentially given up by the seller into an offsetting emission right acquired by the buyer. In this article, a new expression for such exchange rates is proposed and then analyzed to infer some unexplored properties of the system. 8 refs.

  1. The Learning Process and Technological Change in Wind Power: Evidence from China's CDM Wind Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian; Popp, David

    2016-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a project-based carbon trade mechanism that subsidizes the users of climate-friendly technologies and encourages technology transfer. The CDM has provided financial support for a large share of Chinese wind projects since 2002. Using pooled cross-sectional data of 486 registered CDM wind projects in China…

  2. The Learning Process and Technological Change in Wind Power: Evidence from China's CDM Wind Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian; Popp, David

    2016-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a project-based carbon trade mechanism that subsidizes the users of climate-friendly technologies and encourages technology transfer. The CDM has provided financial support for a large share of Chinese wind projects since 2002. Using pooled cross-sectional data of 486 registered CDM wind projects in China…

  3. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  4. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM. We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  5. The developing CDM market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Karousakis, K.

    2006-05-15

    This paper presents and analyses the data on proposed CDM projects, including their types, estimates of CO2 (or CO2-equivalent) emission reductions, and the projects' geographic distribution. The data is based predominantly on publicly available project design documents (PDDs) submitted to the EB of the UNFCCC, from national or international carbon funds and from country-specific or other information. The information presented does not include emission reduction estimates from proposed CDM projects that do not yet have a PDD or have not been approved by a host country designated national authority (DNA)

  6. Linking renewable energy CDM projects and TGC schemes: An analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Department of Economics and Business, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/ Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n., Toledo-45071 (Spain)]. E-mail: pablo.rio@uclm.es

    2006-11-15

    Renewable energy CDM (RE-CDM) projects encourage cost-effective GHG mitigation and enhanced sustainable development opportunities for the host countries. CERs from CDM projects include the value of the former benefits (i.e., 'climate change benefits'), whereas the second can be given value through the issuing and trading of tradable green certificates (TGCs). Countries could agree to trade these TGCs, leading to additional revenues for the investors in renewable energy projects and, therefore, further encouraging the deployment of CDM projects, currently facing significant barriers. However, the design of a combination of CDM projects and TGC schemes raises several conflicting issues and leads to trade-offs. This paper analyses these issues, identifies the alternatives that may exist to link TGC schemes with RE-CDM projects and analyses the impacts of those options on different variables and actors.

  7. The US market for SO{sub 2} permits: policy implications of the low price and trading volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, C.; Kohn, R.E. [Mannheim University, Mannheim (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre

    1996-12-01

    The price permits to emit SO{sub 2} and the volume of permits traded under the US Acid Rain Program have been lower than anticipated. This can be explained by the creation and distribution of more permits than were initially authorized, by the sale of permits by high cost abaters who are subject to more stringent local emission constraints or who have irreversibly invested in high cost abatement technologies and by the deregulation of the natural gas and railroad industries which, in combination with incentives for cost-cutting under the new market approach to SO{sub 2} control, has lowered marginal costs of abatement curves and made them more uniform across powerplants. The low price of permits and low trading volume are evidence that market approaches to pollution control can be more cost-effective than command and control regulations. The effect of public policies and technological changes on the allowance market are examined in the context of an ideal market in which the equilibrium price of allowances equal the marginal cost of abatement of individual powerplants. Using recent data from Coggins and Swinton (1996), the authors explain the current price of permits with some accuracy. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 app.

  8. The project mechanism law: Germany's CO2 trading becomes international. Introduction of project-related mechanisms in German law[Joint Implementation (JI), Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)]; Das Projekt-Mechanismen-Gesetz: Deutschlands CO{sub 2}-Handel wird international. Die Einfuehrung der projektbezogenen Mechanismen in das deutsche Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, A.; Loewer, T. [Rechtsanwaltssozietaet White und Case, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    With the legislation on project mechanisms in September 2005, the Kyoto Protocol and the EU Linking Directive have been integrated in German law. Germany can now use CDM and JI projects as an investor country and host country; for the German industry, there is a wider range of tools for meeting their emission reduction obligations and also a wider offer of opportunities for trading and arbitrage. (orig.)

  9. Guidance to regulations on trade with emission permits for carbon dioxide; Vaegledning till lagstiftning om handel med utslaeppsraetter foer koldioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-15

    This guidance is intended to facilitate application of the rules on emissions trading. The guidance is principally concerned with issues relating to permit appraisal and monitoring, but also discusses some terms common to permits and allocations, such as installation and operator. The guidance follows the same structure as the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency regulations (NFS 2007:5) in order to provide direct support for the rules. The focus is on providing a general description of the responsibilities of the operator and application of the rules. In addition, some difficult terms and relationships are explained. However, no exhaustive description of the operator's responsibilities is given, nor are the rules on verification described. We therefore recommend that the guidance should be read in conjunction with the Trading Act, the Trading Ordinance and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The first chapter presents a brief description of the purpose of the trading scheme, and is followed by a chapter in which the rules on applying for permits and the application procedure are reviewed. The next chapter gives a description of how the operator should monitor emissions and how the rules for the monitoring plan work, as well as the options that exist for simplified monitoring. The next chapter looks at notifications the operator might have to make and what they should contain. Guidance is also provided on how the county administrative board should process these notifications. The conditions of the permit decision are also briefly described. This is followed by a short chapter on the emissions report and the materiality threshold. The final chapter comments on certain parts of the annexes to the regulations. The EU Emissions Trading Directive has been implemented in Sweden through the Emissions Trading Act (2004:1199) (the Trading Act), the Emissions Trading Ordinance (2004:1205), the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency regulations

  10. Guidebook to financing CDM projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S.

    2007-07-01

    One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in

  11. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  12. EcoTRADE - a multi player network game of a tradable permit market for biodiversity credits

    CERN Document Server

    Hartig, Florian; Drechsler, Martin

    2008-01-01

    EcoTRADE is a multi player network game of a virtual biodiversity credit market. Each player controls the land use of a certain amount of parcels on a virtual landscape. The biodiversity credits of a particular parcel depend on neighboring parcels, which may be owned by other players. The game can be used to study the strategies of players in experiments or classroom games and also as a communication tool for stakeholders participating in credit markets that include spatially interdependent credits.

  13. Including non-point sfources in a water quality trading permit program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D

    2005-01-01

    There has been overwhelming interest in addressing water quality issues through the use of economic instruments. Much of this attention has focused on the cost efficiencies offered by Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) systems. Unfortunately, the attempts to start up permit markets which are able to exploit abatement cost differences between sources have not met with the success expected. Two of the reasons for the lack of success that have been taken up in analysis of these programs have been the problem of transaction costs and in the case of non-point sources (NPS), undefined property rights. The composite market design is a proposal for a TDP system which specifically includes agricultural non-point source (NPS) dischargers and addresses both property rights and transaction cost problems. The composite market consists of three interrelated markets each serving a particular function. When the composite market is mature, the total number of permits issued represents the cap on discharges allowed in the catchment. The structure of the composite market allows this system to be phased in over time with existing institutions and limited demands on financing.

  14. Why only few CDM projects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    CDM projects have large potentials but also face significant obstacles that have so far limited their applicability. Two serious problems that an effective contracting faces are the presence of private information and the lack of sufficiently precise output measures. In a principal-agent framework...

  15. Learning from CDM SD tool experience for Article 6.4 in the Paris Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    2017-01-01

    are achieved in an integrated fashion and trade-offs avoided. Article 6.4 of the PA introduces a new Sustainable Mitigati on Mechanism (SMM) with the dual aim to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and foster SD. The Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has a similar...... and multilateral standards to provide recommendations for improvement. A key conclusion is that the Paris Agreement’s SMM has a stronger political mandate than the CDM to measure that SD impacts are 'real, measurable and long-term'. Therefore, recommendations for an improved CDM SD tool are a relevant starting...

  16. The State of Development of National CDM Offices in Central and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera, L.; Cabeza, O.; Black-Arbelaez, T. [Andean Center for Economics in the Environment, Bogota (Colombia)

    2003-07-01

    Convention, is an indispensable requisite so that the operational entities responsible for the external technical evaluation of a project may develop the validation report. This in turn, permits the project to be registered by the Executive Board as a CDM activity. The general objective of this study was to evaluate the institutional capacity of the Central and South American CDM offices, specifically to: Determine the current state of the national CDM offices with respect to the requirements and legal responsibilities established by the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol, the Marrakech Accords and the decisions taken by the CDM Executive Board; Evaluate their ability to support the efficient and effective development of the CDM potential in their countries; and Identify their main deficiencies and weaknesses and their immediate needs with respect to said obligations.

  17. Challenges for energy efficiency under programmatic CDM: case study of a CFL project in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakosta, Charikleia; Askounis, Dimitris [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Management & Decision Support Systems Lab (NTUA-EPU), 9, Iroon Polytechniou str., 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Energy Efficiency (ENEF) is one of the most promising sectors for reducing emissions of sustained growth and increasing energy security in developing countries. ENEF is, however, severely under-represented in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), due in large part to its dispersed nature, which cannot be easily accommodated into traditional CDM modalities. Furthermore, in the present context, uncertainty prevails to whether the CDM is actually procuring its aims in terms of achieving Sustainable Development (SD) as well as to what extent. On the other hand, programmatic CDM (pCDM) could become an important tool to both bundle small-scale projects and organise similar (not necessarily small-scale) projects carried out at different locations and scales. In this respect, pCDM could offer a promising framework to maximize SD benefits through the inclusion of ENEF activities in developing countries. Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) technology has a significant technical potential within Chile, but 'somehow' do not receive sufficient attention from relevant stakeholders and key market players. This paper presents an analysis that explores for Chile, the potential of CFLs to deliver key energy services for the country. In the above framework, a simulation will be presented on the potential of large-scale CFL deployment in Chile in CDM emissions trading, energy and environmental terms.

  18. Primer on CDM programme of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, M. (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Lescano, A.D. (A2G Carbon Partners (Peru)); Alvarez, J.M. (Ministerio del Ambiente del Peru (Peru)); Avendano, F.M. (EEA Fund Management Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    As an advanced modality introduced in 2005, the Programmatic CDM (POA) is expected to address asymmetries of participation, especially of very small-scale project activities in certain areas, key sectors and many countries with considerable potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions, not reached by the traditional single-project-based CDM. Latest experiences with POAs and the recently finalized official guidance governing the Programmatic CDM are the grassroots of this Primer, which has the purpose of supporting the fully understanding of rules and procedures of POAs by interpreting them and analyzing real POA cases. Professional and experts from the public and private entities have contributed to the development of this Primer, produced by the UNEP Risoe Centre, as part of knowledge support activities for the Capacity Development for the CDM (CD4CDM) project. The overall objective of the CD4CDM is to develop the capacities of host countries to identify, design, approve, finance, implement CDM projects and commercialize CERs in participating countries. The CDM4CDM is funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (author)

  19. Grand Banquet of CDM for Power Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yuanchang; Jin Wen

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Kyoto Protocol was taken into effect on Feb. 16, 2005. It requires developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, but it doesn't set binding limits on developing countries, such as China. The developed countries found that it is more cost-effective to reduce the emissions in developing countries than in their own. Therefore, the CDM emerged as the times require. Due to unfamiliarity and complicatedness, Chinese enterprises had been hesitating and taking wait-and-see attitude toward CDM, but they couldn't resist the attraction of free dinner of CDM, more and more enterprises started to attend the grand banquet of CDM since 2006.

  20. Game theoretic analysis for carbon emission permits trading among multiple world regions with an optimizing global energy model; Saitekikagata sekai energy model ni motozuku tachiikikan CO2 haishutsu kyokasho torihiki no game ronteki bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, K.; Matsunaga, A.; Fujii, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon emissions which would cause global warming were agreed to be constrained at COP3 in Kyoto. In addition, carton emission permits trading was also approved to be introduced. The emission permits trading is expected to achieve efficient carbon emission reduction, equalizing the marginal costs of the emission reduction for the participating countries. In other words, the permits trading allows participants to reduce emissions where it is least expensive to do so. However, the inadequate introduction of the trading systems may impose unfairly greater burden on some countries, and therefore careful evaluation of the system would be indispensable for its implementation. In this paper, we attempt to analyze the emission permits trading. using the theory of cooperative games with a global energy model of optimization type. We assumed that seven world regions as players participate the permits trading system under the condition of the emission reduction target presented at COP3 and so on, and show the nucleolus of the grand coalition games, and the computational results of primary energy supplies and CO2 shadow prices. The insights of this research indicate that in order to stabilize the grand coalition, a noticeable amount of additional transfer of money would be needed besides the payments associated with the emission permits trading. 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. A study of regional CDM projects distribution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xutong; Liu Qingqian; Gu A'lun

    2009-01-01

    sector development, CDM market and information circulation aspects, suggestions are given to support CDM development in western areas by the "sector development guidance + CDM capability construction + market support" mode in this paper.

  2. Dynamic CDM strategies in an EHR environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Michael; Bailey, Spencer

    2012-02-01

    A dynamic charge description master (CDM) integrates information from clinical ancillary systems into the charge-capture process, so an organization can reduce its reliance on the patient accounting system as the sole source of billing information. By leveraging the information from electronic ancillary systems, providers can eliminate the need for paper charge-capture forms and see increased accuracy and efficiency in the maintenance of billing information. Before embarking on a dynamic CDM strategy, organizations should first determine their goals for implementing an EHR system, include revenue cycle leaders on the EHR implementation team, and carefully weigh the pros and cons of CDM design decisions.

  3. China's CDM Policies and Their Development Implications: Major Concerns for CDM Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xianli; Pan Jiahua

    2006-01-01

    Most CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)opportunities exist in some large industrializing developing countries. For instance, China is estimated to take 48% of the world potential for CDM project activities. In reality, however, the share by China over the CDM projects registered and CDM projects in the pipeline is less than 10% as of Auguest 2005. This paper will examine the reasons behind, as reflected in China's CDM policies. Further investigation will be made into the use of these policies to boost the country's sustainable development, the sustainable development implications and effects of these policies. In addition, it is noted that incompatibility of some other Chinese laws and policies can be responsible for the low level and slow pace of CDM implementation in China and some suggestions are offered for promoting CDM project activities in China. There also exist barriers at the international level that impedes implementation of CDM project activities. A conclusion is drawn that CDM policies in a developing country like China aim mainly at promotion of sustainable development and to a lesser extent the generation of CERs.

  4. Full chip modelling of ICs under CDM stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sowariraj, Mary Sheela Bobby

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, CDM ESD stress on the Integrated Circuits (IC) and the various factors which affect the robustness of an IC design against CDM stress is investigated. One of the main reasons for CDM failure are the voltage gradients set across the circuit during CDM stress. The IC being also the sou

  5. Full chip modelling of ICs under CDM stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sowariraj, M.S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, CDM ESD stress on the Integrated Circuits (IC) and the various factors which affect the robustness of an IC design against CDM stress is investigated. One of the main reasons for CDM failure are the voltage gradients set across the circuit during CDM stress. The IC being also the

  6. Stakeholder participation in CDM and new climate mitigation mechanisms: China CDM case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Olsen, Karen Holm

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholder participation is recognized as a key principle for effective climate governance. Climate mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), REDD +, and the Green Climate Fund (GCF) provide guidelines for local stakeholder consultation (LSC). However, little empirical research...... in CDM, REDD +, and GCF are identified. Relevant rules in China’s local policies are analysed. To understand the interaction between CDM policies and China’s local LSC rules, a selection of Chinese CDM Projects Design Documents (PDDs) are analysed, providing an overall impression of the stakeholder...... process and results. Afterwards, we focus on a single case for an in-depth understanding of LSC in practice. Results point to the weakness of current CDM LSC rules and lack of good practice guidance, e.g. regarding who to consult, what approaches to be used, and when and how consultations shall take place...

  7. Running vacuum versus the $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Pérez, Javier de Cruz

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that a constant $\\Lambda$-term is a traditional building block of the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model. We show that this assumption is not necessarily the optimal one from the phenomenological point of view. The class of running vacuum models, with a possible running of the gravitational coupling G, are capable to fit the overall cosmological data SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB better than the $\\Lambda$CDM, namely at a level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ and with Akaike and Bayesian information criteria supporting a strong level of statistical evidence on this fact. Here we report on the results of such analysis.

  8. Hidden photon CDM search at Tokyo

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Jun'ya; Horie, Tomoki; Minowa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We report on a search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a novel technique with a dish antenna. We constructed two independent apparatus: one is aiming at the detection of the HP with a mass of $\\sim\\,\\rm{eV}$ which employs optical instruments, and the other is for a mass of $\\sim5\\times10^{-5}\\, \\rm{eV}$ utilizing a commercially available parabolic antenna facing on a plane reflector. From the result of the measurements, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set upper limits on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$.

  9. CDM sustainable development impacts developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olhoff, Anne; Markandya, Anil; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Taylor, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), an innovative cooperative mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, is designed with the dual aim of assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development (SD) and of assisting industrialised countries in achieving compliance with their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction commitments. The SD dimension is not merely a requirement of the CDM; it should be seen as a main driver for developing country interest in participating in CDM projects. This is so, since apart from GHG emission reductions CDM projects will have a number of impacts in the host countries, including impacts on economic and social development and on the local environment. Furthermore, the selecting of the SD criteria and the assessment of the SD impacts are sovereign matters of the host countries in the current operationalisation of the Kyoto Protocol. National authorities can thus use the SD dimension to evaluate key linkages between national development goals and CDM projects, with the aim of selecting and designing CDM projects so that they create and maximise synergies with local development goals. (au)

  10. Non radial motions in a CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Gambera, M

    1998-01-01

    We show how non-radial motions, originating in the outskirts of clusters of galaxies, may reduce the discrepancy between the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) predicted X-ray temperature distribution function of clusters of galaxies and the observed one and also the discrepancy between the CDM predicted two-point correlation function of clusters of galaxies and that observed. We compare Edge et al. (1990) and Henry & Arnaud (1991) data with the distribution function of X-ray temperature, calculated using Press- Schechter's (1974 - hereafter PS) theory and Evrard's (1990) prescriptions for the mass-temperature relation and taking account of the non-radial motions originating from the gravitational interaction of the quadrupole moment of the protocluster with the tidal field of the matter of the neighboring protostructures. We find that the model produces a reasonable clusters temperature distribution. We compare the two-point cluster correlation function which takes account of the non-radial motions both with that ob...

  11. Beyond six parameters: extending $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Silk, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological constraints are usually derived under the assumption of a $6$ parameters $\\Lambda$-CDM theoretical framework or simple one-parameter extensions. In this paper we present, for the first time, cosmological constraints in a significantly extended scenario, varying up to $12$ cosmological parameters simultaneously, including the sum of neutrino masses, the neutrino effective number, the dark energy equation of state, the gravitational waves background and the running of the spectral index of primordial perturbations. Using the latest Planck 2015 data release (with polarization) we found no significant indication for extensions to the standard $\\Lambda$-CDM scenario, with the notable exception of the angular power spectrum lensing amplitude, $A_{\\rm lens}$ that is larger than the expected value at more than two standard deviations even when combining the Planck data with BAO and supernovae type Ia external datasets. In our extended cosmological framework, we find that a combined Planck+BAO analysis co...

  12. Proposals on Perfecting the Legal System About Carbon Emissions Permit Trade Under Government Supervision of China%我国碳排放权交易政府监管法律制度的完善建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自俊

    2013-01-01

    碳排放权交易政府监管法律制度可保障碳排放权交易的良性运行。我国碳排放权交易政府监管法律制度有很多不足,需要不断完善。在区分交易市场前提下,一级市场的碳排放许可证制度和碳排放许可证初始分配需以公平为先;二级市场的主体资格审查和信息披露需以公开为要;两级市场共有的独立政府监管机构、温室气体总量控制制度、碳排放权申报登记报告制度和碳排放监测制度需以公正为核。%Carbon emissions permit trade under government supervision legal system can protect the benign operation of carbon emissions permit trade. There are many deficiencies that need to be constantly improved about carbon emissions permit trade under government supervision legal system in China. Under the premise of distinguishing trade market, carbon emissions permit system and the initial allocation of carbon emission permits should be fair as its first on primary market. The main body qualification review and information disclosure should be open as its importance on secondary market. Two markets shared by an independent government supervision agency, total amount control system of greenhouse gas, carbon emissions permit declaration, registration and report system and carbon emission monitoring system should be justice as its core.

  13. Trading sulphur emissions in Europe: 'Guided Bilateral Trade'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, S.; Folmer, H.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Hordijk, L.; Ierland, van E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a system of `guided permit trading' is developed for SO2 emissions reduction which considers permit trading as a bilateral and sequential process. This implies that in order to meet the deposition targets at the end of the trading process, not every single trade transaction has to meet

  14. Beyond six parameters: Extending Λ CDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Cosmological constraints are usually derived under the assumption of a six-parameter Λ CDM theoretical framework or simple one-parameter extensions. In this paper we present, for the first time, cosmological constraints in a significantly extended scenario, varying up to 12 cosmological parameters simultaneously, including the sum of neutrino masses, the neutrino effective number, the dark energy equation of state, the gravitational wave background and the running of the spectral index of primordial perturbations. Using the latest Planck 2015 data release (with polarization), we found no significant indication for extensions to the standard Λ CDM scenario, with the notable exception of the angular power spectrum lensing amplitude, Alens , which is larger than the expected value at more than 2 standard deviations, even when combining the Planck data with BAO and supernovae type Ia external data sets. In our extended cosmological framework, we find that a combined Planck+BAO analysis constrains the value of the rms density fluctuation parameter to σ8=0.781-0.063+0.065 at 95 % C.L., helping to relieve the possible tensions with the CFHTlenS cosmic shear survey. We also find a lower value for the reionization optical depth τ =0.058-0.043+0.040 at 95 % C.L. with respect to the one derived under the assumption of Λ CDM . The scalar spectral index nS is now compatible with a Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum to within 2.5 standard deviations. Combining the Planck data set with the Hubble Space Telescope prior on the Hubble constant provides a value for the equation of state w <-1 at more than 2 standard deviations, while the neutrino effective number is fully compatible with the expectations of the standard three neutrino framework.

  15. The statistics of Λ CDM halo concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Angelo F.; Gao, Liang; Bett, Philip; Cole, Shaun; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation (MS) to study the statistics of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) halo concentrations at z = 0. Our results confirm that the average halo concentration declines monotonically with mass; the concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law over three decades in mass, up to the most massive objects that form in a ΛCDM universe (~ 1015h-1Msolar). This is in clear disagreement with the predictions of the model proposed by Bullock et al. for these rare objects, and agrees better with the original predictions of Navarro, Frenk & White. The large volume surveyed, together with the unprecedented numerical resolution of the MS, allows us to estimate with confidence the distribution of concentrations and, consequently, the abundance of systems with unusual properties. About one in a hundred cluster haloes (M200 >~ 3 × 1014h-1Msolar) have concentrations exceeding c200 = 7.5, a result that may be useful in interpreting the likelihood of unusually strong massive gravitational lenses, such as Abell 1689, in the ΛCDM cosmogony. A similar fraction of about 1 per cent of galaxy-sized haloes (M200 ~ 1012h-1Msolar) have c200 < 4.5 and this could be relevant to models that attempt to reconcile the ΛCDM cosmology with rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies by appealing to haloes of unexpectedly low concentration. We find that halo concentrations are independent of spin once haloes manifestly out of equilibrium have been removed from the sample. Compared to their relaxed brethren, the concentrations of out-of-equilibrium haloes tend to be lower and have more scatter, while their spins tend to be higher. A number of previously noted trends within the halo population are induced primarily by these properties of unrelaxed systems. Finally, we compare the result of predicting halo concentrations using the mass assembly history of the main progenitor with predictions based on simple arguments regarding the assembly time of all progenitors

  16. Understanding the Equilibrium Structure of CDM Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, P R; Alvarez, M; Iliev, I T; Martel, H; Shapiro, Paul R.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Alvarez, Marcelo; Iliev, Ilian T.; Martel, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    N-body simulations find a universal structure for the halos which result from the nonlinear growth of Gaussian-random-noise density fluctuations in the CDM universe. This talk summarized our attempts to derive and explain this universal structure by analytical approximation and simplified models. As an example, we show here that a 1D spherical infall model involving a fluid approximation derived from the Boltzmann equation can explain not only the halo density profile but its phase-space density profile, as well.

  17. A new recipe for Λ CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); Sen, Anjan A. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India)

    2017-04-15

    It is well known that a canonical scalar field is able to describe either dark matter or dark energy but not both. We demonstrate that a non-canonical scalar field can describe both dark matter and dark energy within a unified setting. We consider the simplest extension of the canonical Lagrangian L ∝ X{sup α} - V(φ) where α ≥ 1 and V is a sufficiently flat potential. In this case the kinetic term in the Lagrangian behaves just like a perfect fluid, whereas the potential term mimicks dark energy. For very large values, α >> 1, the equation of state of the kinetic term drops to zero and the universe expands as if filled with a mixture of dark matter and dark energy. The velocity of sound in this model and the associated gravitational clustering are sensitive to the value of α. For very large values of α the clustering properties of our model resemble those of cold dark matter (CDM). But for smaller values of α, gravitational clustering on small scales is suppressed, and our model has properties resembling those of warm dark matter (WDM). Therefore our non-canonical model has an interesting new property: its expansion history resembles Λ CDM, while its clustering properties are akin to those of either cold or warm dark matter. (orig.)

  18. Does MOND follow from the CDM paradigm?

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, M

    2001-01-01

    In a recent paper, Kaplinghat and Turner (2001) (KT) advertise that MOND can be derived naturally in the CDM paradigm. They actually proceed to produce a more limited result: Every galaxy should have a transition radius, $r_t$, below which baryons dominate, and above which dark matter (DM) takes over; the acceleration at $r_t$ is nearly the same for all galaxies; and due to a coincidences this is of order $a_0\\sim cH_0$. This follows from their tacit, intermediate result, whereby CDM halos of galaxies have a very nearly universal acceleration profile $a(r)\\approx v^2(r)/r\\approx A\\hat a(r/\\ell)$, where A is universal, and only the scale $\\ell$ varies from halo to halo. (This remains so when baryons are added because they assume a universal baryon-collapse factor.) The KT scenario is phenomenologically wrong--observed galaxies are simply not like that. For example, it precludes altogether the existence of LSB galaxies, in which the acceleration is everywhere smaller than $a_0$. The phenomenologically sound out...

  19. Developed feedback from the Swedish CDM and JI program; Utvecklad aaterrapportering fraan det svenska CDM- och JI-programmet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is responsible for the Swedish government program for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). CDM and JI is the Kyoto Protocol's two project-based flexible mechanisms. This program focuses on participation in individual CDM- and JI-projects and on participation in multilateral CDM- and JI- funds. In the report the Swedish Energy Agency, on behalf of the Government, presents a proposal for developed reporting for the CDM- and JI-program. Furthermore, issues related to how CDM and JI can assist in meeting the Swedish climate objective by 2020 are discussed. Also, the role for potential new flexible mechanisms under UN Climate Convention is mentioned.

  20. 建立中国特色碳配额许可交易体系的战略思考%Strategic Thinking on the Establishment of a Carbon Quota Permit Trading System with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨枝煌

    2012-01-01

    减少碳排放已成为世界共识。当前世界各国应对气候变化的贸易政策主张可以分为边境碳调节税(碳关税)、碳排放许可交易(碳配额)两种类型。我们主张实行碳配额许可交易制度。它是执行联合国气候变化框架公约、贯彻其"共同但有区别责任"原则的政策选择,是应对国际贸易摩擦的重要手段。我国应把碳配额许可管理作为转变外贸发展方式的重要抓手,加快建立中国特色碳配额许可交易制度,在国际气候应对规则中加快夺取我们应有的参与权、引导权和决定权,争取国家有利的发展条件,推进我国贸易大国向贸易强国转变,推进我国进入富强和谐的碳中和时代。%To reduce carbon emission has been a common understanding of the world.There are two kinds of trading policy adopted by different countries in the world for responding to climate change.One is border carbon regulation tax(carbon tariff),and the other is carbon emission permit trading(carbon quota).It is our suggestion that the carbon quota permit trading system be adopted.It is the policy choice for implementing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and carrying through the principle of "common but differentiated responsibility",being an important measure for responding to international trade frictions.We should regard the management of carbon quota permit as an important means for transforming the development pattern of foreign trade,speed up the establishment of carbon quota permit trading system with Chinese characteristics,and strive for our due proportions of power to participate in,lead and decide international rules on climate change,so as to gain favorable conditions for our own country,translate our country from a big country to a powerful country in international trade,and push our country into the age of carbon neutralization.

  1. Axion BEC: A model beyond CDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaoli

    I started work on the field of dark matter and cosmology with Dr. Sikivie three years ago with a goal to distinguish observationally axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) from other dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and sterile neutrinos. The subject is exciting because if one can determine the identity of the dark matter, it will be a mile-stone of physics beyond the standard model. On the high energy frontier, the standard model with three generation fermions is firmly established. However, it is not complete because the theory does not contain a plausible dark matter candidate, with properties required from observation, and the theory has fine-tuning problems such as the strong CP problem. On the cosmology and astrophysics frontiers, new observations of the dynamics of galaxy clusters, the rotation curves of galaxies, the abundances of light elements, gravitational lensing, and the anisotropies of the CMBR reach unprecedented accuracy. They imply cold dark matter (CDM) is 23% of the total energy density of the universe. Although many "beyond the standard model" theories may provide proper candidates to serve as CDM particles, the axion is especially compelling because it not only serves as the CDM particle, but also solves the strong CP problem. The axion was initially motivated by the strong CP problem, namely the puzzle why there is no CP violation in the strong interactions. Peccei and Quinn solved the problem by introducing a new UPQ(1) symmetry, and later Weinberg and Wilczek pointed out that the spontaneous breaking of UPQ(1) symmetry leads to a new pseudoscalar particle, the axion[1][2][3]. Axion models were proposed in which the symmetry breaking scale may be much larger than the electroweak scale, in which case the axion is very light and couples extremely weakly to ordinary matter. Furthermore, it was realized [4] that the cold axions, produced by the misalignment mechanism during the QCD phase transition, have

  2. 初始分配对电力行业碳交易效率影响的实验研究%An Experimental Study on Initial Allocation of Permit's Inference on Carbon Emission Trading in the Electricity Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琦; 张兆钰

    2016-01-01

    Based on the abasement cost of thermal power,this paper reports a laboratory experiment to examine carbon trading efficiency of power industry which is influenced by the initial permits'allocation in double auction carbon trading.By varying the initial allocation of permits,the experiment constructs two treatments.One is Symmetry/Monopoly,the other is Asymmetry/Oligopoly.The experimental results,such as price,IMTE,transaction volumes and trading efficiency,show that Double Auction system can suppress the market power caused by differences in the initial allocation.%以我国火电企业减排成本为基础,通过变动许可证分配方式,构造对称/垄断和不对称/寡头两个实验设置,通过比较两个实验设置中成交价、IMTE 指数、成交量和交易效率的差异,分析许可证初始分配制度对电力行业碳交易效率的影响,实验结果表明双向拍卖制度能够抑制因初始分配方式差异造成的市场势力。

  3. CDM. Information and guidebook - Developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'[Clean development nedianism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.)

    2003-12-01

    Since the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was defined at Conference of the Parties 3 in Kyoto 1997, it took the international community another 4 years to reach the Marrakesh Accords in which the modalities and procedures to implement the CDM was elaborated. Even if more detailed rules, procedures and modalities have to be further developed a general framework to implement the CDM and other Kyoto mechanisms are now in place. This guidebook is produced to support the UNEP project 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism'. Focus is on the CDM project cycle, the Project Design Document (PDD), and related issues such as sustainable development goals, financing and market intelligence. The appendices present frequently asked questions and answers, a short overview of existing guidelines and a possible future list of eligible CDM projects categories. (BA)

  4. Forming Disk Galaxies in Lambda CDM Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, F; Mayer, L; Quinn, T; Stinson, G; Valenzuela, O; Wadsley, J; Willman, B

    2006-01-01

    We used fully cosmological, high resolution N-body + SPH simulations to follow the formation of disk galaxies with rotational velocities between 135 and 270 km/sec in a Lambda CDM universe. The simulations include gas cooling, star formation, the effects of a uniform UV background and a physically motivated description of feedback from supernovae. The host dark matter halos have a spin and last major merger redshift typical of galaxy sized halos as measured in recent large scale N--Body simulations. The simulated galaxies form rotationally supported disks with realistic exponential scale lengths and fall on both the I-band and baryonic Tully Fisher relations. An extended stellar disk forms inside the Milky Way sized halo immediately after the last major merger. The combination of UV background and SN feedback drastically reduces the number of visible satellites orbiting inside a Milky Way sized halo, bringing it in fair agreement with observations. Our simulations predict that the average age of a primary gal...

  5. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  6. Markets for tradeable emission and ambient permits : A dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ermoliev, Y; Michalevich, M; Nentjes, A

    This paper discusses trade mechanisms in pollution permit markets. Proofs are given, that sequential, bilateral trade in tradeable emissions permits converges to a market equilibrium with minimal total costs of pollution control. If ambient or deposition permits are traded, the convergence of

  7. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  8. Long-term prospects of CDM and JI; Langfristige Perspektiven von CDM und JI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin; Anger, Niels; Boehringer, Christoph; Harthan, Ralph O.; Schneider, Lambert [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    This study analyses whether Germany should use the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto protocol or whether it should continue to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets by dint of domestic policies and measures. It estimates the future potential of the project-based Kyoto mechanisms (CDM and JI) and the impacts of its use on the German and the global economy, using an integrated-assessment model. In a Delphi survey, the expectations of international experts on the future prospects of the project-based Kyoto mechanisms are assessed. The study finishes with an analysis of options for promoting the use of the flexible mechanisms in Germany and concludes that the Federal Government of Germany should establish a project-based mechanisms fund of 25 to 50 million Kyoto units to cover the compliance uncertainties due to unexpected temperature or business cycle variations. (orig.) [German] Diese Studie untersucht, ob Deutschland die flexiblen Mechanismen unter dem Kyoto-Protokoll nutzen sollte oder weiterhin seine Treibhausgasreduktionsziele durch inlaendische Politiken und Massnahmen erreichen sollte. Das kuenftige Potenzial der projektbezogenen Kyoto-Mechanismen (CDM und JI) wird untersucht und die Auswirkungen von deren Nutzung auf die deutsche und globale Wirtschaft werden mit einem Integrated-Assessment-Modell abgeschaetzt. In einer Delphi-Befragung werden die Erwartungen internationaler Experten in Hinblick auf die kuenftigen Perspektiven der projektbezogenen Kyoto- Mechanismen ermittelt. Abschliessend werden Moeglichkeiten zur Foerderung der Nutzung der flexiblen Mechanismen in Deutschland analysiert, mit der Schlussfolgerung, dass die Bundesregierung einen 25 bis 50 Millionen Kyoto-Einheiten umfassenden Fonds fuer projektbezogene Mechanismen einrichten sollte, um die Unsicherheiten bei der Erfuellung des Kyoto-Ziels infolge unerwarteter Temperaturschwankungen oder einer Aenderung der Konjunkturentwicklung abzudecken. (orig.)

  9. Energy efficiency and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism): an attractive combination?; Eficiencia energetica e MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): uma combinacao atrativa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Silva, Pedro Paulo [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    The agreements that defined associated practices to the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) include energy efficiency in end users as a possible candidate to CDM eligibility. Worldwide, the experience of using 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions in end users, as consequence of increased energy efficiency in processes, is limited. The paper presents preliminary conclusions of case studies developed by GERBI, evaluating the emissions reduction potential achieved by energy efficiency improvements in industrial processes, as well as financial impacts due to emissions reduction certificates traded. The paper considers a simplified methodology for feasibility analysis, but with necessary information to demonstrate how CDM and Energy Efficiency combination can support the decision for project implementation. (author)

  10. Soil carbon sequestration and the CDM. Opportunities and challenges for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringius, Lasse

    1999-12-17

    The agriculture sector dominates the economies of most sub-Saharan countries, contributing about one-third of the region's GDP, accounting for forty percent of the export, and employing about two-thirds of the economically active population. Moreover, some soils in sub-Saharan Africa could, by providing sinks for carbon sequestration, play an important role in managing global climate change. Improvements in agricultural techniques and land use practices could lead to higher agricultural productivity and accumulate soil carbon. Hence, soil carbon sequestration could produce local economic income as well as social and other benefits in Africa. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol is designed to give developed countries with high domestic abatement cost access to low-cost greenhouse gas abatement projects in developing countries, and to benefit developing countries selling projects to investors in developed countries. It is presently unclear whether the CDM will provide credit for sink enhancement and permit broader sink activities. Unfortunately, few cost estimates of soil carbon sequestration strategies presently exist. While these costs are uncertain and all input costs have not been estimated, manure-based projects in small-holdings in Kenya could increase maize yield significantly and sequester one ton of soil carbon for a net cost of -US$806. Clearly, such projects would be very attractive economically. There is presently an urgent need to launch useful long-term (>10 years) field experiments and demonstration projects in Africa. Existing data are not readily comparable, it is uncertain how large amount of carbon could be sequestered, findings are site-specific, and it is unclear how well the sites represent wider areas. To develop CDM projects, it is important that experimental trials generate reliable and comparable data. Finally, it will be important to estimate local environmental effects and economic benefits

  11. Suitable scheme study of Chinese Building Energy Efficiency CDM Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Beijia; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Shaoping; Wang, Feng

    2010-11-01

    China has great potential to develop Building Energy Efficiency Clean Development Mechanism (BEE CDM) projects, although have many challenges. Our results show that large-scale public buildings and urban residential buildings have relatively high BEE CDM potential, when comparing their characteristics to the CDM project requirements. The building enclosure, illumination energy conservation, air condition energy saving, solar thermal, and solar photovoltaic technology have relatively high application potential while considering the energy saving potential and marginal emission reduction cost. Case study of large-scale buildings shows that technology integration of building enclosure, illumination energy conservation, air condition energy saving, solar thermal can reduce required building number to 130 in order to meet the 1×105 tCO2 e/a reduction criteria. Some suggestions are also given in this paper.

  12. Options for utilizing the CDM for global emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja; Castro, Paula; Harthan, Ralph O.; Hayashi, Daisuke; Healy, Sean; Maribu, Karl Magnus; Michaelowa, Axel; Okubo, Yuri; Schneider, Lambert; Storroe, Ingunn [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland); Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Perspectives GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Point Carbon A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    The study describes and discusses in detail how four CDM reform alternatives, namely discounting of emission reductions, ambitious baselines, purchase and cancellation of CERs and reinvestment of CER levies, could be integrated in a Post-2012 climate regime. The study assesses these alternatives, according to their impacts on GHG emission reductions, contribution to sustainable development, cost-efficiency, technical feasibility, incentives and distributional effects as well as negotiability. The study shows that the introduction of discounting and ambitious baselines is technically feasible but politically a massive challenge. With the help of an economic model the study shows that the introduction of reform alternatives increases the amount of emission reductions but in comparison to the current CDM the impact is rather limited. But a CDM reform can in any case increase the credibility and improve the environmental integrity of the mechanism. (orig.)

  13. Structure formation in a $\\Lambda$ $viscous$ CDM universe

    CERN Document Server

    Velten, Hermano; Fabris, Júlio C; Casarini, Luciano; Batista, Ronaldo C

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of dark matter being a dissipative component represents an option for the standard view where cold dark matter (CDM) particles behave on large scales as an ideal fluid. By including a physical mechanism to the dark matter description like viscosity we construct a more realistic model for the universe. Also, the known small scale pathologies of the standard CDM model either disappear or become less severe. We study clustering properties of a $\\Lambda$CDM-like model in which dark matter is described as a bulk viscous fluid. The linear power spectrum, the nonlinear spherical "top hat" collapse and the mass functions are presented. We use the analysis with such structure formation tools in order to place an upper bound on the magnitude of the dark matter's viscosity.

  14. Annual Report 2011 for the Swedish CDM and JI program; Aarsredovisning 2011 foer Sveriges CDM och JI-program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The report is an annual report of the Swedish CDM [Clean Development Mechanism] and JI [Joint Implementation]program for 2011. The report shows aims and goals of the business and the work of individual CDM and JI projects and multilateral funds which have been performed over the entire duration of life and especially during 2011. The report presents volume orders, deliveries of emission reduction units as well as the volumes expected to be needed for the fulfillment of the national target by 2020. The report also includes information about the average price for the emission reductions as well as alternative costs.

  15. Wind farm investment risks under uncertain CDM benefit in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Yang, E-mail: ming.yang7@gmail.co [3E and T International, Suite 1506, Building No. 10, Luo-Ma-Shi Street, Xuan Wu District, Beijing 100052 (China); Nguyen, Francois; De T' Serclaes, Philippine; Buchner, Barbara [International Energy Agency, 9 rue de la Federation, Paris 75015 (France)

    2010-03-15

    China has set an ambitious target to increase its wind power capacity by 35 GW from 2007 to 2020. The country's hunger for clean power provides great opportunities for wind energy investors. However, risks from China's uncertain electricity market regulation and an uncertain energy policy framework, mainly due to uncertain Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) benefits, prevent foreign investors from investing in China's wind energy. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) quantify wind energy investment risk premiums in an uncertain international energy policy context and (2) evaluate the impact of uncertain CDM benefits on the net present values of wind power projects. With four scenarios, this study simulates possible prices of certified emissions reductions (CERs) from wind power projects. Project net present values (NPVs) have been calculated. The project risk premiums are drawn from different and uncertain CER prices. Our key findings show that uncertain CDM benefits will significantly affect the project NPVs. This paper concludes that the Chinese government needs revising its tariff incentives, most likely by introducing fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs), and re-examining its CDM-granting policy and its wind project tax rates, to facilitate wind power development and enable China to achieve its wind energy target.

  16. Wind farm investment risks under uncertain CDM benefit in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming [3E and T International, Luo-Ma-Shi Street, Xuan Wu District, Beijing 100052 (China); Nguyen, Francois; T' Serclaes, Philippine de; Buchner, Barbara [The International Energy Agency, 9 rue de la Federation, Paris 75015 (France)

    2010-03-15

    China has set an ambitious target to increase its wind power capacity by 35 GW from 2007 to 2020. The country's hunger for clean power provides great opportunities for wind energy investors. However, risks from China's uncertain electricity market regulation and an uncertain energy policy framework, mainly due to uncertain Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) benefits, prevent foreign investors from investing in China's wind energy. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) quantify wind energy investment risk premiums in an uncertain international energy policy context and (2) evaluate the impact of uncertain CDM benefits on the net present values of wind power projects. With four scenarios, this study simulates possible prices of certified emissions reductions (CERs) from wind power projects. Project net present values (NPVs) have been calculated. The project risk premiums are drawn from different and uncertain CER prices. Our key findings show that uncertain CDM benefits will significantly affect the project NPVs. This paper concludes that the Chinese government needs revising its tariff incentives, most likely by introducing fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs), and re-examining its CDM-granting policy and its wind project tax rates, to facilitate wind power development and enable China to achieve its wind energy target. (author)

  17. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  18. CDM: Teaching Discrete Mathematics to Computer Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutner, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    CDM, for computational discrete mathematics, is a course that attempts to teach a number of topics in discrete mathematics to computer science majors. The course abandons the classical definition-theorem-proof model, and instead relies heavily on computation as a source of motivation and also for experimentation and illustration. The emphasis on…

  19. Joint Implementation, Clean Development Mechanism and Tradable Permits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.; Rose Olsen, K.

    2000-06-01

    This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP). The report describes the background for the international co-operation on reducing the greenhouse gases and the background for the instruments. How the instruments work in theory and what the practical problems may be. What agents' incentives are when they engage in JI or CDM, and how the initiation of the instruments can be organised. The institutional frameworks for JI, CDM and TP are discussed. The report describes how the Kyoto instruments and the Kyoto commitments interact with other instruments and describe distributive effects between countries. It is analysed how the use of CDM may influence the developing countries incentives to participate in the coalition of committed countries. In the concluding chapter some recommendations on the use of JI, TP and CDM are given. The recommendations are a kind of dialog with especially the Norwegian and Swedish reports on tradable permits. Some of the issues described in this main report are analysed in separate working papers. The working papers are collected in an appendix to the main report. (au)

  20. Small-Scale Challenges to the ΛCDM Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The dark energy plus cold dark matter ($\\Lambda$CDM) cosmological model has been a demonstrably successful framework for predicting and explaining the large-scale structure of Universe and its evolution with time. Yet on length scales smaller than $\\sim 1$ Mpc and mass scales smaller than $\\sim 10^{11} M_{\\odot}$, the theory faces a number of challenges. For example, the observed cores of many dark-matter dominated galaxies are both less dense and less cuspy than naively predicted in $\\Lambda$CDM. The number of small galaxies and dwarf satellites in the Local Group is also far below the predicted count of low-mass dark matter halos and subhalos within similar volumes. These issues underlie the most well-documented problems with $\\Lambda$CDM: Cusp/Core, Missing Satellites, and Too-Big-to-Fail. The key question is whether a better understanding of baryon physics, dark matter physics, or both will be required to meet these challenges. Other anomalies, including the observed planar and orbital configurations of Local Group satellites and the tight baryonic/dark matter scaling relations obeyed by the galaxy population, have been less thoroughly explored in the context of $\\Lambda$CDM theory. Future surveys to discover faint, distant dwarf galaxies and to precisely measure their masses and density structure hold promising avenues for testing possible solutions to the small-scale challenges going forward. Observational programs to constrain or discover and characterize the number of truly dark low-mass halos are among the most important, and achievable, goals in this field over then next decade. These efforts will either further verify the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm or demand a substantial revision in our understanding of the nature of dark matter.

  1. Addressing the need for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) specific project management strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lotz, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects have additional technical, financial and regulatory requirements that are not fully addressed by classic project management approaches. Research has been done on individual novel concepts of the CDM, like...

  2. Configuration Data Management (CDM) on a Shoestring Identifying & Utilizing an Existing Configuration & Data Management Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANN, J.M.

    2000-08-24

    The spreading need for and use of configuration and data management (CDM) standards has highlighted a number of challenges to the companies that need to implement those standards. For companies and organizations that are new to CDM or have limited CDM capabilities, one of the major dilemmas faced is identifying how and where to start. In many cases there is a need to contend with a legacy of poorly identified items and information and an immature or non-existent CDM infrastructure (processes, procedures, people, and information systems). To the company management and CDM professional this poses a seemingly insurmountable task of putting in place a CDM infrastructure that provides the needed benefits while keeping within an acceptable cost and schedule. This paper deals with initially establishing the CDM infrastructure using the tools that a company already has available. The paper identifies features of common software applications that can be used to implement CDM principles.

  3. Joint implementation, clean development mechanism and tradable permits. International regulation of greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.; Olsen, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean DevelopmentMechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP...... of the instruments can be organised. The institutional frameworks for JI, CDM and TP are discussed. The report describes how the Kyoto instruments and the Kyotocommitments interact with other instruments and describe distributive effects between countries. It is analysed how the use of CDM may influence...

  4. 78 FR 32250 - CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to CDM Smith and its subcontractor, Dynamac Corp, in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). CDM Smith and...

  5. Supporting Open Access to European Academic Courses: The ASK-CDM-ECTS Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Demetrios G.; Zervas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present and evaluate a web-based tool, namely ASK-CDM-ECTS, which facilitates authoring and publishing on the web descriptions of (open) academic courses in machine-readable format using an application profile of the Course Description Metadata (CDM) specification, namely CDM-ECTS. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  6. The political economy of International Emissions Trading Scheme Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emission trade between the Annex B countries. We consider three schemes of emissions trading: government trading, permit trading and credit trading. The schemes are compared in a public choice setting focusing on group size and rent-seeking from interest groups. We find...... that industry will have most influence on government policy, with environmental organizations taking second place. Our conclusion is that most interest groups prefer a combination of government trading and credit trading even though permit trading is more efficient. Furthermore, some governments prefer...... government trading because it retains the possibility of hot air trading. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  7. ΛCDM is Consistent with SPARC Radial Acceleration Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, B. W.; Wadsley, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent analysis of the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curve (SPARC) galaxy sample found a surprisingly tight relation between the radial acceleration inferred from the rotation curves and the acceleration due to the baryonic components of the disk. It has been suggested that this relation may be evidence for new physics, beyond ΛCDM. In this Letter, we show that 32 galaxies from the MUGS2 match the SPARC acceleration relation. These cosmological simulations of star-forming, rotationally supported disks were simulated with a WMAP3 ΛCDM cosmology, and match the SPARC acceleration relation with less scatter than the observational data. These results show that this acceleration relation is a consequence of dissipative collapse of baryons, rather than being evidence for exotic dark-sector physics or new dynamical laws.

  8. Which spectral distortions does $\\Lambda$CDM actually predict?

    CERN Document Server

    Chluba, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Ever refined cosmological measurements have established the $\\Lambda$CDM concordance model, with the key cosmological parameters being determined to percent-level precision today. This allows us to make explicit predictions for the spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) created by various processes occurring in the early Universe. Here, we summarize all guaranteed CMB distortions and assess their total uncertainty within $\\Lambda$CDM. We also compare simple methods for approximating them, highlighting some of the subtle aspects when it comes to interpreting future distortion measurements. Under simplified assumptions, we briefly study how well a PIXIE-like experiment may measure the main distortion parameters (i.e., $\\mu$ and $y$). Next generation CMB spectrometers are expected to detect the distortion caused by reionization and structure formation at extremely high significance. They will also be able to constrain the small-scale power spectrum through the associated $\\mu$-distortion, ...

  9. Beyond $\\Lambda$CDM: Problems, solutions, and the road ahead

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, Philip; Adamek, Julian; Baker, Tessa; Bellini, Emilio; Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Bentivegna, Eloisa; Camera, Stefano; Clesse, Sébastien; Davis, Jonathan H; Di Dio, Enea; Enander, Jonas; Finelli, Fabio; Heavens, Alan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Hu, Bin; Llinares, Claudio; Maartens, Roy; Mörtsell, Edvard; Nadathur, Seshadri; Noller, Johannes; Pasechnik, Roman; Pawlowski, Marcel S; Pereira, Thiago S; Quartin, Miguel; Ricciardone, Angelo; Riemer-Sørensen, Signe; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Sakstein, Jeremy; Saltas, Ippocratis D; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sawicki, Ignacy; Solomon, Adam R; Spolyar, Douglas; Starkman, Glenn D; Steer, Danièle; Tereno, Ismael; Verde, Licia; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; von Strauss, Mikael; Winther, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    Despite its continued observational successes, there is a persistent (and growing) interest in extending cosmology beyond the standard model, $\\Lambda$CDM. This is motivated by a range of apparently serious theoretical issues, involving such questions as the cosmological constant problem, the particle nature of dark matter, the validity of general relativity on large scales, the existence of anomalies in the CMB and on small scales, and the predictivity and testability of the inflationary paradigm. In this paper, we summarize the current status of $\\Lambda$CDM as a physical theory, and review investigations into possible alternatives along a number of different lines, with a particular focus on highlighting the most promising directions. While the fundamental problems are proving reluctant to yield, the study of alternative cosmologies has led to considerable progress, with much more to come if hopes about forthcoming high-precision observations and new theoretical ideas are fulfilled.

  10. Degeneracy between WDM and coupled CDM: A clarifying note

    CERN Document Server

    Velten, Hermano; Caramês, Thiago R P

    2015-01-01

    Wei et al [PRD 88, 043510 (2013)] have proposed the existence of a cosmological degeneracy between warm dark matter (WDM), modified gravity and coupled cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies at both the background expansion and the growth of density perturbation levels, i.e., corresponding cosmological data would not be able to differentiate such scenarios. Here, we will focus on the specific indistinguishability between a warm dark matter plus cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$) and coupled scalar field-CDM scenarios. Although the statement of Wei et al is true for very specific conditions we present a more complete discussion on this issue and show in more detail that these models are indeed distinguishable. We show that the degeneracy breaks down since coupled models leave a specific signature in the redshift space distortion data which is absent in the uncoupled warm dark matter cosmologies. Furthermore, we complement our claim by providing the reasons which suggest that even at nonlinear level a breaking of su...

  11. Project Boundary Setting and Leakage Treatment in CDM Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Chen; WANG Shujuan; DUAN Maosheng; CHEN Changhe

    2005-01-01

    Project boundary setting and leakage treatment are two important issues to be considered when a clean development mechanism (CDM) project is being designed. There are still many uncertainties concerning these two issues. This paper reviews the concepts of project boundary setting and leakage in CDM projects, cites the types and sources of leakage, discusses the principles for determining leakage, and gives some proposed methods for dealing with leakage. A case study, using several steps to solve the boundary and leakage problems,shows how the analyzed principles and treatments can be implemented in a real project. Based on the result of the case study, the methods discussed are shown to be appropriate for settling leakage issues.

  12. How to Improve the Likelihood of CDM Approval?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    /R). Furthermore, three main stakeholders are identified, namely investors, governments and agents in a principal-agent model regarding monitoring and enforcement capacity. Developing countries such as West Africa have, despite huge potentials, not been integrated in A/R CDM projects yet. Remote sensing, however......, appears to be an effective tool to overcome the three institutional shortcomings. Thus, a pilot project should be considered in near future to develop a best practice system....

  13. WarmAndFuzzy: the halo model beyond CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, David J E

    2016-01-01

    Cold dark matter (CDM) is a well established paradigm to describe cosmological structure formation, and works extraordinarily well on large, linear, scales. Progressing further in dark matter physics requires being able to understand structure formation in the non-linear regime, both for CDM and its alternatives. This short note describes a calculation, and accompanying code, WarmAndFuzzy, incorporating the popular models of warm and fuzzy dark matter (WDM and FDM) into the standard halo model to compute the non-linear matter power spectrum. The FDM halo model power spectrum has not been computed before. The FDM implementation models ultralight axions and other scalar fields with $m_a\\approx 10^{-22}\\text{ eV}$. The WDM implementation models thermal WDM with mass $m_X\\approx 1\\text{ keV}$. The halo model shows that differences between WDM, FDM, and CDM survive at low redshifts in the quasi-linear and fully non-linear regimes. The code uses analytic transfer functions for the linear power spectrum, modified co...

  14. Tachyonization of the $\\La$CDM cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, Luis P; Kremer, Gilberto M; Ribas, Marlos O

    2008-01-01

    In this work a tachyonization of the $\\Lambda$CDM model for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time is proposed. A tachyon field and a cosmological constant are considered as the sources of the gravitational field. Starting from a stability analysis and from the exact solutions for a standard tachyon field driven by a given potential, the search for a large set of cosmological models which contain the $\\Lambda$CDM model is investigated. By the use of internal transformations two new kinds of tachyon fields are derived from the standard tachyon field, namely, a complementary and a phantom tachyon fields. Numerical solutions for the three kinds of tachyon fields are determined and it is shown that the standard and complementary tachyon fields reproduces the $\\Lambda$CDM model as a limiting case. The standard tachyon field can also describe a transition from an accelerated to a decelerated regime, behaving as an inflaton field at early times and as a matter field at late times. The complementary t...

  15. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  16. Insider trading

    OpenAIRE

    Šatanová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is dealing with trading based on nonpublic information (insider trading). It contains development of insider trading regulation and describes specifics of american, czech, japanese and chinese market consodering insider trading. It is focused on regulation, investigation and evidence.

  17. Noncooperative models of permit markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2011-07-15

    The applicability of some popular and basic permit market theories has been questioned. Drawing on noncooperative equilibrium theory for pure exchange economies, this article adapts several well-established alternative models to permit exchange. Some qualitative properties of the associated equilibria are provided, including two games with equilibria that in a sense coincide. Nevertheless, as there exist quite a few models potentially applicable to emissions trading, with equilibria that range from autarky to Pareto optimality, it seems that economics lacks a broadly accepted basic theory for permit markets. (Author)

  18. A study of legal attributes of carbon emission rights in carbon trading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Qing; Jiang Dongmei; Zhang Mengheng

    2009-01-01

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has given birth to an international carbon trading market prosperity,which provides developing countries with valuable opportunity to address climate change issues right along with economic development and environmental improvement to achieve sustainable development,However,most studies of CDM focus on economics,and few on its legal problems.CDM involves too many aspects.And the clear legal attribute of trading object is the basis of progress of the transaction and also the start point of legal protection.Therefore,this paper in accordance with the inherent principle of property rights economics,and environmental economics in CDM,only discusses CDM carbon emission right legal interpretation and its attribution.The paper recommends that in order to ensure and promote the carbon emission right trading,carbon emission right should be attributed into the system of real rights to be regulated by Real Right Law.In this way,carbon emission right can gain exclusive power of possession and use,which can achieve a clear right definition of environmental goods in line with Coase's theory to protect Chinese profit in carbon trading market and promote the development of the carbon trading market further.

  19. The political economy of International Emissions Trading Scheme Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emission trade between the Annex B countries. We consider three schemes of emissions trading: government trading, permit trading and credit trading. The schemes are compared in a public choice setting focusing on group size and rent-seeking from interest groups. We find...

  20. Comparison of Cluster Lensing Profiles with Lambda CDM Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, Tom; Medezinski, Elinor; Oguri, Masamune; Rephaeli, Yoel

    2008-01-01

    We derive lens distortion and magnification profiles of four well known clusters observed with Subaru. Each cluster is very well fitted by the general form predicted for Cold Dark Matter (CDM) dominated halos, with good consistency found between the independent distortion and magnification measurements. The inferred level of mass concentration is surprisingly high, 8 = 10.39 \\pm 0.91), compared to the relatively shallow profiles predicted by the LCDM model, c_{vir} = 5.06 \\pm 1.10 (for =1.25\\times 10^{15} M_{\\odot}/h). This represents a 4\\sigma discrepancy, and includes the relatively modest effects of projection bias and profile evolution derived from N-body simulations, which oppose each other with little residual effect. In the context of CDM based cosmologies, this discrepancy implies some modification of the widely assumed spectrum of initial density perturbations, so clusters collapse earlier (z > 1) than predicted (z<0.5) when the Universe was correspondingly denser.

  1. Ci PERMIT

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations at Geneva recalls that only the spouses and children of members of personnel resident in Switzerland and in possession of a legitimation card of types 'B', 'C', 'D' or 'E' issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs are entitled to benefit from a Ci Permit.The 'demande d'attestation de permis Ci' (request for a Ci permit attestation) can be sent to the Mission only through Personnel Division (Administrative Services, Office 33/1-025).Additional information on access by family members of CERN officials to the Swiss labour market are available to you on the Web site of the Relations with the Host States Service (cf. document entitled 'Employment in Switzerland for spouses and children of CERN officials' dated March 1996).Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  2. Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The work concerns Emission Trading Scheme from perspektive of taxes and accounting. I should show problems with emission trading. The work concerns practical example of trading with emission allowance.

  3. Application of Tradable Emission Permits in Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xin; Feng Zongxian; Zhao Chi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is merely to review the cur-rent situation in the designing and implementation of the emission trading programs in Europe. Historical data show that although there is a series of shortcomings in their current functioning, employing such instruments for GHG reduction policy makingis strongly expected to be efficient and effective. The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS), Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) are just a few examples of the ambitious EU initiative that heavily relies on such instruments. We dwell on their operations and achievements by far and all the content in this article is expected to convince the Chi-nese government and regional public authorities to take positive actions and attitudes in promoting these instruments.

  4. Constraints on the $\\Lambda$CDM model with redshift tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Tang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Recently released Planck data favor a lower value of the Hubble constant and a higher value of the fraction matter density in the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model, which are discrepant with some of the low-redshift measurements. Within the context of this cosmology, we examine the consistency of the estimated values for the Hubble constant and fraction matter density with redshift tomography. Using the SNe Ia, Hubble parameter, BAO and CMB data, which are divided into three bins, we find no statistical evidence for any tension in the three redshift bins, although there exists a 1.4$\\sigma$ deviation of the Hubble constant in the middle redshift from the one in the high redshift bin.

  5. Finslerian perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    We present Finslerian perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. The analysis on the Killing vectors shows that the Randers-Finsler spacetime breaks the isotropic symmetry even if the scalar perturbations of the FRW metric vanish. In Randers-Finsler spacetime, the modified geodesic equation deduces a modified Boltzmann equation. We propose a perturbational version of the gravitational field equation in Randers-Finsler spacetime, where we have omitted the curvature tensor that does not belong to the base space of the tangent bundle. The gravitational field equations for the gravitational wave are also presented. The primordial power spectrum of the gravitational wave is investigated. We show that the primordial power spectrum for super-horizon perturbations is unchanged. For sub-horizon perturbations, however, the power spectrum is modified.

  6. Superheated Droplet Detectors as CDM Detectors The SIMPLE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Collar, J I; Limagne, D; Waysand, G

    1996-01-01

    Superheated Droplet Detectors (SDDs) are becoming commonplace in neutron personnel dosimetry. Their total insensitivity to minimum ionizing radiation (while responsive to nuclear recoils of energies ~ few keV), together with their low cost, ease of production, and operation at room temperature and 1 atm makes them ideal for Cold Dark Matter (CDM) searches. SDD's are optimal for the exploration of the spin-dependent neutralino coupling due to their high fluorine content. The status of SIMPLE (Superheated Instrument for Massive ParticLe Experiments) is presented. Under realistic background considerations, we expect an improvement in the present Cold Dark Matter sensitivity of 2-3 orders of magnitude after ~1 kg-y of data acquisition.

  7. Scalar-tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Algoner, W C; Zimdahl, W

    2016-01-01

    We construct a cosmological scalar-tensor-theory model in which the Brans-Dicke type scalar $\\Phi$ enters the effective (Jordan-frame) Hubble rate as a simple modification of the Hubble rate of the $\\Lambda$CDM model. This allows us to quantify differences between the background dynamics of scalar-tensor theories and general relativity (GR) in a transparent and observationally testable manner in terms of one single parameter. Problems of the mapping of the scalar-field degrees of freedom on an effective fluid description in a GR context are discused. Data from supernovae, the differential age of old galaxies and baryon acoustic oscillations are shown to strongly limit potential deviations from the standard model.

  8. Simulating cosmologies beyond ΛCDM with PINOCCHIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Luca A.; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Monaco, Pierluigi; Munari, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano; Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    We present a method that extends the capabilities of the PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) code, allowing it to generate accurate dark matter halo mock catalogues in cosmological models where the linear growth factor and the growth rate depend on scale. Such cosmologies comprise, among others, models with massive neutrinos and some classes of modified gravity theories. We validate the code by comparing the halo properties from PINOCCHIO against N-body simulations, focusing on cosmologies with massive neutrinos: νΛCDM. We analyse the halo mass function, halo two-point correlation function and halo power spectrum, showing that PINOCCHIO reproduces the results from simulations with the same level of precision as the original code (~ 5–10%). We demonstrate that the abundance of halos in cosmologies with massless and massive neutrinos from PINOCCHIO matches very well the outcome of simulations, and point out that PINOCCHIO can reproduce the Ων–σ8 degeneracy that affects the halo mass function. We finally show that the clustering properties of the halos from PINOCCHIO matches accurately those from simulations both in real and redshift-space, in the latter case up to k = 0.3 h Mpc‑1. We emphasize that the computational time required by PINOCCHIO to generate mock halo catalogues is orders of magnitude lower than the one needed for N-body simulations. This makes this tool ideal for applications like covariance matrix studies within the standard ΛCDM model but also in cosmologies with massive neutrinos or some modified gravity theories.

  9. To Trade or Not to Trade: Firm-Level Analysis of Emissions Trading in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coria, Jessica; Loefgren, Aasa; Sterner, Thomas, e-mail: Thomas.Sterner@economics.gu.se

    2009-10-15

    Whether tradable permits are appropriate for use in transition and developing economies - given special social and cultural circumstances, such as the lack of institutions and lack of expertise with market-based policies - is much debated. We conducted interviews and surveyed a sample of firms subject to emissions trading programs in Santiago, Chile, one of the first cities outside the OECD that has implemented such trading. The information gathered allow us to study what factors affect the performance of the trading programs in practice and the challenges and advantages of applying tradable permits in less developed countries

  10. Permitted Exceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Anne Margrethe

    This PhD thesis examines the phenomenon of temporary use in a contemporary Northern European planning context. The background for the study is the increasing interest in initiating temporary use projects within urban redevelopment by public authorities, such as municipalities, related sub......-term perspectives. This factor seems to hold some, if not conflicting, then at least challenging aspects. Current research is inadequate to disclose what actually happens when integrating temporary exceptions into urban transformation projects. I define, document and explore these attempts as permitted exceptions...

  11. A Comparative Study on the Implementation of CDM Projects in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xiaoyi

    2012-01-01

    Since the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol was initiated, China and India have overwhelmingly led other developing countries regarding CDM projects development. A comparative study of the CDM in India and China is conducted as there are many similarities between both India and China with regard to the CDM implementation due to the fact that India is another major developing country with a large population and a potential source of GHG emissions rivaling China in the near future. Through examining the development of and legal issues for CDM projects in India, its experience and les- sons regarding developing and managing CDM projects that China can critically learn are discussed.

  12. Configuration Data Management (CDM) on a Shoestring Identifying and Utilizing an Existing Configuration and Data Management Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANN, J.M.

    2000-09-25

    The spreading need for and use of configuration and data management (CDM) standards has highlighted a number of challenges to the companies that need to implement those standards. For companies and organizations that are new to CDM or have limited CDM capabilities, one of the major dilemmas faced is identifying how and where to start. In many cases there is a need to contend with a legacy of poorly identified items and information and an immature or non-existent CDM infrastructure (processes, procedures, people, and information systems). To the company management and CDM professional this poses a seemingly insurmountable task of putting in place a CDM infrastructure that provides the needed benefits while keeping within an acceptable cost and schedule. This paper deals with initially establishing the CDM infrastructure using the tools that a company already has available. The paper identifies features of common software applications that can be used to implement CDM principles.

  13. Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of fair trade organizations in an oligopolistic setting in which the vertically integrated fair trade firm produces a commodity which is a weak substitute for another commodity. Profit-maximizing oligopolists are vertically disintegrated and produce for both markets and the fair trade firm can charge a premium to consumers due to a "warm glow effect" that depends on the wage paid to fair trade producers. We show that trade integration will unambiguously incr...

  14. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.; Schumacher, K.; van Vliet, O.; Moreira, J.R.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high interest

  15. The correlated factors of the uneven performances of the CDM host countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinshan

    2012-03-01

    The Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has experienced a rapid growth. Up to 2010, 2763 projects have been registered, standing for about 433 million ton CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq.) of annual carbon credits. However, the performances of CDM host countries are remarkably unbalanced. Previous literature suggested that economic and investment conditions, energy intensity, energy structure, the share of annual carbon credits from high global warming potential (GWP) green house gas (GHG), capacity and institutional buildings of domestic CDM governance can play important roles in promoting CDM. This quantitative analysis shows that domestic economic and investment conditions are the most decisive factors determining the performance of the CDM host countries. Additionally, the influence of carbon intensity of energy consumption is relatively modest, and energy intensity of GDP as well as the share of annual carbon credits from high GWP GHG is less significant. Moreover, several leading CDM countries are not as successful as they seem to be, when the influences of their vast territories, distinguished economic and investment conditions are excluded. Therefore, to simply transplant the CDM governances of these countries can hardly guarantee that other countries will boost their carbon credit outputs.

  16. Trojan horse or horn of plenty? Reflections on allowing CCS in the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coninck, Heleen de [Unit Policy Studies, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 56890, 1040 AW Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University of Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    The discussion around allowing CO{sub 2} capture and geological storage (CCS) into the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is important, as the CDM is currently the only structural incentive for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the developing world. Without the potential incentives given by the CDM, CCS in developing countries will only take place sporadically in niche sectors. The debate around CCS in the CDM has developed into a highly polarised discussion, with a deep divide between proponents and opponents and no view on reconciliation between the various perspectives. Environmental organisations and several developing-country parties in the climate negotiations are increasingly vehemently opposed against CCS in the CDM, and industrialised countries, several large fossil-fuel-dependent developing countries and industry view CCS as a natural option under the CDM, provided some surmountable technical and procedural barriers are taken care of. This paper argues that the efforts of those trying to bring the discussion to a close by solving technical and procedural issues around CCS in the CDM will not lead to agreement because of underlying convictions of all stakeholders. Six convictions are identified and discussed. Based on the discussion of the convictions of both opponents and proponents, research needs and a potential negotiation package are suggested. The research needs are primarily in the field of the CDM market impacts of CCS, the issue of enhanced oil emission accounting, and sustainable development aspects, and particularly whether developing countries could actually benefit from technological leadership in the field of CCS, or whether they will be worse off. Devoting attention to the identified convictions could provide information for a more acceptable negotiation package on CCS in the CDM. (author)

  17. Bulk flow of halos in $\\Lambda$CDM simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming; Gao, Liang; Jing, Yipeng; Yang, Xiaohu; Chi, Xuebin; Feng, Longlong; Kang, Xi; Lin, Weipeng; Shang, Guihua; Wang, Long; Zhao, Donghai; Zhang, Pengjie

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the Pangu N-body simulation validates that bulk flow of halos follows Maxwellian distribution of which variance is consistent with prediction of linear perturbation theory of structure formation. We propose that consistency between observed bulk velocity and theories shall be examined at the effective scale as radius of spherical top-hat window function yielding the same smoothed velocity variance in linear theory as the sample window does. Then we compared some recently estimated bulk flows from observational samples with prediction of the $\\Lambda$CDM model we used, some results deviate the expectation at level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ but the tension is not as severe as previously claimed. We disclose that bulk flow is weakly correlated with dipole of internal mass distribution, alignment angle between mass dipole and bulk flow has broad distribution but is peaked at $\\sim 30-50^\\circ$, meanwhile bulk flow shows little dependence on mass of halos used for estimation. In the simulation of box size $1h^...

  18. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and substainability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The report is intended to be a guidance document for project developers, investors, lenders, and CDM host countries involved in wind power projects in the CDM. The report explores in particular those issues that are important in CDM project assessment anddevelopment - that is, baseline development......, carbon financing, and environmental sustainability. It does not deal in detail with those issues that are routinely covered in a standard wind power project assessment. The report tests, compares, andrecommends methodologies for and approaches to baseline development. To present the application...

  19. Reforming CDM and scaling-up finance for sustainable urban transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.

    2009-07-01

    Improvement of urban transport systems in developing countries has an enormous potential to mitigate greenhouse gases while addressing other urgent environmental, social and economic issues. However, the transport sector is not well represented in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) portfolio. There appears to be opportunities to improve the CDM by broadening its scope and simplifying its rules. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to develop improved policy instruments to enable expanded international cooperation. A strategy to reform the CDM and scaling up carbon finance to foster sustainable urban transport is outlined in this paper. (au)

  20. The gold standard: linking the CDM to development and poverty reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlup, M. [Hamburg Inst. of International Economics (HWWA), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces to the objectives, methodologies and procedures of the gold standard, a tool to generate high-quality emission reduction projects with a strong development component. It is discussed how this tool can be used to create sound synergies between climate policy, private sector and non-ODA government involvement in the CDM and development and poverty alleviation objectives. Recommendations are given to direct more CDM investments towards sustainable and additional projects. It is concluded that renewable energy and energy efficiency projects need to become more dominant under the current CDM regime and that both developing as well as industrialised country actors have different but common responsibilities to achieve this. (orig.)

  1. Dark matter searches: looking for the cake or its frosting? (Detectability of a subdominant component of the CDM)

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, Graciela B

    2005-01-01

    The dark matter candidates we are searching for, e.g. neutralinos, may be one of many components of the cold dark matter (CDM). We point out here that very subdominant components, constituting even 1% of the CDM for indirect detection and much less for direct detection, remain observable in current and future searches. So if a CDM signal is confirmed in CDM search experiments (except for a signal from annihilations in the dark halo) we will need to find out the halo fraction accounted for the CDM component we detected.

  2. An Isocurvature CDM Cosmogony; 1, A Worked Example of Evolution Through Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Peebles, P J E

    1999-01-01

    I present a specific worked example of evolution through inflation to the initial conditions for an isocurvature CDM model for structure formation. The model invokes three scalar fields, one that drives power law inflation, one that survives to become the present-day CDM, and one that gives the CDM field a mass that slowly decreases during inflation and so ``tilts'' the primeval mass fluctuation spectrum of the CDM. The functional forms for the potentials and the parameter values that lead to an observationally acceptable model for structure formation do not seem to be out of line with current ideas about the physics of the very early universe. I argue in an accompanying paper that the model offers an acceptable fit to main observational constraints.

  3. Comparing the Evolution of the Galaxy Disk Sizes with CDM Models The Hubble Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Giallongo, E; Poli, F; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A

    2000-01-01

    The intrinsic sizes of the field galaxies with I-19) galaxies is skewed with respect to the CDM predictions and an excess of small-size disks (R_d<2 kpc) is already present at z~ 0.5. The excess persists up to z~3 and involves brighter galaxies . Such an excess may be reduced if luminosity-dependent effects, like starburst activity in interacting galaxies, are included in the physical mechanisms governing the star formation history in CDM models.

  4. CDM criticisms: don't throw the baby out with the bathwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buen, Joerund

    2012-07-01

    CDM has delivered greater offset volumes than anticipated, mainly with money from the private sector in host countries (underlying project investment) and investor countries (carbon offset purchasing) and has built considerable institutional capacity. Criticisms have focused on high transaction costs and lack of scalability; additionality challenges and lack of net mitigation impact; preventing more ambitious targets and changes in emissions paths in developed and developing countries alike; excessive rents and perverse incentives; unbalanced regional distribution; low local sustainable development benefits; corruption and lack of transparency; and lack of technology transfer. While some of these criticisms are justified, others are outdated. Transaction costs have been drastically reduced. Excessive rents and perverse incentives in the CDM will be substantially reduced post-2012. Unbalanced regional distribution will be reduced by new rules; moreover, this is probably less of a problem than commonly thought. Some criticisms are erroneously founded. There is no evidence of CDM preventing more ambitious targets in developing countries while it could prevent changes in emissions paths in developed countries. Few CDM projects have serious known problems as regards sustainable development. Corruption and fraud seem limited; and technology transfer has never been a core CDM concern. Ironically, critics often neglect the elements that need to be improved. To ensure additionality, CDM rules must be tightened to exclude common practice projects and prevent host countries from changing their policies to cater for CDM projects. CDM's scalability and additionality challenges could be substantially reduced by discounting emission reductions. There could still be some non-additional projects, but the volume of the overall portfolio of projects would be additional.(Author)

  5. The First Generation of Stars in Lambda-CDM Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Liang; /Durham U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Abel, T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Frenk, C.S.; Jenkins, A.; /Durham U.; Springel, V.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Yoshida,; /Nagoya U.

    2006-10-10

    We have performed a large set of high-resolution cosmological simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to study the formation of the first luminous objects in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology. We follow the collapse of primordial gas clouds in eight early structures and document the scatter in the properties of the first star-forming clouds. Our first objects span formation redshifts from z {approx} 10 to z {approx} 50 and cover an order of magnitude in halo mass. We find that the physical properties of the central star-forming clouds are very similar in all of the simulated objects despite significant differences in formation redshift and environment. This suggests that the formation path of the first stars is largely independent of the collapse redshift; the physical properties of the clouds have little correlation with spin, mass, or assembly history of the host halo. The collapse of proto-stellar objects at higher redshifts progresses much more rapidly due to the higher densities, which accelerates the formation of molecular hydrogen, enhances initial cooling and shortens the dynamical timescales. The mass of the star-forming clouds cover a broad range, from a few hundred to a few thousand solar masses, and exhibit various morphologies: some have disk-like structures which are nearly rotational supported; others form flattened spheroids; still others form bars. All of them develop a single protostellar ''seed'' which does not fragment into multiple objects up to the moment that the central gas becomes optically thick to H{sub 2} cooling lines. At this time, the instantaneous mass accretion rate onto the centre varies significantly from object to object, with disk-like structures having the smallest mass accretion rates. The formation epoch and properties of the star-forming clouds are sensitive to the values of cosmological parameters.

  6. Trade Tokens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the pursuit of balanced trade with the U.S., China pours it on where it counts A week ahead of Chinese President Hu Jintao's first state visit to the United States, Beijing and Washington reached a series of agreements intended to ease the bilateral trade imbalance, including resuming trade in U.S. beef, increasing Chinese market access to U.S. medical devices, telecom services and express delivery, and cracking down on intellectual property rights infringements.

  7. Trade Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation,its largest exporter and second largest importer,China wields extensive influence on global trade and the world economy,China's advantages of course lie not only in the stable foreign trade policy decided by the recently held Central Economic Work Conference,but also in the strength and resilience of a broadbased and fast-growing economy.

  8. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  9. 27 CFR 22.24 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits. 22.24 Section 22.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities §...

  10. 27 CFR 20.25 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits. 20.25 Section 20.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Administrative Provisions...

  11. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  12. Consistency of the Planck CMB data and $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shafieloo, Arman

    2016-01-01

    We test the consistency between Planck temperature and polarization power spectra and the concordance model of $\\Lambda$ Cold Dark Matter cosmology ($\\Lambda$CDM) within the framework of Crossing statistics. We find that Planck TT best fit $\\Lambda$CDM power spectrum is completely consistent with EE power spectrum data while EE best fit $\\Lambda$CDM power spectrum is not consistent with TT data. However, this does not point to any systematic or model-data discrepancy since in the Planck EE data, uncertainties are much larger compared to the TT data. We also investigate the possibility of any deviation from $\\Lambda$CDM model analyzing the Planck 2015 data. Results from both TT and EE data analysis indicate that no deviation is required beyond the flexibility of the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model. Our analysis thus rules out any strong evidence for beyond the concordance model in the Planck spectra data. We also report a mild amplitude difference comparing temperature and polarization data, where temperature d...

  13. PIPELINE PROGRAM CDM DI INDONESIA: SEBUAH PELUANG DAN TANTANGAN UNTUK INDUSTRI PERTAMBANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Safaat Adiansyah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the world’s problems that must be dealt; the failure in tackling climate change will impact on increasing the earth temperature and endanger the archipelago countries including Indonesia. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM is one of the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms designed to mitigate climate change. Indonesia is one of the countries that meets the requirement as the host of CDM program and has set up the target to reduce GHG emissions as much as 26 percent in year 2020. The industrial sector has opportunities to engage actively in reducing GHG emission including mining industry.  The objectives of this research are to find out the potency of mining company’s involvement in climate change mitigation efforts particularly through CDM. In addition, the research of method that is chosen is literature study including reviewing data relating to CDM and with qualitative approached. The result shows that mining industry has a potency to involve actively in CDM program, among others, through energy efficiency, fuel substitution, renewable energy, Coal Bed Methane and the handling of critical lands through afforestation and reforestation scheme. Furthermore, by using Business as Usual assumption, the linier  regression that is produced y=27.255.x + 12.711 therefore  It is estimated that about 15 Mt CO2-e (assuming 4 percent reduction needs to be derived from the energy sector in 2020 that can be taken as an opportunity for the mining industry as well.

  14. CDM. Is it a 'win-win' strategy for rural poverty alleviation in India?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirohi, Smita [Department of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132001 (India)

    2007-09-15

    India is perceived to be one of the most attractive Non-Annex I countries for CDM project development. There are more than 350 projects in the CDM pipeline, largely in the areas of renewable energy, energy efficiency in industries and fossil fuel switching. This paper examines the socio-economic component of sustainable development commitments of the CDM projects to see if they can make any impact on rural poverty in India, since the goal of poverty alleviation lies at the core of the country's development priorities. The study concludes that CDM is not contributing to rural poverty alleviation to any notable extent. Nearly all the projects have a business orientation and are not directed to the development of rural poor. Even the renewable energy projects will have limited role in up-liftment of the masses below poverty line due to their weak resource base. For CDM to emerge as a 'win-win' strategy for poverty alleviation projects should be aimed at the rural communities and designed to accelerate agricultural growth in the rain-fed regions of the country.

  15. Where the world stands still: turnaround as a strong test of ΛCDM cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T.N., E-mail: pavlidou@physics.uoc.gr, E-mail: tomaras@physics.uoc.gr [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2014-09-01

    Our intuitive understanding of cosmic structure formation works best in scales small enough so that isolated, bound, relaxed gravitating systems are no longer adjusting their radius; and large enough so that space and matter follow the average expansion of the Universe. Yet one of the most robust predictions of ΛCDM cosmology concerns the scale that separates these limits: the turnaround radius, which is the non-expanding shell furthest away from the center of a bound structure. We show that the maximum possible value of the turnaround radius within the framework of the ΛCDM model is, for a given mass M, equal to (3GM/Λ c{sup 2}){sup 1/3}, with G Newton's constant and c the speed of light, independently of cosmic epoch, exact nature of dark matter, or baryonic effects. We discuss the possible use of this prediction as an observational test for ΛCDM cosmology. Current data appear to favor ΛCDM over alternatives with local inhomogeneities and no Λ. However there exist several local-universe structures that have, within errors, reached their limiting size. With improved determinations of their turnaround radii and the enclosed mass, these objects may challenge the limit and ΛCDM cosmology.

  16. Integrated Information Support System (IISS). Volume 5. Common Data Model Subsystem. Part 1. CDM Administrator’s Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    able to understand the reasons why such activities are performed. The NDDL statements used to perform the actual CDM maintenance activities are...transactions. The compile-time component is 2-11 tz UM 620141001 1 November 1985 called the CIDP Precompiler. The run-time components are called the CDMP...those who can potentially gain from the use of the CDM and have legitimate reason to do so. This may involve making the CDM available on other computers

  17. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  18. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this instr

  19. Conformal coupling associated with the Noether symmetry and its connection with the $\\Lambda$CDM dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, Rudinei C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate a non-minimally coupled scalar field model through the Noether symmetry approach. The radiation, matter and cosmological constant eras are analyzed. By means of a change of coordinates in the configuration space generated by the Noether symmetry, the field equations can be reduced to a single equation which is of the form of the Friedmann equation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model. In this way, it is formally shown that the dynamical system can furnish solutions with the same form as those of the $\\Lambda$CDM model, although the theory here considered is physically different from the former. The conserved quantity associated with the Noether symmetry can be related to the kinetic term of the scalar field and could constrain the possible deviations of the model from the $\\Lambda$CDM picture.

  20. Evaluating the CDM-Robustness of the input buffer with very fast transmission line pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tzu-Cheng; Lee, Jian-Hsing; Hung, Chung-Yu; Lien, Chen-Hsin; Su, Hung-Der

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a scheme for how to utilize VFTLP (very fast transmission line pulse) data to design an input buffer circuit for CDM (charged-device model) ESD protection is reported. The impedance of the ESD device under VFTLP stress is nearly 120 Ω at the beginning of turn-on transient, and decreases with time toward 10 Ω prior to the voltage falling below 0 V. In this work, the fact that the dynamic-characteristic impedance of the ESD device under VFTLP testing is independent of the stress current is found. Since both VFTLP zapping and the CDM are nanosecond events, the dynamic-characteristic impedance of the ESD device can be used to evaluate the CDM threshold voltage of the input buffer based on the equivalent and simplified RLC circuit.

  1. THE IMPACT OF EX-ANTE VERSUS EX-POST CDM BASELINES ON A MONOPOLY FIRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiro Akita [Graduate School of Economics and Management Tohoku University Kawauchi, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Haruo Imaiy [Kyoto Institute of Economic Research Kyoto University Yoshida, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto (Japan); Hidenori Niizawaz [School of Economics University of Hyogo Kobe (Japan)

    2008-09-30

    CDM baseline-setting methods may be broadly classified into ex ante methods and ex post methods. Ex post baseline takes into consideration information that becomes available ex post facto, that is, after the CDM project is implemented, in addition to data available prior to the project. Incorporating ex post information, however, inadvertently runs the risk of distorting the incentives of project participants. When output scale is en-dogenously determined, ex post baseline tends to boost output. We show that this may increase total emissions despite the reduction in emissions per output. With ex ante baseline, output is suppressed, bringing about the bene.t of reduced total emissions. But lower output implies reduced consumer and producer surplus. We show that the total social welfare may actually deteriorate because of CDM.

  2. ESD full chip simulation: HBM and CDM requirements and simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Franell

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Verification of ESD safety on full chip level is a major challenge for IC design. Especially phenomena with their origin in the overall product setup are posing a hurdle on the way to ESD safe products. For stress according to the Charged Device Model (CDM, a stumbling stone for a simulation based analysis is the complex current distribution among a huge number of internal nodes leading to hardly predictable voltage drops inside the circuits.

    This paper describes an methodology for Human Body Model (HBM simulations with an improved ESD-failure coverage and a novel methodology to replace capacitive nodes within a resistive network by current sources for CDM simulation. This enables a highly efficient DC simulation clearly marking CDM relevant design weaknesses allowing for application of this software both during product development and for product verification.

  3. {Lambda}CDM model with a scalar perturbation vs. preferred direction of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin; Lin, Hai-Nan; Wang, Sai; Chang, Zhe [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)

    2013-12-15

    We present a scalar perturbation for the {Lambda}CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. Based on the Union2 data, the least-{chi} {sup 2} fit of the scalar perturbed {Lambda}CDM model shows that the universe has a preferred direction (l,b)=(287 {sup circle} {+-}25 {sup circle},11 {sup circle} {+-}22 {sup circle}). The magnitude of scalar perturbation is about -2.3 x 10{sup -5}. The scalar perturbation for the {Lambda}CDM model implies a peculiar velocity, which is perpendicular to the radial direction. We show that the maximum peculiar velocities at redshift z=0.15 and z=0.015 equal to 73{+-}28 km s{sup -1} and 1099{+-}427 km s{sup -1}, respectively. They are compatible with the constraints on the peculiar velocity given by the Planck Collaboration. (orig.)

  4. $\\Lambda$CDM model with a scalar perturbation vs. preferred direction of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin; Wang, Sai; Chang, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    We present a scalar perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. Based on the Union2 data, the least-$\\chi^2$ fit of the scalar perturbed $\\Lambda$CDM model shows that the universe has a preferred direction $(l,b)=(287^\\circ\\pm25^\\circ,11^\\circ\\pm22^\\circ)$. The magnitude of scalar perturbation is about $-2.3\\times10^{-5}$. The scalar perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model implies a peculiar velocity, which is perpendicular to the radial direction. We show that the maximum peculiar velocities at redshift $z=0.15$ and $z=0.015$ equal to $73\\pm28 \\rm km\\cdot s^{-1}$ and $1099\\pm427 \\rm km\\cdot s^{-1}$, respectively. They are compatible with the constraints on peculiar velocity given by Planck Collaboration.

  5. $\\sigma$CDM coupled to radiation. Dark energy and Universe acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Abbyazov, Renat R; Müller, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recently the Chiral Cosmological Model (CCM) coupled to cold dark matter (CDM) has been investigated as $\\sigma$CDM model to study the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Dark sector fields (as Dark Energy content) coupled to cosmic dust were considered as the source of Einstein gravity in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Such model had a beginning at the matter-dominated era. The purposes of our present investigation are two folds: to extend > of the $\\sigma$CDM for earlier times to radiation-dominated era and to take into account variation of the exponential potential via variation of the interaction parameter $\\lambda $. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure to investigate possible values of initial conditions constrained by the measured amount of the dark matter, dark energy and radiation component today. Our analysis includes dark energy contribution to critical density, the ratio of the kinetic and potential energies, deceleration parameter, effective equation of state ...

  6. 50 CFR 21.21 - Import and export permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)). (3) Each raptor must be... International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)). (b) Exception to the import permit..., Exportation, and Transportation of Wildlife); (3) 15......

  7. RH Sneutrino Condensate CDM and the Baryon-to-Dark Matter Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John

    2007-01-01

    The similarity of the observed mass densities of baryons and cold dark matter may be a sign they have a related origin. The baryon-to-dark matter ratio can be understood in the MSSM with right-handed (RH) neutrinos if CDM is due to a d = 4 flat direction condensate of very weakly coupled RH sneutrino LSPs and the baryon asymmetry is generated by Affleck-Dine leptogenesis along a d = 4 (H_{u}L)^2 flat direction. Observable signatures of the model include CDM and baryon isocurvature perturbations and distinctive long-lived NLSP phenomenology.

  8. Galaxy clustering, CMB and supernova data constraints on ϕCDM model with massive neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a scalar field dark energy model (i.e., ϕCDM model with massive neutrinos, where the scalar field possesses an inverse power-law potential, i.e., V(ϕ∝ϕ−α (α>0. We find that the sum of neutrino masses Σmν has significant impacts on the CMB temperature power spectrum and on the matter power spectrum. In addition, the parameter α also has slight impacts on the spectra. A joint sample, including CMB data from Planck 2013 and WMAP9, galaxy clustering data from WiggleZ and BOSS DR11, and JLA compilation of Type Ia supernova observations, is adopted to confine the parameters. Within the context of the ϕCDM model under consideration, the joint sample determines the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the Thomson scattering optical depth due to reionization, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be θ⁎=(1.0415−0.0011+0.0012×10−2, τ=0.0914−0.0242+0.0266, Ωbh2=0.0222±0.0005, Ωch2=0.1177±0.0036, and ns=0.9644−0.0119+0.0118, respectively, at 95% confidence level (CL. It turns out that α<4.995 at 95% CL for the ϕCDM model. And yet, the ΛCDM scenario corresponding to α=0 is not ruled out at 95% CL. Moreover, we get Σmν<0.262 eV at 95% CL for the ϕCDM model, while the corresponding one for the ΛCDM model is Σmν<0.293 eV. The allowed scale of Σmν in the ϕCDM model is a bit smaller than that in the ΛCDM model. It is consistent with the qualitative analysis, which reveals that the increases of α and Σmν both can result in the suppression of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, when α is larger, in order to avoid suppressing the matter power spectrum too much, the value of Σmν should be smaller.

  9. A Search for Hidden Photon CDM in a Multi-Cathode Counter (MCC) data

    CERN Document Server

    Kopylov, A; Petukhov, V

    2016-01-01

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter in a mass range from 5 to 500 eV in data collected during 60 days in November and December, 2015 by a Multi-Cathode Counter (MCC) is reported. From the analyses of this data we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$. This is the first result obtained by direct measurements in this mass range for hidden photon CDM using a single electron event in MCC as a signature.

  10. Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP)/ Federal Processor Permit (FPP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP) is required for vessels of the United States which are used to fish for groundfish in the Gulf of Alaska or Bering Sea and...

  11. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  12. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  13. Density Profiles of CDM Microhalos and their Implications for Annihilation Boost Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhalden, Donnino

    2013-01-01

    In a standard cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, microhalos at the CDM cutoff scale are the first and smallest objects expected to form in the universe. Here we present results of high resolution simulations of three representative roughly Earth-mass microhalos in order to determine their inner density profile. We find that CDM microhalos in simulations without a cutoff in the power spectrum roughly follow the NFW density profile, just like the much larger CDM halos on galaxy and galaxy cluster scales. But having a cutoff in the initial power spectrum at a typical neutralino free streaming scale of $10^{-7} M_{\\odot}$ makes their inner density profiles considerably steeper, i.e. $\\rho \\propto r^{-(1.3-1.4)}$, in good agreement with the results from Ishiyama et al. (2010). An extrapolation of the halo and subhalo mass functions down to the cutoff scale indicates that microhalos are extremely abundant throughout the present day dark matter distribution and might contribute significantly to indirect dark matter d...

  14. Hierarchy of N-point functions in the ΛCDM and ReBEL cosmologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Juszkiewicz, Roman; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate higher-order statistics for the ΛCDM and ReBEL scalar-interacting dark matter models by analyzing 180h-1Mpc dark matter N-body simulation ensembles. The N-point correlation functions and the related hierarchical amplitudes, such as skewness and kurtosis, are computed usin

  15. Hierarchy of N-point functions in the Lambda CDM and ReBEL cosmologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Juszkiewicz, Roman; van de Weijgaert, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate higher-order statistics for the Lambda CDM and ReBEL scalar-interacting dark matter models by analyzing 180h(-1) Mpc dark matter N-body simulation ensembles. The N-point correlation functions and the related hierarchical amplitudes, such as skewness and kurtosis, are comp

  16. How to the likelihood of CDM approval? Institutional shortcomings and the case of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    How can the likelihood of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) approval be improved in the face of institutional shortcomings? To answer this question, we focus on the three institutional shortcomings of income sharing, risk sharing and corruption prevention concerning afforestation/reforestation (A...

  17. Why only few CDM projects? The case of reforestation projects and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    CDM projects have large potentials but also face significant obstacles that have so far limited their applicability. Two serious problems that an effective contracting faces are the presence of private information and the lack of sufficiently precise output measures. In a principal-agent framewor...

  18. Galaxy clustering, CMB and supernova data constraints on $\\phi$CDM model with massive neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yun

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a scalar field dark energy model (i.e., $\\phi$CDM model) with massive neutrinos, where the scalar field possesses an inverse power-law potential, i.e., $V(\\phi)\\propto {\\phi}^{-\\alpha}$ ($\\alpha>0$). We find that the sum of neutrino masses $\\Sigma m_{\

  19. The PN.S Elliptical Galaxy Survey: a standard ΛCDM halo around NGC 4374?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N. G.; Arnaboldi, M.; Coccato, L.; Gerhard, O.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M. R.; Bamford, S. P.; Cortesi, A.; Das, P.; Freeman, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of our current programme to test ΛCDM predictions for dark matter (DM) haloes using extended kinematical observations of early-type galaxies, we present a dynamical analysis of the bright elliptical galaxy NGC 4374 (M84) based on ˜450 planetary nebulae (PNe) velocities from the PN.Spectrogra

  20. Permit.LOA table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table includes the effective dates by vessel and permit number for each issued letter of authorization (LOA) by the Permit Office (APSD)

  1. State Licenses & Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Starting a business? Confused about whether you need a business license or permit? Virtually every business needs some form of license or permit to operate legally....

  2. Clean Development Mechanism, Programmatic CDM as a means to level the playing field between developing countries : Kenya as a case study country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, Job

    2009-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a United Nations mechanism with the dual objective to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as to contribute to sustainable develop-ment. CDM shows besides remarkable successes some flaws and shortcomings. Especi

  3. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and substainability analysis[CDM=Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H.; Olivier, A.L.; Painuly, J.; Villavicencio, A.

    2002-12-01

    The report is intended to be a guidance document for project developers, investors, lenders, and CDM host countries involved in wind power projects in the CDM. The report explores in particular those issues that are important in CDM project assessment and development - that is, baseline development, carbon financing, and environmental sustainability. It does not deal in detail with those issues that are routinely covered in a standard wind power project assessment. The report tests, compares, and recommends methodologies for and approaches to baseline development. To present the application and implications of the various methodologies and approaches in a concrete context, Africa's largest wind farm-namely the 60 MW wind farm located in Zafarana, Egypt- is examined as a hypothetical CDM wind power project The report shows that for the present case example there is a difference of about 25% between the lowest (0.5496 tCO2/MWh) and the highest emission rate (0.6868 tCO{sub 2}/MWh) estimated in accordance with these three standardized approaches to baseline development according to the Marrakesh Accord. This difference in emission factors comes about partly as a result of including hydroelectric power in the baseline scenario. Hydroelectric resources constitute around 21% of the generation capacity in Egypt, and, if excluding hydropower, the difference between the lowest and the highest baseline is reduced to 18%. Furthermore, since the two variations of the 'historical' baseline option examined result in the highest and the lowest baselines, by disregarding this baseline option altogether the difference between the lowest and the highest is reduced to 16%. The ES3-model, which the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory has developed, makes it possible for this report to explore the project-specific approach to baseline development in some detail. Based on quite disaggregated data on the Egyptian electricity system, including the wind

  4. A correction in the CDM methodological tool for estimating methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M M O; van Elk, A G P; Romanel, C

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) - especially landfills - are a significant source of methane, a greenhouse gas. Although having the potential to be captured and used as a fuel, most of the methane formed in SWDS is emitted to the atmosphere, mainly in developing countries. Methane emissions have to be estimated in national inventories. To help this task the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published three sets of guidelines. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol established the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to assist the developed countries to offset their own greenhouse gas emissions by assisting other countries to achieve sustainable development while reducing emissions. Based on methodologies provided by the IPCC regarding SWDS, the CDM Executive Board has issued a tool to be used by project developers for estimating baseline methane emissions in their project activities - on burning biogas from landfills or on preventing biomass to be landfilled and so avoiding methane emissions. Some inconsistencies in the first two IPCC guidelines have already been pointed out in an Annex of IPCC latest edition, although with hidden details. The CDM tool uses a model for methane estimation that takes on board parameters, factors and assumptions provided in the latest IPCC guidelines, while using in its core equation the one of the second IPCC edition with its shortcoming as well as allowing a misunderstanding of the time variable. Consequences of wrong ex-ante estimation of baseline emissions regarding CDM project activities can be of economical or environmental type. Example of the first type is the overestimation of 18% in an actual project on biogas from landfill in Brazil that harms its developers; of the second type, the overestimation of 35% in a project preventing municipal solid waste from being landfilled in China, which harms the environment, not for the project per se but for the undue generated carbon credits. In a simulated landfill - the same

  5. Epidemic Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerner, Lars; Severgnini, Battista

    This paper studies the spread of the Black Death as a proxy for the intensity of medieval trade flows between 1346 and 1351. The Black Death struck most areas of Europe and the wider Mediterranean. Based on a modied version of the gravity model, we estimate the speed (in kilometers per day...

  6. La Fin du MOND? {\\Lambda} CDM is Fully Consistent with SPARC Acceleration Law

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, B W

    2016-01-01

    Recent analysis (McGaugh et al. 2016) of the SPARC galaxy sample found a surprisingly tight relation between the radial acceleration inferred from the rotation curves, and the acceleration due to the baryonic components of the disc. It has been suggested that this relation may be evidence for new physics, beyond {\\Lambda}CDM . In this letter we show that the 18 galaxies from the MUGS2 match the SPARC acceleration relation. These cosmological simulations of star forming, rotationally supported discs were simulated with a WMAP3 {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology, and match the SPARC acceleration relation with less scatter than the observational data. These results show that this acceleration law is a consequence of dissipative collapse of baryons, rather than being evidence for exotic dark-sector physics or new dynamical laws.

  7. Multiple $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology with string landscape features and future singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Elizalde, E; Nojiri, S; Obukhov, V V; Odintsov, S D

    2012-01-01

    Multiple $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology is studied in a way that is formally a classical analog of the Casimir effect. Such cosmology corresponds to a time-dependent dark fluid model or, alternatively, to its scalar field presentation, and it motivated by the string landscape picture. The future evolution of the several dark energy models constructed within the scheme is carefully investigated. It turns out to be almost always possible to choose the parameters in the models so that they match the most recent and accurate astronomical values. To this end, several universes are presented which mimick (multiple) $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology but exhibit Little Rip, asymptotically de Sitter, or Type I, II, III, and IV finite-time singularity behavior in the far future, with disintegration of all bound objects in the cases of Big Rip, Little Rip and Pseudo-Rip cosmologies.

  8. A Consistent Approach to Falsifying Lambda-CDM with Rare Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We consider methods with which to answer the question "is any observed galaxy cluster too unusual for Lambda-CDM?" After emphasising that many previous attempts to answer this question have fallen foul of a statistical bias which causes them to overestimate the confidence levels to which Lambda-CDM can be ruled out, we outline a consistent approach to these rare clusters which allows the question to be answered. We explicitly separate the two procedures of first ranking clusters according to which appears 'most unusual' and secondly calculating the probability that such an unusual observation was made in a given cosmology. For the ranking procedure we define three properties of individual galaxy clusters, each of which are sensitive to changes in cluster populations arising from different modifications to the cosmological model. We use these properties to define the "equivalent mass at redshift zero" for a cluster - the mass of an equally unusual cluster today. This quantity is independent of the observationa...

  9. Spectrum Trading in India and 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripathi, Purnendu; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Currently radio spectrum is largely managed through Command and Control method. Public mobile services require spectrum below 3 GHz for providing cost effective services. The existing method has created artificial shortage of spectrum especially below 3 GHz. Spectrum trading is a new concept...... in which service providers are permitted to purchase spectrum from the market to fulfil their requirements. Spectrum trading has not yet been permitted in India. This paper provides an overview of possibilities of spectrum trading in India and concludes that necessary ingredients are present in India...... for spectrum trading and it could provide a boost to the Indian telecom sector. Further, it will also discuss spectrum issue related with 5G in the direction of millimeter waves....

  10. The effect of non-radial motions on the CDM model predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Popolo, A D

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we show how non-radial motions, originating from the tidal interaction of the irregular mass distribution within and around protoclusters, can solve some of the problems of the CDM model. Firstly the discrepancy between the CDM predicted two-points correlation function of clusters and the observed one. We compare the two-points correlation function, that we obtain taking account of non-radial motions, with that obtained by Sutherland & Efstathiou (1991) from the analysis of Geller & Hucra's (1988) deep redshift survey and with the data points for the APM clusters obtained by Efstathiou et al. (1992). Secondly the problem of the X-ray clusters abundance over-production predicted by the CDM model. In this case we compare the X-ray temperature distribution function, calculated using Press-Schechter theory and Evrard's (1990) prescriptions for the mass-temperature relation, taking also account of the non-radial motions, with Henry & Arnaud (1991) and Edge et al. (1990) X-ray temperature ...

  11. Can f(T) gravity theories mimic ΛCDM cosmic history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The f(T) modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function f(T) by demanding a background ΛCDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat ΛCDM (the radiation ere with ω{sub eff} = (1/3), matter and de Sitter eras with ω{sub eff} = 0 and ω{sub eff} = −1, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with Ω{sub 0r} = 1 and the matter dominate during the matter phases when Ω{sub 0m} = 1. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the ΛCDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function f(T) which mimics cosmic expansion history.

  12. Small Scale Problems of the ΛCDM Model: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Del Popolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ΛCDM model, or concordance cosmology, as it is often called, is a paradigm at its maturity. It is clearly able to describe the universe at large scale, even if some issues remain open, such as the cosmological constant problem, the small-scale problems in galaxy formation, or the unexplained anomalies in the CMB. ΛCDM clearly shows difficulty at small scales, which could be related to our scant understanding, from the nature of dark matter to that of gravity; or to the role of baryon physics, which is not well understood and implemented in simulation codes or in semi-analytic models. At this stage, it is of fundamental importance to understand whether the problems encountered by the ΛDCM model are a sign of its limits or a sign of our failures in getting the finer details right. In the present paper, we will review the small-scale problems of the ΛCDM model, and we will discuss the proposed solutions and to what extent they are able to give us a theory accurately describing the phenomena in the complete range of scale of the observed universe.

  13. Consistency of non-flat $\\Lambda$CDM model with the new result from BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Using 137,562 quasars in the redshift range $2.1\\leq z\\leq3.5$ from the Data Release 11 (DR11) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III, the BOSS-SDSS collaboration estimated the expansion rate $H(z=2.34)=222\\pm7$ km/s/Mpc of Universe, and reported that this value is in tension with the predictions of flat $\\Lambda$CDM model at around 2.5$\\sigma$ level. In this letter, we briefly describe some attempts made in the literature to relieve the tension, and show that the tension can naturally be alleviated in non-flat $\\Lambda$CDM model with positive curvature. However, this idea confronts with the inflation paradigm which predicts almost a spatially flat Universe. Nevertheless, the theoretical consistency of the non-flat $\\Lambda$CDM model with the new result from BOSS deserves attention of the community.

  14. Detection of a Physical Difference between the CDM Halos in Simulation and in Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Wei-Ke; PENG Chang; YE Xian-Feng; HAO Heng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Numerical simulation is an important tool that is helpful for us to understand the process of structure formation in the universe. However, many simulation results of cold dark matter (CDM) halos on a small scale are inconsistent with observations: the central density profile is too cuspy and there are too many substructures. Here we point out that both the problems may be connected with a hitherto unrecognized bias in the simulated halos. Although CDM halos in nature and in simulation are both virialized systems of collisionless CDM particles, gravitational encounter cannot be neglected in the simulated halos because they contain many fewer particles. We demonstrate this by two numerical experiments, showing that there is a difference on the microcosmic scale between the natural and simulated halos. The simulated halo is more akin to globular clusters where gravitational encounter is known to lead to such drastic phenomena as core collapse. Such an artificial core collapse process appears to link the two problems together in the bottom-up scenario of structure formation in the ACDM universe. The discovery of this bias also has implications on the applicability of the Jeans theorem in galactic dynamics.

  15. Classifying carbon credit buyers according to their attitudes towards and involvement in CDM sustainability labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnphumeesup, Piya, E-mail: pp66@hw.ac.uk [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kerr, Sandy A. [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: > The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. > The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. > Governments tend to be members of the premium market. > 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.

  16. Distinguishing interacting dark energy from wCDM with CMB, lensing, and baryon acoustic oscillation data

    CERN Document Server

    Valiviita, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    We employ the Planck 2013 CMB temperature anisotropy and lensing data, and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data to constrain a phenomenological $w$CDM model, where dark matter and dark energy interact. We assume time-dependent equation of state parameter for dark energy, and treat dark matter and dark energy as fluids whose energy-exchange rate is proportional to the dark-matter density. The CMB data alone leave a strong degeneracy between the interaction rate and the physical CDM density parameter today, $\\omega_c$, allowing a large interaction rate $|\\Gamma| \\sim H_0$. However, as has been known for a while, the BAO data break this degeneracy. Moreover, we exploit the CMB lensing potential likelihood, which probes the matter perturbations at redshift $z \\sim 2$ and is very sensitive to the growth of structure, and hence one of the tools for discerning between the $\\Lambda$CDM model and its alternatives. However, we find that in the non-phantom models ($w_{\\mathrm{de}}>-1$), the constraints remain unchange...

  17. CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) opportunities for the oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Joana Chiavari [FEEM - Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy). Eni/Agip Group

    2004-07-01

    Due to the broad impact of legislation limiting greenhouse gas emissions and the increasing public awareness concerning the environment, the oil industry has been currently incorporating climate change considerations in its corporate strategy. However, compliance in the carbon constrained economy does not merely represent a cost issue; it also represents an opportunity. Projects developed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in particular represent an incentive both for companies and governments to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries and earn carbon credits, while promoting sustainable development. The oil industry is characterized by a high emission reduction potential and is able to deliver to the market an amount of credits which is by far higher than the amount that most projects developers are able to offer. However some critical issues, such as the current interpretation of the additionally concept, may represent a barrier for the full utilization of such mechanism, particularly regarding petroleum-sector projects, thus reducing the benefits the CDM can actually produce. Considering that a very large number of CDM projects may be needed for the implementation of a successful climate policy, the engagement of the oil industry on the Kyoto mechanisms is very important and auspicial. (author)

  18. Sustainable Development Impacts of NAMAs: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the CDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    Sustainable development priorities provide the context for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by developing countries. While methods exist to assess the sustainable development (SD) co-benefits of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, no approach has yet been developed...

  19. CCS Project Permit Acquisition Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-06-30

    Geologic carbon storage projects require a vast range of permits prior to deployment. These include land-access permits, drilling permits, seismic survey permits, underground injection control permits, and any number of local and state permits, depending on the location of the project. For the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project in particular, critical permits included site access permits, seismic survey permits, and drilling permits for the characterization well. Permits for these and other activities were acquired either prior to or during the project.

  20. Integrated Information Support System (IISS). Volume 5. Common Data Model Subsystem. Part 49. CDM IRDS Feature Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-30

    Common Data Model and IDEFIX integration methodology. ONTEK Responsible for defining and testing a representative integrated system base in Artificial...information at the next lower level. IRD620341500 30 Septenbt’r 1990 IDEFIX DEFINITION DEFINITION ---------------------- defines &t describes I I 9...category entities). Sub-type categories may be defined as complete or incomplete. Layer 2 - The CDM1 The CDM1 is the schema definition ( IDEFiX model

  1. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T. [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inoue, Y. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Minowa, M. [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science,The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  2. Experimental Search for Hidden Photon CDM in the eV mass range with a Dish Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, J; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-01-01

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$ of $\\sim 6\\times 10^{-12}$ for the hidden photon mass $m_\\gamma = 3.1 \\pm 1.2$ eV.

  3. Experimental Search for Hidden Photon CDM in the eV mass range with a Dish Antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, J; Inoue, Y; Minowa, M

    2015-01-01

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$ of $\\sim 6\\times 10^{-12}$ for the hidden photon mass $m_\\gamma = 3.1 \\pm 1.2$ eV.

  4. CDM: is it a ''Win-Win'' strategy for rural poverty alleviation in India?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirohi, S. [Dept. of Economics, Statistics and Management, National Dairy Research Inst., Karnal (Haryana) (India)

    2005-07-01

    This paper seeks to examine whether CDM can merge as an important development strategy to dent poverty in India. The study focuses specifically on rural poverty, due to higher incidence of rural poverty in India and urban poverty being largely, a spill-over of rural poverty. The sustainable development commitment of the CDM projects as specified in their Project Design Document (PDD) are examined for their effectiveness to alleviate poverty in light of the empirical evidence on the factors, policies and strategies that have been instrumental, in the past, in decreasing rural poverty in India. The first section discusses the status of CDM projects in India to get a broad view of the type of projects in the CDM portfolio, followed by an overview of socio-economic development commitments of CDM projects in the second section. The third section acquaints the readers with the dimensions of rural poverty in India to be able to appreciate the discussion on critical issues in poverty alleviation initiatives of CDM projects in the fourth section. The last section presents the conclusions of the paper. (orig.)

  5. Federal NOx Budget Trading Program and CAIR NOx and SO2 Trading Programs (40 CFR Part 97)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This part establishes general provisions and the applicability, permitting, allowance, excess emissions, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for the federal NOx Budget Trading Program as a means of mitigating interstate transport of ozone and nitrogen oxides

  6. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  7. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  8. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  9. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be de...

  10. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be de...

  11. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be de...

  12. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  13. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  14. BCDC Major Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Data depicts the majority of the major permits that BCDC has issued. Data has been created by a team of interns and staff and has been digitized using maps provided...

  15. California Tribal Gasoline Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing a draft general permit under the Clean Air Act Federal Indian Country Minor NSR program for gasoline dispensing facilities, such as gas stations, located in Indian country within the geographical boundaries of California.

  16. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  17. Myotonic Dystrophy: Increased expression of the normal allele in CDM infants muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanyi, H.H.; Gourdon, G.; Junien, C. [Inserm U, Paris (France)]|[Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France)

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder characterized by a highly variable clinical phenotype. The mutation has been identified as an unstable trinucleotide CTG repeat in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the myotonin-protein kinase (MT-PK) gene. Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM), which represents the most severe phenotype, is exclusively maternally inherited. Recent studies, analysis by Northern blots and RT-PCR provided apparently conflicting results on the mutated allele expression in samples from congenitally affected children. The level of expression of the mutant allele depends on the extent of the repeat in the adult form and is no longer expressed when over 800-1300 repeats, whether in adult forms or in CDM. Could this decrease account for the late onset forms? However, the differences between the two phenotypes cannot be explained by the same mechanism. Alternatively, these differences could be due to differences in expression of the normal allele. We analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR the expression of the MT-PK gene in muscle samples from four CDM infants and two aged-matched normal controls. In two of these, the mutant allele (3.3 and 8 kb) was undetectable on Northern blots. We observed an increased expression of the MT-PK gene (10- to 20-fold) in tissues of severely affected congenital patients which can be attributed to the normal allele. Since expression of the normal allele is either normal or slightly decreased in the adult form, the dramatic increase in the congenital form could reflect a disturbance in muscle differentiation. Expression studies of MT-PK at different stages of development and, especially after the 20th week, are therefore required.

  18. Understanding the shape and diversity of dwarf galaxy rotation curves in ΛCDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J. I.; Iorio, G.; Agertz, O.; Fraternali, F.

    2016-11-01

    The shape and diversity of dwarf galaxy rotation curves is at apparent odds with dark matter halos in a Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. We use mock data from isolated dwarf galaxy simulations to show that this owes to three main effects. Firstly, stellar feedback heats dark matter, leading to a `CORENFW' dark matter density profile with a slowly rising rotation curve. Secondly, if close to a recent starburst, large H I bubbles push the rotation curve out of equilibrium, deforming the rotation curve shape. Thirdly, when galaxies are viewed near face-on, their best fit inclination is biased high. This can lead to a very shallow rotation curve that falsely implies a large dark matter core. All three problems can be avoided, however, by a combination of improved mass models and a careful selection of target galaxies. Fitting our CORENFW model to mock rotation curve data, we show that we can recover the rotation curve shape, dark matter halo mass M200 and concentration parameter c within our quoted uncertainties. We fit our CORENFW model to real data for four isolated dwarf irregulars, chosen to span a wide range of rotation curve shapes. We obtain an excellent fit for NGC 6822 and WLM, with tight constraints on M200, and c consistent with ΛCDM. However, IC 1613 and DDO 101 give a poor fit. For IC 1613, we show that this owes to disequilibria and its uncertain inclination i; for DDO 101, it owes to its uncertain distance D. If we assume iIC1613 ˜ 15° and DDDO101 ˜ 12 Mpc, consistent with current uncertainties, we are able to fit both galaxies very well. We conclude that ΛCDM appears to give an excellent match to dwarf galaxy rotation curves.

  19. Downsizing of galaxies vs upsizing of dark-halos in a Lambda-CDM cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E; Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Pedrosa, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The mass assembly of a whole population of sub-Milky Way galaxies is studied by means of hydrodynamical simulations within the $\\Lambda$-CDM cosmology. Our results show that while dark halos assemble hierarchically, in stellar mass this trend is inverted in the sense that the smaller the galaxy, the later is its stellar mass assembly on average. Our star formation and supernovae feedback implementation in a multi-phase interstellar medium seems to play a key role on this process. However, the obtained downsizing trend is not yet as strong as observations show.

  20. Constraints from Type Ia supernovae on the Λ-CDM model in Randers-Finsler space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Zhe; LI Ming-Hua; LI Xin

    2012-01-01

    Gravitational field equations in Randers-Finsler space of approximate Berwald type are investigated.A modified Friedmann equation and a new luminosity distance-redshift relation is proposed.A best-fit to the Type Ia supernovae (SNe) observations yields that the ΩΛ in the Λ-CDM model is suppressed to almost zero.This fact indicates that the astronomical observations on the Type Ia SNe can be described well without invoking any form of dark energy.The best-fit age of the universe is given.It is in agreement with the age of our galaxy.

  1. CMB Lensing as a probe of beyond ΛCDM Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, F.; Baghram, S.; Firouzjahi, H.

    2016-09-01

    The observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) and the Large Structures indicate that the standard model of Cosmology known as ΛCDM works well. In this essay we propose that the CMB lensing is a prominent probe to study any deviation from this model. Deviations from cosmological constant and nearly Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant and isotropic initial conditions can be studied by CMB lensing. We show how the angular power spectrum of CMB lensing potential is an observable which encapsulates the effect of initial conditions and Dark Energy. The amplitude and the scale dependence of a dipole modulation in initial conditions is studied with CMB lensing potential and convergence.

  2. Higgs-Boson Benchmarks in Agreement with CDM, EWPO and BPO

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, S

    2007-01-01

    We explore `benchmark planes' in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) that are in agreement with the measured cold dark matter (CDM) density, electroweak precision observables (EWPO) and B physics observables (BPO). The M_A-tan_beta planes are specified assuming that gaugino masses m_{1/2}, soft trilinear supersymmetry-breaking parameters A_0 and the soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions m_0 to the squark and slepton masses are universal, but not those associated with the Higgs multiplets (the NUHM framework). We discuss the prospects for probing experimentally these benchmark surfaces at the Tevatron collider, the LHC and the ILC.

  3. Secondary creep of porous metal supports for solid oxide fuel cells by a CDM approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, L.; Boccaccini, D. N.; Pucillo, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    as function of temperature, determined by the high temperature impulse excitation technique, was directly used to account for the porosity and the related effective stress acting during the creep tests. The proposed creep rate formulation was used to extend the Crofer® 22 APU Monkman-Grant diagram...... by a continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach. The behaviour of the porous metal support, in the range from 1 to 17MPa and temperatures between 650 and 700°C, was combined and compared with data from literature of Crofer® 22 APU, taken as zero porosity reference material. The variation of the elastic modulus...

  4. The Ningxia Trade Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    High-level forum helps strengthen China-Arab trade and economic cooperation Trade deals were plentiful at the first China-Arab States Economic and Trade Forum last month, with over 190 deals on investment cooperation

  5. Hanford Facility RCRA permit handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Purpose of this Hanford Facility (HF) RCRA Permit Handbook is to provide, in one document, information to be used for clarification of permit conditions and guidance for implementing the HF RCRA Permit.

  6. Emission Trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    1998-12-01

    This report discusses the potential gains from emission trading and raises some crucial questions. It shows that the total costs of the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced by about 95% through emission trading. Emission trading is an option also in the domestic arenas. The governments of the Annex B countries may allocate emission quotas to local enterprises as emission permits. Thus new markets for greenhouse gas emission quotas may emerge, domestically and internationally. It is emphasized that emission trading at the national and international levels must be discussed separately. The Nordic governments, for example, will find several good reasons for supporting emission trading at the international level if not necessarily domestically. The Nordic countries have already implemented domestic taxes on CO{sub 2} emissions and this tax policy could be sustained while these governments support and take part in emission trading at the international level.The report also considers a possible side effect of emission trading: free emission trading among Annex B countries could reduce the total abatement compared to a non-tradable policy as a consequence of the fact that some of the countries that are in transition to a market economy may be given emission limitations above their business-as-usual emissions. 40 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauff, J.

    2000-01-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector isthought to be a realistic option in the near...... allenterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning theinstrument was found to be high and the system could be based...

  8. La abundancia de galaxias y halos de materia oscura en el universo CDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, M. G.; Benítez-Llambay, A.; Ferrero, I.

    A long-standing puzzle of CDM cosmological model concerns to the different shape of the galaxy stellar mass function and the halo mass function on dwarf galaxy scales. Dwarf galaxies are much less numerous than halos massive enough to host them; suggesting a complex non-linear relation between the mass of a galaxy and the mass of its surrounding halo. Usually; this is reconciled by appealing to baryonic processes that can reduce the efficiency of galaxy formation in low-mass halos. Recent work applying the abundance matching technique require that virtually no dwarf galaxies form in halos with virial mass below . We use rotation curves of dwarf galaxies compiled from the literature to explore whether their total enclosed mass is consistent with these constraints. Almost one-half of the dwarfs in our sample are at odds with this restriction; they are in halos with masses substantially below . Using a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of galaxies we found that ram-pressure stripping against the cosmic web removes baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. This mechanism may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in CDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  9. High redshift evolution of optically and IR-selected galaxies a comparison with CDM scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, A; D'Odorico, S; Giallongo, E; Poli, F; Cristiani, S; Moorwood, A F M; Saracco, P

    1999-01-01

    A combination of ground-based (NTT and VLT) and HST (HDF-N and HDF-S) public imaging surveys have been used to collect a sample of 1712 I-selected and 319 $K\\leq 21$ galaxies. Photometric redshifts have been obtained for all these galaxies. The results have been compared with the prediction of an analytic rendition of the current CDM hierarchical models for galaxy formation. We focus in particular on two observed quantities: the galaxy redshift distribution at K2. This result strongly supports hierarchical scenarios where present-day massive galaxies are the result of merging processes. The observed UV luminosity density in the I-selected sample is confined within a factor of 4 over the whole range 03. CDM models in $\\Lambda$-dominated universe are in better agreement at 3

  10. The High Velocity Galaxy Problem of $\\Lambda$CDM in the Local Group $-$ Including External Perturbers

    CERN Document Server

    Banik, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    We recently used an axisymmetric model of the Local Group (LG) to show that the observed positions and velocities of galaxies inside it are difficult to reconcile with the standard cosmological model, $\\Lambda$CDM (MNRAS, 459, 2237). We now extend this investigation using a 3D model of the LG. This makes it feasible to directly include several other mass concentrations within and just outside the LG e.g. M33 and IC 342, respectively. As before, LG dwarf galaxies are treated as test particles. Although our best-fitting 3D model yields different velocity predictions for individual galaxies, the overall picture remains unchanged. In particular, observed radial velocities (RVs) tend to exceed $\\Lambda$CDM model predictions. The typical mismatch is slightly higher than in our earlier axisymmetric analysis, with a root mean square value of $\\sim$50 km/s. \\emph{Our main finding is that including the 3D distribution of massive perturbing dark matter halos is unlikely to help greatly with the high velocity galaxy prob...

  11. TAX TREATMENT OF CARBON CREDIT OPERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES WITH CDM PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to identify the tax treatment applied to carbon credit operations in Brazilian companies that are developing projects in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Therefore, an exploratory research with a qualitative approach was developed. Data were collected with the help of questionnaire, forwarded to all Brazilian companies with CDM projects that received approval from the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change (CIMGC without safeguards, according to the list of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology. Out of 117 companies listed, only five answered the research instrument, which represents an accessibility sample. The results show that, as for the tax treatment applied in the companies under analysis, IRPJ and CSLL should be charged on carbon credit operations. Regarding PIS, COFINS, ISS, some companies considered that these taxes are due and others that they are not. There is a consensus, though, about the fact that ICMS and IOF should not be charged. In conclusion, no uniform understanding exists as of yet about due taxes in the research sample, as no specific fiscal legislation exists yet on carbon credits in Brazil.

  12. Growth of perturbations in nonlocal gravity with non-$\\Lambda$CDM background

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    We re-analyze the nonlocal gravity model of Deser and Woodard which was proposed to account for the current phase of cosmic acceleration. We show that the growth of perturbations predicted by this nonlocal gravity model when its background evolution is fixed by some particular non-$\\Lambda$CDM models (models still consistent to the expansion history data) can be substantially lower than when its background is fixed by $\\Lambda$CDM. This can be seen when we consider the background expansion by a dark energy model with a slightly less negative equation of state with respect to cosmological constant. Our results hints towards a fact that the choice of the background expansion can play a crucial role how this nonlocal gravity model can fit the growth history data. While the growth data might show better consistency to GR models (among the background models we studied so far), it seems the nonlocal gravity model studied in this work is able to show comparable consistency to the growth data as well. Showing this co...

  13. The properties of `dark' ΛCDM haloes in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Sawala, Till; Oman, Kyle; Fattahi, Azadeh; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom

    2017-03-01

    We examine the baryon content of low-mass Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) haloes (108 population where the gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium with the dark matter potential and in thermal equilibrium with the ionizing UV background. Their thermodynamic properties are well specified, and their gas density and temperature profiles may be predicted in detail. Gas in RELHICS is nearly fully ionized but with neutral cores that span a large range of H I masses and column densities and have negligible non-thermal broadening. We present predictions for their characteristic sizes and central column densities; the massive tail of the distribution should be within reach of future blind H I surveys. Local Group RELHICS (LGRs) have some properties consistent with observed Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds (UCHVCs) but the sheer number of the latter suggests that most UCHVCs are not RELHICS. Our results suggest that LGRs (i) should typically be beyond 500 kpc from the Milky Way or M31; (ii) have positive Galactocentric radial velocities; (iii) H I sizes not exceeding 1 kpc, and (iv) should be nearly round. The detection and characterization of RELHICS would offer a unique probe of the small-scale clustering of CDM.

  14. Faint dwarfs as a test of DM models: WDM vs. CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, Fabio; Pontzen, Andrew; Loebman, Sarah; Reed, Darren; Brooks, Alyson M; Behroozi, Peter; Christensen, Charlotte; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Walker, Matthew; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James

    2014-01-01

    We use high resolution Hydro$+$N-Body cosmological simulations to compare the assembly and evolution of a small field dwarf (stellar mass ~ 10$^{6-7}$ M$\\odot$, total mass 10$^{10}$ M$\\odot$ in $\\Lambda$ dominated CDM and 2keV WDM cosmologies. We find that star formation (SF) in the WDM model is reduced and delayed by 1-2 Gyr relative to the CDM model, independently of the details of SF and feedback. Independent of the DM model, but proportionally to the SF efficiency, gas outflows lower the central mass density through `dynamical heating', such that all realizations have circular velocities $<$ 20kms at 500$~$pc, in agreement with local kinematic constraints. As a result of dynamical heating, older stars are less centrally concentrated than younger stars, similar to stellar population gradients observed in nearby dwarf galaxies. We translate our simulations into artificial color-magnitude diagrams and star formation histories in order to directly compare to available observations. The simulated galaxies f...

  15. Renewable energy projects in cdm scope – the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice de Moraes Falleiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and interface issues that show related to the subject walking in the same direction of the questions and uncertainties to which it refers. 10 years ago came into effect global climate agreement Kyoto Protocol, as an attempt to curb emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG with the help of three flexibility mechanisms, including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, only applied to developing countries. Ended the first period of the Protocol (2008-2012, according to data from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, Brazil is among the four countries with the highest number of registered CDM projects. Therefore, the diagnosis of these shows is of paramount importance as it provides an evaluation of these projects and their role in mitigating GHG emissions. For this, we consulted articles, books and websites to the UNFCCC and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MTCI, responsible for the registration and approval of projects, respectively. Therefore, this paper aims to conduct a prior diagnosis of registered renewable energy projects, developed in accordance with the methodological tool ACM 0002 "Consolidated baseline methodology for grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources".  Keywords: Renewable energy; Clean development mechanism; Credit carbon market, Low carbon economy.

  16. D-class of dark energy against $\\Lambda$CDM in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Khodam-Mohammadi, A

    2016-01-01

    Three general models of dynamical interacting dark energy (D-class) are investigated in the context of Brans-Dicke cosmology. All cosmological quantities such as equation of state parameters, deceleration parameters, Hubble function, and the density ratio are calculated as a function of redshift parameter. The most important part of this paper is fitting of models to the observational data (SNIa+BAO$_A$+$Omh^{2}$). We obtain a table of best fit value of parameters and report $\\chi_{tot}^2/dof$ and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) for each model. By these diagnostic tools, we find that some models have no chance against $\\Lambda$CDM and some (e.g. $\\mathcal{BD-D}C2$ and $\\mathcal{BD-D}A^*$) render the best fit quality. Specially, the value of AIC analysis and figures show that the interacting $\\mathcal{BD-D}C2$ model fit perfectly with overall data and reveals a strong evidence in favor of this model, against $\\Lambda$CDM.

  17. How smooth are particle trajectories in a $\\Lambda$CDM Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Rampf, Cornelius; Frisch, Uriel

    2015-01-01

    Very. Indeed, it is shown here that in a flat, cold dark matter (CDM) dominated Universe with positive cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$), modelled in terms of a Newtonian and collisionless fluid, particle trajectories are analytical in time (representable by a convergent Taylor series) until at least a finite time after decoupling. The time variable used for this statement is the cosmic scale factor, i.e., the "$a$-time", and not the cosmic time. For this, a Lagrangian-coordinates formulation of the Euler-Poisson equations is employed, originally used by Cauchy for 3-D incompressible flow. Temporal analyticity for $\\Lambda$CDM is found to be a consequence of novel explicit all-order recursion relations for the $a$-time Taylor coefficients of the Lagrangian displacement field, from which we derive the convergence of the $a$-time Taylor series. A lower bound for the $a$-time where analyticity is guaranteed and shell-crossing is ruled out is obtained, whose value depends only on $\\Lambda$ and on the initial spat...

  18. Confronting dark energy models mimicking {Lambda}CDM epoch with observational constraints: Future cosmological perturbations decay or future Rip?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V., E-mail: artyom.art@gmail.com [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Eurasian International Center for Theor. Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-29

    We confront dark energy models which are currently similar to {Lambda}CDM theory with observational data which include the SNe data, matter density perturbations and baryon acoustic oscillations data. DE cosmology under consideration may evolve to Big Rip, type II or type III future singularity, or to Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. It is shown that matter perturbations data define more precisely the possible deviation from {Lambda}CDM model than consideration of SNe data only. The combined data analysis proves that DE models under consideration are as consistent as {Lambda}CDM model. We demonstrate that growth of matter density perturbations may occur at sufficiently small background density but still before the possible disintegration of bound objects (like clusters of galaxies, galaxies, etc.) in Big Rip, type III singularity, Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. This new effect may bring the future universe to chaotic state well before disintegration or Rip.

  19. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  20. Approaches to Streamline Air Permitting for Combined Heat and Power: Permits by Rule and General Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet provides information about permit by rule (PBR) and general permit (GP) processes, including the factors that contributed to their development and lessons learned from their implementation.

  1. Accelerating expansion or inhomogeneity? A comparison of the $\\Lambda$CDM and Lema\\^{\\i}tre - Tolman models

    CERN Document Server

    Krasiński, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    It is shown how certain observations interpreted in the background of the Friedmann model with $\\Lambda 0$. The value of $k$ and the function $t_B(r)$ are determined by the $\\Lambda$CDM parameters. General properties of this L-T model are described. Difficulties of carrying the numerical calculations through the apparent horizon are presented in detail and mostly solved. The second model is a counterexample to the claim that an L-T model mimicking $\\Lambda$CDM must contain a void around the center - it has a peak of density at $R = 0$.

  2. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  3. An emissions trading regime for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L. [National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    In 1998, over twelve papers were published on emissions trading regimes in Canada by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), a federal government agency whose members represent stakeholders as varied as business, environmental groups, academics, aboriginal groups and others. One of the recommendations that emerged was for the computer modelling of the possibilities that had been identified for a domestic trading regime in Canada for greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether the modelling was ever performed as the file was taken over by the Finance Department under the umbrella of a special emission trading table that examined Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. The author examined questions pertaining to whether a domestic trading regime is essential, and what its characteristics should be in case it was deemed essential or advisable to have one. The upstream versus downstream application was looked at, as well as grand-fathering versus auction. Provincial issues were then addressed, followed by meshing with a credit system. International systems were reviewed. Early action was discussed, whereby an emitter seeks credit for action taken toward reductions since the original reference year of 1990. The case of emitters having bought or sold permits since the original reference years will also want those trades recognized under a trading regime. The author indicated that it seems probable that an emission trading system will eventually be implemented and that a debate on the issue should be initiated early.

  4. Research of a newer spread-spectrum CDM telemetry communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永建; 周廷显

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce the multiplexing interference and enhance the information data transmission efficiency of the common spread-spectrum telemetry communication system, based on the m-sequence' s parallel move equivalent sequence, one type of spread-spectrum CDM(code division multiplexing) telemetry communication system is issued. The method of anti-multiplexing interference of the system is given, i.e. through using the parallel move equivalent sequence to modulate the antipodal signal of each path's data, then transmitted with the same channel. Data transmission rate,the error probability and multiplexing interference of the proposed system are analyzed. Mathematic analysis provesthat the system not only holds all the merits which are inherent in common spread-spectrum telemetry communication system,but also has better transmission efficiency. Simulation result validated the proved conclusion.

  5. Constraining the $\\Lambda$CDM and Galileon models with recent cosmological data

    CERN Document Server

    Neveu, J; Astier, P; Besançon, M; Guy, J; Möller, A; Babichev, E

    2016-01-01

    The Galileon theory belongs to the class of modified gravity models that can explain the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe. In previous works, cosmological constraints on the Galileon model were derived, both in the uncoupled case and with a disformal coupling of the Galileon field to matter. There, we showed that these models agree with the most recent cosmological data. In this work, we used updated cosmological data sets to derive new constraints on Galileon models, including the case of a constant conformal Galileon coupling to matter. We also explored the tracker solution of the uncoupled Galileon model. After updating our data sets, especially with the latest \\textit{Planck} data and BAO measurements, we fitted the cosmological parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM and Galileon models. The same analysis framework as in our previous papers was used to derive cosmological constraints, using precise measurements of cosmological distances and of the cosmic structure growth rate. We showed that all te...

  6. Forming Early-Type Galaxies in LambdaCDM Simulations -I. Assembly histories

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Peter H; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2012-01-01

    We present a sample of nine very high resolution cosmological simulations starting from LambdaCDM initial conditions. Our simulations include primordial radiative cooling, photoionization, star formation, supernova II feedback, but exclude supernova driven winds and AGN feedback. We confirm our earlier results with higher resolution simulations and demonstrate that the simulated galaxies assemble in two phases, with the initial growth dominated by compact in situ star formation fueled by cold, low entropy gas streams, whereas the late growth is dominated by accretion of old stars formed in subunits outside the main galaxy. The two-phase formation mechanism naturally explains the observed downsizing, bimodality and size growth of the galaxy population. Very high resolution simulations show that gravitational feedback strongly suppresses late star formation in massive galaxies contributing to the observed galaxy color bimodality. However, additional heating sources probably in the form of AGN and SNI feedback a...

  7. Anisotropic q-Gaussian velocity distributions in LambdaCDM halos

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, L Beraldo e; Duarte, M; Peirani, S; Boué, G

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the velocity distribution function (VDF) of dark matter (DM) halos is required for calibrating the direct DM detection experiments and useful for recovering the mass profile from the observed distribution of tracers in projected phase space when the VDF has unknown anisotropy. Unfortunately, the VDF of halos in LambdaCDM dissipationless cosmological simulations is still poorly known. We consider the q-Gaussian (Tsallis) family of VDFs, among which the Gaussian is a special case. We extend the q-Gaussian to anisotropic VDFs by considering the isotropic set of dimensionless spherical velocity components normalized by the velocity dispersion along that component. We test our anisotropic VDF on 90 cluster-mass halos of a dissipationless cosmological simulation. While our anisotropic q-Gaussian model adequately reproduces the VDF averaged in spherical shells with radii greater than 2 virial radii, no q-Gaussian model can adequately represent the VDF in spherical shells of radius smaller than 2 vir...

  8. Disruptive Technologies in Workmanship: pH-neutral Flux, CDM ESD Events, HDI PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Jeannette F.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes what it calls "disruptive technologies", i.e., "Low-end disruption" occurs when the rate at which products improve exceeds the rate at which customers can adopt the new performance. Therefore, at some point the performance of the product overshoots the needs of certain customer segments. At this point, a disruptive technology may enter the market and provide a product which has lower performance than the incumbent but which exceeds the requirements of certain segments, thereby gaining a foothold in the market. This concept is viewed in impacting incumbent technologies Rosin Flux, with a pH-neutral water soluble Flux; electrostatic discharge models being disrupted by the charge device model (CDM) concept; and High Density Interconnect Printed Circuit Boards (HDI PCB).

  9. Origin of redshift asymmetries: How LambdaCDM explains anomalous redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Niemi, Sami-Matias

    2008-01-01

    Several authors have found a statistically significant excess of galaxies with higher redshifts relative to the group centre, so called discordant redshifts, in particular in groups where the brightest galaxy, identified in apparent magnitudes, is a spiral. Our aim is to explain the observed redshift excess. We use a semi-analytical galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation to study redshift asymmetries in spiral-dominated groups in the Lambda cold dark matter (LambdaCDM) cosmology. We show that discordant redshifts in small galaxy groups arise when these groups are gravitationally unbound and the dominant galaxy of the group is misidentified. The redshift excess is especially significant when the apparently brightest galaxy can be identified as a spiral, in full agreement with observations. On the other hand, the groups that are gravitationally bound do not show a significant redshift asymmetry. When the dominant members of groups in mock catalogues are identified by using the absolute B-ba...

  10. The Shape-Alignment relation in $\\Lambda$CDM Cosmic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Basilakos, S; Yepes, G; Gottl"ober, S; Turchaninov, V I

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the supercluster - cluster morphological properties using one of the largest ($2\\times 512^{3}$) SPH+N-body simulations of large scale structure formation in a $\\Lambda$CDM model, based on the publicly available code GADGET. We find that filamentary (prolate-like) shapes are the dominant supercluster and cluster dark matter halo morphological feature, in agreement with previous studies. However, the baryonic gas component of the clusters is predominantly spherical.We investigate the alignment between cluster halos (using either their DM or baryonic components) and their parent supercluster major-axis orientation, finding that clusters show such a preferential alignment.Combining the shape and the alignment statistics, we also find that the amplitude of supercluster - cluster alignment increases although weakly with supercluster filamentariness.

  11. Is the continuous matter creation cosmology an alternative to $\\Lambda$CDM?

    CERN Document Server

    Fabris, J C; Piattella, O F

    2014-01-01

    The matter creation cosmology is revisited, including the evolution of baryons and dark matter particles. The creation process affects only dark matter and not baryons. The dynamics of the $\\Lambda$CDM model can be reproduced only if two conditions are satisfied: 1) the entropy density production rate and the particle density variation rate are equal and 2) the (negative) pressure associated to the creation process is constant. However, the matter creation model predicts a present dark matter-to-baryon ratio much larger than that observed in massive X-ray clusters of galaxies, representing a potential difficulty for the model. In the linear regime, a fully relativistic treatment indicates that baryons are not affected by the creation process but this is not the case for dark matter. Both components evolve together at early phases but lately the dark matter density contrast decreases since the background tends to a constant value. This behaviour produces a negative growth factor, in disagreement with observati...

  12. Using a Multi-Cathode Counter (MCC) in the Search for Hidden Photon CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Kopylov, A V; Petukhov, V V

    2015-01-01

    We report on a new technique of a Multi-Cathode Counter (MCC) developed to search for hidden photon (HP) cold dark matter (CDM) with a mass from 5 to 10 eV. The method suggested in the assumption that hidden photons of the mass greater than a work function of the metal, the cathode of the counter is fabricated induce emission of single electrons from a cathode. Three configurations of the same counter are used to measure the count rates R1, R2 and R3 of the single electron events sequentially each week, where the difference R1- R2 measures the effect from HP and R3 is used as a reference sequence to monitor the counting process. At present the work is aimed to refine the procedure of data treatment and to look for long term variations which should be accounted for in the final analysis of data.

  13. The Most Massive Galaxies and Black Holes Allowed by $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Behroozi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given a galaxy's stellar mass, its host halo mass has a lower limit from the cosmic baryon fraction and known baryonic physics. At $z>4$, galaxy stellar mass functions place lower limits on halo number densities that approach expected $\\Lambda$CDM halo mass functions. High-redshift galaxy stellar mass functions can thus place interesting limits on number densities of massive haloes, which are otherwise very difficult to measure. While halo mass functions at $z95% confidence. Similar arguments apply to black holes; using number density constraints alone, the most massive observed black holes at $z>5$ must lie above the median $z=0$ black hole mass - bulge mass relation. If their virial mass estimates are accurate, the quasars SDSS J1044$-$0125 and SDSS J010013.02$+$280225.8 must both have black hole mass - stellar mass ratios of at least 2%, equaling the recent $z=0$ record for central galaxies in NGC 1600.

  14. Formation of Milky Way-type stellar haloes in a Λ-CDM cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font A.S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that the Milky Way stellar halo has a ‘dual nature’, meaning that both dissipational and dissipationless processes play a role in its build-up. The GIMIC suite of cosmological hydro-dynamical simulations show that, for Milky Way-mass haloes, in situ star formation is the dominant factor in the inner < 20 − 30 kpc, while tidal disruption of satellite galaxies contributes primarily to the outer regions. The in situ stars are found to originate in the earlier disc, at redshifts ~ 1– 1.5, and subsequently diffusing out of the disc by dynamical heating associated with mergers. The in situ component has a more flattened shape, a net prograde rotation and more metal-rich populations, in quantitative agreement with the observations. We conclude that the dual nature of the stellar halo is entirely compatible with the currently favoured Λ-CDM model.

  15. 40 CFR 96.31 - Permitting authority's and Administrator's action on compliance certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator's action on compliance certifications. 96.31 Section 96.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Compliance Certification § 96.31 Permitting authority's and Administrator's action on compliance certifications. (a) The permitting authority or...

  16. Linear perturbation theory for tidal streams and the small-scale CDM power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.

    2017-04-01

    Tidal streams in the Milky Way are sensitive probes of the population of low-mass dark matter subhaloes predicted in cold dark matter (CDM) simulations. We present a new calculus for computing the effect of subhalo fly-bys on cold streams based on the action-angle representation of streams. The heart of this calculus is a line-of-parallel-angle approach that calculates the perturbed distribution function of a stream segment by undoing the effect of all relevant impacts. This approach allows one to compute the perturbed stream density and track in any coordinate system in minutes for realizations of the subhalo distribution down to 105 M⊙, accounting for the stream's internal dispersion and overlapping impacts. We study the statistical properties of density and track fluctuations with large suites of simulations of the effect of subhalo fly-bys. The one-dimensional density and track power spectra along the stream trace the subhalo mass function, with higher mass subhaloes producing power only on large scales, while lower mass subhaloes cause structure on smaller scales. We also find significant density and track bispectra that are observationally accessible. We further demonstrate that different projections of the track all reflect the same pattern of perturbations, facilitating their observational measurement. We apply this formalism to data for the Pal 5 stream and make a first rigorous determination of 10^{+11}_{-6} dark matter subhaloes with masses between 106.5 and 109 M⊙ within 20 kpc from the Galactic centre [corresponding to 1.4^{+1.6}_{-0.9} times the number predicted by CDM-only simulations or to fsub(r measurements of the subhalo mass function down to 105 M⊙, thus definitively testing whether dark matter is clumpy on the smallest scales relevant for galaxy formation.

  17. An empirical case study of the transfer of GHG mitigation technologies from Annex 1 countries to Malaysia under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses what role the CDM currently plays in relation to the transfer of GHG mitigation technologies from Annex 1 countries to non-Annex 1 countries. The study relies on multiple sources of qualitative data and is conducted as a case study of 13 CDM projects implemented in Malaysia. I...

  18. Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Technological advancements and tax incentives have driven a global expansion in the development of renewable energy resources. Wind energy , in...particular, is now often cited as the fastest growing commercial energy source in the world. Currently, all U.S. wind energy facilities are based on land...authority to permit and regulate offshore wind energy development within the zones of the oceans under its jurisdiction. The federal government and coastal

  19. The HII Galaxy Hubble Diagram Strongly Favors $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ over $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Melia, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    We continue to build support for the proposal to use HII galaxies (HIIGx) and giant extragalactic HII regions (GEHR) as standard candles to construct the Hubble diagram at redshifts beyond the current reach of Type Ia supernovae. Using a sample of 25 high-redshift HIIGx, 107 local HIIGx, and 24 GEHR, we confirm that the correlation between the emission-line luminosity and ionized-gas velocity dispersion is a viable luminosity indicator, and use it to test and compare the standard model $\\Lambda$CDM and the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe by optimizing the parameters in each cosmology using a maximization of the likelihood function. For the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model, the best fit is obtained with $\\Omega_{\\rm m}= 0.40_{-0.09}^{+0.09}$. However, statistical tools, such as the Akaike (AIC), Kullback (KIC) and Bayes (BIC) Information Criteria favor $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ over the standard model with a likelihood of $\\approx 94.8\\%-98.8\\%$ versus only $\\approx 1.2\\%-5.2\\%$. For $w$CDM (the version of $\\Lambda$CDM with a dark-energy...

  20. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective...... control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably...

  1. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental...

  2. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  3. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  4. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  5. Pacific Islands Region Fishing Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sustainable Fisheries Division Permits Program issues around 300 permits annually for pelagic longline and troll & handline, bottomfish, crustacean (lobster...

  6. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  7. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  8. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  9. Regulatory and Permitting Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer

    2005-12-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., reviewed current state and federal regulations related to carbon dioxide capture and storage within geologic formations and enhanced carbon uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. We have evaluated and summarized the current and possible future permitting requirements for the six states that comprise the West Coast Regional Partnership. Four options exist for CO{sub 2} injection into appropriate geologic formations, including storage in: (1) oil and gas reservoirs, (2) saline formations, (3) unmineable coal beds, and (4) salt caverns. Terrestrial CO{sub 2} sequestration involves improved carbon conservation management (e.g. reduction of deforestation), carbon substitution (e.g., substitution for fossil fuel-based products, energy conservation through urban forestry, biomass for energy generation), and improved carbon storage management (e.g., expanding the storage of carbon in forest ecosystems). The primary terrestrial options for the West Coast Region include: (1) reforestation of under-producing lands (including streamside forest restoration), (2) improved forest management, (3) forest protection and conservation, and (4) fuel treatments for the reduction of risk of uncharacteristically severe fires (potentially with associated biomass energy generation). The permits and/or contracts required for any land-use changes/disturbances and biomass energy generation that may occur as part of WESTCARB's activities have been summarized for each state.

  10. INDIA's FIRST FORESTRY (A & R) PROJECT UNDER CDM AGAINST GLOBAL WARMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S.Haque; K.G.Karmakar [NABARD, Bandra Kurla Complex, Maharashtra (India)

    2008-09-30

    NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) is an apex financial institution and provides credit for promotion of sustainable agriculture, small- scale industries, cottage & village industries for integrated rural development. Forestry is one of the important activities in rural areas and NABARD has promoted several projects under its Farm Forestry / Agroforestry programs. For the first time in India, a CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) project on Afforestation and Reforestation ( A & R ) is being implemented in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh States by J.K.Paper Mills. The districts are: Kalahandi, Koraput and Rayagada in Orissa and Srikakulum, Vijianagram and Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The World Bank has agreed to purchase the CER ( Certified Emission Reduction) @ $ 4.05, although the prevailing price of a CER is around $ 11. As this was the first project from not only India, but also S.E.Asia, the rate offered was low. The Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement ( ERPA ) was signed with the World Bank on 8 May 2007. The total area of the plantation is 3500 hectare of wastelands belonging to 2166 poor, tribal farmers. Each farmer has a maximum of 2 ha land under the project. The tree species planted are: Eucalyptus camaldulensis clones, Casuarina equisetifolia and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings. The benefits to the project will be in the form of wood and CERs besides of course the ecological and environmental benefits. In fact, as a part of it's activities, it conceptualized the present project to ensure both local and global benefits through CDM of UNFCCC and submitted the Project Idea Note (PIN) 'Improving rural livelihoods through carbon sequestration by adopting environment friendly technology based Agroforestry (Reforestation) Practices,' in 2003 to the Bio-carbon Fund established by the World Bank. NABARD is trying to bring the project under its Natural Resource Management ( NRM ) fold so that the small tribal farmers can

  11. The International Trade Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different ...

  12. Five essays on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2005-03-01

    The thesis discusses energy, environmental and economic aspects of polluting emissions with emphasis on greenhouse gas trade and political measures. 5 papers are included with titles: 1) Carbon trading across sources and periods constrained by the Marrakesh Accords which examines examine the potential effects on permit prices and abatement costs of four compliance rules governing emissions trade across sources and periods in the Kyoto Protocol: The banking rule that allows excess permits to be used later; the restoration rate rule that penalizes borrowing; the commitment period reserve rule that limits sales; and finally, the suspension rule that restricts borrowing and sales. Our framework is a two-period model where parties may be out of compliance in the Kyoto period, but are assumed to comply at a later time. Under varying assumptions about market power and US participation, we find that the rules may have pronounced effects on individual costs, but overall efficiency is not severely affected. 2) Affine price expectations and equilibrium in strategic markets which considers equilibrium in imperfect markets, featuring agents who exchange property rights. Important cases include trade in emission permits of greenhouse gases, or exchange of catch quotas of fish. Some players act strategically while others are price-takers. The ''demand curve'' is endogenous, and it affects all parties. The resulting, reduced objectives need not be concave. Therefore, existence of equilibrium is a delicate matter. To simplify things, and to ensure availability of ''equilibria up to first order'', we presume that all strategic agents form affine price expectations. 3) Greenhouse gases, quota exchange and oligopolistic competition that discusses the problem how quotas can be shared in the ''emissions market'' and how can the agents reach as overall equilibrium in the product market. 4) Strategic markets in property rights

  13. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  14. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....

  15. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  16. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  17. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2001-07-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  18. The Southern African Development Community Trade Legal Instruments Compliance with Certain Criteria of GATT Article XXIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saurombe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both regional and bilateral preferential trade agreements leading to the formation of customs unions and free trade areas, and seeks to integrate them in the multilateral trading system envisioned for the world. SADC is an RTA created under this Article. Notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the provisions and interpretation of Article XXIV, this paper seeks to establish the extent to which the SADC Protocol on Trade and free trade area comply with WTO rules. An analysis of selected Article XXIV provisions and the SADC Trade Protocol provisions will be undertaken in trying to establish this compliance.

  19. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective co...... not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future.......The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost......-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably...

  20. The Lambda CDM-model in quantum field theory on curved spacetime and Dark Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hack, Thomas-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the standard model of cosmology, the universe is described by a Robertson-Walker spacetime, while its matter/energy content is modeled by a perfect fluid with three components corresponding to matter/dust, radiation and a cosmological constant. On the other hand, in particle physics matter and radiation are described in terms of quantum field theory on Minkowski spacetime. We unify these seemingly different theoretical frameworks by analysing the standard model of cosmology from first principles within quantum field theory on curved spacetime: assuming that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scales, we specify a class of quantum states whose expectation value of the energy density is qualitatively and quantitatively of the standard perfect fluid form up to potential corrections. Qualitatively, these corrections depend on new parameters not present in the standard Lambda CDM-model and can account for e.g. the phenomenon of Dark Radiation (N_eff>3.046), having a characteristic signature which...

  1. Methodology for Performance Evaluation of Pre Departure Sequencing Tools in terms of A-CDM concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Hrabík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the proposed methodology for performance evaluation of Pre-Departure Sequencing tools. Pre-departure management delivers optimal traffic flow to the runway by route planning and accurate taxi time forecasts. Firstly, a Pre-Departure Sequencer Start-Up Manager (SUM used by Air Navigation Services of the Czech Republic (ANS CZ at Vaclav Havel Airport Prague (LKPR is mentioned. The main parts deal with the proposed methodology for performance evaluation of Start-Up Manager. The methodology uses several indicators to evaluate the performance. The methodology utilizes time milestones introduced in Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM concept. It focuses especially on aircraft pre-departure sequencing processes. Methodology was tested on the Start-Up Manager used by Air Navigation Services (ANS of the Czech Republic at Vaclav Havel Airport Prague (LKPR. Achieved performance results and its credibility in accordance with the proposed methodology are presented and discussed in the final part of this paper.

  2. Dynamical models for the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal in a Lambda CDM universe

    CERN Document Server

    Strigari, Louis E; White, Simon D M

    2014-01-01

    The Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy contains two distinct stellar populations: one metal-rich and the other metal-poor. Several authors have argued that in order for these two populations to reside in the same gravitational potential, the dark matter halo must have a core similar to that observed in the stellar count profile. This would rule out the cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profiles predicted for halos and subhalos by dark matter only simulations of the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (Lambda-CDM) cosmological model. We present a new theoretical framework to analyse stellar count and velocity observations in a self-consistent manner based on separable models, f(E,J)=g(J)h(E), for the distribution function of an equilibrium spherical system. We use this machinery to analyse available photometric and kinematic data for the two stellar populations in Sculptor. We find, contrary to some previous claims, that the data are consistent with populations in equilibrium within an NFW dark matter potential with s...

  3. CDM Potential in Palm Solid Waste Cogeneration as an Alternative Energy in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahidin Mahidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB as a solid waste in Crude Palm Oil (CPO industry does not utilized yet as an alternative energy source to generate electricity. It is well known that use of solid wate (biomass as an energy source is part of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM scheme due to direct reduction of Green House Gases (GHGs emission and provide a direct contribution to sustainable development. Utilization of EFB as a source of energy is very potential to be implemented in Aceh since this province has 25 CPO Mills at the moment which actively produce about 870,000 ton EFB per year. This study is subjected to evaluate the potency of electricity  from EFB theoretically by using primary data (survey data and secondary data. Potency of EFB and number of electricity produced from that EFB are estimated using primary data and direct combustion scenario, respectively. Calculation methods for emission reduction acieved are done by AMS-I.D: Renewable electricity generation to the grid and AMS-III.E: Methane emissions avoided from dumping at a solid waste disposal site. The result of this investigation shows that energy consumption in 25 CPO Mills is 45 GW(eh per year. Evidently, the number of energy/electricity which is potential to be produced by using 75% EFB is 1,047 GWh per year; so that the GHGs emission reduction up to 171,232.21 tCO2e per year.

  4. A unified solution to the small scale problems of the $\\Lambda$CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Del Popolo, A; Fabris, Julio C; Rodrigues, Davi C

    2014-01-01

    We study, by means of the model proposed in Del Popolo (2009), the effect of baryon physics on the small scale problems of the CDM model. We show that, using this model, the cusp/core problem, the missing satellite problem (MSP), the Too Big to Fail (TBTF) problem, and the angular momentum catastrophe can be reconciled with observations. Concerning the cusp/core problem, the interaction among dark matter (DM) and baryonic clumps of 1% the mass of the halo, through dynamical friction (DF), is able to flatten the inner cusp of the density profiles. We moreover assume that haloes form primarily through quiescent accretion, in agreement with the spherical collapse model (SCM)-secondary infall model (SIM) prescriptions. The results of this paper follow from the two assumptions above. Concerning the MSP and TBTF problem, applying to the Via Lactea II (VL2) subhaloes a series of corrections similar to those of Brooks et al. (2013), namely applying a Zolotov et al. (2012)-like correction obtained with our model, and ...

  5. On a Search for Hidden Photon CDM by a Multicathode Counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kopylov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a new technique of a multicathode counter (MCC developed to search for hidden photon (HP cold dark matter (CDM with a mass from 5 to 500 eV. The method is suggested in the assumption that HP-photon mixing causes emission of single electrons from a metal cathode if the mass of hidden photon mγ′ is greater than a work function of the metal φW. The measured effect from HP should be dependent on φW and on the structure of electronic shells of the metal used as a cathode. Potentially this can be used for a verification of the results obtained. Some preliminary results for the upper limit for mixing parameter χ have been obtained for HP with a mass from 5 eV to 10 keV as a pure illustration of the potential of this technique. The efforts are continued to refine the procedure of data treatment and to improve the work of MCC. A new detector with a more developed design is under construction.

  6. The Evolution of the Galaxy Sizes in the NTT Deep Field a Comparison with CDM Models

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, F; Menci, N; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A

    1999-01-01

    The sizes of the field galaxies with I<25 have been measured in the NTT Deep Field. Intrinsic sizes have been obtained after deconvolution of the PSF with a multigaussian method. The reliability of the method has been tested using both simulated data and HST observations of the same field. The distribution of the half light radii is peaked at r_{hl} 0.3 arcsec, in good agreement with that derived from HST images at the same magnitude. An approximate morphological classification has been obtained using the asymmetry and concentration parameters. The intrinsic sizes of the galaxies are shown as a function of their redshifts and absolute magnitudes using photometric redshifts derived from the multicolor catalog. While the brighter galaxies with morphological parameters typical of the normal spirals show a flat distribution in the range r_{d}=1-6 kpc, the fainter population at 0.4CDM mo...

  7. Formation of galaxies in {\\Lambda}CDM cosmologies. I. The fine structure of disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Doménech-Moral, Mariola; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Serna, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the global and fine structure of four middle-mass disc galaxies obtained from simulations in a $\\Lambda$CDM scenario. These objects have photometric D/T ratios in good agreement with those observed for late-type spirals, as well as kinematic properties in agreement with the observational Tully-Fisher relation. We identify the different dynamical components at z=0 on the basis of both orbital parameters and the binding energy of stars in the galaxy. In this way, we recognize a slowly rotating centrally concentrated spheroid, and two disc components supported by rotation: a thin disc with stars in nearly circular orbits, and a thick disc with orbital parameters transitional between the thin disc and the spheroid. The spheroidal component is composed mainly by old, metal-poor and {\\alpha}-enhanced stars. The distribution of metals in this component shows, however, a clear bimodality with a low-metallicity peak, which could be related to a classical bulge, and a high-metallicity ...

  8. An Integrative Approach with Sequential Game to Real-Time Gate Assignment under CDM Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-qiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on real-time airport gate assignment problem when small-scale or medium- to large-scale flight delays occur. Taking into account the collaborative decision making (CDM of the airlines and the airport, as well as the interests of multiagent (airlines, airports, and passengers, especially those influenced by flight banks, slot assignment and gate assignment are integrated into mixed set programming (MSP, and a real-time gate assignment model is built and solved through MSP coupled with sequential game. By this approach, the delay costs of multiagent can be minimized simultaneously; the fuel consumption of each airline can be basically equalized; the computation time can be significantly saved by sequential game; most importantly, the collaboration of the airlines and the airport is achieved so that the transferring cost caused by the delay of flight banks can be decreased as much as possible. A case study on small-scale flight delays verifies that the proposed approach is economical, robust, timesaving, and collaborative. A comparison of the traditional staged method and the proposed approach under medium- to large-scale flight delays proves that the integrative method is much more economical and timesaving than the traditional staged method.

  9. DM/DE revealed: The physical origin of Lambda-CDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichler, James

    2009-10-01

    In the past few decades two new `crises' affecting fundamental physics have emerged in the observation of phenomena that indicate the existence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. These are not problems which can be solved by quantum theory or particles, but rather problems that are related to gravity theory as expressed by the general theory of relativity. Numerous ideas and hypotheses have been suggested to explain these new problematic phenomena, but no particular hypothesis or resulting model has proven satisfactory. No model yet proposed seems to be able to explain either DM and DE or both even though theoretical physicists generally agree that the two should have a single common explanation. There is, however, one relatively unknown exception that can explain both DM and DE without any additional hypotheses and this model explains the physical origins of the Lambda-CDM term that others have already proposed adding to general relativity. Yet this new model is not without consequences for the rest of physics and science: Accepting this new model would mean acknowledging the existence of a higher space-like dimension in addition to our normal four-dimensions of space-time.

  10. Scalar dark energy models mimicking {Lambda}CDM with arbitrary future evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Scherrer, Robert J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN 37235 (United States)

    2012-07-09

    Dark energy models with various scenarios of evolution are considered from the viewpoint of the formalism for the equation of state. It is shown that these models are compatible with current astronomical data. Some of the models presented here evolve arbitrarily close to {Lambda}CDM up to the present, but diverge in the future into a number of different possible asymptotic states, including asymptotic de Sitter (pseudo-rip) evolution, little rips with disintegration of bound structures, and various forms of finite-time future singularities. Therefore it is impossible from observational data to determine whether the universe will end in a future singularity or not. We demonstrate that the models under consideration are stable for a long period of time (billions of years) before entering a Little Rip/Pseudo-Rip induced dissolution of bound structures or before entering a soft finite-time future singularity. Finally, the physical consequences of Little Rip, Types II, III and Big Crush singularities are briefly compared.

  11. Cosmic Constraints to wCDM Model from Strong Gravitational Lensing

    CERN Document Server

    An, Jie; Xu, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the cosmic constraint to $w$CDM model via $118$ strong gravitational lensing systems which are complied from SLACS, BELLS, LSD and SL2S surveys, where the ratio between two angular diameter distances $D^{obs} = D_A(z_l,z_s)/D_A(0,z_s)$ is taken as a cosmic observable. To obtain this ratio, we adopt two strong lensing models: one is the singular isothermal sphere model (SIS), the other one is the power-law density profile (PLP) model. Via the Markov Chain Mote Carlo method, the posterior distribution of the cosmological model parameters space is obtained. The results show that the cosmological model parameters are not sensitive to the parameterized forms of the power-law index $\\gamma$. Furthermore, the PLP model gives a relative tighter constraint to the cosmological parameters than that of the SIS model. The predicted value of $\\Omega_m=0.31^{+0.44}_{-0.24}$ by SIS model is compatible with that obtained by {\\it Planck}2015: $\\Omega_{m}=0.313\\pm0.013$. However, the value of $\\Omega_m=0...

  12. Experience of Using a Multi-Cathode Counter (MCC) in a Search for Hidden Photon CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Kopylov, A V; Petukhov, V V

    2015-01-01

    We report on a new technique of a Multi-Cathode Counter (MCC) developed to search for hidden photon (HP) cold dark matter (CDM) with a mass from 5 to 500 eV. The method suggested in the assumption that hidden photons of the mass greater than a work function of the metal, the cathode of the counter is fabricated induce emission of single electrons from a cathode. Three configurations of the same counter are used to measure the count rates R1, R2 and R3 of the single electron events during several weeks. As a measure of the effect from HP the difference R1-(R2-D3/D2xR3) has been used. Some preliminary results have been obtained on a first try to search for HP with a mass from 5 to 500 eV. The upper limit for mixing parameter X has been set on the level of 3.3x10-10 for hidden photon mass from 9 to 100 eV. In our plans is to refine the procedure of data treatment and to continue the measurements to collect more data.

  13. On a Search for Hidden Photon CDM by a Multi-Cathode Counter

    CERN Document Server

    Kopylov, A V; Petukhov, V V

    2016-01-01

    We report on a new technique of a Multi-Cathode Counter (MCC) developed to search for hidden photon (HP) cold dark matter (CDM) with a mass from 5 to 500 eV. The method is suggested in the assumption that HP-photon mixing causes emission of single electrons from a metal cathode if the mass of hidden photon is greater than a work function of the metal. The measured effect from HP should be dependent on work function of the metal and on the structure of electronic shells of the metal used as a cathode. Potentially this can be used for a verification of the results obtained. Some preliminary results for the upper limit for mixing parameter X have been obtained for HP with a mass from 5 eV to 10 keV as a pure illustration of the potential of this technique. The efforts are continued to refine the procedure of data treatment and to improve the work of MCC. A new detector with a more developed design is under construction.

  14. The $\\bar{\\Lambda}CDM$ cosmology: from inflation to dark energy through running $\\Lambda$

    CERN Document Server

    Sola, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps the deepest mystery of our accelerating Universe in expansion is the existence of a tiny and rigid cosmological constant, $\\Lambda$. Its size is many orders of magnitude below the expected one in the standard model of particle physics. However, an expanding Universe is not expected to have a static vacuum energy density. We should rather observe a mildly dynamical behavior $\\delta\\Lambda(t)\\sim R\\sim H^2(t)$ with the expansion rate $H$. At the same time, it is natural to think that the huge value of the primeval vacuum energy (presumably connected to some grand unified theory) was responsible for the initial inflationary phase. In the traditional inflaton models such phase is inserted by hand in the early epoch of the cosmic evolution, and it is assumed to match the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM regime during the radiation epoch. Here, instead, we consider a class of dynamical vacuum models which incorporate into a single vacuum structure $\\bar{\\Lambda}(H)$ the rapid stage of inflation, followed by the rad...

  15. Linear perturbation theory for tidal streams and the small-scale CDM power spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Bovy, Jo; Sanders, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    Tidal streams in the Milky Way are sensitive probes of the population of dark-matter subhalos predicted in cold-dark-matter (CDM) simulations. We present a new calculus for computing the effect of subhalo fly-bys on cold tidal streams based on the action-angle representation of streams. The heart of this calculus is a line-of-parallel-angle approach that calculates the perturbed distribution function of a given stream segment by undoing the effect of all impacts. This approach allows one to compute the perturbed stream density and track in any coordinate system in minutes for realizations of the subhalo distribution down to 10^5 Msun, accounting for the stream's internal dispersion and overlapping impacts. We study the properties of density and track fluctuations with suites of simulations. The one-dimensional density and track power spectra along the stream trace the subhalo mass function, with higher-mass subhalos producing power only on large scales, while lower mass subhalos cause structure on smaller sca...

  16. The complex velocity distribution of galaxies in Abell 1689: implications for CDM mass modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lokas, E L; Wojtak, R; Moles, M; Gottlöber, S; Lokas, Ewa L.; Prada, Francisco; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Moles, Mariano; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The Abell 1689 galaxy cluster has recently become a subject of intensive study. Thanks to its intermediate redshift (z=0.183) its mass distribution can be reconstructed using numerous methods including gravitational lensing, galaxy kinematics and X-ray imaging. The methods used to yield conflicting mass estimates in the past and recently the cluster mass distribution has been claimed to be in conflict with standard CDM scenarios due to rather large concentration and steep mass profile obtained from detailed studies of Broadhurst et al. using lensing. By studying in detail the kinematics of about 200 galaxies with measured redshifts in the vicinity of the cluster we show that the cluster is probably surrounded by a few structures, quite distant from each other, but aligned along the line of sight. We support our arguments by referring to cosmological N-body simulations and showing explicitly that distant, non-interacting haloes can produce entangled multi-peak line-of-sight velocity distributions similar to th...

  17. Orbital parameters of infalling satellite haloes in the hierarchical $\\Lambda$CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Lilian; Sawala, Till; Frenk, Carlos S

    2014-01-01

    We present distributions of orbital parameters of infalling satellites of $\\Lambda$CDM haloes in the mass range $10^{12}-10^{14}$M$_\\odot$, which represent the initial conditions for the subsequent evolution of substructures within the host halo. We use merger trees constructed in a high resolution cosmological N-body simulation to trace satellite haloes, and identify the time of infall. We find signficant trends in the distribution of orbital parameters with both the host halo mass and the ratio of satellite-to-host halo masses. For all host halo masses, satellites whose infall mass is a larger fraction of the host halo mass have more eccentric, radially biased orbits. At fixed satellite-to-host halo mass ratio, high mass haloes are biased towards accreting satellites on slightly more biased orbits. To charactise the orbital distributions fully requires fitting the correlated bivariate distribution of two chosen orbital parameters (e.g. radial and tangential velocity or energy and angular momentu). We provid...

  18. Tidal features of classical Milky Way satellites in a $\\Lambda$CDM universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, M -Y; Cooper, Andrew P; Sawala, Till; Strigari, Louis E; Frenk, Carlos S; Navarro, Julio F; Oman, Kyle; Schaller, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    We use the APOSTLE cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to examine the effects of tidal stripping on cold dark matter (CDM) sub haloes that host three of the most luminous Milky Way (MW) dwarf satellite galaxies: Fornax, Sculptor, and Leo I. We identify simulated satellites that match the observed spatial and kinematic distributions of stars in these galaxies, and track their evolution after infall. We find $\\sim$ 30$\\%$ of subhaloes hosting satellites with present-day stellar mass $10^6$-$10^8$ $M_{\\odot}$ experience $>20\\%$ stellar mass loss after infall. Fornax analogues have earlier infall times compared to Sculptor and Leo I analogues. Star formation in Fornax analogues continues for $\\sim3$-$6$ Gyr after infall, whereas Sculptor and Leo I analogues stop forming stars $< 2$-$3$ Gyr after infall. Fornax analogues typically show more significant stellar mass loss and exhibit stellar tidal tails, whereas Sculptor and Leo I analogues, which are more deeply embedded in their host DM haloes at infall, do n...

  19. Surface photometry of BCGs and intracluster stars in Lambda-CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Andrew P; Guo, Qi; Frenk, Carlos S; Jenkins, Adrian; Springel, Volker; White, Simon D M

    2014-01-01

    We simulate the phase-space distribution of stellar mass in 9 massive Lambda-CDM galaxy clusters by applying the semi-analytic particle tagging method of Cooper et al. to the Phoenix suite of high-resolution N-body simulations (M200 = 7.5 to 33 x 10^14 Msol). The resulting surface brightness (SB) profiles of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) match well to observations. On average, stars formed in galaxies accreted by the BCG account for ~90 per cent of its total mass (the remainder is formed in situ). In circular BCG-centred apertures, the superposition of multiple debris clouds (each ~10 per cent of the total BCG mass) from different progenitors can result in an extensive outer diffuse component, qualitatively similar to a 'cD envelope'. These clouds typically originate from tidal stripping at z < 1 and comprise both streams and the extended envelopes of other massive galaxies in the cluster. The faint regions of the BCG contribute a significant part of the total cluster stellar mass budget: in the centra...

  20. Stellar Bar Evolution in Cuspy and Flat-Cored Triaxial CDM Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Berentzen, I; Jogee, S; Berentzen, Ingo; Shlosman, Isaac; Jogee, Shardha

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the formation and evolution of stellar bars in galactic disks embedded in mildly triaxial CDM halos that have density distributions ranging from large flat cores to cuspy profiles. We use tailored numerical simulations of analytical and live halos which include the feedback from disk/bar system onto the halo in order to test and extend earlier work by El-Zant & Shlosman (2002). The latter employed the method of Liapunov exponents to analyze the fate of bars in analytical asymmetric halos. We find that (1) The bar growth is very similar in all rigid axisymmetric and triaxial halos. (2) Bars in live models experience vertical buckling instability and the formation of a pseudo-bulges, while bars in rigid halos do not buckle. (3) In live axisymmetric halos, the bar strength shows only marginal secular evolution. In such halos, the bar strength is larger for smaller disk-to-halo mass ratios D/H, the bar size correlates with the halo core sizes, and the bar pattern speeds correlate with the halo cent...

  1. The properties of "dark" {\\Lambda}CDM halos in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Frenk, Carlos S; Sawala, Till; Oman, Kyle; Fattahi, Azadeh; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Rob; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We examine the baryon content of low-mass {\\Lambda}CDM halos $(10^8

  2. CDM (Clean development mechanism) like instrument for sustainable development?; MDL (mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo) como instrumento para o desenvolvimento sustentavel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar Silva; Varella, Fabiana Karla de Oliveira; Streb, Cleci Schalemberger [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduaco em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: kamyla@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The intensification of the greenhouse effect, caused mainly by the anthropogenic activities, such as the intensive use of fossil fuels, reveals itself as a challenge to governments and international organizations. The institution of an international legal framework, resulted from the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is allowing the development of some mitigation instruments, such as the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article's purpose is to assess the social and economic aspects that are leading to the climate change process and to analyze the instruments foreseen in the international legal system to face this global concern, in special, the CDM as a tool to achieve sustainable development practices. In this way, the authors aims to demonstrate the connection and interdependence between those instruments and the sustainable development. (author)

  3. Beyond the standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology: the observed structure of DM halos and the shape of the power spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Demiański, M

    2015-01-01

    To restore the evolutionary history of the Dark Matter (DM) dominated objects -- galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Analyze the observational data to reveal correlations between the virial mass, $M_{vir}$, of halos and main properties of their central cores, namely, the mean DM density, pressure and entropy, and the redshifts of halo formation, $z_f$. These correlations indicate a high degree of self similarity of both the process of halos formation and the internal structure of relaxed halos. We confirm the CDM--like shape of the small scale power spectrum. However our reconstruction of evolutionary history of observed objects differs from expectations of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology and requires either multicomponent composition of DM or more complex primordial power spectrum of density perturbations with significant excess of power at scales of clusters of galaxies and larger. This approach seems to be quite efficient and suitably supplements the current investigations of galaxies at large redshifts...

  4. The low mass end of the neutral gas mass and velocity width functions of galaxies in $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Yaryura, C Y; Abadi, M G; Starkenburg, E

    2016-01-01

    We use the high-resolution Aquarius cosmological dark matter simulations coupled to the semi-analytic model by Starkenburg et al. (2013) to study the HI content and velocity width properties of field galaxies at the low mass end in the context of $\\Lambda$CDM. We compare our predictions to the observed ALFALFA survey HI mass and velocity width functions, and find very good agreement without fine-tuning, when considering central galaxies. Furthermore, the properties of the dark matter halos hosting galaxies, characterised by their peak velocity and circular velocity at 2 radial disk scalelengths overlap perfectly with the inferred values from observations. This suggests that our galaxies are placed in the right dark matter halos, and consequently at face value, we do not find any discrepancy with the predictions from the $\\Lambda$CDM model. Our analysis indicates that previous tensions, apparent when using abundance matching models, arise because this technique cannot be straightforwardly applied for objects w...

  5. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    inequalities that existed between the rich and the poor countries, which impacted ..... dealt with the issue of whether Europe violated the requirement of non ..... International Trade Regime (2005), 20 Berkeley J, Gender L & Just.75, p.126.

  6. Learning about environmental damage : implications for emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, P.W. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada)

    1999-05-01

    The impact of adjusting the supply of permits in an emissions trading program was examined. The presentation reviewed policy rules regarding open market operations and a proportional adjustment rule under which the regulator appropriates permits from individual firms. The author concludes that while both adjustments are neutral with respect to cleaner technology investment decisions, it may be more politically difficult to implement the open market rule than the proportional adjustment rule.

  7. Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Public plantations (PPs and Community planted forests (CPFs are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+ are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objectives of this research. The relevant documents were revised and altogether 55 samples were collected from Shreepur, Banauta and Bisbity PPs and Sita, Ramnagar and Jogikuti CPFs, in Mahottary district, Nepal. The equation of Chave et al was used to calculate the biomass, which was further converted into carbon. Meanwhile, management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The PPs are public land managed, especially by disadvantaged communities, while CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users. The variation in carbon stock was found to be highest (148.89 ton ha-1 in Sita CPF and lowest (30.34 ton ha-1 in Bisbitty PP. In fact, it is difficult to certify plantations under CDM, due to its complexity, but they can easily be candidate to the REDD+ mechanism, if they are bundled with large forest blocks.

  8. Applicability of CDM to civil engineering projects case study on reduction of CO2 emission by port extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, T. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. LTD, Yonku-cho 1534-1, Nishinasuno-machi, Nasu, Tochigi, 329-2746 (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of CDM to civil engineering projects through a case study on the project to extend Port Samainda in Indonesia. The goal of this project is to improve the physical distribution system of the port so that it can accommodate increasing future demand for the cargo transportation. Based on the project report by JICA (2002), we first outline the predicted demand for the cargo transportation and select possible three options in which a cargo vessel with different capabilities and respective port facilities are assigned. For each option, CO2 emissions from both cargo and dredging vessels are predicted and compared. It is found that the total CO2 emission may be reduced significantly by introducing a large-draft vessel and deep navigation channels. This feature becomes more prominent if a traveling distance of the cargo vessels is long enough so that CO2 emissions from cargo vessels dominates those of dredging vessels. This observation supports the applicability of CDM to civil engineering projects because reduction of the CO2 emission is attained by improving distribution systems through civil engineering works such as extension of the port and the maintenance dredging. Finally, we discuss future problems to be investigated for the practical application of CDM to a civil engineering project.

  9. Design of Transmitter for CDM Based 2×2 Multiple Input Multiple Output Channel Sounder for Multipath Delay Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO wireless communication system is an innovative solution to improve the bandwidth efficiency by exploiting multipath-richness of the propagation environment. The degree of multipath-richness of the channel will determine the capacity gain attainable by MIMO deployment. Approach: Therefore, it is very important to have accurate knowledge of the propagation environment/radio channel before MIMO implement. The radio channel behavior can be anticipated by channel measurement or channel sounding. Code Division Multiplexing (CDM is one of the channel sounding techniques that allow accurate measurement at the cost of hardware complexity. CDM based channel sounder, requires code with excellent auto-correlation and cross-correlation properties which generally difficult to be achieved simultaneously. Results: In this study, an efficient transmitter for CDM-based 2×2 MIMO channel sounding technique with Loosely Synchronous (LS codes is designed. Simulation results shows that the channel sounding scheme using LS codes gives very good performance for measuring 2×2 MIMO channel behavior. The BPSK transmitter is designed using MATLAB, Verilog and Xilinx system generator blocks. Conclusion: The whole design is simulated as a single ISE project by using ModelSim simulation tool and compiled using ISE 9.2. However the proposed design of transmitter using LS code of length 8190 bits can measure multipath delay of minimum 0.13 μs and maximum 520 μs.

  10. The $\\Lambda$CDM simulations of Keller and Wadsley do not account for the MOND mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2016-01-01

    Keller and Wadsley (2016) have smugly suggested, recently, that the end of MOND may be in view. This is based on their claim that their highly-restricted sample of $\\Lambda$CDM-simulated galaxies are "consistent" with the observed MOND mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR), in particular, with its recent update by McGaugh et al. (2016), based on the SPARC sample. From this they extrapolate to "$\\Lambda$CDM is fully consistent" with the MDAR. I explain why these simulated galaxies do not show that $\\Lambda$CDM accounts for the MDAR. a. Their sample of simulated galaxies contains only 18 high-mass galaxies, within a narrow range of one order of magnitude in baryonic mass, at the very high end of the observed, SPARC sample, which spans 4.5 orders of magnitude in mass. More importantly, the simulated sample has none of the low-mass, low-acceleration galaxies -- abundant in SPARC -- which encapsulate the crux and the nontrivial aspects of the predicted and observed MDAR. The low-acceleration part of the si...

  11. Reducing Deforestation and Trading Emissions: Economic Implications for the post-Kyoto Carbon Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Niels (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)); Sathaye, Jayant (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States))

    2008-07-01

    This paper quantitatively assesses the economic implications of crediting carbon abatement from reduced deforestation for the emissions market in 2020 by linking a numerical equilibrium model of the global carbon market with a dynamic partial equilibrium model of the forestry sector. We find that integrating avoided deforestation in international emissions trading considerably decreases the costs of post-Kyoto climate policy - even when accounting for conventional abatement options of developing countries under the CDM. Regarding uncertainties of this future carbon abatement option, we find both forestry transaction costs and deforestation baselines to play an important role for the post-Kyoto carbon market

  12. Scoping Study. Linking RE Promotion Policies with International Carbon Trade (LINK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Paula; Hayashi, Daisuke; Kristiansen, Kjell Olav; Michaelowa, Axel; Stadelmann, Martin

    2011-06-15

    Implementing national policies may threaten the eligibility of renewable energy projects for Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation (CDM/JI), thus reducing international development financing. Countries hence need to be very careful when crafting their national promotion policies. The objectives of the Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) project were to perform a scoping study on the interplay between national Renewable Energy (RE) promotion policies and international carbon trade. The study summarizes the ongoing discussion, describes the main barriers that may hinder -- or at least not sufficiently support -- the implementation of national RE promotion policies, and provides suggestions for removing these barriers.

  13. Can bilateral trade agreements help induce free trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Riezman, Raymond Glenn

    1999-01-01

    There has been growing debate about whether bilateral trade agreements are damaging multilateral efforts to eliminate barriers to international trade. This paper develops a model in which trading blocks always charge optimal tariffs and make trade agreements based on strategic considerations. We ask a very simple question. Does the fact that trading blocks can form bilateral trade agreements make Free trade less likely to occur? The answer is that it depends on the size distribution of the tr...

  14. Avoiding Title V permitting pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laswell, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires states to implement new air operating permit programs. States have a great deal of flexibility in developing their permit programs. Industry should work now to ensure that state programs contain the favorable aspects of the federal regulations and do not contain more stringent requirements that are not required under the Clean Air Act. This article outlines areas of the permit program that have the potential to handicap industry`s ability to expand.

  15. Stellar Bar Evolution in Cuspy and Flat-cored Triaxial CDM Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentzen, Ingo; Shlosman, Isaac; Jogee, Shardha

    2006-02-01

    We analyze the formation and evolution of stellar bars in galactic disks embedded in mildly triaxial cold dark matter (CDM) halos that have density distributions ranging from large flat cores to cuspy profiles. We have applied tailored numerical simulations of analytical and live halos that include the feedback from disk/bar system onto the halo in order to test and extend earlier work by El-Zant and Shlosman. The latter employed the method of Liapunov exponents to analyze the fate of bars in analytical asymmetric halos. We find the following: (1) The bar growth is very similar in all rigid axisymmetric and triaxial halos. (2) Bars in live models experience vertical buckling instability and the formation of a pseudobulge with a boxy/peanut shape, while bars in rigid halos do not buckle. (3) In live axisymmetric halos, the bar strength varies by a factor of chaos over continuous zones, sometimes leaving behind a weak oval distortion. The onset of chaos is related to the halo triaxiality, the fast-rotating bar, and the halo cuspiness. Before the bar dissolves, the region outside it develops strong spiral structures, especially in the live triaxial halos. (4) More angular momentum is absorbed (fractionally) by the triaxial halos than in the axisymmetric models. The disk-halo angular momentum exchange is mediated by the lower resonances in the latter models. (5) Cuspy halos are more susceptible than flat-core halos to having their prolateness washed out by the action of the bar. The subsequent evolution is then similar to the case of cuspy axisymmetric halos. We analyze the above results on disk and bar evolution in terms of the stability of trajectories and development of chaos in the system. We set important constraints on the triaxiality of dark matter (DM) halos by comparing our predictions to recent observational results on the properties of bars out to intermediate redshifts z~1.

  16. Cosmological constant vis-à-vis dynamical vacuum: Bold challenging the ΛCDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Next year we will celebrate 100 years of the cosmological term, Λ, in Einstein’s gravitational field equations, also 50 years since the cosmological constant problem was first formulated by Zeldovich, and almost about two decades of the observational evidence that a nonvanishing, positive, Λ-term could be the simplest phenomenological explanation for the observed acceleration of the Universe. This mixed state of affairs already shows that we do no currently understand the theoretical nature of Λ. In particular, we are still facing the crucial question whether Λ is truly a fundamental constant or a mildly evolving dynamical variable. At this point the matter should be settled once more empirically and, amazingly enough, the wealth of observational data at our disposal can presently shed true light on it. In this short review, I summarize the situation of some of these studies. It turns out that the Λ = const. hypothesis, despite being the simplest, may well not be the most favored one when we put it in hard-fought competition with specific dynamical models of the vacuum energy. Recently, it has been shown that the overall fit to the cosmological observables SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB do favor the class of “running” vacuum models (RVM’s) — in which Λ = Λ(H) is a function of the Hubble rate — against the “concordance” ΛCDM model. The support is at an unprecedented level of ˜ 4σ and is backed up with Akaike and Bayesian criteria leading to compelling evidence in favor of the RVM option and other related dynamical vacuum models. I also address the implications of this framework on the possible time evolution of the fundamental constants of Nature.

  17. Revised CDM baseline study on fuel use and manure management at household level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buysman, E.; Bryan, S.; Pino, M.

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters. In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP's 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang. The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene. The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.

  18. Potential gains from CO2 trading in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new Green Paper from the European Commission on emissions trading foresees the setting-up of a CO2 trading system within the EU for the energy sector. Because any such international environmental agreement is self-enforcing, the participants must have an economic net gain from joining...... the proposed system. Our contribution is therefore to follow the Green Paper proposal and investigate whether member countries and the largest industrial boilers in the electricity sector actually will get significant net gains from CO2 trade in the European Union rather than undertaking domestic actions...... solely. We show, based on PRIMES model, that a full CO2 emission trading system between Annex B countries suggest overall cost savings in the order of 40 % compared to a situation with no trading at all between Member States. A tradable CO2 permit scheme with comprehensive coverage of emissions within...

  19. Potential gains from CO2 trading in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new Green Paper from the European Commission on emissions trading foresees the setting-up of a CO2 trading system within the EU for the energy sector. Because any such international environmental agreement is self-enforcing, the participants must have an economic net gain from joining...... the proposed system. Our contribution is therefore to follow the Green Paper proposal and investigate whether member countries and the largest industrial boilers in the electricity sector actually will get significant net gains from CO2 trade in the European Union rather than undertaking domestic actions...... solely. We show, based on PRIMES model, that a full CO2 emission trading system between Annex B countries suggest overall cost savings in the order of 40 % compared to a situation with no trading at all between Member States. A tradable CO2 permit scheme with comprehensive coverage of emissions within...

  20. The Ningxia Trade Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YUZHU; LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Trade deals were plentiful at the first China-Arab States Economic and Trade Forum last month,with over190 deals on investment cooperation totaling 203.56 billion yuan($30.52 billion)signed between China and Arab states and Muslim regions.The forum,held from September 26 to 30 in Yinchuan,capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,aimed to enhance investment and trade ties between China and Arab states.

  1. Trade Promotion from Neighborhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "If you are considering to trade with companies in Japan or expanding your business to Japan,we are ready to help from the very beginning."You will find this greeting at the first sight on the Chinese website of Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).JETRO has committed itself in delivering highly efficient and quality services to meet the demand of internal and external customs including Japanese companies,hence winning a good reputation in the international trade arena.

  2. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  3. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  4. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  5. Mechanisms for Limiting Trade Mark Rights to Further Competition and Free Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Lisa P; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2013-01-01

    to trade mark violations and (2) trade mark doctrines which give courts flexibility to permit unauthorized uses of marks that further the legitimate interests of the accused infringer and the public. Such a development should be welcomed and the article urges other nations to consider adopting one or both...... of these mechanisms for limiting trade mark rights to better protect the public interest in trade mark disputes. Finally, a proposal for reform is suggested. It consists of three parts: (1) domestic legislatures should revise their trade mark statutes to add more mandatory and specific limitations on trade mark...... rights that courts must apply in trade mark disputes, (2) legislatures should also enact permissive statutory provisions that give courts discretion to further limit trade mark rights and allow socially beneficial uses of marks that are not covered by the statutory limitations, and (3) legislators should...

  6. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  7. Tradeable Emission Permits in Oligopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fershtman, C.; de Zeeuw, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers an oligopolistic industry in which pollution is a by-product of production. Firms are assumed to have emission permits that restrict the amount that they pollute. These permits are assumed to be tradeable and the paper discusses a structure in which the same set of firms operates

  8. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  9. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  10. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  11. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  12. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  13. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  14. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  15. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  16. EU carbon trading: cyber crime spoils the party

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C.

    2011-05-15

    The global financial crisis and subsequent decline in industrial activity have done more to curb greenhouse gas emissions than permit trading. So, what lies ahead for ETS, a concept once lauded as saviour of the planet, but whose very survival is now in question after a damaging and costly spate of systematic criminal attacks? The paper considers its future. 2 figs.

  17. A Regional Multi-permit Market for Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Amos, P.; Zhang, E.

    2014-12-01

    Regional cap and trade programs have been in operation since the 1970's to reduce environmental externalities (NOx and SOx emissions) and have been shown to be beneficial. Air quality and water quality limits are enforced through numerous Federal and State laws and regulations while local communities are seeking ways to protect regional green infrastructure and their ecosystems services. Why not combine them in a market approach to reduce many environmental externalities simultaneously? In a multi-permit market program reforestation (land offsets) as part of a nutrient or carbon sequestration trading program would provide a means to reduce agrochemical discharges into streams, rivers, and groundwater. Land conversions also improve the quality and quantity of other environmental externalities such as air pollution. Collocated nonmarket ecosystem services have societal benefits that can expand the crediting system into a multi-permit trading program. At a regional scale it is possible to combine regulation of water quality, air emissions and quality, and habitat conservation and restoration into one program. This research is about the economic feasibility of a Philadelphia regional multi-permit (cap and trade) program for ecosystem services. Instead of establishing individual markets for ecosystem services, the assumption of the spatial portfolio approach is that it is based on the interdependence of ecosystem functions so that market credits encompasses a range of ecosystem services. Using an existing example the components of the approach are described in terms of scenarios of land portfolios and the calculation of expected return on investment and risk. An experiment in the Schuylkill Watershed will be described for ecosystem services such as nutrients in water and populations of bird species along with Green House Gases. The Philadelphia regional market includes the urban - nonurban economic and environmental interactions and impacts.

  18. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and developing countries. ... The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... countries like Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC nations) have emerged as trade .... International Trade and Trade Relations: The Unending Issues ..... that the present media campaign of Nigerians/Nigeria as good.

  20. Optimisation of operating cost of fossil-fired power plants through CDM and JI. Option for meeting the emission reduction targets; Optimierung der Betriebskosten fossilbefeuerter Kraftwerke mittels CDM und JI. Optionen zur kosteneffizienten Erreichung der Emissionsminderungsziele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertz, J. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany); RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Fuebi, M. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The optimisation of the power plant park as well as the development of innovate, efficiency-increasing and thus CO{sub 2}-decreasing technologies will make an important contribution to the harmonisation between secure energy supply and the requirements of climate protection. Investments in climate protection projects within the scope of CDM and JI are an additional option to make-up for cost arising in connection with CO{sub 2} control and such projects will make climate protection economically efficient and sustainable. (orig.)

  1. Tradable permits without legislative targets: a review of the potential for a permit scheme for sterilized clinical waste in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ian; Haug, Brigitte; O'Doherty, Richard

    2004-06-01

    Tradable-permit schemes are becoming an increasingly popular technique for encouraging materials recovery and the diversion of waste from landfill. Such schemes operate using various forms of market-based trading of waste permits between polluters but usually rely on mandatory recycling targets to provide an incentive for trading. Using the UK's Packaging Recovery Note (PRN) scheme as a template, this paper examines the potential for permit trading where mandatory targets are absent and schemes must be driven solely by the financial benefits of reduced landfill costs and permit/material sales. The case examined is sterilized clinical waste, which has considerable recycling potential but suffers from health concerns and a poor public image. Interviews with healthcare and waste-management representatives indicate that although elements of the PRN scheme might prove appropriate for encouraging materials recovery, the absence of government targets and uncertain end markets for sterilized clinical waste present major obstacles to trading. Alternative incentives would therefore be required to catalyse schemes and develop recycling infrastructure. In the final analysis, thermal processing may be a more practical alternative to landfill than materials recovery for this particular waste stream.

  2. Interactions of a tradable green certificate market with a tradable permits market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2001-01-01

    certificate market to promote the development of renewables. If these two instruments are brought into play at the same time, two separate markets with two individual targets will co-exist in a number of countries. With a focus on the green certificate market, this paper discusses how these two markets may...... in combination with a tradable permits bidding scheme. Emphasis is placed on analysing the pricing mechanisms in international trade at the green certificate and tradable permits market in relation to the value of the reductions in GHG-emissions actually achieved. The influence of the permits scheme on the spot...... market price of electricity is shown, and the benefits of trading green certificates compared to a domestic implementation of renewable technologies are discussed. The main conclusion is that only if a green certificate market is combined with a tradable permit scheme based on a bidding procedure...

  3. Free Trade: A Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)

  4. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  5. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  6. A Trade Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s growing trade surplus has become a major concern for some of its major trade partners, such as the United States and the European Union. As the latest statistics from China’s Customs Administration suggest, while the country’s export growth rate fell 1.2 percentage points and that of imports rose 2.4

  7. Bilateralism and free trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Goyal (Sanjeev); S. Joshi

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been a great deal of research on the relative merits of multilateralism and bilateralism and their implications for the nature of the trading regime between countries. In this paper we explore the scope of bilateral free-trade agreements as a foundation for

  8. Informed Option Trading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jong (Cyriel)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe use a sequential trade model to clarify two mechanisms following the introduction of an option that may lead to increased efficiency in the underlying. On the one hand, market makers learn from trades in the option market and set more accurate prices. On the other hand, the proportion

  9. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  10. A Trade Off?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s trade surplus amounted to $177.5 billion last year, an increase of $75.5 billion or a massive 74 percent over 2005. Trade officials said it is still within a normal range and its upward trend is due to the country’s industrial and macroeconomic s

  11. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital constrain

  12. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  13. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  14. Master of Many Trades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHUA

    2004-01-01

    "My major is business administration. I have also worked in finance andinternational trade and have had my own fashion boutique and restaurant. Iseem born toit from one industry to another," says Fan Jinghui, director of Sino-Canadian Council for the Promotion of International Trade.

  15. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s foreign trade gains momentum but still face suncertainties China is taking up a larger piece’of the global trade pie as its 2009 I exports accounted for almost one’10th of the world total that year. The Ministry of Commerce(MOFCOM)

  16. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals...

  17. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  18. The High Velocity Galaxy Challenge to ΛCDM in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Indranil

    2017-06-01

    In the Local Group (LG), Andromeda (M31) is approaching the Milky Way (MW) at ˜110 km/s despite the large scale cosmic expansion. To turn it around locally to this extent, their combined mass must lie in a narrow range of values. This constrains the gravitational field in the LG as there are no other objects of similar masses. We have conducted calculations solving test particle trajectories in this gravitational field using a 2D dynamical model including Cen A and the LMC (MNRAS, 459, 2237). Although few objects have radial velocities (RVs) much below the predictions of the best-fitting model, some have RVs much above them, sometimes by as much as 100 km/s. This situation persists even when we used a 3D model including perturbers and satellites (MNRAS, 467, 2180).The observations may be explained by a past close flyby of the MW and M31, which arises in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) but not ΛCDM. In this context, a simplified calculation suggests that the recently discovered plane of satellites around the MW and a similar plane around M31 could be explained by a past MW-M31 flyby, but only if they orbit within a particular plane. We used this information in a more detailed MOND simulation of the flyby and its effect on the rest of the LG, treating it as a cloud of ˜3×105 test particles. The high speeds of the MW and M31 at pericentre allow for efficient gravitational slingshots of these particles. Those flung out to the greatest distance tend to lie very close to the MW-M31 orbital plane, probably because the greatest impulses occur for objects flung out almost parallel to the motion of the perturber.I will describe this simulation and recent work (Arxiv: 1701.06559) showing that LG dwarfs with the most anomalously high RVs (relative to our 3D model) indeed lie close to a plane oriented similarly to our expected MW-M31 orbital plane based on considering their satellite systems. This plane of distant LG dwarfs passes within 140 kpc of the MW and M31 and

  19. The trade effects of endogenous preferential trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Larch, Mario; Staub, Kevin E; Winkelmann, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Recent work by Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) establishes an empirical modelling strategy which takes full account of the structural, non-(log-)linear impact of trade barriers on trade in new trade theory models. Structural new trade theory models have never been used to evaluate and quantify the role of endogenous preferential trade agreement (PTA) membership for trade in a way which is consistent with general equilibrium. Apart from this gap, the present paper aims at delivering an empiric...

  20. Uranium and free trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This report was prepared by a working group of the Committee on International Trade in Uranium of the Uranium Institute. The report describes the general benefits of free trade and their relevance in the uranium market, and compares government restrictions on Western world uranium trade with those in other commodity markets. It is not directly concerned with restrictions designed to discourage nuclear weapons proliferation. The Uranium Institute and its members fully support the objective of nuclear non-proliferation. The report takes as given the current non-proliferation regime and focuses on economic and commercial restrictions imposed by governments on international trade in uranium, recognising that governments will always have a special interest in uranium trade owing to its potential weapons use. (author).

  1. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  2. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exhibition space at a qualified convention or trade show where sales activity is permitted, and the treatment...) Certain activities—(1) Rental of exhibition space. The rental of display space to exhibitors (including... manufacturers. Selling and order taking are permitted. No member exhibits are maintained. Standing alone,...

  3. 2008 Contruction General Permits & Multi-Sector General Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — View stormwater notices of intent (NOIs) for construction projects under EPA's 2008 Construction General Permit (CGP), for Low Erosivity Waivers (LEWs) submitted...

  4. Preferential trade agreements and their role in world trade

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev, Denis

    2006-01-01

    The author investigates the effects of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on bilateral trade flows using a comprehensive database of PTAs in force and a detailed matrix of world trade. He shows that total trade between PTA partners is a poor proxy for preferential trade (trade in tariff lines where preferences are likely to matter): while the former amounted to one-third of global trade in 2000-02, the latter was between one-sixth and one-tenth of world trade. His gravity model estimates in...

  5. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f(R) gravity with producing ΛCDM background expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Liu, Molin [Xinyang Normal University, Department of Physics, Xinyang (China)

    2016-12-15

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H{sub 0} (or σ{sub 8}) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in ΛCDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f(R) gravity producing ΛCDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f(R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σm{sub ν} < 0.202 eV for the active-neutrino case, m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.757 eV with N{sub eff} < 3.22 for the sterile neutrino case. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -1.89 and f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H{sub 0} gets slightly weaker in the viable f(R) model than that in the base ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  6. A Remark on Using Gravitational Lensing Probability as a Probe of the Central Regions of CDM Halos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the gravitational lensing probabilities by cold dark matter (CDM) halos with different density profiles, and compare them with current observations from the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS) and the Jodrell-Bank VLAAstrometric Survey (JVAS). We find that the lensing probability is dramatically sensitive to the clumping of the dark matter, or quantitatively, the concentration parameter. We also find that our predicted lensing probabilities in most cases show inconsistency with the observations. It is argued that high lensing probability may not be an effective tool for probing the statistical properties of inner structures of dark matter halos.

  7. State of EU Emission Trading System and Its Implications%欧盟碳排放权交易体系现状及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏蕾; 曹玉昆; 陈锐

    2012-01-01

    碳排放权交易是指建立合法的温室气体排放权和总量控制目标并进行排放权买卖。文中通过分析欧盟碳排放权交易体系及我国碳排放权交易市场现状认为,我国目前尚未具备建立强制性碳排放权交易市场的经济基础,但可以先依托CDM一级市场培育自愿抵消市场和CDM二级市场并时刻关注国际碳排放权政策变动,避免政策风险。%Carbon emission trading is to establish legitimate greenhouse gas emission rights and amount control targets,and trade the emission rights.Based on the analyses of the state of EU emission trading system and China's carbon emission trading market,the paper argued that,although China currently does not possesses the required economic basis for establishing the mandatory carbon emission trading market,China can firstly cultivate voluntary offset market and CDM secondary market relying on the CDM primary market,and always pay attention to the changes in international carbon emission policy to avoid policy risks.

  8. Trade and Portuguese Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNO CARLOS LEITÃO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript examines the link between trade and migration flows using a gravity model for the period 1995-2007 between Portugal and European Union countries. We also include in our sample the Portuguese speaking countries (PALOPS, i.e., ex-colonies. Globalization drives people to migrate, in some countries, immigration being more pronounced las in Portugal, in last decade, this country receiving foreign residents. This is a new reality to Portuguese economy. For many years, the Portuguese have emigrated to European countries, the United States of America and other countries. Currently, Portugal is witnessing a reverse trend, Brazilian, Cape Verde, Ukrainian and Romanian communities choose Portugal as a destination country. We find evidence that immigration has a positive influence in bilateral trade. We also introduce economic size and regional trade agreements (RTA; these proxies confirming a positive impact of bilateral trade. These results show that the gravity model can explain the pattern of bloc’s trade. Our results also confirm the hypothesis that trade increases if the transport decreases. Classification-JEL:F14,F22Keywords:Trade, Immigration, Gravity model; PortugalJournal:Romanian Journal of EconomicsPages:38-48Volume:31Issue:2(40Year:2010(XXMonth: DecemberFile-URL: http://www.revecon.ro/articles/2010-2/2010-2-2.pdf

  9. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective co...... profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future.......The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost......-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The gains from CO2 trade may give vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe, for example, and it will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further...

  10. Permitting - the latest mining risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, W.M.; Munn, F.J. [Cardinal River Coals Ltd., Hinton, AB (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    The Cheviot approach to mine permitting and the status of the Cheviot permitting process are described. The mine is the first Canadian metallurgical mine built since the early 1970s and will replace the Luscar Mine. There have been significant changes in the technology of mining equipment and with the requirements for government regulatory approvals since 1980, when the last mines were built. A permit application must be technically complete and must be legally correct. A valid public involvement process must support an application. A permit application is now an entire process that leads to submission and review of a document. Cardinal River Coals is applying two principles in order to meet these objectives: to be technically advanced and show the ability to manage the environment; and to conduct a proactive and effective public involvement program.

  11. Dakota Magic Casino NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit ND-0030813, the Dakota Nation Gaming Enterprise is authorized to discharge from the wastewater treatment facility in Richland County, North Dakota, to a roadside ditch flowing to an unnamed tributary to the Bois de Sioux.

  12. Legal system research on clean development mechanism(CDM)in China%中国清洁发展机制法律制度探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨越

    2011-01-01

    According to the aim, establishing requirements and procedures, supervisory system of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Kyoto Protocol, this paper showed the tremendous environmental, social and economic profits China has made in running CDM. It also pointed out its problems in the aspects of project scale, potential project recognition, additional bank certification, CER legal right definition, project issue, etc. Referring to CDM's development tendency of the international world, this paper predicted that CDM, in a long term in future, will be an effective system against the global greenhouse gases discharge, and the tenets of CDM will be renewed and the detailed implementing institution of the CDM project will be perfected. In this paper, some suggestions on the legal institutions construction concerning China's CDM: a basic law of energy should be enacted urgently to offer legal bases for the measures including CDM against climatic changes; in legislation, the principle of the energy's sustained development should be established to specify CDM projects' proper standard, cancel the traditional unitary ownership pattern, explicit the CER legal authority and ownership and perfect the CDM projects' supervisory system to lower the danger the CDM projects have to face when pursuing economic profits, reinforce the CDM's profession norms and increase the CER issuing rate.%根据《京都议定书》关于清洁发展机制(Clean Development Mechanism,CDM)的目标、设立条件、步骤和监管制度的规定,指出了中国在实施清洁发展机制中所获得的环境、社会和经济方面的巨大利益,同时,也分析了目前中国实施清洁发展机制在项目发展规模、潜在项目识别、额外行证明、CER法律权属界定、项目签发等方面存在的问题.文章结合国际社会清洁发展制度的趋势走向,预测在今后相当长的时期内清洁发展机制仍将作为全球温室气体减排的有效制度而存在,并

  13. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  14. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  15. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  16. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  17. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  18. 50 CFR 13.28 - Permit revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit revocation. 13.28 Section 13.28... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.28 Permit revocation. (a) Criteria for revocation. A... revocation. (1) When the issuing officer believes there are valid grounds for revoking a permit,...

  19. 9 CFR 104.2 - Permit authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... permits for importing biological products. They shall be: (1) U.S. Veterinary Biological Product Permit for Research and Evaluation; (2) U.S. Veterinary Biological Product Permit for Distribution and Sale; or (3) U.S. Veterinary Biological Product Permit for Transit Shipment Only. (b) A permit shall not be...

  20. Forming Realistic Late-type Spirals in a ΛCDM Universe: The Eris Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Javiera; Callegari, Simone; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio

    2011-12-01

    Simulations of the formation of late-type spiral galaxies in a cold dark matter (ΛCDM) universe have traditionally failed to yield realistic candidates. Here we report a new cosmological N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamic simulation of extreme dynamic range in which a close analog of a Milky Way disk galaxy arises naturally. Named "Eris," the simulation follows the assembly of a galaxy halo of mass M vir = 7.9 × 1011 M ⊙ with a total of N = 18.6 million particles (gas + dark matter + stars) within the final virial radius, and a force resolution of 120 pc. It includes radiative cooling, heating from a cosmic UV field and supernova explosions (blastwave feedback), a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold (n SF = 5 atoms cm-3 rather than the canonical n SF = 0.1 atoms cm-3), and neglects any feedback from an active galactic nucleus. Artificial images are generated to correctly compare simulations with observations. At the present epoch, the simulated galaxy has an extended rotationally supported disk with a radial scale length Rd = 2.5 kpc, a gently falling rotation curve with circular velocity at 2.2 disk scale lengths of V 2.2 = 214 km s-1, an i-band bulge-to-disk ratio B/D = 0.35, and a baryonic mass fraction within the virial radius that is 30% below the cosmic value. The disk is thin, has a typical H I-to-stellar mass ratio, is forming stars in the region of the ΣSFR-ΣH I plane occupied by spiral galaxies, and falls on the photometric Tully-Fisher and the stellar-mass-halo-virial-mass relations. Hot (T > 3 × 105 K) X-ray luminous halo gas makes up only 26% of the universal baryon fraction and follows a "flattened" density profile vpropr -1.13 out to r = 100 kpc. Eris appears then to be the first cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in which the galaxy structural properties, the mass budget in the various components, and the scaling relations between mass and luminosity are all consistent with a host of observational constraints. A

  1. FORMING REALISTIC LATE-TYPE SPIRALS IN A {Lambda}CDM UNIVERSE: THE ERIS SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Javiera; Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Callegari, Simone [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-9057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mayer, Lucio [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich, Wolgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-12-01

    Simulations of the formation of late-type spiral galaxies in a cold dark matter ({Lambda}CDM) universe have traditionally failed to yield realistic candidates. Here we report a new cosmological N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamic simulation of extreme dynamic range in which a close analog of a Milky Way disk galaxy arises naturally. Named 'Eris', the simulation follows the assembly of a galaxy halo of mass M{sub vir} = 7.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} with a total of N = 18.6 million particles (gas + dark matter + stars) within the final virial radius, and a force resolution of 120 pc. It includes radiative cooling, heating from a cosmic UV field and supernova explosions (blastwave feedback), a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold (n{sub SF} = 5 atoms cm{sup -3} rather than the canonical n{sub SF} = 0.1 atoms cm{sup -3}), and neglects any feedback from an active galactic nucleus. Artificial images are generated to correctly compare simulations with observations. At the present epoch, the simulated galaxy has an extended rotationally supported disk with a radial scale length R{sub d} = 2.5 kpc, a gently falling rotation curve with circular velocity at 2.2 disk scale lengths of V{sub 2.2} = 214 km s{sup -1}, an i-band bulge-to-disk ratio B/D = 0.35, and a baryonic mass fraction within the virial radius that is 30% below the cosmic value. The disk is thin, has a typical H I-to-stellar mass ratio, is forming stars in the region of the {Sigma}{sub SFR}-{Sigma}{sub HI} plane occupied by spiral galaxies, and falls on the photometric Tully-Fisher and the stellar-mass-halo-virial-mass relations. Hot (T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K) X-ray luminous halo gas makes up only 26% of the universal baryon fraction and follows a 'flattened' density profile {proportional_to}r{sup -1.13} out to r = 100 kpc. Eris appears then to be the first cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in which the galaxy structural properties, the

  2. Constraints from growth-rate data on some coupled dark energy models mimicking a $\\Lambda CDM$ expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Fay, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    The $\\Lambda CDM$ expansion could be mimicked by a dark energy coupled to matter. Then, the equation of state $\\bar w$ and coupling $\\bar Q$ of this coupled dark energy could not be constrained by observations of the Hubble function alone. Also, in this paper, we determine the constraints on two such coupled dark energy models considering some current and forecast Euclid-like growth-rate data and assuming the prior on the $\\Lambda CDM$ dark matter density parameter today $\\Omega_{m0}=0.295\\pm 0.04$. The first model is defined by a constant equation of state. We find that at $2\\sigma$, $\\bar w=-1.02_{-0.22}^{+0.06}$ and the coupling function $\\bar Q_0$ today is $\\bar Q_0H_0^{-3}=0.057_{-0.148}^{+0.353}$ with $H_0$ the Hubble constant. The second model is defined by a varying equation of state $\\bar w=\\bar w_a-\\bar w_b\\ln(1+z)$, with $z$ the redshift and $(\\bar w_a,\\bar w_b)$, two constants. We find that at $2\\sigma$, $\\bar w_a=-0.99_{-0.90}^{+0.17}$, $\\bar w_b=-0.04_{-1.17}^{+0.31}$ and $\\bar Q_0H_0^{-3}=0.000...

  3. A UWB Bidirectional Rectangular Ring Antenna Fed by CDM with a Rod and Ridges for Constant Beam Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vongsack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ultra-wideband (UWB rectangular ring antenna excited by a circular disc monopole (CDM with a conducting rod and two double ridges to radiate bidirectional pattern with constant beam direction along the entire UWB frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz. The conducting rod and double ridges at the upper wall of the ring are added to solve the tilted beam problem at the higher edge frequency whereas the double ridges at the lower wall are used to enhance the impedance bandwidth. The dimensions of the rectangular ring and the CDM are initially considered to achieve the bidirectional pattern with the suitable resonant frequencies and bandwidth. Then, the parameters of copper rod and two double ridges are determined by parametric study using CST Microwave Studio simulation software. The prototype antenna was fabricated, and the measured results show good agreement with the simulated ones. The obtained bandwidth of |S11|<-10 dB can cover the UWB frequency range as well as the bidirectional beam radiation with constant beam direction (θ=0°,180° and ϕ=90°. The minimum and maximum measured gains are 3.1 dBi to 5.3 dBi, respectively. The proposed antenna possesses compact size with good radiation performance that can be a promising candidate for UWB applications.

  4. The velocity width function of galaxies from the 40% ALFALFA survey: shedding light on the CDM overabundance problem

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a wide-area, extragalactic HI-line survey conducted at the Arecibo Observatory. Sources have so far been extracted over ~3,000 sq.deg of sky (40% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of their observed velocity width (uncorrected for inclination) down to w = 20 km/s, a factor of 2 lower than the previous generation HIPASS survey. We confirm previous results that indicate a substantial discrepancy at low widths between the observational distribution and the theoretical one expected in a CDM Universe. In particular, a comparison with synthetic galaxy samples populating state-of-the-art CDM simulations imply a factor of ~8 difference in the abundance of galaxies with w = 50 km/s (increasing to a factor of ~100 when extrapolated to the ALFALFA limit of w = 20 km/s). We furthermore identify possible solutions, including a ~keV WDM scenario and the fact that H...

  5. Managing woody bamboos for carbon farming and carbon trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jyoti Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on identifying cost-effective managed ecosystems that can substantially remove atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2 while providing essential societal benefits has gained momentum since the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. Carbon farming allows farmers and investors to generate tradable carbon offsets from farmlands and forestry projects through carbon trading. Carbon trading is pertinent to climate negotiations by decelerating the climate change phenomenon. Thus, the objective of this article is to describe the potential of woody bamboos in biomass carbon storage and as an option for carbon farming and carbon trading. Bamboo is an important agroforestry and forest plant managed and used by the rural communities in several countries of the Asia-Pacific region for generating diverse economic and socio-environmental needs. Mean carbon storage and sequestration rate in woody bamboos range from 30–121 Mg ha−1 and 6–13 Mg ha−1  yr−1, respectively. Bamboo has vigorous growth, with completion of the growth cycle between 120 and 150 days. Because of its rapid biomass accumulation and effective fixation of CO2, it has a high carbon sequestration capacity. Over and above the high biomass carbon storage, bamboo also has a high net primary productivity (12–26 Mg ha−1  yr−1 even with regular selective harvesting, thus making it a standing carbon stock and a living ecosystem that continues to grow. Despite its high potential in carbon storage and sequestration and its important role in livelihood of millions of rural poor’s worldwide, prospects of bamboo ecosystems in CDM (Clean Development Mechanism and REDD (Reduced Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation schemes remain to be explored. Thus, there is an urgent need to recognize ecosystem services that woody bamboo provides for well-being of rural communities and nature conservancy. Present synthesis suggests that bamboo offers tremendous opportunity for carbon farming and

  6. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths...

  7. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  8. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  9. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  10. Chilly Trade Winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Traders brave the ill effects of the global economic crisis in one of China’s largest export centers Hongye Cartons Packing Salesroom in Yiwu sells carton packages just across the street from Yiwu International Trade City,a mam-

  11. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  12. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  13. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  14. Insurance with frequent trading

    OpenAIRE

    José Penalva

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the dynamic management of risk in an economy with discrete time consumption and endowments and continuous trading. I study how agents in such an economy deal with all the risk in the economy and attain their Pareto optimal allocations by trading in a few natural securities: private insurance contracts and a common set of derivatives on the aggregate endowment. The parsimonious nature of the implied securities needed for Pareto optimality suggests that in such contexts comp...

  15. News and Trading Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    indexes or small groups of forex series. Although I use a shorter time period – five years for the work on technical analysis and machine learning, only...I start with practitioner-developed technical analysis constructs, sys- tematically examining their ability to generate trading rules profitable on...a large universe of stocks. Then, I use these technical analysis constructs as the underlying representation for a simple trading rule leaner, with

  16. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is taking up a larger piece of the global trade pie as its 2009 exports accounted for almost one 10th of the world total that year.The Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)released a report on April 27 summarizing foreign trade in 2009 and the first quarter of 2010.MOFCOM also cautioned exporters of international market volatili ties in the next half of 2010.

  17. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  18. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  19. Emissions trading: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietenberg, T.H

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Evolution of Emissions Trading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Evolution of Design Features...

  20. Trade Union Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T.

    1982-01-01

    The provision of trade union education is a function of the structure of trade unionism which, in turn, is a function of the structure of collective bargaining. Trade union structure is taken to include size distribution, distribution of power, and objectives of trade unions. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex BN8 5DL,…

  1. 何谓trade paperback?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练小川

    2010-01-01

    在英美出版业,有好几个与trade这个字有关的专业词汇,例如:tradebook,trade publishing,trade paperback。trade book译为“大众图书”,trade publishing自然就译成“大众出版”。

  2. 50 CFR 22.11 - What is the relationship to other permit requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... endangered species other than the bald eagle. (d) If you are transporting dead bald or golden eagles, or their parts, nests, or dead eggs into or out of the United States, you will also need a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) permit under part 23 of...

  3. Regulatory strategies in the context of global climate changes: the feasibility of CDM programs; Estrategias regulatorias no contexto das mudancas climaticas globais: a viabilidade do MDL programatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiro, Viviane; Simoes, Andre Felipe; Januzzi, Gilberto M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graducao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    Carbon Market and its implications to reduce green house effect has been broadly discussed in the context of global climate change. This paper intends to analyze the new regulation of global climate change since Programmatic CDM was created, describing the proceeds to tis implementation and discussing limitations and opportunities analyzes of this mechanism and opportunities about CDM programs in the international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based, as well as its contribution to attain benefits to global climate system and quality of social life. (author)

  4. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  5. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-12-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  6. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  7. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  8. Emissions trading and climate strategies. The EU emission trading 2008-2012 and 2013-2020. State of the art and further developments in the project mechanisms as well as in the international climate protection. Carbon footprint, climate neutrality and climate strategies; Emissionshandel und Klimastrategien. Der EU-Emissionshandel 2008-12 und 2013-20. Aktueller Stand und weitere Entwicklungen bei den Projektmechanismen sowie im internationalen Klimaschutz. Carbon Footprint, Klimaneutralitaet und Klimastrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    At 1st January, 2008 the second period of the EU emissions trading started which also is the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. This seventh edition under consideration with the theme 'Emission trading and climate change strategies' reports on the developments and innovations made in the past year. The booklet starts with an introduction to the topic of climate change strategies. A brief review on the year 2009 in the EU emissions trading and on the litigation follows. A key chapter of this booklet deals with the inclusion of aviation in the third trading period 2013-2020. Furthermore, it describes the current status and innovations in the project mechanisms JI (Joint Implementation) and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). The brochure deals with the international climate policy, analyzes the results of the climate conference in Copenhagen and evaluates for further development of emissions trading.

  9. New Curbs on Processing Trade for A New Trade Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China recently announced a new policy that seeks to rein in the development of processing trade in restricted commodities, in a bid to optimize the country's exporting structure, put strong curbs on the export of "high-energy-consuming, highpolluting and resource-dependent"products, and discourage the export of commodities with low added value and poor technology content, so as to gradually eliminate trade frictions,and promote trade balance to ease tension caused by the too wide trade surplus. The change is instrumental in upgrading the present processing trade system, transforming the pattern of foreign trade growth mode,and promoting the sustainable development of social economy.

  10. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths......, at the international level, industrial lobbyism was non-significant. Only the 'fossil fuel lobby' played a role. Third, at the national level, one could expect strong political opposition from industry lobbies in case quotas are actually to be distributed at firm level. But trade among countries may benefit industry......, the best 'second-best' solution is argued to be that of trade between governments....

  11. Little Rip, $\\Lambda$CDM and singular dark energy cosmology from Born-Infeld-$f(R)$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, Andrey N; Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2014-01-01

    We study late-time cosmic accelerating dynamics from Born-Infeld-$f(R)$ gravity in a simplified conformal approach. We find that a variety of cosmic efects such as Little Rip, $\\Lambda$CDM universe and dark energy cosmology with finite-time future singularities may occur. Unlike the convenient Born-Infeld gravity where in the absence of matter only de Sitter expansion may emerge, apparentlly any FRW cosmology maybe reconstructed from this conformal version of the Born-Infeld-$f(R)$ theory. Despite the fact that the explicit form of $f(R)$ is fixed by the conformal ansatz, the relation between the two metrics in this approach may be changed so as to bring out any desired FRW cosmology.

  12. Little Rip, ΛCDM and singular dark energy cosmology from Born–Infeld-f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, Andrey N. [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, ul. Kievskaya, 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue, 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Instituciò Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Torre C5-Par-2a- pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Depto. de Física Teórica and IFIC, Universidad de Valencia – CSIC, Burjassot 46100, Valencia (Spain); Depto. de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil)

    2014-06-27

    We study late-time cosmic accelerating dynamics from Born–Infeld-f(R) gravity in a simplified conformal approach. We find that a variety of cosmic effects such as Little Rip, ΛCDM universe and dark energy cosmology with finite-time future singularities may occur. Unlike the convenient Born–Infeld gravity where in the absence of matter only de Sitter expansion may emerge, apparently any FRW cosmology maybe reconstructed from this conformal version of the Born–Infeld-f(R) theory. Despite the fact that the explicit form of f(R) is fixed by the conformal ansatz, the relation between the two metrics in this approach may be changed so as to bring out any desired FRW cosmology.

  13. Halo Occupation Distributions of Moderate X-ray AGNs through Major and Minor Mergers in a $\\Lambda$-CDM Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano-Dévora, L; Aceves, H; Castro, A; Cañas, R; Tamayo, F

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent inferred form of the halo occupation distribution (HOD) of X-ray selected AGNs, in the COSMOS field by Allevato et al. (2012), we investigate the HOD properties of moderate X-ray luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (mXAGNs) using a simple model based on merging activity between dark matter halos (DMHs) in a $\\Lambda$-CDM cosmology. The HODs and number densities of the simulated mXAGNs at $z=0.5$, under the above scenarios to compare with Allevato et al. (2012) results. We find that the simulated HODs of major and minor mergers, and the observed for mXAGNs are consistent among them. Our main result is that minor mergers, contrary to what one might expect, can play an important role in activity mAGNs.

  14. Dynamical History Of The Local Group In ΛCDM slowromancapii@ - Including External Perturbers In 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Indranil; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    We attempt to fit the observed radial velocities (RVs) of ˜ 30 Local Group (LG) galaxies using a 3D dynamical model of it and its immediate environment within the context of the standard cosmological paradigm, ΛCDM. This extends and confirms the basic results of our previous axisymmetric investigation of the LG (MNRAS, 459, 2237). We find that there remains a tendency for observed RVs to exceed those predicted by our best-fitting model. The typical mismatch is slightly higher than in our 2D model, with a root mean square value of ˜ 50 km/s. Our main finding is that including the 3D distribution of massive perturbing dark matter halos is unlikely to help greatly with the high velocity galaxy problem. Nonetheless, the 2D and 3D results differ in several other ways such as which galaxies' RVs are most problematic and the preferred values of parameters common to both models. The anomalously high RVs of several LG dwarfs may be better explained if the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) were once moving much faster than in our models. This would allow LG dwarfs to gain very high RVs via gravitational slingshot encounters with a massive fast-moving galaxy. Such a scenario is possible in some modified gravity theories, especially those which require the MW and M31 to have previously undergone a close flyby. In a ΛCDM context, however, this scenario is not feasible as the resulting dynamical friction would cause a rapid merger.

  15. WORLD MERCHANDISE TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.

  16. 19 CFR 142.24 - Special permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Special Permit for Immediate Delivery § 142.24 Special permit. (a) Conditions for issuance. At the discretion of the port director, a special permit for immediate delivery may be issued on... of a shipment of merchandise under a special permit for immediate delivery, the importer shall note a...

  17. PSD Permit Applications In Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following permits have been submitted to EPA Region 4 as Proposed Title V permits. While EPA has the right to a 45-day review period for all Proposed Title V permits, EPA Region 4 targets only a subset of these permits for comprehensive review.

  18. 50 CFR 13.27 - Permit suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit suspension. 13.27 Section 13.27... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.27 Permit suspension. (a) Criteria for suspension... Government. Such suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines that the...

  19. GRB Hubble diagram and constraints on a \\Lambda (t)CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Velten, Hermano; Carneiro, Saulo

    2012-01-01

    In previous papers, a cosmological model with constant-rate particle creation and vacuum term decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter was shown to lead to a good concordance when tested against precise observations: the position of the first peak in the spectrum of anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Hubble diagram for supernovas of type Ia (SNe Ia), the distribution of large-scale structures (LSS) and the distance to the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). That model has the same number of parameters as the spatially flat standard model and seems to alleviate some observational/theoretical tensions appearing in the later. In this letter we complement those tests with 109 gamma ray bursters (GRB), 59 of them with redshifts above z=1.4, which permits to extend the Hubble diagram to redshifts up to z ~ 8. For the calibration of the 50 GRBs with z<1.4 we use the 288 supernovas of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) project, calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, less model-dependent th...

  20. The ATLAS(3D) project : VIII. Modelling the formation and evolution of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies within lambda CDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Emsellem, Eric; Serra, Paolo; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the origin of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies (ETG) within the hierarchical Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) scenario, that is based on the assumption that the mass fraction of stellar discs in ETGs is a proxy for the specific angular momentum expressed vi

  1. The ATLAS3D project - VIII. Modelling the formation and evolution of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies within ΛCDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Emsellem, Eric; Serra, Paolo; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the origin of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies (ETG) within the hierarchical Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario, that is based on the assumption that the mass fraction of stellar discs in ETGs is a proxy for the specific angular momentum expressed via λR. Within

  2. New Arenas of Engagement at the Water Governance-Climate Finance Nexus? An Analysis of the Boom and Bust of Hydropower CDM Projects in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Middleton, C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether new arenas of engagement for water governance have been created and utilised following the implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in large hydropower projects in Vietnam. Initial optimism for climate finance – in particular amongst Northern aid

  3. Diagnosis of social and environmental evaluation of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects; Diagnostico da sustentabilidade socioambiental nas atividades de projetos candidatos ao MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziliotto, Marco Aurelio B.; Villa, Alessandra T.; Padilha, Simone L. Vieira; Canaverde, Patricia Margue [Instituto Ecoplan, PR (Brazil); Sanqueta, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) contributes to sustainability and to sustainable development in those countries where CDM projects are developed and helps the countries from Annex I to achieve their reduction targets to Greenhouse Gases. This paper presents a proposal of a social and environmental sustainability diagnosis making use of a tool called Social and Environmental Evaluation Matrix - MADSA{sup R}. Its purpose is to establish and measure appropriate sustainable indicators to evaluate projects to ensure development benefits of CDM projects in host countries in consistency with Annex I countries developmental goals. MADSA{sup R} methodology allows a definition of a social and environmental baseline to MDL projects, and provides information to any interested group of people, from stockholders to local community; showing its results. It allows a greater clients', stockholders' and investor's trust as it measures the development so it makes possible the diagnosis and the comparison between all phases of the project. It also contributes to a continuous improvement through the participation of benefit groups in the diagnosis. Besides being an evaluation method and a management tool, this proposal looks for being a reference as an indicator pattern that evaluates the sustainable social and environmental development of CDM projects. (author)

  4. The ATLAS3D project - VIII. Modelling the formation and evolution of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies within ΛCDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Emsellem, Eric; Serra, Paolo; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the origin of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies (ETG) within the hierarchical Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario, that is based on the assumption that the mass fraction of stellar discs in ETGs is a proxy for the specific angular momentum expressed via λR. Within

  5. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  6. A conceptual analysis of the application of tradable permits to biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissel, Silvia; Wätzold, Frank

    2010-04-01

    Tradable permits have been applied in many areas of environmental policy and may be a response to increasing calls for flexible conservation instruments that successfully conserve biodiversity while allowing for economic development. The idea behind applying tradable permits to conservation is that developers wishing to turn land to economic purposes, thereby destroying valuable habitat, may only do so if they submit a permit to the conservation agency showing that habitat of at least the equivalent ecological value is restored elsewhere. The developer himself does not need to carry out the restoration, but may buy a permit from a third party, thus allowing a market to emerge. Nevertheless, the application of tradable permits to biodiversity conservation is a complex issue because destroyed and restored habitats are likely to differ. There may be various trade-offs between the ecological requirements that destroyed and restored habitats be as similar as possible, and the need for a certain level of market activity to have a functioning trading system. The success of tradable permits as an instrument for reconciling the conflicts between economic development and conservation depends on the existence of certain economic, institutional, and ecological preconditions, for example, a functioning institutional framework, sufficient expert knowledge, and adequate monitoring and enforcement mechanisms.

  7. Learning with Trade Unionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooton, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Recommends that the study of trade unions be included in the school curriculum. Argues that learning about relationships between unions and management through interviews, observations, and simulations can enhance the overall approach to teaching about controversial topics. Gives examples of some attempts to do this in schools. (TW)

  8. DISMAYED OVER TRADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen. That’s the number of China’s actual working days in February, largely due to the Spring Festival. Yet somehow, in such a short working month, exports soared to new highs, causing the trade surplus to boom once again. According to statistics fr

  9. Intra-industry trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntra-industry trade arises if a country simultaneously imports and exports similar types of goods or services. Similarity is identified here by the goods or services being classified in the same “sector”. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that we focus on the sector “cars”. Intra-indus

  10. Slowdown Trade Surplus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo Zhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to Ma Kai's economic planning report submitted to the NPC session on March 5th.(Ma Kai is the Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission),the government has listed the slowdown in trade surplus growth and the steady expansion of,external investment as major tasks for 2008.

  11. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  12. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  13. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  14. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    Aryanization is associated with Nazi Germany's policies to exclude Jews in the Germany from the economy in the pre-war years, but I will show it was a global policy from 1937. The utopian goal of international Aryanization was the total removal of Jews who traded with Germany anywhere in the world...

  15. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  16. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  17. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  18. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness la

  19. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    The longer the time taken for import/export procedures or journey, the more expensive ... , p10 (Last accessed April 2014). 7 Jean-Paul .... environment, product standards, technical barriers to trade etc. in order to lower cost of moving ..... consumer electronics, and auto spare parts. For all other ...

  20. Refining models for quantifying the water quality benefits of improved animal management for use in water quality trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market-based approach that allows point sources of water pollution to meet their water quality obligations by purchasing credits from the reduced discharges from other point or nonpoint sources. Non-permitted animal operations and fields of permitted animal operatio...

  1. Energy trading; Trading de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glachant, J.M. [Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France); Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E. [and others

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  2. The Appeal for Trade Liberalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China takes advantage of APEC summit to encourage action against trade protectionism since the outbreak of the financial crisis last year, top Chinese leaders have been consistent in their appeals for trade and investment

  3. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  4. Cashing In On Free Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) is, of course, not a zero-sum game. Responding to concerns over escalating competition associated with free trade, ASEAN Secretary General Surin Pitsuwan said in a press release issued at

  5. Extracting geography from trade data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuke; Wu, Tianhao; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding international trade is a fundamental problem in economics-one standard approach is via what is commonly called the "gravity equation", which predicts the total amount of trade Fi j between two countries i and j as

  6. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  7. Including International Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    Starting on January 1 st, 2012, the international aviation sector will be included into the already existing EU ETS. All air crafts departing and arriving within the European Union will be obliged to hold permits corresponding to their total emissions of CO{sub 2} for those routes. Since emissions from the international aviation sector are not included under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Commission has decided to introduce a trading barrier between the sectors in order not to jeopardize the Kyoto targets. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential loss in cost-effectiveness of introducing such a trading barrier between two sectors taking into account that damage from emissions is not necessarily uniform. A theoretical model is developed to address the question and it is found that, at least for the case with linking the international aviation sector to the stationary sources within the EU ETS, the trading barrier might be unwarranted as it might lead to higher damage from emissions as compared to alternative ways to link the trading sectors. However, it should be stressed that this finding is not general and caution should be taken in the future when linking emission trading schemes as, depending on the heterogeneity of emission damage, a trading barrier might very well be justified

  8. Facing Title V permit constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patankar, U.M. [JACA Corp., Fort Washington, PA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The new Title V operating permit requirement under state regulations pursuant to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will cover every emission source at a facility. These rules will significantly affect an operation by setting minimum compliance requirements, mandating periodic compliance certification, prescribing complex monitoring, record keeping and reporting procedures and making state and EPA approval of routine operational changes necessary through a permit amendment. The main concern with Title V is its effect on the operational flexibility of a facility, and individual emission sources within that facility. Unless properly addressed in a permit document, the term operational flexibility, so freely used by regulators in the context of the Title V program, can turn into a misnomer and the ability to operate as before may be significantly compromised under Title V. True operational flexibility is essential for businesses to respond to real changes in the marketplace. In the age of automation, just-in-time inventories and increased competition, flexibility to operate can mean the difference between growth and stagnation.

  9. Changes in China's Trade Policy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xi; Zhang Yong

    2010-01-01

    @@ We will steadily develop foreign trade. The main issues are to exploit new markets, adjust the trade structure and promote trade balance", Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao delivered a government work report at the opening meeting of the annual full session of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, which started in Beijing on March 5, declaring a new development path of Chinese foreign trade in 2010.

  10. Do Insider Trading Laws Work?

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    By calculating an estimated measure of undetected insider trading, this paper shows that profits made by informed corporate insiders prior to tender offer announcements increase after the first enforcement of insider trading laws. I analyze the effects of Insider Trading regulation on a sample of 5,099 acquisitions in 56 different countries, and estimate the profits due to insider trading from the abnormal volume in the weeks prior to the announcement, under the assumption that insiders purch...

  11. The role of abatement costs in GHG permit allocations : a global reduction scenario with the World-MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Kanudia, A. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Groupe d' etudes et de recherche en analyse des decisions; Loulou, R. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Groupe d' etudes et de recherche en analyse des decisions]|[McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-05-01

    The World-MARKAL model was used to examine a permit trading system to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The model considered the participation of all countries, including developing countries. Allocation schemes aimed at fair distribution of net abatement costs among world regions were proposed. The net abatement costs for each region are good indicators of where more abatement measures are needed. Equity issues relative to permit allocations and burden sharing were also presented along with the allocation methodology. The gross abatement costs before permit trading were calculated for each region. The main advantages and disadvantages of this approach were listed. It was concluded that permit allocation schemes based on cost distribution make it possible to obtain solutions with equalized net costs per gross domestic product for all regions. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol: a legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettelheim, Eric C; D'Origny, Gilonne

    2002-08-15

    The controversy over the issues of carbon sinks and emissions trading nearly aborted the Kyoto Protocol. The lengthy and intense debate over the roles that each are to play under the Protocol and the consequent political compromises has resulted in a complex set of provisions and an arcane nomenclature. The distinction drawn between the use of carbon sinks in developed countries under Joint Implementation and their use in developing countries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a particular source of intricacy. It is at least arguable that key elements of the compromises reached at COP-6 and COP-7 in this regard are inconsistent with the terms of the Protocol and are ultra vires the Convention on Climate Change. This is a source of both uncertainty and potential legal challenge. Not only do the recent decisions create needless complexity, they also clearly discriminate against developing nations. Among the recent political compromises is the creation of a third type of non-bankable but tradeable unit with respect to forest management, which is only available to Annex I countries. The result is an anomalous one in which a variety of otherwise equivalent carbon credits can be generated under three different regimes including one, the CDM, that is subject to an elaborate regulatory overlay that discriminates against carbon sequestration by developing countries. For example, complying developed countries can essentially self-certify sequestration projects. In contrast, projects in developing countries must obtain prior approval from a subsidiary body, the CDM Executive Board, mandated to require detailed information and impose substantive and procedural hurdles not required or imposed by its companion body, the Article 6 Supervisory Committee on Joint Implementation Projects. The parallel and related debate over the third 'flexibility' mechanism, emissions trading, compounded the complexity of an already asymmetric and bifurcated system. The new requirements

  13. How Insiders Traded before Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: U.K. company insiders, such as directors, were legally allowed to trade in the shares of their own companies up until the Companies Act of 1980. We investigate the trading behaviour of directors over the period 1893 to 1907 in the U.K. Although insider trading was profitable, we find relat

  14. A New Way To Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China expands yuan settlement in trade with Russia, while allowing the yuan to trade against the ruble Cross-border trade between China and Russia was bountiful throughout the 1990s as a group of Chinese and Russian dealers,nicknamed the daoye, or profiteers who buy low and sell high, shuttled consumer goods

  15. How Insiders Traded before Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: U.K. company insiders, such as directors, were legally allowed to trade in the shares of their own companies up until the Companies Act of 1980. We investigate the trading behaviour of directors over the period 1893 to 1907 in the U.K. Although insider trading was profitable, we find

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. Proceedings - CATEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms for greenhouse gas reduction are emerging market-based instruments for climate change policy. This book presents a selection of papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and Concerted Action on Tradeable Emissions Permits (CATEP), to discuss key research and policy issues relating to the design and implementation of these instruments. The papers cover the experience of developing and transition countries with greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. In addition, the papers examine the use of tradeable permits in policy mixes and harmonisation of emissions trading schemes, as well as transition issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions trading markets.

  17. Surface water quality management using an integrated discharge permit and the reclaimed water market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Shervin; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Water quality trading is a sustainable framework for surface water quality management. It uses discharge permits to reduce the total treatment costs. For example, the case of Gharesoo River in Iran shows that the nitrogen permit market between point and non-point sources is 37% more economical than the command and control framework. Nevertheless, the cost saving may be reduced to 6% by the end of the study period (2050). This depression may be due to the limited technical support for wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an integrated market is recommended in which the discharge permits and the reclaimed water are traded simultaneously. In this framework, the allocation of secondary treated domestic wastewater for irrigation can provide capacity for other pollutants to discharge into the surface water. This innovative approach may decrease the total treatment costs by 63% at present, while 65%, may be achieved by the end of the study period. Furthermore, this market is able to determine the environmental penalty, trading permits, and reuse prices. For example, the maximum ratio of the average reuse price to the penalty cost is determined as 1 to 10. It is introduced as an incentive indicator for stakeholders to consider the integrated market. Consequently, the applicability and the efficiency of using this approach are verified long term.

  18. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  19. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model......’ has spread far beyond the Anglo-Saxon countries and is now commonplace for unions as a way to reach new worker constituencies. Thus, even in ‘institutionally secure’ countries like Germany and the Nordic countries, unions are employing organising strategies while at the same time trying to defend...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...

  20. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  1. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  2. CDM在光伏产业中的应用研究%Study on Application of CDM in Photovohaic Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛宏斌

    2012-01-01

    太阳能是国际社会公认的最理想的替代能源,中国太阳能资源丰富,由于欧美各国市场需求的增大,中国光伏产业取得了快速的发展。但目前中国光伏产业还处于起步阶段,仍面临着资金和技术等难题,而清洁发展机制(CDM)是一种基于市场的灵活履约机制,在中国光伏产业中引入清洁发展机制,不但有利于减少温室气体的排放,而且可大大缓解因资金和技术所带来的问题,并带来一系列环境和社会效益。其次。以锦州市一座10MW光伏并网电站为例,计算了其年减排量,并对发电收益和CDM项目收益进行了比较及论证。%Solar energy is recognized the most ideal alternative by international community. China has abundant solar energy resources and China's photovohaic industry developed rapidly with the increasing demand from Europe and the United State. PV industry in China is still at the initial stage, facing financial and technical problems. Clean development mechanism(CDM) is a flexible mechanism based on the market performance. The introduction of CDM in PV industry will help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relieve the problems caused by financial and technical problems and bring a series of environmental and social benefits. This study calculated the annual reduced emission of greenhouse gas with a 10 MW solar PV power station in Jinzhou as example. Furthermore, the profits of power generation, CDM project and the cost of power station were compared and demonstrated.

  3. Does trade affect child health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  4. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  5. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  6. Trading Out of Poverty: Some Major Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikić, Mia

    2000-01-01

    What are the ways in which trade (trade liberalisation) may have impact on poverty? This paper looks at some of the findings of the analytical literature on trade-poverty linkages that operate through the impact of trade on income distribution, and through the impact of trade on economic growth. This paper further asks the question whether trade effects on poverty depend on a particular type of trade liberalisation. In particular, it exposes the weaknesses of non-reciprocal trade liberalisati...

  7. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Pardo, Hector; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  8. Tapping Into Trading Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Ali

    2011-01-01

    China’s online trading entrepreneurs rush to meet growing demand of netizen shoppers AS the sun rises over the Beijing Zoo area, many would be mistaken in thinking that the animals will be the only ones reacting to the change of light.While most Beijing residents are still asleep,an entire workforce is already on the go,seven days a week.These

  9. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  10. Online Digital Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician Alecu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main options a digital content creator has in order to obtain money by online trading of digital works. There are multiple ways to get paid for the digital products, like licensing, for example, however this article tries to present the most successful business models targeting the online market. The exclusive rights stated by the copyright laws are helping the authors to maximize to potential advantages coming from their digital creations.

  11. Modern Maritime Trade Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    historically established method for conducting maritime trade warfare is Maritime Interdiction Operations ( MIO ). In the context of this paper, the...operating far from friendly shores. Accordingly, this tool would be most useful against nations with less capable navies. An advantage of MIO in...or collateral damage. 6 Large-scale MIO can be resource intensive and time consuming, and the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard have limited ships and

  12. Clean Development Mechanism and Construction of Carbon Trading Market in China%清洁发展机制与中国碳排放交易市场的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羊志洪; 鞠美庭; 周怡圃; 王琦

    2011-01-01

    清洁发展机制是《京都议定书》创设的实现全球碳减排目标的三大灵活机制之一,为我国的可持续发展作出了重大贡献,但其在我国运行中存在的问题也对我国参与国际碳市场和构建国内碳市场带来了风险与障碍.针对于此,本文对中国清洁发展机制项目的类型、数量、注册、签发等情况进行对比,发现我国虽然项目众多,但发展极不平衡.在此基础上,分析了中国清洁发展机制存在的主要问题,包括法律保障机制缺失,项目减排潜力发挥不充分,缺乏对转让技术的科学评估等.然后,通过介绍国际碳排放交易市场发展的不确定性和在2012年“后京都时期”的发展趋势,揭示了中国在这一过程中所承担的项目投资减少、成本增加等市场风险以及“碳泄漏”等环境风险.针对上述问题和风险,本文提出以现有清洁发展机制经验为基础构建中国国内碳排放交易市场的基本思路,即建立以排放交易法律体系为基础,以自愿碳交易市场构建为起点,以完善的监督管理体系为保障的中国碳排放交易机制.%The clean development mechanism (CDM) is one of the three "flexibility" mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol. The CDM has made an important contribution to the sustainable development in China; however, there are still many problems during the operation of CDM in China and this situation puts participation of China in the international carbon trading market and construction of domestic carbon trading market at risk. In light of this, this paper compares the types, amount, registration and issue of CDM projects in China, and then finds that the CDM projects are in large quantity, but the development of different types of projects is uneven. On this basis, we analyze the main problems of CDM in China, including the lack of legal system, insufficient potential of emission reduction and lack of scientific assessment of transferred

  13. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  14. Forest Products Industry Permitting Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. The continental free trade area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    non-tariff barriers, and time in transit costs). Our simulations for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with a selected group of African countries show that this is very much a second-best option, and the inclusion of most of the significant economies in Africa generates the best results. Only in the event......The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...

  16. Rosebud Casino and Hotel NPDES Proposed Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Country, Minor Permit, proposed permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  17. Air Force Academy MS4 NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042007, the U.S. Air Force Academy is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer system outfalls to the receiving waters specified in the permit in El Paso County, Colorado.

  18. 45 CFR 670.13 - Permit administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Permits § 670.13 Permit administration. (a) Issuance of the... U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) or any native bird which is protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16...

  19. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Landings Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual shrimp landings at the permit level from 2005-current fishing year. This also contains annual value of permit holders shrimp landings by...

  20. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  1. 36 CFR 13.112 - Permit revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit revocation. 13.112... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.112 Permit revocation. (a) The... request for a hearing concerning the revocation, based on the cause listed above, of a permit or...

  2. 50 CFR 21.41 - Depredation permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.41... control purposes. No permit is required merely to scare or herd depredating migratory birds other than... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depredation permits. 21.41 Section 21.41...

  3. Permitting plan for Hanford tanks initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-10

    This plan describes all the possible permitting actions that could be required to implement the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project (HTI). Since the HTI Project Plan has several decision points where possible future activities could be eliminated, not all permitting actions described will be implemented. The cost and schedule for the permitting actions are included.

  4. 36 CFR 13.188 - Permit terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit terms. 13.188 Section....188 Permit terms. The Superintendent shall allow for use and occupancy of a temporary facility only to... Superintendent may also establish permit terms that: (a) Limit use to a specified period, not to exceed...

  5. 36 CFR 13.164 - Permit terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit terms. 13.164 Section... PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins Cabin Use for Subsistence Purposes § 13.164 Permit terms. The Superintendent shall, among other conditions, establish terms of a permit that: (a) Allow for use and...

  6. 78 FR 18420 - Special Permit Applications Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... processing of, special permits from the Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49 CFR... permit S.P No. Applicant Regulation(s) thereof MODIFICATION SPECIAL PERMIT GRANTED 11470-M Veolia ES... Flanders, NJ. marking requirements. 15655-M Walt Disney Parks and 49 CFR 173.56(b) and To modify the...

  7. Cuspy No More: How Outflows Affect the Central Dark Matter and Baryon Distribution in Lambda CDM Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, F; Pontzen, A; Christensen, C; Oh, S H; Brooks, A M; Quinn, T; Shen, S; Wadsley, J

    2012-01-01

    We examine the evolution of the inner dark matter (DM) and baryonic density profile of a new sample of simulated field galaxies using fully cosmological, Lambda CDM, high resolution SPH + N-Body simulations. These simulations include explicit H2 and metal cooling, star formation (SF) and supernovae (SNe) driven gas outflows. Starting at high redshift, rapid, repeated gas outflows following bursty SF transfer energy to the DM component and significantly flatten the originally `cuspy' central DM mass profile of galaxies with present day stellar masses in the 10^4.5 -- 10^9.8 Msolar range. At z=0, the central slope of the DM density profile of our galaxies (measured between 0.3 and 0.7 kpc from their centre) is well fitted by rhoDM propto r^alpha with alpha \\simeq -0.5 + 0.35 log_10(Mstar/10^8Msolar) where Mstar is the stellar mass of the galaxy and 4 < log_10 Mstar < 9.4. These values imply DM profiles flatter than those obtained in DM--only simulations and in close agreement with those inferred in galaxi...

  8. Free Vibration Analysis of DWCNTs Using CDM and Rayleigh-Schmidt Based on Nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anna De Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration response of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs is investigated. The DWCNTs are modelled as two beams, interacting between them through the van der Waals forces, and the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. The governing equations of motion are derived using a variational approach and the free frequencies of vibrations are obtained employing two different approaches. In the first method, the two double-walled carbon nanotubes are discretized by means of the so-called “cell discretization method” (CDM in which each nanotube is reduced to a set of rigid bars linked together by elastic cells. The resulting discrete system takes into account nonlocal effects, constraint elasticities, and the van der Waals forces. The second proposed approach, belonging to the semianalytical methods, is an optimized version of the classical Rayleigh quotient, as proposed originally by Schmidt. The resulting conditions are solved numerically. Numerical examples end the paper, in which the two approaches give lower-upper bounds to the true values, and some comparisons with existing results are offered. Comparisons of the present numerical results with those from the open literature show an excellent agreement.

  9. Free vibration analysis of DWCNTs using CDM and Rayleigh-Schmidt based on Nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Maria Anna; Lippiello, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The free vibration response of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) is investigated. The DWCNTs are modelled as two beams, interacting between them through the van der Waals forces, and the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. The governing equations of motion are derived using a variational approach and the free frequencies of vibrations are obtained employing two different approaches. In the first method, the two double-walled carbon nanotubes are discretized by means of the so-called "cell discretization method" (CDM) in which each nanotube is reduced to a set of rigid bars linked together by elastic cells. The resulting discrete system takes into account nonlocal effects, constraint elasticities, and the van der Waals forces. The second proposed approach, belonging to the semianalytical methods, is an optimized version of the classical Rayleigh quotient, as proposed originally by Schmidt. The resulting conditions are solved numerically. Numerical examples end the paper, in which the two approaches give lower-upper bounds to the true values, and some comparisons with existing results are offered. Comparisons of the present numerical results with those from the open literature show an excellent agreement.

  10. Discovery of a Supercluster at $z\\sim$0.91 and Testing the $\\Lambda$CDM Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J -W; Lee, S -K; Edge, A C; Hyun, M; Kim, D; Choi, C; Hong, J; Jeon, Y; Jun, H D; Karouzos, M; Kim, D; Kim, J H; Kim, Y; Park, W -K; Taak, Y C; Yoon, Y

    2016-01-01

    The $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model successfully reproduces many aspects of the galaxy and structure formation of the universe. However, the growth of large-scale structures (LSSs) in the early universe is not well tested yet with observational data. Here, we have utilized wide and deep optical--near-infrared data in order to search for distant galaxy clusters and superclusters ($0.8

  11. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...... demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show...

  12. Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

    2012-07-01

    We study interactions between a 'policy bloc's' emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy 'fringe' of countries (such as for the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol). Policy-bloc firms are assumed to benefit from free quota allocations that are updated according to either past emissions or past outputs. We show that both overall abatement, and the allocation of given abatement between the policy bloc and the fringe, tend to be inefficient. When the policy-bloc quota market and offset markets are fully integrated (and firms buy offsets directly from the fringe), and all quotas and offsets must be traded at a single price, it is optimal for the policy bloc to either not constrain the offset market whatsoever, or to ban offsets completely. The former (latter) case occurs when free allocation of quotas is not too generous (very generous), and the offset market can profitably deliver large (only a small) quota amounts. Governments of policy countries would however instead prefer to buy offsets directly from the fringe at a price below the policy-bloc quota price. The offset price will then be below the marginal damage cost of emissions, and the quota price in the policy bloc above marginal damage cost. This solution is also inefficient as the policy bloc (acting as a monopsonist) purchases too few offsets from the fringe.(Author)

  13. Four essays in international trade: Trade flows in food products

    OpenAIRE

    Straume, Hans-Martin

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays within the field of international trade economics, as well as an introduction chapter. All four papers are empirical studies of trade flows in food products using transaction data. The first chapter introduces the data used in the papers, and provides a brief review of the general literature. During the last decades, the focus in international economics has shifted from studies of trade flows using aggregated data to studies of firm behavior. Historic...

  14. Atomic Parity Violation, Muon Pair Production in e+e - Collisions and Detection of CDM WIMP-Physics Related to Neutral Vector Boson D1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, H.

    1999-11-01

    In our preon model there exists a neutral vector boson D1 which is an isoscalar partner of W(Z) in the vector boson octet. It is shown that the exchange of a D1 of about 1 TeV mass naturally explains a positive excess of the weak charge of atomic cesium recently observed. Other processes occurring through the D1 exchange are discussed, including the detection of CDM WIMP.

  15. Bilateral trade agreements and the feasibility of multilateral free trade

    OpenAIRE

    Saggi, Kamal; Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares stable Nash equilibria of two games of trade liberalization. In the FTA game, each country can form an FTA with either one of its trade partners, or both of them, or none of them. By contrast, in the No FTA game, each country must choose either no agreement or free trade. Under symmetry, free trade is uniquely stable under the No FTA game whereas the FTA game also admits a bilateral FTA as an equilibrium. However, there exist patterns of cost asymmetry for which the freedo...

  16. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths...... and weaknesses of the two schemes are compared in a public choice setting which focuses on group size, selective incentives, entrepreneurship and lobbyism from industry. The result is threefold. First, the big countries (due to small group advantages) dominated the Kyoto negotiations. Second...

  17. Bilateral trade agreements and the feasibility of multilateral free trade

    OpenAIRE

    SAGGI, Kamal; Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares stable Nash equilibria of two games of trade liberalization. In the FTA game, each country can form an FTA with either one of its trade partners, or both of them, or none of them. By contrast, in the No FTA game, each country must choose either no agreement or free trade. Under symmetry, free trade is uniquely stable under the No FTA game whereas the FTA game also admits a bilateral FTA as an equilibrium. However, there exist patterns of cost asymmetry for which the freedo...

  18. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  19. Federal Environmental Permitting Handbook. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The handbook consists of eight chapters addressing permitting and licensing requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Federal Insectide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Each chapter consists of: (1) an introduction to the statute and permitting requirements; (2) a diagram illustrating the relationship between permitting requirements under the statute being discussed and permitting requirements from other environmental statutes which may have to be addressed when applying for a particular permit (e.g., when applying for a RCRA permit, permits and permit applications under the CWA, CAA, SDWA, etc. would have to be listed in the RCRA permit application); and, (3) a compilation of the permitting requirements for the regulatory program resulting from the statute. In addition, the Handbook contains a permitting keyword index and a listing of hotline telephone numbers for each of the statutes.

  20. Evolution of Trading strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Javier

    2007-03-01

    We attempt to classify the trading strategies of agents in the London Stock Exchange into broad categories. Our study is based on that that identifies the member of the exchange associated with each transaction. Based on the evolution of the inventory (holdings of the stock) as a function of time, we use clustering methods to classify the strategies into several groups. We study how these groups evolve in time and attempt to correlate the membership of the groups with other market properties, such as price volatility.

  1. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1999-10-18

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W further specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of this Permit Condition, ''best efforts'' mean submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies.

  2. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-10-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. This status report also addresses Permit Condition I.E.22, as interpreted in Section 12.1.25 of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, General Information Portion (DOE/RL-91-28, Rev. 4), that states this report will be prepared annually and a copy of this report will be placed in the Facility Operating Record, General Information file by October 1 of each year.

  3. 40 CFR 124.9 - Administrative record for draft permits when EPA is the permitting authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....9 Administrative record for draft permits when EPA is the permitting authority. (a) The provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative record for draft permits when EPA is the permitting authority. 124.9 Section 124.9 Protection of Environment...

  4. 40 CFR 124.18 - Administrative record for final permit when EPA is the permitting authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....18 Administrative record for final permit when EPA is the permitting authority. (a) The Regional... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative record for final permit when EPA is the permitting authority. 124.18 Section 124.18 Protection of Environment...

  5. Viability of biofuel use in CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) projects; Viabilidade do uso do biodiesel para projetos de MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Julio; Lima, Luciana Santana de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel, renewable energy source, has been adopted by several countries as a possible substitute for fossil fuels. Brazil, by its own, included oil and fat derived biofuel in its energetic matrix through National Politics for Biofuel Use and Production (NPBUP), issue in Law n. 11.097 of 01/13/2005. Many studies demonstrate the contribution of biofuel for Greenhouse Gases reduction, what turns projects using it into possible candidates for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), instrument described in Kyoto Protocol. With purpose of studying the Brazilian potentiality of the insertion of biofuel into CDM projects, this report approaches many aspects related to CDM, as well the terms for being accepted as so. Through bibliographic review were listed the possibilities and the restraints for including biofuel in carbon market resulted, principally, by the obligation of its use; what goes against the principle of voluntary, for seen in the Protocol. I concluded analyzing the advantages of biofuel comparatively to environmental issues, emphasizing the necessity of making viable its entrance into carbon credits market. (author)

  6. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM) in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Denise; Cox, Amy; Kampen, Ruth; Kobayashi, Karen; Cook, Heather; Taylor, Deanne; Gaspard, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM) designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators), and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists), working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change. PMID:27417591

  7. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM) in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Denise; Cox, Amy; Kampen, Ruth; Kobayashi, Karen; Cook, Heather; Taylor, Deanne; Gaspard, Gina

    2016-01-04

    Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM) designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators), and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists), working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change.

  8. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cloutier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators, and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists, working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change.

  9. DISCOVERY OF A SUPERCLUSTER AT z ∼ 0.91 AND TESTING THE ΛCDM COSMOLOGICAL MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Seong-Kook; Hyun, Minhee; Kim, Dohyeong; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Kim, Yongjung; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Edge, Alastair C. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Jeon, Yiseul; Jun, Hyunsung David; Karouzos, Marios; Kim, Duho [Astronomy Program, FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Park, Won-Kee, E-mail: kjw0704@gmail.com, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    The ΛCDM cosmological model successfully reproduces many aspects of the galaxy and structure formation of the universe. However, the growth of large-scale structures (LSSs) in the early universe is not well tested yet with observational data. Here, we have utilized wide and deep optical–near-infrared data in order to search for distant galaxy clusters and superclusters (0.8 < z < 1.2). From the spectroscopic observation with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on the Magellan telescope, three massive clusters at z ∼ 0.91 are confirmed in the SSA22 field. Interestingly, all of them have similar redshifts within Δ z ∼ 0.01 with velocity dispersions ranging from 470 to 1300 km s{sup −1}. Moreover, as the maximum separation is ∼15 Mpc, they compose a supercluster at z ∼ 0.91, meaning that this is one of the most massive superclusters at this redshift to date. The galaxy density map implies that the confirmed clusters are embedded in a larger structure stretching over ∼100 Mpc. ΛCDM models predict about one supercluster like this in our surveyed volume, consistent with our finding so far. However, there are more supercluster candidates in this field, suggesting that additional studies are required to determine if the ΛCDM cosmological model can successfully reproduce the LSSs at high redshift.

  10. Trading in Risk Dimensions (TRD)

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Previous work, mostly published, developed two-shell recursive trading systems. An inner-shell of Canonical Momenta Indicators (CMI) is adaptively fit to incoming market data. A parameterized trading-rule outer-shell uses the global optimization code Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) to fit the trading system to historical data. A simple fitting algorithm, usually not requiring ASA, is used for the inner-shell fit. An additional risk-management middle-shell has been added to create a three-shell recursive optimization/sampling/fitting algorithm. Portfolio-level distributions of copula-transformed multivariate distributions (with constituent markets possessing different marginal distributions in returns space) are generated by Monte Carlo samplings. ASA is used to importance-sample weightings of these markets. The core code, Trading in Risk Dimensions (TRD), processes Training and Testing trading systems on historical data, and consistently interacts with RealTime trading platforms at minute resolutions, but ...

  11. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  12. The Influence of Low-carbon Economy on Global Trade Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-jing, Guo

    Since global warming has seriously endangered the living environment of human being and their health and safety, the development of low-carbon economy has become an irreversible global trend. Under the background of economic globalization, low-carbon economy will surely exert a significant impact on global trade pattern. Countries are paying more and more attention to the green trade. The emission permits trade of carbon between the developed countries and the developing countries has become more mature than ever. The carbon tariff caused by the distribution of the "big cake" will make the low-cost advantage in developing countries cease to exist, which will, in turn, affect the foreign trade, economic development, employment and people's living in developing countries. Therefore, under the background of this trend, we should perfect the relevant laws and regulations on trade and environment as soon as possible, optimize trade structure, promote greatly the development of service trade, transform thoroughly the mode of development in foreign trade, take advantage of the international carbon trading market by increasing the added value of export products resulted from technological innovation to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results and promote common development.

  13. Climate Change Creates Trade Opportunity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge to developing economy like India however it also creates opportunity to grow through climate friendly goods production and new direction of trade. This paper focuses India’s potential export trade in climate friendly goods. The estimated gravity model is defined as the potential trade and potential trade gap is measured as how well a bilateral trade flow performs relative to the mean as predicted by the model. Potential trade gap means that actual trade...

  14. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  15. Fixed Exchange Rates and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Klein; Jay C. Shambaugh

    2004-01-01

    A classic argument for a fixed exchange rate is its promotion of trade. Empirical support for this, however, is mixed. While one branch of research consistently shows a small negative effect of exchange rate volatility on trade, another, more recent, branch presents evidence of a large positive impact of currency unions on trade. This paper helps resolve this disconnect. Our results, which use a new data-based classification of fixed exchange rate regimes, show a large, significant effect of ...

  16. The Decade of Trade Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Nan

    2011-01-01

    IT is a well-known saying that whenever the United States sneezes,the world is sure to catch a cold.However,this analogy now seems more appropriate for the economic might of China.This year marks the 10th anniversary of China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO).The nation has gone from being relatively isolated from international trade standards and regulations,to meeting requirements for full participation in world trade.

  17. Trade Relationship between Oman and Its Major Trading Asian Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalam F. Yahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: No empirical research exists that examines the interdependence of trade between Oman and its five major trading Asian partners (Emirates, Japan, South-Korea, Thailand and Mainland China. This study attempted to fill this gap in the literature by examining the interaction of trade between Oman and its major trading Asian partner. Particularly, this study attempted to answer the very important question that is there any feedback effect of the trade relationship between Oman and its major trading Asian partners. Approach: A simultaneous-equations model with a double-log form was developed and tested in this study in order to achieve its objectives. Results: The model was estimated using the Two Stage Least Square (2SLS procedure of estimation and the main findings of the analysis revealed that the price of oil does not seem to be the major determinant of Omani exports to its major trading partners with exception of Japan. The short-term elasticity of Omani imports from its major trading partners with respect to its income seems to be higher (e.g., ranging from 0.55-2.0 in all cases. Conclusion: This study brought new empirical evidence on the trade interdependence and suggested that there is a significant impact (a feedback effect on the level of GDP of Omani's four major trading partners namely Emirates, Japan and South Korea. Therefore, policy maker in sultanate of Oman should be aware of such interdependence and consider the degree of feedback effect of trade in any economic programming that linked and related to these countries.

  18. Free trade in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outterson, M Kevin

    2004-09-06

    Provisions in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) may threaten the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), the "gold standard" of such programs worldwide. If Australia postpones passing of the US Free Trade Agreement Implementation Bill in the Senate, there will be opportunity for broader interests in both the United States and Australia to carefully study the agreement. The provisions of AUSFTA relating to the PBS are supposed to promote transparency, but the pharmaceutical manufacturers themselves (who are demanding transparency) do not reveal the content of their submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, or disclose all their financial relationships with researchers and policymakers. In AUSFTA, the "public health" language of affordable prescription drugs is missing and is replaced by language supporting "pharmaceutical innovation". Debate as to whether AUSFTA will force significant changes to the PBS, including higher drug prices, is currently under way in Australia. Perhaps the appropriate target of reforms should be the excessive US drug prices, and not the economically efficient Australian drug prices.

  19. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  20. Market Size, Trade, and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaviano, Gianmarco; Melitz, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We develop a monopolistically competitive model of trade with firm heterogeneity—in terms of productivity differences—and endogenous differences in the "toughness" of competition across markets—in terms of the number and average productivity of competing firms. We analyse how these features vary across markets of different size that are not perfectly integrated through trade; we then study the effects of different trade liberalization policies. In our model, market size and trade affect...