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Sample records for cdm based mimo

  1. Design of Transmitter for CDM Based 2×2 Multiple Input Multiple Output Channel Sounder for Multipath Delay Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO wireless communication system is an innovative solution to improve the bandwidth efficiency by exploiting multipath-richness of the propagation environment. The degree of multipath-richness of the channel will determine the capacity gain attainable by MIMO deployment. Approach: Therefore, it is very important to have accurate knowledge of the propagation environment/radio channel before MIMO implement. The radio channel behavior can be anticipated by channel measurement or channel sounding. Code Division Multiplexing (CDM is one of the channel sounding techniques that allow accurate measurement at the cost of hardware complexity. CDM based channel sounder, requires code with excellent auto-correlation and cross-correlation properties which generally difficult to be achieved simultaneously. Results: In this study, an efficient transmitter for CDM-based 2×2 MIMO channel sounding technique with Loosely Synchronous (LS codes is designed. Simulation results shows that the channel sounding scheme using LS codes gives very good performance for measuring 2×2 MIMO channel behavior. The BPSK transmitter is designed using MATLAB, Verilog and Xilinx system generator blocks. Conclusion: The whole design is simulated as a single ISE project by using ModelSim simulation tool and compiled using ISE 9.2. However the proposed design of transmitter using LS code of length 8190 bits can measure multipath delay of minimum 0.13 μs and maximum 520 μs.

  2. FPGA based Smart Wireless MIMO Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman Ali, Syed M.; Hussain, Sajid; Akber Siddiqui, Ali; Arshad, Jawad Ali; Darakhshan, Anjum

    2013-12-01

    In our present work, we have successfully designed, and developed an FPGA based smart wireless MIMO (Multiple Input & Multiple Output) system capable of controlling multiple industrial process parameters such as temperature, pressure, stress and vibration etc. To achieve this task we have used Xilin x Spartan 3E FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) instead of conventional microcontrollers. By employing FPGA kit to PC via RF transceivers which has a working range of about 100 meters. The developed smart system is capable of performing the control task assigned to it successfully. We have also provided a provision to our proposed system that can be accessed for monitoring and control through the web and GSM as well. Our proposed system can be equally applied to all the hazardous and rugged industrial environments where a conventional system cannot work effectively.

  3. CSSF MIMO RADAR: Low-Complexity Compressive Sensing Based MIMO Radar That Uses Step Frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yao; Poor, H Vincent

    2011-01-01

    A new approach is proposed, namely CSSF MIMO radar, which applies the technique of step frequency (SF) to compressive sensing (CS) based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar. The proposed approach enables high resolution range, angle and Doppler estimation, while transmitting narrowband pulses. The problem of joint angle-Doppler-range estimation is first formulated to fit the CS framework, i.e., as an L1 optimization problem. Direct solution of this problem entails high complexity as it employs a basis matrix whose construction requires discretization of the angle-Doppler-range space. Since high resolution requires fine space discretization, the complexity of joint range, angle and Doppler estimation can be prohibitively high. For the case of slowly moving targets, a technique is proposed that achieves significant complexity reduction by successively estimating angle-range and Doppler in a decoupled fashion and by employing initial estimates obtained via matched filtering to further reduce the space that nee...

  4. Measurement-Based Performance Evaluation of Advanced MIMO Transceiver Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Uwe; Schneider, Christian; Thomä, Reiner

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and the results of performance investigations on a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transceiver scheme for frequency-selective radio channels. The method relies on offline simulations and employs real-time MIMO channel sounder measurement data to ensure a realistic channel modeling. Thus it can be classified in between the performance evaluation using some predefined channel models and the evaluation of a prototype hardware in field experiments. New aspects for the simulation setup are discussed, which are frequently ignored when using simpler model-based evaluations. Example simulations are provided for an iterative ("turbo") MIMO equalizer concept. The dependency of the achievable bit error rate performance on the propagation characteristics and on the variation in some system design parameters is shown, whereas the antenna constellation is of particular concern for MIMO systems. Although in many of the considered constellations turbo MIMO equalization appears feasible in real field scenarios, there exist cases with poor performance as well, indicating that in practical applications link adaptation of the transmitter and receiver processing to the environment is necessary.

  5. Measurement-Based Performance Evaluation of Advanced MIMO Transceiver Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology and the results of performance investigations on a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transceiver scheme for frequency-selective radio channels. The method relies on offline simulations and employs real-time MIMO channel sounder measurement data to ensure a realistic channel modeling. Thus it can be classified in between the performance evaluation using some predefined channel models and the evaluation of a prototype hardware in field experiments. New aspects for the simulation setup are discussed, which are frequently ignored when using simpler model-based evaluations. Example simulations are provided for an iterative ("turbo" MIMO equalizer concept. The dependency of the achievable bit error rate performance on the propagation characteristics and on the variation in some system design parameters is shown, whereas the antenna constellation is of particular concern for MIMO systems. Although in many of the considered constellations turbo MIMO equalization appears feasible in real field scenarios, there exist cases with poor performance as well, indicating that in practical applications link adaptation of the transmitter and receiver processing to the environment is necessary.

  6. Reconfigurable architecture for MIMO systems based on CORDIC operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Leray, Pierre; Palicot, Jacques

    2006-09-01

    The MIMO system is an attractive technology for wireless 3G/4G systems. In this article we propose the realization on FPGA of a MIMO 'V-BLAST Square Root' algorithm based on a variable number of CORDIC operators. The CORDIC operator is highly suitable for this implementation as it only relies on simple techniques of addition and vector offsets. This square root algorithm architecture is reconfigurable in order to adapt itself to different numbers of antennas and different data rates. The proposed architecture can achieve a data rate of 600 Mbit/s in a Virtex-II FPGA circuit from Xilinx for the MIMO system with QPSK modulation. To cite this article: H. Wang et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  7. Full-duplex MIMO system based on antenna cancellation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foroozanfard, Ehsan; Franek, Ondrej; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an antenna cancellation technique for a multiple-input– multiple-output (MIMO) full-duplex system that is based on null-steering beamforming and antenna polarization diversity is investigated. A practical implementation of a symmetric antenna topology comprising three dual-pola...

  8. Sub-channel interference cancellation in SVD-based MIMO system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For singular value decomposition (SVD)-based multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems, implicit channel state information (CSI) incurs interferences amongst sub-channels if the CSI at the transmitter is not explicit.An improved SVD-based MIMO which can fully cancel the inter sub-channel interferences by reconstructing the transmitter- receiver system matrix on interferences analysis is provided.Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional SVD-based MIMO in a large degree.

  9. EVALUATION OF BER FOR VARIOUS FADING CHANNEL IN DWT BASED MIMO-OFDM SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    D.Meenakshi; Prabha, S.; N. R. Raajan

    2013-01-01

    MIMO communication is mainly use in the OFDM to improve the communication performance and capacity. DWT based MIMO-OFDM is used in this paper. Compare to the FFT based MIMO-OFDM it has lot advantages. There is no need for cyclic prefix, flexibility and optimal resolution. Ripple(Wavelet) concept has developed as a fresh scientific implement with the aim of preserve be functional in several applications such as processing of image, biomedical manufacturing, radar, physics, organize systems als...

  10. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  11. Performance Analysis of Virtual MIMO Relaying Schemes Based on Detect–Split–Forward

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Basit, Suhaib M.

    2014-10-29

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Virtual multi-input multi-output (vMIMO) schemes in wireless communication systems improve coverage, throughput, capacity, and quality of service. In this paper, we propose three uplink vMIMO relaying schemes based on detect–split–forward (DSF). In addition, we investigate the effect of several physical parameters such as distance, modulation type and number of relays. Furthermore, an adaptive vMIMO DSF scheme based on VBLAST and STBC is proposed. In order to do that, we provide analytical tools to evaluate the performance of the propose vMIMO relaying scheme.

  12. Belief Propagation based MIMO Detection Operating on Quantized Channel Output

    CERN Document Server

    Mezghani, Amine

    2010-01-01

    In multiple-antenna communications, as bandwidth and modulation order increase, system components must work with demanding tolerances. In particular, high resolution and high sampling rate analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are often prohibitively challenging to design. Therefore ADCs for such applications should be low-resolution. This paper provides new insights into the problem of optimal signal detection based on quantized received signals for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. It capitalizes on previous works which extensively analyzed the unquantized linear vector channel using graphical inference methods. In particular, a "loopy" belief propagation-like (BP) MIMO detection algorithm, operating on quantized data with low complexity, is proposed. In addition, we study the impact of finite receiver resolution in fading channels in the large-system limit by means of a state evolution analysis of the BP algorithm, which refers to the limit where the number of transmit and receive antennas go t...

  13. Measurement Matrix Design for Compressive Sensing Based MIMO Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Y; Poor, H V

    2011-01-01

    In colocated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar using compressive sensing (CS), a receive node compresses its received signal via a linear transformation, referred to as measurement matrix. The samples are subsequently forwarded to a fusion center, where an L1-optimization problem is formulated and solved for target information. CS-based MIMO radar exploits the target sparsity in the angle-Doppler-range space and thus achieves the high localization performance of traditional MIMO radar but with many fewer measurements. The measurement matrix is vital for CS recovery performance. This paper considers the design of measurement matrices that achieve an optimality criterion that depends on the coherence of the sensing matrix (CSM) and/or signal-to-interference ratio (SIR). The first approach minimizes a performance penalty that is a linear combination of CSM and the inverse SIR. The second one imposes a structure on the measurement matrix and determines the parameters involved so that the SIR is enhanced...

  14. Performance Analysis of 3D Massive MIMO Cellular Systems with Collaborative Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive MIMO have drawn considerable attention as they enable significant capacity and coverage improvement in wireless cellular network. However, pilot contamination is a great challenge in massive MIMO systems. Under this circumstance, cooperation and three-dimensional (3D MIMO are emerging technologies to eliminate the pilot contamination and to enhance the performance relative to the traditional interference-limited implementations. Motivated by this, we investigate the achievable sum rate performance of MIMO systems in the uplink employing cooperative base station (BS and 3D MIMO systems. In our model, we consider the effects of both large-scale and small-scale fading, as well as the spatial correlation and indoor-to-outdoor high-rise propagation environment. In particular, we investigate the cooperative communication model based on 3D MIMO and propose a closed-form lower bound on the sum rate. Utilizing this bound, we pursue a “large-system” analysis and provide the asymptotic expression when the number of antennas at the BS grows large, and when the numbers of antennas at transceiver grow large with a fixed ratio. We demonstrate that the lower bound is very tight and becomes exact in the massive MIMO system limits. Finally, under the sum rate maximization condition, we derive the optimal number of UTs to be served.

  15. A Self-organized MIMO-OFDM-based Cellular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünheid, Rainer; Fellenberg, Christian

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a system proposal for a self-organized cellular network, which is based on the MIMO-OFDM transmission technique. Multicarrier transmission, combined with appropriate beamforming concepts, yields high bandwidth-efficiency and shows a robust behavior in multipath radio channels. Moreover, it provides a fine and tuneable granularity of space-time-frequency resources. Using a TDD approach and interference measurements in each cell, the Base Stations (BSs) decide autonomously which of the space-time-frequency resource blocks are allocated to the Mobile Terminals (MTs) in the cell, in order to fulfil certain Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. Since a synchronized Single Frequency Network (SFN), i.e., a re-use factor of one is applied, the resource blocks can be shared adaptively and flexibly among the cells, which is very advantageous in the case of a non-uniform MT distribution.

  16. Stiefel Manifold and TCQ based on Unit Memory Coding for MIMO System

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    Vijey Thayananthan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Multi Input and Multi Output (MIMO systems have been analyzed with a number of quantization techniques. In this short communication, few problems like performance and accuracy are investigated through a quantization technique based on Stiefel Manifold (SM. In order to improve these problems, suitable Trellis Coded Quantization (TCQ based on Unit Memory (UM coding is studied and applied to SM of MIMO components as a novel approach. Anticipated results are the bit error performance which is an overall improvement of feedback connected between transmitter and receiver of MIMO. As a conclusion, this research not only reduces the quantization problems on SM but also improve the performance and accuracy of limited-rate feedback used in MIMO system.

  17. An Enhanced Leakage-Based Precoding Scheme for Multi-User Multi-Layer MIMO Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chunliang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an enhanced leakage-based precoding scheme, i.e., layer signal to leakage plus noise ratio (layer SLNR) scheme, for multi-user multi-layer MIMO systems. Specifically, the layer SLNR scheme incorporates the MIMO receiver structure into the precoder design procedure, which makes the formulation of signal power and interference / leakage power more accurate. Besides, the layer SLNR scheme not only takes into account the inter-layer interference from different users, but...

  18. Bidirectional MIMO Channel Tracking Based on PASTd and Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Livnat; Gannot (Eurasipmember), Sharon; Shayevitz, Ofer; Leshem, Amir; Zehavi, Ephraim

    2010-12-01

    We consider a bidirectional time division duplex (TDD) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system with time-varying channel and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). A blind bidirectional channel tracking algorithm, based on the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) algorithm, is applied in both terminals. The resulting singular value decomposition (SVD) of the channel matrix is then used to approximately diagonalize the channel. The proposed method is applied to an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-(OFDM-)MIMO setting with a typical indoor time-domain reflection model. The computational cost of the proposed algorithm, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, is relatively small. The Kalman filter is utilized for establishing a benchmark for the obtained performance of the proposed tracking algorithm. The performance degradation relative to a full channel state information (CSI) due to the application of the tracking algorithm is evaluated in terms of average effective rate and the outage probability and compared with alternative tracking algorithms. The obtained results are also compared with a benchmark obtained by the Kalman filter with known input signal and channel characteristics. It is shown that the expected degradation in performance of frequency-domain algorithms (which do not exploit the smooth frequency response of the channel) is only minor compared with time-domain algorithms in a range of reasonable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. The proposed bidirectional frequency-domain tracking algorithm, proposed in this paper, is shown to attain communication rates close to the benchmark and to outperform a competing algorithm. The paper is concluded by evaluating the proposed blind tracking method in terms of the outage probability and the symbol error rate (SER) versus. SNR for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and 4-Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations.

  19. Bidirectional MIMO Channel Tracking Based on PASTd and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayevitz Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider a bidirectional time division duplex (TDD multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication system with time-varying channel and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN. A blind bidirectional channel tracking algorithm, based on the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST algorithm, is applied in both terminals. The resulting singular value decomposition (SVD of the channel matrix is then used to approximately diagonalize the channel. The proposed method is applied to an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-(OFDM-MIMO setting with a typical indoor time-domain reflection model. The computational cost of the proposed algorithm, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, is relatively small. The Kalman filter is utilized for establishing a benchmark for the obtained performance of the proposed tracking algorithm. The performance degradation relative to a full channel state information (CSI due to the application of the tracking algorithm is evaluated in terms of average effective rate and the outage probability and compared with alternative tracking algorithms. The obtained results are also compared with a benchmark obtained by the Kalman filter with known input signal and channel characteristics. It is shown that the expected degradation in performance of frequency-domain algorithms (which do not exploit the smooth frequency response of the channel is only minor compared with time-domain algorithms in a range of reasonable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR levels. The proposed bidirectional frequency-domain tracking algorithm, proposed in this paper, is shown to attain communication rates close to the benchmark and to outperform a competing algorithm. The paper is concluded by evaluating the proposed blind tracking method in terms of the outage probability and the symbol error rate (SER versus. SNR for binary phase shift keying (BPSK and 4-Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM constellations.

  20. Performance Improvement of BER in MIMO Systems with SVD-Based Precoding Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Sethi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Interference is the factor which limits the performance in cellular network. Empowered by precoding and decoding, a spatially multiplexed Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO system becomes a convenient framework to offer high data rate, diversity and interference management. In this paper, we discuss precoding scheme to mitigate the effect of channel fading in MIMO system where there is no limit in number of antennas at transmitter and receiver. With the knowledge of channel state information (CSI the transmitted signal is defined such that the channel fading effect is greatly mitigated. This will improve the BER performance of the MIMO system. For our proposed scheme, we use the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD based approach to design the transmitted signal such that it mitigate the effect of channel fading. After simulation, we observe that the BER performance of MIMO system is better than when equalization technique used alone.

  1. Color-Space-Based Visual-MIMO for V2X Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Youngil; Kim, Ki-Doo

    2016-04-23

    In this paper, we analyze the applicability of color-space-based, color-independent visual-MIMO for V2X. We aim to achieve a visual-MIMO scheme that can maintain the original color and brightness while performing seamless communication. We consider two scenarios of GCM based visual-MIMO for V2X. One is a multipath transmission using visual-MIMO networking and the other is multi-node V2X communication. In the scenario of multipath transmission, we analyze the channel capacity numerically and we illustrate the significance of networking information such as distance, reference color (symbol), and multiplexing-diversity mode transitions. In addition, in the V2X scenario of multiple access, we may achieve the simultaneous multiple access communication without node interferences by dividing the communication area using image processing. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the superior SER performance of the visual-MIMO scheme compared with LED-PD communication and show the numerical result of the GCM based visual-MIMO channel capacity versus distance.

  2. The developing CDM market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Karousakis, K.

    2006-05-15

    This paper presents and analyses the data on proposed CDM projects, including their types, estimates of CO2 (or CO2-equivalent) emission reductions, and the projects' geographic distribution. The data is based predominantly on publicly available project design documents (PDDs) submitted to the EB of the UNFCCC, from national or international carbon funds and from country-specific or other information. The information presented does not include emission reduction estimates from proposed CDM projects that do not yet have a PDD or have not been approved by a host country designated national authority (DNA)

  3. EVALUATION OF BER FOR VARIOUS FADING CHANNEL IN DWT BASED MIMO-OFDM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Meenakshi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MIMO communication is mainly use in the OFDM to improve the communication performance and capacity. DWT based MIMO-OFDM is used in this paper. Compare to the FFT based MIMO-OFDM it has lot advantages. There is no need for cyclic prefix, flexibility and optimal resolution. Ripple(Wavelet concept has developed as a fresh scientific implement with the aim of preserve be functional in several applications such as processing of image, biomedical manufacturing, radar, physics, organize systems also message systems. The essential region of purpose of ripples in communication system: numerous accesses. A fresh modulation/multiplexing scheme consuming ripple transform remained planned for (3rd production organization project 3GPP systems. This fresh modulation system implemented in (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDM scheme in addition to conventional based(FFT transform blocks is replaced by wavelet transform blocks. There are many multiplicity of ripple transforms are offered, out of which four were chosen. They are Haar, Daubechies, Bi-orthogonal and reverse Bi-orthogonal transforms. Haar wavelet is best one of among all types of wavelet. The performance of DWT based MIMO-OFDM is calculated by bit error rate (BER in various channel that is AWGN channel and Rayleigh channel. Using MATLAB-Simulation which channel is best for the DWT based MIMO-OFDM.

  4. Codebook-based interference alignment for uplink MIMO interference channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Hyun Ho

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a codebook-based interference alignment (IA) scheme in the constant multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) interference channel especially for the uplink scenario. In our proposed scheme, we assume cooperation among base stations (BSs) through reliable backhaul links so that global channel knowledge is available for all BSs, which enables BS to compute the transmit precoder and inform its quantized index to the associated user via limited rate feedback link.We present an upper bound on the rate loss of the proposed scheme and derive the scaling law of the feedback load tomaintain a constant rate loss relative to IA with perfect channel knowledge. Considering the impact of overhead due to training, cooperation, and feedback, we address the effective degrees of freedom (DOF) of the proposed scheme and derive the maximization of the effective DOF. From simulation results, we verify our analysis on the scaling law to preserve the multiplexing gain and confirm that the proposed scheme is more effective than the conventional IA scheme in terms of the effective DOF. © 2014 KICS.

  5. Energy Efficiency Comparison of MIMO-Based and Multihop Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios G. Kanatas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs demand the implementation of energy-aware techniques and low-complexity protocols in all layers. Recently, a MIMO-based structure has been proposed to offer enhanced energy savings in WSNs. In this paper, we examine and compare MIMO-based WSN with a multihop transmission in terms of energy efficiency. The results depend on the network density, the channel conditions, and the distance to the destination node. We reach analytical expressions to calculate threshold values of these parameters, which determine the areas where the MIMO-based structure outperforms multihop transmission. Moreover, we present a detailed analysis of the dissipated power during a sensor node_s operation, to prove that as microelectronics develops, the MIMO-based architecture will outperform the equivalent multihop structure for most of the cases examined. Finally, we implement a simple cooperative node selection algorithm to achieve higher energy gains in the MIMO approach, and we examine how this algorithm affects the calculated thresholds.

  6. Performance of Adaptive Subchannel Assignment-Based MIMO/OFDM Systems over Multipath Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive antenna arrays at both the base and mobile stations can further increase system capacity and improve the quality of service of conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Conventional adaptive antenna array-based multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)/OFDM systems use the sub-carriers characterized by the largest eigenvalue to transmit the OFDM symbols. This paper describes the performance of adaptive subchannel assignment-based MIMO/OFDM systems over multipath fading channels. The system adaptively selects the eigenvectors associated with the relatively large subchannel eigenvalues to generate the antenna array weights at the base and mobile stations and then adaptively assigns the corresponding best subchannels to transmit the OFDM symbols. Simulation results show that the proposed system can achieve better performance than the conventional adaptive antenna array-based MIMO/OFDM system over multipath fading channels.

  7. Optimal Power Allocation for GSVD-Based Beamforming in the MIMO Wiretap Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Fakoorian, S Ali A

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian wiretap channel model, where there exists a transmitter, a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper, each equipped with multiple antennas. Perfect secrecy is achieved when the transmitter and the legitimate receiver can communicate at some positive rate, while ensuring that the eavesdropper gets zero bits of information. In this paper, the perfect secrecy capacity of the multiple antenna MIMO wiretap channel is found for aribtrary numbers of antennas under the assumption that the transmitter performs beamforming based on the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD). More precisely, the optimal allocation of power for the GSVD-based precoder that achieves the secrecy capacity is derived. This solution is shown to have several advantages over prior work that considered secrecy capacity for the general MIMO Gaussian wiretap channel under a high SNR assumption. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the proposed theoretical finding...

  8. Novel Base Station MIMO Antennas with Enhanced Spectral Efficiencies Using Angular Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The true polarization diversity (TPD technique is combined with the spatial diversity technique in novel MIMO antenna array geometries with a large number of elements. The use of a large number of elements requires some angular reuse within the array for polarization diversity. With designs compatible with existing base station antenna array configurations, the novel geometries with combining diversity schemes are shown to be able to achieve near the maximum spectral efficiencies. True polarization diversity (TPD schemes are found to be an excellent complement to more conventional spatial diversity schemes for obtaining optimum MIMO array performance in base station antennas.

  9. Maximum-likelihood detection based on branch and bound algorithm for MIMO systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi; CAI YueMing

    2008-01-01

    Maximum likelihood detection for MIMO systems can be formulated as an integer quadratic programming problem. In this paper, we introduce depth-first branch and bound algorithm with variable dichotomy into MIMO detection. More nodes may be pruned with this structure. At each stage of the branch and bound algorithm, active set algorithm is adopted to solve the dual subproblem. In order to reduce the com- plexity further, the Cholesky factorization update is presented to solve the linear system at each iteration of active set algorithm efficiently. By relaxing the pruning conditions, we also present the quasi branch and bound algorithm which imple- ments a good tradeoff between performance and complexity. Numerical results show that the complexity of MIMO detection based on branch and bound algorithm is very low, especially in low SNR and large constellations.

  10. A Fractional Lower Order Statistics-Based MIMO Detection Method in Impulse Noise for Power Line Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Impulse noise in power line communication (PLC channel seriously degrades the performance of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO system. To remedy this problem, a MIMO detection method based on fractional lower order statistics (FLOS for PLC channel with impulse noise is proposed in this paper. The alpha stable distribution is used to model impulse noise, and FLOS is applied to construct the criteria of MIMO detection. Then the optimal detection solution is obtained by recursive least squares algorithm. Finally, the transmitted signals in PLC MIMO system are restored with the obtained detection matrix. The proposed method does not require channel estimation and has low computational complexity. The simulation results show that the proposed method has a better PLC MIMO detection performance than the existing ones under impulsive noise environment.

  11. New variable structure control for MIMO nonlinear system based on I/O linearization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春山; 孙兴进; 曹广益

    2004-01-01

    A novel variable structure control (VSC) with new rapid-smooth reaching law (RSRL) and new rapid-convergent sliding mode (FCSM) is proposed, which is based on analysis of normal VSC system. When it is used for an MIMO nonlinear system, we combine the method of Input/Output linearizing (I/O L) with VSC. After analyzing the robustness of the MIMO nonlinear system, we use this novel controller for Precision One Robot position control system. Simulation provides a quite satisfactory performance with uncertainties and external disturbances.

  12. A HOS-based Blind Signal Extraction Method for Chaotic MIMO Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yun-rui; HE Di; HE Chen; JIANG Ling-ge

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to extract multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) chaotic signals was pro-posed using the blind neural algorithm after transmitting in nonideal channel. The MIMO scheme with different chaotic signal generators was presented. In order to separate the chaotic source signals only by using the sensor signals at receivers, a blind neural extraction algorithm based on higher-order statistic (HOS) technique was used to recover the primary chaotic signals. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has good performance in separating the primary chaotic signals even under nonideal channel.

  13. A Simulation Study on Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Based Beyond 3G Mobile Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chang-chuan; ZHAO Xue-yuan; HOU Xiao-lin; YUE Guang-xin

    2005-01-01

    Multi-Input Multi-Output antennas based Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) has been chosen as the air interface technology for China's beyond 3G Time-Division Duplex (TDD) mobile system in the FuTURE research project. Channel estimation plays a key role on the performance of the MIMO-OFDM receiver. In this paper, we present five channel estimation algorithms and study their performance in a simulated beyond 3G TDD mobile system. Simulation results show that the adaptive 2D-LMS algorithm we proposed recently has the best performance when the signal to noise ratio is lower than 8 dB.

  14. On Blind MIMO System Identification Based on Second-Order Cyclic Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sabri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter introduces a new frequency domain approach for either MIMO System Identification or Source Separation of convolutive mixtures in cyclostationary context. We apply the joint diagonalization algorithm to a set of cyclic spectral density matrices of the measurements to identify the mixing system at each frequency up to permutation and phase ambiguity matrices. An efficient algorithm to overcome the frequency dependent permutations and to recover the phase, even for non-minimum-phase channels, based on cyclostationarity is also presented. The new approach exploits the fact that each input has a different and specific cyclic frequency. A comparison with an existing MIMO method is proposed.

  15. Channelization Issues with Fairness Considerations for MU-MIMO Precoding Based UTRA-LTE/TDD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Wang, Yuanye; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    resource allocation point of view, choice of any technique will require different fairness conditions among users. In this paper, we have studied these different fairness conditions when combined with basic or joint access schemes mentioned above, while applied in a MU-MIMO based UTRA-LTE system. We have...... evaluated the resource allocation fairness issue when two well-known linear MU-MIMO precoding is used on a UTRA-LTE system. User grouping issue is dealt with when SDMA component is considered in the system. The results in this work provides an indicative analysis of the usability of different channelization...

  16. Spatial Frequency Scheduling for Uplink SC-FDMA based Linearly Precoded LTE Multiuser MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zihuai; Xiao, Pei; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) uplink Single Carrier (SC) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) based linearly precoded multiuserMultiple InputMultiple Output (MIMO) systems with frequency domain packet scheduling. A mathematical expression...

  17. Cross-Layer Optimization of MIMO-Based Mesh Networks with Gaussian Vector Broadcast Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia

    2007-01-01

    MIMO technology is one of the most significant advances in the past decade to increase channel capacity and has a great potential to improve network capacity for mesh networks. In a MIMO-based mesh network, the links outgoing from each node sharing the common communication spectrum can be modeled as a Gaussian vector broadcast channel. Recently, researchers showed that ``dirty paper coding'' (DPC) is the optimal transmission strategy for Gaussian vector broadcast channels. So far, there has been little study on how this fundamental result will impact the cross-layer design for MIMO-based mesh networks. To fill this gap, we consider the problem of jointly optimizing DPC power allocation in the link layer at each node and multihop/multipath routing in a MIMO-based mesh networks. It turns out that this optimization problem is a very challenging non-convex problem. To address this difficulty, we transform the original problem to an equivalent problem by exploiting the channel duality. For the transformed problem,...

  18. Hybrid Genetic Crossover Based Swarm Intelligence Optimization for Efficient Resource Allocation in MIMO OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathish Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of wireless services, leads to ubiquitous personal connectivity in the world. The demand for multimedia interactivity is higher in the world which leads to the requirement of high data transmission rate. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM is a future wireless service which is used to overcome the existing service problems such as development of subscriber pool and higher throughput per user. Although it overcomes the problems in existing services, resource allocation becomes one of the major issues in the MIMO-OFDM systems. Resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM is the optimization of subcarrier and power allocation for the user. The overall performance of the system can be improved only with the efficient resource allocation approach. The user data rate is increased by efficient allocation of the subcarrier and power allocation for each user at the base station, which is subject to constraints on total power and bit error rate. In this study, the problem of resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM system is tackled using hybrid artificial bee colony optimization algorithm based on a crossover operation along with Poisson-Jensen in equation. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology is better than the existing techniques.

  19. THE HIGH RESOLUTION MIMO RADAR SYSTEM BASED ON MINIMIZING THE STATISTICAL COHERENCE OF COMPRESSED SENSING MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yanping; Song Yaoliang; Chen Jinli; Zhao Delin

    2012-01-01

    Compressed Sensing (CS) theory is a great breakthrough of the traditional Nyquist sampling theory.It can accomplish compressive sampling and signal recovery based on the sparsity of interested signal,the randomness of measurement matrix and nonlinear optimization method of signal recovery.Firstly,the CS principle is reviewed.Then the ambiguity function of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) radar is deduced.After that,combined with CS theory,the ambiguity function of MIMO radar is analyzed and simulated in detail.At last,the resolutions of coherent and non-coherent MIMO radars on the CS theory are discussed.Simulation results show that the coherent MIMO radar has better resolution performance than the non-coherent.But the coherent ambiguity function has higher side lobes,which caused a deterioration in radar target detection performances.The stochastic embattling method of sparse array based on minimizing the statistical coherence of sensing matrix is proposed.And simulation results show that it could effectively suppress side lobes of the ambiguity function and improve the capability of weak target detection.

  20. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  1. Research on design and performance of MIMO-TDCS based on OFDM%基于OFDM的MIMO-TDCS设计及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫建云; 任清华

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the lower spectrum usage at conventional MIMO-TDCS, the paper presents a modulation method of MI-MO-TDCS based on OFDM which utilize FFT/IFFT technology to modulate data in spectrum domain. It transmit multiple data symbols by one TDCS symbol and improve spectral efficiency. Because of using demodulation method based on FFT, it make demodulation more briefly. The simulative results show that in fixed transmit symbol power and under proper BER performance limit MIMO-TDCS based on OFDM is a way that can enhance spectral efficiency availably.%针对多输入多输出变换域通信系统(MIMO-TDCS)存在频谱利用率低的问题,基于OFDM系统所使用的FFT/IFFT数据调制解调思想,提出了一种在频域上对TDCS符号进行多数据符号加载的系统.理论上系统能够在一个TDCS符号上传输多个数据符号,能有效地提高频带利用率,并且解调过程运用FFT变换可简化解调结构的复杂度.通过仿真分析,验证了在符号传输功率一定并保证一定误码率性能的条件下,基于OFDM的MIMO-TDCS能够有效提高频谱利用率.

  2. Performance Analysis of Precoding Based on Massive MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the system performance, the authors consider a single-cell multiuser Massive MIMO downlink time-division duplex (TDD system for the imperfect channel state information (CSI. For the zero-forcing (ZF and the matched filtering (MF precoding scheme, the authors propose a normalization algorithm: the vector normalization. Assume that the channel estimation is used to acquire CSI by using the uplink pilot sequence, and utilize the proposed algorithm to normalize the precoding matrix in the downlink; we derive the achievable sum rate of ZF and MF. Through the analysis and comparison of two precoding schemes’ performance, the authors conclude that ZF is better than MF with vector normalization algorithm in the high SNR region; and MF is better than ZF in the low SNR region. Simulation results confirm the above conclusion.

  3. Closed form fourier-based transmit beamforming for MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John J.

    2014-05-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar setting, it is often desirable to design correlated waveforms such that power is transmitted only to a given set of locations, a process known as beampattern design. To design desired beam-pattern, current research uses iterative algorithms, first to synthesize the waveform covariance matrix, R, then to design the actual waveforms to realize R. In contrast to this, we present a closed form method to design R that exploits discrete Fourier transform and Toeplitz matrix. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints and performance is similar to that of iterative methods. Next, we present a radar architecture for the desired beampattern that does not require the synthesis of covariance matrix nor the design of correlated waveforms. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Design and Implementation of a FPGA and DSP Based MIMO Radar Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in this paper is aimed at the implementation of a real-time multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO imaging radar used for area surveillance. In this radar, the equivalent virtual array method and time-division technique are applied to make 16 virtual elements synthesized from the MIMO antenna array. The chirp signal generater is based on a combination of direct digital synthesizer (DDS and phase locked loop (PLL. A signal conditioning circuit is used to deal with the coupling effect within the array. The signal processing platform is based on an efficient field programmable gates array (FPGA and digital signal processor (DSP pipeline where a robust beamforming imaging algorithm is running on. The radar system was evaluated through a real field experiment. Imaging capability and real-time performance shown in the results demonstrate the practical feasibility of the implementation.

  5. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. A Leakage-Based MMSE Beamforming Design for a MIMO Interference Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    We propose a low complexity design of the linear transmit filters for a MIMO interference channel. This design is based on a minimum mean squared error (MMSE) approach incorporating the signal and the interference leakage for each transmitter. Unlike the previous methods, it allows a closed......) performance of the proposed design is verified by simulations to have nearly no loss compared to the conventional MMSE approach....

  7. A Highly Parallelized MIMO Detector for Vector-Based Reconfigurable Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chenxin; Liu, Liang; Wang, Yian; Zhu, Meifang; Edfors, Ove; Öwall, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a highly parallelized MIMO signal detection algorithm targeting vector-based reconfigurable architectures. The detector achieves high data-level parallelism and near-ML performance by adopting a vector-architecture-friendly technique - parallel node perturbation. To further reduce the computational complexity, imbalanced node and successive partial node expansion schemes in conjunction with sorted QR decomposition are applied. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is...

  8. Eigen-Based Transceivers for the MIMO Broadcast Channel With Semi-Orthogonal User Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; McKay, Matthew R.

    2010-10-01

    This paper studies the sum rate performance of two low complexity eigenmode-based transmission techniques for the MIMO broadcast channel, employing greedy semi-orthogonal user selection (SUS). The first approach, termed ZFDPC-SUS, is based on zero-forcing dirty paper coding; the second approach, termed ZFBF-SUS, is based on zero-forcing beamforming. We first employ new analytical methods to prove that as the number of users K grows large, the ZFDPC-SUS approach can achieve the optimal sum rate scaling of the MIMO broadcast channel. We also prove that the average sum rates of both techniques converge to the average sum capacity of the MIMO broadcast channel for large K. In addition to the asymptotic analysis, we investigate the sum rates achieved by ZFDPC-SUS and ZFBF-SUS for finite K, and show that ZFDPC-SUS has significant performance advantages. Our results also provide key insights into the benefit of multiple receive antennas, and the effect of the SUS algorithm. In particular, we show that whilst multiple receive antennas only improves the asymptotic sum rate scaling via the second-order behavior of the multi-user diversity gain; for finite K, the benefit can be very significant. We also show the interesting result that the semi-orthogonality constraint imposed by SUS, whilst facilitating a very low complexity user selection procedure, asymptotically does not reduce the multi-user diversity gain in either first (log K) or second-order (loglog K) terms.

  9. Eigen-Based Transceivers for the MIMO Broadcast Channel with Semi-Orthogonal User Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Liang

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the sum rate performance of two low complexity eigenmode-based transmission techniques for the MIMO broadcast channel, employing greedy semi-orthogonal user selection (SUS). The first approach, termed ZFDPC-SUS, is based on zero-forcing dirty paper coding; the second approach, termed ZFBF-SUS, is based on zero-forcing beamforming. We first employ new analytical methods to prove that as the number of users K grows large, the ZFDPC-SUS approach can achieve the optimal sum rate scaling of the MIMO broadcast channel. We also prove that the average sum rates of both techniques converge to the average sum capacity of the MIMO broadcast channel for large K. In addition to the asymptotic analysis, we investigate the sum rates achieved by ZFDPC-SUS and ZFBF-SUS for finite K, and show that ZFDPC-SUS has significant performance advantages. Our results also provide key insights into the benefit of multiple receive antennas, and the effect of the SUS algorithm. In particular, we show that whilst multipl...

  10. DOA estimation for monostatic MIMO radar based on unitary root-MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xianpeng; Li, Xin; Song, Hongru

    2013-11-01

    Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is an important issue for monostatic MIMO radar. A DOA estimation method for monostatic MIMO radar based on unitary root-MUSIC is presented in this article. In the presented method, a reduced-dimension matrix is first utilised to transform the high dimension of received signal data into low dimension one. Then, a low-dimension real-value covariance matrix is obtained by forward-backward (FB) averaging and unitary transformation. The DOA of targets can be achieved by unitary root-MUSIC. Due to the FB averaging of received signal data and the eigendecomposition of the real-valued matrix covariance, the proposed method owns better angle estimation performance and lower computational complexity. The simulation results of the proposed method are presented and the performances are investigated and discussed.

  11. Analysis of MIMO antenna array based on electromagnetic vector sensor%基于电磁矢量传感器的 MIMO 天线阵列系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 邱琳; 菊池久和

    2013-01-01

    EVS(electromagnetic vetor sensor) signal processing method was combined with traditional MIMO signal processing method and three-dimensional channel model of multi-antenna array was set up. The algorithm of multiple signal classification (MUSIC) was adopted to make spatial spectrum estimation for direction of arrival (DOA) signal, analytical expressions of three-dimensional spatial channel was derived base on EVS for MIMO receiver system and the relationship between EVS signal processing and MIMO multipath channel correlation was clarified. To compare with tra-ditional MIMO antenna array, EVS array possesses abilities of obtaining multidimensional polarization information, processing spatial and polarization domain for arrival signal and degrading effects of spatial factors on MIMO channel capacity. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that EVS array provide more advantages than traditional scalar sensor array on enhancing MIMO system performance.%  将电磁矢量传感器(EVS, electromagnetic vetor sensor)信号处理法与传统 MIMO 信号处理有机地结合,建立了基于 EVS 的多天线三维信道模型。采用多重信号分类(MUSIC, multiple signal classification)算法对 MIMO 的达波信号方向(DOA, direction of arrival)进行空间谱估计,导出基于 EVS 的三维空间信道解析式,阐明了 EVS 信号处理与 MIMO 多径信道相关性的关系。与传统标量传感器阵列(SSA, scalar sensor array)MIMO 天线阵列比较, EVS 阵列能获取达波信号的多维极化信息,同时具有空间域和极化信号处理能力。因此可缓解空间多径信道相关性,使空间极化分量的相关性趋于零值,而且使 MIMO 系统性能受空间结构的影响较小。理论分析和仿真结果表明在提高 MIMO 天线系统性能上,基于 EVS 阵列的系统比 SSA 系统具有更高的优越性。

  12. Performance Evaluation of Closed-Loop Spatial Multiplexing Codebook Based on Indoor MIMO Channel Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop MIMO technique standardized in LTE can support different layer transmissions through precoding operation to match the channel multiplexing capability. However, the performance of the limited size codebook still needs to be evaluated in real channel environment for further insights. Based on the wideband MIMO channel measurement in a typical indoor scenario, capacity loss (CL of the limited size codebook relative to perfect precoding is studied first in two extreme channel conditions. The results show that current codebook design for single layer transmission is nearly capacity lossless, and the CL will increase with the number of transmitted layers. Furthermore, the capacity improvement of better codebook selection criterions is very limited compared to CL. Then we define the maximum capacity boost achieved by frequency domain layer adaption (FDLA and investigate its sensitivity to SNR and channel condition. To survey the effect of frequency domain channel variation on MIMO-OFDM system, we define a function to measure the fluctuation levels of the key channel metrics within a subband and reveal the inherent relationship between them. Finally, a capacity floor resulted as the feedback interval increases in frequency domain.

  13. A Practical, Hardware Friendly MMSE Detector for MIMO-OFDM-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Daneshrad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Design and implementation of a highly optimized MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output detector requires cooptimization of the algorithm with the underlying hardware architecture. Special attention must be paid to application requirements such as throughput, latency, and resource constraints. In this work, we focus on a highly optimized matrix inversion free 4×4 MMSE (minimum mean square error MIMO detector implementation. The work has resulted in a real-time field-programmable gate array-based implementation (FPGA- on a Xilinx Virtex-2 6000 using only 9003 logic slices, 66 multipliers, and 24 Block RAMs (less than 33% of the overall resources of this part. The design delivers over 420 Mbps sustained throughput with a small 2.77-microsecond latency. The designed 4×4 linear MMSE MIMO detector is capable of complying with the proposed IEEE 802.11n standard.

  14. Fourier-Based Transmit Beampattern Design Using MIMO Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John

    2014-05-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar settings, it is often desirable to transmit power only to a given location or set of locations defined by a beampattern. Transmit waveform design is a topic that has received much attention recently, involving synthesis of both the signal covariance matrix,, as well as the actual waveforms. Current methods involve a two-step process of designing via iterative solutions and then using to generate waveforms that fulfill practical constraints such as having a constant-envelope or drawing from a finite alphabet. In this paper, a closed-form method to design for a uniform linear array is proposed that utilizes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients and Toeplitz matrices. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints such as positive semidefiniteness and the uniformelemental power constraint and provides performance similar to that of iterative methods, which require a much greater computation time. Next, a transmit architecture is presented that exploits the orthogonality of frequencies at discrete DFT values to transmit a sum of orthogonal signals from each antenna. The resulting waveforms provide a lower mean-square error than current methods at a much lower computational cost, and a simulated detection scenario demonstrates the performance advantages achieved.

  15. Primer on CDM programme of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, M. (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Lescano, A.D. (A2G Carbon Partners (Peru)); Alvarez, J.M. (Ministerio del Ambiente del Peru (Peru)); Avendano, F.M. (EEA Fund Management Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    As an advanced modality introduced in 2005, the Programmatic CDM (POA) is expected to address asymmetries of participation, especially of very small-scale project activities in certain areas, key sectors and many countries with considerable potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions, not reached by the traditional single-project-based CDM. Latest experiences with POAs and the recently finalized official guidance governing the Programmatic CDM are the grassroots of this Primer, which has the purpose of supporting the fully understanding of rules and procedures of POAs by interpreting them and analyzing real POA cases. Professional and experts from the public and private entities have contributed to the development of this Primer, produced by the UNEP Risoe Centre, as part of knowledge support activities for the Capacity Development for the CDM (CD4CDM) project. The overall objective of the CD4CDM is to develop the capacities of host countries to identify, design, approve, finance, implement CDM projects and commercialize CERs in participating countries. The CDM4CDM is funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (author)

  16. A New MIMO-OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zheng-rong; ZHAO Shao-gang; WU Wei-ling

    2004-01-01

    Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) based multiple-input multiple-output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) is the focus of wireless communication, which uses cyclic prefixes to reduce the ISI. To improve the spectrum efficiency and system performance, Complex Wavelet Packet Transform (CWPT) based OFDM is used to realize the MIMO-OFDM system. For the good property of complex wavelet packet function, the CWPT based MIMO-OFDM system is better than the DFT based MIMO-OFDM system, but the CWPT based MIMO-OFDM scheme has some additional complexity, and simulation results show that the new system can improve the system performance.

  17. Robust Beamforming for Amplify-and-Forward MIMO Relay Systems Based on Quadratic Matrix Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Chengwen; Wu, Yik-Chung; Ng, Tung-Sang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, robust transceiver design based on minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) criterion for dual-hop amplify-and-forward MIMO relay systems is investigated. The channel estimation errors are modeled as Gaussian random variables, and then the effect are incorporated into the robust transceiver based on the Bayesian framework. An iterative algorithm is proposed to jointly design the precoder at the source, the forward matrix at the relay and the equalizer at the destination, and the joint design problem can be efficiently solved by quadratic matrix programming (QMP).

  18. 基于GAIC的MIMO-OFDM信道估计%GAIC Based Approach for Channel Estimation in MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊义; 贾世楼; 孟维晓

    2008-01-01

    对于多径稀疏的多输入多输出正交频分复用(Multiple-input and muItipIe-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,MIMO-OFDM)信道,提出了基于广义Akaike信息论准则(Generalized Akaike information criterion,GAIC)的MIMO-OFDM系统实用的信道估计算法,该算法能够估计出信道的长度和每径信道的时延,降低加性白噪声对信道估计的影响,提高信道估计的精度.通过仿真,与最小二来(Least squares,LS)算法和离散傅里叶变换(Discrete Fourier transform,DFT)算法相比较,大大地降低了信道的估计误差,提高了系统性能,且信道稀疏性越强,性能改善越好.

  19. Detection of weak target for MIMO radar based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Jiankui; He Zishu

    2009-01-01

    An effective method of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar weak target detection is proposed based on the Hough transform. The detection time duration is divided into multiple coherent processing intervals (CPIs). Within each CPI, conventional methods such as fast Fourier transform (FFT) is exploit to coherent inte-grating in same range cell. Furthermore, noncoherent integration through several range cells can be implemented by Hough transform among all CPIs. Thus, higher integration gain can be obtained. Simulation results are also given to demonstrate that the detection performance of weak moving target can be dramatically improved.

  20. Verification of Emulated Channels in Multi-Probe Based MIMO OTA Testing Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum;

    2013-01-01

    Standardization work for MIMO OTA testing methods is currently ongoing, where a multi-probe anechoic chamber based solution is an important candidate. In this paper, the probes located on an OTA ring are used to synthesize a plane wave field in the center of the OTA ring. This paper investigates...... the extent to which we can approach the synthesized plane wave in practical measurement systems. Both single plane wave with certain AoA and multiple plane waves with different AoAs and power weightings are synthesized and measured. Deviations of the measured plane wave and the simulated plane wave field...

  1. FREQUENCY DOMAIN CRITERIA FOR ROBUST D-STABILITY OF MIMO SYSTEMS BASED ON LMI METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-bin; WANG Zhi-zhen; WANG Long; LI Zhao-ping; LI Er-xiao

    2006-01-01

    The problem of checking robust D-stability of multi-in and multi-out (MIMO) systems was studied. Three system models were introduced, i.e. multilinear polynomial matrix, polytopic polynomial matrix and feedback system model. Furthermore, the convex property of each model with respect to the parametric uncertainties was estabilished respectively. Based on this, sufficient conditions for D-stability were expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) involving only the convex vertices. Therefore, the robust D-stability was tested by solving an LMI optimal problem.

  2. SUBSPACE-BASED NOISE VARIANCE AND SNR ESTIMATION FOR MIMO OFDM SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a subspace-based noise variance and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) estimation algorithm for Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) wireless Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The special training sequences with the property of orthogonality and phase shift orthogonality are used in pilot tones to obtain the estimated channel correlation matrix. Partitioning the observation space into a delay subspace and a noise subspace, we achieve the measurement of noise variance and SNR.Simulation results show that the proposed estimator can obtain accurate and real-time measurements of the noise variance and SNR for various multipath fading channels, demonstrating its strong robustness against different channels.

  3. Time-Frequency Based Channel Estimation for High-Mobility OFDM Systems-Part I: MIMO Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önen, Erol; Akan, Aydın; Chaparro, LuisF

    2010-12-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems hold the potential to drastically improve the spectral efficiency and link reliability in future wireless communications systems. A particularly promising candidate for next-generation fixed and mobile wireless systems is the combination of MIMO technology with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM has become the standard method because of its advantages over single carrier modulation schemes on multipath, frequency selective fading channels. Doppler frequency shifts are expected in fast-moving environments, causing the channel to vary in time, that degrades the performance of OFDM systems. In this paper, we present a time-varying channel modeling and estimation method based on the Discrete Evolutionary Transform to obtain a complete characterization of MIMO-OFDM channels. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated and compared on different levels of channel noise and Doppler frequency shifts.

  4. Capon-based single-snapshot DOA estimation in monostatic MIMO radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Aboulnasr; Amin, Moeness G.; Zhang, Yimin D.; Ahmad, Fauzia

    2015-05-01

    We consider the problem of single snapshot direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of multiple targets in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. When only a single snapshot is used, the sample covariance matrix of the data becomes non-invertible and, therefore, does not permit application of Capon-based DOA estimation techniques. On the other hand, low-resolution techniques, such as the conventional beamformer, suffer from biased estimation and fail to resolve closely spaced sources. In this paper, we propose a new Capon-based method for DOA estimation in MIMO radar using a single radar pulse. Assuming that the angular locations of the sources are known a priori to be located within a certain spatial sector, we employ multiple transmit beams to focus the transmit energy of multiple orthogonal waveforms within the desired sector. The transmit weight vectors are carefully designed such that they have the same transmit power distribution pattern. As compared to the standard MIMO radar, the proposed approach enables transmitting an arbitrary number of orthogonal waveforms. By using matched-filtering at the receiver, the data associated with each beam is extracted yielding a virtual data snapshot. The total number of virtual snapshots is equal to the number of transmit beams. By choosing the number of transmit beams to be larger than the number of receive elements, it becomes possible to form a full-rank sample covariance matrix. The Capon beamformer is then applied to estimate the DOAs of the targets of interest. The proposed method is shown to have improved DOA estimation performance as compared to conventional single-snapshot DOA estimation methods.

  5. Sustainable Development Impacts of NAMAs: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the CDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    Sustainable development priorities provide the context for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by developing countries. While methods exist to assess the sustainable development (SD) co-benefits of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, no approach has yet been developed...

  6. Spatially Common Sparsity Based Adaptive Channel Estimation and Feedback for FDD Massive MIMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Dai, Linglong; Wang, Zhaocheng; Chen, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a spatially common sparsity based adaptive channel estimation and feedback scheme for frequency division duplex based massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems, which adapts training overhead and pilot design to reliably estimate and feed back the downlink channel state information (CSI) with significantly reduced overhead. Specifically, a non-orthogonal downlink pilot design is first proposed, which is very different from standard orthogonal pilots. By exploiting the spatially common sparsity of massive MIMO channels, a compressive sensing (CS) based adaptive CSI acquisition scheme is proposed, where the consumed time slot overhead only adaptively depends on the sparsity level of the channels. Additionally, a distributed sparsity adaptive matching pursuit algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate the channels of multiple subcarriers. Furthermore, by exploiting the temporal channel correlation, a closed-loop channel tracking scheme is provided, which adaptively designs the non-orthogonal pilot according to the previous channel estimation to achieve an enhanced CSI acquisition. Finally, we generalize the results of the multiple-measurement-vectors case in CS and derive the Cramer-Rao lower bound of the proposed scheme, which enlightens us to design the non-orthogonal pilot signals for the improved performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms its counterparts, and it is capable of approaching the performance bound.

  7. Efficient Closed-Loop Schemes for MIMO-OFDM-Based WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-input single-output (SISO orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM systems for wireless local area networks (WLAN defined by the IEEE 802.11a standard can support data rates up to 54 Mbps. In this paper, we consider deploying two transmit and two receive antennas to increase the data rate up to 108 Mbps. Applying our recent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transceiver designs, that is, the geometric mean decomposition (GMD and the uniform channel decomposition (UCD schemes, we propose simple and efficient closed-loop MIMO-OFDM designs for much improved performance, compared to the standard singular value decomposition (SVD based schemes as well as the open-loop V-BLAST (vertical Bell Labs layered space-time based counterparts. In the explicit feedback mode, precoder feedback is needed for the proposed schemes. We show that the overhead of feedback can be made very moderate by using a vector quantization method. In the time-division duplex (TDD mode where the channel reciprocity is exploited, our schemes turn out to be robust against the mismatch between the uplink and downlink channels. The advantages of our schemes are demonstrated via extensive numerical examples.

  8. Efficient Transmit Beamspace Design for Search-Free Based DOA Estimation in MIMO Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabbazibasmenj, Arash; Hassanien, Aboulnasr; Vorobyov, Sergiy A.; Morency, Matthew W.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of transmit beamspace design for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar with colocated antennas in application to direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. A new method for designing the transmit beamspace matrix that enables the use of search-free DOA estimation techniques at the receiver is introduced. The essence of the proposed method is to design the transmit beamspace matrix based on minimizing the difference between a desired transmit beampattern and the actual one under the constraint of uniform power distribution across the transmit array elements. The desired transmit beampattern can be of arbitrary shape and is allowed to consist of one or more spatial sectors. The number of transmit waveforms is even but otherwise arbitrary. To allow for simple search-free DOA estimation algorithms at the receive array, the rotational invariance property is established at the transmit array by imposing a specific structure on the beamspace matrix. Semi-definite relaxation is used to transform the proposed formulation into a convex problem that can be solved efficiently. We also propose a spatial-division based design (SDD) by dividing the spatial domain into several subsectors and assigning a subset of the transmit beams to each subsector. The transmit beams associated with each subsector are designed separately. Simulation results demonstrate the improvement in the DOA estimation performance offered by using the proposed joint and SDD transmit beamspace design methods as compared to the traditional MIMO radar technique.

  9. Implementation of MIMO and AMC Techniques in WiMAX Network based VANET System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar D. Dorge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs are expected to implement wireless technologies such as Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC which is a category of Wi-Fi. Other candidates of long distance wireless technologies are cellular, satellite, and WiMAX. VANETs can be viewed as component of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. This paper presents the implementation of Multiple Inputs Multiple Outputs (MIMO and Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC techniques in WiMAX based Vehicular Ad-hoc Network. This designed system provides multiple radio channels in between transmitter and receiver for transmission and reception of the data by using the concept of MIMO technology. Also AMC provides the selection of different modulation techniques depending on the signal to noise ratio of the channel. These two techniques provide the significant change in the throughput, delay, jitter, and packet delivery ratio and packet loss ratio than existing vehicular ad-hoc network. WiMAX based VANET provides high speed, low cost per bit and large coverage area.

  10. Anti Deceptive Jamming for MIMO Radar Based on Data Fusion and Notch Filtering (in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deceptive jamming can get vivid jamming effect on Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO radar with very low power. In order to remove those deceptive targets, one method based on signal jittering, data fusion and fake target notch filtering is proposed in this paper. Multiple orthogonal binary phase codes are used as transmitted signals, before each time of transmission each transmitter will choose one signal from all the orthogonal codes, images of echoes of all kinds of codes are detected with constant false alarm rate. Targets detected in images of echoes of all different signals are fused to determine to be real or not, fake targets will be nulled by notch filtering in the image, therefore, weak real targets can be detected in the next round of detection, in this way fusion and notch filtering are implemented again and again until no fake targets exist. The effect of deceptive jamming on radar will be removed completely. Simulation result testifies that the method based on signal jittering, data fusion and notch filtering can help MIMO radar remove deceptive jamming completely.

  11. Efficient Closed-Loop Schemes for MIMO-OFDM-Based WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiayu; Jiang, Yi; Li, Jian

    2006-12-01

    The single-input single-output (SISO) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems for wireless local area networks (WLAN) defined by the IEEE 802.11a standard can support data rates up to 54 Mbps. In this paper, we consider deploying two transmit and two receive antennas to increase the data rate up to 108 Mbps. Applying our recent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transceiver designs, that is, the geometric mean decomposition (GMD) and the uniform channel decomposition (UCD) schemes, we propose simple and efficient closed-loop MIMO-OFDM designs for much improved performance, compared to the standard singular value decomposition (SVD) based schemes as well as the open-loop V-BLAST (vertical Bell Labs layered space-time) based counterparts. In the explicit feedback mode, precoder feedback is needed for the proposed schemes. We show that the overhead of feedback can be made very moderate by using a vector quantization method. In the time-division duplex (TDD) mode where the channel reciprocity is exploited, our schemes turn out to be robust against the mismatch between the uplink and downlink channels. The advantages of our schemes are demonstrated via extensive numerical examples.

  12. A 3D Geometry-based Stochastic Model for 5G Massive MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Massive MIMO is one of the most promising technologies for the fifth generation (5G mobile communication systems. In order to better assess the system performance, it is essential to build a corresponding channel model accurately. In this paper, a three-dimension (3D two-cylinder regular-shaped geometry-based stochastic model (GBSM for non-isotropic scattering massive MIMO channels is proposed. Based on geometric method, all the scatters are distributed on the surface of a cylinder as equivalent scatters. Non-stationary property is that one antenna has its own visible area of scatters by using a virtual sphere. The proposed channel model is evaluated by comparing with the 3GPP 3D channel model [1]. The statistical properties are investigated. Simulation results show that close agreements are achieved between the characteristics of the proposed channel model and those of the 3GPP channel model, which justify the correctness of the proposed model. The model has advantages such as good applicability.

  13. Switched-Observer-Based Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Switched Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Control Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2016-05-02

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive neural output-feedback control is addressed for a class of multi-input multioutput (MIMO) switched uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown control gains. Neural networks (NNs) are used to approximate unknown nonlinear functions. In order to avoid the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer for all subsystems, an MIMO NN switched observer is designed to estimate unmeasurable states. A new switched observer-based adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is then provided by exploiting the classical average dwell time (ADT) method and the backstepping method and the Nussbaum gain technique. It effectively handles the obstacle about the coexistence of multiple Nussbaum-type function terms, and improves the classical ADT method, since the exponential decline property of Lyapunov functions for individual subsystems is no longer satisfied. It is shown that the technique proposed is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system under a class of switching signals with ADT, and the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the approach proposed is illustrated by its application to a two inverted pendulum system.

  14. A cross-layer resource allocation scheme for spatial multiplexing-based MIMO-OFDMA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shatri Hussein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for the downlink of a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA system. The sum rate maximization itself cannot cope with fairness among users. Hence, we address this problem in the context of the utility-based resource allocation presented in earlier papers. This resource allocation method allows to enhance the efficiency and guarantee fairness among users by exploiting multiuser diversity, frequency diversity, as well as time diversity. In this paper, we treat the overall utility as the quality of service indicator and design utility functions with respect to the average transmission rate in order to simultaneously provide two services, real-time and best-effort. Since the optimal solutions are extremely computationally complex to obtain, we propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power control algorithm that converges very fast and simplifies the MIMO resource allocation problem into a single-input single-output resource allocation problem. Simulation results indicate that using the proposed method achieves near-optimum solutions, and the available resources are distributed more fairly among users.

  15. Multi-Carrier Communication Simulation Analysis Based on MIMO%基于MIMO的多载波通信系统仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姣军; 张婷; 苏理云; 陶金

    2014-01-01

    In order to resist the multiPath and frequency selective fading in the wireless channel,the wavelet Packet division multiPlexing system based on multiPle-inPut multiPle-outPut( MIMO-WPDM) was Presented. The Performance of MIMO-WPDM system with different antenna configurations was an-alyzed in Rayleigh channel through simulation,which is suPerior to the Performance of MIMO-OFDM system based on Fourier transform.%为了抵抗无线信道的多径时延和频率选择性衰落,在多载波系统中采用阵列天线,提出了基于多输入多输出的小波包分复用系统( MIMO-WPDM)。仿真结果表明:不同天线配置的MIMO-WPDM系统在瑞利信道下,基于小波包变换的MIMO-WPDM系统的性能优于基于傅里叶变换的MIMO-OFDM系统的性能。

  16. Interference Mitigation for Cognitive Radio MIMO Systems Based on Practical Precoding

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zengmao; Hong, Xuemin; Thompson, John; Vorobyov, Sergiy A; Zhao, Feng; Xiao, Hailin; Ge, Xiaohu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two subspace-projection-based precoding schemes, namely, full-projection (FP)- and partial-projection (PP)-based precoding, for a cognitive radio multiple-input multiple-output (CR-MIMO) network to mitigate its interference to a primary time-division-duplexing (TDD) system. The proposed precoding schemes are capable of estimating interference channels between CR and primary networks, and incorporating the interference from the primary to the CR system into CR precoding via a novel sensing approach. Then, the CR performance and resulting interference of the proposed precoding schemes are analyzed and evaluated. By fully projecting the CR transmission onto a null space of the interference channels, the FP-based precoding scheme can effectively avoid interfering the primary system with boosted CR throughput. While, the PP-based scheme is able to further improve the CR throughput by partially projecting its transmission onto the null space.

  17. Radio frequency electromagnetic field compliance assessment of multi-band and MIMO equipped radio base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, Björn; Thielens, Arno; Fridén, Jonas; Colombi, Davide; Törnevik, Christer; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, different methods for practical numerical radio frequency exposure compliance assessments of radio base station products were investigated. Both multi-band base station antennas and antennas designed for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmission schemes were considered. For the multi-band case, various standardized assessment methods were evaluated in terms of resulting compliance distance with respect to the reference levels and basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Both single frequency and multiple frequency (cumulative) compliance distances were determined using numerical simulations for a mobile communication base station antenna transmitting in four frequency bands between 800 and 2600 MHz. The assessments were conducted in terms of root-mean-squared electromagnetic fields, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) and peak 10 g averaged SAR. In general, assessments based on peak field strengths were found to be less computationally intensive, but lead to larger compliance distances than spatial averaging of electromagnetic fields used in combination with localized SAR assessments. For adult exposure, the results indicated that even shorter compliance distances were obtained by using assessments based on localized and whole-body SAR. Numerical simulations, using base station products employing MIMO transmission schemes, were performed as well and were in agreement with reference measurements. The applicability of various field combination methods for correlated exposure was investigated, and best estimate methods were proposed. Our results showed that field combining methods generally considered as conservative could be used to efficiently assess compliance boundary dimensions of single- and dual-polarized multicolumn base station antennas with only minor increases in compliance distances.

  18. DFT based spatial multiplexing and maximum ratio transmission for mm-wawe large MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phan-Huy, D.-T.; Tölli, A.; Rajatheva, N.;

    2014-01-01

    By using large point-to-point multiple input multiple output (MIMO), spatial multiplexing of a large number of data streams in wireless communications using millimeter-waves (mm-waves) can be achieved. However, according to the antenna spacing and transmitter-receiver distance, the MIMO channel...

  19. Leakage-based precoding for MU-MIMO VLC systems under optical power constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxuan; Wang, Qi; Wang, Zhaocheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) system for indoor visible light communication (VLC), in which precoding is conducted under optical power constraint rather than electrical power constraint. Leakage-based precoding designed by maximizing signal-to-leakage-plus-noise ratio (SLNR) is adopted to suppress the multiuser interference under optical power constraint and power allocation is proposed to maximize the throughput of the system. Simulations demonstrate the performance gain of optimal power allocation and indicate that the leakage-based precoding scheme outperforms zero forcing counterpart when the channel is highly correlated and still works well when the number of transmitters is less than that of receivers.

  20. Robotic Mobile System's Performance-Based MIMO-OFDM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a predistortion neural network (PDNN architecture has been imposed to the Sniffer Mobile Robot (SNFRbot that is based on spatial multiplexed wireless Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM transmission technology. This proposal is used to improve the system performance by combating one of the main drawbacks that is encountered by OFDM technology; Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR. Simulation results show that using PDNN resulted in better PAPR performance than the previously published work that is based on linear coding, such as Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes and turbo encoding whether using flat fading channel or a Doppler spread channel.

  1. MIMO Lyapunov Theory-Based RBF Neural Classifier for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Hann Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyapunov theory-based radial basis function neural network (RBFNN is developed for traffic sign recognition in this paper to perform multiple inputs multiple outputs (MIMO classification. Multidimensional input is inserted into RBF nodes and these nodes are linked with multiple weights. An iterative weight adaptation scheme is hence designed with regards to the Lyapunov stability theory to obtain a set of optimum weights. In the design, the Lyapunov function has to be well selected to construct an energy space with a single global minimum. Weight gain is formed later to obey the Lyapunov stability theory. Detail analysis and discussion on the proposed classifier’s properties are included in the paper. The performance comparisons between the proposed classifier and some existing conventional techniques are evaluated using traffic sign patterns. Simulation results reveal that our proposed system achieved better performance with lower number of training iterations.

  2. A HIGH RESOLUTION WIDE SWATH SAR METHOD BASED ON INTRA-PULSE NULL STEERING AND MIMO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    High Resolution Wide Swath(HRWS)Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR)often Sufiers from low Signal-to-Noise Ratio(SNR)due to small transmitting antenna,especially in phased array antenna systems.Digital Beam Forming(DBF)based on Single Input and Multiple Output(SIMO)achieves receiving array gain at the cost of increasing data rate.This letter proposes a new HRWS SAR method, which employs intra-pulse null steering to get receiving gain in elevation and decrease the data rate,and Multiple Input and Multiple Output(MIMO)using Space-Time Block Coding(STBC)in azimuth to get transmitting gain and receiving array gain simultaneously.The feasibility is verified by deduction and simulations.

  3. Parameter estimation for MIMO system based on MUSIC and ML methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei DONG; Jiandong LI; Zhuo LU; Linjing ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    The frequency offset and channel gain estimation problem for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)systems in the case of flat-fading channels is addressed.Based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and the maximum likelihood (ML) methods, a new joint estimation algorithm of frequency offsets and channel gains is proposed. The new algorithm has three steps. A subset of frequency offsets is first estimated with the MUSIC algorithm. All frequency offsets in the subset are then identified with the ML method. Finally, channel gains are calculated with the ML estimator. The algorithm is a one-dimensional search scheme and therefore greatly decreases the complexity of joint ML estimation, which is essentially a multi-dimensional search scheme.

  4. Dual Turbo MIMO-OFDM Channel Estimation Based on Puncher Technique via UWA Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Qiao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, various techniques of UWA (Underwater Acoustic, UWA channel estimation for underwater MIMO-OFDM system are studied. Dual turbo channel estimation algorithm based on channel puncture technique is proposed. In order to judge the criteria of channel compensation, difference between the raw received signal and the re-coded information signal is carried out. The uncertain sub-channels are punched by using channel puncture technique and replaced by the responses estimated by MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error, MMSE or OMP (Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, OMP algorithms. Compared with the conventional existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the occupancy of pilots, offer confined error propagation and significantly increase the stability of the system with Monte Caro simulation. The results of in-tank-experiment further indorse the reliable performance with improved efficiency of 1.51 bits/s/Hz.

  5. Root-MUSIC Based Angle Estimation for MIMO Radar with Unknown Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Direction of arrival (DOA estimation problem for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar with unknown mutual coupling is studied, and an algorithm for the DOA estimation based on root multiple signal classification (MUSIC is proposed. Firstly, according to the Toeplitz structure of the mutual coupling matrix, output data of some specified sensors are selected to eliminate the influence of the mutual coupling. Then the reduced-dimension transformation is applied to make the computation burden lower as well as obtain a Vandermonde structure of the direction matrix. Finally, Root-MUSIC can be adopted for the angle estimation. The angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT-like algorithm and MUSIC-like algorithm. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has lower complexity than them. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm, and the theoretical estimation error of the algorithm is also derived.

  6. On Dimensions of OTA Setups for Massive MIMO Base Stations Radiated Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.;

    2016-01-01

    The development of base stations (BS) with large aperture antenna arrays, enabled partially by the utilization of cmWave and mmWave frequency bands, will require radiated testing in fading conditions. In this paper, the objective is to investigate the suitable measurement distances and physical...... (DoA) estimation algorithm as well as multi-user MIMO sum-rate capacity are investigated to determine the range of the test setup. It was found that the link budget doesn’t support for the measurement distances claimed by the Fraunhofer distance. Most of the utilized metrics, especially the sum rate...... capacity, indicate that smaller setup sizes can still yield reasonable measurement accuracy. Simulations were performed at 2.6, 3.5, and 28 GHz frequencies....

  7. Pilot Signal Design for Massive MIMO Systems: A Received Signal-To-Noise-Ratio-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jungho; Kim, Donggun; Lee, Yuni; Sung, Youngchul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the pilot signal design for massive MIMO systems to maximize the training-based received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is considered under two channel models: block Gauss-Markov and block independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel models. First, it is shown that under the block Gauss-Markov channel model, the optimal pilot design problem reduces to a semi-definite programming (SDP) problem, which can be solved numerically by a standard convex optimization tool. Second, under the block i.i.d. channel model, an optimal solution is obtained in closed form. Numerical results show that the proposed method yields noticeably better performance than other existing pilot design methods in terms of received SNR.

  8. 使用复小波包的MIMO-OFDM无线系统%Complex wavelet packet based MIMO-OFDM wireless system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖征荣; 余智; 赵绍刚; 吴伟陵

    2004-01-01

    为了在频率选择性信道中提供高速数据业务,提出了一种新的多入多出-正交频分复用系统MIMO-OFDM(Multi-Input Multi-Output-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing).该系统使用复小波包变换CWPT(Complex Wavelet Packet Transform)来实现OFDM,而不是使用传统的快速傅立叶变换FFT(Fast Fourier Transform).由于复小波包函数具有很好的特性,通过对有2个用户的MIMO-OFDM系统进行仿真的结果表明,基于CWPT的MIMO-OFDM系统性能要比使用传统的FFT的MIMO-OFDM 系统好,但是复杂度略高.

  9. 基于 MIMO 技术和“双环”技术的 Ad Hoc 网络路由协议%Ad Hoc network routing protocol based on MIMO technology and double loop technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳霞

    2014-01-01

    According to the drawbacks of previous Ad Hoc network , this paper puts forward Ad Hoc network routing protocol based on MIMO technology and double loop technology .Under the support of MIMO technology and double loop technology , the new Ad Hoc net-work routing protocol adopts diversity link and reuse link to give play to the advantage of DZR protocol and ZRP protocol .With OPNET simulation as the platform, it is optimized.%针对以往的 Ad Hoc 网络的缺陷,提出了一种基于 MIMO 技术和“双环”技术的 Ad Hoc 网络路由协议方案。在MIMO 技术、“双环”技术的支持下,新的 Ad Hoc 网络路由协议中采用了分集链路与复用链路,发挥了 DZR 协议与 ZRP协议的优势,以 OPNET 仿真工具为平台,从而实现了新 Ad Hoc 网络路由协议的最优化。

  10. A Joint Doppler Frequency Shift and DOA Estimation Algorithm Based on Sparse Representations for Colocated TDM-MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of a new joint Doppler frequency shift (DFS and direction of arrival (DOA estimation for colocated TDM-MIMO radar that is a novel technology applied to autocruise and safety driving system in recent years. The signal model of colocated TDM-MIMO radar with few transmitter or receiver channels is depicted and “time varying steering vector” model is proved. Inspired by sparse representations theory, we present a new processing scheme for joint DFS and DOA estimation based on the new input signal model of colocated TDM-MIMO radar. An ultracomplete redundancy dictionary for angle-frequency space is founded in order to complete sparse representations of the input signal. The SVD-SR algorithm which stands for joint estimation based on sparse representations using SVD decomposition with OMP algorithm and the improved M-FOCUSS algorithm which combines the classical M-FOCUSS with joint sparse recovery spectrum are applied to the new signal model’s calculation to solve the multiple measurement vectors (MMV problem. The improved M-FOCUSS algorithm can work more robust than SVD-SR and JS-SR algorithms in the aspects of coherent signals resolution and estimation accuracy. Finally, simulation experiments have shown that the proposed algorithms and schemes are feasible and can be further applied to practical application.

  11. Eigen-Direction Alignment Based Physical-Layer Network Coding for MIMO Two-Way Relay Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tao; Ping, Li; Collings, Iain B; Yuan, Jinhong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel communication strategy which incorporates physical-layer network coding (PNC) into multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) two-way relay channels (TWRCs). At the heart of the proposed scheme lies a new key technique referred to as eigen-direction alignment (EDA) precoding. The EDA precoding efficiently aligns the two-user's eigen-modes into the same directions. Based on that, we carry out multi-stream PNC over the aligned eigen-modes. We derive an achievable rate of the proposed EDA-PNC scheme, based on nested lattice codes, over a MIMO TWRC. Asymptotic analysis shows that the proposed EDA-PNC scheme approaches the capacity upper bound as the number of user antennas increases towards infinity. For a finite number of user antennas, we formulate the design criterion of the optimal EDA precoder and present solutions. Numerical results show that there is only a marginal gap between the achievable rate of the proposed EDA-PNC scheme and the capacity upper bound of the MIMO TWRC, in ...

  12. DFT-Based Closed-form Covariance Matrix and Direct Waveforms Design for MIMO Radar to Achieve Desired Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2017-01-23

    In multiple-input multiple-out (MIMO) radar, for desired transmit beampatterns, appropriate correlated waveforms are designed. To design such waveforms, conventional MIMO radar methods use two steps. In the first step, the waveforms covariance matrix, R, is synthesized to achieve the desired beampattern. While in the second step, to realize the synthesized covariance matrix, actual waveforms are designed. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these constrained optimization problems. The computational complexity of these algorithms is very high, which makes them difficult to use in practice. In this paper, to achieve the desired beampattern, a low complexity discrete-Fourier-transform based closed-form covariance matrix design technique is introduced for a MIMO radar. The designed covariance matrix is then exploited to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for the desired beampattern. The proposed technique can be used to design waveforms for large antenna array to change the beampattern in real time. It is also shown that the number of transmitted symbols from each antenna depends on the beampattern and is less than the total number of transmit antenna elements.

  13. MimoPro: a more efficient Web-based tool for epitope prediction using phage display libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo William W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A B-cell epitope is a group of residues on the surface of an antigen which stimulates humoral responses. Locating these epitopes on antigens is important for the purpose of effective vaccine design. In recent years, mapping affinity-selected peptides screened from a random phage display library to the native epitope has become popular in epitope prediction. These peptides, also known as mimotopes, share the similar structure and function with the corresponding native epitopes. Great effort has been made in using this similarity between such mimotopes and native epitopes in prediction, which has resulted in better outcomes than statistics-based methods can. However, it cannot maintain a high degree of satisfaction in various circumstances. Results In this study, we propose a new method that maps a group of mimotopes back to a source antigen so as to locate the interacting epitope on the antigen. The core of this method is a searching algorithm that is incorporated with both dynamic programming (DP and branch and bound (BB optimization and operated on a series of overlapping patches on the surface of a protein. These patches are then transformed to a number of graphs using an adaptable distance threshold (ADT regulated by an appropriate compactness factor (CF, a novel parameter proposed in this study. Compared with both Pep-3D-Search and PepSurf, two leading graph-based search tools, on average from the results of 18 test cases, MimoPro, the Web-based implementation of our proposed method, performed better in sensitivity, precision, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC than both did in epitope prediction. In addition, MimoPro is significantly faster than both Pep-3D-Search and PepSurf in processing. Conclusions Our search algorithm designed for processing well constructed graphs using an ADT regulated by CF is more sensitive and significantly faster than other graph-based approaches in epitope prediction. MimoPro is a

  14. Analysis and Realization on MIMO Channel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to build the MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output channel model based on IEEE 802.16, the way and analysis on how to build good MIMO channel model are described in this study. By exploiting the spatial freedom of wireless channels, MIMO systems have the potential to achieve high bandwidth efficiency, promoting MIMO to be a key technique in the next generation communication systems. As a basic researching field of MIMO technologies, MIMO channel modeling significantly serve to the performance evaluation of space-time encoding algorithms as well as system level calibration and simulation. Having the superiorities of low inner-antenna correlation and small array size, multi-polarization tends to be a promising technique in future MIMO systems. However, polarization characteristics have not yet been modeled well in current MIMO channel models, so establishing meaningful multi-polarized MIMO channel models has become a hot spot in recent channel modeling investigation. In this study, I have mainly made further research on the related theories in the channel models and channel estimation and implementation algorithms on the others’ research work.

  15. Developed feedback from the Swedish CDM and JI program; Utvecklad aaterrapportering fraan det svenska CDM- och JI-programmet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is responsible for the Swedish government program for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). CDM and JI is the Kyoto Protocol's two project-based flexible mechanisms. This program focuses on participation in individual CDM- and JI-projects and on participation in multilateral CDM- and JI- funds. In the report the Swedish Energy Agency, on behalf of the Government, presents a proposal for developed reporting for the CDM- and JI-program. Furthermore, issues related to how CDM and JI can assist in meeting the Swedish climate objective by 2020 are discussed. Also, the role for potential new flexible mechanisms under UN Climate Convention is mentioned.

  16. A Utility-Based Scheduling Scheme for MIMO-OFDMA Downlink Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Liu; Xi Li; Hong Ji

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a utility-based feedback delay-aware and buffer status-aware ( FABA ) scheduling scheme is proposed for downlink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access ( MIMO-OFDMA ) systems. The FABA scheme allocates subcarriers to multiusers with an objective of not only maximizing the total system capacity but reducing the system packet loss rate as well. We design a utility function which consists of a feedback estimate module, a proportional fairness module and a buffer monitoring module. The feedback estimate module is used to improve the system throughput by utilizing the Automatic Repeat-reQuest ( ARQ) feedback information to combat the fast time-varying fading condition. The proportional fairness module can guarantee the scheduling fairness among users, and the buffer monitoring module can utilize the transmitting buffer status information to avoid high packet loss rate of the system caused by the system congestion. The FABA scheme then formulates the scheduling problem into a problem of overall system utility maximization. We solve the problem by using a heuristic algorithm with low computational complexity. The simulation results show that the proposed FABA scheme outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of the system throughput and the packet loss rate and can also guarantee the fairness demand among users.

  17. Cholesky Factorization-Based Adaptive BLAST DFE for Wideband MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rontogiannis Athanasios A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive equalization of wireless systems operating over time-varying and frequency-selective multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channels is considered. A novel equalization structure is proposed, which comprises a cascade of decision feedback equalizer (DFE stages, each one detecting a single stream. The equalizer filters, as well as the ordering by which the streams are extracted, are updated based on the minimization of a set of least squares (LS cost functions in a BLAST-like fashion. To ensure numerically robust performance of the proposed algorithm, Cholesky factorization of the equalizer input autocorrelation matrix is applied. Moreover, after showing that the equalization problem possesses an order recursive structure, a computationally efficient scheme is developed. A variation of the method is also described, which is appropriate for slow time-varying conditions. Theoretical analysis of the equalization problem reveals an inherent numerical deficiency, thus justifying our choice of employing a numerically robust algebraic transformation. The performance of the proposed method in terms of convergence, tracking, and bit error rate (BER is evaluated through extensive computer simulations for time-varying and wideband channels.

  18. Protocol for the application of cooperative MIMO based on clustering in sparse wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hua; QU Yu-gui; LIN Zhi-ting; BAI Rong-gang; ZHAO Bao-hua; PAN Quan-ke

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) using cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication are effective tools to collect data in several environments. However, how to apply cooperative MIMO in WSN remains a critical challenge, especially in sparse WSN. In this article, a novel clustering scheme is proposed for the application of cooperative MIMO in sparse WSN by extending the traditional low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol. This clustering scheme solves the problem that the cluster heads (CH) cannot find enough secondary cluster heads (SCH), which are used to cooperate and inform multiple-antenna transmitters with CHs. On the basis of this protocol, the overall energy consumption of the networks model is developed, and the optimal number of CHs is obtained. The simulation results show that this protocol is feasible for the sparse WSN. The simulation results also illustrate that this protocol provides significant energy efficiencies, even after allowing for additional overheads.

  19. A Desired PAR-Achieving Precoder Design for Multiuser MIMO OFDM Based on Concentration of Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Su; Kim, Dong Ku

    2017-03-01

    For multi-user multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications in orthogonal frequency di- vision multiplexing systems, we propose a MIMO precoding scheme providing a desired peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) at the minimum cost that is defined as received SNR degradation. By taking advantage of the concentration of measure, we formulate a convex problem with constraint on the desired PAR. Consequently, the proposed scheme almost exactly achieves the desired PAR on average, and asymptotically attains the desired PAR at the 0.001 point of its complementary cumulative distribution function, as the number of subcarriers increases.

  20. Signal Detection for MIMO-OFDM Based on Compound Taguchi-GA%基于混合Taguchi-GA算法的MIMO-OFDM信号检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静松; 冯慧玲

    2015-01-01

    为了避免传统MIMO-OFDM信号检测方法具有的计算量过大而导致的算法复杂度高的问题,设计了一种基于混合Taguchi方法和GA算法的MIMO-OFDM信号检测方法,首先建立了MIMO-OFDM信号检测的模型,然后依据信号检测模型建立目标函数,将目标函数作为混合Taguchi-GA算法的适应度函数,通过个体在信号检测问题的解空间中进行不断地选择、交叉和变异等操作来求解全局最优解,为了进一步增加算法的全局寻优能力,通过Taguchi方法进一步在交叉和变异之间产生新个体;最后,定义和描述了基于混合Taguchi和GA算法的MIMO-OFDM信号检测算法,仿真实验表明,文中方法能有效进行信号检测,与其他方法相比,在BPSK调制和16QAM调制情况下,均具有较小的BER均方误差.

  1. Impulsive Noise Mitigation on MIMO Power Line Based on Sparse Bayesian Learning%基于稀疏贝叶斯学习的 MIMO 电力线脉冲噪声消除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呙涛; 胡国荣

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance the ability of multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) power line communication system against the impulsive noise,a scheme is proposed to mitigating the impulsive noise impact on MIMO power line communications based on sparse Bayesian learning and correlation of impulsive noise on power lines.Under this scheme,all of the subcarriers are used to jointly estimate the impulsive noise and the signals on the available subcarriers.There is no need for information of training impulsive noise.The Bivariate Middleton Class A model is used in the case study to fit the impulsive noise,and the results show that the performance of the proposed scheme against the impulsive noise is better than the multiple measurement vector sparse Bayesion learning (MSBL) scheme using null subcarriers with an improvement of 1 1 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR).%为提高多输入多输出(MIMO)电力线通信系统对抗脉冲噪声的能力,基于稀疏贝叶斯学习的理论,利用脉冲噪声在电力线上的相关性,提出了一种消除 MIMO 电力线脉冲噪声的方案。方案使用全部子载波来联合估计脉冲噪声和可用子载波上的信号,无需训练脉冲噪声的统计信息。仿真中脉冲噪声拟合采用 Bivariate Middleton Class A 模型,结果表明该方案抗脉冲噪声性能比只使用空子载波的多观测向量稀疏贝叶斯学习(MSBL)方案提升了11 dB。

  2. On Dimensions of OTA Setups for Massive MIMO Base Stations Radiated Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.;

    2016-01-01

    (DoA) estimation algorithm as well as multi-user MIMO sum-rate capacity are investigated to determine the range of the test setup. It was found that the link budget doesn’t support for the measurement distances claimed by the Fraunhofer distance. Most of the utilized metrics, especially the sum rate...

  3. Digital Beam Forming and Compressive Sensing Based DOA Estimation in MIMO Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Anitori, L.; Rossum, W.L. van; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents different processing schemes that have been investigated in order to evaluate the direction of arrival (DOA) with a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Conventional digital beam forming (DBF) and super resolution algorithm (MUSIC) have been applied. The results provided b

  4. 2x2 MIMO-OFDM Gigabit fiber-wireless access system based on polarization division multiplexed WDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Othman, M B; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Deming; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2012-02-13

    We propose a spectral efficient radio over wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) system by combining optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) and wireless multiple input multiple output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing techniques. In our experiment, a training-based zero forcing (ZF) channel estimation algorithm is designed to compensate the polarization rotation and wireless multipath fading. A 797 Mb/s net data rate QPSK-OFDM signal with error free (fiber followed by 3 m and 1 m air distances, respectively.

  5. 2x2 MIMO-OFDM Gigabit fiber-wireless access system based on polarization division multiplexed WDM-PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying;

    2012-01-01

    We propose a spectral efficient radio over wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) system by combining optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) and wireless multiple input multiple output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing techniques. In our experiment, a training......-based zero forcing (ZF) channel estimation algorithm is designed to compensate the polarization rotation and wireless multipath fading. A 797 Mb/s net data rate QPSK-OFDM signal with error free (...-2 are achieved after transmission of 22.8 km single mode fiber followed by 3 m and 1 m air distances, respectively....

  6. MmWave massive-MIMO-based wireless backhaul for the 5G ultra-dense network

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhen; Dai, Linglong; Mi; Wang, Zhaocheng; Imran, Muhammad Ali; Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-dense network (UDN) has been considered as a promising candidate for future 5G network to meet the explosive data demand. To realize UDN, a reliable, Gigahertz bandwidth, and cost-effective backhaul connecting ultra-dense small-cell base stations (BSs) and macro-cell BS is prerequisite. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) can provide the potential Gbps traffic for wireless backhaul. Moreover, mmWave can be easily integrated with massive MIMO for the improved link reliability. In this article, we d...

  7. The promise of downlink MU-MIMO for high-capacity next generation mobile broadband networks based on IEEE 802.16 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanassiou Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dramatic increase of the demand for mobile broadband services poses stringent requirements on the performance evolution of currently deployed mobile broadband networks, such as Mobile WiMAX Release 1 and 3GPP LTE Release 8. Although the combination of single-user multiple-input multiple-output (SU-MIMO and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA provide the appropriate technologies for improving the downlink performance of third generation (3G code division multiple access (CDMA-based mobile radio systems and, thus, address the current mobile internet requirements, a fundamental paradigm shift is required to cope with the constantly increasing mobile broadband data rate and spectral efficiency requirements. Among the different technologies available for making the paradigm shift from current to next-generation mobile broadband networks, multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO constitutes the most promising technology because of its significant performance improvement advantages. In this article, we analyze the performance of MU-MIMO under a multitude of deployment scenarios and system parameters through extensive system-level simulations which are based on widely used system-level evaluation methodologies. The target mobile broadband system used in the simulations is IEEE 802.16 m which was recently adopted by ITU-R as an IMT-Advanced technology along with 3GPP LTE-Advanced. The results provide insights into different aspects of MU-MIMO with respect to system-level performance, parameter sensitivity, and deployment scenarios, and they can be used by the mobile broadband network designer for maximizing the benefits of MU-MIMO in a scenario with specific deployment requirements and goals.

  8. Guidebook to financing CDM projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S.

    2007-07-01

    One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in

  9. Free Vibration Analysis of DWCNTs Using CDM and Rayleigh-Schmidt Based on Nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anna De Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration response of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs is investigated. The DWCNTs are modelled as two beams, interacting between them through the van der Waals forces, and the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. The governing equations of motion are derived using a variational approach and the free frequencies of vibrations are obtained employing two different approaches. In the first method, the two double-walled carbon nanotubes are discretized by means of the so-called “cell discretization method” (CDM in which each nanotube is reduced to a set of rigid bars linked together by elastic cells. The resulting discrete system takes into account nonlocal effects, constraint elasticities, and the van der Waals forces. The second proposed approach, belonging to the semianalytical methods, is an optimized version of the classical Rayleigh quotient, as proposed originally by Schmidt. The resulting conditions are solved numerically. Numerical examples end the paper, in which the two approaches give lower-upper bounds to the true values, and some comparisons with existing results are offered. Comparisons of the present numerical results with those from the open literature show an excellent agreement.

  10. Free vibration analysis of DWCNTs using CDM and Rayleigh-Schmidt based on Nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Maria Anna; Lippiello, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The free vibration response of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) is investigated. The DWCNTs are modelled as two beams, interacting between them through the van der Waals forces, and the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. The governing equations of motion are derived using a variational approach and the free frequencies of vibrations are obtained employing two different approaches. In the first method, the two double-walled carbon nanotubes are discretized by means of the so-called "cell discretization method" (CDM) in which each nanotube is reduced to a set of rigid bars linked together by elastic cells. The resulting discrete system takes into account nonlocal effects, constraint elasticities, and the van der Waals forces. The second proposed approach, belonging to the semianalytical methods, is an optimized version of the classical Rayleigh quotient, as proposed originally by Schmidt. The resulting conditions are solved numerically. Numerical examples end the paper, in which the two approaches give lower-upper bounds to the true values, and some comparisons with existing results are offered. Comparisons of the present numerical results with those from the open literature show an excellent agreement.

  11. 基于MIMO-OFDM技术的对流层散射通信系统研究%Tropospheric Scatter Communication System Based on MIMO-OFDM Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红; 谭泽富

    2010-01-01

    对流层散射通信是一种典型的随参信道,多径衰落十分突出,所以要实现高速大容量散射通信是非常困难的.为了抵抗由于多径衰落所带来的散射通信性能恶化,提出了基于MIMO-OFDM结构的的新一代对流层散射通信系统框架.通过分析散射信道中的MIMO-OFDM结构,讨论MIMO-OFDM技术应用的主要问题,发现运用该技术可以有效提高散射通信的可靠度,克服高速数据在散射信道下的多径衰落,实现散射的大容量、远距离通信.

  12. The Learning Process and Technological Change in Wind Power: Evidence from China's CDM Wind Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian; Popp, David

    2016-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a project-based carbon trade mechanism that subsidizes the users of climate-friendly technologies and encourages technology transfer. The CDM has provided financial support for a large share of Chinese wind projects since 2002. Using pooled cross-sectional data of 486 registered CDM wind projects in China…

  13. Supporting Open Access to European Academic Courses: The ASK-CDM-ECTS Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Demetrios G.; Zervas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present and evaluate a web-based tool, namely ASK-CDM-ECTS, which facilitates authoring and publishing on the web descriptions of (open) academic courses in machine-readable format using an application profile of the Course Description Metadata (CDM) specification, namely CDM-ECTS. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  14. Design of Wideband MIMO Car-to-Car Channel Models Based on the Geometrical Street Scattering Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurilla Avazov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO car-to-car (C2C channel model based on the geometrical street scattering model. Starting from the geometrical model, a MIMO reference channel model is derived under the assumption of single-bounce scattering in line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS propagation environments. The proposed channel model assumes an infinite number of scatterers, which are uniformly distributed in two rectangular areas located on both sides of the street. Analytical solutions are presented for the space-time-frequency cross-correlation function (STF-CCF, the two-dimensional (2D space CCF, the time-frequency CCF (TF-CCF, the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF, and the frequency correlation function (FCF. An efficient sum-of-cisoids (SOCs channel simulator is derived from the reference model. It is shown that the temporal ACF and the FCF of the SOC channel simulator fit very well to the corresponding correlation functions of the reference model. To validate the proposed channel model, the mean Doppler shift and the Doppler spread of the reference model have been matched to real-world measurement data. The comparison results demonstrate an excellent agreement between theory and measurements, which confirms the validity of the derived reference model. The proposed geometry-based channel simulator allows us to study the effect of nearby street scatterers on the performance of C2C communication systems.

  15. Research of LLOP Location Algorithm Based on MIMO%一种基于MIMO的LLOP定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕飞; 钟子发; 张圣钧

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that location accuracy of LTE moblie station is low in the NLOS environment,based on the traditional LLOP algorithm,this paper offers a new algorithm which based on the technology of MIMO.This algorithm uses the character of multiple antenna transmission technology in MIMO to built a concentric circle positioning model,then averaging the positioning array. It can improve the location accuracy by reducing the NLOS error.Numerical simulations show that this new algorithm can get a more accurate results than LLOP in the NLOS error.%针对LTE终端在非可视距传播(NLOS)环境下定位精度较低的问题,在原有LLOP定位算法的基础上,提出一种基于MIMO技术的定位算法。该算法利用MIMO技术多天线传输的特性,构造同心圆定位模型,并对多定位点阵列求均值,从而达到消除NLOS误差提升定位精度的目的。仿真结果表明,提出的算法在NLOS环境下定位精度要高于传统LLOP定位算法。

  16. Covariance-based Spatial Channel Structure Emulation for MIMO OTA Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki; Alrabadi, Osama; Fan, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a general framework for recreating the spatial channel structure in a MIMO over-the-air (OTA) multiprobe anechoic chamber testing setup. The idea is to find the power weights of the spatial taps (antenna probes) that minimize a certain distance between the spatial channel covar...... among the antennas-under-test by considering the whole spatial covariance structure. The simulation results validate the improved performance of the suggested approach in terms of emulation accuracy compared to the key emulation methods proposed in the literature.......The paper presents a general framework for recreating the spatial channel structure in a MIMO over-the-air (OTA) multiprobe anechoic chamber testing setup. The idea is to find the power weights of the spatial taps (antenna probes) that minimize a certain distance between the spatial channel...

  17. Leakage based precoding for multi-user MIMO-OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sadek, Mirette

    2011-08-01

    In downlink multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmissions, several precoding schemes have been proposed to decrease interference among users. Notable among these precoding schemes is one that uses the signal-to-leakage-plus-noise ratio (SLNR) as an optimization criterion. In this paper, leveraging the efficiency of the SLNR optimization, we generalize this precoding scheme to MIMO orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) multi-user systems where the OFDM is used to overcome the inter-symbol- interference (ISI) introduced by multipath channels. We also introduce a channel compensation technique that reconstructs the channel at the transmitter for every time instant given a significantly lower channel feedback rate by the receiver. © 2006 IEEE.

  18. Video Transmission over MIMO-OFDM System: MDC and Space-Time Coding-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zheng

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available MIMO-OFDM is a promising technique for the broadband wireless communication system. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme that integrates multiple-description coding (MDC, error-resilient video coding, and unequal error protection strategy with hybrid space-time coding structure for robust video transmission over MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed MDC coder generates multiple bitstreams of equal importance which are very suitable for multiple-antennas system. Furthermore, according to the contribution to the reconstructed video quality, we apply unequal error protection strategy using BLAST and STBC space-time codes for each video bitstream. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed scheme can be an excellent alternative to achieve desired tradeoff between the reconstructed video quality and the transmission efficiency.

  19. Compressive Sensing for MIMO Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yao; Poor, H Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems have been shown to achieve superior resolution as compared to traditional radar systems with the same number of transmit and receive antennas. This paper considers a distributed MIMO radar scenario, in which each transmit element is a node in a wireless network, and investigates the use of compressive sampling for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. According to the theory of compressive sampling, a signal that is sparse in some domain can be recovered based on far fewer samples than required by the Nyquist sampling theorem. The DOA of targets form a sparse vector in the angle space, and therefore, compressive sampling can be applied for DOA estimation. The proposed approach achieves the superior resolution of MIMO radar with far fewer samples than other approaches. This is particularly useful in a distributed scenario, in which the results at each receive node need to be transmitted to a fusion center for further processing.

  20. A 2 x 2 imaging MIMO system based on LED Visible Light Communications employing space balanced coding and integrated PIN array reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiehui; Xu, Yinfan; Shi, Jianyang;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a 2 x 2 imaging Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO)-Visible Light Communication (VLC) system by employing Space Balanced Coding (SBC) based on two RGB LEDs and integrated PIN array reception. We experimentally demonstrated 1.4-Gbit/s VLC transmission at a distance of 2.5 m...

  1. Linear precoding based on polynomial expansion: reducing complexity in massive MIMO

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Axel; Kammoun, Abla; Björnson, Emil; Debbah, Merouane

    2016-01-01

    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques have the potential to bring tremendous improvements in spectral efficiency to future communication systems. Counterintuitively, the practical issues of having uncertain channel knowledge, high propagation losses, and implementing optimal non-linear precoding are solved more or less automatically by enlarging system dimensions. However, the computational precoding complexity grows with the system dimensions. For example, the close-to-opt...

  2. MIMO-OFDM Chirp Waveform Diversity Design and Implementation Based on Sparse Matrix and Correlation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen-qin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The waveforms used in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR should have a large time-bandwidth product and good ambiguity function performance. A scheme to design multiple orthogonal MIMO SAR Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM chirp waveforms by combinational sparse matrix and correlation optimization is proposed. First, the problem of MIMO SAR waveform design amounts to the associated design of hopping frequency and amplitudes. Then a iterative exhaustive search algorithm is adopted to optimally design the code matrix with the constraints minimizing the block correlation coefficient of sparse matrix and the sum of cross-correlation peaks. And the amplitudes matrix are adaptively designed by minimizing the cross-correlation peaks with the genetic algorithm. Additionally, the impacts of waveform number, hopping frequency interval and selectable frequency index are also analyzed. The simulation results verify the proposed scheme can design multiple orthogonal large time-bandwidth product OFDM chirp waveforms with low cross-correlation peak and sidelobes and it improves ambiguity performance.

  3. An ESPRIT-Based Approach for 2-D Localization of Incoherently Distributed Sources in Massive MIMO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anzhong; Lv, Tiejun; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Shaoshi

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, an approach of estimating signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) localization of incoherently distributed (ID) sources in large-scale/massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The traditional ESPRIT-based methods are valid only for one-dimensional (1-D) localization of the ID sources. By contrast, in the proposed approach the signal subspace is constructed for estimating the nominal azimuth and elevation direction-of-arrivals and the angular spreads. The proposed estimator enjoys closed-form expressions and hence it bypasses the searching over the entire feasible field. Therefore, it imposes significantly lower computational complexity than the conventional 2-D estimation approaches. Our analysis shows that the estimation performance of the proposed approach improves when the large-scale/massive MIMO systems are employed. The approximate Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound of the proposed estimator for the 2-D localization is also derived. Numerical results demonstrate that albeit the proposed estimation method is comparable with the traditional 2-D estimators in terms of performance, it benefits from a remarkably lower computational complexity.

  4. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  5. Impact of MIMO Co-Channel Interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Prasad, Ramjee

    2007-01-01

    to cellular interference of some specific Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) schemes on the same and other MIMO schemes. The goal is to study the impact of interference from MIMO schemes at a user located in the cell edge. Semi-Analytical evaluations of Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) is done...... to find out the SINR statistics of different combinations of desired and interfering links. We have studied linear combining receivers for all the link combinations. Based on the current analysis, it is found that Space-Time Block Code (STBC) is a severe interferer compared to others, and specific...

  6. Closed-Form Performance Analysis of Dual Polarization Based MIMO System in Shadowed-Rician Fading LMS Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Jindal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of dual polarization based MIMO Processing in Shadowed-Rician (SR fading land mobile satellite (LMS channels is studied. It is shown in literature that polarization is used as a interference rejection method; and, most of the existing analytical results are not in closed-form. In this paper, we derive the closed-form expressions of the moment generating (MGF function of the received signal-to-noise ratio of the MRC based receiver in SR fading LMS channels. Then we provide closed-form expressions of the symbol error rate (SER by using MGF approach. The analytical diversity order and capacity of the considered scheme is also derived. It is shown by by derived closed-form capacity expression that the capacity of the considered dual polarization based scheme is improved; and it is found very useful in practical satellite communication systems.

  7. Cross-Layer Approach using k-NN Based Adaptive Modulation Coding (AMC and Incremental Redundancy Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (IR-HARQ for MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sofia Priya Dharshini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In MIMO Technology, a cross layer design enhances the spectral efficiency, reliability and throughput of the network. In this paper, a cross-layer approach using k-NN based Adaptive Modulation Coding (AMC and Incremental Redundancy Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (IR-HARQ is proposed for MIMO Systems. The proposed cross layer approach connects physical layer and data link layer to enhance the performance of MIMO network. By means of MIMO fading channels, the coded symbols are forwarded in the physical layer on a frame by frame fashion subsequently using Space Time Block Coding (STBC. The receiver computes the signal to noise ratio (SNR and forwards back to the AMC controller. The controller selects a suitable MCS for the next transmission through k-NN classifier supervised learning algorithm. IR-HARQ is utilized at the data link layer to regulate packet retransmissions. The obtained results prove that the proposed technique has better performance in terms of throughput, BER and spectral efficiency

  8. Wireless Distributed Antenna MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to system applications of multicore optical fibers. One embodiment relates to a base transceiver station for a wireless telecommunication system comprising a plurality of antenna units arranged in a MIMO configuration and adapted for transmission and/or reception...... of radio-frequency signals, an optical transmitter in the form of an electro-optic conversion unit for each of said plurality of antenna units, each electro-optic conversion unit adapted for converting an RF signal into an optical signal, a plurality of a single core optical fibers for guiding the optical...

  9. A Multiuser MIMO Transmit Beamformer Based on the Statistics of the Signal-to-Leakage Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalise BatuK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO downlink communication system is analyzed in a Rayleigh fading environment. The approximate closed-form expressions for the probability density function (PDF of the signal-to-leakage ratio (SLR, its average, and the outage probability have been derived in terms of the transmit beamformer weight vector. With the help of some conservative derivations, it has been shown that the transmit beamformer which maximizes the average SLR also minimizes the outage probability of the SLR. Computer simulations are carried out to compare the theoretical and simulation results for the channels whose spatial correlations are modeled with different methods.

  10. BLIND EQUALIZATION OF MIMO SYSTEMS BASED ON ORTHOGONAL CONSTANT MODULUS ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates adaptive blind source separation and equalization for Multiple Input Mul-tiple Output (MIMO) systems. To effectively recover input signals, remove Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)and suppress Inter-User Interference (IUI), the array input is first transformed into the signal subspace, thenwith the derived orthogonality between weight vectors of different input signals, a new orthogonal ConstantModulus Algorithm (CMA) is proposed. Computer simulation results illustrate the promising performance ofthe proposed method. Without channel identification, the proposed method can recover all the system inputssimultaneously and can be adaptive to channel changes without prior knowledge about signals.

  11. Channel estimation of MIMO-OFDM system based on PN code under quasi-orthogonal regulation%PN码准正交原则下的MIMO-OFDM系统信道估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛德智; 陈长兴; 王博; 卞东亮

    2012-01-01

    研究了多输入多输出-正交频分复用 (multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,MIMO-OFDM)系统的信道估计问题.在分析正交导频估计的基础上,设计多天线上的PN导频分布,提出了准正交原则下的PN码导频信道估计方法,给出了该方法实现信道估计的数学推导过程,分PN码长度大于、等于发射天线数目两种不同情况进行了讨论.仿真实验表明,当PN码长度等于发射天线数目时,所得的信道估计和正交导频信道估计的性能相当;当伪随机序列码(pseudo-noise code,PN)码长度大于发射天线数目时,其信道估计的性能优于正交导频信道估计方法.这为MIMO-OFDM技术在4G通信中应用所要解决的核心问题提供了一种思路.%Channel estimation (CE) problem of MIMO-OFDM (multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) system is studied. Based on orthogonal pilot method, PN (pseudo-noise code) pilot code's station is designed and one CE method of PN pilot under quasi-orthogonal regulation is put forward. Mathematic evolvement process how to achieve CE is given. The discussion is done in the case that length of PN code is more than or equal-number of transmitting antennas. Simulation results show the method is superior to the orthogonal one, and the method provides a new way which can resolve the key problem for MIMO-OFDM system in the 4th communication.

  12. Research of MIMO-OFDM Detection Based on Quantum Algorithm%基于量子算法的MIMO-OFDM信号检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 李飞; 郑宝玉

    2011-01-01

    The optimal solution of signal detection is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard (NP) problem. Since Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network is prone to the local optimum and simple genetic algorithm has the shortcoming of slow convergence, a new type of quantum intelligent algorithm is proposed and applied into the MIMO-OFDM detection system. The new quantum intelligent algorithm makes use of quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) to optimize the initial data of the neural network, and quantum computation operation is presented in the course of optimization. Using this algorithm, the output of detector by QGA is the input of detector by the RBF neural network, which avoids the bit -error rate for selecting initial data randomly. It will further improve the detection property of MIMO-OFDM system. The numerical results show the method is good for the improvement of the detection rate and the reduction of bit-error rate.%信号的最优检测在常规条件下是-NP难解问题,针对RBF(径向基函数)神经网络算法易陷入局部极值和简单遗传算法收敛速度慢的问题,文中提出了新型的量子智能算法,并应用于MIMO-OFDM系统信号检测中:算法将遗传算法与神经网络相结合,用遗传算法优化神经网络初始值,在遗传算法优化神经网络时采用量子计算操作.由于QGA(量子遗传算法)给RBF网络提供了较好的初始值,故能够使RBF网络快速收敛到最优解,避免了由初始值的随机选取而带来的检测误码.实验结果表明该方法能够有效地提高系统的信号检测性能,降低误码率.

  13. On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

    To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

  14. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  15. Channel Estimation Based on SVD for MIMO-OFDMA Systems%基于SVD的MIMO-OFDMA系统信道估计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明磊

    2008-01-01

    基于802.16d/e实现的MIMO-OFDMA系统模型的信道估计算法,以LS信道估计方法为基础,结合OFD-MA系统导频的特点,提出一种基于时域LS的SVD信道估计方法,该方法是对T矩阵进行奇异值,而T矩阵要比信道自相关矩阵容易获得的多.仿真和算法分析显示,该算法的性能略劣于Ove Edfors等人提出的基于LMMSE的SVD信道估计方法,但计算复杂度要低,并且对导频的要求比较宽松,具有广泛的应用性.

  16. MIMO-OFDMA系统中基于奇异值分解的信道估计%Channel Estimation Based on SVD for MIMO-OFDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鑫; 王建华

    2008-01-01

    基于最小二乘方(LS)信道估计技术,并结合MIMO.OFDMA系统中导频的特点,提出一种基于时域KS的奇异值分解(SVD)信道估计法,该方法是对T矩阵进行奇异值,而T矩阵要比信道自相关矩阵R容易获得得多.理论研究与仿真结果显示,该算法的性能略劣于Ore Edfors等人提出的基于线性最小均方误差估计(LMMSE)的SVD信道估计方法,但计算复杂度要低,并且对导频的要求比较宽松,具有广泛的应用性.

  17. 基于小波去噪的MIMO-OFDM信道估计方法%A wavelet-based denoising method for MIMO-OFDM channel estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毓; 李世杰; 王国珍; 张丽婷

    2011-01-01

    用小波变换思想,提出一种基于小波去噪的多输入多输出正交频分复用(MIMO-OFDM)系统信道估计方法.该方法首先利用最小二乘(LS)方法进行信道估计,然后对估计后的结果进行小波去噪处理.与传统最小二乘信道估计方法相比,该方法不需要预先知道信道的统计特性,信道估计性能有明显提高.

  18. Model-Free Primitive-Based Iterative Learning Control Approach to Trajectory Tracking of MIMO Systems With Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radac, Mircea-Bogdan; Precup, Radu-Emil; Petriu, Emil M

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel model-free trajectory tracking of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems by the combination of iterative learning control (ILC) and primitives. The optimal trajectory tracking solution is obtained in terms of previously learned solutions to simple tasks called primitives. The library of primitives that are stored in memory consists of pairs of reference input/controlled output signals. The reference input primitives are optimized in a model-free ILC framework without using knowledge of the controlled process. The guaranteed convergence of the learning scheme is built upon a model-free virtual reference feedback tuning design of the feedback decoupling controller. Each new complex trajectory to be tracked is decomposed into the output primitives regarded as basis functions. The optimal reference input for the control system to track the desired trajectory is next recomposed from the reference input primitives. This is advantageous because the optimal reference input is computed straightforward without the need to learn from repeated executions of the tracking task. In addition, the optimization problem specific to trajectory tracking of square MIMO systems is decomposed in a set of optimization problems assigned to each separate single-input single-output control channel that ensures a convenient model-free decoupling. The new model-free primitive-based ILC approach is capable of planning, reasoning, and learning. A case study dealing with the model-free control tuning for a nonlinear aerodynamic system is included to validate the new approach. The experimental results are given.

  19. Low complexity MIMO method based on matrix transformation for few-mode multi-core optical transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaolong; Liu, Bo; Li, Li; Tian, Qinghua

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates a low complexity multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) equalization digital signal processing (DSP) method for the few mode multi-core (FMMC) fiber optical transmission system. The MIMO equalization algorithm offers adaptive equalization taps according to the degree of crosstalk in cores or modes, which eliminates the interference among different modes and cores in space division multiplexing (SDM) transmission system. Compared with traditional MIMO method, the proposed scheme has increased the convergence rate by 4 times and reduced the number of finite impulse response (FIR) filters by 55% when the numbers of mode and core are three.

  20. REVIEW OF THE PILOT CONTAMINATION PROBLEM FOR MASSIVE MIMO AND POSSIBLE SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar Mishra*, Prof. Saurabh Gaur

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demands of data communication speed for different type of data transmission, many revolutions occur with time in wireless communication system. The use of MIMO for wireless data transmission has proven itself for enhancing the capacity of data transmission. The mobile network based on the cell structure also uses the MIMO techniques. Further research in the field of massive MIMO has started for faithful data transmission. The enhancement by massive MIMO encounters many pro...

  1. Reduced complexity FFT-based DOA and DOD estimation for moving target in bistatic MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Hussain

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, we consider a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. We propose a reduced complexity algorithm to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD) for moving target. We show that the calculation of parameter estimation can be expressed in terms of one-dimensional fast-Fourier-transforms which drastically reduces the complexity of the optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the two-dimension multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC) and reduced-dimension MUSIC (RD-MUSIC) algorithms. It is shown by simulations, our proposed algorithm has better estimation performance and lower computational complexity compared to the 2D-MUSIC and RD-MUSIC algorithms. Moreover, simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm achieves the Cramer-Rao lower bound. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. A Novel Iterative Receiver Based on Extrinsic Information Update for MIMO Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wen-feng; HE Chen

    2007-01-01

    A novel iterative receiver for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems was introduced.Its basis concept is that the reliability of extrinsic information will be strengthened with continuous iterations.Extrinsic information of present iteration is added with prior information of last iteration to obtain performance gain.The simulation results show that the improved iterative receiver can approach the 5th iteration performance of conventional soft interference cancellation (SIC)-minimum mean square error (MMSE) iterative receiver after the 2nd iteration with less computational complexity.Compared with conventional iterative receiver, the improved iterative receiver has 1dB performance gain at bit error rate (BER) of 10-5, with four transmit antennas and four receive antennas system.

  3. SAGE based iterative receiver for joint synchronization and channel estimation in uplink MIMO-OFDMA systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zheng; QIN Xiao-fang; ZHANG Xin; CHANG Yong-yu

    2008-01-01

    A new Turbo iterative receiver structure is proposed for the uplink multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA) systems. The space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm is naturally embedded in the framework of iterative receiver to perform synchronization and detection using the Turbo detector outputs. In each iteration, the expectation step intends to remove the multiple access interference (MAI) caused by other asynchronous users, and the maximization step is utilized to estimate the required parameters (i.e., timing offset, carrier frequency offset, channel state information, etc.) sequentially for each user. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can approach the performance of ideal receiver closely, while the processing complexity is rather lower than the conventional detectors.

  4. MIMO PI Controllers for LTI Systems with Multiple Time Delays Based on ILMIs and Sensitivity Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdi Belhaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a MIMO PI design procedure is proposed for linear time invariant (LTI systems with multiple time delays. The controller tuning is established in two stages and guarantees performances for set-point changes, disturbance variations, and parametric uncertainties. In the first stage, an iterative linear matrix inequality (ILMI approach is extended to design PI controllers for systems with multiple time delays without performance guarantee, a priori. The second stage is devoted to improve the closed-loop performances by minimizing sensitivity functions. Simulations results carried out on the unstable distillation column, the stable industrial scale polymerization (ISP reactor, and the non-minimum phase 4-tank benchmark prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. A comparative analysis with the conventional internal model control (IMC approach, a multiloop IMC-PI approach, and a previous ILMI PID approach proves the superiority of the proposed approach compared to the related ones.

  5. Linear precoding based on polynomial expansion: reducing complexity in massive MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Axel

    2016-02-29

    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques have the potential to bring tremendous improvements in spectral efficiency to future communication systems. Counterintuitively, the practical issues of having uncertain channel knowledge, high propagation losses, and implementing optimal non-linear precoding are solved more or less automatically by enlarging system dimensions. However, the computational precoding complexity grows with the system dimensions. For example, the close-to-optimal and relatively “antenna-efficient” regularized zero-forcing (RZF) precoding is very complicated to implement in practice, since it requires fast inversions of large matrices in every coherence period. Motivated by the high performance of RZF, we propose to replace the matrix inversion and multiplication by a truncated polynomial expansion (TPE), thereby obtaining the new TPE precoding scheme which is more suitable for real-time hardware implementation and significantly reduces the delay to the first transmitted symbol. The degree of the matrix polynomial can be adapted to the available hardware resources and enables smooth transition between simple maximum ratio transmission and more advanced RZF. By deriving new random matrix results, we obtain a deterministic expression for the asymptotic signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) achieved by TPE precoding in massive MIMO systems. Furthermore, we provide a closed-form expression for the polynomial coefficients that maximizes this SINR. To maintain a fixed per-user rate loss as compared to RZF, the polynomial degree does not need to scale with the system, but it should be increased with the quality of the channel knowledge and the signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Multi-User MIMO Across Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, Danny; Ahmadi, Hamed; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the proposal and assessment of the MU-MIMO across Small Cells concept. MU-MIMO is the spatial multiplexing of multiple users on a single time-frequency resource. In small cell networks, where the number of users per cell is low, finding suitable sets of users...... to be co-scheduled for MU-MIMO is not always possible. In these cases we propose MU-MIMO-based cell reassignments of users into adjacent cells to enable MU-MIMO operation. From system level simulations we found that, when the initial number of users per small cell is four, cell reassignment results in a 21.......7% increase in the spectral efficiency gain attributed to MU-MIMO, and a higher percentage increase when the initial number of users per cell is lower. Going forward, we will extend this work to also consider energy savings through switching off small cells which are emptied by the reassignment process....

  7. Interference Alignment-based Precoding and User Selection with Limited Feedback in Two-cell Downlink Multi-user MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interference alignment (IA is a new approach to address interference in modern multiple-input multiple-out (MIMO cellular networks in which interference is an important factor that limits the system throughput. System throughput in most IA implementation schemes is significantly improved only with perfect channel state information and in a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR region. Designing a simple IA scheme for the system with limited feedback and investigating system performance at a low-to-medium SNR region is important and practical. This paper proposed a precoding and user selection scheme based on partial interference alignment in two-cell downlink multi-user MIMO systems under limited feedback. This scheme aligned inter-cell interference to a predefined direction by designing user’s receive antenna combining vectors. A modified singular value decomposition (SVD-based beamforming method and a corresponding user-selection algorithm were proposed for the system with low rate limited feedback to improve sum rate performance. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves a higher sum rate than traditional schemes without IA. The modified SVD-based beamforming scheme is also superior to the traditional zero-forcing beamforming scheme in low-rate limited feedback systems. The proposed partial IA scheme does not need to collaborate between transmitters and joint design between the transmitter and the users. The scheme can be implemented with low feedback overhead in current MIMO cellular networks.

  8. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  9. 基于Backstepping方法的MIMO过程分散PID控制器设计%Backstepping-based Decentralized PID Controller Design for MIMO Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 李少远

    2005-01-01

    A novel decentralized PID controller design procedure based on backstepping principles is presented to operate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)dynamic processes. The first key feature of the design procedure is that a whole MIMO control system is decomposed into multiple control loops, therefore the sub-controllers can be efficiently flexibly designed in parallel prototype.The second key feature is that the decentralized controller has equivalency to those designed by backstepping approach. As a complementary support to the design procedure, the sufficient condition of the whole closed-loop system stability is analyzed via the small gain theorem and it can be proven that the process tracking performance is improved. The simulation results of the Shell benchmark control problem are provided to verify the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed decentralized PID control.

  10. 基于SM调制的Massive MIMO信号检测算法%Research of SM-modulation Based Signal Detection Algorithm for Massive MIMO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大江; 钟子发; 宋常建; 朱然刚

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (Multi-Input Multi-Output, MIMO)signal detection problem has attracted much attention,this paper studies the belief propagation (Belief Propagation,BP)-based algorithm on the proposed (Message Passing Detection for Spatial Modulation,MPD-SM) detection algorithm based Massive MIMO information transfer process. A new spatial modulation under the simulation comparison chart under two different modulation patterns,the results show that,under different circumstances modulation order,the performance of the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional detection algorithm under the M-MIMO. And to some extent,the complexity of large-scale multi-user MIMO detection is reduced and the detection efficiency is improved.%近几年来,大规模多输入多输出(Multi-Input Multi-Output,MIMO)的信号检测问题已经引起了人们的关注,在研究了置信度传播(Belief Propagation,BP)算法的基础上,提出了一种新的空间调制下的基于信息传递过程的Massive MIMO(Message Passing Detection for Spatial Modulation,MPD-SM)检测算法,给出了两种不同用户天线数下的仿真对比图,结果表明,在这两种仿真下,所提算法性能要优于M-MIMO下传统的检测算法,且在一定程度上降低了大规模MIMO多用户检测的复杂度,提高了检测效率。

  11. 基于信道分析的动态可重构MIMO检测器%Dynamic Reconfigurable MIMO Detector Based on Channel Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂彧; 刘亮; 叶凡; 任俊彦

    2011-01-01

    在多输入多输出(MIMO)系统中分析信道增益对信号检测性能的影响,提出一种基于信道分析的智能MIMO信号检测算法,根据各对天线间的信道增益动态调整子节点扩展数,在检测性能接近最大似然算法性能的前提下,该算法比传统K-best算法减少54%的子节点扩展数.基于该算法设计并实现的动态可重构的超大规模集成电路MIMO检测器支持4×4天线阵列、QPSK/16-QAM调制信号,数据吞吐率达到800 Mb/s.%This paper analyzes the effect of channel gains on the performance of signal detection in Multiple Input Multiple Output(MIMO) systems, and based on that this paper proposes an intelligent MIMO signal detection algorithm. It dynamically chooses child-node number according to the gains between antennas. While keeping the detection performance close to Maximum Likelihood(ML) algorithm, it can reduce up to 54% extension nodes compared with traditional K-best algoiithm. Based on the proposed algorithm, a dynamic reconfigurable Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit(VLSI) MIMO detector is designed and implemented, and it can support 4x4 antennas, demodulates QPSK and 16-QAM signals with throughput up to 800 Mb/s.

  12. Direction synthesis in DOA estimation for monostatic multiple input multiple output(MIMO) radar based on synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) and its performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO GuangHui; CHEN BaiXiao; ZHU ShouPing

    2008-01-01

    A new direction synthetic method for monostatic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar is presented based on synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) system. Concerned with the monostatic MIMO radar which simultaneously emits orthogonal signals with multi-carrier-frequency and possesses sparsely distributed transmitting and receiving arrays with respective location, as well as the situation for the presence of multipath propagation in the low flying target's echo, the method integrates the aperture of the transmitting arrays with the receiving arrays to form the digital beam-forming (DBF) in azimuth and elevation dimensions. And a study has been made of planar general MUSIC algorithm based on decorrelating the multipath signals of multi-carrier-frequency MIMO radar. Through compensat-ing the phase delay of both the transmitting and the receiving arrays and synthe-sizing the transmitting beam in two dimensions at the receiver, the angular resolu-tion and measurement accuracy are improved and the computational complexity is reduced after transforming the three-dimensional (3D) parameter estimation prob-lem into a two-dimensional (2D) one. Finally, the Cramer-Rao Bounds (CRBs) of DOA estimation for azimuth and elevation is put forward with the exsitJng multipath propagation. Results of computer simulation demonstrate the validity of the new method.

  13. Direction synthesis in DOA estimation for monostatic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar based on synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) and its performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new direction synthetic method for monostatic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar is presented based on synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) system. Concerned with the monostatic MIMO radar which simultaneously emits orthogonal signals with multi-carrier-frequency and possesses sparsely distributed transmitting and receiving arrays with respective location, as well as the situation for the presence of multipath propagation in the low flying target’s echo, the method integrates the aperture of the transmitting arrays with the receiving arrays to form the digital beam-forming (DBF) in azimuth and elevation dimensions. And a study has been made of planar general MUSIC algorithm based on decorrelating the multipath signals of multi-carrier-frequency MIMO radar. Through compensat-ing the phase delay of both the transmitting and the receiving arrays and synthe-sizing the transmitting beam in two dimensions at the receiver, the angular resolu-tion and measurement accuracy are improved and the computational complexity is reduced after transforming the three-dimensional (3D) parameter estimation prob-lem into a two-dimensional (2D) one. Finally, the Cramer-Rao Bounds (CRBs) of DOA estimation for azimuth and elevation is put forward with the exsiting multipath propagation. Results of computer simulation demonstrate the validity of the new method.

  14. MIMO-OFDM系统中基于小波包的信道估计方法%Channel estimation method based on wavelet packet for MIMO-OFDM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超; 岳喜顺

    2009-01-01

    The Least Squares (LS) channel estimation algorithm based on pilot-assisted was investigated for Multiple Input Multiple Output-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( MIMO-OFDM) systems, aiming to overcome the shortcoming of LS algorithm being sensitive to the noise. The authors proposed a channel estimation method based on wavelet packet de-noising, which is interpolating after de-noising to the channel impulse response of the pilot symbols. Finally, according to the idea of this method, simulations and analysis were carried out based on the Long Term Evolution (LTE) protocol. The results prove that the proposed method has better performance than the traditional LS estimation algorithm: it can reduce the influence of channel noise effectively and improve the accuracy of channel estimation.%对多输入多输出-正交频分复用(MIMO-OFDM)系统中基于导频辅助的最小二乘(LS)信道估计算法进行研究,针对LS算法对噪声影响比较敏感的缺点,提出了一种基于小波包去噪的信道估计方法,对导频符号的信道响应进行去噪处理后,再做内插估计.根据该方法的思想,基于长期演进(LTE)协议进行计算机仿真与分析,结果表明该方法比传统的LS估计算法具有更好的性能,能够有效减小信道噪声的影响,提高信道估计精度.

  15. Modeling correlated nakagami-MIMO channel based on 2D rank matching%相关Nakagami-MIMO信道二维秩匹配模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学强; 王成华; 朱秋明; 陈超

    2013-01-01

    针对现有Nakagami-MIMO信道仿真方法非常复杂的问题,提出了一种基于二维秩匹配的Nakagami-MIMO空时相关衰落仿真模型.该模型首先利用高效舍弃法产生多支路独立Nakagami随机过程,然后基于二维秩匹配技术引入各子信道空时相关性且保持子信道原有统计特性不变.仿真结果表明,该模型输出各子信道的衰落包络分布和空时相关系数等统计特性均与理论结果吻合,可应用于任意衰落参数和空时相关特性的Nakagami-MIMO信道仿真场合.%The traditional Nakagami-MIMO(multiple-input & multiple-output) channel simulation methods are very complex,and a novel simulator for spatial and temporal correlated Nakagami-MIMO fading channel based on 2D rank matching technique was proposed.Firstly,a high efficient rejection method was used to generate several Nakagami random processes as sub-branches of the MIMO channel.Then,the spatial and temporal correlation between each sub-channels were introduced by a new two-dimensional rank matching technique,which keeps the statistical properties of Nakagami fading unchanged.Simulation results show that the new simulator agrees well with the theoretical results on envelope distribution and spatialtemporal correlation,which can be applied to simulating the Nakagami-MIMO channel with arbitrary fading parameters and correlation features.

  16. Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    SIMO ) radar systems, based on the BLUE, is provided in [20]. The best achievable accuracy for both configurations is derived. MIMO radar systems with...coherent processing are shown to benefit from higher spatial advantage, compared with SIMO systems. The advantage of the MIMO radar scheme over SIMO

  17. MIMO Channel Capacity for Handsets in Data Mode Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2010-01-01

    The current paper concerns realistic evaluation of the capacity of the MIMO channel between a BS and handheld device, such as a PDA or smart phone, held in front of the user’s body (data mode). The work is based on measurements of the MIMO channel between two widely separated BSs in a micro...

  18. NOVEL DECODING OF SQUARE QAM MODULATED MIMO SYSTEMS BASED ON TURBO MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jianping; Bai Baoming; Wang Xinmei

    2008-01-01

    By introducing the bit-level multi-stream coded Layered Space-Time (LST) transmitter along with a novel iterative MultiStage Decoding (MSD) at the receiver, the paper shows how to achieve the near-capacity performance of the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with square Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). In the proposed iterative MSD scheme, the detection at each stage is equivalent to multiuser detection of synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) multiuser systems with the aid of the binary representation of the transmitted symbols. Therefore, the optimal Soft-Input Soft-Output (SISO) multiuser detection and low-complexity SISO multiuser detection can be utilized herein. And the proposed scheme with low-complexity SISO multiuser detection has polynomial complexity in the number of transmit antennas M, the number of receive antennas N, and the number of bits per constellation point Mc. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme has similar Bit Error Rate (BER) performance to that of the known Iterative Tree Search (ITS) detection.

  19. PMI-based MIMO OFDM PHY Integrated Key Exchange (P-MOPI) Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Lan, Pang-Chang; Lee, Chia-Han; Yeh, Ping-Cheng; Cheng, Chen-Mou

    2011-01-01

    In the literature, J.-P. Cheng et al. have proposed the MIMO-OFDM PHY integrated (MOPI) scheme for achieving physical-layer security in practice without using any cryptographic ciphers. The MOPI scheme uses channel sounding and physical-layer network coding (PNC) to prevent eavesdroppers from learning the channel state information (CSI). Nevertheless, due to the use of multiple antennas for PNC at transmitter and beamforming at receiver, it is not possible to have spatial multiplexing nor use space-time codes in our previous MOPI scheme. In this paper, we propose a variant of the MOPI scheme, called P-MOPI, that works with a cryptographic cipher and utilizes precoding matrix index (PMI) as an efficient key-exchange mechanism. With channel sounding, the PMI is only known between the transmitter and the legal receiver. The shared key can then be used, e.g., as the seed to generate pseudo random bit sequences for securing subsequent transmissions using a stream cipher. By applying the same techniques at independ...

  20. Adaptive channel estimation based on pilot signals and transform-domain processing in SISO/MIMO OFDM systems%基于导频和变换域的SISO/MIMO OFDM系统自适应信道估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋铁成; 尤肖虎; 沈连丰; 宋晓晋

    2005-01-01

    Based on the transform-domain characteristics of pilot signals,a band suppression filter is used as a transform-domain filter to restrain the interference of noise in channel estimation.The performance effect on channel estimation for an orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) system by different energy coefficients in the transform domain and the energy coefficient under the different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) are also analyzed.A new energy coefficient expression is deduced.It is theoretically proven that dynamically selecting an energy coefficient can significantly improve the performance of channel estimation.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better performance close to the theoretic bounds of perfect channel estimation. The algorithm is adapted to single-input single-output (SISO) OFDM and multi-input multi-output (MIMO) OFDM systems.%根据导频信号在变换域中的频响特性,将系统的变换域滤波器设计成具有更好滤波效果的"带阻滤波器";在小信噪比和大信噪比条件下,分析了变换域能量参数对系统信道估计性能的影响,推导了新的能量参数表达式,理论证明了根据接收端检测到的信噪比自适应选择能量参数可以显著改善信道估计的性能.仿真结果表明,提出的信道估计算法具有较好的性能,在一定程度上可以接近于理想信道估计的性能,适用于SISO OFDM系统和MIMO OFDM系统.

  1. 基于空频相关性的大规模MIMO-OFDM信道压缩反馈算法%Compressed Channel Feedback Based on Spatial-frequency Correlation for Massive MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓辉; 王维猛; 黑永强

    2014-01-01

    In Massive MIMO-OFDM systems, the channel shows strong correlations in both spatial and frequency domain. Aiming at the problem that only spatial or frequency domain correlation is considered in most of the existing compressed feedback algorithms, a joint spatial-frequency compression algorithm is proposed. First, a two dimensional sparsity of channel in spatial-frequency domain is analyzed according to the compressed sensing theory. Then, a joint sparse matrix of channel is derived. Based on the joint sparse matrix, the joint spatial-frequency compression algorithm is presented. Simulation results and analysis show that, the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the feedback load with acceptable accuracy.%大规模MIMO-OFDM系统中,信道常常存在较强的空间和频域相关性。针对多数信道压缩反馈算法仅考虑空间或频域相关性的问题,该文提出一种空频联合压缩反馈算法。首先,根据压缩感知理论进行了信道空频2维稀疏度分析;然后,推导了信道矩阵在空间和频域2维相关性下的联合稀疏基;最后,利用该联合稀疏基给出了空频联合压缩算法。仿真结果与分析表明,该算法在保证信道反馈精度的同时,可显著降低反馈量。

  2. MIMO Radar Using Compressive Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yao; Poor, H Vincent

    2009-01-01

    A MIMO radar system is proposed for obtaining angle and Doppler information on potential targets. Transmitters and receivers are nodes of a small scale wireless network and are assumed to be randomly scattered on a disk. The transmit nodes transmit uncorrelated waveforms. Each receive node applies compressive sampling to the received signal to obtain a small number of samples, which the node subsequently forwards to a fusion center. Assuming that the targets are sparsely located in the angle- Doppler space, based on the samples forwarded by the receive nodes the fusion center formulates an l1-optimization problem, the solution of which yields target angle and Doppler information. The proposed approach achieves the superior resolution of MIMO radar with far fewer samples than required by other approaches. This implies power savings during the communication phase between the receive nodes and the fusion center. Performance in the presence of a jammer is analyzed for the case of slowly moving targets. Issues rel...

  3. Noncircular Sources-Based Sparse Representation Algorithm for Direction of Arrival Estimation in MIMO Radar with Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a reweighted sparse representation algorithm based on noncircular sources is proposed, and the problem of the direction of arrival (DOA estimation for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar with mutual coupling is addressed. Making full use of the special structure of banded symmetric Toeplitz mutual coupling matrices (MCM, the proposed algorithm firstly eliminates the effect of mutual coupling by linear transformation. Then, a reduced dimensional transformation is exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, by utilizing the noncircular feature of signals, the new extended received data matrix is formulated to enlarge the array aperture. Finally, based on the new received data, a reweighted matrix is constructed, and the proposed method further designs the joint reweighted sparse representation scheme to achieve the DOA estimation by solving the l 1 -norm constraint minimization problem. The proposed method enlarges the array aperture due to the application of signal noncircularity, and in the presence of mutual coupling, the proposed algorithm provides higher resolution and better angle estimation performance than ESPRIT-like, l 1 -SVD and l 1 -SRDML (sparse representation deterministic maximum likelihood algorithms. Numerical experiment results verify the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method.

  4. A New Cooperative MIMO Scheme Based on SM for Energy-Efficiency Improvement in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system.

  5. On detection performance and system configuration of MIMO radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; WU Yong; PENG YingNing; WANG XiuTan

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is a new concept with some new characteristics, such as multiple orthogonal waveforms and omnidirectional coverage. Based on Stein's lemma, we use relative entropy as a precise and general measure of error exponent to study detection performance for both MIMO radar and phased array radar. And based on derived analytical results, we further study the system configuration problem of Bistatic MIMO radar systems, where transmitters and receivers are located in different positions. Some interesting results are presented. For phased array radar, when the total numbers of transmitters and receivers are fixed, we should always make the number of transmitters equal to the number of receivers. For MIMO radar, we should use a small number of transmitters in low signal noise ratio (SNR) region, and make the number of transmitters equal to the number of receivers in high SNR region. These results are instructive for deployment of bistatic MIMO radar systems in the future.

  6. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  7. Design and Prototyping Flow of Flexible and Efficient NISC-Based Architectures for MIMO Turbo Equalization and Demapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rizk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of digital wireless communication, flexible design implementations are increasingly explored for different applications in order to cope with diverse system configurations imposed by the emerging wireless communication standards. In fact, shrinking the design time to meet market pressure, on the one hand, and adding the emerging flexibility requirement and, hence, increasing system complexity, on the other hand, require a productive design approach that also ensures final design quality. The no instruction set computer (NISC approach fulfills these design requirements by eliminating the instruction set overhead. The approach offers static scheduling of the datapath, automated register transfer language (RTLsynthesis and allows the designer to have direct control of hardware resources. This paper presents a complete NISC-based design and prototype flow, from architecture specification till FPGA implementation. The proposed design and prototype flow is illustrated through two case studies of flexible implementations, which are dedicated to low-complexity MIMO turbo-equalizer and a universal turbo-demapper. Moreover, the flexibility of the proposed prototypes allows supporting all communication modes defined in the emerging wireless communication standards, such LTE, LTE-Advanced, WiMAX, WiFi and DVB-RCS. For each prototype, its functionality is evaluated, and the resultant performance is verified for all system configurations.

  8. The statistics of Λ CDM halo concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Angelo F.; Gao, Liang; Bett, Philip; Cole, Shaun; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation (MS) to study the statistics of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) halo concentrations at z = 0. Our results confirm that the average halo concentration declines monotonically with mass; the concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law over three decades in mass, up to the most massive objects that form in a ΛCDM universe (~ 1015h-1Msolar). This is in clear disagreement with the predictions of the model proposed by Bullock et al. for these rare objects, and agrees better with the original predictions of Navarro, Frenk & White. The large volume surveyed, together with the unprecedented numerical resolution of the MS, allows us to estimate with confidence the distribution of concentrations and, consequently, the abundance of systems with unusual properties. About one in a hundred cluster haloes (M200 >~ 3 × 1014h-1Msolar) have concentrations exceeding c200 = 7.5, a result that may be useful in interpreting the likelihood of unusually strong massive gravitational lenses, such as Abell 1689, in the ΛCDM cosmogony. A similar fraction of about 1 per cent of galaxy-sized haloes (M200 ~ 1012h-1Msolar) have c200 < 4.5 and this could be relevant to models that attempt to reconcile the ΛCDM cosmology with rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies by appealing to haloes of unexpectedly low concentration. We find that halo concentrations are independent of spin once haloes manifestly out of equilibrium have been removed from the sample. Compared to their relaxed brethren, the concentrations of out-of-equilibrium haloes tend to be lower and have more scatter, while their spins tend to be higher. A number of previously noted trends within the halo population are induced primarily by these properties of unrelaxed systems. Finally, we compare the result of predicting halo concentrations using the mass assembly history of the main progenitor with predictions based on simple arguments regarding the assembly time of all progenitors

  9. MIMO Identical Eigenmode Transmission System (IETS) - A Channel Decomposition Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Shakir, M Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years considerable attention has been given to the design of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Eigenmode Transmission Systems (EMTS). This paper presents an in-depth analysis of a new MIMO eigenmode transmission strategy. The non-linear decomposition technique called Geometric Mean Decomposition (GMD) is employed for the formation of eigenmodes over MIMO flatfading channel. Exploiting GMD technique, identical, parallel and independent transmission pipes are created for data transmission at higher rate. The system based on such decomposition technique is referred to as MIMO Identical Eigenmode Transmission System (IETS). The comparative analysis of the MIMO transceiver design exploiting nonlinear and linear decomposition techniques for variable constellation is presented in this paper. The new transmission strategy is tested in combination with the Vertical Bell Labs Layered Space Time (V-BLAST) decoding scheme using different number of antennas on both sides of the communication link. The ...

  10. Bistatic MIMO Radar Clutter Suppression by Exploiting the Transmit Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transmit angle of bistatic radars can be obtained by introducing Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO radar techniques. The Three-Dimensional (3D clutter spectra, that is, the transmit angle, receive angle, and Doppler frequency, are introduced using the additional angle information to Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP. This study reviews the researches on bistatic MIMO-STAP. 3D space-time adaptive processing methods for airborne bistatic side-looking MIMO radars, such as 3D-LCMV, 3D-ACR, 3D-JDL, and 3D projection-based reduced dimensional STAP methods, are discussed. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can improve the small-sample support performance of range-dependent clutter suppression in bistatic side-looking MIMO radar. Finally, the results are summarized and the prospects of bistatic MIMO-STAP are discussed.

  11. Limited Feedback Precoding for Massive MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale array antenna system with numerous low-power antennas deployed at the base station, also known as massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO, can provide a plethora of advantages over the classical array antenna system. Precoding is important to exploit massive MIMO performance, and codebook design is crucial due to the limited feedback channel. In this paper, we propose a new avenue of codebook design based on a Kronecker-type approximation of the array correlation structure for the uniform rectangular antenna array, which is preferable for the antenna deployment of massive MIMO. Although the feedback overhead is quite limited, the codebook design can provide an effective solution to support multiple users in different scenarios. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed codebook outperforms the previously known codebooks remarkably.

  12. Grand Banquet of CDM for Power Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yuanchang; Jin Wen

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Kyoto Protocol was taken into effect on Feb. 16, 2005. It requires developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, but it doesn't set binding limits on developing countries, such as China. The developed countries found that it is more cost-effective to reduce the emissions in developing countries than in their own. Therefore, the CDM emerged as the times require. Due to unfamiliarity and complicatedness, Chinese enterprises had been hesitating and taking wait-and-see attitude toward CDM, but they couldn't resist the attraction of free dinner of CDM, more and more enterprises started to attend the grand banquet of CDM since 2006.

  13. Impact of Non-Idealities System on Spatial Correlation in a Multi-Probe Based MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Carreño, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    . This paper investigates the extent to which we can emulate the channel spatial characteristics inside the test zone where the device under test is located. The focus is on performance deterioration introduced by system non-idealities on spatial correlation emulation in practical MIMO OTA test systems....

  14. A NOVEL INDOOR GEO-LOCATION METHOD USING MIMO ARRAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Guolin; Guo Wei

    2006-01-01

    In a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) system, both Access Points (Aps) and Mobile Terminals (MTs) are configured with multiple antennas, to make novel indoor geo-location method possible. In this paper, we presented a novel Least Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) based data fusion algorithm to fuse signal strength measurements for indoor geo-location using only a single AP with MIMO arrays. We evaluate our proposed algorithms under indoor environments by MATLAB simulations. Simulation results show that our MIMO-based algorithm is superior to conventional least square algorithm.

  15. Implementing CDM projects. A guidebook to host country legal issues; CDM - Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curnow, P. (Baker and McKenzie, London (United Kingdom)); Hodes, G. (UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, DTU, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) continues to evolve organically, and many legal issues remain to be addressed in order to maximise its effectiveness. This Guidebook explains through case studies how domestic laws and regulatory frameworks in CDM Host Countries interact with international rules on carbon trading, and how the former can be enhanced to facilitate the implementation and financing of CDM projects. (author)

  16. A 2×2 imaging MIMO system based on LED Visible Light Communications employing space balanced coding and integrated PIN array reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehui; Xu, Yinfan; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuanquan; Ji, Xinming; Ou, Haiyan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we proposed a 2×2 imaging Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO)-Visible Light Communication (VLC) system by employing Space Balanced Coding (SBC) based on two RGB LEDs and integrated PIN array reception. We experimentally demonstrated 1.4-Gbit/s VLC transmission at a distance of 2.5 m. The proposed imaging system not only overcomes the limitation of bandwidth existing in LEDs, but also can reject the second-order nonlinearity distortion. It turned out to be very promising to use integrated antennas in the VLC system in the future.

  17. Performance Analysis of Capacity of MIMO Systems under Multiuser Interference Based on Worst-Case Noise Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorswieck E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of a cellular multiuser MIMO system depends on various parameters, for example, the system structure, the transmit and receive strategies, the channel state information at the transmitter and the receiver, and the channel properties. Recently, the main focus of research was on single-user MIMO systems, their channel capacity, and their error performance with space-time coding. In general, the capacity of a cellular multiuser MIMO system is limited by additive white Gaussian noise, intracell interference from other users within the cell, and intercell interference from users outside the considered cell. We study one point-to-point link, on which interference acts. The interference models the different system scenarios and various parameters. Therefore, we consider three scenarios in which the noise is subject to different constraints. A general trace constraint is used in the first scenario. The noise covariance matrix eigenvalues are kept fixed in the second scenario, and in the third scenario the entries on the diagonal of the noise covariance matrix are kept fixed. We assume that the receiver as well as the transmitter have perfect channel state information. We solve the corresponding minimax programming problems and characterize the worst-case noise and the optimal transmit strategy. In all scenarios, the achievable capacity of the MIMO system with worst-case noise is equal to the capacity of some MIMO system in which either the channels are orthogonal or the transmit antennas are not allowed to cooperate or in which no channel state information is available at the transmitter. Furthermore, the minimax expressions fulfill a saddle point property. All theoretical results are illustrated by examples and numerical simulations.

  18. 基于QRM-MLD的MIMO检测算法研究%QRM-MLD-based MIMO Detection Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝霞; 王琼; 刘佳

    2013-01-01

    在多输入多输出( MIMO)通信系统中,MIMO检测是发送端MIMO编码的逆过程,是根据接收到的信号及接收信号质量、信道状态信息等获得发送端发送比特的概率信息过程。通信信道矩阵的QR分解( QRD)是几种MIMO信号检测方案的基本先决条件。首先针对QRD方案进行研究,详细介绍了QRM-MLD的算法实现并进行了优化。最后对复杂度进行了统计并对仿真结果进行了分析,证明此方案可以作为MIMO检测的优选方案。%In MIMO ( multi-input multi-output ) communication system, MIMO detection is the reverse process of MIMO coding, and from the received signal and its quality and channel status information it ob-tains the bits probability information of the transmitter. The QRD( QR decomposition) of communication channel matrices is a fundamental prerequisite for several detection schemes. Firstly, the QRD methods are studied. Then the realization procedure and optimization of QRM-MLD are described in detail. Finally, the statistics of the complexity are presented, the simulation results are analyzed. It is verified that this so-lution can be used as a preferred scheme of MIMO detection.

  19. A study of regional CDM projects distribution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xutong; Liu Qingqian; Gu A'lun

    2009-01-01

    sector development, CDM market and information circulation aspects, suggestions are given to support CDM development in western areas by the "sector development guidance + CDM capability construction + market support" mode in this paper.

  20. Practical guide to MIMO radio channel with MATLAB examples

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Tim; De Carvalho, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an excellent reference to the MIMO radio channel In this book, the authors introduce the concept of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radio channel, which is an intelligent communication method based upon using multiple antennas. Moreover, the authors provide a summary of the current channel modeling approaches used by industry, academia, and standardisation bodies. Furthermore, the book is structured to allow the reader to easily progress through the chapters in order to gain an understanding of the fundamental and mathematical principles behind MIMO. It al

  1. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...

  2. A Cluster-based Virtual MIMO Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks%基于分簇的传感网虚拟MIMO协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋世玮; 仇建

    2015-01-01

    提出一种应用于无线传感网的新型分簇式虚拟MIMO协议。协议基于簇头轮换,避免大量重新分簇带来的拓扑维护开销,从而提高网络能量效率。在簇间路由中,提出一种新型的“跨跳”操作,以平衡网络中不同节点与簇的能耗和生命周期。仿真实验结果表明,该协议较现有的的虚拟MIMO在能耗总量和均衡上均具有更好的效果。%This paper proposes a novel cluster-based virtual MIMO protocol for wireless sensor networks .The protocol adopts cluster-head rotation to avoid massive re-clustering energy waste as well as improving energy efficiency of the entire network.In the inter-cluster routing, a new operation named “over-jump” is introduced to make energy consumption and lifetime balance among different nodes .The simulation results show that the proposed protocol is more effectively in energy saving and balance, compared with traditional cluster-based virtual MIMO systems.

  3. MIMO Throughput Effectiveness for Basic MIMO OTA Compliance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adoración Marín-Soler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the March 2011 meeting of the CTIA MIMO OTA Subgroup (MOSG, the members agreed that the subgroup should first determine “what” aspects of a MIMO-capable device require evaluation; then the group should determine “how” to go about making these measurements. In subsequent meetings of MOSG, new yet-unnamed figures of merit were asked for in order to provide a solution to the carriers' requirements for LTE MIMO OTA evaluation. Furthermore, the December 2011 3GPP RAN4 status report on LTE MIMO OTA listed the evaluation of the use of statistical performance analysis in order to minimize test time and help ensure accurate performance assessment as an open issue. This contribution addresses these petitions by providing four new figures of merit, which could serve the purpose of evaluating the operators' top priorities for MIMO OTA compliance testing. The new figures of merit are MIMO Throughput Effectiveness (MTE, MIMO Device Throughput Effectiveness (MDTE, MIMO Throughput Gain (MTG, and MIMO Device Throughput Gain (MDTG. In this paper, MTE is evaluated using the recently available LTE MIMO OTA RR data from 3GPP.

  4. MIMO/SA Multi-antenna Space-time Channel Modeling%MIMO/SA多天线空时信道建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕郡陵; 郭爱煌

    2012-01-01

    Based on correlation matrix method. Multiple-input and Multiple-output(MIMO) channel coefficient matrix can be obtained by calculating the correlation coefficient between two antennas and MIMO correlation matrix. The steering vector and beam-forming vector of Smart Antenna(SA) are added to the MIMO channel coefficient matrix to form MIMO/SA channel matrix, so that MIMO/SA multi-antenna space-time channel is modeled. A channel simulation platform is established to simulate and analyze MIMO/SA channel in time domain, frequency domain and space domain. Simulation results show that the model has a good channel directivity gain and the channel properties in space, time and frequency meet the demands of 3GPP TR 25.996, and it is useful for designing and optimizing MIMO/SA multi-antenna system and the analysis of channel capacity.%运用相关矩阵法,通过计算2根天线之间的相关系数、多输入多输出(MIMO)的相关矩阵,得到MIMO信道系数矩阵,在其中加入智能天线(SA)的导向向量和赋形向量,得到MIMO/SA矩阵,由此实现对MIMO/SA多天线空时信道的建模.利用Matlab搭建一个仿真平台,从空间、时间、频率3个方面分析MIMO/SA多天线信道模型,结果表明,该模型具有较好的信道方向性增益,信道的空时频特性符合3GPP 25.996的要求,可用于MIMO/SA多天线的设计、优化和信道容量分析.

  5. Printed MIMO antenna engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sharawi, Mohammad S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless communications has made a huge leap during the past two decades. The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology was proposed in the 1990's as a viable solution that can overcome the data rate limit experienced by single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. This resource is focused on printed MIMO antenna system design. Printed antennas are widely used in mobile and handheld terminals due to their conformity with the device, low cost, good integration within the device elements and mechanical parts, as well as ease of fabrication.A perfect design companion for practicing engineers

  6. Channel Statistics for MIMO Handsets in Data Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del;

    2014-01-01

    The presented work is based on a large dual- band, dual-base outdoor-to-indoor multiple-input multiple- output (MIMO) channel measurement campaign, involving ten different realistic MIMO handsets, held in data mode by eight test users. Various different use cases (UCs) are measured. Statistics on...... on the channel capacity, mean effective gain (MEG), branch power ratio (BPR), and correlation coefficients between Rx, Tx, and cross-link channels are presented....

  7. Analysis on some factors affecting MIMO in tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong-dang; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhao

    2009-07-01

    Based on the 3D-GBSB (three-dimensional Geometrically Based Single-Bounce) model and MIMO channel capacity function, by geometric analysis, it is analyzed that transceiver antenna arrays, antenna spacing, antenna array angle, SNR and Rician K-factor and so on impact on the frequency-nonselective fading MIMO channel capacity. Monte Carlo method can be applied to stimulate the wireless fading channel and demonstrate Cumulative Distribution Function of above.

  8. Direction of Arrival Based on PM and Root-MUSIC for Monostatic MIMO Radar%基于PM和Root-MUSIC的MIMO雷达波达方向估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟; 曹宁; 刘伟伟

    2012-01-01

    A novel method based on propagator method (PM) and Rooting MUSIC ( Root-MUSIC ) for angle estimation in MIMO radar system is presented. The method combined the advantages of PM and Root-MUSIC, using covariance matrix of receive data to get propagator matrix, the noise subspace can be derived by propagator matrix, then by exploiting Root-MUSIC. Direction of Arrival (DOA) can be estimated separately. The proposed algorithm greatly reduces the computational complexity without the eigenvalue decomposition and spectrum peak searching. The simulation results demonstrate the validity and superiority of the proposed algorithm.%提出了基于传播算子( Propagator Method,PM)和求根MUSIC (Root-MUSIC)算法的单基地MIMO(Multiple - Input Multiple-Output)雷达多目标定位方法.该方法将上述两种方法结合,利用接收数据协方差得到传播算子矩阵,该矩阵可替代所需的噪声矩阵,避免了特征值分解.再利用多项式求根对方位角进行估计,从而无需谱峰搜索,大大降低了计算复杂度.仿真结果表明了该算法的有效性.

  9. MIMO-OC Scheme to Suppress Co-channel Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei Jiong; Zhou, Xi Lang; Jin, Rong Hong

    In this letter, we present a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) optimal combining (OC) scheme based on alternate iteration. With the channel state information (CSI) of co-channel interferers (CCIs), this algorithm can be used in flat fading and frequency selective channels to suppress CCIs. Compared with the optimal transceiver of MIMO maximal ratio combining (MRC) systems, results of simulation show that this scheme improves the uplink transmission performance significantly.

  10. Emulating Spatial Characteristics of MIMO Channels for OTA Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Sun, Fan;

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on channel spatial characteristics emulation. A novel technique to obtain optimum power weights for the OTA probes based on convex optimization is proposed. The proposed...... performance compared with existing techniques in the literature. This improvement is further demonstrated by measurement results in a practical MIMO OTA setup....

  11. On Issues about the Application of MIMO in Mobile Cellular Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-gang; SONG Mei; SONG Jun-de

    2004-01-01

    The convenience of mobile communications and the increasing demand for higher data transmitting rate have motivated people to explore more efficient methods of signal transmission because of the limited spectral resource. Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) is a high spectral efficient method and the theoretical capacity of a MIMO channel increases linearly with the number of transmitting/receiving antennas under the ideal conditions. We can adopt MIMO technology in the new generation of mobile cellular communication systems, which is IP based and requires high data rate to support multimedia services. Although much progress has been made in MIMO area recently, there are some problems in its practical application, especially in cellular application. In this paper we will analyze the channel model, the capacity and the technology of MIMO, and then we will focus on the issues of MIMO application in mobile cellular system by the Monte Carlo simulation and give the available solution schemes for the issues.

  12. A Variational Approach to the Modeling of MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jraifi A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of the optimization of the quality of service for multiple input multiple output (MIMO systems in 3G (third generation, we develop a method for modeling MIMO channel . This method, which uses a statistical approach, is based on a variational form of the usual channel equation. The proposed equation is given by with scalar variable . Minimum distance of received vectors is used as the random variable to model MIMO channel. This variable is of crucial importance for the performance of the transmission system as it captures the degree of interference between neighbors vectors. Then, we use this approach to compute numerically the total probability of errors with respect to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and then predict the numbers of antennas. By fixing SNR variable to a specific value, we extract informations on the optimal numbers of MIMO antennas.

  13. Channel Estimation Techniques in MIMO-OFDM LTE Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkateswarlu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for high data transmission rates with the evolution of the very large scale integration (VLSI technology. The multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM systems are used to fulfill these requirements because of their unique properties such as high spectral efficiency, high data rate and resistance towards multipath propagation. MIMO-OFDM systems are finding their applications in the modern wireless communication systems like IEEE 802.11n, 4G and LTE. They also offer reliable communication with the increased coverage area. The bottleneck to the MIMO-OFDM systems is the estimation of the channel state information (CSI. This can be estimated with the help of any one of the Training Based, Semiblind and Blind Channel estimation algorithms. This paper presents various channel estimation algorithms, optimization techniques and their effective utilization in MIMO-OFDM for modern wireless LTE systems.

  14. On detection performance of MIMO radar for Rician target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; WU Yong; PENG YingNing; WANG XiuTan

    2009-01-01

    By using spatial dlversity, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radar can improve detection performance for fluctuating targets. In this paper, we propose a spatial fluctuation target model for MIMO radar, where targets are classified as non-fluctuating target, Rayleigh target and Rician target. Based on Stein's lemma, we use relative entropy to study detection performance of optimum detector for Riclan target. It is found that in low signal noise ratio (SNR) region, the performance improvement of MIMO radar for detecting Rician target depends on array gain, which is related to the number of receivers. In high SNR region, the improvement of performance depends on diversity gain, which is related to the product of the number of receivers and the number of transmitters. The conclusions of this paper are Important for designing MIMO radar system.

  15. Distributed MIMO-ISAR Sub-image Fusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Wenkun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fast fluctuation associated with maneuvering a target’s radar cross-section often affects the imaging performance stability of traditional monostatic Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR. To address this problem, in this study, we propose an imaging method based on the fusion of sub-images of frequencydiversity-distributed multiple Input-Multiple Output-Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (MIMO-ISAR. First, we establish the analytic expression of a two-dimensional ISAR sub-image acquired by different channels of distributed MIMO-ISAR. Then, we derive the distance and azimuth distortion factors of the image acquired by the different channels. By compensating for the distortion of the ISAR image, we ultimately realize distributed MIMO-ISAR fusion imaging. Simulations verify the validity of this imaging method using distributed MIMO-ISAR.

  16. China's CDM Policies and Their Development Implications: Major Concerns for CDM Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xianli; Pan Jiahua

    2006-01-01

    Most CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)opportunities exist in some large industrializing developing countries. For instance, China is estimated to take 48% of the world potential for CDM project activities. In reality, however, the share by China over the CDM projects registered and CDM projects in the pipeline is less than 10% as of Auguest 2005. This paper will examine the reasons behind, as reflected in China's CDM policies. Further investigation will be made into the use of these policies to boost the country's sustainable development, the sustainable development implications and effects of these policies. In addition, it is noted that incompatibility of some other Chinese laws and policies can be responsible for the low level and slow pace of CDM implementation in China and some suggestions are offered for promoting CDM project activities in China. There also exist barriers at the international level that impedes implementation of CDM project activities. A conclusion is drawn that CDM policies in a developing country like China aim mainly at promotion of sustainable development and to a lesser extent the generation of CERs.

  17. Frequency-domain equalization for OFDMA-based multiuser MIMO systems with improper modulation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pei; Lin, Zihuai; Fagan, Anthony; Cowan, Colin; Vucetic, Branka; Wu, Yi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel transceiver structure for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based uplink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output systems. The numerical results show that the proposed frequency-domain equalization schemes significantly outperform conventional linear minimum mean square error-based equalizers in terms of bit error rate performance with moderate increase in computational complexity.

  18. Seamless Translation of Optical Fiber PolMux-OFDM into a 2x2 MIMO Wireless Transmission Enabled by Digital Training-Based Fiber-Wireless Channel Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei;

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless over fiber transmission system. Seamless translation of two orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals on dual optical polarization states into wireless MIMO transmission at 795.5 Mbit/s net data rate...

  19. Full chip modelling of ICs under CDM stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sowariraj, Mary Sheela Bobby

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, CDM ESD stress on the Integrated Circuits (IC) and the various factors which affect the robustness of an IC design against CDM stress is investigated. One of the main reasons for CDM failure are the voltage gradients set across the circuit during CDM stress. The IC being also the sou

  20. Frequency-domain equalization for OFDMA-based multiuser MIMO systems with improper modulation schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we propose a novel transceiver structure for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based uplink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output systems. The numerical results show that the proposed frequency-domain equalization schemes significantly outperform conventional linear minimum mean square error-based equalizers in terms of bit error rate performance with moderate increase in computational complexity.

  1. A Generalized Spatial Correlation Model for 3D MIMO Channels based on the Fourier Coefficients of Power Spectrums

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-05-07

    Previous studies have confirmed the adverse impact of fading correlation on the mutual information (MI) of two-dimensional (2D) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. More recently, the trend is to enhance the system performance by exploiting the channel’s degrees of freedom in the elevation, which necessitates the derivation and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) channels in the presence of spatial correlation. In this paper, an exact closed-form expression for the Spatial Correlation Function (SCF) is derived for 3D MIMO channels. This novel SCF is developed for a uniform linear array of antennas with nonisotropic antenna patterns. The proposed method resorts to the spherical harmonic expansion (SHE) of plane waves and the trigonometric expansion of Legendre and associated Legendre polynomials. The resulting expression depends on the underlying arbitrary angular distributions and antenna patterns through the Fourier Series (FS) coefficients of power azimuth and elevation spectrums. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the SCF being valid for any 3D propagation environment. The developed SCF determines the covariance matrices at the transmitter and the receiver that form the Kronecker channel model. In order to quantify the effects of correlation on the system performance, the information-theoretic deterministic equivalents of the MI for the Kronecker model are utilized in both mono-user and multi-user cases. Numerical results validate the proposed analytical expressions and elucidate the dependence of the system performance on azimuth and elevation angular spreads and antenna patterns. Some useful insights into the behaviour of MI as a function of downtilt angles are provided. The derived model will help evaluate the performance of correlated 3D MIMO channels in the future.

  2. Unified Stochastic Geometry Model for MIMO Cellular Networks with Retransmissions

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, Laila H.

    2016-10-11

    This paper presents a unified mathematical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, for downlink cellular networks with multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base stations (BSs). The developed paradigm accounts for signal retransmission upon decoding errors, in which the temporal correlation among the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) of the original and retransmitted signals is captured. In addition to modeling the effect of retransmission on the network performance, the developed mathematical model presents twofold analysis unification for MIMO cellular networks literature. First, it integrates the tangible decoding error probability and the abstracted (i.e., modulation scheme and receiver type agnostic) outage probability analysis, which are largely disjoint in the literature. Second, it unifies the analysis for different MIMO configurations. The unified MIMO analysis is achieved by abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by Gaussian signaling approximation along with an equivalent SISO representation for the per-data stream SINR in MIMO cellular networks. We show that the proposed unification simplifies the analysis without sacrificing the model accuracy. To this end, we discuss the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff imposed by different MIMO schemes and shed light on the diversity loss due to the temporal correlation among the SINRs of the original and retransmitted signals. Finally, several design insights are highlighted.

  3. Approximation-Based Adaptive Tracking Control for MIMO Nonlinear Systems With Input Saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Shi, Peng; Tian, Yang; Wang, Mingyu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an approximation-based adaptive tracking control approach is proposed for a class of multiinput multioutput nonlinear systems. Based on the method of neural network, a novel adaptive controller is designed via backstepping design process. Furthermore, by introducing Nussbaum function, the issue of unknown control directions is handled. In the backstepping design process, the dynamic surface control technique is employed to avoid differentiating certain nonlinear functions repeatedly. Moreover, in order to reduce the number of adaptation laws, we do not use the neural networks to directly approximate the unknown nonlinear functions but the desired control signals. Finally, we provide two examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Receiver Architectures for MIMO-OFDM Based on a Combined VMP-SP Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchón, Carles Navarro; Kirkelund, Gunvor Elisabeth; Riegler, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Iterative information processing, either based on heuristics or analytical frameworks, has been shown to be a very powerful tool for the design of efficient, yet feasible, wireless receiver architectures. Within this context, algorithms performing message-passing on a probabilistic graph, such as...

  5. Improved Iterative Coordinated Beamforming Based on Singular Value Decomposition for Multiuser Mimo Systems With Limited Feedforward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Soriano-Equigua

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated beamforming based on singular value decomposition is an iterative method to jointly optimize thetransmit beamformers and receive combiners, to achieve high levels of sum rates in the downlink of multiusersystems, by exploiting the multi-dimensional wireless channel created by multiple transmit and receive antennas. The optimization is done at the base station and the quantized beamformers are sent to the users through a low rate link.In this work, we propose to optimize this algorithm by reducing the number of iterations and improving its uncoded bit error rate performance. Simulation results show that our proposal achieves a better bit error rate with a lower number of iterations than the original algorithm.

  6. A Novel Multiuser Detection Algorithm for CDMA-Based MIMO-OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun-shi; TANG Bi-hua; WANG Ya-chen; LIU Yua-nan

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates QR matrix decomposition based successive interference cancellation multiuser detection algorithms in synchronous uplink for code division multiple access based multiple input multiple output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system. The Symbol Error Rate(SER) performance of the optimal order and the suboptimal order QR-SIC MUD algorithms are compared with conventional zero forcing and minimum mean square error multiuser detection algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations. Complexity analysis is presented at the end of the paper. Both our simulation results and complexity analysis show that SER performance of QR-Successive Interference Cancellation (QR-SIC) algorithms is superior to those of zero forcing(ZF) and minimum mean square error algorithms, and the suboptimal order QR-SIC algorithm has a good trade-off between SER performance and computation complexity.

  7. Mimo radar waveform design for spectrum sharing with cellular systems a Matlab based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Khawar, Awais; Clancy, T Charles

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses spectrum sharing between cellular systems and radars. The book addresses a novel way to design radar waveforms that can enable spectrum sharing between radars and communication systems, without causing interference to communication systems, and at the same time achieving radar objectives of target detection, estimation, and tracking. The book includes a MATLAB-based approach, which provides reader with a way to learn, experiment, compare, and build on top of existing algorithms.

  8. A Bayesian matching pursuit based scheduling algorithm for feedback reduction in MIMO broadcast channels

    KAUST Repository

    Shibli, Hussain J.

    2013-06-01

    Opportunistic schedulers rely on the feedback of all users in order to schedule a set of users with favorable channel conditions. While the downlink channels can be easily estimated at all user terminals via a single broadcast, several key challenges are faced during uplink transmission. First of all, the statistics of the noisy and fading feedback channels are unknown at the base station (BS) and channel training is usually required from all users. Secondly, the amount of network resources (air-time) required for feedback transmission grows linearly with the number of users. In this paper, we tackle the above challenges and propose a Bayesian based scheduling algorithm that 1) reduces the air-time required to identify the strong users, and 2) is agnostic to the statistics of the feedback channels and utilizes the a priori statistics of the additive noise to identify the strong users. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the feedback air-time while improving detection in the presence of fading and noisy channels when compared to recent compressed sensing based algorithms. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm achieves a sum-rate throughput close to that obtained by noiseless dedicated feedback systems. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. A Linear Precoding Scheme for Massive MIMO Systems Based on SSOR Method%一种基于SSOR的大规模MIMO线性预编码方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙恳; 卿瑞强; 涂斯宇

    2016-01-01

    大规模多输入多输出系统(Massive MIMO)由于天线数和用户数太大,导致预编码矩阵在求逆是复杂度过高。为了降低复杂度,本文提出了一种基于对称逐步超松弛(SSOR)的线性预编码方案,相比传统的规则化迫零(RZF)预编码方案,本文所提的方案在没有任何性能损失的情况下可以降低一个量级的运算复杂度,为了保证所提SSOR预编码方案的性能,提出一种仅依靠天线配置的简单的量化松弛参数。%Massive multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) has a large number of attennas and users, which leads to high computational complexity in precoding matrix.To solve this problem,this paper proposed a linear precoding scheme based on symmetric successive overrelaxation(SSOR). Compared to conventional RZF scheme,it can reduce one order of magnitude with negligible performace loss. To guarantee the performance of SSOR-based precoding, we also proposed a simple quantiifed relaxation parameter for SSOR-based scheme, which only depends on the MIMO systemconifguration.

  10. Mean value-based power allocation and ratio selection for MIMO cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a spectrum sharing cognitive radio system with ratio selection using a mean value-based power allocation strategy. We first provide the exact statistics in terms of probability density function and cumulative density function of the secondary channel gain as well as of the interference channel gain. These statistics are then used to derive exact closed form expression of the secondary outage probability. Furthermore, asymptotical analysis is derived and generalized diversity gain is deduced. We validate our analysis with simulation results in a Rayleigh fading environment. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. A Realistic Process Example for MIMO MPC based on Autoregressive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    Advanced controllers such as model predictive control are i n use for a wide range of application in the process industry. The potential utili zation of such advanced predictive controllers is far from exhausted. One barrier for more wide spread implementation is the lack of simple methodologies...... for advanced control design develo pment which may be used by non experts in control theory. This paper presents and illustra tes the use of a simple methodology to design an offset-free MPC based on ARX models. Hence a mecha nistic process model is not required. The forced circulation evaporator by Newell...

  12. Alternate transmission relaying based on interference alignment in 3-relay half-duplex MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Seongho

    2012-09-01

    In a half-duplex relaying, the capacity pre-log factor 1/2 is a major drawback in spectral efficiency. This paper proposes a linear precoding/decoding scheme and an alternate relaying protocol in a dual-hop half-duplex system where three relays help the communication between the source and the destination. In our proposed scheme, we consider a phase incoherent method in relays in which the source alternately transmits message signals to the different relays. In addition, we propose a linear interference alignment scheme which can suppress the inter-relay interference resulting from the phase incoherence of relaying. Based on our analysis of degrees of freedom and our simulation results, we show that our proposed scheme achieves additional degrees of freedom compared to the conventional half-duplex relaying. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Design MIMO Switch Architecture Based IEC 61850 Standard of Substation Automation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutaiba Sabah Nimma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a tremendous change in the development of many protocols in electrical substation automation such as robust communication among control centers (GOOSE. It is a challenge to implement critical time operation such as tripping based on GOOSE protocol when the protocol is not tested in a wide area multi-substations environment. Another reason is the function of the packet forwarder may fail under a very high traffic condition with the constant generation of GOOSE packets due to multiple events. This study investigates the performance of packet forwarder in terms of packet loss under different models configurations. The investigations carried out on various switch configurations and architectures to reduce the number of dropped packets. The results showed that the architecture of two-switch system is the best performance in which the packet loss can be reduced by 2.9% in comparison with two buffer switches and 11.8% in comparison with the to original standard.

  14. Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction based Varied Phase for MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Amhaimar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the severe drawbacks of orthogonal fre-quency division multiplexing (OFDM is high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR of transmitted OFDM signals. During modulation the sub-carriers are added together with same phase which increases the value of PAPR, leading to more interference and limits power efficiency of High Power Amplifier (HPA, it’s requires power amplifier’s (PAs with large linear oper-ating ranges but such PAs are difficult to design and costly to manufacture. Therefore, to reduce PAPR various methods have been proposed. As a promising scheme, partial transmit sequences (PTS provides an effective solution for PAPR reduction of OFDM signals. In this paper, we propose a PAPR reduction method for an OFDM system with variation of phases based on PTS schemes and Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPA of Saleh model in conjunction with digital predistortion (DPD, in order to improve the performance in terms of PAPR, the HPA linearity and for the sake of mitigating the in-band distortion and the spectrum regrowth. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can not only reduces the PAPR significantly, but also improves the out-of-band radiation and decreases the computational complexity.

  15. RF Transceiver Design for MIMO Wireless Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    This practical resource offers a thorough examination of RF transceiver design for MIMO communications.  Offering a practical view on MIMO wireless systems, this book extends fundamental concepts on classic wireless transceiver design techniques to MIMO transceivers. This helps reader gain a very comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume describes many theoretical and implementation challenges on MIMO transceivers and provides the practical solutions for these issues. This comprehensive book provides thorough descriptions of MIMO theoretical concepts, MIMO single carrier and OFDM modulation, RF transceiver design concepts, power amplifier, MIMO transmitter design techniques and their RF impairments, MIMO receiver design methods, RF impairments study including nonlinearity, DC-offset, I/Q imbalance and phase noise and their compensation in OFDM and MIMO techniques. In addition, it provides the most practical techniques to realize RF front-ends in MIMO systems. This book is supported wit...

  16. Stakeholder participation in CDM and new climate mitigation mechanisms: China CDM case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Olsen, Karen Holm

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholder participation is recognized as a key principle for effective climate governance. Climate mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), REDD +, and the Green Climate Fund (GCF) provide guidelines for local stakeholder consultation (LSC). However, little empirical research...... in CDM, REDD +, and GCF are identified. Relevant rules in China’s local policies are analysed. To understand the interaction between CDM policies and China’s local LSC rules, a selection of Chinese CDM Projects Design Documents (PDDs) are analysed, providing an overall impression of the stakeholder...... process and results. Afterwards, we focus on a single case for an in-depth understanding of LSC in practice. Results point to the weakness of current CDM LSC rules and lack of good practice guidance, e.g. regarding who to consult, what approaches to be used, and when and how consultations shall take place...

  17. Passive MIMO Radar Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    from history to future”. Proc. 11th Int. Radar Symp. (IRS), 1–4. 2010. [58] Levanon, N. “ Interferometry against differential Doppler: performance...2141, 2013. [71] Richards, M. A., J. A. Scheer, and W. A. Holm. Principles of Modern Radar , volume 1. SciTech Publishing, Inc., 2010. [72] Scharf, L...PASSIVE MIMO RADAR DETECTION DISSERTATION Daniel E. Hack, Civilian AFIT-ENG-DS-13-S-07 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE

  18. Long-term prospects of CDM and JI; Langfristige Perspektiven von CDM und JI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin; Anger, Niels; Boehringer, Christoph; Harthan, Ralph O.; Schneider, Lambert [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    This study analyses whether Germany should use the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto protocol or whether it should continue to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets by dint of domestic policies and measures. It estimates the future potential of the project-based Kyoto mechanisms (CDM and JI) and the impacts of its use on the German and the global economy, using an integrated-assessment model. In a Delphi survey, the expectations of international experts on the future prospects of the project-based Kyoto mechanisms are assessed. The study finishes with an analysis of options for promoting the use of the flexible mechanisms in Germany and concludes that the Federal Government of Germany should establish a project-based mechanisms fund of 25 to 50 million Kyoto units to cover the compliance uncertainties due to unexpected temperature or business cycle variations. (orig.) [German] Diese Studie untersucht, ob Deutschland die flexiblen Mechanismen unter dem Kyoto-Protokoll nutzen sollte oder weiterhin seine Treibhausgasreduktionsziele durch inlaendische Politiken und Massnahmen erreichen sollte. Das kuenftige Potenzial der projektbezogenen Kyoto-Mechanismen (CDM und JI) wird untersucht und die Auswirkungen von deren Nutzung auf die deutsche und globale Wirtschaft werden mit einem Integrated-Assessment-Modell abgeschaetzt. In einer Delphi-Befragung werden die Erwartungen internationaler Experten in Hinblick auf die kuenftigen Perspektiven der projektbezogenen Kyoto- Mechanismen ermittelt. Abschliessend werden Moeglichkeiten zur Foerderung der Nutzung der flexiblen Mechanismen in Deutschland analysiert, mit der Schlussfolgerung, dass die Bundesregierung einen 25 bis 50 Millionen Kyoto-Einheiten umfassenden Fonds fuer projektbezogene Mechanismen einrichten sollte, um die Unsicherheiten bei der Erfuellung des Kyoto-Ziels infolge unerwarteter Temperaturschwankungen oder einer Aenderung der Konjunkturentwicklung abzudecken. (orig.)

  19. Checking Capacity for MIMO Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas.......Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas....

  20. Project Boundary Setting and Leakage Treatment in CDM Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Chen; WANG Shujuan; DUAN Maosheng; CHEN Changhe

    2005-01-01

    Project boundary setting and leakage treatment are two important issues to be considered when a clean development mechanism (CDM) project is being designed. There are still many uncertainties concerning these two issues. This paper reviews the concepts of project boundary setting and leakage in CDM projects, cites the types and sources of leakage, discusses the principles for determining leakage, and gives some proposed methods for dealing with leakage. A case study, using several steps to solve the boundary and leakage problems,shows how the analyzed principles and treatments can be implemented in a real project. Based on the result of the case study, the methods discussed are shown to be appropriate for settling leakage issues.

  1. Anti-jamming scheme of pilot modification MLD based on superimposed spread spectrum for UAV-MIMO%基于叠加扩频的无人机 MIMO 导频修正 MLD 抗干扰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈自力; 高喜俊

    2015-01-01

    The remote control link of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)is often cluttered by interference, which results in performance degradation or losing lock.The technologies of multiple input multiple output (MIMO)space time block codes and direct spread are combined to suppress the common interference in the re-mote control link.The superimposed spread spectrum is presented to eliminate multiple access interference in the fusion technology,combat against narrow-band jamming and avoid deception jamming.The maximum likeli-hood decoding (MLD)based on the subspace projection of noise is adopted to suppress the noise interference of natural and strong wideband.The disturb deviation of MLD caused by channel estimation deviation is analyzed. Then the pilot modification is set up to reduce the effect of channel estimate error on MLD performance.The theoretical analysis and system simulation show that the scheme has better communication privacy and great ro-bustness which can suppress multi-population interferences.It can provide a scheme for achieving the intelligent anti-jamming of UAV in the future.%针对无人机遥控链路常受干扰的影响导致性能下降甚至失锁,研究将多输入多输出(multiple input multiple output,MIMO)空时分组编码与直扩技术相结合实现对链路常见干扰抑制。提出叠加扩频的方法消除融合技术中存在的多址干扰、对抗窄带干扰并预防欺骗干扰;采用基于噪声子空间投影的简化最大似然译码(maximum likelihood decoding,MLD)抑制自然以及强宽带噪声干扰,通过分析由信道估计误差引起的 MLD 扰动误差,并利用导频修正来降低信道估计误差对 MLD 性能影响。理论分析及仿真表明,该方案通信保密性好、鲁棒性强,能够实现对多种干扰的抑制,为未来无人机智能抗干扰的实现提供方案。

  2. A Novel Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff Scheme in Cooperative MIMO Based on Distributed Space-Time Coding%一种基于分布式空时码的协作MIMO分集复用折衷新方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓荣; 章坚武; 郑宝玉

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative MIMO which is composed of multiple single antenna nodes by cooperative communication could construct multipte virtual transmit antennas. Spatial diversity gain could be obtained from this virtual MIMO multiple antenna arrays. Considered the specific features of cooperative MIMO, code cooperation strategy with distributed space-time coding is implemented in the network. An enhanced divemity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) scheme based on distributed space-time ceding (DSTC) in cooperative MIMO is studied. The expression of outage probability and diversity gain of two DSTC strategies are derived in detail. Based on the two DMT schemes of DSTC, the optimal DMT and outage performance of the enhanced DMT strategy could be obtained through altering the threshold of multiplexing gain adaptively. Numerical results indicate that, the proposed DMT scheme could be asymptotical to DMT upper bound in cooperative MIMO, and the corresponding outage performance is also inferior to that of upper bound. Hence, cooperative diversity gain and optimum outage behavior could be achieved simultaneously by the proposed DMT scheme for DSTC code cooperation in multi-node cooperative MIMO scenario.%协作MIMO通过多个单天线节点的相互协作构造多发射天线,以此形成一种虚拟MIMO多天线阵列获得空间分集增益.考虑到协作MIMO特点,天线间采用分布式空时编码进行编码协作.文章研究了协作MIMO中基于分布式空时码(DSTC)的分集复用折衷(DMT)新方案,该方案通过推导两种DSTC的中断概率与分集增益表达式,结合两类DSYC的DMT策略,根据改变复用增益阈值自适应获得最佳DMT与中断性能.数值仿真表明,所提的DMT策略可以逼近协作MIMO的DMT上限,协作节点采用该策略的中断性能仅次于上限的中断性能.在多节点构成协作MIMO网络分布式空时编码协作中,提出的DMT新方案可使系统高效地获得协作分集增益与中断性能.

  3. Evaluation of massive MIMO systems using time-reversal beamforming technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbeutcha, Marie; Fan, Wei; Hejselbæk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a massive MIMO system using the time-reversal beamforming technique. The massive MIMO channels are simulated with ray-tracing at 3.5 GHz with a 200 MHz-bandwidth. We use a 64-element uniform cylindrical array as base station (BS) and we equip two...

  4. User Influence on MIMO Channel Capacity for Handsets in Data Mode Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Bonev, Ivan Bonev;

    2012-01-01

    The current paper concerns realistic evaluation of the capacity of the MIMO channel between a BS and handheld device, such as a PDA or smartphone, held in front of the user’s body (data mode). The work is based on measurements of the MIMO channel between two widely separated BSs in a micro...

  5. Two-Dimensional Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Trilinear Decomposition-Based Monostatic Cross MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqing Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A low complexity monostatic cross multiple-in multiple-out (MIMO radar scheme is proposed in this paper. The minimum-redundancy linear array (MRLA is introduced in the cross radar to improve the efficiency of the array elements. The two-dimensional direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation problem links to the trilinear model, which automatically pairs the estimated two-dimensional angles, requiring neither eigenvalue decomposition of received signal covariance matrix nor spectral peak searching. The proposed scheme performs better than the uniform linear arrays (ULA configuration under the same conditions, and the proposed algorithm has less computational complexity than that of multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our scheme.

  6. A SDP based design of relay precoding for the power minimization of MIMO AF-relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2015-09-11

    Relay precoding for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks has been approached by either optimizing the efficiency performance with given power consumption constraints or minimizing the power consumption with quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. For the later type design, previous works has worked on minimizing the approximated power consumption. In this paper, exact power consumption for all relays is derived into a quadratic form by diagonalizing the minimum-square error (MSE) matrix, and the relay precoding matrix is designed by optimizing this quadratic form with the help of semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation. Our simulation results show that such a design can achieve a gain of around 3 dB against the previous design, which optimized the approximated power consumption. © 2015 IEEE.

  7. Running vacuum versus the $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Pérez, Javier de Cruz

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that a constant $\\Lambda$-term is a traditional building block of the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model. We show that this assumption is not necessarily the optimal one from the phenomenological point of view. The class of running vacuum models, with a possible running of the gravitational coupling G, are capable to fit the overall cosmological data SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB better than the $\\Lambda$CDM, namely at a level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ and with Akaike and Bayesian information criteria supporting a strong level of statistical evidence on this fact. Here we report on the results of such analysis.

  8. Hidden photon CDM search at Tokyo

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Jun'ya; Horie, Tomoki; Minowa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We report on a search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a novel technique with a dish antenna. We constructed two independent apparatus: one is aiming at the detection of the HP with a mass of $\\sim\\,\\rm{eV}$ which employs optical instruments, and the other is for a mass of $\\sim5\\times10^{-5}\\, \\rm{eV}$ utilizing a commercially available parabolic antenna facing on a plane reflector. From the result of the measurements, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set upper limits on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$.

  9. MIMO Communication Using Single Feed Antenna Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) communication has emerged as a promis-ing technology for meeting the increasing demand on higher data rates. Thetechnology exploits the spatial resource dimension by sending the datas-treams to different locations in the multi element array (MEA) domain whiledecoding the signals at the receive end based on the signalsŠ unique spatialsignatures. To this end, the MEA is conventionally assumed to be attachedto a number of radios for independently modulating and up...

  10. PERBANDINGAN PERFORMANSI SISTEM MC-SS MIMO DENGAN OFDM MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Eka Apsari Yuniari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of the system has been doing to improve the reliability of wireless communication. One parameter that indicates the reliability of wireless communication is to reduce the value of BER. The 4G technology uses OFDM transmission technique combined with MIMO antenna technique. Other than that, the combination between transmission technique can also be done, by incorporating the concept of multicarrier (OFDM and spread spectrum as known as multicarrier spread spectrum (MC-SS. The combination of OFDM, spread spectrum, and MIMO are supported by the advantages of each of these techniques is expected to give a good performance in supporting the reliability of wireless communication. This research aimed to compare the value of BER vs. Eb/No between MC-SS MIMO system and OFDM MIMO system. The test of these systems are conducted by simulation using MatLab 2012 which aims to provide an overview of other related technologies are capable of providing wireless communication reliability.  The results of the simulation shows that the value of BER on MC-SS MIMO system is lower than MIMO OFDM system for all Eb/No. This condition also applies to AWGN and Rayleigh Fading channel. Kombinasi sistem dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kehandalan komunikasi wireless. Salah satu parameter yang menunjukkan kehandalan komunikasi wireless adalah dengan mengurangi nilai BER. Pada teknologi 4G menggunakan kombinasi teknik transmisi OFDM dengan teknik antena MIMO. Selain daripada itu, kombinasi antar teknik transmisi juga dapat dilakukan, yaitu dengan menggabungkan konsep multicarrier OFDM dengan spread spectrum yang selanjutnya dikenal dengan multicarrier spread spectrum (MC-SS. Kombinasi antara OFDM, spread spectrum, dan MIMO yang didukung oleh kelebihan dari masing-masing teknik tersebut diharapkan mampu memberikan performansi yang baik dalam mendukung kehandalan komunikasi wireless. Dalam paper ini akan dibandingkan performansi menurut BER vs. Eb/No dari sistem

  11. Modified MIMO Cube for Enhanced Channel Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimization of MIMO antenna elements' position in modified MIMO cube for getting maximal channel capacity in indoor environment. The dependence of the channel capacity on the antenna orientation was analyzed by simulations. We have also examined the effect of the frequency dependence of the antenna system (in case of conjugate matching and nonconjugate matching for the channel capacity. Based on the simulation results in the created and measured antenna system, the antennas were at a right angle to each other. At the two chosen different structures, we measured the antenna parameters and the channel capacity. In this paper, we present the results of the measurements which clearly confirm our simulations. We will point out the differences between the two antenna structures.

  12. Networked MIMO with Clustered Linear Precoding

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Andrews, Jeffrey G; Ghosh, Arunabha; Heath, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    A clustered base transceiver station (BTS) coordination strategy is proposed for a large cellular MIMO network, which includes full intra-cluster coordination to enhance the sum rate and limited inter-cluster coordination to reduce interference for the cluster edge users. Multi-cell block diagonalization is used to coordinate the transmissions across multiple BTSs in the same cluster. To satisfy per-BTS power constraints, three combined precoder and power allocation algorithms are proposed with different performance and complexity tradeoffs. For inter-cluster coordination, the coordination area is chosen to balance fairness for edge users and the achievable sum rate. It is shown that a small cluster size (about 7 cells) is sufficient to obtain most of the sum rate benefits from clustered coordination while greatly relieving channel feedback requirement. Simulations show that the proposed coordination strategy efficiently reduces interference and provides a considerable sum rate gain for cellular MIMO networks...

  13. Hierarchical Codebook Design for Massive MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Research of Massive MIMO is an emerging area, since the more antennas the transmitters or receivers equipped with, the higher spectral efficiency and link reliability the system can provide. Due to the limited feedback channel, precoding and codebook design are important to exploit the performance of massive MIMO. To improve the precoding performance, we propose a novel hierarchical codebook with the Fourier-based perturbation matrices as the subcodebook and the Kerdock codebook as the main codebook, which could reduce storage and search complexity due to the finite a lphabet. Moreover, t o f urther r educe t he search complexity and feedback overhead without noticeable performance degradation, we use an adaptive selection algorithm to decide whether to use the subcodebook. Simulation results show that the proposed codebook has remarkable performance gain compared to the conventional Kerdock codebook, without significant increase in feedback overhead and search complexity.

  14. MimoSA: a system for minimotif annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundeti Vamsi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimotifs are short peptide sequences within one protein, which are recognized by other proteins or molecules. While there are now several minimotif databases, they are incomplete. There are reports of many minimotifs in the primary literature, which have yet to be annotated, while entirely novel minimotifs continue to be published on a weekly basis. Our recently proposed function and sequence syntax for minimotifs enables us to build a general tool that will facilitate structured annotation and management of minimotif data from the biomedical literature. Results We have built the MimoSA application for minimotif annotation. The application supports management of the Minimotif Miner database, literature tracking, and annotation of new minimotifs. MimoSA enables the visualization, organization, selection and editing functions of minimotifs and their attributes in the MnM database. For the literature components, Mimosa provides paper status tracking and scoring of papers for annotation through a freely available machine learning approach, which is based on word correlation. The paper scoring algorithm is also available as a separate program, TextMine. Form-driven annotation of minimotif attributes enables entry of new minimotifs into the MnM database. Several supporting features increase the efficiency of annotation. The layered architecture of MimoSA allows for extensibility by separating the functions of paper scoring, minimotif visualization, and database management. MimoSA is readily adaptable to other annotation efforts that manually curate literature into a MySQL database. Conclusions MimoSA is an extensible application that facilitates minimotif annotation and integrates with the Minimotif Miner database. We have built MimoSA as an application that integrates dynamic abstract scoring with a high performance relational model of minimotif syntax. MimoSA's TextMine, an efficient paper-scoring algorithm, can be used to

  15. Power amplifier linearization technique with IQ imbalance and crosstalk compensation for broadband MIMO-OFDM transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Fernando; Cousseau, Juan; Werner, Stefan; Riihonen, Taneli; Wichman, Risto

    2011-12-01

    The design of predistortion techniques for broadband multiple input multiple output-OFDM (MIMO-OFDM) systems raises several implementation challenges. First, the large bandwidth of the OFDM signal requires the introduction of memory effects in the PD model. In addition, it is usual to consider an imbalanced in-phase and quadrature (IQ) modulator to translate the predistorted baseband signal to RF. Furthermore, the coupling effects, which occur when the MIMO paths are implemented in the same reduced size chipset, cannot be avoided in MIMO transceivers structures. This study proposes a MIMO-PD system that linearizes the power amplifier response and compensates nonlinear crosstalk and IQ imbalance effects for each branch of the multiantenna system. Efficient recursive algorithms are presented to estimate the complete MIMO-PD coefficients. The algorithms avoid the high computational complexity in previous solutions based on least squares estimation. The performance of the proposed MIMO-PD structure is validated by simulations using a two-transmitter antenna MIMO system. Error vector magnitude and adjacent channel power ratio are evaluated showing significant improvement compared with conventional MIMO-PD systems.

  16. Diversity and Multiplexing Technologies by 3D Beams in Polarized Massive MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive multiple input, multiple output (M-MIMO technologies have been proposed to scale up data rates reaching gigabits per second in the forthcoming 5G mobile communications systems. However, one of crucial constraints is a dimension in space to implement the M-MIMO. To cope with the space constraint and to utilize more flexibility in 3D beamforming (3D-BF, we propose antenna polarization in M-MIMO systems. In this paper, we design a polarized M-MIMO (PM-MIMO system associated with 3D-BF applications, where the system architectures for diversity and multiplexing technologies achieved by polarized 3D beams are provided. Different from the conventional 3D-BF achieved by planar M-MIMO technology to control the downtilted beam in a vertical domain, the proposed PM-MIMO realizes 3D-BF via the linear combination of polarized beams. In addition, an effective array selection scheme is proposed to optimize the beam-width and to enhance system performance by the exploration of diversity and multiplexing gains; and a blind channel estimation (BCE approach is also proposed to avoid pilot contamination in PM-MIMO. Based on the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A specification, the simulation results finally confirm the validity of our proposals.

  17. CDM sustainable development impacts developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olhoff, Anne; Markandya, Anil; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Taylor, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), an innovative cooperative mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, is designed with the dual aim of assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development (SD) and of assisting industrialised countries in achieving compliance with their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction commitments. The SD dimension is not merely a requirement of the CDM; it should be seen as a main driver for developing country interest in participating in CDM projects. This is so, since apart from GHG emission reductions CDM projects will have a number of impacts in the host countries, including impacts on economic and social development and on the local environment. Furthermore, the selecting of the SD criteria and the assessment of the SD impacts are sovereign matters of the host countries in the current operationalisation of the Kyoto Protocol. National authorities can thus use the SD dimension to evaluate key linkages between national development goals and CDM projects, with the aim of selecting and designing CDM projects so that they create and maximise synergies with local development goals. (au)

  18. A Study on Tracking Algorithm of MIMO Radar Based on Spatial Diversity%基于空间分集的MIMO雷达目标跟踪算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 冯讯

    2012-01-01

    针对基于空间分集的多输入多输出(MIMO)雷达多发多收的特殊结构,建立了基于逆协方差形式扩展卡尔曼滤波算法的MIMO雷达目标跟踪滤波模型,分析了影响算法滤波精度的4个因素,分别为信噪比、信号带宽、天线数以及天线与目标间的位置关系.通过使目标位置状态估计均方误差最小,在特定天线数条件下利用数值方法得到了使滤波精度达到最优的天线放置形式.仿真实验给出了不同信噪比、信号带宽、天线数以及天线与目标间不同位置关系时的MIMO雷达跟踪性能.%Aiming at the special configuration of multiple-input multiple-output ( MIMO) radar.The tracking model of MIMO radar was constructed based on the inverse covariance form of the extended Kalman filter.Four factors influence on filtering accuracy,they are signal-to-noise ratio,effective bandwidth,number of antennas and the location relationship between target and antennas.To minimize the mean-squared error of target state estimator,an optimum station arrangement strategy was proposed.Experimental results showed the tracking performance of MIMO radar on different signal-to-noise ratio,effective bandwidth,the number of antennas and the location relationship between target and antennas.

  19. Design of the Picking Robot Based on the Model of OFDM-MIMO High Speed Mobile Communication System%基于 OFDM-MIMO 移动通信模型的采摘机器人设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟; 曹昕燕; 张万里; 吉淑娇

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the fruit picking robot and automation level, improve the robot's real-time communication and online control ability, remote control of robot operation process, has brought the OFDM-MIMO model in communica-tion system of the picking robot, and mobile 4G technology applied to the design of the robot, breaking the robot control distance constraints, the realization of the robot cross regional wireless communication. The robot uses the vision sensor and 4G network to collect and transmit the image, and the image data can be displayed on the remote browser side in real time, so it is easy to grasp the robot operation information. When a signal when the robot collision sensor, you can use the OFDM-MIMO channel model for image, transmission, and collected by the vision sensor image information is trans-mitted to the remote control end, picking errors when can timely adjust the robot state, to achieve control of the fruit picking online. Finally design the experimental prototype robot, and the robot's fruit localization ability and communica-tion ability is studied by experiment and simulation. From the experiment and the simulation results show that, the robot can effectively identify the common fruit and bagging fruit and communication test, simulation and measurement test re-sults are in good agreement, thus validating the reliability results, verify the OFDM-MIMO model in picking robot com-munication system the feasibility.%为了提高果树采摘机器人的智能化和自动化水平,提高机器人的实时通信和在线控制能力,实现机器人作业过程的远程控制,在采摘机器人通信系统中引入了 OFDM-MIMO 模型,并将移动4 G 技术应用到了机器人的设计中,突破了机器人控制距离限制,实现了机器人的跨区域无线通信。机器人采用视觉传感器和4G 网络采集并传输图像,图像数据可以在远程浏览器端实时显示,便于掌握机器人作业信息。当机

  20. 3 D MU-MIMO Precoding Method Based on Khatri-Rao Product%基于Khatri-Rao积的3D MU-MIMO预编码方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学文; 景小荣; 刘利

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of co-channel interference ( CCI ) in downlink 3 D ( Three Dimen-sion) MU-MIMO( Multi-user Multiple Input Multiple Output) system,a precoding method based on Khatri-Rao product is proposed. Firstly,outline codebook is designed,and then the user selects the best horizon-tal dimension precoding codeword and vertical dimension precoding codeword respectively,and feeds back to the base station,finally base station constructs 3D precoding matrix according to the proposed Khatri-Rao product and processes different users' data. Both theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that the proposed method can not only match the authentic channel state information( CSI) but also effectively sup-press the co-channel interference and improve system bit error rate( BER) performance. The research in this paper has a certain reference value for the system optimization.%为了解决下行三维(3D)多用户(Multi-User,MU)多输入多输出(MIMO)系统中的共信道干扰问题,提出了一种基于Khatri-Rao积的3 D预编码方法。该方法首先产生离线码本,然后各用户分别选择与水平维和垂直维信道最匹配的的码字并将其反馈给基站端,最后,根据提出的Khatri-Rao积基站端构造3 D预编码矩阵,对不同用户数据进行处理。理论分析和仿真结果表明,该方法可有效地匹配真实信道状态信息( CSI),而且可有效地抑制共信道干扰,提升系统误码性能,对系统的性能优化有一定的参考价值。

  1. Massive MIMO meets small cell backhaul and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Howard H

    2017-01-01

    This brief explores the utilization of large antenna arrays in massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) for both interference suppression, where it can improve cell-edge user rates, and for wireless backhaul in small cell networks, where macro base stations can forward data to small access points in an energy efficient way. Massive MIMO is deemed as a critical technology for next generation wireless technology. By deploying an antenna array that has active elements in excess of the number of users, massive MIMO not only provides tremendous diversity gain but also powers new aspects for network design to improve performance. This brief investigates a better utilization of the excessive spatial dimensions to improve network performance. It combines random matrix theory and stochastic geometry to develop an analytical framework that accounts for all the key features of a network, including number of antenna array, base station density, inter-cell interference, random base station deployment, and network tra...

  2. Design and Implementation of a DSP-Based MIMO System Prototype for Real-Time Demonstration and Indoor Channel Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H. Reed

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of the Virginia Tech Space-Time Advanced Radio (VT-STAR, a multiple antenna element space-time (ST processing prototype testbed, is presented. The testbed is a research tool for comparing practical and theoretical performance metrics (e.g., throughput, link reliability in different wireless channel conditions. The prototype builds around software-defined radio (SDR concepts on a DSP platform and provides the flexibility to implement various forms of ST techniques. Different components of the system are described in detail, including the software implementation, I/O schemes with custom hardware, and data transfer mechanisms between the DSP and the host PC. Two different example realizations are presented, a real-time demonstration and an offline measurement tool. Finally, some representative measurement results obtained in indoor environments are presented. These results show VT-STAR to be a promising tool for performing MIMO experiments and generating channel measurements that can complement simulation studies in this area.

  3. Investigating the Impact of Hybrid/SPREAD MIMO-OFDM System for Spectral-Efficient Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalendu Bikas Sinha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel signal scheme called Hybrid spread MIMO-OFDM system which interface OFDM with CDMA and integrate this CDMA-OFDM to MIMO to generate a system functionally superior to MIMO-OFDM systems are considered as candidates for future broadband wireless service. OFDM may be combined with antenna arrays at the transmitter and receiver to increase the diversity gain and/or to enhance the system capacity on time-variant and frequency-selective channels, resulting in a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO configuration. The multiplexing technique proposed here is the Code Division Multiple Accesses (CDMA scheme which is considered the solution for eliminating the distortion caused by fast fading and provides the inherent advantage of DS-CDMA systems incorporating a spreading signal based on PN code sequence, by providing user discrimination based on coding at the same carrier frequency and simultaneously. The OFDM component provides resistance to multipath effects making it unnecessary to use RAKE receivers for CDMA and thus avoid hardware complexity. In order to compare their performances, the effects of multipath signal propagation on the capacity, under both single and multi user channel, are examined. The Inter Symbol Interference (ISI is used as a suitable measure of multipath effect. The obtained results show that the multipath has more influence on the capacity of MIMO than MIMO-OFDM and spread MIMO-OFDM. In addition, spread MIMO-OFDM offers more average capacity than MIMO under both single and multi user channel. In comparison with MIMO-OFDM, the capacity of spread MIMO-OFDM is higher under the condition of the multi user channel scenario. MIMO-OFDM spread system is being implemented using AWG and VSA. Thus making it possible to implement 4G using hardware and MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  4. MIMO Transmission with Residual Transmit-RF Impairments

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph; Burg, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Physical transceiver implementations for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems suffer from transmit-RF (Tx-RF) impairments. In this paper, we study the effect on channel capacity and error-rate performance of residual Tx-RF impairments that defy proper compensation. In particular, we demonstrate that such residual distortions severely degrade the performance of (near-)optimum MIMO detection algorithms. To mitigate this performance loss, we propose an efficient algorithm, which is based on an i.i.d. Gaussian model for the distortion caused by these impairments. In order to validate this model, we provide measurement results based on a 4-stream Tx-RF chain implementation for MIMO orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM).

  5. Diversity of MMSE MIMO Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mehana, Ahmed Hesham

    2011-01-01

    In most MIMO systems, the family of waterfall error curves, calculated at different spectral efficiencies, are asymptotically parallel at high SNR. In other words, most MIMO systems exhibit a single diversity value for all {\\em fixed} rates. The MIMO MMSE receiver does not follow this pattern and exhibits a varying diversity in its family of error curves. This effect cannot be captured by DMT analysis, due to the fact that all fixed rates correspond to the same multiplexing gain, thus they cannot be differentiated within DMT analysis. This work analyzes this interesting behavior of the MMSE MIMO receiver and produces the MMSE MIMO diversity at each rate. The diversity of the quasi-static flat-fading MIMO channel consisting of any arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas is fully characterized, showing that full spatial diversity is possible for all antenna configurations if and only if the rate is within a certain bound which is a function of the number of antennas. For other rate brackets, the avail...

  6. Allocation Fairness for MIMO Precoded UTRA-LTE TDD System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    In future Time Division Duplex (TDD)-based broadband wireless systems, it will be possible to exploit the channel reciprocity to implement Channel State Information (CSI)-based Multi User Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) techniques, which will ensure highly efficient spectrum usage...... allocation, in MU-MIMO precoding scenarios where the common approach of guaranteeing fairness at MAC layer is not feasible. The results presented in this paper show that the proposed algorithm is able to reduce the system outage event to a large extent, thus increases fairness....

  7. Energy Efficient Iterative Waterfilling for the MIMO Broadcasting Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jie; Zhang, Shunqing

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing energy efficiency (EE) for the MIMO broadcasting channels (BC) is considered in this paper, where a practical power model is taken into account. Although the EE of the MIMO BC is non-concave, we reformulate it as a quasiconcave function based on the uplink-downlink duality. After that, an energy efficient iterative waterfilling scheme is proposed based on the block-coordinate ascent algorithm to obtain the optimal transmission policy efficiently, and the solution is proved to be convergent. Through simulations, we validate the efficiency of the proposed scheme and discuss the system parameters' effect on the EE.

  8. Beyond six parameters: extending $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Silk, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological constraints are usually derived under the assumption of a $6$ parameters $\\Lambda$-CDM theoretical framework or simple one-parameter extensions. In this paper we present, for the first time, cosmological constraints in a significantly extended scenario, varying up to $12$ cosmological parameters simultaneously, including the sum of neutrino masses, the neutrino effective number, the dark energy equation of state, the gravitational waves background and the running of the spectral index of primordial perturbations. Using the latest Planck 2015 data release (with polarization) we found no significant indication for extensions to the standard $\\Lambda$-CDM scenario, with the notable exception of the angular power spectrum lensing amplitude, $A_{\\rm lens}$ that is larger than the expected value at more than two standard deviations even when combining the Planck data with BAO and supernovae type Ia external datasets. In our extended cosmological framework, we find that a combined Planck+BAO analysis co...

  9. Non radial motions in a CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Gambera, M

    1998-01-01

    We show how non-radial motions, originating in the outskirts of clusters of galaxies, may reduce the discrepancy between the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) predicted X-ray temperature distribution function of clusters of galaxies and the observed one and also the discrepancy between the CDM predicted two-point correlation function of clusters of galaxies and that observed. We compare Edge et al. (1990) and Henry & Arnaud (1991) data with the distribution function of X-ray temperature, calculated using Press- Schechter's (1974 - hereafter PS) theory and Evrard's (1990) prescriptions for the mass-temperature relation and taking account of the non-radial motions originating from the gravitational interaction of the quadrupole moment of the protocluster with the tidal field of the matter of the neighboring protostructures. We find that the model produces a reasonable clusters temperature distribution. We compare the two-point cluster correlation function which takes account of the non-radial motions both with that ob...

  10. Proposing a “Mismatched” Filtering Method for Obtaining Better Sidelobe Suppression Effect for MIMO Sonar Imaging Based on Convex Optimization%基于凸优化方法的 MIMO 成像声纳的失配滤波处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雄厚; 孙超; 卓颉; 邵炫; 谢磊

    2013-01-01

    A receiver design method based on the “mismatched” filtering processing is proposed for the multiple -in-put multiple-output (MIMO) sonar imaging application.To calculate the coefficients of the “mismatched” filter, the convex optimization method is adopted .Via numerical simulations, we show that the “mismatched” filter can suppress the sidelobes of outputs at the cost of sacrificing some white Gaussian noise gain , which is tolerable for the sonar imaging application.And thus, compared to a matched filter, better sidelobe suppression effect in the ima -ging result is obtained by using the “mismatched” filter.%  提出了利用失配滤波处理来设计多输入多输出(Multiple-Input Multiple-Output:MIMO)成像声纳的接收滤波器,并采用 cvx 工具箱来求解滤波器的系数。与匹配滤波处理相比,在牺牲一定高斯白噪声增益的前提下,失配滤波处理成功抑制了相关输出的旁瓣级。仿真结果表明,所提出的失配滤波处理方法可以有效抑制 MIMO 声纳成像结果中的距离旁瓣干扰。

  11. Optimization of Training Signal Transmission for Estimating MIMO Channel under Antenna Mutual Coupling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports investigations on the effect of antenna mutual coupling on performance of training-based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO channel estimation. The influence of mutual coupling is assessed for two training-based channel estimation methods, Scaled Least Square (SLS and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE. It is shown that the accuracy of MIMO channel estimation is governed by the sum of eigenvalues of channel correlation matrix which in turn is influenced by the mutual coupling in transmitting and receiving array antennas. A water-filling-based procedure is proposed to optimize the training signal transmission to minimize the MIMO channel estimation errors.

  12. Beyond Multiplexing Gain in Large MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Müller, Ralf R.; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    Given the common technical assumptions in the literature on MIMO channel modeling, we derive generic results for MIMO systems in the large system limit LSL. Consider a $\\ phi T\\ times T $ MIMO system with $ T $ tending to infinity. By increasing the antenna ratio $\\ phi $ when $\\ phi\\ geq 1$, the...

  13. A Novel Pilot Expansion Approach for MIMO Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Fei SIYAU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A training-based MIMO channel estimation scheme is presented to operate in severe frequency and time selective fading channels. Besides the new pilot bits designed from the ‘Paley-Hadamard’ matrix to exploit its orthogonal and ‘Toeplitz-like’ structures and minimising its pilot length, a novel pilot expansion technique is proposed to estimate the length of the channel impulse response, by flexibly extending its pilot length as required in order to capture the number of multipath existed within the MIMO channel. The pilot expansion can also help to deduce the initial channel variation and its Doppler rate which can be subsequently applied for MIMO channel tracking using decision feedback Kalman filter during the data payload.

  14. Multiuser Beamforming with Limited Feedback for FDD Massive MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyao Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the multiuser beamforming in FDD massive MIMO systems. It first introduces the feature of FDD massive MIMO systems to implement multiuser beamforming schemes. After that, considering the realistic implementation of multiuser beamforming scheme in FDD massive MIMO systems, it introduces the knowledge of channel quantization. In the main part of the paper, we introduce two traditional multiuser beamforming schemes and analyse their merits and demerits. Based on these, we propose a novel multiuser beamforming scheme to flexibly combine the merits of the traditional beamforming schemes. In the final part of the paper, we give some simulation results to compare the beamforming schemes mentioned in the paper. These simulation results show the superiority of the proposed beamforming scheme.

  15. Distributed Joint Cluster Formation and Resource Allocation Scheme for Cooperative Data Collection in Virtual MIMO-Based M2M Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient data collection scheme plays an important role for the real-time intelligent monitoring in many machine-to-machine (M2M networks. In this paper, a distributed joint cluster formation and resource allocation scheme for data collection in cluster-based M2M networks is proposed. Specifically, in order to utilize the advantages of cooperation, we first propose a hierarchical transmission model which contains two communication phases. In the first phase, the intracluster information sharing is carried out by all the nodes within the same cluster. Then these nodes transmit the total information to the BS cooperatively with virtual-MIMO (VMIMO protocol in the second phase. To grasp the properties and advantages of this cooperative transmission strategy, the theoretical analysis results are provided. The key issue in this system is to form the clusters and allocate resources efficiently. Since the optimization problem on this issue is an NP-hard problem, a feasible joint scheme for the cluster formation and resource allocation is proposed in this paper, which is carried out via coalition formation game with a distributed algorithm. This scheme can reduce the complexity while keeping an attractive performance. Simulation results show the properties of the proposed scheme and its advantages when comparing with the noncooperative scheme for the data collection in a practical scenario.

  16. Joint detection and combining schemes in MIMO-HARQ systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Gang; XIONG Fang; ZHAO Yi; LIU Yuan-an

    2007-01-01

    This article mainly investigates the combining schemes for hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ) protocols in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. A novel scheme, which joins MIMO detection and HARQ combining, called mid-combining, is presented in this article. Based on the position of HARQ combining, we classify the HARQ combining schemes into three types, named pre-combining, mid-combining, and post-combining. The simulation results show that mid- combining can increase the system throughput for all SNRs.

  17. CDM. Is it a 'win-win' strategy for rural poverty alleviation in India?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirohi, Smita [Department of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132001 (India)

    2007-09-15

    India is perceived to be one of the most attractive Non-Annex I countries for CDM project development. There are more than 350 projects in the CDM pipeline, largely in the areas of renewable energy, energy efficiency in industries and fossil fuel switching. This paper examines the socio-economic component of sustainable development commitments of the CDM projects to see if they can make any impact on rural poverty in India, since the goal of poverty alleviation lies at the core of the country's development priorities. The study concludes that CDM is not contributing to rural poverty alleviation to any notable extent. Nearly all the projects have a business orientation and are not directed to the development of rural poor. Even the renewable energy projects will have limited role in up-liftment of the masses below poverty line due to their weak resource base. For CDM to emerge as a 'win-win' strategy for poverty alleviation projects should be aimed at the rural communities and designed to accelerate agricultural growth in the rain-fed regions of the country.

  18. Beyond six parameters: Extending Λ CDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Cosmological constraints are usually derived under the assumption of a six-parameter Λ CDM theoretical framework or simple one-parameter extensions. In this paper we present, for the first time, cosmological constraints in a significantly extended scenario, varying up to 12 cosmological parameters simultaneously, including the sum of neutrino masses, the neutrino effective number, the dark energy equation of state, the gravitational wave background and the running of the spectral index of primordial perturbations. Using the latest Planck 2015 data release (with polarization), we found no significant indication for extensions to the standard Λ CDM scenario, with the notable exception of the angular power spectrum lensing amplitude, Alens , which is larger than the expected value at more than 2 standard deviations, even when combining the Planck data with BAO and supernovae type Ia external data sets. In our extended cosmological framework, we find that a combined Planck+BAO analysis constrains the value of the rms density fluctuation parameter to σ8=0.781-0.063+0.065 at 95 % C.L., helping to relieve the possible tensions with the CFHTlenS cosmic shear survey. We also find a lower value for the reionization optical depth τ =0.058-0.043+0.040 at 95 % C.L. with respect to the one derived under the assumption of Λ CDM . The scalar spectral index nS is now compatible with a Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum to within 2.5 standard deviations. Combining the Planck data set with the Hubble Space Telescope prior on the Hubble constant provides a value for the equation of state w <-1 at more than 2 standard deviations, while the neutrino effective number is fully compatible with the expectations of the standard three neutrino framework.

  19. Understanding the Equilibrium Structure of CDM Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, P R; Alvarez, M; Iliev, I T; Martel, H; Shapiro, Paul R.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Alvarez, Marcelo; Iliev, Ilian T.; Martel, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    N-body simulations find a universal structure for the halos which result from the nonlinear growth of Gaussian-random-noise density fluctuations in the CDM universe. This talk summarized our attempts to derive and explain this universal structure by analytical approximation and simplified models. As an example, we show here that a 1D spherical infall model involving a fluid approximation derived from the Boltzmann equation can explain not only the halo density profile but its phase-space density profile, as well.

  20. Relationship Between Capacity and Pathloss for Indoor MIMO Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Bauch, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    MIMO transmission systems exploit scattering in the radio channel to achieve high capacity for a given SNR. A high pathloss is generally expected for channels with rich scattering, suggesting that a high SNR and rich multipath are competing goals. The current work investigates this issue based...

  1. MIMO-OFDM performance in relation to wideband channel properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, P.; Zhang, H.; Oostveen, J.; Fledderus, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the sensitivity of the error rate performance of MIMO-OFDM-based practical systems (WiMAX and LTE) to wide band channel properties is investigated. The behavior of the wideband channel is characterized in terms of delay spread (DS) and angular spread (AS). The impacts of DS and AS on

  2. Clutter Modeling of Airborne MIMO Radar Based on CUDA%基于CUDA的机载MIMO雷达杂波建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占广; 罗忠涛; 李军; 孙颖

    2011-01-01

    针对机载MIMO雷达杂波模型运算量大的问题,建立了基于CUDA的模型,利用图形处理器的并行运算能力来加速运算。为了符合CUDA的通用计算架构特性,该模型在算法上优先设计并行运算,在编程上尽量引入并行线程,实现图形处理器的浮点运算、存储器以及带宽资源的有效利用。最后测试了加速效果与模型结构、数据规模的关系。实验结果表明,与CPUInteli5750比较。图形处理器Grrx465的建模运算结果准确.效率提升教十倍.能麦特委大的运算号.%Considering big operand problem of clutter model for airborne MIMO radar, a clutter based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is established and operation is speeded up by using parallel operational capa- bility of Graphic Processing Unit(GPU). In order to accord with general computation architecture characteristic of CUPD, the new model prefers designing parallel computing in algorithm and introducing parallel threads in programming to implement effective usage of floating point operation, storage and wideband resources of GPU. And finally, relation between the speedup effect and model architecture and data size is tested. The tested results prove that modeling computation result of GPU based on GTX 465 is accurate in computing result, and efficiency is increased by tens of times and bigger operand can be supported comparing with CPUIntel i5 750.

  3. Comparison of Cluster Lensing Profiles with Lambda CDM Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, Tom; Medezinski, Elinor; Oguri, Masamune; Rephaeli, Yoel

    2008-01-01

    We derive lens distortion and magnification profiles of four well known clusters observed with Subaru. Each cluster is very well fitted by the general form predicted for Cold Dark Matter (CDM) dominated halos, with good consistency found between the independent distortion and magnification measurements. The inferred level of mass concentration is surprisingly high, 8 = 10.39 \\pm 0.91), compared to the relatively shallow profiles predicted by the LCDM model, c_{vir} = 5.06 \\pm 1.10 (for =1.25\\times 10^{15} M_{\\odot}/h). This represents a 4\\sigma discrepancy, and includes the relatively modest effects of projection bias and profile evolution derived from N-body simulations, which oppose each other with little residual effect. In the context of CDM based cosmologies, this discrepancy implies some modification of the widely assumed spectrum of initial density perturbations, so clusters collapse earlier (z > 1) than predicted (z<0.5) when the Universe was correspondingly denser.

  4. Broadbeam for Massive MIMO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Deli; Qian, Haifeng; Li, Geoffrey Ye

    2016-05-01

    Massive MIMO has been identified as one of the promising disruptive air interface techniques to address the huge capacity requirement demanded by 5G wireless communications. For practical deployment of such systems, the control message need to be broadcast to all users reliably in the cell using broadbeam. A broadbeam is expected to have the same radiated power in all directions to cover users in any place in a cell. In this paper, we will show that there is no perfect broadbeam. Therefore, we develop a method for generating broadbeam that can allow tiny fluctuations in radiated power. Overall, this can serve as an ingredient for practical deployment of the massive MIMO systems.

  5. {Lambda}CDM model with a scalar perturbation vs. preferred direction of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin; Lin, Hai-Nan; Wang, Sai; Chang, Zhe [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)

    2013-12-15

    We present a scalar perturbation for the {Lambda}CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. Based on the Union2 data, the least-{chi} {sup 2} fit of the scalar perturbed {Lambda}CDM model shows that the universe has a preferred direction (l,b)=(287 {sup circle} {+-}25 {sup circle},11 {sup circle} {+-}22 {sup circle}). The magnitude of scalar perturbation is about -2.3 x 10{sup -5}. The scalar perturbation for the {Lambda}CDM model implies a peculiar velocity, which is perpendicular to the radial direction. We show that the maximum peculiar velocities at redshift z=0.15 and z=0.015 equal to 73{+-}28 km s{sup -1} and 1099{+-}427 km s{sup -1}, respectively. They are compatible with the constraints on the peculiar velocity given by the Planck Collaboration. (orig.)

  6. $\\Lambda$CDM model with a scalar perturbation vs. preferred direction of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin; Wang, Sai; Chang, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    We present a scalar perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. Based on the Union2 data, the least-$\\chi^2$ fit of the scalar perturbed $\\Lambda$CDM model shows that the universe has a preferred direction $(l,b)=(287^\\circ\\pm25^\\circ,11^\\circ\\pm22^\\circ)$. The magnitude of scalar perturbation is about $-2.3\\times10^{-5}$. The scalar perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model implies a peculiar velocity, which is perpendicular to the radial direction. We show that the maximum peculiar velocities at redshift $z=0.15$ and $z=0.015$ equal to $73\\pm28 \\rm km\\cdot s^{-1}$ and $1099\\pm427 \\rm km\\cdot s^{-1}$, respectively. They are compatible with the constraints on peculiar velocity given by Planck Collaboration.

  7. ESD full chip simulation: HBM and CDM requirements and simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Franell

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Verification of ESD safety on full chip level is a major challenge for IC design. Especially phenomena with their origin in the overall product setup are posing a hurdle on the way to ESD safe products. For stress according to the Charged Device Model (CDM, a stumbling stone for a simulation based analysis is the complex current distribution among a huge number of internal nodes leading to hardly predictable voltage drops inside the circuits.

    This paper describes an methodology for Human Body Model (HBM simulations with an improved ESD-failure coverage and a novel methodology to replace capacitive nodes within a resistive network by current sources for CDM simulation. This enables a highly efficient DC simulation clearly marking CDM relevant design weaknesses allowing for application of this software both during product development and for product verification.

  8. Does MOND follow from the CDM paradigm?

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, M

    2001-01-01

    In a recent paper, Kaplinghat and Turner (2001) (KT) advertise that MOND can be derived naturally in the CDM paradigm. They actually proceed to produce a more limited result: Every galaxy should have a transition radius, $r_t$, below which baryons dominate, and above which dark matter (DM) takes over; the acceleration at $r_t$ is nearly the same for all galaxies; and due to a coincidences this is of order $a_0\\sim cH_0$. This follows from their tacit, intermediate result, whereby CDM halos of galaxies have a very nearly universal acceleration profile $a(r)\\approx v^2(r)/r\\approx A\\hat a(r/\\ell)$, where A is universal, and only the scale $\\ell$ varies from halo to halo. (This remains so when baryons are added because they assume a universal baryon-collapse factor.) The KT scenario is phenomenologically wrong--observed galaxies are simply not like that. For example, it precludes altogether the existence of LSB galaxies, in which the acceleration is everywhere smaller than $a_0$. The phenomenologically sound out...

  9. Multiuser MIMO Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Indumathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three beamforming design are considered for multi user MIMO system. First, transmit beamformers are fixed and the receive (RX beamformers are calculated. Transmit beamformer (TX-BFis projectedas a null space of appropriate channels. It reduces the interference for each user. Then the receiver beamformer is determined which maximize the SNR. This beamforming design provides less computation time. The second case is joint TX and RX beamformer for SNR maximization. In this transmitter and receiver beamformer are calculated using extended alternating optimization (EAO algorithm. The third one is joint transmitter and receiver beamforming for SNR and SINR maximization using EAO algorithm. This algorithm provides better error performance and sum rate performance. All the design cases are simulated by using standard multipath channel model. Our simulation results illustrate that compared to the least square design and zero forcing design, the joint TX and RX beamforming design using EAO algorithm provides faster beamforming and improved error performance and sum rate.

  10. Experimental Demonstration of 5-Gb/s Polarization-Multiplexed Fiber-Wireless MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei;

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 5-Gb/s fiber-wireless transmission system combining optical polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) and wireless multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing technologies. The optical-wireless channel throughput is enhanced by achieving a 4b...... advantageous to the MIMO wireless system due to the inter-channel delay insensitivity. The hybrid transmission performance of 26km fiber and up to 2m wireless MIMO is investigated......./s/Hz spectral efficiency. Based on the implementation of constant modulus algorithm (CMA), the 2×2 MIMO wireless channel is characterized and adaptively equalized for signal demodulation. The performance of the CMA-based channel adaptation is studied and it is revealed that the algorithm is particularly...

  11. Integrated Information Support System (IISS). Volume 5. Common Data Model Subsystem. Part 49. CDM IRDS Feature Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-30

    Common Data Model and IDEFIX integration methodology. ONTEK Responsible for defining and testing a representative integrated system base in Artificial...information at the next lower level. IRD620341500 30 Septenbt’r 1990 IDEFIX DEFINITION DEFINITION ---------------------- defines &t describes I I 9...category entities). Sub-type categories may be defined as complete or incomplete. Layer 2 - The CDM1 The CDM1 is the schema definition ( IDEFiX model

  12. 基于小波子空间法的MIMO系统辨识研究%Identification of MIMO System Based on Subspace Method in Wavelet Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振强

    2013-01-01

    For the LTI multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with the noise corrupted output data,an identification method of MIMO system was proposed by using the input-output data in wavelet domain directly.The subspace state space system identification method is a main method for MIMO system in time domain.Through the projection of data matrices,we took the QR decomposition and singular value decomposition of data matrices,and identified the order of the MIMO system,then obtained the estimated system matrices of the state equation.By means of wavelet transform,the signal was become a signal in wavelet domain.The MIMO system was identified by the wavelet subspace state space system identifcation method.Compared with the subspace state space system identification method in time domain,the proposed method is feasible and effective by the simulation.%针对线性时不变多输人多输出(MIMO)系统的输出存在随机噪声情况下,提出直接利用小波域的输入输出数据,辨识MIMO系统的方法.子空间状态空间法是时域辨识MIMO系统的主要方法,通过数据矩阵投影,对数据矩阵进行QR分解和奇异值分解,辨识出系统的阶数和系统的状态方程矩阵.运用小波变换,将时域信号转换为小波域的信号,利用小波子空间状态空间辨识算法对MIMO系统辨识,通过仿真,得到辨识的结果与时域子空间状态空间法相比较,证明提出方法是有效的.

  13. A Variational Approach to the Modeling of MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jraifi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of the optimization of the quality of service for multiple input multiple output (MIMO systems in 3G (third generation, we develop a method for modeling MIMO channel ℋ. This method, which uses a statistical approach, is based on a variational form of the usual channel equation. The proposed equation is given by δ2=〈δR|ℋ|δE〉+〈δR|(δℋ|E〉 with scalar variable δ=‖δR‖. Minimum distance δmin of received vectors |R〉 is used as the random variable to model MIMO channel. This variable is of crucial importance for the performance of the transmission system as it captures the degree of interference between neighbors vectors. Then, we use this approach to compute numerically the total probability of errors with respect to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and then predict the numbers of antennas. By fixing SNR variable to a specific value, we extract informations on the optimal numbers of MIMO antennas.

  14. An Algebraic Approach for the MIMO Control of Small Scale Helicopter

    CERN Document Server

    Budiyono, A

    2008-01-01

    The control of small-scale helicopter is a MIMO problem. To use of classical control approach to formally solve a MIMO problem, one needs to come up with multidimensional Root Locus diagram to tune the control parameters. The problem with the required dimension of the RL diagram for MIMO design has forced the design procedure of classical approach to be conducted in cascaded multi-loop SISO system starting from the innermost loop outward. To implement this control approach for a helicopter, a pitch and roll attitude control system is often subordinated to a, respectively, longitudinal and lateral velocity control system in a nested architecture. The requirement for this technique to work is that the inner attitude control loop must have a higher bandwidth than the outer velocity control loop which is not the case for high performance mini helicopter. To address the above problems, an algebraic design approach is proposed in this work. The designed control using s-CDM approach is demonstrated for hovering cont...

  15. MIMO Networks: the Effects of Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Chiani, Marco; Shin, Hyundong

    2008-01-01

    Multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) systems promise enormous capacity increase and are being considered as one of the key technologies for future wireless networks. However, the decrease in capacity due to the presence of interferers in MIMO networks is not well understood. In this paper, we develop an analytical framework to characterize the capacity of MIMO communication systems in the presence of multiple MIMO co-channel interferers and noise. We consider the situation in which transmitters have no information about the channel and all links undergo Rayleigh fading. We first generalize the known determinant representation of hypergeometric functions with matrix arguments to the case when the argument matrices have eigenvalues of arbitrary multiplicity. This enables the derivation of the ergodic capacity expressions for MIMO systems in the presence of multiple MIMO interferers. Our analysis is valid for any number of interferers, each with arbitrary number of antennas having possibly unequal power levels....

  16. 基于特征值确定门限的协作MIMO频谱感知%Exact Threshold for Cooperative MIMO Spectrum Sensing Based on Random Matrix Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立辉; 李莉; 张静; 陈守坤

    2011-01-01

    To improve the effectiveness of eigenvalue-based detection in cognitive radio, the multi-cognitive-user MIMO circumstance is introduced, and a new exact threshold for frequency band sensing is proposeal based on random matrix theory.The advantages of MIMO technology is used to improve detection performance. Both theoretical analysis and the simulation results show that the new algorithm outperforms similar algorithms and classical energy detection techniques.%针对最新的基于特征值确定门限的检测方法,引入多认知用户MIMO环境,提出了基于特征值确定门限的协作MIMO频谱感知,充分利用了MIMO技术的优点来提高感知性能,利用随机矩阵理论推导出决策门限的准确表达式,改进了传统基于特征值算法需要大量协作用户的缺点.理论分析和仿真结果均表明,新的决策规则不仅减少了计算复杂性,整体性能也优于同类算法和典型的能量检测算法.

  17. Massive MIMO-OFDM indoor visible light communication system downlink architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tian; Li, Zening; Chen, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique is now used in most new broadband communication system, and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is also utilized within current 4th generation (4G) of mobile telecommunication technology. With MIMO and OFDM combined, visible light communication (VLC) system's diversity gain is increase, yet system capacity for dispersive channels is also enhanced. Moreover, with the emerging massive MIMO-OFDM VLC system, there are significant advantages than smaller systems' such as channel hardening, further increasing of energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE) based on law of large number. This paper addresses one of the major technological challenges, system architecture design, which was solved by semispherical beehive structure (SBS) receiver and so that diversity gain can be identified and applied in Massive MIMO VLC system. Simulation results shows that the proposed design clearly presents a spatial diversity over conventional VLC systems.

  18. The analysis of MAI in large scale MIMO-CDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berceanu, Madalina-Georgiana; Voicu, Carmen; Halunga, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Recently, technological development imposed a rapid growth in the use of data carried by cellular services, which also implies the necessity of higher data rates and lower latency. To meet the users' demands, it was brought into discussion a series of new data processing techniques. In this paper, we approached the MIMO technology that uses multiple antennas at the receiver and transmitter ends. To study the performances obtained by this technology, we proposed a MIMO-CDMA system, where image transmission has been used instead of random data transmission to take benefit of a larger range of quality indicators. In the simulations we increased the number of antennas, we observed how the performances of the system are modified and, based on that, we were able to make a comparison between a conventional MIMO and a Large Scale MIMO system, in terms of BER and MSSIM index, which is a metric that compares the quality of the image before transmission with the received one.

  19. Impact of Mutual Coupling and Polarization of Antennas on BER Performances of Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at studying the impacts of mutual coupling, matching networks, and polarization of antennas on performances of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO systems employing Spatial Multiplexing (SM. In particular, the uncoded average Bit Error Rate (BER of MIMO systems is investigated. An accurate signal analysis framework based on circuit network parameters is presented to describe the transmit/receive characteristics of the matched/unmatched antenna array. The studied arrays consist of matched/unmatched compact copolarization and polarization diversity antenna array. Monte-Carlo numerical simulations are used to study the BER performances of the SM MIMO systems using maximum-likelihood and/or zero-forcing detection schemes. The simulation results demonstrate that the use of matching networks can improve the BER performance of SM MIMO systems significantly, and the BER performance deterioration due to antenna orientation randomness can be compensated by use of polarization diversity antenna arrays.

  20. The PN.S Elliptical Galaxy Survey: a standard ΛCDM halo around NGC 4374?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N. G.; Arnaboldi, M.; Coccato, L.; Gerhard, O.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M. R.; Bamford, S. P.; Cortesi, A.; Das, P.; Freeman, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of our current programme to test ΛCDM predictions for dark matter (DM) haloes using extended kinematical observations of early-type galaxies, we present a dynamical analysis of the bright elliptical galaxy NGC 4374 (M84) based on ˜450 planetary nebulae (PNe) velocities from the PN.Spectrogra

  1. Filter Bank Multicarrier for Massive MIMO

    OpenAIRE

    Farhang, Arman,; Marchetti, Nicola; Doyle, Linda E.; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) as a potential candidate in the application of massive MIMO communication. It also points out the advantages of FBMC over OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) in the application of massive MIMO. The absence of cyclic prefix in FBMC increases the bandwidth efficiency. In addition, FBMC allows carrier aggregation straightforwardly. Self-equalization, a property of FBMC in massive MIMO that is introduced in this paper, has the im...

  2. MIMO Communication Using Single Feed Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama

    Multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) communication has emerged as a promis- ing technology for meeting the increasing demand on higher data rates. The technology exploits the spatial resource dimension by sending the datas- treams to different locations in the multi element array (MEA) domain while de...... prototype. The experiments show that the proposed beamspace MIMO approach provides performance compara- ble to a conventional MIMO system, but at a reduced size and hardware complexity....

  3. Multimedia over massive MIMO wireless systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haichao; Ge, Xiaohu; Zi, Ran; Zhang, Jing; Ni, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To satisfy the massive wireless traffic transmission generated by multimedia applications, the massive multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) wireless system has emerged as a possible solution for future 5G wireless communication systems. However, the mutual coupling effect of massive MIMO systems has a negative effect potential on the wireless capacity. In this paper, the receive diversity gain is first defined and analyzed for massive MIMO wireless systems. Furthermore, we propose an effective cap...

  4. Axion BEC: A model beyond CDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaoli

    I started work on the field of dark matter and cosmology with Dr. Sikivie three years ago with a goal to distinguish observationally axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) from other dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and sterile neutrinos. The subject is exciting because if one can determine the identity of the dark matter, it will be a mile-stone of physics beyond the standard model. On the high energy frontier, the standard model with three generation fermions is firmly established. However, it is not complete because the theory does not contain a plausible dark matter candidate, with properties required from observation, and the theory has fine-tuning problems such as the strong CP problem. On the cosmology and astrophysics frontiers, new observations of the dynamics of galaxy clusters, the rotation curves of galaxies, the abundances of light elements, gravitational lensing, and the anisotropies of the CMBR reach unprecedented accuracy. They imply cold dark matter (CDM) is 23% of the total energy density of the universe. Although many "beyond the standard model" theories may provide proper candidates to serve as CDM particles, the axion is especially compelling because it not only serves as the CDM particle, but also solves the strong CP problem. The axion was initially motivated by the strong CP problem, namely the puzzle why there is no CP violation in the strong interactions. Peccei and Quinn solved the problem by introducing a new UPQ(1) symmetry, and later Weinberg and Wilczek pointed out that the spontaneous breaking of UPQ(1) symmetry leads to a new pseudoscalar particle, the axion[1][2][3]. Axion models were proposed in which the symmetry breaking scale may be much larger than the electroweak scale, in which case the axion is very light and couples extremely weakly to ordinary matter. Furthermore, it was realized [4] that the cold axions, produced by the misalignment mechanism during the QCD phase transition, have

  5. Massive MIMO Codebook Design Based on BD-DFT Extension%基于BD-DFT扩展的大规模MIMO码本设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小兵; 吴学文; 景小荣

    2015-01-01

    考虑到大规模多输入多输出(Multiple Input Multiple Output,MIMO)阵列尺寸及外形等因素的限制,提出了一种适用于基站,采用交叉极化天线面阵的大规模MIMO(Massive MIMO)码本设计方法.该方法综合考虑交叉极化信道的对角化特点和相邻天线之间的相关性,首先设计出与采用交叉极化线阵匹配的码本,进而利用垂直维度天线间的相关性对其进行扩展,最终生成与交叉极化面阵相匹配的码本.仿真结果表明,该码本设计方法可使大规模MIMO系统的传输速率和误码率性能得到明显地提升.

  6. Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2014-05-01

    Due to their ability to provide high data rates, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become increasingly popular. Decoding of these systems with acceptable error performance is computationally very demanding. In this paper, we employ the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity and vice versa for higher bias values. Numerical results are done that show moderate bias values result in a decent performance-complexity trade-off. We also attempt to bound the error by bounding the bias, using the minimum distance of a lattice. The variations in complexity with SNR have an interesting trend that shows room for considerable improvement. Our work is compared against linear decoders (LDs) aided with Element-based Lattice Reduction (ELR) and Complex Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz (CLLL) reduction. © 2014 IFIP.

  7. MU-MIMO in LTE Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duplicy, Jonathan; Badic, Biljana; Balraj, Rajarajan;

    2011-01-01

    A relatively recent idea of extending the benefits of MIMO systems to multi-user scenarios seems promising in the context of achieving high data rates envisioned for future cellular standards after 3G (3rd Generation). Although substantial research has been done on the theoretical front, recent...... for LTE Release 8 are provided. Interestingly, it is shown that MU-MIMO only offers marginal performance gains with respect to singleuser MIMO. This arises from the limited MU-MIMO features included in Release 8 and calls for improved schemes for the upcoming releases....

  8. 量子遗传算法优化神经网络的MIMO-OFDM检测研究%Research of MIMO-OFDM detection based on Neural Network optimized by Quantum Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏

    2011-01-01

    The optimal solution of signal detection is a Nondeterministic Polynomial (NP) problem.Aimed at the problems that Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network is prone to the local optimum and simple genetic algorithm has the shortcoming of slow convergence, a new type of intelligent algorithm is proposed and applied into the M1M0-0FDM detection systems: it makes use of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) to optimize the initial data of RBF neural network.In this scheme,the output of detector by the QGA as the input of detector by neural network to avoid the bit-error rate for selecting initial data randomly and improve further the detection property.Simulation results show the proposed method is good for the improvement of the detection rate and reduction of bit-error rate.%信号的最优检测在常规条件下是一NP难解问题,针对RBF(径向基函数)神经网络算法易陷入局部极值和简单遗传算法收敛速度慢的问题,提出一种新型智能算法并将其用于MIMO-OFDM系统信号检测中:该算法将量子计算、遗传算法与神经网络相结合,用量子遗传算法(QGA)优化神经网络初始值.由于QGA给RBF网络提供了较好的初始值,故能够使RBF网络快速收敛到最优解,避免了由初始值的随机选取而带来的检测误码.实验结果表明,该算法能够有效地提高系统的信号检测性能,降低误码率.

  9. Performance Analysis of Cooperative Virtual MIMO Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Al-Anbuky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO techniques can be used to increase the data rate for a given bit error rate (BER and transmission power. Due to the small form factor, energy and processing constraints of wireless sensor nodes, a cooperative Virtual MIMO as opposed to True MIMO system architecture is considered more feasible for wireless sensor network (WSN applications. Virtual MIMO with Vertical-Bell Labs Layered Space-Time (V-BLAST multiplexing architecture has been recently established to enhance WSN performance. In this paper, we further investigate the impact of different modulation techniques, and analyze for the first time, the performance of a cooperative Virtual MIMO system based on V-BLAST architecture with multi-carrier modulation techniques. Through analytical models and simulations using real hardware and environment settings, both communication and processing energy consumptions, BER, spectral efficiency, and total time delay of multiple cooperative nodes each with single antenna are evaluated. The results show that cooperative Virtual-MIMO with Binary Phase Shift Keying-Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (BPSK-WOFDM modulation is a promising solution for future high data-rate and energy-efficient WSNs.

  10. Performance Analysis of Cooperative Virtual MIMO Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Zimran; Seet, Boon-Chong; Al-Anbuky, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) techniques can be used to increase the data rate for a given bit error rate (BER) and transmission power. Due to the small form factor, energy and processing constraints of wireless sensor nodes, a cooperative Virtual MIMO as opposed to True MIMO system architecture is considered more feasible for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Virtual MIMO with Vertical-Bell Labs Layered Space-Time (V-BLAST) multiplexing architecture has been recently established to enhance WSN performance. In this paper, we further investigate the impact of different modulation techniques, and analyze for the first time, the performance of a cooperative Virtual MIMO system based on V-BLAST architecture with multi-carrier modulation techniques. Through analytical models and simulations using real hardware and environment settings, both communication and processing energy consumptions, BER, spectral efficiency, and total time delay of multiple cooperative nodes each with single antenna are evaluated. The results show that cooperative Virtual-MIMO with Binary Phase Shift Keying-Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (BPSK-WOFDM) modulation is a promising solution for future high data-rate and energy-efficient WSNs. PMID:23760087

  11. Achieving "Massive MIMO" Spectral Efficiency with a Not-so-Large Number of Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Hoon; Papadopoulos, Haralabos C; Ramprashad, Sean A

    2011-01-01

    The main focus and contribution of this paper is a novel network-MIMO TDD architecture that achieves spectral efficiencies comparable with "Massive MIMO", with one order of magnitude fewer antennas per active user per cell. The proposed architecture is based on a family of network-MIMO schemes defined by small clusters of cooperating base stations, zero-forcing multiuser MIMO precoding with suitable inter-cluster interference constraints, uplink pilot signals reuse across cells, and frequency reuse. The key idea consists of partitioning the users population into geographically determined "bins", such that all users in the same bin are statistically equivalent, and use the optimal network-MIMO architecture in the family for each bin. A scheduler takes care of serving the different bins on the time-frequency slots, in order to maximize a desired network utility function that captures some desired notion of fairness. This results in a mixed-mode network-MIMO architecture, where different schemes, each of which i...

  12. Finslerian perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    We present Finslerian perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. The analysis on the Killing vectors shows that the Randers-Finsler spacetime breaks the isotropic symmetry even if the scalar perturbations of the FRW metric vanish. In Randers-Finsler spacetime, the modified geodesic equation deduces a modified Boltzmann equation. We propose a perturbational version of the gravitational field equation in Randers-Finsler spacetime, where we have omitted the curvature tensor that does not belong to the base space of the tangent bundle. The gravitational field equations for the gravitational wave are also presented. The primordial power spectrum of the gravitational wave is investigated. We show that the primordial power spectrum for super-horizon perturbations is unchanged. For sub-horizon perturbations, however, the power spectrum is modified.

  13. CDM. Information and guidebook - Developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'[Clean development nedianism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.)

    2003-12-01

    Since the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was defined at Conference of the Parties 3 in Kyoto 1997, it took the international community another 4 years to reach the Marrakesh Accords in which the modalities and procedures to implement the CDM was elaborated. Even if more detailed rules, procedures and modalities have to be further developed a general framework to implement the CDM and other Kyoto mechanisms are now in place. This guidebook is produced to support the UNEP project 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism'. Focus is on the CDM project cycle, the Project Design Document (PDD), and related issues such as sustainable development goals, financing and market intelligence. The appendices present frequently asked questions and answers, a short overview of existing guidelines and a possible future list of eligible CDM projects categories. (BA)

  14. MIMO over ESPAR with 16-QAM Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Barousis, V.I.; Papadias, C.B.;

    2013-01-01

    MIMO systems have become an indispensable part of modern wireless standards, e.g. LTE advanced. However, in applications with strict energy and size constraints, an alternative MIMO scheme with reduced hardware complexity would be attractive. Towards this direction, parasitic antennas with a sing...

  15. Closed-Form Approximation of MIMO Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtman, Jos; Hanzo, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    A closed-form expression is provided for the calculation of the minimum SNR required to achieve a target data-rate using a generic MIMO-aided $M$-QAM transceiver. The computationally efficient technique proposed facilitates the convenient characterization of MIMO-assisted wireless systems.

  16. Comparison of mimo radar concepts: Detection performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Huizing, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, four different array radar concepts are compared: pencil beam, floodlight, monostatic MIMO, and multistatic MIMO. The array radar concepts show an increase in complexity accompanied by an increase in diversity. The comparison between the radar concepts is made by investigating the det

  17. Forming Disk Galaxies in Lambda CDM Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, F; Mayer, L; Quinn, T; Stinson, G; Valenzuela, O; Wadsley, J; Willman, B

    2006-01-01

    We used fully cosmological, high resolution N-body + SPH simulations to follow the formation of disk galaxies with rotational velocities between 135 and 270 km/sec in a Lambda CDM universe. The simulations include gas cooling, star formation, the effects of a uniform UV background and a physically motivated description of feedback from supernovae. The host dark matter halos have a spin and last major merger redshift typical of galaxy sized halos as measured in recent large scale N--Body simulations. The simulated galaxies form rotationally supported disks with realistic exponential scale lengths and fall on both the I-band and baryonic Tully Fisher relations. An extended stellar disk forms inside the Milky Way sized halo immediately after the last major merger. The combination of UV background and SN feedback drastically reduces the number of visible satellites orbiting inside a Milky Way sized halo, bringing it in fair agreement with observations. Our simulations predict that the average age of a primary gal...

  18. Antenna Pattern Impact on MIMO OTA Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Franek, Ondrej

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the DUT antenna pattern on the test area performance for multi-probe based MIMO OTA setup in terms of received voltage and spatial correlation. The plane wave synthesis (PWS) technique has been proposed for vertical polarization in the literature, where...... the goal is to approximate plane waves with arbitrary directions. The received voltage at the antenna terminal depends on the antenna radiation pattern and the impinging plane waves. A novel closed form technique to reproduce the received voltage with arbitrary incoming plane waves based on trigonometric...... interpolation is presented. The proposed technique provides a closed form solution for the PWS when the probe ring radius is infinite. The proposed technique shows that the impact of the antenna pattern on the induced received voltage accuracy is ruled by Nyquist sampling theory. Furthermore, the impact...

  19. Analytical Expression for the MIMO Channel Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yifei; ZHAO Ming; XIAO Limin; WANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents analytical expressions for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel capacity in frequency-flat Rayleigh fading environments. An exact analytical expression is given for the ergodic capacity for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) channels. The analysis shows that the SIMO channel capacity can be approximated by a Gaussian random variable and that the MIMO channel capacity can be approximated as the sum of multiple SIMO capacities. The SIMO channel results are used to derive approximate closed-form expressions for the MIMO channel ergodic capacity and the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the MIMO channel capacity (outage capacity). Simulations show that these theoretical results are good approximations for MIMO systems with an arbitrary number of transmit or receive antennas. Moreover, these analytical expressions are relatively simple which makes them very useful for practical computations.

  20. MIMO系统中基于终端的定位算法%A Localization Algorithm Based on Moblie Station in MIMO System,

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆; 张永顺; 田增山

    2008-01-01

    在无线MIMO(多输入多输出)通信系统中,基于终端的TDOA/AOA混合定位方法能够用于终端自主定位.介绍了一种基于参数信道模型的MIMO信道AOA估计方法,并将估计结果用于混合定位.仿真结果表明此方法有较小的计算复杂度,其性能优于单纯的TDOA定位方法.

  1. Cluster Characteristics in a MIMO Indoor Propagation Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czink, Nicolai; Yin, Xuefeng; Ozcelik, Huseyin

    2007-01-01

    measurements at 5.2 GHz in a cluttered office environment using the SAGE algorithm for parameter estimation. Due to cluster identification in AoA/AoD-domain we found a greater number of clusters than those reported in previous publications. Regarding the fading statistics of clusters, so far not studied......Essential parameters of physical, propagation-based MIMO channel models are the fading statistics and the directional spread of multipath clusters. In this paper we determine these parameters in the azimuth-of-arrival/azimuth-of-departure (AoA/AoD) domain based on comprehensive indoor MIMO......, strong (obstructed-)line-of-sight clusters show Rician fading, corresponding to few dominant propagation paths, whereas most clusters exhibit Rayleigh fading, corresponding to many paths with approximately equal powers and uncorrelated phases. Root-mean-square cluster azimuth spreads (CASs) were...

  2. Efficient channel estimation in massive MIMO systems - a distributed approach

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-21

    We present two efficient algorithms for distributed estimation of channels in massive MIMO systems. The two cases of 1) generic, and 2) sparse channels is considered. The algorithms estimate the impulse response for each channel observed by the antennas at the receiver (base station) in a coordinated manner by sharing minimal information among neighboring antennas. Simulations demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed methods as compared to other methods.

  3. Experimental performance bounds of MIMO-FBMC/OQAM systems

    OpenAIRE

    Caus, Màrius; Pérez-Neira, Ana Isabel

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) systems to multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channels. In particular, it is investigated the FBMC modulation based on OQAM, known as FBMC/OQAM. Existing solutions reveal that FBMC/OQAM remains competitive with the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique when the number of streams (S), transmit antennas (NT ) and receive antennas (NR) are related as follows: S = min(NT ,NR). State-of-the-art techniq...

  4. OUTPUT FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR MIMO NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITH EXOGENOUS SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHOU; Yuqiang WU

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the global output tracking of a class of multi-input multi-output(MIMO) nonlinear systems affected by disturbances, which are generated by a known exosystem. An adaptive controller is designed based on the proposed observer and the backstepping approach to asymptotically track arbitrary reference signal and to guarantee the boundedness of all the signals in the closed loop system. Finally, the numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  5. Comparison of Linear Precoding Schemes for the Massive MIMO Downlink

    OpenAIRE

    Hoydis, Jakob; Ten Brink, Stephan; Debbah, Mérouane

    2012-01-01

    978-1-4577-2052-9; International audience; We consider the downlink of a time-division duplexing (TDD) multicell multiuser MIMO system where the base stations (BSs) are equipped with a very large number of antennas. Assuming channel estimation through uplink pilots, arbitrary antenna correlation and user distributions, we derive approximations of achievable rates with linear precoding techniques, namely eigenbeamforming (BF) and regularized zero-forcing (RZF). The approximations are tight in ...

  6. Cooperative Feedback for MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Kaibin

    2010-01-01

    Multi-antenna precoding effectively mitigates the interference in wireless networks. However, the precoding efficiency can be significantly degraded by the overhead due to the required feedback of channel state information (CSI). This paper addresses such an issue by proposing a systematic method of designing precoders for the two-user multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) interference channels based on finite-rate CSI feedback from receivers to their interferers, called cooperative feedback. Specifically, each precoder is decomposed into inner and outer precoders for nulling interference and improving the data link array gain, respectively. The inner precoders are further designed to suppress residual interference resulting from finite-rate cooperative feedback. To regulate residual interference due to precoder quantization, additional scalar cooperative feedback signals are designed to control transmitters' power using different criteria including applying interference margins, maximizing sum throughput, an...

  7. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  8. Left-handed compact MIMO antenna array based on wire spiral resonator for 5-GHz wireless applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadami, Abdulrahman Shueai Mohsen; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Soh, Ping Jack; Rahim, Sharul Kamal Abdul; Narbudowicz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    A compact coplanar waveguide-fed multiple-input multiple-output antenna array based on the left-handed wire loaded spiral resonators (SR) is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a 2 × 2 wire SR with two symmetrical microstrip feed lines, each line exciting a 1 × 2 wire SR. Left-handed metamaterial unit cells are placed on its reverse side and arranged in a 2 × 3 array. A reflection coefficient of less than -16 dB and mutual coupling of less than -28 dB are achieved at 5.15 GHz WLAN band.

  9. Design of LTE Indoor MIMO Repeater System Architecture Based On Single Fibre-optical Bidirectional Transmission%基于单纤双向传输的LTE室内MIMO中继系统架构研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广

    2014-01-01

    简述并分析了目前2G、3G和4G移动通信室内中继设备及系统的优势和弊端,提出了基于单纤双向传输的LTE室内MIMO中继系统架构设计,并分析了其组网架构的优势。%In the paper, I analysed the advantages and disadvantages of the current 2G, 3G and 4G indoor distributed mobile communication system, we proposed the LTE indoor MIMO repeater system architecture , which based on single optical fibre bidirectional transmission, and we give its advantages.

  10. A training-aided MIMO equalization based on matrix transformation in the space division multiplexed fiber-optic transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoning; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Tian, Qinghua; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Feng; Li, Dengao; Zhao, Jumin; Wang, Renfan

    2016-10-01

    A novel training sequence is designed for the space division multiplexed fiber-optic transmission system in this paper. The training block is consisting of segmented sequence, which can be used to compensate time offset and distortion (such as dispersion) in the transmission link. The channel function can be obtained by one tap equalization in the receiver side. This paper designs the training sequence by adjusting the length of the training signals and implementing matrix transformation, to obtain the coefficient of equalizer for channel detect and equalization. This new training sequence reduces system complexity and improves transmission efficiency at the same time. Compared with blind equalization, the matrix transformation based training sequence can reduce system complexity, and perform targeted equalization to the mechanism of mode coupling in the space division optical fiber system. As a result, it can effectively improve signal transmission quality and reduce bit error rate.

  11. Downlink scheduling of multiuser MIMO systems with transmit beamforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xing-hua; WU Wei-ling

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with downlink scheduling for multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, where the base station communicates with multiple users simultaneously through transmit beamforming. Most of the existing transmission schemes for multiuser MIMO systems focus on optimizing sum rate performance of the system. The individual quality of service (QoS) requirements (such as packet delay and minimum transmission rate for the data traffic) are rarely considered. In this article, a novel scheduling strategy is proposed, where we try to optimize the global system performance under individual QoS constraints. By performing scheduling into two steps, namely successive user selection and power allocation, the scheduler can achieve efficient resource utilization while maintaining the QoS requirements of all users. Extensive simulations and analysis are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheduler.

  12. On the Performance of Multiuser MIMO in UTRA FDD Uplink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichman Risto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the uplink performance of MIMO systems in UTRA FDD using noise rise and system load as performance measures. Results show that the uplink coverage and capacity of the UTRA FDD mode are significantly improved by SIMO and MIMO techniques that require only minor modifications to existing 3GPP specifications. Receive diversity in base station increases coverage and capacity in a straightforward manner, but the gain from transmit diversity in mobile station is small because of the fast closed-loop power control, which is essential to CDMA uplink performance. However, multiple transmit antennas in the mobile can be used to achieve higher than 2 Mbps single-user data rates.

  13. Estimation of Sparse MIMO Channels with Common Support

    CERN Document Server

    Barbotin, Yann; Rangan, Sundeep; Vetterli, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating sparse communication channels in the MIMO context. In small to medium bandwidth communications, as in the current standards for OFDM and CDMA communication systems (with bandwidth up to 20 MHz), such channels are individually sparse and at the same time share a common support set. Since the underlying physical channels are inherently continuous-time, we propose a parametric sparse estimation technique based on finite rate of innovation (FRI) principles. Parametric estimation is especially relevant to MIMO communications as it allows for a robust estimation and concise description of the channels. The core of the algorithm is a generalization of conventional spectral estimation methods to multiple input signals with common support. We show the application of our technique for channel estimation in OFDM (uniformly/contiguous DFT pilots) and CDMA downlink (Walsh-Hadamard coded schemes). In the presence of additive white Gaussian noise, theoretical lower bounds on the estimat...

  14. Advanced Signal Processing for MIMO-OFDM Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchón, Carles Navarro

    This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division mult......This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency...... contributions is the derivation of a novel message-passing scheme combining the MF and BP frameworks; the algorithm is derived from the stationary points of a region-based free energy approximation, and is guaranteed to converge if the underlying probabilistic model satisfies certain conditions. Moreover, we...

  15. Characteristic Equation of the Modified Smith predictor to MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Herrera-Cuartas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The delay in control systems is a feature frequently in real systems due to the transport of objects or information, a series connection of multiple systems or own processing and sensors delay, among others. Recently there have been several studies to identify the external delay MIMO systems, these works are focused on identification and on-line control of MIMO systems and use a multimodel structure based on modified Smith predictor using different search method. It is clear that for the implementation of the algorithm, and to obtain the convergence and stability analysis, it is necessary to have closed-loop equations of modified Smith predictor. However, in these works is not presented the analytical procedure, not be the main object, displaying only the closed loop equations without the procedure for obtaining it. Therefore, to respond, in this paper, we present an analytical way to derive the closed-loop equations of a modified Smith predictor.  

  16. Effective user selection algorithm for quantized precoding in massive MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayan fang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The downlink of a multi-user massive MIMO wireless system is considered, where the base station equipped with a large number of antennas simultaneously servesmultiple users. In this paper, an effective user selection algorithm is proposed for quantized precoding in massive MIMO systems. The algorithm aims at minimizing the correlation of precoders among users by relaxing the optimal problem to be convex and solving it using the Primal Newton’s Barrier Method. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is relatively low and the performance shown by the numerical results is close to the exhaustive search method. The advantage of the proposed algorithm increasingly shows up as the transmit antennas increase significantly.

  17. 一种基于MIMO预编码的多径分离方法%Method of multi-path separation based on precoding over frequency selective MIMO channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳语; 朱义君; 张水莲

    2012-01-01

    In frequency-selective MIMO channel,a null space based linear transceiver scheme based on precoding was proposed. Each data vector and corresponding decoding matrix are in the joint null space of other delay channel matrices. Frequency -selective MIMO channel is transformed into several spatially orthogonal flat matrix sub-channels.The precoding research over frequency flat channel is directly applicable to the selective channel, thoroughly removing up ISI problem of Z domain method with i-dentical computation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is of better capacity and error performance.%针对选择性MIMO信道多经分离问题,提出了一种基于预编码的收发联合设计方案.该方案中的每路发射矢量及其解码矩阵处于其他时延信道的共同零空间,把选择性信道多径分离为空间正交的若干平坦子信道,从而使平坦信道的预编码研究成果可以直接应用于选择性MIMO信道,解决了传统Z域处理中未消除ISI的问题,复杂度为Z域方法的L(多径数目)倍.仿真结果表明,该算法具有较好容量性能和误码率性能.

  18. A Thresholding-Based Antenna Switching in SWIPT-Enabled MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks with Co-Channel Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-10-23

    In this paper, we consider the simultaneous wireless power and information transfer (SWIPT) for spectrum sharing (SS) in cognitive radio (CR) networks with a multiple antenna SWIPT-Enabled secondary receiver (SR). The SR harvests the energy from the signals sent from the secondary transmitter (ST) and the interfering signals sent from the primary transmitter (PT). Moreover, the ST uses the antenna switching (AS) technique which selects a subset of the antennas to decode the information and the rest to harvest the energy. The antenna selection is performed via a thresholding strategy inspired from the maximum ratio combining (MRC) technique with an output threshold (OT-MRC). The thresholding-based antenna selection strategy is proposed in two ways: one is prioritizing the information data and the other is prioritizing the harvested energy. For the two proposed selection schemes, we study the probability mass function of the selected antennas, the average harvested energy, and the data transmission outage probability. Through the analytic expressions and the simulation results, we show that there is a tradeoff between the outage probability and the harvested energy for both schemes. We see also that the preference of one scheme on the other is also affected by this energy-data trade off.

  19. Zero-forcing pre-coding for MIMO WiMAX transceivers: Performance analysis and implementation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattoni, A. F.; Le Moullec, Y.; Sacchi, C.

    Next generation wireless communication networks are expected to achieve ever increasing data rates. Multi-User Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MU-MIMO) is a key technique to obtain the expected performance, because such a technique combines the high capacity achievable using MIMO channel with the benefits of space division multiple access. In MU-MIMO systems, the base stations transmit signals to two or more users over the same channel, for this reason every user can experience inter-user interference. This paper provides a capacity analysis of an online, interference-based pre-coding algorithm able to mitigate the multi-user interference of the MU-MIMO systems in the context of a realistic WiMAX application scenario. Simulation results show that pre-coding can significantly increase the channel capacity. Furthermore, the paper presents several feasibility considerations for implementation of the analyzed technique in a possible FPGA-based software defined radio.

  20. 大规模MIMO系统中基于溢出概率的鲁棒协作波束设计%Robust Coordinated Beamforming Design Based on Outage Probability for Massive MIMO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新民; 邱玲

    2015-01-01

    Massive MIMO technique can effectively increase system capacity in the fifth Generation (5G) cellular network, where Base Station (BS) is equipped with a very large number of antennas. Considering the impact of channel estimation error on performance, the transmission power minimization problem is formulated subject to the non-outage probability constraints of each user’s signal to interference plus noise ratio. In respect that the non-convex probability constraints make the downlink beamforming difficult to solve, Uplink-Downlink Duality Algorithm (UDDA) is proposed to design Coordinated BeamForming (CBF) by using the property of trace of the matrix to scale the non-convex probability constraint. To reduce the signaling overhead in Massive MIMO system, a Distributed Algorithm based on Large System Analysis (DALSA) is proposed, which only needs the large-scale channel information. The simulation results show that DALSA, in the targeted SINR constraint, not only reduces instantaneous channel state information transmission overhead in Massive MIMO system, but also performs well in robustness compared with UDDA.%大规模多输入多输出(Massive MIMO)技术通过在基站端配置大规模天线能有效提升5G蜂窝系统容量。考虑信道估计误差对系统性能的影响,该文在多小区大规模MIMO系统中形成了用户信干噪比的非溢出概率约束下最小化系统功率的优化问题。针对非凸概率约束中下行波束难于求解的问题,该文根据矩阵迹的性质将优化问题中的非凸约束缩放,进而提出上下行对偶算法求解波束矢量。为进一步减少多小区系统中信令开销,基于大系统分析,提出了仅采用大尺度信息的分布式算法。仿真结果表明,所提的分布式算法与对偶算法相比,在保证用户信干噪比的概率约束时,降低了大规模MIMO系统中传输瞬时信道状态信息的开销,同时具有良好的鲁棒性。

  1. 3D Massive MIMO Systems: Modeling and Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-07-30

    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems of current LTE releases are capable of adaptation in the azimuth only. Recently, the trend is to enhance system performance by exploiting the channel’s degrees of freedom in the elevation, which necessitates the characterization of 3D channels. We present an information-theoretic channel model for MIMO systems that supports the elevation dimension. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy, which enables us to determine the distribution of the channel matrix consistent with the prior information on the angles. Based on this model, we provide analytical expression for the cumulative density function (CDF) of the mutual information (MI) for systems with a single receive and finite number of transmit antennas in the general signalto- interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) regime. The result is extended to systems with finite receive antennas in the low SINR regime. A Gaussian approximation to the asymptotic behavior of MI distribution is derived for the large number of transmit antennas and paths regime. We corroborate our analysis with simulations that study the performance gains realizable through meticulous selection of the transmit antenna downtilt angles, confirming the potential of elevation beamforming to enhance system performance. The results are directly applicable to the analysis of 5G 3D-Massive MIMO-systems.

  2. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  3. An empirical case study of the transfer of GHG mitigation technologies from Annex 1 countries to Malaysia under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2011-01-01

    . It focuses on the companies involved in the implementation of specific technologies in these projects and the channels that can facilitate the transfer process. In addition, the institutional CDM project approval process in Malaysia is taken into account. An analytical framework is put forward based on which...... it can be concluded that the CDM only plays a role in one out of the 13 projects examined. The study may contribute to provide a background for adopting future provisions concerning technology transfer in the CDM or other initiatives involving GHG mitigation activities in non-Annex 1 countries....

  4. 基于控制性能的MIMO非线性系统动态面控制%Dynamic Surface Control Based on Control Performance for a Class of MIMO Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余修端; 孙秀霞; 董文瀚; 刘树光

    2012-01-01

    An adaptive tracking control scheme is proposed for a class of uncertain nonlinear MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) systems based on dynamic surface control method. Performance function and output error transformation are employed to guarantee that the output signals have the prespecified control indexes of output tracking speed, tracking error, overshoot, etc. In order to avoid control singularity problem, neural network is used to approximate desired intermediate control signals directly. Instead of estimating all the weights of the neural network, only one parameter's adaptive law needs to be designed. It is proved theoretically that all signals of the closed-loop system are bounded. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.%针对一类不确定非线性MIMO(multiple-input multiple-output)系统,在动态面控制方法的基础上,提出了自适应跟踪控制方案.通过引入性能函数和输出误差转换,保证输出信号具有指定的跟踪速度、跟踪误差、最大超调量.为了避免控制奇异问题,采用神经网络直接逼近期望控制信号.该方案无需估计神经网络的权值,仅对1个参数进行自适应律设计.理论证明了闭环系统所有信号有界,仿真结果验证了所提方案的有效性.

  5. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.; Schumacher, K.; van Vliet, O.; Moreira, J.R.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high interest

  6. El mimo entre los griegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Briceño Jauregui

    1969-05-01

    Full Text Available El instinto de imitación ha encontrado siempre su expresión en todos los pueblos. De todas las formas de entretenimiento, el mimo es a la vez la más primitiva y estable. En el mundo antiguo existen juglares, acróbatas, diversiones públicas de todas clases realizadas por hombres y mujeres, que prueban sus múltiples habilidades en las plazas de mercado, en las calles, con motivo de festividades públicas, o en los banquetes privados -como cuenta Jenofonte en el Simposio para entretención de los huéspedes a la mesa.

  7. 双基地MIMO雷达发射功率聚焦的角度估计算法研究%Study on Angle Estimation of Bistatic MIMO Radar Based on Transmit Power Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄中瑞; 张剑云; 周青松

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the power is transmitted dispersedly in traditional bistatic MIMO radar, a method about the transmit power focus of the bistatic MIMO radar is proposed. Firstly, the mathematic model is constructed based on an effective optimal criterion that can not only constrain the maximum error of the optimal beam and the desire one less than the given value, but also minimize the peak side lobe power of the transmit pattern. At the same time, a special beam matrix of transmitting terminal is constructed, not only making equivalent transmit/receive steering vector possessing the character of rotational invariance property, but also simplifying the original optimized model in order to be fast solved via second-order cone programming theory. Secondly, the transmitting and receiving angle of space target is estimated by utilizing improved PARallel FACtor (PARFAC) algorithm. The initial iteration point in the least square algorithm of PARFAC interior is improved by integrating into rotation invariance of transmitting/receiving steering vector, which can effectively decrease the number of iteration. Furthermore, the Cramer-Rao Bound of multi-target angle estimation under bistatic MIMO radar transmitting power focusing is derived which prove the superiority of the proposed method. Finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.%该文针对传统双基地MIMO雷达发射功率在空间发散的问题,提出一种双基地MIMO雷达发射功率聚焦方法。首先,建立了双基地MIMO雷达发射功率聚焦的优化模型,其优化准则为:在感兴趣空域内严格约束优化波束与期望波束的最大误差小于给定门限的前提下,最小化发射方向图的峰值旁瓣功率。同时,构造特殊发射端波束矩阵,不仅能使等效发射/接收导向矢量具有旋转不变性,并且简化了原优化模型,以便采用二阶锥规划理论进行快速求解;其次,利

  8. Downlink Assisted Uplink Zero Forcing for TDD Multiuser MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komulainen Petri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes practical coordinated linear transmit-receive processing schemes for the uplink (UL of multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO systems in the time division duplex (TDD mode. The base station (BS computes the transmission parameters in a centralized manner and employs downlink (DL pilot signals to convey the information of the beam selection and beamformers to be used by the terminals. When coexisting with the DL transmit-receive zero forcing, the precoded DL demodulation pilots can be reused for UL beam allocation so that no additional pilot overhead is required. Furthermore, the locally available channel state information (CSI of the effective MIMO channel is sufficient for the terminals to perform transmit power and rate allocation independently. In order to reduce the UL pilot overhead as well, we propose reusing the precoded UL demodulation pilots in turn for partial CSI sounding. The achievable sum rate of the system is evaluated in time-varying fading channels and with channel estimation. According to the results, the proposed UL transmission strategy provides increased rates compared to single-user MIMO transmission combined with user selection as well as to UL antenna selection transmission, without being sensitive to CSI uncertainty.

  9. Analysis and Transceiver Design for the MIMO Broadcast Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Hunger, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with the optimization-based joint design of the transmit and receive filters in   MIMO broadcast channel in which the user terminals may be equipped with several antenna elements. Furthermore, the maximum performance of the system in the high power regime as well as the set of all feasible quality-of-service requirements is analyzed. First, a fundamental duality is derived that holds between the MIMO broadcast channel and virtual MIMO multiple access channel. This duality construct allows for the efficient solution of problems originally posed in the broadcast channel in the dual domain where a possibly hidden convexity can often be revealed. On the basis of the established duality result, the gradient-projection algorithm is introduced as a tool to solve constrained optimization problems to global optimality under certain conditions. The gradient-projection tool is then applied to solving the weighted sum rate maximization problem which is a central optimization that arises in any network u...

  10. Time-Domain Diversity in Ultra-Wideband MIMO Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sibille

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of ultra-wideband (UWB communications is impeded by the drastic transmitted power limitations imposed by regulation authorities due to the “polluting” character of these radio emissions with respect to existing services. Technical solutions must be researched in order either to limit the level of spectral pollution by UWB devices or to increase their reception sensitivity. In the present work, we consider pulse-based modulations and investigate time-domain multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO diversity as one such possible solution. The basic principles of time-domain diversity in the extreme (low multipath density or intermediate (dense multipath UWB regimes are addressed, which predict the possibility of a MIMO gain equal to the product Nt×Nr of the numbers of transmit/receive antenna elements when the channel is not too severe. This analysis is confirmed by simulations using a parametric empirical stochastic double-directional channel model. They confirm the potential interest of MIMO approaches solutions in order to bring a valuable performance gain in UWB communications.

  11. Spatial Modulation Concept for Massive Multiuser MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Humadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of spatial modulation (SM scheme for massive multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO system. We consider a MU-MIMO system where K users, each equipped with multiple antennas, are jointly serviced by a multiantenna base station transmitter (BSTx using appropriate precoding scheme at the BSTx. The main idea introduced here is the utilization of the user’s subchannel index corresponding to the precoding matrix used at the BSTx, to convey extra useful information. This idea has not been explored, and it provides significant throughput enhancements in a multiuser system with large number of users. We examine the performance of the proposed scheme by numerical simulations. The results show that as the number of users and the receiving antennas for each user increase, the overall system throughput gets better, albeit at the cost of some degradation in the BER performance due to interantenna interference (IAI experienced at the receiver. We then explore zero-padding approach that helps to remove these IAI, in order to alleviate the BER degradations.

  12. Hierarchical Interference Mitigation for Massive MIMO Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Lau, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    We propose a hierarchical interference mitigation scheme for massive MIMO cellular networks. The MIMO precoder at each base station (BS) is partitioned into an inner precoder and an outer precoder. The inner precoder controls the intra-cell interference and is adaptive to local channel state information (CSI) at each BS (CSIT). The outer precoder controls the inter-cell interference and is adaptive to channel statistics. Such hierarchical precoding structure reduces the number of pilot symbols required for CSI estimation in massive MIMO downlink and is robust to the backhaul latency. We study joint optimization of the outer precoders, the user selection, and the power allocation to maximize a general concave utility which has no closed-form expression. We first apply random matrix theory to obtain an approximated problem with closed-form objective. We show that the solution of the approximated problem is asymptotically optimal with respect to the original problem as the number of antennas per BS grows large. Then using the hidden convexity of the problem, we propose an iterative algorithm to find the optimal solution for the approximated problem. We also obtain a low complexity algorithm with provable convergence. Simulations show that the proposed design has significant gain over various state-of-the-art baselines.

  13. MAX-SLNR Precoding Algorithm for Massive MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilot Contamination obviously degrades the system performance of Massive MIMO systems. In this paper, a downlink precoding algorithm based on the Signal-to- Leakage-plus-Noise-Ratio (SLNR criterion is put forward. First, the impact of Pilot Contamination on SLNR is analyzed,then the precoding matrix is calculated with the eigenvalues decomposition of SLNR, which not only maximize the array gains of the target user, but also minimize the impact of Pilot Contamination and the leak to the users of other cells. Further, a simplified solution is derived, in which the impact of Pilot Contamination can be suppressed only with the large-scale fading coefficients. Simulation results reveal that: in the scenario of the serious pilot contamination, the proposed algorithm can avoid the performance loss caused by the pilot contamination compared with the conventional Massive MIMO precoding algorithm. Thus the proposed algorithm can acquire the perfect performance gains of Massive MIMO system and has better practical value since the large-scale fading coefficients are easy to measure and feedback.

  14. Energy-Aware Adaptive Cooperative FEC Protocol in MIMO Channel for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive cooperative forward error correction (ACFEC based on energy efficiency combining Reed-Solomon (RS coder algorithm and multiple input multiple output (MIMO channel technology with monitoring signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in wireless sensor networks. First, we propose a new Markov chain model for FEC based on RS codes and derive the expressions for QoS on the basis of this model, which comprise four metrics: throughput, packet error rate, delay, and energy efficiency. Then, we apply RS codes with the MIMO channel technology to the cross-layer design. Numerical and simulation results show that the joint design of MIMO and adaptive cooperative FEC based on RS codes can achieve considerable spectral efficiency gain, real-time performance, reliability, and energy utility.

  15. A correction in the CDM methodological tool for estimating methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M M O; van Elk, A G P; Romanel, C

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) - especially landfills - are a significant source of methane, a greenhouse gas. Although having the potential to be captured and used as a fuel, most of the methane formed in SWDS is emitted to the atmosphere, mainly in developing countries. Methane emissions have to be estimated in national inventories. To help this task the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published three sets of guidelines. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol established the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to assist the developed countries to offset their own greenhouse gas emissions by assisting other countries to achieve sustainable development while reducing emissions. Based on methodologies provided by the IPCC regarding SWDS, the CDM Executive Board has issued a tool to be used by project developers for estimating baseline methane emissions in their project activities - on burning biogas from landfills or on preventing biomass to be landfilled and so avoiding methane emissions. Some inconsistencies in the first two IPCC guidelines have already been pointed out in an Annex of IPCC latest edition, although with hidden details. The CDM tool uses a model for methane estimation that takes on board parameters, factors and assumptions provided in the latest IPCC guidelines, while using in its core equation the one of the second IPCC edition with its shortcoming as well as allowing a misunderstanding of the time variable. Consequences of wrong ex-ante estimation of baseline emissions regarding CDM project activities can be of economical or environmental type. Example of the first type is the overestimation of 18% in an actual project on biogas from landfill in Brazil that harms its developers; of the second type, the overestimation of 35% in a project preventing municipal solid waste from being landfilled in China, which harms the environment, not for the project per se but for the undue generated carbon credits. In a simulated landfill - the same

  16. Diversity of MIMO Linear Precoding

    CERN Document Server

    Mehana, Ahmed Hesham

    2012-01-01

    Linear precoding is a relatively simple method of MIMO signaling that can also be optimal in certain special cases. This paper is dedicated to high-SNR analysis of MIMO linear precoding. The Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of a number of linear precoders is analyzed. Furthermore, since the diversity at finite rate (also known as the fixed-rate regime, corresponding to multiplexing gain of zero) does not always follow from the DMT, linear precoders are also analyzed for their diversity at fixed rates. In several cases, the diversity at multiplexing gain of zero is found not to be unique, but rather to depend on spectral efficiency. The analysis includes the zero-forcing (ZF), regularized ZF, matched filtering and Wiener filtering precoders. We calculate the DMT of ZF precoding under two common design approaches, namely maximizing the throughput and minimizing the transmit power. It is shown that regularized ZF (RZF) or Matched filter (MF) suffer from error floors for all positive multiplexing gains. Howe...

  17. First Eigenmode Transmission by High Efficient CSI Estimation for Multiuser Massive MIMO Using Millimeter Wave Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Maruta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drastic improvements in transmission rate and system capacity are required towards 5th generation mobile communications (5G. One promising approach, utilizing the millimeter wave band for its rich spectrum resources, suffers area coverage shortfalls due to its large propagation loss. Fortunately, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO can offset this shortfall as well as offer high order spatial multiplexing gain. Multiuser MIMO is also effective in further enhancing system capacity by multiplexing spatially de-correlated users. However, the transmission performance of multiuser MIMO is strongly degraded by channel time variation, which causes inter-user interference since null steering must be performed at the transmitter. This paper first addresses the effectiveness of multiuser massive MIMO transmission that exploits the first eigenmode for each user. In Line-of-Sight (LoS dominant channel environments, the first eigenmode is chiefly formed by the LoS component, which is highly correlated with user movement. Therefore, the first eigenmode provided by a large antenna array can improve the robustness against the channel time variation. In addition, we propose a simplified beamforming scheme based on high efficient channel state information (CSI estimation that extracts the LoS component. We also show that this approximate beamforming can achieve throughput performance comparable to that of the rigorous first eigenmode transmission. Our proposed multiuser massive MIMO scheme can open the door for practical millimeter wave communication with enhanced system capacity.

  18. First Eigenmode Transmission by High Efficient CSI Estimation for Multiuser Massive MIMO Using Millimeter Wave Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, Kazuki; Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Ohta, Atsushi; Arai, Takuto; Shirato, Yushi; Kurosaki, Satoshi; Iizuka, Masataka

    2016-07-08

    Drastic improvements in transmission rate and system capacity are required towards 5th generation mobile communications (5G). One promising approach, utilizing the millimeter wave band for its rich spectrum resources, suffers area coverage shortfalls due to its large propagation loss. Fortunately, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) can offset this shortfall as well as offer high order spatial multiplexing gain. Multiuser MIMO is also effective in further enhancing system capacity by multiplexing spatially de-correlated users. However, the transmission performance of multiuser MIMO is strongly degraded by channel time variation, which causes inter-user interference since null steering must be performed at the transmitter. This paper first addresses the effectiveness of multiuser massive MIMO transmission that exploits the first eigenmode for each user. In Line-of-Sight (LoS) dominant channel environments, the first eigenmode is chiefly formed by the LoS component, which is highly correlated with user movement. Therefore, the first eigenmode provided by a large antenna array can improve the robustness against the channel time variation. In addition, we propose a simplified beamforming scheme based on high efficient channel state information (CSI) estimation that extracts the LoS component. We also show that this approximate beamforming can achieve throughput performance comparable to that of the rigorous first eigenmode transmission. Our proposed multiuser massive MIMO scheme can open the door for practical millimeter wave communication with enhanced system capacity.

  19. Fixed-complexity vector perturbation with Block diagonalization for MU-MIMO systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohaisen, Manar; Chang, KyungHi; Ji, Seunghwan; Joung, Jinsoup

    2009-01-01

    Block diagonalization (BD) is an attractive technique that transforms the multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) channel into parallel single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO) channels with zero inter-user interference (IUI). In this paper, we combine the BD technique with two deterministic vector perturbation (VP) algorithms that reduce the transmit power in MU-MIMO systems with linear precoding. These techniques are the fixed-complexity sphere encoder (FSE) and the QR-decomposition with M-algorithm encoder (QRDM-E). In contrast to the conventional BD VP technique, which is based on the sphere encoder (SE), the proposed techniques have fixed complexity and a tradeoff between performance and complexity can be achieved by controlling the size of the set of candidates for the perturbation vector. Simulation results and analysis demonstrate the properness of the proposed techniques for the next generation mobile communications systems which are latency and computational complexity limited. In MU-MIMO system with ...

  20. Reduction of PAPR and Efficient detection ordering scheme for MIMO Transmission Systems Using Power Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sreevani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The technical challenges for communication engineers is the development of best performance wireless networks with negligible amount of distortions. We have to consider multipath propagation attenuation and radio spectrum inefficiency. Now a days, In MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output systems there is a huge demand for the networks with the high transmission rates and better quality of service which are having low PAPR ratio. Instead of OFDMA, filter banks are used in massive MIMO to reduce the complexity. But they are error prone to noise. This base paper discusses about PAPR reduction in MIMO systems using different precoding based OFDM systems. Mainly, minimization of multi-antenna systems by controlling the transmission power and reduction of PAPR using ZC (Zadoff-Chu matrix transform.

  1. PAR-Aware Large-Scale Multi-User MIMO-OFDM Downlink

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We investigate an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based downlink transmission scheme for large-scale multi-user (MU) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. The use of OFDM causes a high peak-to-average (power) ratio (PAR), which necessitates expensive and power-inefficient radio-frequency (RF) components at the base station. In this paper, we present a novel downlink transmission scheme, which exploits the massive degrees-of-freedom available in large-scale MU-MIMO-OFDM systems to achieve low PAR. Specifically, we propose to jointly perform MU precoding, OFDM modulation, and PAR reduction by solving a convex optimization problem. We develop a corresponding fast iterative truncation algorithm (FITRA) and show numerical results to demonstrate tremendous PAR-reduction capabilities. The significantly reduced linearity requirements eventually enable the use of low-cost RF components for the large-scale MU-MIMO-OFDM downlink.

  2. An Imaging Method of MIMO-SAR with Compressed Echo Data%基于回波数据压缩的MIMO-SAR成像方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢矿生

    2015-01-01

    The amount of echo data is huge in multiple input multiple output synthetic aperture radar( MI-MO-SAR) imaging with high resolution. To solve this problem,an imaging method of MIMO-SAR based on compressed echo data is proposed. Firstly,the echo signal model of MIMO-SAR system is analyzed and the phase error induced by MIMO radar is compensated. Secondly,the echo signal is preprocessed by the Range Migration Algorithm( RMA) ,and also the sparsity of the processed data is analyzed. Then the pre-processed data is compressed and transmitted. In the ground receiver,the sparse expression of echo data in Range-Doppler( RD) domain is reconstructed. Finally,the simulation result shows that the amount of the transmitted data by the proposed method is less than that by the conventional MIMO-SAR imaging method.%针对多发多收合成孔径雷达( MIMO-SAR)高分辨成像的回波数据量过大问题,提出了一种基于数据压缩的MIMO-SAR成像方法。通过对MIMO-SAR回波数据的分析,补偿了由于MIMO雷达收发分置导致的相位误差;其次利用距离徙动算法( RMA)对回波数据进行预处理并分析了其稀疏性;然后针对预处理后的回波数据进行压缩传输,在接收端利用压缩感知重构算法获得回波数据在距离多普勒域的稀疏表示并进行成像处理。仿真结果表明,所提方法可以在大幅压缩MIMO-SAR回波数据的基础上实现准确成像。

  3. Suitable scheme study of Chinese Building Energy Efficiency CDM Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Beijia; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Shaoping; Wang, Feng

    2010-11-01

    China has great potential to develop Building Energy Efficiency Clean Development Mechanism (BEE CDM) projects, although have many challenges. Our results show that large-scale public buildings and urban residential buildings have relatively high BEE CDM potential, when comparing their characteristics to the CDM project requirements. The building enclosure, illumination energy conservation, air condition energy saving, solar thermal, and solar photovoltaic technology have relatively high application potential while considering the energy saving potential and marginal emission reduction cost. Case study of large-scale buildings shows that technology integration of building enclosure, illumination energy conservation, air condition energy saving, solar thermal can reduce required building number to 130 in order to meet the 1×105 tCO2 e/a reduction criteria. Some suggestions are also given in this paper.

  4. Structure formation in a $\\Lambda$ $viscous$ CDM universe

    CERN Document Server

    Velten, Hermano; Fabris, Júlio C; Casarini, Luciano; Batista, Ronaldo C

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of dark matter being a dissipative component represents an option for the standard view where cold dark matter (CDM) particles behave on large scales as an ideal fluid. By including a physical mechanism to the dark matter description like viscosity we construct a more realistic model for the universe. Also, the known small scale pathologies of the standard CDM model either disappear or become less severe. We study clustering properties of a $\\Lambda$CDM-like model in which dark matter is described as a bulk viscous fluid. The linear power spectrum, the nonlinear spherical "top hat" collapse and the mass functions are presented. We use the analysis with such structure formation tools in order to place an upper bound on the magnitude of the dark matter's viscosity.

  5. Options for utilizing the CDM for global emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja; Castro, Paula; Harthan, Ralph O.; Hayashi, Daisuke; Healy, Sean; Maribu, Karl Magnus; Michaelowa, Axel; Okubo, Yuri; Schneider, Lambert; Storroe, Ingunn [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland); Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Perspectives GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Point Carbon A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    The study describes and discusses in detail how four CDM reform alternatives, namely discounting of emission reductions, ambitious baselines, purchase and cancellation of CERs and reinvestment of CER levies, could be integrated in a Post-2012 climate regime. The study assesses these alternatives, according to their impacts on GHG emission reductions, contribution to sustainable development, cost-efficiency, technical feasibility, incentives and distributional effects as well as negotiability. The study shows that the introduction of discounting and ambitious baselines is technically feasible but politically a massive challenge. With the help of an economic model the study shows that the introduction of reform alternatives increases the amount of emission reductions but in comparison to the current CDM the impact is rather limited. But a CDM reform can in any case increase the credibility and improve the environmental integrity of the mechanism. (orig.)

  6. Phased-MIMO Radar: A Tradeoff Between Phased-Array and MIMO Radars

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanien, Aboulnasr

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new technique for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar with colocated antennas which we call phased-MIMO radar. The new technique enjoys the advantages of MIMO radar without sacrificing the main advantage of phased-array radar which is the coherent processing gain at the transmitting side. The essence of the proposed technique is to partition the transmitting array into a number of subarrays that are allowed to overlap. Then, each subarray is used to coherently transmit a waveform which is orthogonal to the waveforms transmitted by other subarrays. Coherent processing gain can be achieved by designing a weight vector for each subarray to form a beam towards a certain direction in space. Moreover, the subarrays are combined jointly to form a MIMO radar resulting in higher resolution capabilities. The substantial improvements offered by the proposed phased-MIMO radar technique as compared to previous techniques are demonstrated analytically and by simulations through analysis of the correspo...

  7. Massive MIMO Systems: Signal Processing Challenges and Research Trends

    OpenAIRE

    de Lamare, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a tutorial on multiuser multiple-antenna wireless systems with a very large number of antennas, known as massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. Signal processing challenges and future trends in the area of massive MIMO systems are presented and key application scenarios are detailed. A linear algebra approach is considered for the description of the system and data models of massive MIMO architectures. The operational requirements of massive MIMO systems are di...

  8. Scoping paper on new CDM baseline methodology for cross-border power trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poeyry has been sub-contracted by Carbon Limits, under the African Development Bank CDM Support Programme, to prepare a new CDM baseline methodology for cross border trade, based on a transmission line from Ethiopia to Kenya. The first step in that process is to review the response of the UNFCCC, particularly the Methodologies Panel ('Meth Panel') of the CDM Executive Board, to the various proposals on cross-border trade and interconnection of grids. This report reviews the Methodology Panel and Executive Board decisions on 4 requests for revisions of ACM2 'Consolidated baseline methodology for grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources', and 5 proposed new baseline methodologies (NM255, NM269, NM272, NM318, NM342), all of which were rejected. We analyse the reasons the methodologies were rejected, and whether the proposed draft Approved Methodology (AM) that the Methodology Panel created in response to NM269 and NM272 is a suitable basis for a new methodology proposal.(auth)

  9. Deployment and Implementation Strategies for Massive MIMO in 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panzner, Berthold; Zirwas, Wolfgang; Dierks, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Massive MIMO has emerged as one technology enabler for the next generation mobile communications 5G. The gains promised by massive MIMO are augured to overcome the capacity crunch in today's mobile networks and to pave the way for the ambitious targets of 5G. The challenge to realize massive MIMO...

  10. Performance of RCPC-Encoded V-BLAST MIMO In Nakagami-m Fading Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Sari, L; Gunawan, D

    2010-01-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wireless communication link has been theoretically proven to be reliable and capable of achieving high capacity. However, these two advantageous characteristics tend to be addressed separately in many major researches. Researches on various approaches to attain both characteristics in a single MIMO system are still on-going and an established approach is yet to be concluded. To address this problem, in this paper a Vertical Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (V-BLAST) MIMO enhanced with Rate-Compatible Convolutional (RCPC) codes with Zero Forcing (ZF) and Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE)-based detection is proposed. The analytical BER of the system is presented and numerically analyzed. The system performance is analyzed in Nakagami-m fading channel, which provides accuracy and flexibility in matching the signals statistics compared to other fading models. The complexity which arises in the calculations of the RCPC codes parameters is significantly reduced by using equ...

  11. Receive Diversity and Ergodic Performance of Interference Alignment on the MIMO Gaussian Interference Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Guillaud, Maxime

    2010-01-01

    We consider interference alignment (IA) over K-user Gaussian MIMO interference channel (MIMO-IC) when the SNR is not asymptotically high. We introduce a generalization of IA which enables receive diversity inside the interference-free subspace. We generalize the existence criterion of an IA solution proposed by Yetis et al. to this case, thereby establishing a multi-user diversity-multiplexing trade-off (DMT) for the interference channel. Furthermore, we derive a closed-form tight lower-bound for the ergodic mutual information achievable using IA over a Gaussian MIMO-IC with Gaussian i.i.d. channel coefficients at arbitrary SNR, when the transmitted signals are white inside the subspace defined by IA. Finally, as an application of the previous results, we compare the performance achievable by IA at various operating points allowed by the DMT, to a recently introduced distributed method based on game theory.

  12. A Deterministic Equivalent for the Analysis of Non-Gaussian Correlated MIMO Multiple Access Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Chao-Kai; Wong, Kai-Kit; Guo, Mei-Hui; Chen, Jung-Chieh

    2011-01-01

    Large dimensional random matrix theory (RMT) has provided an efficient analytical tool to understand multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels and to aid the design of MIMO wireless communication systems. However, previous studies based on large dimensional RMT rely on the assumption that the transmit correlation matrix is diagonal or the propagation channel matrix is Gaussian. There is an increasing interest in the channels where the transmit correlation matrices are generally nonnegative definite and the channel entries are non-Gaussian. This class of channel models appears in several applications in MIMO multiple access systems, such as small cell networks (SCNs). To address these problems, we use the generalized Lindeberg principle to show that the Stieltjes transforms of this class of random matrices with Gaussian or non-Gaussian independent entries coincide in the large dimensional regime. This result permits to derive the deterministic equivalents (e.g., the Stieltjes transform and the ergodic mut...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of LS and MMSE Channel Estimation Techniques for MIMO-OFDM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Sahu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple transmit and receive antennas can be used to form multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channels to increase the capacity by a factor of the minimum number of transmit and receive antennas. In this paper, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM for MIMO channels (MIMO-OFDM is considered for wideband transmission to mitigate intersymbol interference and enhance system capacity. In this paper performance analysis of channel estimation through different algorithms for estimating channel using BPSK modulation scheme are investigated for different channel delay spread. The estimation of channel at pilot frequencies is based on Least Square, Minimum mean square channel estimation algorithm. We have compared the performances of these two channel estimation algorithm by measuring bit error rate Vs SNR. Minimum Mean Square estimation has been shown to perform much better than Least Square channel estimation algorithm.

  14. Multiplexing efficiency for MIMO antenna-channel impairment characterisation in realistic multipath environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems in multipath environments suffer from high correlations (in the presence of small angular spreads of propagation waves and similar antenna patterns) and power imbalances [(due to cross-polarisation discrimination (XPD) of the propagation channel...... and possibly different antenna efficiencies)]. A simple performance metric that takes into account of the antenna-channel impairments on the MIMO system will be of great value for MIMO antenna characterizations. In this work, a generalized multiplexing efficiency (ME) is derived, which takesing into account...... efficiencyME, we use both the correlation-based channel model (where correlations and power imbalances can be readily specified) and the more realistic WINNER+ channel model (where correlations and power imbalances have to be indirectly controlled by changing the antenna setup)....

  15. Annual Report 2011 for the Swedish CDM and JI program; Aarsredovisning 2011 foer Sveriges CDM och JI-program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The report is an annual report of the Swedish CDM [Clean Development Mechanism] and JI [Joint Implementation]program for 2011. The report shows aims and goals of the business and the work of individual CDM and JI projects and multilateral funds which have been performed over the entire duration of life and especially during 2011. The report presents volume orders, deliveries of emission reduction units as well as the volumes expected to be needed for the fulfillment of the national target by 2020. The report also includes information about the average price for the emission reductions as well as alternative costs.

  16. A Method of Time-Varying Rayleigh Channel Tracking in MIMO Radio System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yan-fei; HE Zi-shu; HAN Chun-lin

    2005-01-01

    A method of MIMO channel tracking based on Kalman filter and MMSE-DFE is proposed. The Kalman filter tracks the time-varying channel by using the MMSE-DFE decision and the MMSE-DFE conducts the next decision by using the channel estimates produced by the Kalman filter. Polynomial fitting is used to bridge the gap between the channel estimates produced by the Kalman filter and those needed for the DFE decision. Computer simulation demonstrates that this method can track the MIMO time-varying channel effectively.

  17. Blind Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation via Power Spectrum Analysis in MIMO OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lu; ZHANG Xianda

    2009-01-01

    As a generalization of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems,multi-input multi-output (MIMO) OFDM systems are very sensitive to carrier frequency offset (CFO).This paper proposes a blind CFO estimation method based on power spectrum analysis,which has high bandwidth efficiency and is much less complex.This method can be used to estimate the residual CFO,which is less than half of the subcarrier spacing.The method uses a cosine cost function to get a closed-form CFO estimate.Simulation results illustrate that the method is effective for MIMO OFDM systems.

  18. Resetting AUDI Algorithm Used in Rapid Time-varying MIMO System Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chao(许超); Chen Zhigang; Shao Huihe

    2004-01-01

    Augmented UD identification (AUDI) technique is derived from the traditional recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm and has been developed rapidly during the last decade. AUDI is a cluster of identification algorithms based on matrix factorization methods (such as QR and LDL) and thus shows its stable performance in system identification applications. An AUDI algorithm with resetting strategy (RAUDI) has much ability in rapid time-varying SISO system identification. In this paper, an endeavor to expand the RAUDI in MIMO system identification is made and a comparative experiement is done to exhibit its good ability in rapidly changing parameter estimate in MIMO system.

  19. Combined Parameter and State Estimation Algorithms for Multivariable Nonlinear Systems Using MIMO Wiener Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Salhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the parameter estimation problem for multivariable nonlinear systems described by MIMO state-space Wiener models. Recursive parameters and state estimation algorithms are presented using the least squares technique, the adjustable model, and the Kalman filter theory. The basic idea is to estimate jointly the parameters, the state vector, and the internal variables of MIMO Wiener models based on a specific decomposition technique to extract the internal vector and avoid problems related to invertibility assumption. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is shown by an illustrative simulation example.

  20. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and substainability analysis[CDM=Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H.; Olivier, A.L.; Painuly, J.; Villavicencio, A.

    2002-12-01

    The report is intended to be a guidance document for project developers, investors, lenders, and CDM host countries involved in wind power projects in the CDM. The report explores in particular those issues that are important in CDM project assessment and development - that is, baseline development, carbon financing, and environmental sustainability. It does not deal in detail with those issues that are routinely covered in a standard wind power project assessment. The report tests, compares, and recommends methodologies for and approaches to baseline development. To present the application and implications of the various methodologies and approaches in a concrete context, Africa's largest wind farm-namely the 60 MW wind farm located in Zafarana, Egypt- is examined as a hypothetical CDM wind power project The report shows that for the present case example there is a difference of about 25% between the lowest (0.5496 tCO2/MWh) and the highest emission rate (0.6868 tCO{sub 2}/MWh) estimated in accordance with these three standardized approaches to baseline development according to the Marrakesh Accord. This difference in emission factors comes about partly as a result of including hydroelectric power in the baseline scenario. Hydroelectric resources constitute around 21% of the generation capacity in Egypt, and, if excluding hydropower, the difference between the lowest and the highest baseline is reduced to 18%. Furthermore, since the two variations of the 'historical' baseline option examined result in the highest and the lowest baselines, by disregarding this baseline option altogether the difference between the lowest and the highest is reduced to 16%. The ES3-model, which the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory has developed, makes it possible for this report to explore the project-specific approach to baseline development in some detail. Based on quite disaggregated data on the Egyptian electricity system, including the wind

  1. CDM: Teaching Discrete Mathematics to Computer Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutner, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    CDM, for computational discrete mathematics, is a course that attempts to teach a number of topics in discrete mathematics to computer science majors. The course abandons the classical definition-theorem-proof model, and instead relies heavily on computation as a source of motivation and also for experimentation and illustration. The emphasis on…

  2. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  3. Performance Analysis of MIMO Schemes in Residential Home Environment via Wideband MIMO Propagation Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Gia Khanh; Dao, Nguyen Dung; Sakaguchi, Kei; Araki, Kiyomichi; Iwai, Hiroshi; Sakata, Tsutomu; Ogawa, Koichi

    This paper illustrates a large-scale MIMO propagation channel measurement in a real life environment and evaluates throughput performance of various MIMO schemes in that environment. For that purpose, 4 × 4 MIMO transceivers and a novel spatial scanner are fabricated for wideband MIMO channel measurements in the 5GHz band. A total of more than 50, 000 spatial samples in an area of 150m2, which includes a bedroom, a Japanese room, a hallway, and the living and dining areas, are taken in a real residential home environment. Statistical properties of the propagation channel and throughput performance of various MIMO schemes are evaluated by using measured data. Propagation measurement results show large dynamic channel variations occurring in a real environment in which statistical properties of the channel, such as frequency correlation and spatial correlation are not stationary any more, and become functions of the SNR. Furthermore, evaluation of throughput shows that although MIMO schemes outperform the SISO system in most areas, open loop systems perform badly in the far areas with low SNR. Paying for the cost of CSI or partial CSI at Tx, closed loop and hybrid systems have superior performance compared to other schemes, especially in reasonable SNR areas ranging from 10dB to 30dB. Spatial correlation, which is common in Japanese wooden residences, is also found to be a dominant factor causing throughput degradation of the open loop MIMO schemes.

  4. Configuration Data Management (CDM) on a Shoestring Identifying & Utilizing an Existing Configuration & Data Management Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANN, J.M.

    2000-08-24

    The spreading need for and use of configuration and data management (CDM) standards has highlighted a number of challenges to the companies that need to implement those standards. For companies and organizations that are new to CDM or have limited CDM capabilities, one of the major dilemmas faced is identifying how and where to start. In many cases there is a need to contend with a legacy of poorly identified items and information and an immature or non-existent CDM infrastructure (processes, procedures, people, and information systems). To the company management and CDM professional this poses a seemingly insurmountable task of putting in place a CDM infrastructure that provides the needed benefits while keeping within an acceptable cost and schedule. This paper deals with initially establishing the CDM infrastructure using the tools that a company already has available. The paper identifies features of common software applications that can be used to implement CDM principles.

  5. 基于偏格式线性化的MIMO系统无模型自适应控制%Model-free Adaptive Control of MIMO Systems Based on Linearization of Partial Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广辉; 苏成利; 李平

    2011-01-01

    To solve the shortcomings of traditional PID controllers in dealing with disturbance rejection and robustness, and the over-reliance of model-based control algorithms on mathematical model of the controlled system a model-free adaptive control algorithm is proposed for discrete time MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) nonlinear systems. In tbis algorithm nonlinear system is Iinearized by linearization of partial format. Then the controlled system parameters are identified on-line by a novel projection algonthm. The parameters are used to recursively compute model-free adaptive control rule. The controller is designed only by using I/O data of the controlled system, and no structural information or extemal testing signals are needed. So the impact of the unmodelled dynamic problem of the modeling process on system performance doesn't exist. Simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm is an effective strategy with excellent tracking ability and strong robustness.%针对常规PID控制器不能很好兼顾抗干扰性与鲁棒性以及基于模型的控制算法过于依赖受控系统数学模型的缺点,提出一种适用于离散时间多输入多输出(MIMO)非线性系统的无模型自适应控制算法.该算法首先通过偏格式线性化方法将非线性系统线性化,再利用一种新型的投影算法在线辨识受控系统参数,根据辨识得到的受控系统参数直接递推计算无模型自适应控制律.控制器的设计仅利用受控系统的I/O数据,不需要受控系统的结构信息和外部实验信号,避免了由建模过程引起的未建模动态问题对控制性能的影响.仿真结果表明该算法具有良好的跟踪性能和较强的鲁棒性.

  6. Energy-efficient Resource Allocation Based on Multi-user Massive MIMO System%多用户大规模MIMO系统能效资源分配算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    该文针对多用户大规模多输入多输出(MIMO)移动通信上行系统,提出一种基于能效优化的资源分配算法。所提方法在采用最大比合并(MRC)接收情况下,满足用户数据速率和可容忍的干扰水平约束条件下,以最大化系统能效下界为准则建立优化模型。根据分数规划的性质,把原始的分数最优化问题转换成减式的形式,进而采用凸优化的方法,通过联合调整基站端的发射天线数和用户的发射功率来优化能效函数。仿真结果表明,所提算法与穷举算法在能效上的差距不足9%,并且有较好的系统频谱效率性能,同时算法复杂度得到了显著降低。%An energy-efficient resource allocation scheme is proposed for multi-user massive MIMO mobile communication uplink system. A mathematical formulation of optimization issue is provided with the objective of maximizing system energy efficiency lower bound under the data rate of user and tolerable interference level constraint, meanwhile the Base Station (BS) uses a Maximum-Ratio Combining (MRC) receiver. By transforming the originally fractional optimization problem into an equivalent subtractive form using the properties of fractional programming, then convex optimization is adopted to maximize the energy efficiency. Specifically, both the numbers of antenna arrays at the BS and the transmit data rate at the user are adjusted. Simulation results show that the energy-efficiency difference between the proposed algorithm and the exhaustive algorithm is less than 9%, at the same time, the performance of spectral-efficiency of the proposed algorithm is very well and the complexity is significantly reduced.

  7. Multi-user Detection Algorithm Based on Parallel Interference Cancellation for Massive MIMO Communications%大规模MIMO中基于并行干扰消除多用户检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓琳; 郑黎明; 王钢; 杨文超

    2015-01-01

    在发射与接收端天线数目相当的大规模多输入多输出( MIMO)系统中,线性检测算法的性能较差,而检测性能优异的检测算法复杂度偏高。针对该问题,提出增强型并行干扰消除算法(MMSE⁃ePIC),将搜索空间扩大到噪声增强方向矩阵的正交向量空间,同时利用近似对数似然方程值排序来减小复杂度。仿真结果表明,在误比特率为10-5时, MMSE⁃ePIC算法所需单位比特噪声功率谱密度比传统最小均方误差串行干扰消除( MMSE⁃SIC)算法小2 dB,复杂度较MMSE⁃SIC降低了25%,在保持良好检测性能的前提下,复杂度明显降低,可以较好地实现大规模MIMO的上行检测。%In MIMO systems,the linear detection algorithm is inferior when the number of receiving antennas is close to that of transmitting antennas,and the algorithms with good performance are usually of high complexity.To solve the problem,an MMSE⁃ePIC is proposed,where the searching space is expanded to normal eigenvector space of noise enhanced direction matrix,and the complexity is reduced based on the sorting of approximated log likelihood function values.The computer simulations show that the noise power spectral density of the proposed algorithm is 2 dB less than that of conventional MMSE⁃SIC,with decreased computational complexity of 25%. The modified MMSE detection algorithm has good detection performance and significantly decreased complexity,and approves to be a good option to implement uplink multi⁃user detection in large⁃scale MIMO communications.

  8. 基于混合建模技术的复合肥养分含量MIMO软测量模型%MIMO Soft-sensor Model of Nutrient Content for Compound Fertilizer Based on Hybrid Modeling Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅永峰; 苏宏业; 褚健

    2007-01-01

    In compound fertilizer production, several quality variables need to be monitored and controlled simultaneously. It is very difficult to measure these variables on-line by existing instruments and sensors. So, soft-sensor technique becomes an indispensable method to implement real-time quality control. In this article, a new model of multi-inputs multi-outputs (MIMO) soft-sensor, which is constructed based on hybrid modeling technique, is proposed for these interactional variables. Data-driven modeling method and simplified first principle modeling method are combined in this model. Data-driven modeling method based on limited memory partial least squares (LM-PLS) algorithm is used to build soft-senor models for some secondary variables; then, the simplified first principle model is used to compute three primary variables on line. The proposed model has been used in practical process; the results indicate that the proposed model is precise and efficient, and it is possible to realize on line quality control for compound fertilizer process.

  9. MIMO Precoding for Networked Control Systems with Energy Harvesting Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Songfu; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a MIMO networked control system with an energy harvesting sensor, where an unstable MIMO dynamic system is connected to a controller via a MIMO fading channel. We focus on the energy harvesting and MIMO precoding design at the sensor so as to stabilize the unstable MIMO dynamic plant subject to the energy availability constraint at the sensor. Using the Lyapunov optimization approach, we propose a closed-form dynamic energy harvesting and dynamic MIMO precoding solution, which has an event-driven control structure. Furthermore, the MIMO precoding solution is shown to have an eigenvalue water-filling structure, where the water level depends on the state estimation covariance, energy queue and the channel state, and the sea bed level depends on the state estimation covariance. The proposed scheme is also compared with various baselines and we show that significant performance gains can be achieved.

  10. 78 FR 32250 - CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to CDM Smith and its subcontractor, Dynamac Corp, in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). CDM Smith and...

  11. Estimation of MIMO channel capacity from phase-noise impaired measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels; Yin, Xuefeng; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2008-01-01

    phase noise samples affecting measurement samples collected with real TDMMIMO channel sounders are correlated. In this contribution a capacity estimator that accounts for the phase noise correlation is proposed. The estimator is based on a linear minimum mean square error estimate of the MIMO channel...

  12. User Effect on the MIMO Performance of a Dual Antenna LTE Handset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskgaard, Emil Feldborg; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del

    2014-01-01

    phantom using a commercially available Finite Element Method solver. The MIMO parameters are evaluated with three different channel models. A static grip only gives one case of the user effect so the hand phantom is modified with a moving finger that is swept across the backplane of the phone. Based...

  13. Simultaneous 5GHz Co-channel MIMO Links at Microcellular Boundaries: Interference or Cooperation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Tim; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.; Olesen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous real time 4x4 MIMO measurements from three base stations to the same mobile are analysed. Such measurements can be applied to determine the scale of interference from neighbouring cells due to lack of orthogonality between their respective eigenvectors. This paper also considers new...

  14. Simplified transmitter design for MIMO systems with channel uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Juan; KANG Gui-xia; ZHANG Ping

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates transmitter design in Rayleigh fading multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels with spatial correlation when there are channel uncertainties caused by a combined effect of channel estimation error and limited feedback. To overcome the high computational complexity of the optimal transmit power allocation, a simple and suboptimal allocation is proposed by exploiting the transmission constraint and differentiating a bound based on Jensen inequality on the channel capacity. The simulation results show that the mutual information corresponding to the proposed power allocation closely approaches the channel capacity corresponding to the optimal one and meanwhile the computational complexity is greatly reduced.

  15. SPATIAL COMPATIBLE USER GROUPING ALGORITHM FOR MULTIUSER MIMO SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lei; Niu Zhisheng

    2007-01-01

    A spatial compatible user grouping algorithm is proposed to reduce CoChannel Interference (CCI) in Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) multiuser Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)systems. We evaluate the interferences among users by use of distances between row spaces spanned by users' channel matrixes, then control frequency sharing according to the compatible user grouping algorithm. Results show that the row space distance algorithm outperforms others because it can fully utilize the information from users' channel matrixes, especially the matrix structure information. The results also prove that the algorithm based on channel matrix structure analysis is a better candidate for spatial compatibility approximation.

  16. Bayesian integer frequency offset estimator for MIMO-OFDM systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Carrier frequency offset (CFO) in MIMO-OFDM systems can be decoupled into two parts: fraction frequency offset (FFO) and integer frequency offset (IFO). The problem of IFO estimation is addressed and a new IFO estimator based on the Bayesian philosophy is proposed. Also, it is shown that the Bayesian IFO estimator is optimal among all the IFO estimators. Furthermore, the Bayesian estimator can take advantage of oversampling so that better performance can be obtained. Finally, numerical results show the optimality of the Bayesian estimator and validate the theoretical analysis.

  17. Robust Transceiver Design for Multiuser MIMO Downlink with Channel Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wei; Li, Yunzhou; Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Shidong; Wang, Jing

    This letter addresses the problem of robust transceiver design for the multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) downlink where the channel state information at the base station (BS) is imperfect. A stochastic approach which minimizes the expectation of the total mean square error (MSE) of the downlink conditioned on the channel estimates under a total transmit power constraint is adopted. The iterative algorithm reported in [2] is improved to handle the proposed robust optimization problem. Simulation results show that our proposed robust scheme effectively reduces the performance loss due to channel uncertainties and outperforms existing methods, especially when the channel errors of the users are different.

  18. Power Efficient Low Complexity Precoding for Massive MIMO Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sifaou, Houssem; Kammoun, Abla; Sanguinetti, Luca; Debbah, Merouane; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This work aims at designing a low-complexity precoding technique in the downlink of a large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system in which the base station (BS) is equipped with M antennas to serve K single-antenna user equipments. This is motivated by the high computational complexity required by the widely used zero-forcing or regularized zero-forcing precoding techniques, especially when K grows large. To reduce the computational burden, we adopt a prec...

  19. An Adaptive Channel Estimation Technique in MIMO OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Sheng Pan; Bao-Yu Zheng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive channel estimation for MIMO OFDM is proposed. A set of pilot tones first are placed in each OFDM block, then the channel frequency response of these pilot tones are adaptively estimated by reeursive least squares (RLS) directly in frequency domain not in time domain. Then after the estimation of the channel frequency response of pilot tones, to obtain the channel frequency response of data tones, a new interpolation method based on DFT different from traditional linear interpolation method according to adjacent pilot tones is proposed. Simulation results show good performance of the technique.

  20. Precoding for Multiuser Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Downlink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bijun; ZHU Guangxi; LIU Yingzhuang

    2006-01-01

    Previous precoding algorithms have concentrated on the single user scenario where the precoding scheme assumes perfect channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter or on limited feedback techniques, such as channel quantization or limited feedback signal designs. This paper proposes a novel unitary downlink precoding design scheme for multiuser spatial multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. With the perfect CSI available at the transmitter and the linear decoder at the receiver, the cost function was constructed based on the minimum average probability of vector symbol error and the design method of the precoding matrices was given. These proposed precoding matrices can completely eliminate co-channel interference for each user at the transmitter, and each user will eventually observe an interference-free single user channel, thus simplify the decoding of each user. The impact of channel feedback errors on the system performance and the upper bounds of several schemes for performance comparison were investigated. The simulation results show that the proposed precoding for multiuser spatial multiplexing system obtains almost the same performance as the single user precoding system.

  1. OFDM与MIMO-OFDM系统中PAPR问题研究%Research on PAPR in OFDM and MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董少强; 张纳温; 岳韶华; 胡茂凯

    2010-01-01

    正交频分复用(OFDM)和MIMO-OFDM技术都存在高峰均比的问题,大多数方法都是把降低OFDM峰均比的方法直接使用MIMO-OFDM系统,但在与MIMO-OFDM系统的匹配上存在较大问题.分析了OFDM和MIMO-OFDM的系统模型及PAPR,从理论上分析了OFDM和MIMO-OFDM两系统的关系,给出了在MIMO-OFDM系统中降低PAPR需要注意的问题,为OFDM和MIMO-OFDM系统的技术实用化做好理论基础.

  2. A MIMO FMCW radar approach to HFSWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, J. O.; Zölzer, U.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we propose one possible approach how to apply the concept of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) to monostatic Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) in a maritime environment. Common tasks for a HFSWR are sea-state monitoring and ship detection, where our focus is on ship detection. A limiting factor in HFSWR is the available bandwidth, which is inversely proportional to the range resolution capability of the radar and typical below 100 kHz. The question is how to extend or combine a conventional single-input multiple-output (SIMO) FMCW phased-array type radar with stretch processing and the colocated MIMO concept to "reuse" the very limited HF radar band resources. Another important question to answer is how MIMO FMCW waveforms can be separated at the receiver.

  3. Matching Parasitic Antenna for Single RF MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Kalis, A; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth

    2012-01-01

    Single RF MIMO communication emerges a novel low cost communication method which does not consume as much power as the conventional MIMO. The implementation of such single RF MIMO system is done by mapping the weighting factors to the polarizations or the radiation patterns of the antennas....... In order to have such performance, an antenna with rich pattern modes is required by the system, thus the ESPAR antenna is investigated. The critical part on such antenna is parasitic element impedance matching. Unlike the conventional smith-chart matching method which assumes the minimal resistance...... is zero and with goal of 50 ohm or 75 ohm matching, matching on such parasitic antenna will adopt negative value as well. This paper presents a matching network with controllable impedance even to the range of negative values....

  4. Research on Channel Loss of Tropospheric Scatter Communication Based on MIMO%基于MIMO的对流层散射通信信道损耗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐夲; 张杰; 皮羽茜; 沈轩帆; 廖勇

    2016-01-01

    针对多输入多输出(Multiple-Input Multiple-Output,MIMO)场景下的对流层散射通信信道损耗进行了研究.在设计远距离MIMO通信系统时,链路损耗估计是其中的关键技术,而现有技术在损耗估计时都忽略了波束与散射体碰撞时的能量损耗.根据湍流非相干散射理论,首先将对流层建模为多条可微的曲线,从而与发射和接收天线阵列构成曲边梯形,根据此信道几何模型,计算入射角、反射角和散射角的角度关系;其次,建立了电磁波束射入散射体后散射波在散射体表面的能量分布模型;最后,根据波束传输距离,量化散射信道的损耗,推导得到基于MIMO对流层散射信道的衰落系数和信道矩阵.将仿真计算结果与实际数据进行对比,验证了所提模型在链路损耗估计问题上的有效性和准确性,同时根据仿真结果对接收天线的仰角设计提出了建议.

  5. Robust adaptive beamforming for MIMO monopulse radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, William; Ström, Marie; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have recently proposed a widely separated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar using monopulse angle estimation techniques for target tracking. The widely separated antennas provide improved tracking performance by mitigating complex target radar cross-section fades and angle scintillation. An adaptive array is necessary in this paradigm because the direct path from any transmitter could act as a jammer at a receiver. When the target-free covariance matrix is not available, it is critical to include robustness into the adaptive beamformer weights. This work explores methods of robust adaptive monopulse beamforming techniques for MIMO tracking radar.

  6. Antenna Design for Diversity and MIMO Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Zhinong; Chiu, Chi-Yuk; Zhao, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology and diversity have attracted much attention both in industry and academia due to high data rate and high spectrum efficiency. By increasing the number of antennas at the transmitter and/or the receiver side of the wireless link, the diver......Recently, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology and diversity have attracted much attention both in industry and academia due to high data rate and high spectrum efficiency. By increasing the number of antennas at the transmitter and/or the receiver side of the wireless link...

  7. Galactic stellar haloes in the CDM model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Helly, J.; Benson, A. J.; De Lucia, G.; Helmi, A.; Jenkins, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Springel, V.; Wang, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present six simulations of galactic stellar haloes formed by the tidal disruption of accreted dwarf galaxies in a fully cosmological setting. Our model is based on the Aquarius project, a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of individual dark matter haloes. We tag subsets of particles in

  8. Beyond $\\Lambda$CDM: Problems, solutions, and the road ahead

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, Philip; Adamek, Julian; Baker, Tessa; Bellini, Emilio; Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Bentivegna, Eloisa; Camera, Stefano; Clesse, Sébastien; Davis, Jonathan H; Di Dio, Enea; Enander, Jonas; Finelli, Fabio; Heavens, Alan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Hu, Bin; Llinares, Claudio; Maartens, Roy; Mörtsell, Edvard; Nadathur, Seshadri; Noller, Johannes; Pasechnik, Roman; Pawlowski, Marcel S; Pereira, Thiago S; Quartin, Miguel; Ricciardone, Angelo; Riemer-Sørensen, Signe; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Sakstein, Jeremy; Saltas, Ippocratis D; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sawicki, Ignacy; Solomon, Adam R; Spolyar, Douglas; Starkman, Glenn D; Steer, Danièle; Tereno, Ismael; Verde, Licia; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; von Strauss, Mikael; Winther, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    Despite its continued observational successes, there is a persistent (and growing) interest in extending cosmology beyond the standard model, $\\Lambda$CDM. This is motivated by a range of apparently serious theoretical issues, involving such questions as the cosmological constant problem, the particle nature of dark matter, the validity of general relativity on large scales, the existence of anomalies in the CMB and on small scales, and the predictivity and testability of the inflationary paradigm. In this paper, we summarize the current status of $\\Lambda$CDM as a physical theory, and review investigations into possible alternatives along a number of different lines, with a particular focus on highlighting the most promising directions. While the fundamental problems are proving reluctant to yield, the study of alternative cosmologies has led to considerable progress, with much more to come if hopes about forthcoming high-precision observations and new theoretical ideas are fulfilled.

  9. Degeneracy between WDM and coupled CDM: A clarifying note

    CERN Document Server

    Velten, Hermano; Caramês, Thiago R P

    2015-01-01

    Wei et al [PRD 88, 043510 (2013)] have proposed the existence of a cosmological degeneracy between warm dark matter (WDM), modified gravity and coupled cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies at both the background expansion and the growth of density perturbation levels, i.e., corresponding cosmological data would not be able to differentiate such scenarios. Here, we will focus on the specific indistinguishability between a warm dark matter plus cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$) and coupled scalar field-CDM scenarios. Although the statement of Wei et al is true for very specific conditions we present a more complete discussion on this issue and show in more detail that these models are indeed distinguishable. We show that the degeneracy breaks down since coupled models leave a specific signature in the redshift space distortion data which is absent in the uncoupled warm dark matter cosmologies. Furthermore, we complement our claim by providing the reasons which suggest that even at nonlinear level a breaking of su...

  10. Which spectral distortions does $\\Lambda$CDM actually predict?

    CERN Document Server

    Chluba, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Ever refined cosmological measurements have established the $\\Lambda$CDM concordance model, with the key cosmological parameters being determined to percent-level precision today. This allows us to make explicit predictions for the spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) created by various processes occurring in the early Universe. Here, we summarize all guaranteed CMB distortions and assess their total uncertainty within $\\Lambda$CDM. We also compare simple methods for approximating them, highlighting some of the subtle aspects when it comes to interpreting future distortion measurements. Under simplified assumptions, we briefly study how well a PIXIE-like experiment may measure the main distortion parameters (i.e., $\\mu$ and $y$). Next generation CMB spectrometers are expected to detect the distortion caused by reionization and structure formation at extremely high significance. They will also be able to constrain the small-scale power spectrum through the associated $\\mu$-distortion, ...

  11. ΛCDM is Consistent with SPARC Radial Acceleration Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, B. W.; Wadsley, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent analysis of the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curve (SPARC) galaxy sample found a surprisingly tight relation between the radial acceleration inferred from the rotation curves and the acceleration due to the baryonic components of the disk. It has been suggested that this relation may be evidence for new physics, beyond ΛCDM. In this Letter, we show that 32 galaxies from the MUGS2 match the SPARC acceleration relation. These cosmological simulations of star-forming, rotationally supported disks were simulated with a WMAP3 ΛCDM cosmology, and match the SPARC acceleration relation with less scatter than the observational data. These results show that this acceleration relation is a consequence of dissipative collapse of baryons, rather than being evidence for exotic dark-sector physics or new dynamical laws.

  12. Implementation of re-configurable Digital front end module of MIMO-OFDM module using NCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena M.B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on FPGA implementation of Reconfigurable Digital Front end MIMO-OFDM module. The modeling of the MIMO-OFDM system was carried out in MATLAB followed by Verilog HDL implementation. Unlike the conventional OFDM based systems, the Numerically Controlled Oscillators (NCO is used for mapping modulated data onto the sub carriers. The use of NCO in the MIMO-OFDM system reduces the resource utilization of the design on FPGA along with reduced power consumption. The major modules that were designed, which constitute the digital front end module, are Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK modulator/demodulator, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM modulator/demodulator and NCOs. Each of the modules was tested for their functionality by developing corresponding test benches. In order to achieve real time reconfigurability of the proposed architecture, the proposed approach is realized on FPGAs optimizing area, power and speed. Reconfigurability of the proposed approach is dependent upon user requirement. Hence the proposed approach can support future generation communication technologies that are based on MIMO-OFDM.

  13. Multiuser Detection in MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communication System Using Hybrid Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathish Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, future generation wireless communication technologies are most the prominent fields in which many innovative techniques are used for effective communication. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing is one of the important technologies used for communication in future generation technologies. Although it gives efficient results, it has some problems during the implementation in real-time. MIMO and OFDM are integrated to have both their benefits. But, noise and interference are the major issues in the MIMO OFDM systems. To overcome these issues multiuser detection method is used in MIMO OFDM. Several algorithms and mathematical formulations have been presented for solving multiuser detection problem in MIMO OFDM systems. The algorithms such as genetic simulated annealing algorithm, hybrid ant colony optimization algorithm are used for multiuser detection problem in previous studies. But, due to the limitations of those optimization algorithms, the results obtained are not significant. In this research, to overcome the noise and interference problems, hybrid firefly optimization algorithm based on the evolutionary algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm is compared with the existing multiuser detection algorithm such as particle swarm optimization, CEFM-GADA [complementary error function mutation (CEFM and a differential algorithm (DA genetic algorithm (GA] and Hybrid firefly optimization algorithm based on evolutionary algorithm. The simulation results shows that performance of the proposed algorithm is better than the existing algorithm and it provides a satisfactory trade-off between computational complexity and detection performance

  14. Tachyonization of the $\\La$CDM cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, Luis P; Kremer, Gilberto M; Ribas, Marlos O

    2008-01-01

    In this work a tachyonization of the $\\Lambda$CDM model for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time is proposed. A tachyon field and a cosmological constant are considered as the sources of the gravitational field. Starting from a stability analysis and from the exact solutions for a standard tachyon field driven by a given potential, the search for a large set of cosmological models which contain the $\\Lambda$CDM model is investigated. By the use of internal transformations two new kinds of tachyon fields are derived from the standard tachyon field, namely, a complementary and a phantom tachyon fields. Numerical solutions for the three kinds of tachyon fields are determined and it is shown that the standard and complementary tachyon fields reproduces the $\\Lambda$CDM model as a limiting case. The standard tachyon field can also describe a transition from an accelerated to a decelerated regime, behaving as an inflaton field at early times and as a matter field at late times. The complementary t...

  15. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  16. WarmAndFuzzy: the halo model beyond CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, David J E

    2016-01-01

    Cold dark matter (CDM) is a well established paradigm to describe cosmological structure formation, and works extraordinarily well on large, linear, scales. Progressing further in dark matter physics requires being able to understand structure formation in the non-linear regime, both for CDM and its alternatives. This short note describes a calculation, and accompanying code, WarmAndFuzzy, incorporating the popular models of warm and fuzzy dark matter (WDM and FDM) into the standard halo model to compute the non-linear matter power spectrum. The FDM halo model power spectrum has not been computed before. The FDM implementation models ultralight axions and other scalar fields with $m_a\\approx 10^{-22}\\text{ eV}$. The WDM implementation models thermal WDM with mass $m_X\\approx 1\\text{ keV}$. The halo model shows that differences between WDM, FDM, and CDM survive at low redshifts in the quasi-linear and fully non-linear regimes. The code uses analytic transfer functions for the linear power spectrum, modified co...

  17. A Survey on Frequency Synchronization in MIMO Systems%无线通信MIMO中的频率同步

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓凯

    2012-01-01

    分别针对无线通信集中式多入多出(MIMO)和分布式MIMO系统,对频偏估计和频偏补偿这两个方面的基本原理和研究现状进行了详细分析,总结出已有研究的不足之处在于对分布式MIMO中的频偏估计以及分布式MIMO-OFDM(正交频分复用)中的频偏补偿的研究尚不完善,指出未来可能的研究方向应主要集中在分布式MIMO中基于一般系统模型的频偏估计方法和分布式MIMO-OFDM中具有实用价值的低复杂度频偏补偿方法两个方面.%The fundamentals and state of the art of the estimation and compensation of carrier frequency offset(CFOs) for multi-input multi-output(MIMO) systems with co-located antennas and distributed antennas were addressed respectively.By analyzing the disadvantages of the existing research,it is indicated that the study on the CFO estimation for distributed MIMO and the CFO compensation for distributed MIMO-OFDM(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) appear incomplete.So the further research interest may include the CFO estimation methods based on the general system model for distributed MIMO and the practical low-complexity CFO compensation methods for distributed MIMO-OFDM.

  18. Capacity Optimized CDMA-MIMO Antenna System for Spectral-Efficient Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalendu Bikas Sinha and Abhishek Mitra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of wireless data traffic there is an increasing emphasis on techniques that can enhance the spectral efficiency and utilization of scarce wireless bandwidth. The future generation (4G Wireless Networks aim at offering very high data rates and flexibility by supporting multiple users by adopting multicarrier (MC transmissions. Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO has emerged as a hot topic in wireless communications during the last decade. This is due to possible dramatic increase in reliability and capacity as compared to single-antenna solutions. In this study, an attempt has been made to increase the capacity of a CDMA-based MIMO system by exploiting the frequency selectivity of the channel. The proposed system turns a MIMO frequency selective channel to a set of parallel multiplexing sub-channels in space and time domain. Numerical results show that the proposed CDMA MIMO antenna systems further increase the number of subchannels by exploiting the frequency selectivity of the channel, which leads to a significant increase in both the average capacity and the outage capacity.

  19. Quantification of MDL-induced signal degradation in MIMO-OFDM mode-division multiplexing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Li, Juhao; Zhu, Paikun; Wu, Zhongying; Chen, Yuanxiang; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2016-08-22

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission over few-mode optical fiber has emerged as a promising technology to enhance transmission capacity, in which multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) after coherent detection is used to demultiplex the signals. Compared with conventional single-mode systems, MIMO-MDM systems suffer non-recoverable signal degradation induced by mode-dependent loss (MDL). In this paper, the MDL-induced signal degradation in orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) MDM systems is theoretically quantified in terms of mode-average error vector magnitude (EVM) through frequency domain norm analysis. A novel scalar MDL metric is proposed considering the probability distribution of the practical MDM input signals, and a closed-form expression for EVM measured after zero-force (ZF) MIMO equalization is derived. Simulation results show that the EVM estimations utilizing the novel MDL metric remain unbiased for unrepeated links. For a 6 × 100 km 20-mode MDM transmission system, the estimation accuracy is improved by more than 90% compared with that utilizing traditional condition number (CN) based MDL metric. The proposed MDL metric can be used to predict the MDL-induced SNR penalty in a theoretical manner, which will be beneficial for the design of practical MIMO-MDM systems.

  20. Iterative Sparse Channel Estimation and Decoding for Underwater MIMO-OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger ChristianR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a block-by-block iterative receiver for underwater MIMO-OFDM that couples channel estimation with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO detection and low-density parity-check (LDPC channel decoding. In particular, the channel estimator is based on a compressive sensing technique to exploit the channel sparsity, the MIMO detector consists of a hybrid use of successive interference cancellation and soft minimum mean-square error (MMSE equalization, and channel coding uses nonbinary LDPC codes. Various feedback strategies from the channel decoder to the channel estimator are studied, including full feedback of hard or soft symbol decisions, as well as their threshold-controlled versions. We study the receiver performance using numerical simulation and experimental data collected from the RACE08 and SPACE08 experiments. We find that iterative receiver processing including sparse channel estimation leads to impressive performance gains. These gains are more pronounced when the number of available pilots to estimate the channel is decreased, for example, when a fixed number of pilots is split between an increasing number of parallel data streams in MIMO transmission. For the various feedback strategies for iterative channel estimation, we observe that soft decision feedback slightly outperforms hard decision feedback.

  1. Multiuser MIMO Downlink Made Practical: Achievable Rates with Simple Channel State Estimation and Feedback Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Caire, Giuseppe; Kobayashi, Mari; Ravindran, Niranjay

    2007-01-01

    We consider a MIMO fading broadcast channel and compute achievable ergodic rates when channel state information is acquired at the receivers via downlink training and explicit channel feedback is performed to provide transmitter channel state information (CSIT). Both ``analog'' and quantized (digital) channel feedback are analyzed, and digital feedback is shown to be potentially superior when the feedback channel uses per channel coefficient is larger than 1. Also, we show that by proper design of the digital feedback link, errors in the feedback have a relatively minor effect even if simple uncoded modulation is used on the feedback channel. We extend our analysis to the case of fading MIMO Multiaccess Channel (MIMO-MAC) in the feedback link, as well as to the case of a time-varying channel and feedback delay. We show that by exploiting the MIMO-MAC nature of the uplink channel, a fully scalable system with both downlink multiplexing gain and feedback redundancy proportional to the number of base station ant...

  2. Impact of Feedback Channel on Measured MIMO Systems and Its Lower Bound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGDuo; WEIGuo; ZHUJinkang

    2005-01-01

    A lower bound of the rate in feedback channel from a receiver to a transmitter is presented for measured Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems based on the formulae of the open-loop and the closedloop MIMO capacity, under the assumptions of quasi-static block-fading MIMO channel, independent nondispersive fading between each transmit and receive antenna, sampling with the period equal to the reciprocal of the signal bandwidth at the receiver, and zero feedback delay. Through Monte Carlo simulations~ we numerically validate the existence of the lower bound and show numerical results of the bound for system design. Also, we conclude that, the Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) impacts little on the lower bound of the feedback rate for low antenna numbers, a closed-loop system with a feedback rate less than the lower bound is worse than a open-loop system, and the lower bound remains small with respect to the increase of antenna number for low SNRs. Finally, it is shown that the lower bound of the feedback rate and the conclusions are applicable to practical closed-loop MIMO systems.

  3. Distributed Compressive CSIT Estimation and Feedback for FDD Multi-User Massive MIMO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xiongbin; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2014-06-01

    To fully utilize the spatial multiplexing gains or array gains of massive MIMO, the channel state information must be obtained at the transmitter side (CSIT). However, conventional CSIT estimation approaches are not suitable for FDD massive MIMO systems because of the overwhelming training and feedback overhead. In this paper, we consider multi-user massive MIMO systems and deploy the compressive sensing (CS) technique to reduce the training as well as the feedback overhead in the CSIT estimation. The multi-user massive MIMO systems exhibits a hidden joint sparsity structure in the user channel matrices due to the shared local scatterers in the physical propagation environment. As such, instead of naively applying the conventional CS to the CSIT estimation, we propose a distributed compressive CSIT estimation scheme so that the compressed measurements are observed at the users locally, while the CSIT recovery is performed at the base station jointly. A joint orthogonal matching pursuit recovery algorithm is proposed to perform the CSIT recovery, with the capability of exploiting the hidden joint sparsity in the user channel matrices. We analyze the obtained CSIT quality in terms of the normalized mean absolute error, and through the closed-form expressions, we obtain simple insights into how the joint channel sparsity can be exploited to improve the CSIT recovery performance.

  4. BER performance analysis of OFDM-MIMO system using GNU Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh M.Ushamahesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO channels can be used to increase the data rate and the channel capacity by employing multiple transmitting and receiving antennas at both the ends of a wireless communication system. MIMO systems employ Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM technique and it uses separate antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to increase the data rate and with OFDM, instead of a single carrier, the main information is modulated into a number of independent sub-carrier signals which are orthogonal to each other. This paper presents an OFDM-MIMO transceiver design and the performance analysis of the system based on Error rate for different modulation techniques using GNU Radio. OFDM is chosen over a single carrier solution due to lower complexity of equalizers for high delay spread channels or high data rates. So the combination of MIMO-OFDM system has become a potential technology for high speed data transmission and efficient utilization of the channel spectrum for the modern wireless communication networks.

  5. A Perspective on the MIMO Wiretap Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Oggier, Frederique

    2015-10-01

    A wiretap channel is a communication channel between a transmitter Alice and a legitimate receiver Bob, in the presence of an eavesdropper Eve. The goal of communication is to achieve reliability between Alice and Bob, but also confidentiality despite Eve’s presence. Wiretap channels are declined in all kinds of flavors, depending on the underlying channels used by the three players: discrete memoryless channels, additive Gaussian noise channels, or fading channels, to name a few. In this survey, we focus on the case where the three players use multiple-antenna channels with Gaussian noise to communicate. After summarizing known results for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) channels, both in terms of achievable reliable data rate (capacity) and code design, we introduce the MIMO wiretap channel. We then state the MIMO wiretap capacity, summarize the idea of the proof(s) behind this result, and comment on the insights given by the proofs on the physical meaning of the secrecy capacity. We finally discuss design criteria for MIMO wiretap codes.

  6. Towards Very Large Aperture Massive MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveras Martínez, Àlex; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2014-01-01

    on the impact of the array aperture which is the main limiting factor in the degrees of freedom available in the multiple antenna channel. We find that performance is improved as the aperture increases, with an impact mostly visible in crowded scenarios where the users are closely spaced. We also test MIMO...

  7. Crystallized Rate Regions for MIMO Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbah Merouane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering the multiuser SISO interference channel, the allowable rate region is not convex and the maximization of the aggregated rate of all the users by the means of transmission power control becomes inefficient. Hence, a concept of the crystallized rate regions has been proposed, where the time-sharing approach is considered to maximize the sumrate.In this paper, we extend the concept of crystallized rate regions from the simple SISO interference channel case to the MIMO/OFDM interference channel. As a first step, we extend the time-sharing convex hull from the SISO to the MIMO channel case. We provide a non-cooperative game-theoretical approach to study the achievable rate regions, and consider the Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG mechanism design with a novel cost function. Within this analysis, we also investigate the case of OFDM channels, which can be treated as the special case of MIMO channels when the channel transfer matrices are diagonal. In the second step, we adopt the concept of correlated equilibrium into the case of two-user MIMO/OFDM, and we introduce a regret-matching learning algorithm for the system to converge to the equilibrium state. Moreover, we formulate the linear programming problem to find the aggregated rate of all users and solve it using the Simplex method. Finally, numerical results are provided to confirm our theoretical claims and show the improvement provided by this approach.

  8. A Design of Double Broadband MIMO Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The MIMO antenna applied to LTE mobile system should be miniaturization and can work in the current communication frequency band; isolation between each antenna unit also should be good so as to reduce loss of radio wave energy and improve the antenna performance of the MIMO system. This paper puts forward the design scheme of a broadband MIMO double antenna. And the design of antenna unit and debugging and related technical measures, such as bending antenna bracket, are both presented; the integration design of high isolation of ultra broadband MIMO antenna is realized on the plate with the volume of 100 × 52 × 0.8 mm3; antenna working bands are 698 MHz~960 MHz and 1710 MHz~2700 MHz; in the whole spectrum, the 10 dB of port isolation can be basically achieved; in low frequency band, the isolation degree of antenna port can reach 12 dB.

  9. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault iso...

  10. Orthogonal antenna architecture for MIMO handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a method for decorrelating the antenna elements of a MIMO system in a compact handheld terminal at low bands. The architecture of the antenna system induces orthogonal currents over the closely spaced antennas resulting in a correlation free system. Nevertheless, due to the small...

  11. Statistical Angular Resolution Limit for Ultrawideband MIMO Noise Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional angular resolution limit (ARL of elevation and azimuth for MIMO radar with ultrawideband (UWB noise waveforms is investigated using statistical resolution theory. First, the signal model of monostatic UWB MIMO noise radar is established in a 3D reference frame. Then, the statistical angular resolution limits (SARLs of two closely spaced targets are derived using the detection-theoretic and estimation-theoretic approaches, respectively. The detection-theoretic approach is based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT with given probabilities of false alarm and detection, while the estimation-theoretic approach is based on Smith’s criterion which involves the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB. Furthermore, the relationship between the two approaches is presented, and the factors affecting the SARL, that is, detection parameters, transmit waveforms, array geometry, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and parameters of target (i.e., radar cross section (RCS and direction, are analyzed. Compared with the conventional radar resolution theory defined by the ambiguity function, the SARL reflects the practical resolution ability of radar and can provide an optimization criterion for radar system design.

  12. Feedback Reduction in Uplink MIMO OFDM Systems by Chunk Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arogyaswami Paulraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of multiuser MIMO systems can be significantly increased by channel-aware scheduling and signal processing at the transmitters based on channel state information. In the multipleantenna uplink multicarrier scenario, the base station decides centrally on the optimal signal processing and spectral power allocation as well as scheduling. An interesting challenge is the reduction of the overhead in order to inform the mobiles about their transmit strategies. In this work, we propose to reduce the feedback by chunk processing and quantization. We maximize the weighted sum rate of a MIMO OFDM MAC under individual power constraints and chunk size constraints. An efficient iterative algorithm is developed and convergence is proved. The feedback overhead as a function of the chunk size is considered in the rate computation and the optimal chunk size is determined by numerical simulations for various channel models. Finally, the issues of finite modulation and coding schemes as well as quantization of the precoding matrices are addressed.

  13. Soil carbon sequestration and the CDM. Opportunities and challenges for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringius, Lasse

    1999-12-17

    The agriculture sector dominates the economies of most sub-Saharan countries, contributing about one-third of the region's GDP, accounting for forty percent of the export, and employing about two-thirds of the economically active population. Moreover, some soils in sub-Saharan Africa could, by providing sinks for carbon sequestration, play an important role in managing global climate change. Improvements in agricultural techniques and land use practices could lead to higher agricultural productivity and accumulate soil carbon. Hence, soil carbon sequestration could produce local economic income as well as social and other benefits in Africa. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol is designed to give developed countries with high domestic abatement cost access to low-cost greenhouse gas abatement projects in developing countries, and to benefit developing countries selling projects to investors in developed countries. It is presently unclear whether the CDM will provide credit for sink enhancement and permit broader sink activities. Unfortunately, few cost estimates of soil carbon sequestration strategies presently exist. While these costs are uncertain and all input costs have not been estimated, manure-based projects in small-holdings in Kenya could increase maize yield significantly and sequester one ton of soil carbon for a net cost of -US$806. Clearly, such projects would be very attractive economically. There is presently an urgent need to launch useful long-term (>10 years) field experiments and demonstration projects in Africa. Existing data are not readily comparable, it is uncertain how large amount of carbon could be sequestered, findings are site-specific, and it is unclear how well the sites represent wider areas. To develop CDM projects, it is important that experimental trials generate reliable and comparable data. Finally, it will be important to estimate local environmental effects and economic benefits

  14. MIMO channel capacity using antenna selection and water pouring

    OpenAIRE

    Cuan Cortes, Jose V.; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Munoz Rodriguez, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The use of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems has attracted considerable attention due to capacity and performance improvements without increasing the required bandwidth or transmission power. Although MIMO improves the transmission rate and provides reliable communication, these advantages come at a high cost, since multiple radio frequency (RF) chains have to be employed. Therefore, cost-effective implementation of MIMO systems remains as an important chall...

  15. Joint Linear Transceiver Design for MIMO Relay Systems Based on Channel Estimation Errors%MIMO中继系统中基于失真信道的联合收发机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱栋军; 张静; 顾夏珺

    2013-01-01

    In MIMO relay system, the scheme of designing the joint linear transmitters and the receiver considering the joint source, relay and destination based on perfect channel state information ( CSI) is derived. Based on this, the paper considering the channel estimate errors modeled as Gaussian random variables and under power constraint at both the source and the relay node, the transmitters and receiver could be realized through a joint iterative algorithm. Compared with the existing methods, the results show that the proposed scheme could effectively improve the BER performance and reduce the minimum mean square error of the system.%在MIMO中继系统中,基于完全信道状态信息的基站、中继节点和终端联合收发机设计方案能够改善系统的误比特率性能,在放大转发(AF)中继的基础上提出了一种基于不完全信道状态信息的联合收发机设计方案.新方案在基站和中继节点的功率都受限条件下,将信道估计误差建模为高斯随机变量,以最小均方误差(MMSE)为准则,采用迭代算法,得到了基站预编码矩阵、中继转发矩阵和终端解码矩阵.该方案与不考虑信道估计误差的方案相比,能够有效地改善系统的均方误差和误比特率性能.

  16. Modified Uniform Triangular Array for Online Full Azimuthal Coverage via JADE-MUSIC Algorithm over MIMO-CDMA Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ghnimi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a Modified Uniform Triangular Array (MUTA to support online space-time MIMO-CDMA location based services with full azimuthal coverage via JADE-MUSIC algorithm. A new space-time lifting preprocessing (STLP scheme is introduced as a decorrelating process of coherent signals through the dense/NLOS multipath MIMO channel before applying the JADE-MUSIC estimator. Uniform- H-Array (UHA and Uniform-X-Array (UXA geometries are established for performance comparisons with the proposed MUTA. Computer simulations under environment Matlab are described to illustrate the performance of online joint angle/delay estimation with MUTA-MIMO base station applying JADE-MUSIC in conjunction with STLP scheme in 360 degrees azimuth region.

  17. Bayes-Optimal Joint Channel-and-Data Estimation for Massive MIMO With Low-Precision ADCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chao-Kai; Wang, Chang-Jen; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Ting, Pangan

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) receiver with very low-precision analog-to-digital convertors (ADCs) with the goal of developing massive MIMO antenna systems that require minimal cost and power. Previous studies demonstrated that the training duration should be {\\em relatively long} to obtain acceptable channel state information. To address this requirement, we adopt a joint channel-and-data (JCD) estimation method based on Bayes-optimal inference. This method yields minimal mean square errors with respect to the channels and payload data. We develop a Bayes-optimal JCD estimator using a recent technique based on approximate message passing. We then present an analytical framework to study the theoretical performance of the estimator in the large-system limit. Simulation results confirm our analytical results, which allow the efficient evaluation of the performance of quantized massive MIMO systems and provide insights into effective system design.

  18. Information-theoretic analysis of MIMO channel sounding

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, Daniel S

    2007-01-01

    The large majority of commercially available multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radio channel measurement devices (sounders) is based on time-division multiplexed switching (TDMS) of a single transmit/receive radio-frequency chain into the elements of a transmit/receive antenna array. While being cost-effective, such a solution can cause significant measurement errors due to phase noise and frequency offset in the local oscillators. In this paper, we systematically analyze the resulting errors and show that, in practice, overestimation of channel capacity by several hundred percent can occur. Overestimation is caused by phase noise (and to a lesser extent frequency offset) leading to an increase of the MIMO channel rank. Our analysis furthermore reveals that the impact of phase errors is, in general, most pronounced if the physical channel has low rank (typical for line-of-sight or poor scattering scenarios). The extreme case of a rank-1 physical channel is analyzed in detail. Finally, we present measureme...

  19. Efficient Coordinated Recovery of Sparse Channels in Massive MIMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mudassir; Afify, Laila H.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating sparse channels in massive MIMO-OFDM systems. Most wireless channels are sparse in nature with large delay spread. In addition, these channels as observed by multiple antennas in a neighborhood have approximately common support. The sparsity and common support properties are attractive when it comes to the efficient estimation of large number of channels in massive MIMO systems. Moreover, to avoid pilot contamination and to achieve better spectral efficiency, it is important to use a small number of pilots. We present a novel channel estimation approach which utilizes the sparsity and common support properties to estimate sparse channels and require a small number of pilots. Two algorithms based on this approach have been developed which perform Bayesian estimates of sparse channels even when the prior is non-Gaussian or unknown. Neighboring antennas share among each other their beliefs about the locations of active channel taps to perform estimation. The coordinated approach improves channel estimates and also reduces the required number of pilots. Further improvement is achieved by the data-aided version of the algorithm. Extensive simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  20. Efficient coordinated recovery of sparse channels in massive MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Masood, Mudassir

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating sparse channels in massive MIMO-OFDM systems. Most wireless channels are sparse in nature with large delay spread. In addition, these channels as observed by multiple antennas in a neighborhood have approximately common support. The sparsity and common support properties are attractive when it comes to the efficient estimation of large number of channels in massive MIMO systems. Moreover, to avoid pilot contamination and to achieve better spectral efficiency, it is important to use a small number of pilots. We present a novel channel estimation approach which utilizes the sparsity and common support properties to estimate sparse channels and requires a small number of pilots. Two algorithms based on this approach have been developed that perform Bayesian estimates of sparse channels even when the prior is non-Gaussian or unknown. Neighboring antennas share among each other their beliefs about the locations of active channel taps to perform estimation. The coordinated approach improves channel estimates and also reduces the required number of pilots. Further improvement is achieved by the data-aided version of the algorithm. Extensive simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  1. MIMO-OFDM signal optimization for SAR imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudais, J.-Y.; Méric, S.; Riché, V.; Pottier, É.

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of the coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitted signal in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) context. We propose to design OFDM signals to achieve range ambiguity mitigation. Indeed, range ambiguities are well known to be a limitation for SAR systems which operates with pulsed transmitted signal. The ambiguous reflected signal corresponding to one pulse is then detected when the radar has already transmitted the next pulse. In this paper, we demonstrate that the range ambiguity mitigation is possible by using orthogonal transmitted wave as OFDM pulses. The coded OFDM signal is optimized through genetic optimization procedures based on radar image quality parameters. Moreover, we propose to design a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) configuration to enhance the noise robustness of a radar system and this configuration is mainly efficient in the case of using orthogonal waves as OFDM pulses. The results we obtain show that OFDM signals outperform conventional radar chirps for range ambiguity suppression and for robustness enhancement in 2 ×2 MIMO configuration.

  2. Downlink SINR Distribution of Linearly Precoded Multiuser MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zihuai; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    2007-01-01

    This paper derives mathematical expressions for the SINR distribution in systems with linearly precoded multiuser MIMO and frequency domain packet scheduling. The packet scheduler is able to exploit the available multiuser diversity in both time, frequency and spatial domains. Our analysis model...... is confined to 3GPP downlink transmission in which we specifically investigate the Single User (SU) and Multi-user (MU) Spatial Divsion Multiplexing (SDM) MIMO schemes. From the analytical results we find that the outage probability for systems using the SU-MIMO scheme is larger than the one for the MU......-MIMO scheme. Also, in comparison to systems without precoding, linear precoding can improve the outage probability....

  3. Deployment and Implementation Strategies for Massive MIMO in 5G

    OpenAIRE

    Panzner, Berthold; Zirwas, Wolfgang; Dierks, Stefan; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben; Pajukoski, Kari; Miao, Deshan

    2015-01-01

    Massive MIMO has emerged as one technology enabler for the next generation mobile communications 5G. The gains promised by massive MIMO are augured to overcome the capacity crunch in today's mobile networks and to pave the way for the ambitious targets of 5G. The challenge to realize massive MIMO for 5G is a successful and cost-efficient integration in the overall network concept. This work highlights deployment and implementation strategies for massive MIMO in the context of 5G indoor small ...

  4. User Effects on MIMO Performance: From an Antenna to a Link Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirook M. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate in this paper the effects of the user's presence on the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO system in data and in voice usage scenarios. The investigation studies the user effects on the antenna performance and how these are incorporated into the MIMO channel and the link characteristics. The antennas and the user are deterministic. These are then integrated into the statistical 3GPP spatial channel model (SCM for a typical macrocell propagation environment setting. The channel performance is analyzed based on the average channel capacity, the average power transfer, the correlation, and the cumulative distribution function of the channel capacity as well as the link throughout and the error performance. The mentioned channel and link properties are tied to the MIMO antenna properties that are represented in the mutual coupling between the antennas, the power loss, the total radiated power, the mean effective gain (MEG, as well as the efficiency with emphasis on how the user affects each. It was found that the presence of the user contributed to a loss of up to 50% in the average channel power transfer. The data position was found to be the lowest in terms of channel capacity performance. The voice position performance showed a large dependence on the user orientation with respect to the line of sight path while the data position showed less dependence on the user's orientation. We also discuss through the examined antenna and channel properties the importance of the channel multipath on the MIMO performance. In some scenarios, it was found that a well-conditioned channel can compensate for losses due to the presence of the user, improving the overall system performance. The presented investigation at the link level also discusses the user effects in different MIMO transmission schemes.

  5. Property analysis of a HAPS communication scheme based on MIMO for signal' s cooperative reception%HAPS通信中基于MIMO的信号协作接收方案性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍辰杰; 陈树新; 张衡阳

    2012-01-01

    分析了在HAPS中应用协作通信的需求。研究了HAPS通信信道在不同仰角区域的特性,在此基础上提出一种HAPS通信中基于MIMO的信号协作接收方案,并在不同仰角区域中对该协作接收方案进行性能仿真.仿真结果表明,在中、低仰角区域内使用该协作接收方案能够获得较大的组合分集增益,但是。对于高仰角区域此协作通信方案的性能改善不明显.最后,就上述2种现象产生的原因进行了分析。%First the demand of applying cooperative communication via HAPS is analyzed. Then the character of HAPS communication channel in different elevation angles is studied. This paper presents a HAPS communication scheme based on MIMO for signal's cooperative reception on the basis of two works mentioned above. And a property simulation towards the cooperative reception scheme in different elevation angles is made. The simulation results shows the following:The cooperative reception scheme can obtain a relatively large combining diversity gain in middle& low-elevation angle area. However, there is little property improvement in high-elevation angle by using this scheme. Finally, the reason why different results occur in different elevation angles is analyzed.

  6. MIMO-OFDM信道估计新方法%New Method for MIMO-OFDM Channel Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世杰; 刘毓

    2011-01-01

    A new method to estimate the channel of multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system with wavelet denoising is proposed based on wavelet transform to improve the performance of cannel estimation The channel estimation is performed by least square method, and then the estimated result is processed with wavelet denoising.The method need not know any statistical characteristic of channel in advance.The performance of the estimation is improved more obviously, compared with linear interpolation or DFT interpolation.The conclusion is proved by computer simulation.%利用小波变换思想,提出一种基于小波去噪的多输入多输出正交频分复用(MIMO-OFDM)系统信道估计方法,以提高信道估计性能.该方法首先利用最小二乘(LS)方法进行信道估计,然后对估计后的结果进行小波去噪处理.该方法不需要预先知道信道的统计特性,与传统最小二乘信道估计方法相比,性能有明显提高.

  7. Linking renewable energy CDM projects and TGC schemes: An analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Department of Economics and Business, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/ Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n., Toledo-45071 (Spain)]. E-mail: pablo.rio@uclm.es

    2006-11-15

    Renewable energy CDM (RE-CDM) projects encourage cost-effective GHG mitigation and enhanced sustainable development opportunities for the host countries. CERs from CDM projects include the value of the former benefits (i.e., 'climate change benefits'), whereas the second can be given value through the issuing and trading of tradable green certificates (TGCs). Countries could agree to trade these TGCs, leading to additional revenues for the investors in renewable energy projects and, therefore, further encouraging the deployment of CDM projects, currently facing significant barriers. However, the design of a combination of CDM projects and TGC schemes raises several conflicting issues and leads to trade-offs. This paper analyses these issues, identifies the alternatives that may exist to link TGC schemes with RE-CDM projects and analyses the impacts of those options on different variables and actors.

  8. Legal system research on clean development mechanism(CDM)in China%中国清洁发展机制法律制度探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨越

    2011-01-01

    According to the aim, establishing requirements and procedures, supervisory system of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Kyoto Protocol, this paper showed the tremendous environmental, social and economic profits China has made in running CDM. It also pointed out its problems in the aspects of project scale, potential project recognition, additional bank certification, CER legal right definition, project issue, etc. Referring to CDM's development tendency of the international world, this paper predicted that CDM, in a long term in future, will be an effective system against the global greenhouse gases discharge, and the tenets of CDM will be renewed and the detailed implementing institution of the CDM project will be perfected. In this paper, some suggestions on the legal institutions construction concerning China's CDM: a basic law of energy should be enacted urgently to offer legal bases for the measures including CDM against climatic changes; in legislation, the principle of the energy's sustained development should be established to specify CDM projects' proper standard, cancel the traditional unitary ownership pattern, explicit the CER legal authority and ownership and perfect the CDM projects' supervisory system to lower the danger the CDM projects have to face when pursuing economic profits, reinforce the CDM's profession norms and increase the CER issuing rate.%根据《京都议定书》关于清洁发展机制(Clean Development Mechanism,CDM)的目标、设立条件、步骤和监管制度的规定,指出了中国在实施清洁发展机制中所获得的环境、社会和经济方面的巨大利益,同时,也分析了目前中国实施清洁发展机制在项目发展规模、潜在项目识别、额外行证明、CER法律权属界定、项目签发等方面存在的问题.文章结合国际社会清洁发展制度的趋势走向,预测在今后相当长的时期内清洁发展机制仍将作为全球温室气体减排的有效制度而存在,并

  9. Investigation of Doppler Effects on high mobility OFDM-MIMO systems with the support of High Altitude Platforms (HAPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H. A.; Sibley, M. J. N.; Mather, P. J.

    2012-05-01

    The merging of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is a promising mobile air interface solution for next generation wireless local area networks (WLANs) and 4G mobile cellular wireless systems. This paper details the design of a highly robust and efficient OFDM-MIMO system to support permanent accessibility and higher data rates to users moving at high speeds, such as users travelling on trains. It has high relevance for next generation wireless local area networks (WLANs) and 4G mobile cellular wireless systems. The paper begins with a comprehensive literature review focused on both technologies. This is followed by the modelling of the OFDM-MIMO physical layer based on Simulink/Matlab that takes into consideration high vehicular mobility. Then the entire system is simulated and analysed under different encoding and channel estimation algorithms. The use of High Altitude Platform system (HAPs) technology is considered and analysed.

  10. VLSI Implementation of a Fixed-Complexity Soft-Output MIMO Detector for High-Speed Wireless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-complexity MIMO symbol detector with close-Maximum a posteriori performance for the emerging multiantenna enhanced high-speed wireless communications. The VLSI implementation is based on a novel MIMO detection algorithm called Modified Fixed-Complexity Soft-Output (MFCSO detection, which achieves a good trade-off between performance and implementation cost compared to the referenced prior art. By including a microcode-controlled channel preprocessing unit and a pipelined detection unit, it is flexible enough to cover several different standards and transmission schemes. The flexibility allows adaptive detection to minimize power consumption without degradation in throughput. The VLSI implementation of the detector is presented to show that real-time MIMO symbol detection of 20 MHz bandwidth 3GPP LTE and 10 MHz WiMAX downlink physical channel is achievable at reasonable silicon cost.

  11. Massive-MIMO Sparse Uplink Channel Estimation Using Implicit Training and Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Mansoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive multiple-input multiple-output (massive-MIMO is foreseen as a potential technology for future 5G cellular communication networks due to its substantial benefits in terms of increased spectral and energy efficiency. These advantages of massive-MIMO are a consequence of equipping the base station (BS with quite a large number of antenna elements, thus resulting in an aggressive spatial multiplexing. In order to effectively reap the benefits of massive-MIMO, an adequate estimate of the channel impulse response (CIR between each transmit–receive link is of utmost importance. It has been established in the literature that certain specific multipath propagation environments lead to a sparse structured CIR in spatial and/or delay domains. In this paper, implicit training and compressed sensing based CIR estimation techniques are proposed for the case of massive-MIMO sparse uplink channels. In the proposed superimposed training (SiT based techniques, a periodic and low power training sequence is superimposed (arithmetically added over the information sequence, thus avoiding any dedicated time/frequency slots for the training sequence. For the estimation of such massive-MIMO sparse uplink channels, two greedy pursuits based compressed sensing approaches are proposed, viz: SiT based stage-wise orthogonal matching pursuit (SiT-StOMP and gradient pursuit (SiT-GP. In order to demonstrate the validity of proposed techniques, a performance comparison in terms of normalized mean square error (NCMSE and bit error rate (BER is performed with a notable SiT based least squares (SiT-LS channel estimation technique. The effect of channels’ sparsity, training-to-information power ratio (TIR and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on BER and NCMSE performance of proposed schemes is thoroughly studied. For a simulation scenario of: 4 × 64 massive-MIMO with a channel sparsity level of 80 % and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 10 dB , a performance gain of 18 dB and 13 d

  12. High redshift evolution of optically and IR-selected galaxies a comparison with CDM scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, A; D'Odorico, S; Giallongo, E; Poli, F; Cristiani, S; Moorwood, A F M; Saracco, P

    1999-01-01

    A combination of ground-based (NTT and VLT) and HST (HDF-N and HDF-S) public imaging surveys have been used to collect a sample of 1712 I-selected and 319 $K\\leq 21$ galaxies. Photometric redshifts have been obtained for all these galaxies. The results have been compared with the prediction of an analytic rendition of the current CDM hierarchical models for galaxy formation. We focus in particular on two observed quantities: the galaxy redshift distribution at K2. This result strongly supports hierarchical scenarios where present-day massive galaxies are the result of merging processes. The observed UV luminosity density in the I-selected sample is confined within a factor of 4 over the whole range 03. CDM models in $\\Lambda$-dominated universe are in better agreement at 3

  13. Distributed MIMO Systems with Oblivious Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Simeone, Osvaldo; Poor, H Vincent; Shamai, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    A scenario in which a single source communicates with a single destination via a distributed MIMO transceiver is considered. The source operates each of the transmit antennas via finite-capacity links, and likewise the destination is connected to the receiving antennas through capacity-constrained channels. Targeting a nomadic communication scenario, in which the distributed MIMO transceiver is designed to serve different standards or services, transmitters and receivers are assumed to be oblivious to the encoding functions shared by source and destination. Adopting a Gaussian symmetric interference network as the channel model (as for regularly placed transmitters and receivers), achievable rates are investigated and compared with an upper bound. It is concluded that in certain asymptotic and non-asymptotic regimes obliviousness of transmitters and receivers does not cause any loss of optimality.

  14. Hybrid Transmission Scheme for MIMO Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the achievable rate for the MIMO channels, we propose a hybrid transmission (HT scheme that mixes half-duplex decode-and-forward cooperative relaying transmission (DFRH)with direct transmission (DT. In the HT scheme, the source message is divided into two parts: one is transmitted by DFRH scheme and another is transmitted by DT scheme. Precoding and decoding are considered to convert the original MIMO relay channel into several parallel subchannels so that resource allocation can be easily performed. We focus on the spatial subchannel and power allocation problem. The objective of this problem is to maximize the total achievable rate under the constraints of joint total transmission power. Simulation results show that significant capacity gain can be achieved by the HT scheme compared to the DT scheme and the pure DFRH scheme.

  15. Rateless Coding for MIMO Block Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yijia; Erkip, Elza; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the performance limits and design principles of rateless codes over fading channels are studied. The diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is used to analyze the system performance for all possible transmission rates. It is revealed from the analysis that the design of such rateless codes follows the design principle of approximately universal codes for parallel multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, in which each sub-channel is a MIMO channel. More specifically, it is shown that for a single-input single-output (SISO) channel, the previously developed permutation codes of unit length for parallel channels having rate LR can be transformed directly into rateless codes of length L having multiple rate levels (R, 2R, . . ., LR), to achieve the DMT performance limit.

  16. Comparison of Training, Blind and Semi Blind Equalizers in MIMO Fading Systems Using Capacity as Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha, Veeraruna; Sharma, Vinod

    2005-01-01

    Semi blind/blind equalizers are believed to work unsatisfactorily in fading MIMO channels compared to training based methods, due to slow convergence or high computational complexity. We revisit this issue. Defining a 'composite' channel for each equalizer, we compare the three algorithms based on the capacity of this channel. We show that, in a Rician (with line of sight, LOS) environment, semi blind/blind algorithms outperform training equalizers, but in Rayleigh channels, it is better to u...

  17. Scalable System Design for Covert MIMO Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Vehicles US United States VHDL VHSIC Hardware Description Language VLSI Very Large Scale Integration WARP Wireless open-Access Research Platform WLAN...considering the lessons learned in Chapter III a MIMO receiver is developed in VHSIC Hardware Description Language ( VHDL ). Resource utilization is...On the FPGA itself is a blank slate of logic blocks and VHDL or Verilog is used to program these logic blocks to do a specific task. This is opposed to

  18. 5G multimedia massive MIMO communications systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xiaohu; Wang, Haichao; Zi, Ran; Li, Qiang; Ni, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems, a majority of the traffic demands are contributed by various multimedia applications. To support the future 5G multimedia communication systems, the massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique is recognized as a key enabler because of its high spectral efficiency. The massive antennas and radio frequency chains not only improve the implementation cost of 5G wireless communication systems but also result in an intense mut...

  19. Small Terminal MIMO Channels with User Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of results obtained from measurements of different types of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. For the indoor case measurements were made at 5.8 GHz from access points (APs) to mobile stations (MSs) at different places in a large open office type room. Th...... an investigation of the potentials for communication between cars approaching as well as in convoy and from inside and outside the car....

  20. The $\\Lambda$CDM simulations of Keller and Wadsley do not account for the MOND mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2016-01-01

    Keller and Wadsley (2016) have smugly suggested, recently, that the end of MOND may be in view. This is based on their claim that their highly-restricted sample of $\\Lambda$CDM-simulated galaxies are "consistent" with the observed MOND mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR), in particular, with its recent update by McGaugh et al. (2016), based on the SPARC sample. From this they extrapolate to "$\\Lambda$CDM is fully consistent" with the MDAR. I explain why these simulated galaxies do not show that $\\Lambda$CDM accounts for the MDAR. a. Their sample of simulated galaxies contains only 18 high-mass galaxies, within a narrow range of one order of magnitude in baryonic mass, at the very high end of the observed, SPARC sample, which spans 4.5 orders of magnitude in mass. More importantly, the simulated sample has none of the low-mass, low-acceleration galaxies -- abundant in SPARC -- which encapsulate the crux and the nontrivial aspects of the predicted and observed MDAR. The low-acceleration part of the si...

  1. Double Ring Antenna Design for MIMO Application in Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Shuai; Ying, Zhinong;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, We present a MIMO bezel antenna design composed by a seamless double metal ring structure. The MIMO antenna mainly operates in the loop mode and can cover the majority of globe cellular bands. Good efficiencies (>-4dB) and a low envelope correlation coefficient (<0.5) are achieved,...

  2. Design and Verification of MIMO 2x2 Reference Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szini, Istvan Janos; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Estrada, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The development and initial discussion of a reference MIMO 2×2 antenna concept has been presented in [1]. The reference antenna concept has been created to eliminate the uncertainties linked to the unknown antenna performance of the few LTE MIMO 2×2 reference devices or golden standards currently...

  3. MIMO Intensity-Modulation Channels: Capacity Bounds and High SNR Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-10-01

    The capacity of MIMO intensity modulation channels is studied. The nonnegativity of the transmit signal (intensity) poses a challenge on the precoding of the transmit signal, which limits the applicability of classical schemes in this type of channels. To resolve this issue, capacity lower bounds are developed by using precoding-free schemes. This is achieved by channel inversion or QR decomposition to convert the MIMO channel to a set of parallel channels. The achievable rate of a DC-offset SVD based scheme is also derived as a benchmark. Then, a capacity upper bound is derived and is shown to coincide with the achievable rate of the QR decomposition based scheme at high SNR, consequently characterizing the high-SNR capacity of the channel. The high-SNR gap between capacity and the achievable rates of the channel inversion and the DC-offset SVD based schemes is also characterized. Finally, the ergodic capacity of the channel is also briefly discussed.

  4. LINEAR-DISPERSION DIVISION MULTIPLE-ACCESS FOR MIMO SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Dan; Lv Xingzai; Zhu Jinkang

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive study on novel Linear-Dispersion Division Multiple-Access (LDDMA) for multi-user uplink Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems is proposed. In the new multi- plexing scheme, each user's information symbol is dispersed by a User-Specific Matrix (USM) both in space and time domain and linearly combined at base-station side. And a simple random search al- gorithm, based on capacity maximization criteria, is developed to generate a bank of USMs. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of LDDMA. When the Bit Error Rate (BER) reaches 10, the performance gains are 3dB and 5dB, compared with Time-Division Linear Dispersion Codes (TD-LDC) and BLAST, respectively.

  5. Selective transmission and channel estimation in massive MIMO systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨睿哲

    2016-01-01

    Massive MIMO systems have got extraordinary spectral efficiency using a large number of base station antennas, but it is in the challenge of pilot contamination using the aligned pilots.To address this issue, a selective transmission is proposed using time-shifted pilots with cell grouping, where the strong interfering users in downlink transmission cells are temporally stopped during the pilots transmission in uplink cells.Based on the spatial characteristics of physical channel models, the strong interfering users are selected to minimize the inter-cell interference and the cell grouping is designed to have less temporally stopped users within a smaller area.Furthermore, a Kalman estima-tor is proposed to reduce the unexpected effect of residual interferences in channel estimation, which exploits both the spatial-time correlation of channels and the share of the interference information. The numerical results show that our scheme significantly improves the channel estimation accuracy and the data rates.

  6. Upper Capacity Bounds of MIMO Wireless Systems Through Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Mahey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the upper capacity bounds of MIMO systems with correlation and antenna selection techniques in general fading environments. With Antenna Selection techniques, the increased hardware complexity due to multiple antennas and large number of RF chains can be reduced to a substantial amount, retaining the diversity benefits of MIMO systems. The channel Correlation also affects the capacity of MIMO fading channels. Hence, to evaluate the upper bounds of capacity through fading channels, performance of MIMO systems is exemplified under Nakagami-m and Rayleigh fading channels while considering that the channel characteristics are known at a transmitter. The obtained results give an assessment to the better understanding to the effect of antenna selection and correlation on the capacity of MIMO channels, and how they can be used in different fading environments.

  7. Precoding Design for Single-RF Massive MIMO Systems: A Large System Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-08-26

    This work revisits a recently proposed precoding design for massive multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) systems that is based on the use of an instantaneous total power constraint. The main advantages of this technique lie in its suitability to the recently proposed single radio frequency (RF) MIMO transmitter coupled with a very-high power efficiency. Such features have been proven using simulations for uncorrelated channels. Based on tools from random matrix theory, we propose in this work to analyze the performance of this precoder for more involved channels accounting for spatial correlation. The obtained expressions are then optimized in order to maximize the signalto- interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the performance of the optimized precoder in terms of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Compressive inverse scattering: I. High-frequency SIMO/MISO and MIMO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannjiang, Albert C.

    2010-03-01

    Inverse scattering from discrete targets with the single-input-multiple-output (SIMO), multiple-input-single-output (MISO) or multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) measurements is analyzed by compressed sensing theory with and without the Born approximation. High-frequency analysis of (probabilistic) recoverability by the L1-based minimization/regularization principles is presented. In the absence of noise, it is shown that the L1-based solution can recover exactly the target of sparsity up to the dimension of the data either with the MIMO measurement for the Born scattering or with the SIMO/MISO measurement for the exact scattering. The stability with respect to noisy data is proved for weak or widely separated scatterers. Reciprocity between the SIMO and MISO measurements is analyzed. Finally a coherence bound (and the resulting recoverability) is proved for diffraction tomography with high-frequency, few-view and limited-angle SIMO/MISO measurements.

  9. Weighted-Sum-Rate-Maximizing Linear Transceiver Filters for the K-User MIMO Interference Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Joonwoo

    2012-01-01

    This letter is concerned with transmit and receive filter optimization for the K-user MIMO interference channel. Specifically, linear transmit and receive filter sets are designed which maximize the weighted sum rate while allowing each transmitter to utilize only the local channel state information. Our approach is based on extending the existing method of minimizing the weighted mean squared error (MSE) for the MIMO broadcast channel to the K-user interference channel at hand. For the case of the individual transmitter power constraint, however, a straightforward generalization of the existing method does not reveal a viable solution. It is in fact shown that there exists no closed-form solution for the transmit filter but simple one-dimensional parameter search yields the desired solution. Compared to the direct filter optimization using gradient-based search, our solution requires considerably less computational complexity and a smaller amount of feedback resources while achieving essentially the same lev...

  10. A Low-Complexity Transceiver Design in Sparse Multipath Massive MIMO Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuehua; Wang, Peng; Chen, He; Li, Yonghui; Vucetic, Branka

    2016-10-01

    In this letter, we develop a low-complexity transceiver design, referred to as semi-random beam pairing (SRBP), for sparse multipath massive MIMO channels. By exploring a sparse representation of the MIMO channel in the virtual angular domain, we generate a set of transmit-receive beam pairs in a semi-random way to support the simultaneous transmission of multiple data streams. These data streams can be easily separated at the receiver via a successive interference cancelation (SIC) technique, and the power allocation among them are optimized based on the classical waterfilling principle. The achieved degree of freedom (DoF) and capacity of the proposed approach are analyzed. Simulation results show that, compared to the conventional singular value decomposition (SVD)-based method, the proposed transceiver design can achieve near-optimal DoF and capacity with a significantly lower computational complexity.

  11. Spatial MAC in MIMO Communications and its Application to Underlay Cognitive Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Noam, Yair

    2012-01-01

    We propose a learning technique for MIMO secondary users (SU) to spatially coexist with Primary Users (PU). By learning the null space of the interference channel to the PU, the SU can utilize idle degrees of freedom that otherwise would be unused by the PU. This learning process does not require any handshake or explicit information exchange between the PU and the SU. The only requirement is that the PU broadcasts a periodic beacon that is a function of its noise plus interference power, through a low rate control channel. The learning process is based on energy measurements, independent of the transmission schemes of both the PU and SU, i.e. independent of their modulation, coding etc.. The proposed learning technique also provides a novel spatial division multiple access mechanism for equal-priority MIMO users sharing a common channel that highly increases the spectrum utilization compared to time based or frequency multiple access.

  12. Joint Linear Filter Design in Multiuser Cooperative Nonregenerative MIMO Relay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the filter design issues for multiuser cooperative nonregenerative MIMO relay systems in both downlink and uplink scenarios. Based on the formulated signal model, the filter matrix optimization is first performed for direct path and relay path respectively, aiming to minimize the mean squared error (MSE. To be more specific, for the relay path, we derive the local optimal filter scheme at the base station and the relay station jointly in the downlink scenario along with a more practical suboptimal scheme, and then a closed-form joint local optimal solution in the uplink scenario is exploited. Furthermore, the optimal filter for the direct path is also presented by using the exiting results of conventional MIMO link. After that, several schemes are proposed for cooperative scenario to combine the signals from both paths. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can reduce the bit error rate (BER significantly.

  13. 莱斯信道下分布式大规模MIMO系统基站选择算法的研究%Base Station Selection Algorithm for Distributed Massive MIMO System over Rician Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泳志; 陶成; 刘留; 卢艳萍; 刘凯

    2016-01-01

    该文考虑一种分布式大规模MIMO系统,假设基站端与用户之间的信道为莱斯信道,研究了该系统中基站选择的算法。首先给出了系统采用匹配滤波和迫零预编码时,用户下行可达速率的闭式表达式,并分析了系统的功率效率性能。然后基于此闭式表达式,以最大化系统的频谱效率为目标,提出了基于增量选择和基于用户优先级的基站选择算法。这两种算法只需要系统获取基站端与用户之间的信道统计特征信息,从而有效降低了系统开销。仿真结果表明,所提出的两种基站选择算法性能仍能逼近最优算法。特别地,当采用匹配滤波预编码且基站端天线数趋于无穷时,基于用户优先级的基站选择算法优于基于增量选择的算法。%The Base Station (BS) selection for distributed massive MIMO system is studied. The channels between the BSs and the users are assumed to be Rician fading. First the closed-form expressions of downlink achievable rates for Matched-Filter (MF) and Zero-Forcing (ZF) precoding are derived respectively, and the power efficiency performance of the system is investigated. Based on the closed-form expressions, the approximate incremental BS selection and the approximate user priority BS selection algorithms are proposed, both of which only require the statistical Channel State Information (CSI), to maximize the system spectral efficiency. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithms perform close to the optimal one. Specifically, it is shown that the approximate user priority BS selection algorithm outperforms the approximate incremental one when the BSs utilize the MF precoding in the large scale antenna limit.

  14. Constraints on the $\\Lambda$CDM model with redshift tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Tang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Recently released Planck data favor a lower value of the Hubble constant and a higher value of the fraction matter density in the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model, which are discrepant with some of the low-redshift measurements. Within the context of this cosmology, we examine the consistency of the estimated values for the Hubble constant and fraction matter density with redshift tomography. Using the SNe Ia, Hubble parameter, BAO and CMB data, which are divided into three bins, we find no statistical evidence for any tension in the three redshift bins, although there exists a 1.4$\\sigma$ deviation of the Hubble constant in the middle redshift from the one in the high redshift bin.

  15. Superheated Droplet Detectors as CDM Detectors The SIMPLE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Collar, J I; Limagne, D; Waysand, G

    1996-01-01

    Superheated Droplet Detectors (SDDs) are becoming commonplace in neutron personnel dosimetry. Their total insensitivity to minimum ionizing radiation (while responsive to nuclear recoils of energies ~ few keV), together with their low cost, ease of production, and operation at room temperature and 1 atm makes them ideal for Cold Dark Matter (CDM) searches. SDD's are optimal for the exploration of the spin-dependent neutralino coupling due to their high fluorine content. The status of SIMPLE (Superheated Instrument for Massive ParticLe Experiments) is presented. Under realistic background considerations, we expect an improvement in the present Cold Dark Matter sensitivity of 2-3 orders of magnitude after ~1 kg-y of data acquisition.

  16. Scalar-tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Algoner, W C; Zimdahl, W

    2016-01-01

    We construct a cosmological scalar-tensor-theory model in which the Brans-Dicke type scalar $\\Phi$ enters the effective (Jordan-frame) Hubble rate as a simple modification of the Hubble rate of the $\\Lambda$CDM model. This allows us to quantify differences between the background dynamics of scalar-tensor theories and general relativity (GR) in a transparent and observationally testable manner in terms of one single parameter. Problems of the mapping of the scalar-field degrees of freedom on an effective fluid description in a GR context are discused. Data from supernovae, the differential age of old galaxies and baryon acoustic oscillations are shown to strongly limit potential deviations from the standard model.

  17. Space-Constrained Massive MIMO: Hitting the Wall of Favorable Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Masouros, Christos; Matthaiou, Michail

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of the massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) paradigm, has been extensively based on the pursuit of favorable propagation: in the asymptotic limit, the channel vectors become nearly orthogonal and interuser interference tends to zero [1]. In this context, previous studieshave considered fixed inter-antenna distance, which implies an increasing array aperture as the number of elements increases. Here, we focus on a practical, space-constrained topology, where an ...

  18. Joint Transceiver Optimization for Multiuser MIMO Amplify-and-Forward Relay Broadcast Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xiong; Qiu, Zhengding

    This letter considers a dual-hop multiuser MIMO amplify-and-forward relay broadcast system with multi-antenna nodes. A unified scheme is addressed to jointly optimize the linear transceiver based on the sum mean-square error (MSE) and the sum rate criterion. The solutions are iteratively obtained by deriving the gradients of the objective functions for a gradient descent algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the performance improvements in terms of the BER and the sum rate.

  19. A rigorous proof of MIMO channel capacity's increase with antenna number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jian-min; M.R. Soleymani; J.F.Hayes

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that adding more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver may offer larger channel capacity, in the multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) communication systems. In this letter, a simple proof is presented for the fact that the channel capacity increases with an increase in the number of receiving antennas. The proof is based on the famous capacity formula of Foschini and Gans with matrix theory.

  20. Adaptive vector quantization in SVD MIMO system backward link with limited number of active sub channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaniš Predrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents combination of Channel Optimized Vector Quantization based on LBG algorithm and sub channel power allocation for MIMO systems with Singular Value Decomposition and limited number of active sub channels. Proposed algorithm is designed to enable maximal throughput with bit error rate bellow some tar- get level in case of backward channel capacity limitation. Presence of errors effect in backward channel is also considered.

  1. VARIABLE-RATE MULTIUSER DIVERSITY IN CORRELATED MIMO CHANNEL VIA VIRTUAL CHANNEL REPRESENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the multiuser diversity with constellation selection based on a virtual representation of realistic Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) correlated channels. To realize multiuser diversity in slow fading channels, random beamforming is adopted. Random beamforming matrix exploiting virtual channel representation is constructed, which can match the channel matrix of the desired user better. Simultaneously, adaptive coded modulation is applied to each sub-channel of the selected user to improve the system performance further.

  2. Antiwindup analysis and design approaches for MIMO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcopoli, Vincent R.; Phillips, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    Performance degradation of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) control systems having limited actuators is often handled by augmenting the controller with an antiwindup mechanism, which attempts to maintain system performance when limits are encountered. The goals of this paper are: (1) To develop a method to analyze antiwindup systems to determine precisely what stability and performance degradation is incurred under limited conditions. It is shown that by reformulating limited actuator commands as resulting from multiplicative perturbations to the corresponding controller requests, mu-analysis tools can be utilized to obtain quantitative measures of stability and performance degradation. (2) To propose a linear, time invariant (LTI) criterion on which to base the antiwindup design. These analysis and design methods are illustrated through the evaluation of two competing antiwindup schemes augmenting the controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight.

  3. Robust Design of Pilot-symbol-aided MIMO Channel Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhen-dong; LIU Yuan-an; GAO Jin-chun

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation/prediction for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems in fast fading environments. We first derive the design criteria of the optimal pilot blocks for energy, power and bandwidth-limited systems, respectively. Then two low-complexity channel estimation schemes are provided. Finally, we present a robust Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) channel estimator based on channel time correlation. Simulation shows the proposed MMSE estimator is considerably insensitive to channel statistics and significantly outperforms the traditional estimators with a low additional complexity in fast fading environments. By simply adjusting some parameters, the MMSE estimator can work as an estimator and a predictor simultaneously.

  4. Frequency Dependence of Measured Massive MIMO Channel Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveras Martínez, Àlex; Carvalho, Elisabeth De; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum;

    2016-01-01

    A multi-user massive MIMO measurement campaign is conducted to study the channel propagation characteristics (e.g. user correlation, sum of eigenvalues and condition number), focusing on the stability over frequencies and the impact of the array aperture. We use 3 arrays with 64 antennas (6m linear...... array, 2m linear array and 25cm by 28cm squared 2D array) serving 8 users holding a handset with 2 antennas. The study of the measurements shows that the propagation characteristics of the channel are stable for all the measured frequencies. We also observe that user proximity and user handgrip...... stabilize the studied properties of the channel across the frequencies, and in such case the larger the aperture of the array the more stable the properties. The number of base station antennas improves the propagation characteristics of the channel and stabilizes the properties in the frequency domain....

  5. Simulating cosmologies beyond ΛCDM with PINOCCHIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Luca A.; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Monaco, Pierluigi; Munari, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano; Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    We present a method that extends the capabilities of the PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) code, allowing it to generate accurate dark matter halo mock catalogues in cosmological models where the linear growth factor and the growth rate depend on scale. Such cosmologies comprise, among others, models with massive neutrinos and some classes of modified gravity theories. We validate the code by comparing the halo properties from PINOCCHIO against N-body simulations, focusing on cosmologies with massive neutrinos: νΛCDM. We analyse the halo mass function, halo two-point correlation function and halo power spectrum, showing that PINOCCHIO reproduces the results from simulations with the same level of precision as the original code (~ 5–10%). We demonstrate that the abundance of halos in cosmologies with massless and massive neutrinos from PINOCCHIO matches very well the outcome of simulations, and point out that PINOCCHIO can reproduce the Ων–σ8 degeneracy that affects the halo mass function. We finally show that the clustering properties of the halos from PINOCCHIO matches accurately those from simulations both in real and redshift-space, in the latter case up to k = 0.3 h Mpc‑1. We emphasize that the computational time required by PINOCCHIO to generate mock halo catalogues is orders of magnitude lower than the one needed for N-body simulations. This makes this tool ideal for applications like covariance matrix studies within the standard ΛCDM model but also in cosmologies with massive neutrinos or some modified gravity theories.

  6. The State of Development of National CDM Offices in Central and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera, L.; Cabeza, O.; Black-Arbelaez, T. [Andean Center for Economics in the Environment, Bogota (Colombia)

    2003-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) offers great potential to assist Annex B countries in meeting their emissions reduction commitments by increasing the supply of low-cost emissions mitigation projects, thereby reducing the international market price of emissions reduction credits and the national cost of compliance. However, CDM project development is facing a series of barriers, which if not addressed, may constrain the effective supply of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) into the international marketplace. Low CER prices coupled with high formulation and transactions costs make for weak benefit-cost ratios. Owners of potential projects perceive major institutional, regulatory and market risks. These conditions are compounded by a lack of capital in developing countries to appropriately formulate or to execute projects, both from the weaknesses of the capital markets and from the unfamiliarity of bankers with the CDM. One of the requirements for developing countries to participate in the CDM established by the COP7 Marrakech Accords pertains to the designation of a national authority for the CDM. Specifically, this accord stipulates that a Non-Annex B country choosing to participate in the CDM must only do so voluntarily, and shall designate a national authority in charge of the mechanism, which shall be responsible of evaluating and granting national approval to the projects developed within said framework. According to Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, projects to be carried out under the (CDM) must be 'additional', produce real and long term emissions reductions, have the consent of the participating Parties, and contribute to the sustainable development of the countries in which said projects are established. If the expected supply of CERs from Latin America is to materialise, national CDM offices must come on line, operate effectively and approve projects. National approval, which forms part of the CDM project cycle established by the

  7. Assessing Usefulness. Do Stakeholders Regard the CDM's SD Tool as Practicial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm; Fenhann, Jørgen Villy; Hinostroza, Miriam L.

    One of the objectives of the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) which is strongly embedded in the Kyoto Protocol, is to contribute to the sustainable development of the host countries in addition to climate protection. However, some non-governmental organisations have signalled the poor...... a tool for voluntary use in order to highlight the contribution of CDM to sustainability. As a result, in late 2012 The Sustainable Development Tool was developed and adopted. The fact that CDM projects should support sustainable development in the host countries is a key element of the CDM, which is why...... contributions, and project developers. Host countries of different size and various levels of experience with CDM and sustainability assessment and project developers with expertise for various types of projects were interviewed in a survey about their experiences. Subjects were the sustainability assessment...

  8. A Comparative Study on the Implementation of CDM Projects in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xiaoyi

    2012-01-01

    Since the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol was initiated, China and India have overwhelmingly led other developing countries regarding CDM projects development. A comparative study of the CDM in India and China is conducted as there are many similarities between both India and China with regard to the CDM implementation due to the fact that India is another major developing country with a large population and a potential source of GHG emissions rivaling China in the near future. Through examining the development of and legal issues for CDM projects in India, its experience and les- sons regarding developing and managing CDM projects that China can critically learn are discussed.

  9. Transceiver Design for Two-way AF MIMO Relay Systems Based on Power Consumption%基于功率的双向AF MIMO中继系统收发器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 梁晓雯

    2016-01-01

    In view of the joint transceiver design for users and relay in multiple user pairs two-way amplify-and-forward ( AF ) multiple input multiple output ( MIMO) relay systems,and for the purpose of power saving,an optimization problem is proposed to mini-mize the total power consumption of relay and users under the mean square error (MSE) constraint of each user.Due to the non-convex-ity,it is difficult to obtain the globally optimal solution of this problem. Therefore the original problem is decomposed into three easier sub-problems,which are solved respectively. Then an iterative algorithm based on alternating optimization is proposed to solve the original problem.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can save the total power of users and relay effectively as compared to other algorithms.%针对多用户对双向放大转发多输入多输出中继系统中用户和中继的收发器联合设计问题,基于节省功率的目的,提出了在满足每个用户均方误差约束的条件下最小化用户和中继总功率的优化问题。由于所形成的优化问题是非凸的,难以求得全局最优解,因此将原问题分解为3个便于处理的子问题,对这3个子问题分别进行求解,在此基础上提出了一种基于交替优化的迭代算法去求解原问题。仿真结果表明,所提算法相较于其他算法可以有效地节省用户和中继的总功率。

  10. 3D Massive MIMO Systems: Channel Modeling and Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-03-01

    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems of current LTE releases are capable of adaptation in the azimuth only. More recently, the trend is to enhance the system performance by exploiting the channel\\'s degrees of freedom in the elevation through the dynamic adaptation of the vertical antenna beam pattern. This necessitates the derivation and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) channels. Over the years, channel models have evolved to address the challenges of wireless communication technologies. In parallel to theoretical studies on channel modeling, many standardized channel models like COST-based models, 3GPP SCM, WINNER, ITU have emerged that act as references for industries and telecommunication companies to assess system-level and link-level performances of advanced signal processing techniques over real-like channels. Given the existing channels are only two dimensional (2D) in nature; a large effort in channel modeling is needed to study the impact of the channel component in the elevation direction. The first part of this work sheds light on the current 3GPP activity around 3D channel modeling and beamforming, an aspect that to our knowledge has not been extensively covered by a research publication. The standardized MIMO channel model is presented, that incorporates both the propagation effects of the environment and the radio effects of the antennas. In order to facilitate future studies on the use of 3D beamforming, the main features of the proposed 3D channel model are discussed. A brief overview of the future 3GPP 3D channel model being outlined for the next generation of wireless networks is also provided. In the subsequent part of this work, we present an information-theoretic channel model for MIMO systems that supports the elevation dimension. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy, which enables us to determine the distribution of the channel matrix consistent with the prior information on the angles of departure and

  11. Comparative Study of Controllers for a Variable Area MIMO Interacting NonLinear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Chandrasekar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the industrial processes are basically Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO system. In this paper a new combination of Spherical Conical Interacting Tank System (SCITS which is a variable area nonlinear MIMO system is considered for study and various control algorithms based on Ziegler Nichol’s tuning method, Hagglund Astrom Robust tuning method, Fractional Order (FO control and Passivity Based Control (PBC are used and compared for the level control of spherical tank system and conical tank system connected with interaction. Transfer function matrix of the system is obtained experimentally from the open loop response of the system. The designed controllers are tested for servo and regulatory operations. The controllers are compared in terms of time domain specification and performance index criterion. From the analysis of the simulation results, it is seen that FO controller gives improved performance when compared to conventional Integer Order (IO controller and overall Passivity Based Controller (PBCr gives improved performance comparatively for spherical conical interacting MIMO system.

  12. Performance and Complexity Evaluation of Iterative Receiver for Coded MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida El Chall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO technology in combination with channel coding technique is a promising solution for reliable high data rate transmission in future wireless communication systems. However, these technologies pose significant challenges for the design of an iterative receiver. In this paper, an efficient receiver combining soft-input soft-output (SISO detection based on low-complexity K-Best (LC-K-Best decoder with various forward error correction codes, namely, LTE turbo decoder and LDPC decoder, is investigated. We first investigate the convergence behaviors of the iterative MIMO receivers to determine the required inner and outer iterations. Consequently, the performance of LC-K-Best based receiver is evaluated in various LTE channel environments and compared with other MIMO detection schemes. Moreover, the computational complexity of the iterative receiver with different channel coding techniques is evaluated and compared with different modulation orders and coding rates. Simulation results show that LC-K-Best based receiver achieves satisfactory performance-complexity trade-offs.

  13. MIMO声呐目标检测性能分析%Analysis of MIMO sonar target detection performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福钋; 潘悦; 王永刚

    2012-01-01

    重点研究MIMO声呐的目标检测性能,为MIMO声呐布阵方式和工作模式等的选择提供理论依据.通过理论分析给出了MIMO声呐接收机工作特性(ROC)曲线的表达式,分别包括并列式和分布式MIMO声呐,同时给出了相控阵、SIMO和MISO等形式声呐的ROC表达式.通过示例比较了相同情况下并列式MIMO声呐、分布式MIMO声呐、相控阵声呐和常规多基地声呐的ROC曲线.结果表明,相同条件下相控阵声呐波束指向方向上的目标检测概率高于并列式MIMO声呐,做脉冲积累的并列式MIMO声呐可以得到与相控阵声呐相同的检测性能,低信噪比时并列式MIMO声呐和相控阵声呐的目标检测概率高于分布式MIMO声呐,高信噪比时分布式MIMO声呐可以得到较高的检测概率,采用多个发射阵元的分布式MIMO声呐性能优于使用一个发射阵元的常规多基地声呐.%Target detection performances of MIMO sonar are studied in this paper. They are one of the theoretic foundations of elements placement and work pattern. Receiver Expressions of Receiver Operating Characteristics ( ROC ) curves are given through theoretical analysis. Including collocated MIMO sonar and distributed MIMO sonar. Expressions of ROC curves such as phase array sonar, SIMO sonar and MISO sonar are also given. ROC curve comparisons of collocated MIMO sonar, distributed MIMO sonar, phase array sonar and multi-base sonar are given in the same condition. Results indicate that target detection performance of phase array sonar in the beam direction is better than collocated MIMO sonar. Collocated MIMO sonar with pulse accumulation can get the same performance as the phase array sonar. Performances of collocated MIMO sonar and phase array sonar are better than distributed MIMO sonar in low SNR condition. In high SNR condition, distributed MIMO sonar can get a better performance. Performance of distributed MIMO sonar with multiple transmitting notes is better than

  14. Real-Valued Covariance Vector Sparsity-Inducing DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianpeng Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a real-valued covariance vector sparsity-inducing method for direction of arrival (DOA estimation is proposed in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar. Exploiting the special configuration of monostatic MIMO radar, low-dimensional real-valued received data can be obtained by using the reduced-dimensional transformation and unitary transformation technique. Then, based on the Khatri–Rao product, a real-valued sparse representation framework of the covariance vector is formulated to estimate DOA. Compared to the existing sparsity-inducing DOA estimation methods, the proposed method provides better angle estimation performance and lower computational complexity. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed method.

  15. Real-Valued Covariance Vector Sparsity-Inducing DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianpeng; Wang, Wei; Li, Xin; Liu, Jing

    2015-11-10

    In this paper, a real-valued covariance vector sparsity-inducing method for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is proposed in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Exploiting the special configuration of monostatic MIMO radar, low-dimensional real-valued received data can be obtained by using the reduced-dimensional transformation and unitary transformation technique. Then, based on the Khatri-Rao product, a real-valued sparse representation framework of the covariance vector is formulated to estimate DOA. Compared to the existing sparsity-inducing DOA estimation methods, the proposed method provides better angle estimation performance and lower computational complexity. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed method.

  16. Impact of Probe Placement Error on MIMO OTA Test Zone Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Carreño, Xavier;

    2012-01-01

    Standardization work for MIMO OTA testing methods is currently ongoing, where a multi-probe anechoic chamber based solution is an important candidate. In this paper, the probes located on an OTA ring are used to synthesize a plane wave field in the center of the OTA ring, and the EM field for each...... probe is obtained using FDTD simulation. This paper investigates the extent to which we can control the field structure inside the test zone where the device under test is located. The focus is on performance deterioration introduced by probe placement error including OTA probe orientation error...... and location mismatch, which are general non-idealities in practical MIMO OTA test systems....

  17. Grassmannian Beamforming for MIMO-OFDM Systems with Frequency and Spatially Correlated Channels Using Huffman Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Gutman, Igor; Wulich, Dov

    2009-01-01

    Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) precoding is an efficient scheme that may significantly enhance the communication link. However, this enhancement comes with a cost. Many precoding schemes require channel knowledge at the transmitter that is obtained through feedback from the receiver. Focusing on the natural common fusion of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and MIMO, we exploit the channel correlation in the frequency and spatial domain to reduce the required feedback rate in a frequency division duplex (FDD) system. The proposed feedback method is based on Huffman coding and is employed here for the single stream case. The method leads to a significant reduction in the required feedback rate, without any loss in performance. The proposed method may be extended to the multi-stream case.

  18. Opportunistic Scheduling and Beamforming for MIMO-OFDMA Downlink Systems with Reduced Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic scheduling and beamforming schemes with reduced feedback are proposed for MIMO-OFDMA downlink systems. Unlike the conventional beamforming schemes in which beamforming is implemented solely by the base station (BS) in a per-subcarrier fashion, the proposed schemes take advantages of a novel channel decomposition technique to perform beamforming jointly by the BS and the mobile terminal (MT). The resulting beamforming schemes allow the BS to employ only {\\em one} beamforming matrix (BFM) to form beams for {\\em all} subcarriers while each MT completes the beamforming task for each subcarrier locally. Consequently, for a MIMO-OFDMA system with $Q$ subcarriers, the proposed opportunistic scheduling and beamforming schemes require only one BFM index and $Q$ supportable throughputs to be returned from each MT to the BS, in contrast to $Q$ BFM indices and $Q$ supportable throughputs required by the conventional schemes. The advantage of the proposed schemes becomes more evident when a further feedback ...

  19. Transmit Energy Focusing for DOA Estimation in MIMO Radar with Colocated Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanien, Aboulnasr

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a transmit beamspace energy focusing technique for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar with application to direction finding for multiple targets. The general angular directions of the targets are assumed to be located within a certain spatial sector. We focus the energy of multiple (two or more) transmitted orthogonal waveforms within that spatial sector using transmit beamformers which are designed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain at each receive antenna. The subspace decomposition-based techniques such as MUSIC can then be used for direction finding for multiple targets. Moreover, the transmit beamformers can be designed so that matched-filtering the received data to the waveforms yields multiple (two or more) data sets with rotational invariance property that allows applying search-free direction finding techniques such as ESPRIT for two data sets or parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) for more than two data sets. Unlike previously reported MIMO radar ESPRIT...

  20. A Novel Simulator of Nonstationary Random MIMO Channels in Rayleigh Fading Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuming Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For simulations of nonstationary multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO Rayleigh fading channels in time-variant scattering environments, a novel channel simulator is proposed based on the superposition of chirp signals. This new method has the advantages of low complexity and implementation simplicity as the sum of sinusoids (SOS method. In order to reproduce realistic time varying statistics for dynamic channels, an efficient parameter computation method is also proposed for updating the frequency parameters of employed chirp signals. Simulation results indicate that the proposed simulator is effective in generating nonstationary MIMO channels with close approximation of the time-variant statistical characteristics in accordance with the expected theoretical counterparts.

  1. Low Complexity Direction and Doppler Frequency Estimation for Bistatic MIMO Radar in Spatial Colored Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the algorithm of direction and Doppler frequency estimation for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar in spatial colored noise. A novel method of joint estimation of direction and Doppler frequency in spatial colored noise based on propagator method (PM for bistatic MIMO radar is discussed. Utilizing the cross-correlation matrix which is formed by the adjacent outputs of match filter in the time domain, the special matrix is constructed to eliminate the influence of spatial colored noise. The proposed algorithm provides lower computational complexity and has very close parameters estimation compared to estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT algorithm in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. It is applicable even if the transmitted waveforms are not orthogonal. The estimated parameters can be paired automatically and the Cramér-Rao Bound (CRB is given in spatial colored noise. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Variable Structure Control for Unmatched MIMO Nonlinear System with Its Application to MCFC Stacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chunshan(许春山); Sun Xingjin; Cao Guangyi; Zhu Xinjian

    2004-01-01

    A new Variable Structure Control (VSC) with Rapid-Smooth Reaching Law (RSRL) and Rapid-Convergent Sliding Mode (FCSM) is proposed, which is based on normal VSC system. When it is used to unmatched MIMO nonlinear system, the authors combine the method of Input/Output Linearizing (I/O L) with VSC: they use the I/O L method to solve the "Unmatched" problem and use the new VSC to get good result of control. After analyzing the robustness of the MIMO nonlinear system, they use this novel controller to the temperature and gas pressure control system of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Stacks. Simulation provides quite satisfactory performance with unmatched uncertainties and external disturbances. Its future actual application is practical.

  3. Spatial Correlation of PAN UWB-MIMO Channel Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Pedersen, Gert Frølund;

    In this paper we present and analyze spatial correlation properties of indoor 4x2 MIMO UWB channels in personal area network (PAN) scenarios. The presented results are based on measurement of radio links between an access point like device and a hand held or belt mounted device with dynamic user....... achieves an ergodic capacity close to i.i.d. Rayleigh channel capacity. However the outage capacity degrades due to the wideband power fluctuation / shadowing introduced by user’s body........ It is found the channel shows spatial correlated wideband power, and spatial uncorrelated complex channel coefficients at different frequencies and delays with respect to a correlation coefficient threshold of 0.7. The Kronecker model is proved not suitable for the investigated scenarios. The MIMO UWB channel...

  4. In vivo measurement of human knee and hip dynamics using MIMO system identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, B; van Asseldonk, E F; van der Kooij, H

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a new method for the estimation of the dynamic impedance of multi-joint leg movements. The method is based on Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) system identification techniques and is designed for continuous torque perturbations at the hip and knee joint. Preliminary results from this study indicate that MIMO system identification can successfully be used to estimate the hip and knee impedance and the interaction dynamics between both joints. It is also concluded that, in order to create a good model representation of the leg impedance, the effect of biarticular muscles needs to be taken into account. The obtained measures for joint impedance might be used for clinical assessment and follow up of patients, as well as for the development of supportive devices.

  5. A deterministic equivalent for the capacity analysis of correlated multi-user MIMO channels

    CERN Document Server

    Couillet, Romain; Silverstein, Jack W

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the analysis of capacity expressions in multi-user and multi-cell systems when the transmitters and receivers have a large number of correlated antennas. Our main contribution mathematically translates into a deterministic equivalent of the Shannon transform of a class of large dimensional random matrices. This class of large matrices is used in this contribution to model (i) multi-antenna multiple access (MAC) and broadcast channels (BC) with transmit and receive channel correlation, (ii) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications with inter-cell interference and channel correlation both at the base stations and at the receiver. These models extend the classical results on multi-user MIMO capacities in independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian channels to the more realistic Gaussian channels with separable variance profile. On an information theoretical viewpoint, this article provides: in scenario (i), an asymptotic description of the MAC and BC rate regions as ...

  6. Interference Alignment Through User Cooperation for Two-cell MIMO Interfering Broadcast Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Wonjae; Lim, Jong-Bu; Shin, Changyong; Jang, Kyunghun

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on two-cell multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian interfering broadcast channels (MIMO-IFBC) with $K$ cooperating users on the cell-boundary of each BS. It corresponds to a downlink scenario for cellular networks with two base stations (BSs), and $K$ users equipped with Wi-Fi interfaces enabling to cooperate among users on a peer-to-peer basis. In this scenario, we propose a novel interference alignment (IA) technique exploiting user cooperation. Our proposed algorithm obtains the achievable degrees of freedom (DoF) of 2K when each BS and user have $M=K+1$ transmit antennas and $N=K$ receive antennas, respectively. Furthermore, the algorithm requires only a small amount of channel feedback information with the aid of the user cooperation channels. The simulations demonstrate that not only are the analytical results valid, but the achievable DoF of our proposed algorithm also outperforms those of conventional techniques.

  7. Antenna Array Design in MIMO Radar Using NSK Polynomial Factorization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuainan Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is concerned with the antenna array design in collocated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radars. After knowing the system requirements, the antenna array design problem is formulated as a standard polynomial factorization. In addition, an algorithm based on Newton-Schubert-Kronecker (NSK polynomial factorization is proposed. The algorithm contains three steps. First, linear factors are extracted by extended Vieta theorem. Then, undermined high-order factors are confirmed with Newton interpolation and certain high-order factors should be searched for within the undermined ones. Finally, the antenna array configurations are determined according to the result of polynomial factorization. Simulations confirm the wide use of the proposed algorithm in MIMO radar antenna array design.

  8. Configuration Data Management (CDM) on a Shoestring Identifying and Utilizing an Existing Configuration and Data Management Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANN, J.M.

    2000-09-25

    The spreading need for and use of configuration and data management (CDM) standards has highlighted a number of challenges to the companies that need to implement those standards. For companies and organizations that are new to CDM or have limited CDM capabilities, one of the major dilemmas faced is identifying how and where to start. In many cases there is a need to contend with a legacy of poorly identified items and information and an immature or non-existent CDM infrastructure (processes, procedures, people, and information systems). To the company management and CDM professional this poses a seemingly insurmountable task of putting in place a CDM infrastructure that provides the needed benefits while keeping within an acceptable cost and schedule. This paper deals with initially establishing the CDM infrastructure using the tools that a company already has available. The paper identifies features of common software applications that can be used to implement CDM principles.

  9. Research of a newer spread-spectrum CDM telemetry communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永建; 周廷显

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce the multiplexing interference and enhance the information data transmission efficiency of the common spread-spectrum telemetry communication system, based on the m-sequence' s parallel move equivalent sequence, one type of spread-spectrum CDM(code division multiplexing) telemetry communication system is issued. The method of anti-multiplexing interference of the system is given, i.e. through using the parallel move equivalent sequence to modulate the antipodal signal of each path's data, then transmitted with the same channel. Data transmission rate,the error probability and multiplexing interference of the proposed system are analyzed. Mathematic analysis provesthat the system not only holds all the merits which are inherent in common spread-spectrum telemetry communication system,but also has better transmission efficiency. Simulation result validated the proved conclusion.

  10. The Shape-Alignment relation in $\\Lambda$CDM Cosmic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Basilakos, S; Yepes, G; Gottl"ober, S; Turchaninov, V I

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the supercluster - cluster morphological properties using one of the largest ($2\\times 512^{3}$) SPH+N-body simulations of large scale structure formation in a $\\Lambda$CDM model, based on the publicly available code GADGET. We find that filamentary (prolate-like) shapes are the dominant supercluster and cluster dark matter halo morphological feature, in agreement with previous studies. However, the baryonic gas component of the clusters is predominantly spherical.We investigate the alignment between cluster halos (using either their DM or baryonic components) and their parent supercluster major-axis orientation, finding that clusters show such a preferential alignment.Combining the shape and the alignment statistics, we also find that the amplitude of supercluster - cluster alignment increases although weakly with supercluster filamentariness.

  11. SIRE: a MIMO radar for landmine/IED detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojowu, Ode; Wu, Yue; Li, Jian; Nguyen, Lam

    2013-05-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems have been shown to have significant performance improvements over their single-input multiple-output (SIMO) counterparts. For transmit and receive elements that are collocated, the waveform diversity afforded by this radar is exploited for performance improvements. These improvements include but are not limited to improved target detection, improved parameter identifiability and better resolvability. In this paper, we present the Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction Radar (SIRE) Ultra-wideband (UWB) radar designed by the Army Research Lab (ARL) for landmine and improvised explosive device (IED) detection as a 2 by 16 MIMO radar (with collocated antennas). Its improvement over its SIMO counterpart in terms of beampattern/cross range resolution are discussed and demonstrated using simulated data herein. The limitations of this radar for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) suppression are also discussed in this paper. A relaxation method (RELAX) combined with averaging of multiple realizations of the measured data is presented for RFI suppression; results show no noticeable target signature distortion after suppression. In this paper, the back-projection (delay and sum) data independent method is used for generating SAR images. A side-lobe minimization technique called recursive side-lobe minimization (RSM) is also discussed for reducing side-lobes in this data independent approach. We introduce a data-dependent sparsity based spectral estimation technique called Sparse Learning via Iterative Minimization (SLIM) as well as a data-dependent CLEAN approach for generating SAR images for the SIRE radar. These data-adaptive techniques show improvement in side-lobe reduction and resolution for simulated data for the SIRE radar.

  12. Game Theoretical Power Control for Open-Loop Overlaid Network MIMO Systems with Partial Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hao; Lau, Vincent K N

    2010-01-01

    Network MIMO is considered to be a key solution for the next generation wireless systems in breaking the interference bottleneck in cellular systems. In the MIMO systems, open-loop transmission scheme is used to support mobile stations (MSs) with high mobilities because the base stations (BSs) do not need to track the fast varying channel fading. In this paper, we consider an open-loop network MIMO system with $K$ BSs serving K private MSs and $M^c$ common MS based on a novel partial cooperation overlaying scheme. Exploiting the heterogeneous path gains between the private MSs and the common MSs, each of the $K$ BSs serves a private MS non-cooperatively and the $K$ BSs also serve the $M^c$ common MSs cooperatively. The proposed scheme does not require closed loop instantaneous channel state information feedback, which is highly desirable for high mobility users. Furthermore, we formulate the long-term distributive power allocation problem between the private MSs and the common MSs at each of the $K$ BSs using...

  13. A novel power and offset allocation method for spatial multiplexing MIMO Systems in optical wireless channels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2011-12-01

    We consider optical wireless communication which can be utilized for illumination and communication by relying on lighting devices. Due to the limited bandwidth of optical sources, it is challenging to achieve high data rate in optical wireless systems. In order to obtain a multiplexing gain and high spectral efficiency, we design an optical multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system utilizing a singular value decomposition-based spatial multiplexing and adaptive modulation. We note that the conventional allocation method in radio frequency MIMO channels cannot be applied directly to the optical intensity channels. In this paper, we generalize the result of power allocation method in [1] for arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas in optical wireless MIMO systems. Based on three constraints, namely, the nonnegativity, the aggregate optical power, and the bit error rate requirement, we propose a novel method to allocate the optical power, the offset value, and the modulation size for maximum sum rate. From some selected simulation results, we show that our proposed allocation method gives a better spectral efficiency than the method that allocates the optical power equally for each data stream. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. A Basic Unified Context for Evaluating the Beam Forming and MIMO Options in a Wireless Link

    CERN Document Server

    Chizhik, Dmitry; Valenzuela, Reinaldo A

    2011-01-01

    For one isolated wireless link we take a unified look at simple beamforming (BF) as contrasted with MIMO to see how both emerge and under which conditions advantage goes to one or the other. Communication is from a high base array to a user in clutter. The channel propagation model is derived from fundamentals. The base knows the power angular spectrum, but not the channel instantiation. Eigenstates of the field spatial autocorrelation are the preferred apodizations (APODs) which are drivers of the natural modes for exciting lectric fields. Preference for MIMO or BF depends on APOD spectra which are surveyed pointing to various asymptotic effects, including the maximum BF gain. Performance is studied under varying eigenmode power settings at 10% outage. We focus on (1,4) driving the strongest mode for BF and (4,4) driving the 4 strongest for MIMO. Results are obtained under representative parameter settings, e.g. an angular spread of 8 deg, 2 GHz carrier, 0 dB SNR and an array aperture of 1.68m (4 field decor...

  15. On the Achievability of Interference Alignment for Three-Cell Multi-User MIMO Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanjun; Chen, Rui; Liu, Qin

    2011-01-01

    An interference alignment (IA) based scheme is proposed by joint design of transmit precoding matrices and receive beamforming matrices for the three-cell Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO) cellular network with constant channel between each node, where each base station (BS) is equipped with $M$ antennas, each mobile station (MS) is equipped with $N$ antennas, and $M \\geq N$. We assume $K$ cell-edge users are served per cell simultaneously where $K>1$, and BS sends $d$ data streams to each of its users. It is shown that $\\frac{M}{2}$ degrees of freedom (DoF) is achievable per cell when $M=N$, $K=\\frac{M}{2d}$, and $M$ is divisible by 2d, and $Kd$ DoF is achievable per cell if $M =KN$ and $d \\leq \\lfloor \\frac{M}{3K-1} \\rfloor$ or if $(3K -1)d \\leq M < KN $ and $d \\leq 3(KN-M)$. Furthermore, when there have extra dimensions at BSs, a space-division hybrid (SDH) scheme is proposed for the three-cell MU-MIMO cellular network, where cell-edge users and cell-center users are served simultaneously. Cell-edge users work ...

  16. Channel Acquisition for Massive MIMO-OFDM With Adjustable Phase Shift Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Li; Gao, Xiqi; Swindlehurst, A. Lee; Zhong, Wen

    2016-03-01

    We propose adjustable phase shift pilots (APSPs) for channel acquisition in wideband massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems employing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to reduce the pilot overhead. Based on a physically motivated channel model, we first establish a relationship between channel space-frequency correlations and the channel power angle-delay spectrum in the massive antenna array regime, which reveals the channel sparsity in massive MIMO-OFDM. With this channel model, we then investigate channel acquisition, including channel estimation and channel prediction, for massive MIMO-OFDM with APSPs. We show that channel acquisition performance in terms of sum mean square error can be minimized if the user terminals' channel power distributions in the angle-delay domain can be made non-overlapping with proper phase shift scheduling. A simplified pilot phase shift scheduling algorithm is developed based on this optimal channel acquisition condition. The performance of APSPs is investigated for both one symbol and multiple symbol data models. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed APSP approach can provide substantial performance gains in terms of achievable spectral efficiency over the conventional phase shift orthogonal pilot approach in typical mobility scenarios.

  17. Detection performance analysis for MIMO radar with distributed apertures in Gaussian colored noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jian; HUANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    This paper establishes the classic linear model of signal of the MIMO radar system with distributed apertures.Based on this model,the design principle and detection performance of MIMO radar detector is investigated under conditions of Gaussian colored noise and partially correlated observation channels.First,the research on design principle of detector shows that the clutter suppression and matched filtering can be independently implemented at each receiving aperture,which greatly reduces the difficulty in implementation of these detectors.Based on these results,a Max detector is proposed for the case where partial channels are disabled due to strong noise and stealth techniques.The second part is the performance analysis of detector.The Fishier divergence coefficient and the statistical equivalent decomposition of limit statistics are used to theoretically analyze the detection performance of AMF detector,and then the analytical expressions of the detection performance of the AMF detector is derived.Analysis results show that both the colored nature of noise and the correlation among observation channels can reduce the capability of spatial diversity of the MIMO radar system,change the target RCSs among observation channels from quick fluctuation to slow fluctuation,and degenerate the detection performance of this radar system into that of the phased array radar system at high signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Sum-Rate Enhancement in Multiuser MIMO Decode-and-Forward Relay Broadcasting Channel with Energy Harvesting Relays

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, we consider a multiuser multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) decode-and-forward (DF) relay broadcasting channel (BC) with single source, multiple energy harvesting (EH) relays and multiple destinations. All the nodes are equipped with multiple antennas. The EH and information decoding (ID) tasks at the relays and destinations are separated over the time, which is termed as the time switching (TS) scheme. As optimal solutions for the sum-rate maximization problems of BC channels and the MIMO interference channels are hard to obtain, the end-to-end sum rate maximization problem of a multiuser MIMO DF relay BC channel is even harder. In this paper, we propose to tackle a simplified problem where we employ the block diagonalization (BD) procedure at the source, and we mitigate the interference between the relaydestination channels using an algorithm similar to the BD method. In order to show the relevance of our low complex proposed solution, we compare it to the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) solution that was shown in the literature to be equivalent to the solution of the sum-rate maximization in MIMO broadcasting interfering channels. We also investigate the time division multiple access (TDMA) solution which separates all the information transmissions from the source to the relays and from the relays to the destinations over time. We provide numerical results to show the relevance of our proposed solution, in comparison with the no co-channel interference (CCI) case, the TDMA based solution and the MMSE based solution.

  19. Ergodic channel capacity of the spatial correlated rayleigh MIMO channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-ping; WU Ping; LIU Ai-jun

    2007-01-01

    The theoretical capacity of the spatial correlated Rayleigh multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel is an important issue in MIMO technology. In this article, an ergodic channel capacity formula of the spatial correlated rayleigh MIMO channel is provided, which is deduced when two antennas exist at either the transmitter or the receiver. The multi-dimensional least-squares fit algorithm is employed to narrow the difference between the theoretical formula capacity and the practical capacity. Simulation results show that the theoretical capacity approaches the practical one closely.

  20. On the Performance of Code Acquisition in MIMO CDMA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangchoon; An, Jinyoung

    This letter investigates the effects of using multiple transmit antennas on code acquisition for preamble search in the CDMA uplink when MIMO is used for signal transmission and reception. The performance of a ML code acquisition technique in the presence of MIMO channel is analyzed by considering the detection and miss probabilities. The acquisition performance is numerically evaluated on a frequency selective fading channel. It is found that the performance of code acquisition scheme for a SIMO system is better than that for the case of MIMO on the low thresholds in terms of detection performance and MAT.