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Sample records for cdc americano sistema

  1. Sistema privado de seguro-saúde: lições do caso americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Viegas Andrade

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de serviços de atenção à saúde apresenta particularidades não observadas em outros mercados de bens, traduzidas nas relações contratuais estabelecidas entre os agentes deste mercado: relação paciente-provedor e relação seguradora-provedor. Na relação seguradora-provedor existe um problema de risco moral que cria incentivos à sobreutilização de serviços médicos. O objetivo deste trabalho é sistematizar as principais características institucionais do sistema de saúde americano, enfatizando as reformas ocorridas na década de 1970 e os problemas identificados em regulamentar o setor privado de serviços médicos e hospitalares. Estes problemas estão relacionados, em sua grande maioria, à regulamentação dos contratos permitidos entre as seguradoras, os provedores de serviços médicos e hospitalares e os segurados. A principal conclusão deste trabalho é mostrar que a flexibilização dos contratos entre provedores e seguradora tem efeito significativo na redução dos custos do seguro-saúde, resultando sobretudo em maior eficiência dos serviços ofertados. Os novos desenhos de contratos estabelecidos permitem a divisão do risco entre os provedores e seguradora, além de centralizar a decisão de encaminhamentos médicos a serem realizados configurando utilização mais racional destes serviços. A flexibilização dos contratos não significou, no entanto, eliminação da regulação por parte do Estado do setor de seguro-saúde privado, sendo fundamental para garantir a sustentabilidade financeira dos seguros.The aim of this paper is to organize the main institutional characteristics of the American Health System, emphasizing the reforms that occurred during the age of seventy and the difficulties to regulate the private sector of medical and hospital services. The most part of these problems are related to the contract regulation between the providers of medical and hospital service and the patients. The

  2. Potenciais benefícios do sistema de rastreabilidade animal dos EUA para o setor de carnes americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Andrade Resende Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investigou os potenciais ganhos do setor de carnes americano advindos da implantação do Sistema Nacional de Identificação Animal (NAIS, dos EUA. Foram analisados os potenciais efeitos do NAIS sobre a percepção de risco dos consumidores americanos em relação aos perigos decorrentes do consumo das carnes bovina, suína e de aves e seus derivados. Sistemas de equações de demanda foram estimados, incorporando-se como "proxies" da percepção de risco do consumidor, séries de índices de segurança do alimento, separadamente construídas para cada tipo de carne. Tais séries foram concebidas, somando-se o número de referências nos principais jornais americanos a problemas de segurança da carne. Foi utilizado o melhor modelo estimado, escolhido com base em uma série de testes de especificação, para se construir três cenários, simulando-se os casos em que o NAIS não está implementado; que está implementado apenas para o gado bovino; e que está implementado para suínos e bovinos. Foram utilizadas as diferenças entre as receitas estimadas para cada cenário e para cada tipo de carne, como uma medida do potencial ganho advindo da implementação do NAIS. Foi concluído que os setores da carne bovina e suína poderiam arcar com os custos do NAIS. Esse resultado, contudo, depende de o quanto desses potenciais ganhos chegarão efetivamente aos produtores agrícolas.This article investigates the potential gains to the U.S. meat sector with the implantation of the U.S. National Animal Identification System (NAIS. The focus is on the effect that the NAIS could have on consumers' risk perception about eating meat. System of demand equations are estimated using time series of food safety indexes variables used as proxies for consumers' reactions to news on meat safety issues. The series of food safety indexes are built on the basis of the number of food safety news reported in top U.S. newspapers. Using the preferred model

  3. La justicia constitucional ante el siglo XXI: la progresiva convergencia de los sistemas americano y europeo-kelseniano (extracto del libro: La Constitución Española en el contexto constitucional europeo. Editor: Francisco Fernández Segado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernández Segado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Reflexiones preliminares 2. La última «ratio» de la bipolaridad: la concepción del «legislador negativo» y la reafirmación kelseniana del principio de sujeción de los jueces a la ley 3. La obsolescencia de la clásica polaridad «sistema americano» versus «sistema europeo-kelseniano» 4. La centralidad del modelo americano en el proceso de convergencia de los dos tradicionales sistemas de control de constitucionalidad 5. La quiebra frontal de la concepción kelseniana del «legislador negativo» 6. La mixtura e hibridación de los actuales sistemas jurisdiccionales de control de constitucionalidad 7. A la búsqueda de una nueva tipología explicativa de las variables conformadoras del control de la constitucionalidad

  4. El escritor americano

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    Cristina Iglesia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Facundo se escribe para los no saben leer América. Este es uno de los puntos de partida de Sarmiento : hay una mala lectura europea de América, sobre todo de la Argentina, del Río de la Plata, de esta parte de América que es, en realidad, la única que a Sarmiento le interesa. “Sus más hábiles políticos no han alcanzado a comprender nada de lo que sus ojos han visto al echar una mirada precipitada sobre el poder americano que desafiaba a la gran nación” escribe en Viajes.Y Europa no sabe leer ...

  5. sistemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Muñoz Gaviria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto presentado a continuación, plantea en términos generales las principales posturas conceptuales del sociólogo alemán Niklas Luhmann sobre las ideas de Max Weber y su teoría de la acción social, y de Talcott Parsons y sus planteamientos en torno a la teoría de los sistemas sociales. Al final del escrito se hace especial énfasis en el rol protagónico que para Luhmann tienen las ciencias sociales y humanas en la autorreferencia del sistema social.

  6. Argos Americano: incertidumbre e independencia

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    Julián Penagos Carreño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es el resultado del análisis léxico métrico al periódico cartagenero el Argos Americano. Papel político, económico y literario de Cartagena de Indias (Septiembre de 1810 -Marzo de 1812 , que muestra las distintas discusiones que se dieron en torno a temas como nación, gobierno e independencia durante una época turbulenta cuando España había sido invadida por los ejércitos de Napoleón, y el rey Fernando VII fue hecho prisionero, lo cual dejó un vacío de poder que sumió a las provincias del continente americano en la incertidumbre por definir un gobierno. Este trabajo hace parte del proyecto de investigación Historia Cultural de la Prensa en la Nueva Granada ( 1810-1820 , patrocinado por la Dirección de Investigaciones y la Facultad de Comunicación de la Universidad de La Sabana.

  7. Pela democracia dos sistemas de avaliação da produção acadêmica: convergências de estudiosos latino-americanos e europeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Vega Montiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto es la transcripción de una conferencia pronunciada en 2011, en el encuentro anual de la Europeean Comunication Research and Education Association (ECREA, que plantea la discusión sobre los efectos de la supremacía de los investigadores del norte sobre los investigadores del sur en el contexto de la evaluación de la calidad de la producción académica. Aunque se reconozcan las especificidades locales y regionales, así como la necesidad de adopción de diferentes metodologías e instrumentos de investigación para el estudio de problemas distintos, en contextos sociales distintos, la producción académica de los estudiosos latinoamericanos sigue siendo sometida a patrones definidos en otras latitudes del mundo. Se argumenta que la supremacía científica de los investigadores del norte se debe, fundamentalmente, a la supremacía del inglés en el sistema académico internacional, que limita las posibilidades de diseminación del conocimiento en otras lenguas.

  8. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  9. La protección de los diseños industriales en el continente americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Castro García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El régimen legal de protección de los diseños industriales en los Estados Unidos de América es bastante complejo. Está compuesto de un régimen principal de protección (bajo la forma de una patente de diseño industrial [Design Patent] y de sistemas subsidiarios tomados de otros regímenes de protección. Como se verá a lo largo de este documento, aunque en los Estados Unidos existe interés en disponer de un sistema único y coherente de protección de los diseños industriales, las numerosas tentativas legislativas que ha tenido el gobierno estadounidense en este sentido no han sido suficientes para que se disponga hoy en día de tal sistema. En América Latina, en razón del origen más o menos común de la fuente de origen de su derecho el régimen de diseños y modelos industriales tiene numerosas semejanzas aunque también algunas diferencias que es interesante conocer con el fin de lograr una visión lo más amplia posible de la manera como se regula el diseño y los modelos industriales en el continente americano.

  10. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  11. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  12. Dos americanos hablan de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcías Martán Góngora

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available El tema universal de España vuelve a resonar en la voz de los poetas americanos. El motivo noble se renueva en la generación que regresa a la península descubridora, a trueque de las negaciones, en la carabela de sus estrofas.

  13. Cdc16p, Cdc23p and Cdc27p form a complex essential for mitosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, J. R.; Michaud, W A; Sikorski, R S; Hieter, P A

    1994-01-01

    Cdc16p, Cdc23p and Cdc27p are all essential proteins required for cell cycle progression through mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three proteins contain multiple tandemly repeated 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). Using two independent assays, two-hybrid analysis in vivo and co-immunoprecipitation in vitro, we demonstrate that Cdc16p, Cdc23p and Cdc27p self associate and interact with one another to form a macromolecular complex. A temperature sensitive mutation in the m...

  14. De "Hojas de hierba" al Martín Fierro: Construcción de la identidad cultural del norte y sur americano

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Santos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Las similitudes contextuales de las obras Hojas de hierba y Martín Fierro apuntan a una tendencia similar en lo que a la construcción de la identidad del continente americano se refiere. La independencia política y económica respondía a conflictos sociales insertos en los sistemas de estas naciones pero que no concluyeron con el logro de la emancipación. Los referentes culturales de las metrópolis seguían vigentes décadas después de la independencia y los artistas de estas naciones comenzaron...

  15. Cdc16p, Cdc23p and Cdc27p form a complex essential for mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, J R; Michaud, W A; Sikorski, R S; Hieter, P A

    1994-09-15

    Cdc16p, Cdc23p and Cdc27p are all essential proteins required for cell cycle progression through mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three proteins contain multiple tandemly repeated 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). Using two independent assays, two-hybrid analysis in vivo and co-immunoprecipitation in vitro, we demonstrate that Cdc16p, Cdc23p and Cdc27p self associate and interact with one another to form a macromolecular complex. A temperature sensitive mutation in the most highly conserved TPR domain of Cdc27p results in a greatly reduced ability to interact with Cdc23p, but has no effect on interactions with wild-type Cdc27p or Cdc16p. The specificity of this effect indicates that TPRs can mediate protein-protein interactions and that this mutation may define an essential interaction for cell cycle progression in yeast. The conservation of at least two of the three proteins from yeast to man suggests that this protein complex is essential for mitosis in a wide range of eukaryotes.

  16. CDC Lab Values

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-02

    More than fifteen hundred scientists fill the lab benches at CDC, logging more than four million hours each year. CDC’s laboratories play a critical role in the agency’s ability to find, stop, and prevent disease outbreaks. This podcast provides a brief overview of what goes on inside CDC’s labs, and why this work makes a difference in American’s health.  Created: 2/2/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 2/2/2015.

  17. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  18. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  19. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  20. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  1. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  2. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  3. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  4. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  5. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  6. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  7. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  8. CDC PRAMStat Data for 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is a surveillance system collecting state-specific,...

  9. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  10. Encontrando os feminismos latino-americanos e caribenhos

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    Alvarez Sonia E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina os Encontros Latino-Americanos e do Caribe como espaços críticos transnacionais onde se re-imagina a política dos feminismos na região. Enfocando o Oitavo desses Encontros, realizado em Juan Dolio, República Dominicana, em 1999, analisamos os principais debates politicos e filosóficos que surgiram durante 20 anos de Encontros: (1 mudanças nas concepções de 'autonomia' do movimento e na relação dos feminismos com o movimento de mulheres mais amplo e com outros atores na sociedade civil e política, o Estado e instituições internacionais; (2 controvérsias geradas pelas recorrentes crises de 'inclusão' e de 'expansão' do movimento; e (3 debates centrados nas diferenças, desigualdades e desequilíbrios de poder entre mulheres em geral e entre as feministas em particular.

  11. Nuevo sistema de análisis descriptivo para fitolitos de silice

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Cristóbal, Rosa Maria

    1995-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el de proponer un nuevo sistema de análisis descriptivo de fitolitos de sílice. Anteriormente se habían realizado otros sistemas de análisis descriptivos para este tipo de fitolitos, especialmente en Estados Unidos. Estos sistemas, sin embargo, planteaban una serie de problemas para su aplicación en el área mediterránea, como es la falta de uniformidad de criterios y el estar centrados, básicamente, en el estudio de plantas del continente americano.

  12. Stalking SARS: CDC at Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the SARS outbreak and how CDC worked to solve the mystery.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of people in the US are getting this disease, which is caused by breathing in small water droplets contaminated with Legionella germs . About 5,000 ... 10. CDC investigations show almost all outbreaks were caused by problems preventable with more effective ... Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks. What causes the Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks that ...

  14. Phosphorylation of Cdc5 regulates its accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson-Lavy Kobi J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cdc5 (polo kinase/Plk1 is a highly conserved key regulator of the S. cerevisiae cell cycle from S-phase until cytokinesis. However, much of the regulatory mechanisms that govern Cdc5 remain to be determined. Cdc5 is phosphorylated on up to 10 sites during mitosis. In this study, we investigated the function of phosphorylation site T23, the only full consensus Cdk1 (Cdc28 phosphorylation site present. Findings Cdc5T23A introduces a degron that reduces its cellular amount to undetectable levels, which are nevertheless sufficient for normal cell proliferation. The degron acts in cis and is reversed by N-terminal GFP-tagging. Cdk1 kinase activity is required to maintain Cdc5 levels during G2. This, Cdk1 inhibited, Cdc5 degradation is APC/CCdh1 independent and requires new protein synthesis. Cdc5T23E is hyperactive, and reduces the levels of Cdc5 (in trans and drastically reduces Clb2 levels. Conclusions Phosphorylation of Cdc5 by Cdk1 is required to maintain Cdc5 levels during G2. However, phosphorylation of T23 (probably by Cdk1 caps Cdc5 and other CLB2 cluster protein accumulation, preventing potential protein toxicity, which may arise from their overexpression or from APC/CCdh1 inactivation.

  15. El realismo americano como antecedente y referente del realismo español

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Ordoñez, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Los estudios realizados sobre lo que genéricamente llamamos Realismo Americano –aunque nos referimos concretamente al del siglo XX –responde por lo común a un tipo de figuración realista que poco tiene que ver con lo que se conoce como la Gran Pintura. En este sentido hay que tener en cuenta la propia trayectoria creativa e individual de los artistas, y el hecho de que el realismo americano haya ido desempeñando un papel variado y cambiante a lo largo de todo el siglo pasado.Partiendo del rec...

  16. Jim Jarmusch: Del "insomnio americano" al "insomnio universal" (1980-1991)

    OpenAIRE

    Ródenas, G. (Gabri)

    2010-01-01

    El presente texto aborda el tránsito del análisis del “insomnio americano” al estudio del “insomnio universal” dentro del primer período de la filmografía del director norteamericano Jim Jarmusch. El insomnio americano debe ser entendido como la crítica al sueño americano y al American Way of Life tal y como se representó, sobre todo, en el cine hegemónico de los años 80. Jarmusch lleva a cabo dicha crítica tanto en el plano formal como por lo que respecta ...

  17. Ondate in successione. Per un barocco americano: Lezama Lima e l’avventura dell’immaginario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Varanini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ondate in successione. Per un barocco americano: Lezama Lima e l’avventura dell’immaginario (Nota a: Lezama Lima, Paradiso, a cura di C. Vitier, Colección Archivos, ALLCA, Madrid, 1988; trad. it. a cura di G. Felici, Torino, Einaudi, 1995

  18. Cdc25B and Cdc25C differ markedly in their properties as initiators of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, C; Katich, S; Hagting, A; Hoffmann, I; Pines, J

    1999-08-09

    We have used time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to study the properties of the Cdc25B and Cdc25C phosphatases that have both been implicated as initiators of mitosis in human cells. To differentiate between the functions of the two proteins, we have microinjected expression constructs encoding Cdc25B or Cdc25C or their GFP-chimeras into synchronized tissue culture cells. This assay allows us to express the proteins at defined points in the cell cycle. We have followed the microinjected cells by time-lapse microscopy, in the presence or absence of DNA synthesis inhibitors, and assayed whether they enter mitosis prematurely or at the correct time. We find that overexpressing Cdc25B alone rapidly causes S phase and G2 phase cells to enter mitosis, whether or not DNA replication is complete, whereas overexpressing Cdc25C does not cause premature mitosis. Overexpressing Cdc25C together with cyclin B1 does shorten the G2 phase and can override the unreplicated DNA checkpoint, but much less efficiently than overexpressing Cdc25B. These results suggest that Cdc25B and Cdc25C do not respond identically to the same cell cycle checkpoints. This difference may be related to the differential localization of the proteins; Cdc25C is nuclear throughout interphase, whereas Cdc25B is nuclear in the G1 phase and cytoplasmic in the S and G2 phases. We have found that the change in subcellular localization of Cdc25B is due to nuclear export and that this is dependent on cyclin B1. Our data suggest that although both Cdc25B and Cdc25C can promote mitosis, they are likely to have distinct roles in the controlling the initiation of mitosis.

  19. Sistemas audiovisuales

    OpenAIRE

    Tarrés Ruiz, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    Conté: 1. Televisión analógica y digital El libro presenta una descripción detallada de los diferentes sistemas de televisión analógica y digital e incluye un análisis exhaustivo de numerosos aspectos tecnológicos e históricos, siempre desde una perspectiva sistemática y generalista dirigida tanto a estudiantes universitarios como a técnicos de grado superior. Tras una introducción a los sistemas de comunicación visual, en la que se analizan las distintas etapas de la conversión de una...

  20. Sistema Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas

    2004-01-01

    Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011

  1. PROTAGONISMO DOS ÍNDIOS NORTE-AMERICANOS NOS DESENHOS ANIMADOS DE WALTER LANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL DUARTE OLIVEIRA VENANCIO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Condemned to a dubious media representation in early cinema through thenovels of the late nineteenth century, the North American Indians never had a high profile infilms of this period. However, an animator, Walter Lantz, has a high degree of characterizationof Native Americans in his work. The aim of this paper is to study the role of Native Americansin these cartoons and analyze the social implications of these choices, using the concepts ofapparatus and formula. Furthermore, the analysis will include a portrayal of the Americanmedia scene before and after Lantz, seeking disruptions and legacies.Condenados a uma duvidosa representação midiática no início do cinema graçasaos romances do final do século XIX, os índios norte-americanos nunca tiveram um grandedestaque nos filmes dessa época. No entanto, um realizador de desenhos animados, WalterLantz, possui um alto grau de caracterização de nativos norte-americanos em seus trabalhos. Oobjetivo do presente artigo é estudar o protagonismo dos índios norte-americanos nessesdesenhos animados, e analisar as implicações sociais dessas escolhas através do uso dosconceitos de dispositivo e fórmula. Além disso, a análise incluirá a retratação da cenamidiática norte-americana antes e depois de Lantz, buscando rupturas e legados.

  2. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  3. CDC WONDER: Online Tuberculosis Information System (OTIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Online Tuberculosis Information System (OTIS) on CDC WONDER contains information on verified tuberculosis (TB) cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control...

  4. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  5. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  6. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... text version SOURCE: Adapted from Trussell J in Contraceptive Technology, 2011, and FDA Office of Women’s Health ... about how to avoid repeat births with both male and female teens. http://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/ ...

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses....

  14. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  15. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  16. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  19. CDC Updates Spending Plans to Combat Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 161541.html CDC Updates Spending Plans to Combat Zika Some goals: prepare states for future outbreaks, and ... dollars to prepare states and cities for future Zika virus outbreaks, and to track the effects of ...

  20. CDC WONDER: AIDS Public Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The AIDS Public Information Data Set (APIDS) for years 1981-2002 on CDC WONDER online database contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases...

  1. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...

  2. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  3. [Differences in magnitude of nutritional status in Chilean school children according to CDC and WHO 2005-2008 reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Fabián; Cerda Rioseco, Ricardo; Andrade, Margarita; Morales, Gladys; Gálvez, Patricia; Orellana, Yasna; Leyton, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Es necesario realizar nuevas discusiones respecto a la magnitud de los problemas nutricionales diagnosticados, al usar CDC u OMS, frente a la existencia de nuevas definiciones biológicas o estadísticas de obesidad. Objetivo: Comparar la evolución de la prevalencia de estado nutricional en escolares de primero básico, desde el 2013 2005 al 2008, según CDC y OMS. Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva, de 140.265 escolares de ambos sexos de primero básico, evaluados entre 2005- 2008, cuyos datos antropométricos (peso y talla), se obtuvieron del sistema anual de registro del estado nutricional escolar. Para clasificar el estado nutricional, se utilizaron los patrones CDC y OMS. Resultados: Los promedios de IMC fueron levemente diferentes y menores en la niñas que en los niños, en 2005 y 2006. Durante el 2007 y 2008 el promedio de IMC en las niñas alcanzó la cifra observada en los varones. Hubo mayor prevalencia de bajo peso según OMS (p=0,03), con una tendencia a la disminución en los 2013s posteriores. La prevalencia de normalidad fue mayor según el criterio CDC, con una reducción entre el 2005 y 2007 y un incremento 2008 (p<0,001). Hubo una menor prevalencia de sobrepeso según el criterio CDC (p<0,001), con aumento entre el 2005 y 2007, tanto CDC como OMS. La prevalencia de obesidad fue menor según el criterio OMS, no encontrándose diferencia estadísticamente significativa al comparar con el patrón CDC. Conclusiones: Al comparar ambos patrones, CDC tiende a sobreestimar la normalidad y subestimar el sobrepeso, mientras que en obesidad no se encontraron diferencias significativas.

  4. Diferencias en magnitud de estado nutricional en escolares chilenos según la referencia CDC y OMS 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Vásquez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Es necesario realizar nuevas discusiones respecto a la magnitud de los problemas nutricionales diagnosticados, al usar CDC u OMS, frente a la existencia de nuevas definiciones biológicas o estadísticas de obesidad. Objetivo: Comparar la evolución de la prevalencia de estado nutricional en escolares de primero básico, desde el año 2005 al 2008, según CDC y OMS. Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva, de 140.265 escolares de ambos sexos de primero básico, evaluados entre 2005-2008, cuyos datos antropométricos (peso y talla, se obtuvieron del sistema anual de registro del estado nutricional escolar. Para clasificar el estado nutricional, se utilizaron los patrones CDC y OMS. Resultados: Los promedios de IMC fueron levemente diferentes y menores en la niñas que en los niños, en 2005 y 2006. Durante el 2007 y 2008 el promedio de IMC en las niñas alcanzó la cifra observada en los varones. Hubo mayor prevalencia de bajo peso según OMS (p=0,03, con una tendencia a la disminución en los años posteriores. La prevalencia de normalidad fue mayor según el criterio CDC, con una reducción entre el 2005 y 2007 y un incremento 2008 (p<0,001. Hubo una menor prevalencia de sobrepeso según el criterio CDC (p<0,001, con aumento entre el 2005 y 2007, tanto CDC como OMS. La prevalencia de obesidad fue menor según el criterio OMS, no encontrándose diferencia estadísticamente significativa al comparar con el patrón CDC. Conclusiones: Al comparar ambos patrones, CDC tiende a sobreestimar la normalidad y subestimar el sobrepeso, mientras que en obesidad no se encontraron diferencias significativas.

  5. O desenvolvimento de uma base de dados léxico-conceitual bilíngue (inglês norte-americano/português brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Di Felippo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Para os sistemas computacionais que processam línguas naturais, como os de tradução automática, os recursos léxico-conceituais bilíngues ou multilíngues são de extrema importância. Consequentemente, o desenvolvimento de tais recursos tem ocupado lugar de centralidade no Processamento Automático das Línguas Naturais (PLN. Para o português do Brasil (PB, os recursos desse tipo ainda são escassos. Neste trabalho, apresenta-se REBECA, uma base de dados léxico-conceitual bilíngue desenvolvida para o par de línguas “inglês americano-PB” (Ingl-PB. Na introdução, contextualiza-se o projeto de desenvolvimento dessa base. Na sequência, apresentam-se (i o equacionamento metodológico do projeto, enfatizando as atividades de pesquisa realizadas em cada uma das etapas previstas pela metodologia, (ii a construção da base com o auxílio do editor de ontologias Protégé-OWL, (iii as principais características e potencialidades da base REBECA e, por fim, (iv as possíveis extensões e algumas considerações finais.

  6. Repertorio Americano tribuna del pensamiento latinoamericano: la voz de José Vasconcelos

    OpenAIRE

    Prada Ortíz, Grace

    2011-01-01

    En este ensayo, la autora desarrolla varios temas relacionados con el idearios del mexicano José Vasconcelos publicados en diversos artículos en la revista costarricense Repertorio Americano (1919-58), incluido un cuestionario de Joaquín García Mongecon seis preguntas hechas a Vasconcelos sobre temas de educación y política. Además, se ofrece la posición de Vasconcelos sobre España, la religión, la cultura, el latinismo, el ejercito, el trabajo y otros asuntos importantes en la época.

  7. A linguagem dos filmes norte-americanos ao longo dos anos: uma abordagem multidimensional

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Marcia Veirano

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa é investigar dimensões de variação na linguagem dos filmes americanos ao longo de 80 anos de cinema falado. Para tanto, buscou-se suporte teórico na visão de linguagem da Linguística de Corpus e na abordagem metodológica da Análise Multidimensional. Mais especificamente, nas duas modalidades propostas por essa metodologia: a que mapeia o registro filme nas 5 dimensões de variação do inglês apontadas por Biber (1988), e a que propõe novas dimensões de...

  8. Regulated degradation of the APC coactivator Cdc20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins Jonathan A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cdc20 is a highly conserved activator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC, promoting cell-cycle-regulated ubiquitination and proteolysis of a number of critical cell-cycle-regulatory targets including securin and mitotic cyclins. APC-Cdc20 activity is tightly regulated, and this regulation is likely important for accurate cell cycle control. One significant component of Cdc20 regulation is thought to be Cdc20 proteolysis. However, published literature suggests different mechanisms and requirements for Cdc20 proteolysis. The degree to which Cdc20 proteolysis is cell-cycle regulated, the dependence of Cdc20 proteolysis on Cdc20 destruction boxes (recognition sequences for APC-mediated ubiqutination, either by Cdc20 or by the related Cdh1 APC activator, and the need for APC itself for Cdc20 proteolysis all have been disputed to varying extents. In animals, Cdc20 proteolysis is thought to be mediated by Cdh1, contributing an intrinsic order of APC activation by Cdc20 and then by Cdh1. One report suggests a Cdh1 requirement for Cdc20 proteolysis in budding yeast; this idea has not been tested further. Results We characterized Cdc20 proteolysis using Cdc20 expressed from its endogenous locus; previous studies generally employed strongly overexpressed Cdc20, which can cause significant artifacts. We analyzed Cdc20 proteolysis with or without mutations in previously identified destruction box sequences, using varying methods of cell cycle synchronization, and in the presence or absence of Cdh1. Cdc20 instability is only partially dependent on destruction boxes. A much stronger dependence on Cdh1 for Cdc20 proteolysis was observed, but Cdh1-independent proteolysis was also clearly observed. Cdc20 proteolysis independent of both destruction boxes and Cdh1 was especially detectable around the G1/S transition; Cdh1-dependent proteolysis was most notable in late mitosis and G1. Conclusions Cdc20 proteolysis is under complex control

  9. Cdc42-mediated tubulogenesis controls cell specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Sand, Fredrik Wolfhagen; Greiner, Thomas Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how cells polarize and coordinate tubulogenesis during organ formation is a central question in biology. Tubulogenesis often coincides with cell-lineage specification during organ development. Hence, an elementary question is whether these two processes are independently controlled......, or whether proper cell specification depends on formation of tubes. To address these fundamental questions, we have studied the functional role of Cdc42 in pancreatic tubulogenesis. We present evidence that Cdc42 is essential for tube formation, specifically for initiating microlumen formation and later...... for maintaining apical cell polarity. Finally, we show that Cdc42 controls cell specification non-cell-autonomously by providing the correct microenvironment for proper control of cell-fate choices of multipotent progenitors. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data...

  10. Diversidad cultural y lenguaje: una revisión sobre el tema del hombre americano (siglos xvi y xvii)

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Gallegos, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Abordamos el tema de la humanidad del indio americano (siglos xvixvii) para mostrar la tensión generada entre la preservación de la unidad del género humano y la diversidad cultural. Se analiza el discurso del misionero sobre el americano, algunos ejemplos de inconmensurabilidad lingüística y los problemas de comunicación intercultural para explicar la causa de las vacilantes opiniones de los misioneros sobre el indígena y para proponer un nuevo enfoque de análisis de estos ...

  11. Retornados e inadaptados: el "Americano" Gallego, entre mito y realidad (1880-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Seixas, Xosé M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During the period of mass migration to America, return migrants, also labelled as "americans" or "indianos", played an important role in Galicia's rural regions as technical innovators and catalysers of the articulation of civil society. This article attemps to have a first look on the topic, by researching into the internal diversity of the whole collectivity of return migrants. It also aims at offering a typology of the social and political agency of return migrants in Galicia in comparative perspective.

    En el período de emigración masiva hacia América, los retornados, también denominados "americanos" o "indianos", jugaron un papel importante como introductores de innovaciones técnicas y como catalizadores de la articulación de la sociedad civil en las zonas rurales de Galicia. Este artículo intenta una aproximación al tema, preguntándose por la diversidad interna del colectivo de retornados y ensayando, en virtud de la comparación con otros ejemplos históricos, una tipología de la agencia social y política de los "americanos" gallegos.

  12. Pruebas de comportamiento caótico en índices bursátiles americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Parisi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo valida el comportamiento caótico en las Bolsas de Valores de Argentina, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Estados Unidos, Perú y México utilizando los índices accionarios Merval, Bovespa, S&P TSX Composite, IPSA, IGPA, S&P 500, Dow Jones Industrials, Nasdaq, IGBVL e IPC, respectivamente. Los resultados de distintas técnicas y métodos como análisis gráfico, análisis de recurrencia, entropía de espacio temporal, coeficiente de Hurst, exponente de Lyapunov y dimensión de correlación, apoyan la hipótesis de que los mercados bursátiles americanos se comportan de forma caótica, en contra de la hipótesis de mercados eficientes y la hipótesis de aleatoriedad. Esta conclusión valida el uso de instrumentos predictivos de rendimientos accionarios en los mercados de renta variable americanos. Destacable es el resultado de la técnica coeficiente de Hurst, que en promedio fue de 0.75 para los índices en estudio, lo que estaría justificando la utilización de modelos tipo Arfima, entre otros, para la predicción de dichas series.

  13. Percepciones e interpretaciones sobre humanismo en el Museo del Hombre Americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Soraia Backx Sanabria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis de la exposición permanente del Museo del Hombre Americano (Piauí - Brasil, institución dedicada a la comunicación de los resultados obtenidos en más de cuarenta años de investigaciones arqueológicas llevadas a cabo en el Parque Nacional de la Sierra de Capivara. El parque posee la mayor concentración de sitios arqueológicos de las Américas y fue inscrito por la UNESCO en 1991 en la lista del Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad. En su museo, así como en todos los otros, la articulación de la cultura material en las exposiciones construye varios discursos que son transmitidos al público por medio de recursos visuales, sonoros y táctiles. El presente trabajo se centra en el estudio de esas prácticas en el Museo del Hombre Americano, analizando los discursos sobre el Hombre y el humanismo producidos en esa institución.

  14. January 21, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-21

    The latest numbers from CDC show more than 20,000 people in West Africa have been sick with Ebola, and more than 8,000 have died. As Dr. Tom Frieden explains, some areas may be starting to see a decrease in cases, but that does not mean the fight is over. CDC will continue its work in West Africa until we get to zero new cases.  Created: 1/21/2015 by CDC’s Office of the Associate Director for Communication.   Date Released: 1/21/2015.

  15. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  16. Characterization and Expression of Mouse Cdc50c during Spermatogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng XU; Xiaoyan DING

    2007-01-01

    Cdc50p is a transmembrane protein required for polarized growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The knowledge on physiological functions of its mammalian homologs, however, is limited. Using database analysis, we identified one mouse testis expressed sequence tag, named Cdc50c, encoding a previously uncharacterized homolog of Cdc50p. Similar to yeast Cdc50p, the putative Cdc50c protein contains three transmembrane spanning regions. Its orthologs are present in many species such as fish, avian and human,suggesting its evolutionary conservation. In multitissue reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses the mRNA for Cdc50c was predominately detected in testis. The onset of the gene expression coincides with the first appearance of spermatocytes during testicular development. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that Cdc50c mRNA localized in pachytene spermatocytes and round and elongated spermatids. Our data suggest that Cdc50c might play important roles during spermatogenesis.

  17. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  18. cdc-25.4, a Caenorhabditis elegans Ortholog of cdc25, Is Required for Male Mating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division cycle 25 (cdc25 is an evolutionarily conserved phosphatase that promotes cell cycle progression. Among the four cdc25 orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that cdc-25.4 mutant males failed to produce outcrossed progeny. This was not caused by defects in sperm development, but by defects in male mating behavior. The cdc-25.4 mutant males showed various defects during male mating, including contact response, backing, turning, and vulva location. Aberrant turning behavior was the most prominent defect in the cdc-25.4 mutant males. We also found that cdc-25.4 is expressed in many neuronal cells throughout development. The turning defect in cdc-25.4 mutant males was recovered by cdc-25.4 transgenic expression in neuronal cells, suggesting that cdc-25.4 functions in neurons for male mating. However, the neuronal morphology of cdc-25.4 mutant males appeared to be normal, as examined with several neuronal markers. Also, RNAi depletion of wee-1.3, a C. elegans ortholog of Wee1/Myt1 kinase, failed to suppress the mating defects of cdc-25.4 mutant males. These findings suggest that, for successful male mating, cdc-25.4 does not target cell cycles that are required for neuronal differentiation and development. Rather, cdc-25.4 likely regulates noncanonical substrates in neuronal cells.

  19. June 2, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Jane Seward discusses the Ebola vaccine trial known as STRIVE, which began in April 2015.  Created: 6/2/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  20. December 17, 2014 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-17

    This podcast provides an update on the Ebola response, as of December 17, 2014. It briefly describes CDC's "Operation Care Package.".  Created: 12/17/2014 by CDC’s Office of the Associate Director for Communication.   Date Released: 12/17/2014.

  1. 13 CFR 120.851 - CDC ethical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CDC ethical requirements. 120.851... Company Loan Program (504) Other Cdc Requirements § 120.851 CDC ethical requirements. CDCs and their Associates must act ethically and exhibit good character. They must meet all of the ethical requirements...

  2. Narrações em compasso pos-moderno : (dois romances latino-americanos)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Villarraga Eslava

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: A partir da perspectiva teórica do pós-modernismo, procede-se à leitura critica de dois romances latino-americanos contemporâneos. Através da análise dos fatores que participam da composição estrutural e expressiva, procura-se, então, entender como ambos os textos assimilam a lógica de seus referentes, como fazem deles substância da própria representação fictícia e, finalmente, como se afastam dos modelos narrativos que a tradição moderna gerou. A tese fundamental que circula nas p...

  3. Matizes do pensamento político norte-americano na virada conservadora de 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ribeiro do Valle

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina de que forma o revigoramento da excepcional experiência histórica americana aparece como solução para alguns dos principais neoconservadores, sendo emblemáticos Nathan Glazer e Irving Kristol, frente à "queda" do império americano, que tem início nos anos 1960 e 1970, depois de sua ascensão no período da Guerra Fria, os chamados 25 anos gloriosos. Constatamos que a argumentação desses autores está enraizada na retomada da retórica reacionária como antídoto à decadência da virtude americana supostamente provocada pelo comunismo, pelo movimento da contracultura e pelo alegado efeito perverso do welfare state.

  4. Percepciones e interpretaciones sobre humanismo en el Museo del Hombre Americano

    OpenAIRE

    Isabela Soraia Backx Sanabria

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un análisis de la exposición permanente del Museo del Hombre Americano (Piauí - Brasil), institución dedicada a la comunicación de los resultados obtenidos en más de cuarenta años de investigaciones arqueológicas llevadas a cabo en el Parque Nacional de la Sierra de Capivara. El parque posee la mayor concentración de sitios arqueológicos de las Américas y fue inscrito por la UNESCO en 1991 en la lista del Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad. En su museo, así como en tod...

  5. Cdc48: A Swiss Army Knife of Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guem Hee Baek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cdc48 (also called VCP and p97 is an abundant protein that plays essential regulatory functions in a broad array of cellular processes. Working with various cofactors, Cdc48 utilizes its ATPase activity to promote the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. Here, we review key biological functions and regulation of Cdc48 in ubiquitin-related events. Given the broad employment of Cdc48 in cell biology and its intimate ties to human diseases (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, studies of Cdc48 will bring significant insights into the mechanism and function of ubiquitin in health and diseases.

  6. Analysis list: Cdc73 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cdc73 Muscle + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Cdc73.1.ts...v http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Cdc73.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Cdc...73.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Cdc73.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Muscle.gml ...

  7. CDC Vital Signs-Heroin Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-07

    This podcast is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.  Created: 7/7/2015 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/7/2015.

  8. September 24, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-24

    In this podcast, CDC medical officer Alyson Goodman describes how CDC’s Children’s Health Team worked with partners to help U.S. hospitals prepare for a potential case of Ebola in a child.  Created: 9/24/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 9/24/2015.

  9. February 20, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-20

    A strategy to rapidly identify and respond to cases of Ebola in remote areas in Liberia led to a drastic reduction in Ebola cases and cut the duration of these cluster outbreaks in half. Learn how CDC responders and their partners trekked through the jungle in their efforts to quickly stop the spread of the virus.  Created: 2/20/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 2/20/2015.

  10. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  11. Human Cdc14B promotes progression through mitosis by dephosphorylating Cdc25 and regulating Cdk1/cyclin B activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Tumurbaatar

    Full Text Available Entry into and progression through mitosis depends on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of key substrates. In yeast, the nucleolar phosphatase Cdc14 is pivotal for exit from mitosis counteracting Cdk1-dependent phosphorylations. Whether hCdc14B, the human homolog of yeast Cdc14, plays a similar function in mitosis is not yet known. Here we show that hCdc14B serves a critical role in regulating progression through mitosis, which is distinct from hCdc14A. Unscheduled overexpression of hCdc14B delays activation of two master regulators of mitosis, Cdc25 and Cdk1, and slows down entry into mitosis. Depletion of hCdc14B by RNAi prevents timely inactivation of Cdk1/cyclin B and dephosphorylation of Cdc25, leading to severe mitotic defects, such as delay of metaphase/anaphase transition, lagging chromosomes, multipolar spindles and binucleation. The results demonstrate that hCdc14B-dependent modulation of Cdc25 phosphatase and Cdk1/cyclin B activity is tightly linked to correct chromosome segregation and bipolar spindle formation, processes that are required for proper progression through mitosis and maintenance of genomic stability.

  12. Entry into mitosis without Cdc2 kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowdy, P M; Anderson, H J; Roberge, M

    1998-11-01

    Mouse FT210 cells at 39 degreesC cannot enter mitosis but arrest in G2 phase, because they lack Cdc2 kinase activity as a result of a temperature-sensitive lesion in the cdc2 gene. Incubation of arrested cells with the protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor okadaic acid induces morphologically normal chromosome condensation. We now show that okadaic acid also induces two other landmark events of early mitosis, nuclear lamina depolymerization and centrosome separation, in the absence of Cdc2 kinase activity. Okadaic acid-induced entry into mitosis is accompanied by partial activation of Cdc25C and may be prevented by tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors and by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, suggesting that Cdc25C and kinases distinct from Cdc2 are required for these mitotic events. Using in-gel assays, we show that a 45-kDa protein kinase normally activated at mitosis is also activated by okadaic acid independently of Cdc2 kinase. The 45-kDa kinase can utilize GTP, is stimulated by spermine and is inhibited by heparin. These properties are characteristic of the kinase CK2, but immunoprecipitation studies indicate that it is not CK2. The data underline the importance of a tyrosine phosphatase, possibly Cdc25C, and of kinases other than Cdc2 in the structural changes the cell undergoes at mitosis, and indicate that entry into mitosis involves the activation of multiple kinases working in concert with Cdc2 kinase.

  13. Cdc6 ATPase activity disengages Cdc6 from the pre-replicative complex to promote DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, FuJung; Riera, Alberto; Evrin, Cecile; Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin; Speck, Christian; Weinreich, Michael

    2015-08-25

    To initiate DNA replication, cells first load an MCM helicase double hexamer at origins in a reaction requiring ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1, also called pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) assembly. The essential mechanistic role of Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis in this reaction is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that although Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is essential to initiate DNA replication, it is not essential for MCM loading. Using purified proteins, an ATPase-defective Cdc6 mutant 'Cdc6-E224Q' promoted MCM loading on DNA. Cdc6-E224Q also promoted MCM binding at origins in vivo but cells remained blocked in G1-phase. If after loading MCM, Cdc6-E224Q was degraded, cells entered an apparently normal S-phase and replicated DNA, a phenotype seen with two additional Cdc6 ATPase-defective mutants. Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is therefore required for Cdc6 disengagement from the pre-RC after helicase loading to advance subsequent steps in helicase activation in vivo.

  14. Cdc42 regulates cofilin during the establishment of neuronal polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvalov, Boyan K; Flynn, Kevin C; Neukirchen, Dorothee

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of polarity is an essential process in early neuronal development. Although a number of molecules controlling neuronal polarity have been identified, genetic evidence about their physiological roles in this process is mostly lacking. We analyzed the consequences of loss of Cdc42......, a central regulator of polarity in multiple systems, on the polarization of mammalian neurons. Genetic ablation of Cdc42 in the brain led to multiple abnormalities, including striking defects in the formation of axonal tracts. Neurons from the Cdc42 null animals sprouted neurites but had a strongly......-type, but not of mutant, neurons. Importantly, cofilin knockdown resulted in polarity defects quantitatively analogous to the ones seen after Cdc42 ablation. We conclude that Cdc42 is a key regulator of axon specification, and that cofilin is a physiological downstream effector of Cdc42 in this process....

  15. Los Sistemas Peatonales Como Sistemas De Transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Álvarez Pomar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas peatonales han cobrado importancia dentro de los sistemas de movilidad debido al aumento de los viajes peatonales. Este aumento se ha debido a la concientización de las personas sobre las ventajas de caminar, al aumento del uso de los sistemas de transporte público y en algunos casos a los escasos recursos económicos. En la última década, los sistemas peatonales han sido incluidos en la planeación de movilidad de algunas ciudades. Sin embargo, su definición formal carece del despliegue de sus componentes, así como del análisis de las interrelaciones entre los mismos. Se presenta una propuesta que puede servir de base para su definición formal, con el fin de ser usada para su análisis y diseño. Se concluye que las definiciones actuales no cubren todos los aspectos clave de los sistemas peatonales, para que puedan ser un buen soporte para la toma de decisiones sobre este tipo de sistemas y se distinguenlos componentes estructurales que se consideran importantes.

  16. March 19, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-19

    The Ebola outbreak has caused many people to ask whether animals, or specifically pets, are at risk of getting and spreading Ebola in the United States. In this podcast, Drs. Casey Barton Behravesh and Heather Bair-Brake, veterinarians at CDC, discuss how Ebola can affect animals, whether pets in the U.S. are at risk, and what people being monitored for Ebola should do if they have pets at home.  Created: 3/19/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 3/19/2015.

  17. January 8, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    CDC scientists, recently returned from Guinea, recount their infection control training course for Guinean healthcare workers who work in health facilities other than Ebola Treatment Units. These workers treat anyone from pregnant women to suspected Ebola cases. It’s critical they be able to recognize and properly treat Ebola patients, not only to protect their own health, but that of their patients.  Created: 1/8/2015 by CDC’s Office of the Associate Director for Communication.   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  18. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  19. April 28, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-28

    In any disease outbreak, misinformation, a lack of understanding, and fear can lead to unfortunate side effects, like stigma. Stigma presents a challenge for communities during a time when they need to be strong to fight the disease. In this podcast, Molly Gaines-McCollom, CDC Health Communication Specialist, discusses the impact of stigma in the current Ebola outbreak and why it’s so important to fight it.  Created: 4/28/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 4/28/2015.

  20. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  1. Cdc42 deficiency causes ciliary abnormalities and cystic kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Huang, Liwei; McKenna, Sarah; Wilson, F Perry; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2013-09-01

    Ciliogenesis and cystogenesis require the exocyst, a conserved eight-protein trafficking complex that traffics ciliary proteins. In culture, the small GTPase Cdc42 co-localizes with the exocyst at primary cilia and interacts with the exocyst component Sec10. The role of Cdc42 in vivo, however, is not well understood. Here, knockdown of cdc42 in zebrafish produced a phenotype similar to sec10 knockdown, including tail curvature, glomerular expansion, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, suggesting that cdc42 and sec10 cooperate in ciliogenesis. In addition, cdc42 knockdown led to hydrocephalus and loss of photoreceptor cilia. Furthermore, there was a synergistic genetic interaction between zebrafish cdc42 and sec10, suggesting that cdc42 and sec10 function in the same pathway. Mice lacking Cdc42 specifically in kidney tubular epithelial cells died of renal failure within weeks of birth. Histology revealed cystogenesis in distal tubules and collecting ducts, decreased ciliogenesis in cyst cells, increased tubular cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, increased fibrosis, and led to MAPK activation, all of which are features of polycystic kidney disease, especially nephronophthisis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cdc42 localizes the exocyst to primary cilia, whereupon the exocyst targets and docks vesicles carrying ciliary proteins. Abnormalities in this pathway result in deranged ciliogenesis and polycystic kidney disease.

  2. Cdc42 promotes host defenses against fatal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Keunwook; Boyd, Kelli L; Parekh, Diptiben V;

    2013-01-01

    The small Rho GTPase, Cdc42, regulates key signaling pathways required for multiple cell functions including maintenance of shape, polarity, proliferation, invasion, migration, differentiation and morphogenesis. As the role of Cdc42-dependent signaling in fibroblasts in vivo is unknown, we...... showed that in addition to fibroblasts, the FSP-1 cre deleted Cdc42 very efficiently in all leukocytes. Thus, by using this non-specific cre mouse we inadvertently demonstrated the importance of Cdc42 in host protection from lethal infections and suggest a critical role for this small GTPase in innate...

  3. LA INTERNACIONALIZACIÓN DEL MAGISTERIO AMERICANO: PROPUESTAS EDUCATIVAS Y TENSIONES POLÍTICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pita González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la década de 1920 se suscitaron numerosas propuestas educativas que buscaban modificar radicalmente la enseñanza tradicional. Entre ellas esta aquellas que recibieron el impacto de la revolución rusa, ya sea para seguir el camino trazado por una nueva pedagogía proletaria o para cuestionarse la necesidad de una educación que tuviera como objetivo el cambio social. Para llevar a cabo el cambio anhelado era necesario crear organizaciones de maestros regionales e internacionales, que en diversos congresos presentaron sus propuestas educativas y enfrentaron una serie de batallas políticas que dejan traslucir las fuertes tensiones del campo educativo e intelectual. En América Latina, un espacio privilegiado para observar este debate fue la Internacional del Magisterio Americano, organización que tuvo visibilidad inicialmente a través de dos convenciones realizadas a fines de la década de 1920, donde se reunieron un número importante de maestros para debatir la situación de la educación pública en estos países.

  4. El viaje americano del botánico Carl Friedrich Eduard Otto (1838-1841

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The German naturalist Carl Friedrich Eduard Otto travelled during the 1838-1841 period through the West Indies and the American continent looking for botanical specimen and made a study on the social customs of the inhabitants. He went to Cuba, the United States of America and Venezuela. This work contains a further description of the places he visited and the itineraries he followed. The alive plants he harvested, were sent to the Botanical Garden in Berlin while the dry plants were sent to the Royal Herbarium. This study focuses on Otto and Humbolt’s different criteria regarding the slavery and describes Otto’s ideological class-conscious positions.El naturalista alemán Carl Friedrich Eduard Otto viajó entre los años 1838 a 1841 por las Antillas y el Continente americano en busca de especímenes botánicos y para estudiar las costumbres sociales de sus habitantes. Visitó Cuba, Estados Unidos y Venezuela. El trabajo describe los lugares visitados e itinerarios seguidos. Las plantas vivas recolectadas tuvieron como destino el Jardín Botánico de Berlín y las plantas secas el Real Herbario. El estudio señala las diferencias de criterio entre Otto y Humbolt en el tema de la esclavitud y describe las posiciones ideológicas clasistas del primero.

  5. Científicos americanos en las cortes constituyentes. La cuestión ultramarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado Polo, Jose Luis

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the performance in the Spanish Cortes of three well known American Botanists in the constitutional phase previous to Independence of their countries of origin: Francisco Antonio Zea from New Granada, José María Lequerica from Quito, and Pablo de la Llave from New Spain. Their political motivations and their positioning vis à vis the Parliamentary debates that took place in regard to problems affecting the American colonies are analyzed through two main sources: the Actas de Bayona and the Diario de Sesiones.

    Con este estudio pretendemos contribuir al mayor conocimiento sobre un capítulo poco estudiado de la historia de la ciencia hispanoamericana. Lo haremos a través del seguimiento de las actuaciones como diputados en las Cortes españolas de tres destacados botánicos americanos en las etapas constitucionales anteriores a la emancipación de sus países de origen: el neogranadino Francisco Antonio Zea, el quiteño José Mejía Lequerica y el novohispano Pablo de la Llave. Damos a conocer los impulsos políticos que les motivaron y sus posiciones ante las cuestiones más relevantes debatidas en el parlamento en relación con los problemas que afectaban a las colonias americanas. Las Actas de Bayona y el Diario de Sesiones de las Cortes constituyen las fuentes principales del presente trabajo.

  6. Perseguir al SRAG: CDC en acción (Stalking SARS: CDC at Work)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-29

    En este podcast los niños de Kidtastics hablan sobre el brote del SRAS y cómo trabajaron los CDC para resolver el misterio.  Created: 4/29/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/10/2016.

  7. Requirement for p34cdc2 kinase is restricted to mitosis in the mammalian cdc2 mutant FT210.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, J R; Tobey, R A; Pines, J; Crissman, H A; Hunter, T; Bradbury, E M

    1992-06-01

    The mouse FT210 cell line is a temperature-sensitive cdc2 mutant. FT210 cells are found to arrest specifically in G2 phase and unlike many alleles of cdc2 and cdc28 mutants of yeasts, loss of p34cdc2 at the nonpermissive temperature has no apparent effect on cell cycle progression through the G1 and S phases of the division cycle. FT210 cells and the parent wild-type FM3A cell line each possess at least three distinct histone H1 kinases. H1 kinase activities in chromatography fractions were identified using a synthetic peptide substrate containing the consensus phosphorylation site of histone H1 and the kinase subunit compositions were determined immunochemically with antisera prepared against the "PSTAIR" peptide, the COOH-terminus of mammalian p34cdc2 and the human cyclins A and B1. The results show that p34cdc2 forms two separate complexes with cyclin A and with cyclin B1, both of which exhibit thermal lability at the non-permissive temperature in vitro and in vivo. A third H1 kinase with stable activity at the nonpermissive temperature is comprised of cyclin A and a cdc2-like 34-kD subunit, which is immunoreactive with anti-"PSTAIR" antiserum but is not recognized with antiserum specific for the COOH-terminus of p34cdc2. The cyclin A-associated kinases are active during S and G2 phases and earlier in the division cycle than the p34cdc2-cyclin B1 kinase. We show that mouse cells possess at least two cdc2-related gene products which form cell cycle regulated histone H1 kinases and we propose that the murine homolog of yeast p34cdc/CDC28 is essential only during the G2-to-M transition in FT210 cells.

  8. CDC releases ventilator-associated events criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A new term has been coined by the CDC, ventilator-associated events (VAEs (1. In 2011, the CDC convened a working group composed of members of several stakeholder organizations to address the limitations of the definition of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP definition (2. The organizations represented in the Working Group include: the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, the American College of Chest Physicians, the American Thoracic Society, and the Society for Critical Care Medicine; the American Association for Respiratory Care; the Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology; the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists; the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee’s Surveillance Working Group; the Infectious Diseases Society of America; and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. VAEs are defined by an increase oxygen (>0.2 in FiO2 or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP (≥3 cm H2O, after a previous stable baseline of at least 2 …

  9. El indígena americano como problema médico-social

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    1. Indígenas en América. Quiénes son y cuántos son (Cuadro que muestra la población indígena de la actualidad) - 2. Los sistemas médico-sociales europeos en América 3. El indígena como problema médico social

  10. 13 CFR 120.823 - CDC Board of Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the CDC manager must possess commercial lending experience. The Board must meet at least quarterly and shall be responsible for CDC staff decisions and actions. A quorum shall require at least 5 Directors... Committee members must include at least one member with commercial lending experience acceptable to SBA....

  11. 77 FR 12845 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Disease, Disability, and Injury... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (CDC/ATSDR... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  12. El imaginario flamenco americano: Aura y Kitsch en la escena transnacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asensio, Susana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous transformations suffered by flamenco have always been related to its interactions with many other traditions. What once was a local experience, although hybrid from its origins, was transformed into a chameleonic musical phenomenon able to produce new development while conserving a characteristic personality. The transnational flamenco progress started around the end of 19th century. It is considered that its trips to America, especially those to the United States, were the most relevant to the phenomenon. However, flamenco artists developed their careers detached from its socio-cultural environment —and even from American cultures— in the new settings. Their isolation was twofold and favored specific ways to perform and experience flamenco. This new expansion gave transnational flamenco a distinctive and contemporary Kitsch touch.

    Las continuas transformaciones sufridas por el flamenco han estado siempre relacionadas con su interacción con innumerables tradiciones. Lo que una vez fue un fenómeno local, aunque híbrido desde su origen, se convierte en un fenómeno musical camaleónico, capaz de producir fenómenos nuevos al tiempo que sigue manteniendo su personalidad distintiva. El movimiento transnacional del flamenco comenzó ya en el siglo XIX, aunque podemos considerar que su viaje a los Estados Unidos es el que más relevancia ha tenido. Allí, sin embargo, los artistas desarrollaron sus carreras no sólo aislados del entorno sociocultural flamenco, sino también de la cultura popular americana. Su aislamiento fue doble y así los artistas americanos desarrollaron maneras específicas de interpretar y experienciar el flamenco representativas del Kitsch más contemporáneo.

  13. Dialogismo: emergência do pensamento latino-americano em comunicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Gushiken

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo estuda-se a emergência do pensamento latino-americano em comunicação, tendo como foco a proposta dialógica que, na história das teorias da comunicação, se caracteriza como crítica à mass communication research da sociologia americana. Situa a emergência desse pensamento comunicacional na América Latina em meio a condições de subdesenvolvimento econômico e social, analisando-o também como crítica aos difusionismos culturais e comunicacionais do processo de globalização. Historicamente, o dialogismo atualiza os processos de inovação teórica que reavaliaram a recepção como mediadora e produtora de sentidos nos estudos em comunicação. Palavras-chave: Comunicação; dialogismo; América Latina. ABSTRACT In this article, latin-american thought emergence in communication is studied focusing on the dialogue proposal which, in the history of communication theories, is characterised as a critique of mass communication research in American sociology. Latin-american thought emergence in communication is situated within conditions of economic and socialunderdevelopment being analysed also as a critique of the idea of cultural and communication dispersion of the globalisation process. Historically, dialogism updates the processes of theory innovation which reassesses reception as a mediator and producer of meaning in the studies of communication. Keywords: Communication; dialogism; Latin America.

  14. Sposobnost opstanka informacionih sistema

    OpenAIRE

    Bosko Rodic; Dejan Vuletic

    2005-01-01

    U radu je opisan znacaj i trend razvoja informacionih sistema u savremenom drustvu, a definisani su i drugi znacajni pojmovi radi boljeg razumevanja problema. Prikazana su i cetiri aspekta resenja sposobnosti opstanka informacionih sistema koje predlaze Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT).

  15. March 11, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-11

    CDC’s Eric Dziuban explains key messages CDC developed with UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) on safe school operations in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. After being closed for months due to the Ebola outbreak, schools in these countries are reopening – an important step in helping children and their communities return to normal. The key messages offer a tool that each country’s government can use to develop their own approach on safely reopening schools.  Created: 3/11/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 3/11/2015.

  16. Law and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R

    2006-12-22

    Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.

  17. Economics and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messonnier, Mark L

    2006-12-22

    Economics is the study of decisions--the incentives that lead to them and the consequences that result from them--as they relate to present and future production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services when resources are limited and have alternative uses. At CDC, economics is used to systematically identify, measure, value, and compare the costs and consequences of alternative prevention strategies. Costs and consequences in public health can be measured in various ways, including incidence or prevalence of disease; numbers of adverse events; utility measures, such as quality-adjusted life years; and monetary values. Because it deals with behavior, economics is not really about money at all. Money is just a convenient way to measure incentives and consequences.

  18. SISTEMA INTERAMERICANO, COOPERAÇÃO E A COMPETIÇÃO INTRAREGIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Evangelista Medeiros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como propósito a análise do sistema inter-americano e da Organização dos Estados Americanos por meio de sua história e componentes relacionadas às tratativas e organicidade do sistema. Para isso, esta abordagem tem como base a sua evolução institucional, os diferentes usos conceituais e de propósito, as principais fases deste sistema e, em consequência, a reputação associada a ele em que pese os marcos regulatórios e compromissos assumidos no âmbito da OEA e fora dele. A hipótese é de que, a OEA teve constante evolução institucional por conta da transição de objetivos que sofreu entre o fim da Guerra Fria e o século XXI e que, nesta conjuntura e como forma de adaptar-se às outras frentes regionais potencialmente competitivas, volta-se para a questão da segurança individual e direitos humanos criando um guarda-chuva em que cabem, de maneira complementar, as demais iniciativas setorialmente organizadas, como as de finalidade energética, comercial ou de defesa. Por último, que a configuração do setor de defesa nestes mesmos marcos regulatórios criados ao longo destes anos apresenta-se pela fusão de fatores multidimensionais, que vão desde a segurança civil às fronteiras, com poucos aspectos tradicionais de defesa, realocando o seu papel na região

  19. Presencia de visón americano (Neovison vison, Schreber 1777 en Chiloé, Chile: ¿inicio de una invasión biológica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vergara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El visón americano fue introducido en Chile en la década de 1930 y actualmente presenta una amplia distribución geográfica. Sin embargo, no se han reportado poblaciones establecidas en muchos sistemas insulares. El día 6 de febrero de 2013, fue hallado un individuo juvenil en Chacao, Chiloé, Chile. El Canal de Chacao representa la única barrera biogeográfica a la isla de Chiloé, con una distancia mínima al continente de 2 km. Se presume que el individuo sorteó esta barrera por sus propios medios, ingresó en una embarcación o mediante un tercero. La introducción de un mamífero carnívoro podría generar severas consecuencias para los ecosistemas de la isla. Los planes preventivos con la comunidad e instituciones públicas y privadas representan una herramienta esencial para el manejo de esta especie y evitar tales impactos en Chiloé.

  20. A ENFERMAGEM E OS CONGRESSOS MÉDICOS PAN-AMERICANOS NO PERÍODO DE 1893 A 1908

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Paula Ribeiro; UNIRIO; de Amorim, Wellington Mendonça; Universidade Federal do Estadodo Rio de Janeiro

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃOUm dos fenômenos sóciocientíficos que acompanharam e fizeram parte do processo de constituição das ciências no continente americano foi e, de certa forma, tem sido a realização dos congressos científicos (Weinberg apud Almeida, 2003, p.37). Para (Araújo, 2006 p. 135), o conhecimento científico se desenvolve e busca legitimidade a partir de sua institucionalização nas universidades, conselhos, associações, congressos, institutos, publicações e eventos. Esse movimento pode ser visto t...

  1. Los modelos etnomatemáticos de representación cosmogónica en los pueblos indígenas Americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jaén Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito en este artículo es el de mostrar y analizar diversas formas de representación que utilizaron o, utilizan aun los indígenas americanos de diversas culturas. Algunas formas de representación, consideradas comúnmente como motivos decorativos, parecen responder a un sistema lógico muy preciso, que podría tener el propósito central de expresar y guardar conocimientos cosmogónicos. Para tal efecto, los indígenas de diversos pueblos, recurrieron a estructuras y formas de representación matemáticas, que les permitían guardar conocimientos astronómicos, calendáricos, de las cosechas, censos, entre otros, y luego expresarlos como mitos, integrados dentro de su espacio cosmogónico. Resulta sorprendente ver como algunas formas de representación, como las grecas escalonadas, pasan de una cultura a otra, desde Alaska hasta la Patagonia, en lo que parecen ser modelos de representación, que se difundieron muchos siglos antes de la llegada de los españoles a América. La razón por la cual, estos modelos de representación se generalizan, a lo largo de distancias enormes y entre los pueblos más diversos, es porque son conocimientos que surgen ligados a los tejidos. Hasta donde sabemos, casi la totalidad de los indígenas tejían en algodón o diversas fibras, con lo cual, una vez iniciado el proceso de guardar informaciones todos ellos contaron con una base simple y sólida para fortalecer el proceso de recopilación de datos, y guardarlos con precisión. Muchos son los ejemplos de cómputos realizados con mecates, al estilo de los quipus suramericanos. En el arte de tejer surgen conocimientos matemáticos que les permitieron guardar informaciones muy variadas: calendáricas, astronómicas, culturales, entre otras, que luego eran expresadas como una visión de mundo, una cosmogonía.

  2. Il Sistema Costituzionale Italiano

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Conferencia sobre el sistema constitucional italiano,centrándose en la forma de gobierno de Italia y sus principales instituciones. Tres fueron los perfiles en los que la ponente hizo hincapié: la relación entre el Gobierno y el Parlamento; las funciones desempeñadas por los partidos políticos en el sistema representativo italiano y las leyes electorales que a lo largo de la historia republicana del país han reglamentado el sistema electoral. I...

  3. Sistema de arbitraje

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Con el propósito de garantizar la calidad de las publicaciones de la Revista Científica Virtual  Horizonte Empresarial, en el presente volumen 2 N° 2, 2015, queda estipulado el siguiente sistema de arbitraje.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: HIV Among Youth in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Current issue Infographic Topics Covered Alcohol Cancer Cardiovascular Diseases Food Safety ... Engage in HIV education programs and support safe environments in schools for all youth. Make sure your ...

  5. CDC WONDER: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination, by...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  8. Synthetic Fentanyl Fueling Surge in Overdose Deaths: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160618.html Synthetic Fentanyl Fueling Surge in Overdose Deaths: CDC U.S. Surgeon ... News) -- Deaths from overdoses of the synthetic narcotic fentanyl have surged in recent years, U.S. health officials ...

  9. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  10. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The...

  11. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  12. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women should avoid traveling to a south Texas ...

  13. Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160256.html Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC ... lot of progress in getting Americans to stop smoking, some groups still have high smoking rates, a ...

  14. CDC WONDER: Compressed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979...

  15. Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162464.html Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC Study ... born with devastating birth defects linked to the Zika virus is no longer confined to Brazil, a ...

  16. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption....

  17. Smoking Losing Its Cool with Kids, CDC Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finds. The same can't be said of e-cigarettes. Fewer students reported trying cigarettes or cigars between ... still showing a worrisome level of interest in e-cigarettes. The CDC released a survey in June that ...

  18. Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161086.html Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC But ... Fluffy the cat gets out of sorts and scratches you, it's possible you could get a bacterial ...

  19. CDC WONDER: Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are...

  20. CDC Awards $16M in Fight Against Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160203.html CDC Awards $16M in Fight Against Zika Health experts warn pregnant women to avoid downtown ... where mosquitoes are apparently infecting people with the Zika virus. The number of local transmissions of the ...

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco Other Digital Media Tools About Vital Signs ... Report (MMWR) CDC Feature - Breaking the Cycle of Teen Pregnancy Vital Signs – Preventing Pregnancy in Younger Teens [ ...

  2. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  3. Heart Surgery Devices May Have Been Contaminated: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 161469.html Heart Surgery Devices May Have Been Contaminated: CDC Patients who experience night sweats, fever, weight ... used during open heart surgery may have been contaminated with bacteria that puts patients at risk for ...

  4. CDC WONDER: Daily Air Temperatures and Heat Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Air Temperature and Heat Index data available on CDC WONDER are county-level daily average air temperatures and heat index measures spanning the years...

  5. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure....

  6. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  7. PTEN regulates colorectal epithelial apoptosis through Cdc42 signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Deevi, R; A. Fatehullah; Jagan, I; Nagaraju, M; Bingham, V; Campbell, F C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) regulation of the Rho-like GTPase Cdc42 has a central role in epithelial polarised growth, but effects of this molecular network on apoptosis remain unclear. Methods: To investigate the role of Cdc42 in PTEN-dependent cell death, we used flow cytometry, in vitro pull-down assays, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and other immunoblots in isogenic PTEN-expressing and -deficient colorectal cells (HCT116PTEN+/...

  8. CDC's Emergency Management Program activities - worldwide, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    In 2003, recognizing the increasing frequency and complexity of disease outbreaks and disasters and a greater risk for terrorism, CDC established the Emergency Operations Center (EOC), bringing together CDC staff members who respond to public health emergencies to enhance communication and coordination. To complement the physical EOC environment, CDC implemented the Incident Management System (IMS), a staffing structure and set of standard operational protocols and services to support and monitor CDC program-led responses to complex public health emergencies. The EOC and IMS are key components of CDC's Emergency Management Program (EMP), which applies emergency management principles to public health practice. To enumerate activities conducted by the EMP during 2003-2012, CDC analyzed data from daily reports and activity logs. The results of this analysis determined that, during 2003-2012, the EMP fully activated the EOC and IMS on 55 occasions to support responses to infectious disease outbreaks, natural disasters, national security events (e.g., conventions, presidential addresses, and international summits), mass gatherings (e.g., large sports and social events), and man-made disasters. On 109 other occasions, the EMP was used to support emergency responses that did not require full EOC activation, and the EMP also conducted 30 exercises and drills. This report provides an overview of those 194 EMP activities.

  9. Role of AtCDC48 & the AtCDC48 Regulatory Protein Family, PUX, in Plant Cell Morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarek, Sebastian, Y.

    2009-11-08

    The long-term objective of this work is to understand the molecular events and mechanisms involved in secretory membrane trafficking and organelle biogenesis, which are crucial for normal plant growth and development. Our studies have suggested a vital role for the cytosolic chaperone Cdc48p/p97 during cytokinesis and cell expansion which are highly dependent upon secretory membrane trafficking. Localization studies have shown that the plant Cdc48p/p97, AtCDC48, and the Arabidopsis ortholog of the ER- and Golgi-associated SNARE, syntaxin 5, (referred to as SYP31) are targeted to the division plane during cytokinesis. In addition, AtCDC48 and SYP31 were shown to interact in vitro and in vivo. To characterize further the function of AtCDC48 and SYP31 we have utilized affinity chromatography and MALDI-MS to identify several plant-specific proteins that interact with SYP31 and/or modulate the activity of AtCDC48 including two UBX (i.e. ubiquitin-like) domain containing proteins, PUX1 and PUX2 (Proteins containing UBX domain). These proteins define a plant protein family consisting of 15 uncharacterized members that we postulate interact with AtCDC48. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that PUX2 is a novel membrane adapter for AtCDC48 that mediates AtCDC48/SYP31 interaction and is likely to control AtCDC48-dependent membrane fusion. In contrast, PUX1 negatively regulates AtCDC48 by inhibiting its ATPase activity and by promoting the disassembly of the active hexamer. These findings provide the first evidence that the assembly and disassembly of the CDC48/p97complex is actually a dynamic process. This new unexpected level of regulation for CDC48/p97 was demonstrated to be critical in vivo as pux1 loss-of-function mutants grow faster than wild-type plants. These studies suggest a role for AtCDC48 in plant cell cycle progression including cytokinesis and/or cell expansion. The proposed studies are designed to: 1) characterize further the localization and function of AtCDC

  10. CDC25A phosphatase controls meiosis I progression in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solc, Petr; Saskova, Adela; Baran, Vladimir; Kubelka, Michal; Schultz, Richard M; Motlik, Jan

    2008-05-01

    CDK1 is a pivotal regulator of resumption of meiosis and meiotic maturation of oocytes. CDC25A/B/C are dual-specificity phosphatases and activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Although CDC25C is not essential for either mitotic or meiotic cell cycle regulation, CDC25B is essential for CDK1 activation during resumption of meiosis. Cdc25a -/- mice are embryonic lethal and therefore a role for CDC25A in meiosis is unknown. We report that activation of CDK1 results in a maturation-associated decrease in the amount of CDC25A protein, but not Cdc25a mRNA, such that little CDC25A is present by metaphase I. In addition, expression of exogenous CDC25A overcomes cAMP-mediated maintenance of meiotic arrest. Microinjection of Gfp-Cdc25a and Gpf-Cdc25b mRNAs constructs reveals that CDC25A is exclusively localized to the nucleus prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). In contrast, CDC25B localizes to cytoplasm in GV-intact oocytes and translocates to the nucleus shortly before NEBD. Over-expressing GFP-CDC25A, which compensates for the normal maturation-associated decrease in CDC25A, blocks meiotic maturation at MI. This MI block is characterized by defects in chromosome congression and spindle formation and a transient reduction in both CDK1 and MAPK activities. Lastly, RNAi-mediated reduction of CDC25A results in fewer oocytes resuming meiosis and reaching MII. These data demonstrate that CDC25A behaves differently during female meiosis than during mitosis, and moreover, that CDC25A has a function in resumption of meiosis, MI spindle formation and the MI-MII transition. Thus, both CDC25A and CDC25B are critical for meiotic maturation of oocytes.

  11. Estudos latino-americanos sobre melancolia: um transtorno do humor melhor definido para o CID-11 Melancholia in Latin American studies: a distinct mood disorder for the ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario F. Juruena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A depressão melancólica é um diagnóstico psiquiátrico de história de vida, geralmente com episódios recorrentes. Melancolia é uma síndrome com longa duração e características específicas de psicopatologia, insuficientemente diferenciada de depressão maior por um especificador no DSM-IV e parcialmente descrito nos critérios da Classificação Internacional de Doenças-10ª Edição. Dentro da classificação atual, é frequentemente vista em pacientes gravemente doentes com depressão e transtorno bipolar. No entanto, a melancolia possui uma homogeneidade psicopatológica e biológica distinta na experiência clínica e nos marcadores de testes laboratoriais, e é diferencialmente sensível às intervenções terapêuticas específicas. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a literatura de artigos publicados por autores latino-americanos sobre a melancolia. MÉTODO: Realizou-se busca de artigos latino-americanos de informações relevantes para a revisão da Classificação Internacional de Doenças-10ª Edição de transtornos mentais e comportamentais em pacientes com depressão melancólica. Foi avaliada a qualidade do design de todos os estudos e realizada uma revisão abrangente sobre o assunto, com o objetivo de considerar a contribuição latino-americana para inclusão da melancolia como uma entidade distinta na futura Classificação Internacional de Doenças-11ª Edição. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Os estudos latino-americanos fundamentam o diagnóstico da melancolia com uma psicopatologia e psiconeuroendocrinologia própria que fundamentam ser reconhecida como um transtorno de humor identificável e merecedor de uma atenção específica nos sistemas de classificação, como um transtorno de humor distinto, identificável e especificamente tratável.OBJECTIVE: Melancholic depression is a lifetime diagnosis, typically with recurrent episodes. Melancholia, a syndrome with a long history and distinctive

  12. Sistemas agroalimentarios localizados. Innovación y debates desde América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Torres Salcido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2013v10n2p68Este artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre os problemas enfrentados pelo planejamento do desenvolvimento local e sobre as críticas centradas na localização espacial das atividades econômicas, explorando as implicações desse argumento para o estudo de sistemas agroalimentares localizados (SIAL. Além disso, o autor avalia de que maneira as pesquisas conduzidas em diversos países latino-americanos vêm contribuindo para a maturação progressiva do enfoque SIAL. Para tanto, adota uma perspectiva ética que resgata a visão humanista sobre a problemática da segurança alimentar no atual contexto de globalização econômico-financeira e cultural.

  13. Decreased uv mutagenesis in cdc8, a DNA replication mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, L.; Hinkle, D.; Prakash, S.

    1978-01-01

    A DNA replication mutant of yeast, cdc8, was found to decrease uv-induced reversion of lys2-1, arg4-17, tryl and ural. This effect was observed with all three alleles of cdc8 tested. Survival curves obtained following uv irradiation in cdc8 rad double mutants show that cdc8 is epistatic to rad6, as well as to rad1; cdc8 rad51 double mutants seem to be more sensitive than the single mutants. Since uv-induced reversion in cdc8 rad1 and cdc8 rad51 double mutants is like that of the cdc8 single mutants, we conclude that CDC8 plays a direct role in error-prone repair. To test whether CDC8 codes for a DNA polymerase, we have purified both DNA polymerase I and DNA polymerase II from cdc8 and CDC+ cells. The purified DNA polymerases from cdc8 were no more heat labile than those from CDC+, suggesting that CDC8 is not a structural gene for either enzyme.

  14. Educação bilíngüe e multiculturalismo: O exemplo americano

    OpenAIRE

    Naiditch, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta uma visão histórica de educação bilíngüe nos Estados Unidos e mostra que a forma como ela foi compreendida mudou através dos anos. O artigo focaliza as diferentes políticas educacionais e a legislação que regulamentam o uso de outras línguas que não o inglês no sistema educacional público e privado nos EUA. Políticas públicas que tratam do ensino de inglês como segunda língua também são discutidas. A perspectiva histórica apresentada no artigo percorre dif...

  15. Sistema detector d'incendis WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez López, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Sistema detector d'incendis aprofitant una xarxa de sensors sense fils (WSN) mitjançant un sistema encastat. Sistema detector de incendios aprovechando una red de sensores inalámbricos (WSN) mediante un sistema empotrado.

  16. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Las principales características del envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular reflejan cambios anatómicos y estructurales a nivel de la pared de los vasos, la relajación miocárdica, el llenado ventricular y la respuesta a las catecolaminas . Muchos de los cambios funcionales asociados con la edad están relacionados con estos fenómenos. Esta revisión describe los cambios relacionados con el envejecimiento a nivel estructural y funcional del sistema cardiovascular, sus posibles factores etiológ...

  17. Sistema Internacional de Medidas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La adopcion del Sistema Intemacional de unidades hace necesario que los profesores y maestros lo conozcan y sepan usarlo.La enseiianza de las ciencias, y en especial la didactica de la fisica, se simplifica con Ia adopcion de un sistema unico de unidades. El estudio de Ia mecanica se facilita notablemente y en los tópicos -de calor solo es necesario presentar el julio en vez de Ia caloria y adoptar la escala Kelvin de temperaturas, en tanto que la óptica no requiere de ningin cambio.

  18. El Sistema inspirerede projekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Finn; Chemi, Tatiana

    Rapporten er resultat af pilotprojektet ”Forundersøgelse El Sistema DK” gennemført af Ph.D. Finn Holst (DPU, Aarhus Universitet) og Ph.D. Tatiana Chemi (Aalborg Universitet) i 2015. I rapporten indgår desuden bidrag fra Sofie Holm, Sara Fink Søndergaard og Stine Møgelbjerg Johansen. Pilotprojektet...... er gennemført for DMKLs El Sistema-udvalg med støtte fra Statens Kunstfond, Projektstøtteudvalget for Musik....

  19. SISTEMA NACIONAL DE CONTABILIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Yacsahuache Pasapera, Hernán; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    La Ley 24680 o ley del Sistema Nacional de Contabilidad determina las funciones, objetivos y estructura de los organismos y Órganos componentes del SNC, instituido por el artículo 145° de la Constitución Política del Perú de 1979, los mecanismos de coordinación de la contabilidad, así como las relaciones con otros organismos del sector público y del sector privado. Determina, además, que es un sistema autónomo, administrativa y funcionalmente, tiene a su cargo la investigación y función de l...

  20. O marxismo indo-americano de Mariátegui e a polêmica com a III Internacional Comunista.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Guillén

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da perspectiva marxista indo-americana de José Carlos Mariátegui, o artigo visa a exposição de fatores teóricos e históricos que culminaram na polêmica com a III Internacional Comunista na América Latina. A problemática evidencia a originalidade do pensamento de Mariátegui, cujo eixo central é a interpretação dos fatos históricos, políticos e sociais latino-americanos sob a perspectiva dialética do desenvolvimento desigual e combinado para explicar a dinâmica particular da realidade peruana.

  1. Ensaios latino-americanos: "caráter nacional" e construção de estereótipos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Rolim Capelato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo se refere à questão do "caráter nacional" amplamente discutida por intelectuais latino-americanos entre as décadas de 1930-50. Procuro analisar ensaios produzidos por autores que, nesse período, demonstraram grande interesse pelo tema. Busco identificar em suas obras aspectos que contribuíram para a formação de mitos e tipos nacionais estereotipados. Essas obras tiveram grande repercussão nacional e continental na época em que foram publicados e até hoje os traços do caráter nacional apresentados nos ensaios que analiso continuam sendo mencionados como se tivessem base científica. Tento mostrar os preconceitos resultantes dessas caracterizações, que continuam vivas nos imaginários sociais, servindo de justificativa para formas diversas de intolerância.

  2. Poder civil y derechos naturales de los indios americanos según Fray Alonso de la Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Méndez Alonzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo investiga las tesis sobre el poder civil de Alonso de la Veracruz que buscan incorporar en la comunidad política española a los habitantes autóctonos del Nuevo Mundo, tesis que suelen relacionarse con F. de Vitoria y el tomismo español, y que últimamente son consideradas parte del republicanismo novohispano elaborado desde la periferia americana. Se busca demostrar que su propósito era aplicar una teoría de derechos naturales, sin que ello implique participación política de los indios americanos. Se analiza la postura del fraile frente a la diversidad cultural y la guerra contra los indios.

  3. The dual specificity phosphatase Cdc14B bundles and stabilizes microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumley, Hyekyung [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL; Gomez, Marla V [ORNL; Wang, Yisong [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    The Cdc14 dual-specificity phosphatases regulate key events in the eukaryotic cell cycle. However, little is known about the function of mammalian CDC14B family members. Here, we demonstrate that subcellular localization of CDC14B protein is cell cycle regulated. CDC14B can bind, bundle, and stabilize microtubules in vitro independently of its catalytic activity. Basic amino acid residues within the nucleolar targeting domain are important for both retaining CDC14B in the nucleolus and preventing microtubule bundling. Overexpression of CDC14B resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic CDC14B and microtubule bundles in interphase cells. These microtubule bundles were resistant to microtubule depolymerization reagents and enriched in acetylated -tubulin. Expression of cytoplasmic forms of CDC14B impaired microtubule nucleation from the microtubule organization center. CDC14B is thus a novel microtubule-bundling and -stabilizing protein, whose regulated subcellular localization may help modulate spindle and microtubule dynamics in mitosis.

  4. Structure and Expression of Several Putative Cdc42-Interacting Proteins in Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wu; CHEN Ji-sheng; ZHENG Shi-qin; LU Guo-dong; WANG Zong-hua

    2006-01-01

    MgCdc42 (Cdc42 in Magnaporthe grisea), with high homology to ScCdc42 (Cdc42 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), has been demonstrated to involve in the morphogenesis and infection process. To further understand the signaling network,the putative MgCdc42-interacting proteins were analyzed. ScCdc42-interacting protein sequences were first used to BLAST against the M. grisea genome database to retrieve their corresponding analogs. Subsequently, conserved domains of these proteins were compared and expression patterns of their encoding genes in different MgCdc42 mutation states were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. All retrieved analogs of ScCdc42-interacting proteins from the M.grisea database have conserved domains as those in S. cerevisiae. Expression of their encoding genes increased in MgCdc42CA mutant and decreased in MgCdc42KO mutant. However, MgBem1, Chm1, and MgGic1 in MgCdc42DN mutant had the same expression level as that in the wild type, although MgBem4, MgBoi2, MgCdc24, MgGic2, MgRga1,and Mst20 had decreased expression level, as expected. Overall, it is concluded that there may exist a similar Cdc42 signal pathway in M. grisea as in S. cerevisiae and MgCdc42 plays a key role in the pathway.

  5. El Sistema's Open Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about Venezuela's national youth orchestra program called El Sistema whose attributes offer a direct challenge to traditional Western music practices. As U.S. classical music--and all "high arts"--struggle to find relevance to more than the small "arts club" percentage of the U.S. populace, El…

  6. Cdc42-dependent actin dynamics controls maturation and secretory activity of dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Anna M; Stutte, Susanne; Hogl, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is a member of the Rho guanosine triphosphatase family and has pivotal functions in actin organization, cell migration, and proliferation. To further study the molecular mechanisms of dendritic cell (DC) regulation by Cdc42, we used Cdc42-deficient DCs. Cdc42...... disruption, our results propose that Cdc42 control of actin dynamics keeps DCs in an immature state, and cessation of Cdc42 activity during DC maturation facilitates secretion as well as rapid up-regulation of intracellular molecules to the cell surface....

  7. Insights into Cdc13 Dependent Telomere Length Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Mason; E Skordalakes

    2011-12-31

    Cdc13 is a single stranded telomere binding protein that specifically localizes to the telomere ends of budding yeasts and is essential for cell viability. It caps the ends of chromosomes thus preventing chromosome end-to-end fusions and exonucleolytic degradation, events that could lead to genomic instability and senescence, the hallmark of aging. Cdc13 is also involved in telomere length regulation by recruiting or preventing access of telomerase to the telomeric overhang. Recruitment of telomerase to the telomeres for G-strand extension is required for continuous cell division, while preventing its access to the telomeres through capping the chromosome ends prevents mitotic events that could lead to cell immortality, the hall mark of carcinogenesis. Cdc13 and its putative homologues human CTC1 and POT1 are therefore key to many biological processes directly associated with life extension and cancer prevention and can be viewed as an ideal target for cancer and age related therapies.

  8. CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project: background, objectives, and progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project.

  9. Informe Signos Vitales de los CDC Obesidad infantil - (Childhood Obesity)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    Este podcast se basa en el informe Signos Vitales de los CDC de agosto del 2013. La tasa de obesidad entre los niños en edad prescolar de bajos ingresos ha disminuido, pero todavía uno de cada seis niños hispanos es obeso. Este programa habla brevemente sobre lo que se puede hacer.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  10. "A wild and wondrous ride": CDC field epidemiologists in the east Pakistan smallpox and cholera epidemics of 1958 "Uma louca e maravilhosa jornada": epidemiologistas de campo do CDC nas epidemias de varíola e cólera do Paquistão Oriental em 1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Greenough

    2011-02-01

    desenvolvimento. Langmuir descreveu o episódio como uma "jornada louca e maravilhosa", porém pareceu mais um pesadelo: o departamento de saúde do Paquistão Oriental entrou em colapso; um movimento popular assumiu a vacinação e desperdiçou suprimentos de vacinas; jornalistas hostis questionaram as motivações ocultas dos americanos; e iniciou-se uma rivalidade profissional entre americanos e o epidemiologista britânico Aidan Cockburn. No final da epidemia, em julho de 1958, tinham sido vacinados trinta milhões de bengalis contra varíola, mas outros vinte mil sucumbiram. Esse episódio foi a primeira intervenção sistemática do CDC no exterior.

  11. 1 in 4 U.S. Adults Disabled by Arthritis: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the CDC said. The most common types are osteoarthritis, which is age-related wear and tear; rheumatoid ... aren't active, the CDC noted in its March 7 Vital Signs . Self-management education is another ...

  12. sistema Web con JSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Viloria Núñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de información que permite la adquisición y la administración de información relacionada con los signos vitales como la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria, y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre de un paciente. La implementación del sistema se basa en una solución Web, permitiendo así que médicos especialistas puedan monitorear a sus pacientes desde cualquier punto conectado a la red en tiempo real y, al mismo tiempo, dar indicaciones críticas al personal médico que se encuentra en el lugar con el paciente.

  13. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...

  14. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives, Protecting People

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-04

    24/7, CDC provides health information, responds to public health emergencies and natural disasters, and monitors disease.  Created: 6/4/2012 by Office of the Associate Director of Communciation (OADC).   Date Released: 6/4/2012.

  15. Sex Partner with No Zika Symptoms Transmits Virus: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160643.html Sex Partner With No Zika Symptoms Transmits Virus: CDC New report also highlights ties between Zika ... HealthDay News) -- U.S. health officials report that the Zika virus can be spread sexually even when a partner ...

  16. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  17. Dangerous Creatures - A Visit to the CDC Insectary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-07

    Tour CDC’s insectary with Sofi, a young host, and learn from CDC researchers about mosquitoes and insecticide resistance.  Created: 11/7/2012 by Center for Global Health (CGH).   Date Released: 12/20/2012.

  18. CDC WONDER: a cooperative processing architecture for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, A; Rosen, D H; Reid, J A

    1994-01-01

    CDC WONDER is an information management architecture designed for public health. It provides access to information and communications without the user's needing to know the location of data or communication pathways and mechanisms. CDC WONDER users have access to extractions from some 40 databases; electronic mail (e-mail); and surveillance data processing. System components include the Remote Client, the Communications Server, the Queue Managers, and Data Servers and Process Servers. The Remote Client software resides in the user's machine; other components are at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Remote Client, the Communications Server, and the Applications Server provide access to the information and functions in the Data Servers and Process Servers. The system architecture is based on cooperative processing, and components are coupled via pure message passing, using several protocols. This architecture allows flexibility in the choice of hardware and software. One system limitation is that final results from some subsystems are obtained slowly. Although designed for public health, CDC WONDER could be useful for other disciplines that need flexible, integrated information exchange.

  19. Parallel Parkin: Cdc20 Takes a New Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Gutierrez, Fernando; Hundley, Frances V; Toczyski, David P

    2015-10-01

    CDC20 and CDH1 are well-established substrate receptors for the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). In this issue of Molecular Cell, Lee et al. (2015) show that these adaptors can also target cell cycle proteins for destruction through a second ubiquitin ligase, Parkin.

  20. CDC Vital Signs–Arthritis in America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-07

    This podcast is based on the March 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Many adults in the United States have arthritis. Learn how to reduce the pain of arthritis, as well as manage the condition.  Created: 3/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/7/2017.

  1. 13 CFR 120.820 - CDC non-profit status and good standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CDC non-profit status and good... CDC non-profit status and good standing. A CDC must be a non-profit corporation, except that for-profit CDCs certified by SBA prior to January 1, 1987 may retain their certifications. An SBIC may...

  2. 13 CFR 120.829 - Job Opportunity average a CDC must maintain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job Opportunity average a CDC must... Job Opportunity average a CDC must maintain. (a) A CDC's portfolio must maintain a minimum average of one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be specified by SBA from time to...

  3. Sistemas Silvipastoris Silvipastoral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salgado Bernardino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Apesar das pesquisas com sistemas silvipastoris terem sido iniciadas no final da década de 1970, as informações geradas até hoje não são em grande número. As vantagens advindas de um sistema silvipastoril são inúmeras e devidamente reconhecidas. Pelo fato de ser uma técnica de uso da terra capaz de recuperar ecossistemas alterados pelo mau manejo, estes sistemas, pela integração de atividades agrícolas, pecuárias e silviculturais, passam a representar uma tecnologia que confere maior sustentabilidade que os sistemas tradicionais, nos quais os monocultivos são predominantes. Nos últimos anos, instituições de ensino, pesquisa e extensão do País têm se voltado para o desenvolvimento de tais sistemas. O governo de Minas Gerais, por meio de sua Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura e de órgãos vinculados, vem promovendo a condução de modelos agrossilvipastoris num processo integrado de ocupação do solo, denominado lavoura-pecuária-silvicultura. Apesar dos grandes avanços no conhecimento de culturas anuais e dos componentes arbóreos, principalmente o eucalipto, e de gramíneas forrageiras tolerantes à diminuição da intensidade luminosa, ainda é necessário se comnhecer melhor o manejo do sub-bosque sob os efeitos do pastejo.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.77

    Although researches related to silvopastoral systems have been initiated many years ago in Brazil, there are few informations generated until now. The advantages from a silvopastoral system are inumerous and well recognized. By the fact of being a technique of land using capable of recovering several disturbed ecosystems, the silvopastoral systems by the integration of agricultural, cattle, and silvicultural activities represent a technology that can achieve higher sustainability than the traditional systems as the monocultures. Today, research centers in Brazil dedicate great attention to agrossilvopastoral systems. The government of Minas Gerais

  4. SISTEMA PROCESSUAL MISTO (OU MÍTICO SISTEMA PROCESSUAL)

    OpenAIRE

    Cani, Luiz Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Este artigo demonstra que a existência de um sistema processual misto não passa de um engodo. Para tanto, são abordadas as estruturas dos sistemas processuais acusatório e inquisitório. O método de abordagem é o indutivo e o de procedimento é o comparativo. A metodologia empregada é a de análise e de cruzamento da literatura acerca do tema, apresentando-se as razões porque o chamado sistema processual misto não é, na verdade, um sistema.

  5. Overexpression of CDC2/CyclinB1 in gliomas, and CDC2 depletion inhibits proliferation of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ai-Dong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are the most common and aggressive primary brain tumors for which unfortunately no effective treatment modalities exist despite advances in molecular biology as the knowledge base to unravel the extremely complex molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis is limited. In this study an attempt has been made to understand the molecular pathological basis of tumorigenesis which led to an identification of an oncogene, CDC2, and an epigenetic strategy has been evaluated to control the tumorigensis by downregulating this oncogene. Methods Tissue microarrays were utilized to investigate the expression of genes in a large number of tumor samples and to identify overexpressed genes which could be potentially causing tumorigenesis. Retroviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs targeted against CDC2 were designed and transducted into human glioma cell line ex vivo in order to downregulate the expression of CDC2. Real-Time PCR was used to determine the level of CDC2 mRNA. Western Blotting was used to determine the level of expression of CDC2 protein as measure to quantify down regulation of CDC2 expression along with use of flow cytometry to investigate effect of shRNAs on cell cycles and detection of apoptosis. Following ex vivo study, viral particles containing small interfering RNA for CDC2 were subsequently injected into xenogeneic graft tumor of nude mice and the weight of human glioma xenografts, survival and resulting phenotypic changes of target gene were investigated. Results Human glioma tissue microarrays indicated the positive expression rates of CDC2/CyclinB1 with a positive correlation with pathologic grades (r = 0.982, r = 0.959, respectively. Retroviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs against CDC2 caused efficient deletion of CDC2, cellular G2/M arrest concluding in apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human glioma cells U251 and SHG-44 cell lines ex vivo. And the viral particles

  6. Uma investigação sobre os co-movimentos na volatilidade dos par bonds latino-americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.C. de Morais

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura aplicar o método de quase-máxima verossimilhança para estimar a volatilidade estocástica multivariada não-estacionária dos preços de compra dos par bonds de quatro países latino-americanos - México, Brasil, Argentina e Venezuela - no período de 9-8-1994 a 15-9-1999. O objetivo é analisar possíveis movimentos comuns nestas variâncias. Os testes feitos revelam que a volatilidade nos modelos univariados não apresentam inclinação, mas possuem alta persistência. A formulação multivariada relaciona bem os dados, obtendo estimativas consistentes e revelando a existência de um comportamento ao longo do tempo similar entre as volatilidades das quatro séries.This paper uses a quasi-maximum likelihood procedure to estimate the non-stationary stochastic volatility for the par bonds of four Latin American countries: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Venezuela. The aim is to investigate the possible presence of co-movements in volatility across countries. The estimation period goes from August 1994 to September 1999, including, therefore, the Asian and Russian crises. The estimated volatility for the univariate model does not show any slope and is highly persistent. The multivariate model gives a good fit to the data and shows that there is common movement.

  7. Boletos sencillos y pasajes redondos. Indígenas y mestizos americanos que visitaron España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rojas, José Luis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the pioneer study of Esteban Mira (2001, this paper looks for the travels of to Spain of American Indians, both in documents and chronicles, since the very moment of the Spanish Conquest, mainly those who travelled spontaneously or upon royal orders. The main aim is to show the necessity of deeply analyze these travels, their reasons and circunstances, and search for the eventual constitution of personal webs between the two shores of the Ocean.

    Partiendo del estudio pionero de Esteban Mira (2001, se rastrean en diversos documentos y crónicas los viajes que indígenas americanos realizaron a España, desde poco tiempo después de la conquista, centrándose en los que lo hicieron voluntariamente o por lo que podríamos llamar «razones de estado». A partir de estas noticias se plantea la necesidad de analizar en profundidad estos viajes, sus motivos y avatares y rastrear la posible constitución de redes personales que abarcaran ambas orillas del océano.

  8. Las antiguas colecciones arqueológicas de Yucatán en el Museo Americano de Historia Natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T. Sellen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones que hemos desarrollado acerca de la historia de las colecciones yucatecas que forman parte del Museo Americano de Historia Natural de Nueva York nos permiten trazar un perfil general de los intereses intelectuales y de algunas de las primeras exploraciones emprendidas en la región. La información asociada a las piezas arqueológicas que actualmente se resguardan en dicho museo nos remite a los trabajos precursores llevados a cabo por reconocidos viajeros como Charnay, Stephens, Le Plongeon o Maler, y también de otros menos conocidos, como los coleccionistas locales. En conjunto, estos protoarqueólogos enfocaron sus esfuerzos a construir el conocimiento de la antigua civilización maya a través de sus evidencias materiales.Our research on the history of Yucatec collections that are now in the American Museum of Natural History in New York allows us to outline a general profile of the intellectual interests and some of the first explorations in the region. The information associated with the archaeological objects that are today held in this museum speak of the early archaeological work carried out by well known explorers such as Charnay, Stephens, Le Plongeon or Maler, and also by lesser-known players such as the local collectors. Together, these proto-archaeologists focused their efforts on constructing knowledge of the ancient Maya civilization through material evidence.

  9. O processo de integração de imigrantes hispano-americanos: análises e perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellá Sarriera, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visou iniciar uma linha de investigação sobre um grupo vulnerável e cada dia mais presente, como os imigrantes econômicos e refugiados. Conhecer quem são, onde estão, como se organizam, quais os impactos da imigração nas suas vidas, na saúde, nas relações interpessoais, nas atitudes aculturativas, assim como nas dificuldades e estratégias de enfrentamento dos problemas. A pesquisa desenvolvida no decorrer de quatro anos (2000-2003, teve duas etapas: uma qualitativa e, a seguir, outra quantitativa. Na qualitativa foram entrevistadas seis familias de vários países hispano-americanos, com menos de cinco anos de chegada ao Brasil. Na quantitativa, foi aplicado questionário em 113 imigrantes, de diferentes nacionalidades hispano-americanas. Responderam ao instrumento construido com os indicadores da análise qualitativa e com escalas adaptadas das pesquisas recentes em aculturação. Os dados revelam os fatores positivos e negativos no processo aculturativo, as associações mais significativas com a saúde, o bem-estar psicológico, aspectos psicossociais e sociocognitivos que são relevantes para programas de intervenção

  10. Grandes sistemas fluviais tropicais: uma visão geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sinha

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Muitos dos grandes rios e dos leques aluviais existentes estão situados em áreas tropicais e constituem os maiores sistemas de estoque e transferência de sedimentos e nutrientes para o oceano. O presente trabalho visa a apresentação e análise geral dos grandes sistemas fluviais e leques aluviais (área da bacia entre 104 e 6 x 106 km de regiões tropicais com precipitação acima de 700 mm anuais. Os grandes sistemas fluviais tropicais foram aqui classificados de acordo com o arcabouço geológico-geomorfológio de suas bacias em: a Cinturões orogenênicos de montanha, b Platô/plataforma basáltico-sedimentar, c Áreas cratônicas, d Planícies em áreas de bacias sedimentares, e e Áreas mistas. De modo geral, os rios analisados apresentam um pico de descarga bastante definido e variável durante a estação chuvosa e um período de baixa vazão na estação seca. Os dados dos rios sul-americanos e asiáticos de áreas continentais e orogênicas agruparam-se quando lançados num diagrama do suprimento de sedimentos versus descarga média anual, e apresentaram valores mais elevados que aqueles asiáticos insulares. Já rios de áreas de plataforma ou cratônicas, tanto em área de savana como nos trópicos úmidos, caracterizaram-se por terem baixo transporte de sedimento. Especialmente nas grandes bacias, os rios apresentam toda a gama de formas de canal, inviabilizando a classificação tradicional de canal meandrante, reto e entrelaçado, sendo nesse caso mais sugestiva a aplicação da terminologia de sistema uni ou multi-canal ou de complexo anastomosado.É também discutido, brevemente, o atual estado do conhecimento dos sistemas fluviais tropicais e seu potencial na aplicação na interpretação de antigas seqüências e na modelagem de fácies sedimentar. Os principais impactos ambientais a que os grandes sistemas fluviais tropicais estão submetidos incluem as mudanças no uso agrosilpastoril das terras, mineração, barragens

  11. Sistemas constructivos industrializados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Águila, Alfonso

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article summarizes the main points discussed in three Innovator Buildings Systems sessions, which are about different subjects of Industrialized Building. The first part is about the topic of concrete panels, applied to building flats basically. It is given a historical summary and the general concepts, ending with "INDAGSA BUILDING SYSTEM", which is running several promotions with in Madrid. In the second part it is developed the subject of building with boxes, beginning with general points which are extended to the concept of box, its classification, its historical aspects and its applications. It is continues with a description of the "SET HOME SYSTEM" of boxes of concrete, which is dedicated to industrialization of social housing services and equipments. This part ends with the French system "TRANSLOKO" of big light boxes. Lately, it has made a building for laboratories in Madrid. The last part is dedicated to a new subject in Interior Building, which is the Dry Floor, being detailedly described the "PLADUR" point of view about this.

    El presente artículo resume lo tratado en tres jornadas de Sistemas Constructivos Innovadores, relativos a diversos temas de Construcción Industrializada. En la primera parte se trata el tema de los paneles de hormigón aplicados a la edificación, principalmente a viviendas. Se da una síntesis histórica y esquemática de conceptos generales, para terminar con una descripción del Sistema Constructivo INDAGSA que están realizando numerosas promociones en Madrid. La segunda parte, desarrolla el tema de la construcción con módulos tridimensionales, comenzando por unas consideraciones generales que abarcan el concepto de módulo tridimensional, su clasificación, aspectos históricos y campos de aplicación. Se sigue con una descripción del Sistema SET HOME, de módulos tridimensionales de hormigón, dedicado a la industrialización de servicios e instalaciones en vivienda social

  12. Los nudos del sistema

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Pieza central del antiguo régimen; pacto, acuerdo o trato con algunos actores decisivos del sistema político susceptible de ser revisado; forma cultural de relaciones de poder o de intercambio; pirámide de organizaciones o estructura sectorial: ¿qué tan invisible sigue siendo, qué tan montada sigue estando la pirámide del corporativismo mexicano antes y después del 2 de julio de 2000? Este fenómeno constituye el eje central de las reflexiones del presente ensayo. En torno al mismo, se pres...

  13. El Sistema Penitenciario Mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Azaola, Elena; Bergman, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Este trabajo describe los rasgos y los problemas que caracterizan al sistema penitenciario mexicano y efectúa un análisis del papel que desempeña dentro del conjunto de las instituciones que tienen por objeto combatir la criminalidad. Se abordan los cambios en la actividad delictiva que han tenido lugar en el país durante la última década y las acciones que llevan a cabo las instituciones de seguridad y justicia para contenerla. Se incluyen los principales resultados y conclusiones de una enc...

  14. Quantitative analysis of membrane trafficking in regulation of Cdc42 polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leah J; Rossi, Guendalina; Brennwald, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Vesicle delivery of Cdc42 has been proposed as an important mechanism for generating and maintaining Cdc42 polarity at the plasma membrane. This mechanism requires the density of Cdc42 on secretory vesicles to be equal to or higher than the plasma membrane polarity cap. Using a novel method to estimate Cdc42 levels on post-Golgi secretory vesicles in intact yeast cells, we: (1) determined that endocytosis plays an important role in Cdc42's association with secretory vesicles (2) found that a GFP-tag placed on the N-terminus of Cdc42 negatively impacts this vesicle association and (3) quantified the surface densities of Cdc42 on post-Golgi vesicles which revealed that the vesicle density of Cdc42 is three times more dilute than that at the polarity cap. This work suggests that the immediate consequence of secretory vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane polarity cap is to dilute the local Cdc42 surface density. This provides strong support for the model in which vesicle trafficking acts to negatively regulate Cdc42 polarity on the cell surface while also providing a means to recycle Cdc42 between the cell surface and internal membrane locations.

  15. Controlabilidad de Sistemas Bilineales en el Plano

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Guarachi, Leonardo Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    El objeto principal de este trabajo son los sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales que dependen de un parámetro u, control del sistema, tales sistemas se llaman sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales controlables, los cuales, en general, describen procesos dinámicos de fenómenos físicos. Estos procesos se describen mediante sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarios (EDO), ecuaciones en diferencias o a través de ecuaciones derivadas parciales. Una clase de sistemas de mucha im...

  16. Two Cdc2 Kinase Genes with Distinct Functions in Vegetative and Infectious Hyphae in Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiquan Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cell cycle involves a number of protein kinases important for the onset and progression through mitosis, most of which are well characterized in the budding and fission yeasts and conserved in other fungi. However, unlike the model yeast and filamentous fungi that have a single Cdc2 essential for cell cycle progression, the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum contains two CDC2 orthologs. The cdc2A and cdc2B mutants had no obvious defects in growth rate and conidiation but deletion of both of them is lethal, indicating that these two CDC2 orthologs have redundant functions during vegetative growth and asexual reproduction. However, whereas the cdc2B mutant was normal, the cdc2A mutant was significantly reduced in virulence and rarely produced ascospores. Although deletion of CDC2A had no obvious effect on the formation of penetration branches or hyphopodia, the cdc2A mutant was limited in the differentiation and growth of infectious growth in wheat tissues. Therefore, CDC2A plays stage-specific roles in cell cycle regulation during infectious growth and sexual reproduction. Both CDC2A and CDC2B are constitutively expressed but only CDC2A was up-regulated during plant infection and ascosporogenesis. Localization of Cdc2A- GFP to the nucleus but not Cdc2B-GFP was observed in vegetative hyphae, ascospores, and infectious hyphae. Complementation assays with chimeric fusion constructs showed that both the N- and C-terminal regions of Cdc2A are important for its functions in pathogenesis and ascosporogenesis but only the N-terminal region is important for its subcellular localization. Among the Sordariomycetes, only three Fusarium species closely related to F. graminearum have two CDC2 genes. Furthermore, F. graminearum uniquely has two Aurora kinase genes and one additional putative cyclin gene, and its orthologs of CAK1 and other four essential mitotic kinases in the budding yeast are dispensable for viability. Overall, our data

  17. CDC Vital Signs-Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-06

    This podcast is based on the October 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Hospitals can implement the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding to be designated as "Baby-Friendly" and support more moms in a decision to breastfeed.  Created: 10/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/6/2015.

  18. CDC Vital Signs-Safer Food Saves Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This podcast is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  19. CDC Vital Signs-Communication Can Save Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This podcast is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  20. CDC Vital Signs-Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.  Created: 3/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/3/2016.

  1. Ciberreligiones: Aproximación al discurso religioso católico y afro-americano en Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Galavís Añez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, basado en una investigación de carácter exploratorio cualitativo, refiere su corpus de análisis a dos ámbitos del hecho religioso: lo católico-cristiano y lo afro-americano,en relación a su despliegue icónico significante en la red multimediática Internet. El análisis estudiará la imagen como una función semiótica que se manifiesta en forma de discurso dentro de un contexto cultural telecomunicacional. La muestra se refiere a dos portales religiosos, seleccionados según criterios de densidad y calidad informativa: 1. Portal católico cristiano: EWTN/Global Catholic Network. 2.Portal Afroamericano: AxéAfonjá/Candomblé. La presencia de lo religioso en Internet conlleva al estudio de los elementos constitutivos y significantes de sus mensajes en relación al formato ciberespacial. Lo ciberreligioso sería entonces la unión de un nuevo espacio comunicacional con el discurso religioso. El análisis del corpus se apoyará en las retóricas audiovisuales de R. Barthes, U. Eco, en las indagaciones de G.Durandy M. Elia de sobre los arquetipos y los símbolos religiosos así como en la visión antropológica de Pollak Eltz sobre el Candomblé. La lectura se centrará en la estructura discursiva significante de los mitos y símbolos, sus aspectos iconográficos, hipertextuales y etnoescenológicos, en la dinámica diagramática de sus contenidos y en la conformación de sus redes de enlace con ellos mismos y con otras áreas de información paralela y complementaria.

  2. Sistemas hamiltonianos ressonantes.

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Atsuko Nitto

    1999-01-01

    Será analisado, neste trabalho, o problema de ressonância existente entre os corpos celestes, cujos períodos orbitais são comensuráveis na razão p:q, onde p e q são números inteiros positivos. O corpo central será considerado achatado e as excentricidades e inclinações serão quantidades pequenas e não-nulas. O sistema Hamiltoniano ressonante obtido abrange muitos casos que podem ocorrer em problemas de Mecânica Celeste.A análise do problema será feita considerando três classes particulares de...

  3. Sistema Presidencial Mexicano"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pantoja Morán

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor aborda el origen doctrinal de las dimensiones institucionales y constitucionales del sistema presidencial-constitucional mexicano para tratar de encontrar ahí los posibles orígenes o explicaciones del éxito o fracaso de este tipo de régimen político. Para ello, se recupera la relevancia y significado de la constitución de 1824 para la vida nacional —desde entonces hasta nuestros días— a fin de comprender muchos de los orígenes de los aciertos y de los errores en el diseño de nuestra constitución vigente así como de la forma presidencial de gobierno, a saber, el principio de legitimidad dual y el de la rigidez o separación rígida de los Poderes.

  4. A América Latina, uma justaposição de dois sistemas de proteção de direitos humanos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenile Mascolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O MERCOSUL tem evoluído no estabelecimento de um sistema de promoção e proteção dos Direitos Humanos, principalmente graças ao desenvolvimento de uma estrutura institucional e normativa voltada à promoção e à proteção desses direitos. Tendo em vista que a maioria de seus Estados Partes são todos membros da Organização dos Estados Americanos, esses países se veem consequentemente sob os auspícios dos dois sistemas de proteção de Direitos Humanos, o que pode ser motivo para embates ou colaborações. Pergunta-se então de quem é a competência na apreciação de questões de violações referentes aos Direitos Humanos no seio do MERCOSUL: de um controle interno realizado pelos órgãos que compõem o sistema de resolução de conflitos do MERCOSUL ou de um controle externalizado pelos órgãos do sistema interamericano de proteção de Direitos Humanos?

  5. Orp1, a member of the Cdc18/Cdc6 family of S-phase regulators, is homologous to a component of the origin recognition complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzi-Falconi, M; Kelly, T J

    1995-01-01

    cdc18+ of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a periodically expressed gene that is required for entry into S phase and for the coordination of S phase with mitosis. cdc18+ is related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene CDC6, which has also been implicated in the control of DNA replication. We have identified a new Sch. pombe gene, orp1+, that encodes an 80-kDa protein with amino acid sequence motifs conserved in the Cdc18 and Cdc6 proteins. Genetic analysis indicates that orp1+ is essential for viability. Germinating spores lacking the orp1+ gene are capable of undergoing one or more rounds of DNA replication but fail to progress further, arresting as long cells with a variety of deranged nuclear structures. Unlike cdc18+, orp1+ is expressed constitutively during the cell cycle. cdc18+, CDC6, and orp1+ belong to a family of related genes that also includes the gene ORC1, which encodes a subunit of the origin recognition complex (ORC) of S. cerevisiae. The products of this gene family share a 250-amino acid domain that is highly conserved in evolution and contains several characteristic motifs, including a consensus purine nucleotide-binding motif. Among the members of this gene family, orp1+ is most closely related to S. cerevisiae ORC1. Thus, the protein encoded by orp1+ may represent a component of an Sch. pombe ORC. The orp1+ gene is also closely related to an uncharacterized putative human homologue. It is likely that the members of the cdc18/CDC6 family play key roles in the regulation of DNA replication during the cell cycle of diverse species from archaebacteria to man. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8618924

  6. Sistema de control de riego

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez González, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Programación de un sistema capaz de controlar un sistema de riego mediante el microcontrolador Arduino. Dicho sistema se ha programado en la plataforma Simulink y se han llevado a cabo simulaciones del mismo para confirmar su correcto funcionamiento. Las simulaciones realizadas se basan en datos obtenidos de informes meteorológicos diarios que nos dan una idea de las posibles necesidades de riego en diferentes regiones de España. Realización de un estudio de diversos factores que influyen en ...

  7. La estructura del sistema hegeliano

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, André; Universidad de Lovaina

    2014-01-01

    Como lo expresa su título, este artículo no pretende exponer el contenido del sistema hegeliano sino el esquema del pensamiento que es inherente a la filosofía hegeliana y que aparece invariable, bajo modos distintos, en cada una de las diferentes exposiciones que hace Hegel de su sistema. El autor toma como base para su trabajo la exposición del sistema hegeliano que aparece en la última edición de la Enciclopedia de las Ciencias Filosóficas (1830). Apoyado en la teoría hegeliana del silogis...

  8. Polo kinase Cdc5 is a central regulator of meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attner, Michelle A; Miller, Matthew P; Ee, Ly-sha; Elkin, Sheryl K; Amon, Angelika

    2013-08-27

    During meiosis, two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation yield four haploid gametes from one diploid cell. The Polo kinase Cdc5 is required for meiotic progression, but how Cdc5 coordinates multiple cell-cycle events during meiosis I is not understood. Here we show that CDC5-dependent phosphorylation of Rec8, a subunit of the cohesin complex that links sister chromatids, is required for efficient cohesin removal from chromosome arms, which is a prerequisite for meiosis I chromosome segregation. CDC5 also establishes conditions for centromeric cohesin removal during meiosis II by promoting the degradation of Spo13, a protein that protects centromeric cohesin during meiosis I. Despite CDC5's central role in meiosis I, the protein kinase is dispensable during meiosis II and does not even phosphorylate its meiosis I targets during the second meiotic division. We conclude that Cdc5 has evolved into a master regulator of the unique meiosis I chromosome segregation pattern.

  9. Los espacios cerrados residenciales: en busca del entre-sí; estudio comparativo entre el norte y el sur del continente americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chevalier Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espacios cerrados son actualmente un fen6meno que se halla presente en todas las áreas metropolitanas y perimetropolitanas del continente americano. Corresponden a una necesidad de producir el "entre-sí", talcomo ocurre en los casos de los clubes (por ejemplo: country clubs, clubes de campo, gated communities, retirement communities, condominios .... Este "entre-sí" tiende, no obstante, a modificarse según las ofertas inmobiliarias, cada vez más fragmentadas, y responde a las construcciones sociales diferenciadas. Los autores proponen la lectura de algunas figuras genéricas a la luz de estas segmentaciones espaciales.

  10. Comparação do uso de drogas entre universitários brasileiros, norte-americanos e jovens da população geral brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Eckschmidt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o uso de drogas entre os universitários e a população geral brasileira, assim como com os universitários norte-americanos, identificando possíveis diferenças de uso pela interferência da cultura. MÉTODOS: Para comparar o uso de drogas na vida entre as populações de interesse, foram utilizados os dados públicos de levantamentos estatísticos brasileiros realizados com universitários e a população geral, assim como levantamento estatístico norte-americano, por meio da comparação de intervalos de confiança (IC 95%. RESULTADOS: O uso de drogas na vida é mais frequente entre os estudantes norte-americanos, que relatam usar mais tabaco, tranquilizantes, maconha, ecstasy, alucinógenos, cocaína, crack e heroína que os universitários brasileiros. Em contrapartida, os universitários brasileiros relatam usar quase duas vezes mais inalantes do que os universitários norte-americanos. Esse padrão se repete ao se analisarem as diferenças intragênero. A isso se soma que os universitários brasileiros parecem envolver-se com mais frequência no uso de bebidas alcoólicas, maconha, tranquilizantes, inalantes, alucinógenos e anfetamínicos que seus pares da população geral brasileira. CONCLUSÕES: Conhecer as particularidades do uso de drogas entre os universitários é de suma importância para a detecção precoce desse consumo. Investimentos nesse segmento e diferenças de sexo devem ser contempladas nas políticas preventivas, assim como na elaboração de estratégias para a redução e o controle desse consumo, como programas de triagem e intervenção breve, uma vez que possuem a melhor relação custo-benefício.

  11. Estudio de 5 edificios de la administración pública basado en un certificado Norte Americano (LEED-EB)

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Navarro, Miquel; Mestre Castillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto del estudio de cinco edificios de la administración pública basado en un certificado Norte americano LEED-EB se ha analizado primeramente el tipo de certificación LEED-EB para edificio de operaciones y mantenimiento contrastándolo con algunos de los sellos de sostenibilidad que se encuentran en la actualidad como por ejemplo: Breeam, Casbee, HQE y Green Star, con el objetivo de encontrar las similitudes y diferencias de todos ellos y como el sello LEED en la actualidad...

  12. A atuação da Organização dos Estados Americanos (OEA nas crises políticas contemporâneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ernesto Fagundes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a atuação da Organização dos Estados Americanos (OEA no período pós Guerra Fria, especificamente, nas crises políticas do Haiti (1991, Venezuela (2001 e Honduras (2009. O trabalho apresenta um panorama da atuação dessa organização multilateral a partir da década de 1950 até as mais recentes disputas ocorridas na América Latina.

  13. A visibilidade e a qualidade em revistas de Ciências da Comunicação em acesso aberto no contexto ibero-americano, Portugal e Espanha

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, M. Cristina V. de; Borges, Maria Manuel; Simões, Maria da Graça; Cardoso, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    As revistas são imprescindíveis na divulgação e no acesso à ciência. O acesso aberto potencia esta divulgação e colateral impacto, onde a visibilidade é uma alavanca e a sua qualidade, ou a ausência desta, é uma oportunidade ou um entrave. Este artigo investiga revistas de Ciências da Comunicação em acesso aberto no espaço ibero-americano, Portugal e Espanha, sob o binómio visibilidade/qualidade. Trata-se de um estudo de caso descritivo e interpretativo. Primeiramente recolhe-se uma amostra n...

  14. Identification of Novel Targets of the Human Cell Cycle Regulatory Protein Cdc34

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    human Cdc34 and its interacting proteins using Southern, Northern and Western blot analysis. 11 PROPRIETARY Conclusion Knowledge gained about...expression in yeast. Task 2: Month 2-3: Excision of the library (the prey) encoding candidate interacting proteins fused to the activation domain from...Cdc34 and its interacting proteins in carcinogenesis. Task 7: Month 18-28: Study of the structure of human CDC34 and its novel partner proteins in

  15. Enhanced membrane fluorescence of CDC-labelled paramecium subsequent to removal of surface components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Bottiroli, G; Giordano, P

    1983-01-01

    Cytofluorimetric analysis of cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride (CDC) labelled Paramecium indicates that after mild trypsin removal of surface components the localization of CDC on the outer surface of living cells was not modified by the treatment. After such treatment the intensity of fluorescence emission was found about 3-fold higher in treated single cell than in the untreated one. These findings indicate that CDC labelling can be used to follow alteration occurred on the membrane of the living cell prior to labelling.

  16. YBX1 regulates tumor growth via CDC25a pathway in human lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wendan; Li, Jinxiu; Tang, Zhipeng; Yu, Zhenlong; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Yixiang; Wang, Ziyi; Wang, Peng; Li, Yechi; Li, Fengzhou; Sun, Zhe; Xuan, Yang; Tang, Ranran; Deng, Wu-guo; Guo, Wei; Gu, Chundong

    2016-01-01

    Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1) is involved in the multi-tumor occurrence and development. However, the regulation of YBX1 in lung tumorigenesis and the underlying mechanisms, especially its relationship with CDC25a, was remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression and clinical significance of YBX1 and CDC25a in lung adenocarcinoma and identified their roles in the regulation of lung cancer growth. The retrospective analysis of 116 patients with lung adenocarcinoma indicated that YBX1 was positively correlated with CDC25a expression. The Cox-regression analysis showed only high-ranking TNM stage and low CDC25a expression were an independent risk factor of prognosis in enrolled patients. High expression of YBX1 or CDC25a protein was also observed in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with HLF cells. ChIP assay demonstrated the binding of endogenous YBX1 to the CDC25a promoter region. Overexpression of exogenous YBX1 up-regulated the expression of the CDC25a promoter-driven luciferase. By contrast, inhibition of YBX1 by siRNA markedly decreased the capability of YBX1 binding to CDC25a promoter in A549 and H322 cells. Inhibition of YBX1 expression also blocked cell cycle progression, suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis via the CDC25a pathway in vitro. Moreover, inhibition of YBX1 by siRNA suppressed tumorigenesis in a xenograft mouse model and down-regulated the expression of YBX1, CDC25a, Ki67 and cleaved caspase 3 in the tumor tissues of mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate inhibition of YBX1 suppressed lung cancer growth partly via the CDC25a pathway and high expression of YBX1/CDC25a predicts poor prognosis in human lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27384875

  17. Screening the active constituents of Chinese medicinal herbs as potent inhibitors of Cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase, an activator of the mitosis-inducing p34cdc2 kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hua; ZHENG Shu; MEIJER Laurent; LI Shi-min; LECLERC Sophie; YU Lin-lin; CHENG Jin-quan; ZHANG Su-zhan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To screen and evaluate the active constituents of Chinese medicinal herbs as potent inhibitors of Cdc25phosphatase. Methods: The affinity chromatography purified glutashione-S-transferase/Cdc25A phosphatase fusion protein and Cdc2/cyclin B from the extracts of starfish M phase oocytes are used as the cell cycle-specific targets for screening the antimitotic constituents. We tested 9 extracts isolated from the Chinese medicinal herbs and vegetables including the agents currently used in cancer treatment by measuring the inhibition of Cdc25A phosphatase and Cdc2 kinase activity. The antitumor activity of the extracts was also evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and flow cytometry.Results: Cdc25A inhibitory activity and antitumor activity are detected in the extracts isolated from three Chinese medicinal herbs Agrimonapilosa; Herba solani lyrati; Galla chinesis. Conclusion: We found three extracts isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs have potential inhibitory activity of Cdc25 phosphatase using a highly specific mechanism-based screen assay for antimitotic drug discovery.

  18. CDC Vital Signs-Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    This podcast is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  19. CDC Vital Signs-E-cigarette Ads and Youth

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-05

    This podcast is based on the January 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and may harm brain development. More than 18 million middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette ads. Exposure to these ads may be contributing to an increase in e-cigarette use among youth. Learn what can be done to keep our youth safe and healthy.  Created: 1/5/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/5/2016.

  20. A hard lesson for Europeans: the ASEAN CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibayrenc, Michel

    2005-06-01

    Despite the growing threat of major pandemics, the European Union is planning no more than a meager surveillance agency staffed with 70 people on the 2007 horizon: the new European Centre for Disease Control. I argue that an effective structure should be much larger and include a strong research activity. Asian countries, inspired by the US CDC, are now taking this concept in hand and creating an ASEAN Center For Disease Control, with sophisticated laboratory facilities to be included. This is a tough lesson for us Europeans, and our avarice in this domain could have tragic consequences in the future.

  1. 13 CFR 120.826 - Basic requirements for operating a CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.826... documentation; (ii) Loan quality classification standards consistent with the standardized...

  2. Rock2 regulates Cdc25A through ubiquitin proteasome system in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiande; Yu, Xin; Li, Guohui; Yuan, Rongfa; Wang, Qingnuo; Tang, Ping; Wu, Linquan; Liu, Xiuxia; Peng, Xiaogang; Shao, Jianghua

    2012-10-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (Rock2) belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases which are actived via interaction with Rho GTPases. Recently, overexpression of Rock2 has been demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the potential role of Rock2 in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Cdc25A acts as a key checkpoint during the G1/S phase and has also been found to be overexpressed in HCC. Here, we report that Rock2 regulates cell cycle progression via ubiquitination of Cdc25A in HCC. In HCC tissues, Rock2 and Cdc25A were aberrantly upregulated and revealed a significantly positive correlation. Knockdown of Rock2 inhibited HCC cell growth and promoted cell-cycle arrest at the G1/S phase via regulation of Cdc25A. When cells were exposed to DNA damage, Rock2 increased cell survival by regulating Cdc25A. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses indicated that Rock2 regulated Cdc25A via direct binding. Furthermore, knockdown of Rock2 activated Cdc25A ubiquitination and promoted its degradation. Our results defined a role for Rock2 in modulation of Cdc25A ubiquitination, indicating a novel mechanism of Cdc25A regulation and a potential function for Rock2 in the development of HCC.

  3. Spatio-temporal regulation of the human licensing factor Cdc6 in replication and mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfalah, Faiza M; Berg, Elke; Christensen, Morten O; Linka, René M; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Boege, Fritz; Mielke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To maintain genome stability, the thousands of replication origins of mammalian genomes must only initiate replication once per cell cycle. This is achieved by a strict temporal separation of ongoing replication in S phase, and the formation of pre-replicative complexes in the preceding G1 phase, which "licenses" each origin competent for replication. The contribution of the loading factor Cdc6 to the timing of the licensing process remained however elusive due to seemingly contradictory findings concerning stabilization, degradation and nuclear export of Cdc6. Using fluorescently tagged Cdc6 (Cdc6-YFP) expressed in living cycling cells, we demonstrate here that Cdc6-YFP is stable and chromatin-associated during mitosis and G1 phase. It undergoes rapid proteasomal degradation during S phase initiation followed by active export to the cytosol during S and G2 phases. Biochemical fractionation abolishes this nuclear exclusion, causing aberrant chromatin association of Cdc6-YFP and, likely, endogenous Cdc6, too. In addition, we demonstrate association of Cdc6 with centrosomes in late G2 and during mitosis. These results show that multiple Cdc6-regulatory mechanisms coexist but are tightly controlled in a cell cycle-specific manner.

  4. Cdc42 is crucial for the establishment of epithelial polarity during early mammalian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Li, Shaohua; Chrostek-Grashoff, Anna

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of epithelial polarity during mammalian development, we generated murine Cdc42-null embryonic stem cells and analyzed peri-implantation development using embryoid bodies (EBs). Mutant EBs developed endoderm and underlying basement membrane, but exhi......To study the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of epithelial polarity during mammalian development, we generated murine Cdc42-null embryonic stem cells and analyzed peri-implantation development using embryoid bodies (EBs). Mutant EBs developed endoderm and underlying basement membrane...

  5. Cdc13 N-Terminal Dimerization DNA Binding and Telomere Length Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Mitchell; J Smith; M Mason; S Harper; D Speicher; F Johnson; E Skordalakes

    2011-12-31

    The essential yeast protein Cdc13 facilitates chromosome end replication by recruiting telomerase to telomeres, and together with its interacting partners Stn1 and Ten1, it protects chromosome ends from nucleolytic attack, thus contributing to genome integrity. Although Cdc13 has been studied extensively, the precise role of its N-terminal domain (Cdc13N) in telomere length regulation remains unclear. Here we present a structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cdc13N. The structure reveals that this domain comprises an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold and is involved in Cdc13 dimerization. Biochemical data show that Cdc13N weakly binds long, single-stranded, telomeric DNA in a fashion that is directly dependent on domain oligomerization. When introduced into full-length Cdc13 in vivo, point mutations that prevented Cdc13N dimerization or DNA binding caused telomere shortening or lengthening, respectively. The multiple DNA binding domains and dimeric nature of Cdc13 offer unique insights into how it coordinates the recruitment and regulation of telomerase access to the telomeres.

  6. A pós-graduação e a pesquisa no Serviço Social latino-americano: uma primeira aproximação Postgraduation and research in the Latin American Social Services: a preliminary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montaño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa apresentar a sistematização dos dados sobre pós-graduação e pesquisa nos países hispano-americanos, a partir de documentos apresentados em dois eventos latino-americanos de pós-graduação. O objetivo é estimular a articulação, os convênios e o intercâmbio entre as unidades de ensino brasileiras e as dos demais países do subcontinente latino-americano.This article presents the systematization of data on postgraduation and research in Spanish American countries Such systematization was done from documents submitted in two Latin American postgraduation events. The goal is to stimulate the joint ventures, the agreements and the exchanges among Brazilian and other Latin American colleges.

  7. Plants of the American continent with antimalarial activity Plantas do continente Americano com atividade antimalárica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid R. Mariath

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a human parasitic disease caused by protozoa species of the Plasmodium genus. This disease has affected populations of the tropical and subtropical regions. About 500 million new cases occur annually on the world and therefore it is considered an emerging disease of important public health problem. In this context, the natural products as vegetables species have their bioactive molecules as targets for pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies towards the development of more effective medicines for the treatment of many diseases. So this work intends to aid the researchers in the study of natural products to the treatment of malaria. In this review, 476 plants of the American continent were related for the antimalarial activity and of these vegetables species 198 were active and 278 inactive for some type of Plasmodium when they were evaluated through of in vitro or in vivo bioassays models.Malária é uma doença parasitária humana causada por protozoários do gênero Plasmodium. Esta doença tem acometido populações que habitam regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Anualmente, cerca de 500 milhões de casos ocorrem no mundo, o que permite ser considerada uma doença emergente de importância para a saúde pública. Neste contexto, os produtos naturais, a exemplo das espécies vegetais, têm suas moléculas bioativas como alvo para estudos farmacológicos, toxicológicos e fitoquímicos destinados à síntese de medicamentos mais eficazes para o tratamento de inúmeras doenças. Portanto, este trabalho fornece subsídio às pesquisas com produtos naturais para o tratamento da malária. Nesta revisão, 476 espécies de plantas do continente Americano foram relatadas para a atividade antimalárica, sendo destas 198 ativas e 278 inativas para algum tipo de Plasmodium, quando avaliados através de modelos in vitro e in vivo.

  8. SISTEMAS INMUNES ALTERNATIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS F. CADAVID

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema inmune en animales es una red compleja de moléculas, células y tejidos que de manera conjunta mantienen la integridad fisiológica y genética de los organismos. Convencionalmente se ha considerado la existencia de dos clases de inmunidad, la innata y la adaptativa. La primera es ancestral, con variabilidad limitada y baja discriminación, mientras que la segunda es altamente variable, específica y restringida a vertebrados mandibulados. La inmunidad adaptativa se basa en receptores de antígeno que se rearreglan somáticamente para generar una diversidad casi ilimitada de moléculas. Este mecanismo de recombinación somática muy probablemente emergió como consecuencia de un evento de transferencia horizontal de transposones y transposasas bacterianas en el ancestro de los vertebrados mandibulados. El reciente descubrimiento en vertebrados no mandibulados e invertebrados de mecanismos alternativos de inmunidad adaptativa, sugiere que en el transcurso de la evolución distintos grupos animales han encontrado soluciones alternativas al problema del reconocimiento inmunológico.

  9. En portada SISTEMA RESPIRATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J. Flores Alés,

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La sección “En portada” de este mes está dedicada a los agentes infecciosos y al diagnóstico de algunas de las enfermedades respiratorias más habituales en los animales de compañía, estacando la relevancia adquirida por el diagnóstico mediante la obtención de de imágenes en este campo. También se hace incapie en la actuación que debe llevar a cabo elínico ante una urgencia respiratoria La obtención de imágenes por radiología o endoscopia son dos de las técnicas diagnósticas que más ayudan a dilucidar el proceso respiratorio que sufre un paciente. Sobre el momento en el que se encuentra el diagnóstico por imagen de las patologías del sistema respiratorio en veterinaria nos habla a continuación Andrés J. Flores.

  10. 光滑念珠菌 Cdc42基因生物信息分析%Bioinformatics Analysis of Cdc42 Gene from Candida Glabrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 黄怀球; 袁立燕; 钟毅; 张静; 张晓辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析和预测光滑念珠菌Cdc42基因及其编码蛋白的结构和特性。方法:利用NCBI、Ex-PASy和CBS网站中的各种信息分析工具,并结合Vector NTI suite 8.0生物信息学分析软件包,分析预测光滑念珠菌Cdc42基因并预测该基因编码蛋白结构的特征和功能。结果:Cdc42基因全长为576 bp,编码区具有191个氨基酸,在GenBank同源序列中,其与酵母 Cdc42氨基酸序列一致性达到99%,且有Cdc42保守域。 Cdc42蛋白相对分子量预测为21420.83,理论等电点为6.31。预测Cdc42编码蛋白ɑ螺旋(H)、β折叠(E)、无规则卷(L)的比例分别是29.84%、28.70%、41.88%,1个GTP/ATP结合位点。 Cdc42蛋白为疏水蛋白,无跨膜区,无信号肽。结论:成功预测Cdc42基因及编码蛋白生化及结构特征,为下一步对其进行克隆和表达奠定基础。%Objective:To analyze and predict the structure and properties about encoding pro-tein of cell division cycle 42(Cdc42) from Candida glabrata by bioinformatics.Methods:A full-length cDNA sequence encoding Cdc 42 from Candida glabrata was identified by using tools of bioinformatics at webs sites of NCBI , ExPASy, CBS and software Vector NTI suite 8.0.The char-acteristics of the protein were predicted by employing bioinformatics software package supplied by the website of ExPaSy .Results:The full length of Cdc42 is 576 bp, and its ORF encodes 191 ami-no acid.The relationship of phylogenesis between Candida glabrata and other fungus is close .The prediction shows that Cdc 42 had a Cdc42 conserved domain , the molecular weight and theoretical pI of Cg.Cdc42 was 21 420.83 and 6.31 respectively, and the coding protein contains 29.84%ɑ-helix, 28.70%extended strand,41.88% random coil,and one GTP/ATP motif.Cdc42 enco-ding protein is hydrophobic , extra-membrane protein , without signal peptide .Conclusion:The structure and characteristics of the gene and protein of Cg .Cdc42 was

  11. El siglo perdido del Derecho Administrativo americano: más allá de un desfase histórico

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    Manuela Canal Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Creando la Constitución Administrativa. Los Cien Años Perdidos del Derecho Administrativo americano, elegido por la American Bar Association –ABA– como el mejor trabajo de Derecho Administrativo publicado en el 2012, es considerado una de las más polémicas y exhaustivas exposiciones alrededor de la evolución del gobierno estadinense2. Acorde con las palabras de Robert L. Rabin (s.f., la obra es una contribución sustancial al entendimiento del gobierno administrativo en los Estados Unidos en sus orígenes y actualidad. Este artículo presenta las ideas más importantes del trabajo de Mashaw analizando la evolución de la Administración desde los primeros días de la República americana. Con este fin, explora la configuración del gobierno americano antes y después de la guerra civil. En conclusión, el artículo desarrolla la exposición de Mashaw y explora las implicaciones de su obra en las disciplinas histórica y jurídica americanas.

  12. Los indios americanos en las escenas líricas europeas: de los hermanos Purcell (1695 a Carl Heinrich Graun (1755

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    Núñez Ronchi, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to a supposedly critically-oriented Golden Age comedia, the first American- themed operas (the Purcells, Vivaldi, Rameau, Graun have been interpreted as uncritical expressions of the so-called Black Legend. Nevertheless, this judgment ought to be tempered: on the one hand, the Spanish comedia is not as censorious as has been asserted; on the other hand, although these operas do praise American Indians, they do not systematically belittle the Spaniards. Finally, the notion itself of “Black Legend” should be questioned.Se ha querido interpretar las primeras óperas de tema americano (Purcell, Vivaldi, Rameau y Graun como una expresión dramático-musical de la llamada Leyenda Negra, contrapuesta a una producción teatral áurea española que, inversamente, sí habría dejado espacio a la dimensión histórico-crítica. Ello nos parece injusto e inexacto: en primer lugar, la comedia áurea no escenifica la dimensión crítica que se ha pretendido atribuirle; en segundo lugar, el teatro lírico europeo, si bien exalta al indio americano, no devalúa sistemáticamente a los conquistadores españoles; finalmente, la noción misma de «Leyenda Negra» debe ser problematizada.

  13. Índices del Anuario de Estudios Americanos (tomos XLII-LI, 2, años 1985-1994

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    Sarabia Viejo, M.ª Justina

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Los índices que se incluyen a continuación tratan de aportar la información más útil a los investigadores americanistas. Para ello se ha establecido una división en índices alfabético, geográfico y por materias, además de situar al principio la relación de los artículos publicados en cada número del Anuario de Estudios Americanos durante esa década. Desde 1993, a partir del Tomo L (dividido en números 1 y 2 se ha unificado con la otra revista hasta entonces también publicada en la Escuela de Estudios Hispanoamericanos, del CSIC, con los nombres de Historiografía y Bibliografía Americanistas y Suplemento de Anuario de Estudios Americanos. Sección Historiografía y Bibliografía.

  14. EUROPA Y SU PERCEPCIÓN DEL NUEVO MUNDO A TRAVÉS DE LAS ESPECIES COMESTIBLES Y LOS ESPACIOS AMERICANOS EN EL SIGLO XVI

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    OLAYA SANFUENTES ECHEVERRÍA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El encuentro europeo con las nuevas especies y espacios americanos en el siglo XVI, complejiza ese universo de percepciones de superioridad occidental frente a mundos que se consideraban más exóticos y menos civilizados. Las descripciones europeas de la naturaleza americana, las primeras imágenes de sus productos alimenticios y especies autóctonas pintadas con los colores del paraíso, el exotismo y la belleza, la fertilidad y la abundancia, ayudarán a conformar una imagen positiva del continente americano. A pesar del original desprecio o indiferencia frente a ciertos alimentos indígenas, con el tiempo estas percepciones cambiarán al convertirse muchos de ellos en salvavidas de las hambrunas mundiales e ingredientes fundamentales de las gastronomías nacionalesThe European encounter with the new American space and it species during the sixteenth century, allows us to look at the European percepction of superiority towards exotic worlds in a more complex way. European description of American nature, the first visual images of the local species described with the colors of paradise, exotism and beauty, fertility and abundance, help in constructing a positive image of America. Despite the original disdain or indifference towards the indigenous food, these percepctions will change over time when many of these products become a solution to world wide hunger and important ingredients for national gastronomies

  15. CDC Signos Vitales: Enfermedad del legionario (CDC Vital Signs–Legionnaires’ Disease)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-07

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de junio del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Las personas pueden contraer la enfermedad del legionario, un tipo grave de infección pulmonar, al inhalar pequeñas gotitas de agua contaminada con bacterias Legionella. Obtenga más información sobre lo que se puede hacer para ayudar a prevenir brotes de enfermedad del legionario y mantener seguras a las personas.  Created: 6/7/2016 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/7/2016.

  16. Incunables bogotanos y americanos

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    Manuel José Forero

    1962-04-01

    Full Text Available El interés que despiertan en los círculos cultos las primeras manifestaciones del arte de la imprenta se explica y justifica por varios conceptos. En la duración de muchos siglos el pensamiento humano se enfrentó a dificultades numerosas para lograr su conservación o su perdurabilidad.

  17. El primer virreinato americano

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    Cassá, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the government of viceroy Christopher Columbus in the American territories. We return to the first Spanish settlement in Santo Domingo and the contradictions inherent to this expansionist proyect. The contradictions were part of the logic of the absolutist state and Columbus’ reaction against the controls imposed by the monarchs. Secondly, we look into the dificulties that the Admiral encountered to develop a mercantilist model. In this context, we examine the rationale behind the first government of the Indies and the features that defined the new West Indian society.

    El artículo trata sobre el gobierno de Cristóbal Colón en tierras americanas. Retomamos el tema del primer emplazamiento español en Santo Domingo y las contradicciones que tuvo aquel proyecto debido a la lógica del estado absolutista, a la ambición desmedida del descubridor y a su reacción ante los controles que desde un principio impusieron los monarcas. En un segundo momento analizamos las dificultades que encontró el Almirante para desarrollar un modelo mercantilista acorde a sus ideas y a los acuerdos a que llegó con la Corona. En ese contexto analizamos la lógica del primer gobierno colombinista en las Indias y los rasgos que definieron la nueva sociedad antillana.

  18. Um exemplo de inversão do domínio ideológico norte-americano no Brasil

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    Carla Damião

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Propomos discutir a relação de domínio ideológico-cultural norte-americano sobre o Brasil, tendo em vista exemplos documentados. Trata-se da chamada “política de boa vizinhança” [Good Neighbor Policy], com início em 1933 até o final da Segunda Guerra, notadamente durante o governo Getúlio Vargas no Brasil e o governo Franklin Roosevelt nos Estados Unidos. A necessidade de propaganda política passava pela “sedução” cultural da potência estadunidense sobre seus vizinhos latino-americanos. Neste sentido, o momento político de tentativa de “adoção” ideológica do Brasil pelos Estados Unidos foi marcado pela “encomenda” de produtos culturais como a personagem do malandro Zé Carioca de Disney. O exemplo mais ambíguo que marca essa ambição de domínio ideológico é o filme encomendado a Orson Welles e jamais finalizado, intitulado: It’s All True [É tudo verdade]. O filme não concluído por seu famoso diretor, filmado em 1942, só se tornou conhecido em 1993 quando outros diretores americanos realizaram um documentário remontando partes do filme. O material presente nesse documentário foi também recuperado pela pesquisa realizada pelo cineasta brasileiro Rogério Sganzerla, da qual surgiu uma tetralogia composta pelos filmes: Nem tudo é verdade (1986, A liguagem de orson Welles (1990, Tudo é Brasil (1997 e O signo do caos (2003. O projeto de domínio cultural encomendado a Orson Welles terminou em fracasso, visto que este desviou sua atenção da glamourosa cidade do Rio de Janeiro e do Carnaval, para filmar a saga de jangadeiros que lutavam por direitos trabalhistas. A conotação política do filme determina seu fracasso no domínio ideológico de propaganda política do governo americano. Sganzerla elegeu o episódio para pensar e criticar o domínio ideológico norte-americano sempre presente na cultura brasileira, de uma maneira bastante ambígua. A ambiguidade permeia a atitude dos dois cineastas: o

  19. Micoses do sistema nervoso

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    Carlos da Silva Lacaz

    1947-03-01

    Full Text Available As micoses do sistema nervoso central não têm merecido atenção cuidadosa dos neurologistas. Elas afetam o neuraxe em diferente percentagem: a granulomatose criptocóccica (torulose é a mais freqüente, seguindo-se a actinomicose; a granulomatose paracoccidióidica só excepcionalmente determina lesões meningoencefálicas. Do ponto de vista clínico, as neuromicoses podem ser divididas em duas formas: tumorais encefalomedulares e meningíticas. Estas predominam sobre as tumorais, das quais são mais freqüentes as de localização encefálica. Não são raros os quadros mistos, meningoencetálicos. As formas tumorals encefálicas abrangem vários tipos anátomo-patológicos - abscesso, granuloma, nódulos e cistos - sendo mais comuns os dois primeiros, todos êles produzindo o quadro clinico da síndrome hipertensiva intracraniana. As formas meningomedulares, em geral, são secundárias às lesões ósseas vertebrais, sendo a actinomicose, por ser a mais osteófila, a micose que mais freqüentemente atinge a medula. Nestes casos, o quadro clínico da síndrome compressiva é o mais comum. As meninges participam do processo fúngico, na maior parte dos casos; as manifestações clínicas variam desde o simples meningismo, até as meningites purulentas e meningoencefalites graves, havendo a possibilidade de se formarem aracnoidites císticas, ependimites e bloqueios ventriculares, do aqueduto ou mesmo do canal raquidiano. O diagnóstico das micoses do sistema nervoso central é comumente um "achado de autópsia". Somente a verificação do cogumelo no líquor e o seu isolamento permitem um diagnóstico seguro. Outros dados liquóricos, quando bem interpretados com os achados clínicos e neurológicos, orientam o analista na pesquisa do agente fúngico. O quadro anátomo-patológico nada tem de caraterístico, a não ser a presença do agente parasitário e só o seu encontro firma o diagnóstico. Examinamos 25 casos de granulomatose

  20. Blastomicose do sistema nervoso

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    Horácio M. Canelas

    1951-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores chamam a atenção sôbre os erros de diagnóstico nos casos de neuroblastomicose, seja nas formas meningoencefálicas, seja nas tumorais. São focalizadas a paracoccidioidose e a criptococose. Depois de caracterizarem clìnicamente a paracoccidioidose, acentuam a raridade das formas nervosas (1,2% dos casos dessa micose autopsiados no Departamento de Anatomia Patológica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Pela revisão da literatura foi verificado haver apenas 12 casos registrados. 0 caso de Casiello e Klass é o único em que o diagnóstico foi feito em vida; os demais, ou constituem achado de necropsia, ou foram inesperadamente revelados pelo exame histopatológico realizado após intervenções cirúrgicas. Os autores registram 2 casos de paracoccidioidose do sistema nervoso. No primeiro, tratava-se de meningomielorra-diculite crônica, sendo o parasito identificado no escarro; o segundo era portador de síndrome de compressão medular, cuja patogenia é discutida pelos autores, tendo sido a etiologia paracoccidióidica comprovada pelo exame da polpa e biópsia ganglionares. Considerações clínicas sôbre a criptococose precedem o relato de um caso de meningoencefalomielite subaguda, no qual fôra feito em vida o diagnóstico de paracoccidioidose, pelo exame micológico do liqüido cefalorraqueano; êste paciente, embora medicado com doses maciças de sulfa e tiossemicarbarsona, veio a falecer, tendo o exame anátomo-patológico revelado tratar-se, na realidade, de lesões nervosas produzidas pelo Crypíococcus neo-formans. Nos três casos era incisivo o caráter neurocirúrgico da sintomatologia. Entretanto, ante o diagnóstico de paracoccidioidose, foi instituído tratamento pelas sulfas, vacina específica e tiossemicarbarsona. Os resultados foram excelentes no caso 2, em que a terapêutica pôde ser instituída mais precocemente; melhoras também foram obtidas no caso 1. No caso 3, foram verificadas

  1. Distinct roles of Cdc42 in thymopoiesis and effector and memory T cell differentiation.

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    Fukun Guo

    Full Text Available Cdc42 of the Rho GTPase family has been implicated in cell actin organization, proliferation, survival, and migration but its physiological role is likely cell-type specific. By a T cell-specific deletion of Cdc42 in mouse, we have recently shown that Cdc42 maintains naïve T cell homeostasis through promoting cell survival and suppressing T cell activation. Here we have further investigated the involvement of Cdc42 in multiple stages of T cell differentiation. We found that in Cdc42(-/- thymus, positive selection of CD4(+CD8(+ double-positive thymocytes was defective, CD4(+ and CD8(+ single-positive thymocytes were impaired in migration and showed an increase in cell apoptosis triggered by anti-CD3/-CD28 antibodies, and thymocytes were hyporesponsive to anti-CD3/-CD28-induced cell proliferation and hyperresponsive to anti-CD3/-CD28-stimulated MAP kinase activation. At the periphery, Cdc42-deficient naive T cells displayed an impaired actin polymerization and TCR clustering during the formation of mature immunological synapse, and showed an enhanced differentiation to Th1 and CD8(+ effector and memory cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, Cdc42(-/- mice exhibited exacerbated liver damage in an induced autoimmune disease model. Collectively, these data establish that Cdc42 is critically involved in thymopoiesis and plays a restrictive role in effector and memory T cell differentiation and autoimmunity.

  2. Testing public health ethics: why the CDC's HIV screening recommendations may violate the least infringement principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew W; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; King, Elizabeth J; Wyckoff, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    The CDC's HIV screening recommendations for health care settings advocate abandoning two important autonomy protections: (1) pretest counseling and (2) the requirement that providers obtain affirmative agreement from patients prior to testing. The recommendations may violate the least infringement principle because there is insufficient evidence to conclude that abandoning pretest counseling or affirmative agreement requirements will further the CDC's stated public health goals.

  3. Cdc42-dependent structural development of auditory supporting cells is required for wound healing at adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttonen, Tommi; Kirjavainen, Anna; Belevich, Ilya;

    2012-01-01

    inactivation was induced early postnatally using the Cdc42(loxP/loxP);Fgfr3-iCre-ER(T2) mice. Cdc42 depletion impaired elongation of adherens junctions and F-actin belts, leading to constriction of the sensory epithelial surface. Fragmented F-actin belts, junctions containing ectopic lumens and misexpression...

  4. Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 controls migration of Langerhans cells in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckashenak, Nancy; Wähe, Anna; Breit, Katharina;

    2013-01-01

    and contributions of this cell type. To target the migratory properties of DCs, we generated mice lacking the Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 specifically in DCs. In these animals, the initial seeding of the epidermis with LCs is functional, resulting in slightly reduced Langerhans cell numbers. However, Cdc42-deficient...

  5. The Rho-GTPase cdc42 regulates neural progenitor fate at the apical surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappello, Silvia; Attardo, Alessio; Wu, Xunwei

    2006-01-01

    the fundamental difference between these progenitors. Here we show that the conditional deletion of the small Rho-GTPase cdc42 at different stages of neurogenesis in mouse telencephalon results in an immediate increase in basal mitoses. Whereas cdc42-deficient progenitors have normal cell cycle length...

  6. Cdc42 is required for chondrogenesis and interdigital programmed cell death during limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Ryo; Yamada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Dai; Iimura, Tadahiro; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Harada, Takeshi; Tsukasaki, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Gou; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Nakao, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Yamaguchi, Akira; Aiba, Atsu; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Cdc42, a member of the Rho subfamily of small GTPases, is known to be a regulator of multiple cellular functions, including cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, its tissue-specific roles, especially in mammalian limb development, remain unclear. To investigate the physiological function of Cdc42 during limb development, we generated limb bud mesenchyme-specific inactivated Cdc42 (Cdc42(fl/fl); Prx1-Cre) mice. Cdc42(fl/fl); Prx1-Cre mice demonstrated short limbs and body, abnormal calcification of the cranium, cleft palate, disruption of the xiphoid process, and syndactyly. Severe defects were also found in long bone growth plate cartilage, characterized by loss of columnar organization of chondrocytes, and thickening and massive accumulation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with reduced bone growth. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that expressions of Col10 and Mmp13 were reduced in non-resorbed hypertrophic cartilage, indicating that deletion of Cdc42 inhibited their terminal differentiation. Syndactyly in Cdc42(fl/fl); Prx1-Cre mice was caused by fusion of metacarpals and a failure of interdigital programmed cell death (ID-PCD). Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of limb buds showed that the expression patterns of Sox9 were ectopic, while those of Bmp2, Msx1, and Msx2, known to promote apoptosis in the interdigital mesenchyme, were down-regulated. These results demonstrate that Cdc42 is essential for chondrogenesis and ID-PCD during limb development.

  7. Cdc42 expression in keratinocytes is required for the maintenance of the basement membrane in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Brakebusch, Cord

    2006-01-01

    , structure and number of hemidesomosomes were not significantly changed in the Cdc42 mutant skin compared with the control mice and no blister formation was observed in mutant skin. These data indicate that Cdc42 in keratinocytes is important for maintenance of the basement membrane of skin....

  8. Do the benefits of male circumcision outweigh the risks? A critique of the proposed CDC guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Earp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have announced a set of provisional guidelines concerning male circumcision, in which they suggest that the benefits of the surgery outweigh the risks. In this perspective article, I highlight a few of the key scientific and ethical issues worth considering in interpreting the new CDC recommendations.

  9. Cell cycle-dependent mobility of Cdc45 determined in vivo by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Broderick

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic DNA replication is a dynamic process requiring the co-operation of specific replication proteins. We measured the mobility of eGFP-Cdc45 by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS in vivo in asynchronous cells and in cells synchronized at the G1/S transition and during S phase. Our data show that eGFP-Cdc45 mobility is faster in G1/S transition compared to S phase suggesting that Cdc45 is part of larger protein complex formed in S phase. Furthermore, the size of complexes containing Cdc45 was estimated in asynchronous, G1/S and S phase-synchronized cells using gel filtration chromatography; these findings complemented the in vivo FCS data. Analysis of the mobility of eGFP-Cdc45 and the size of complexes containing Cdc45 and eGFP-Cdc45 after UVC-mediated DNA damage revealed no significant changes in diffusion rates and complex sizes using FCS and gel filtration chromatography analyses. This suggests that after UV-damage, Cdc45 is still present in a large multi-protein complex and that its mobility within living cells is consistently similar following UVC-mediated DNA damage.

  10. Birth and rapid subcellular adaptation of a hominoid-specific CDC14 protein.

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    Lia Rosso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication was prevalent during hominoid evolution, yet little is known about the functional fate of new ape gene copies. We characterized the CDC14B cell cycle gene and the functional evolution of its hominoid-specific daughter gene, CDC14Bretro. We found that CDC14B encodes four different splice isoforms that show different subcellular localizations (nucleus or microtubule-associated and functional properties. A microtubular CDC14B variant spawned CDC14Bretro through retroposition in the hominoid ancestor 18-25 million years ago (Mya. CDC14Bretro evolved brain-/testis-specific expression after the duplication event and experienced a short period of intense positive selection in the African ape ancestor 7-12 Mya. Using resurrected ancestral protein variants, we demonstrate that by virtue of amino acid substitutions in distinct protein regions during this time, the subcellular localization of CDC14Bretro progressively shifted from the association with microtubules (stabilizing them to an association with the endoplasmic reticulum. CDC14Bretro evolution represents a paradigm example of rapid, selectively driven subcellular relocalization, thus revealing a novel mode for the emergence of new gene function.

  11. Uma teoria da preponderância do Poder Executivo: o sistema de comissões no Legislativo brasileiro

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    Pereira Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar o sistema de comissões na Câmara dos Deputados à luz das teorias da escolha racional (distributiva, informacional e partidária desenvolvidas para explicar o Congresso norte-americano. Em que pese a enorme preponderância do Executivo sobre a agenda do Legislativo, este trabalho enfatiza que as comissões continuam funcionando ativamente e desempenham um papel importante para os parlamentares, os partidos e para o próprio Executivo. Inicialmente, tenta-se justificar a existência e funcionamento das comissões no Brasil com base na literatura distributiva. No entanto, como será demonstrado, esta explicação não pareceu ser suficientemente forte para justificar o atual sistema de comissões. Em seguida, através de uma adaptação da teoria informacional de Gilligan e Krehbiel (1997 para as especificidades das instituições do Congresso nacional, é testada uma hipótese usando os dados da legislatura 1995-1998. Os resultados da regressão multivariada (probit na escolha de procedimentos de urgência e não urgência (variável dependente fornecem evidências empíricas de que as comissões na Câmara dos Deputados têm de fato, pelo menos parcialmente, um papel informacional.

  12. Isolation, characterization and functional analysis of a cdc48 homologue from tobacco BY-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiling; YU Yi; LIU Lina; XIA Guixian

    2007-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was used to identify genes from tobacco BY-2 cells that may play roles in cell cycle regulation. A cDNA encoding a protein homologous to the yeast CDC48 was isolated and the gene was designated as NtCDC48.The cDNA contains an open reading frame coding for a predicted protein of 808 amino acids which comprises of two typical ATPase modules (aa 245-374 and aa 518-646). Overexpression of NtCDC48 in tobacco BY-2 cells led to an increase in the mitotic index as well as to the formation of diffused mitotic spindles. NtCDC48-GFP fusion proteins are distributed ubiquitously through G1 to M phases, yet their subcellular localization varied regularly along with the cell cycle progression. These results indicate that NtCDC48 may play an important role in the regulation of cell cycle in BY-2 cells.

  13. Cdc42 regulates epithelial cell polarity and cytoskeletal function during kidney tubule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Bertha C; Das, Amrita; Parekh, Diptiben V

    2015-01-01

    The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates key signaling pathways required for multiple cell functions, including maintenance of shape, polarity, proliferation, migration, differentiation and morphogenesis. Although previous studies have shown that Cdc42 is required for proper epithelial development and main......The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates key signaling pathways required for multiple cell functions, including maintenance of shape, polarity, proliferation, migration, differentiation and morphogenesis. Although previous studies have shown that Cdc42 is required for proper epithelial development...... and maintenance, its exact molecular function in kidney development is not well understood. In this study, we define the specific role of Cdc42 during murine kidney epithelial tubulogenesis by deleting it selectively at the initiation of ureteric bud or metanephric mesenchyme development. Deletion in either...

  14. Polarity establishment by Cdc42: Key roles for positive feedback and differential mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Benjamin; Lew, Daniel J

    2017-03-28

    Cell polarity is fundamental to the function of most cells. The evolutionarily conserved molecular machinery that controls cell polarity is centered on a family of GTPases related to Cdc42. Cdc42 becomes activated and concentrated at polarity sites, but studies in yeast model systems led to controversy on the mechanisms of polarization. Here we review recent studies that have clarified how Cdc42 becomes polarized in yeast. On one hand, findings that appeared to support a key role for the actin cytoskeleton and vesicle traffic in polarity establishment now appear to reflect the action of stress response pathways induced by cytoskeletal perturbations. On the other hand, new findings strongly support hypotheses on the polarization mechanism whose origins date back to the mathematician Alan Turing. The key features of the polarity establishment mechanism in yeasts include a positive feedback pathway in which active Cdc42 recruits a Cdc42 activator to polarity sites, and differential mobility of polarity "activators" and "substrates."

  15. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance with...., Designated Federal Officer, HDS, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-67, Atlanta, Georgia...

  16. 77 FR 76046 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance with... More Information: Leandris Liburd, Ph.D., M.P.H., M.A., Designated Federal Officer, HDS, ACD, CDC,...

  17. Cell cycle- and cell growth-regulated proteolysis of mammalian CDC6 is dependent on APC-CDH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B O; Wagener, C; Marinoni, F;

    2000-01-01

    CDC6 is conserved during evolution and is essential and limiting for the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Human CDC6 activity is regulated by periodic transcription and CDK-regulated subcellular localization. Here, we show that, in addition to being absent from nonproliferating cells, CDC6...... is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the anaphase promoting complex (APC)/cyclosome in G(1). A combination of point mutations in the destruction box and KEN-box motifs in CDC6 stabilizes the protein in G(1) and in quiescent cells. Furthermore, APC, in association with CDH1, ubiquitinates CDC6...... in vitro, and both APC and CDH1 are required and limiting for CDC6 proteolysis in vivo. Although a stable mutant of CDC6 is biologically active, overexpression of this mutant or wild-type CDC6 is not sufficient to induce multiple rounds of DNA replication in the same cell cycle. The APC-CDH1-dependent...

  18. The small GTPase Cdc42 is necessary for primary ciliogenesis in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaofeng; Fogelgren, Ben; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2011-06-24

    Primary cilia are found on many epithelial cell types, including renal tubular epithelial cells, where they participate in flow sensing. Disruption of cilia function has been linked to the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease. We demonstrated previously that the exocyst, a highly conserved eight-protein membrane trafficking complex, localizes to primary cilia of renal tubular epithelial cells, is required for ciliogenesis, biochemically and genetically interacts with polycystin-2 (the protein product of the polycystic kidney disease 2 gene), and, when disrupted, results in MAPK pathway activation both in vitro and in vivo. The small GTPase Cdc42 is a candidate for regulation of the exocyst at the primary cilium. Here, we demonstrate that Cdc42 biochemically interacts with Sec10, a crucial component of the exocyst complex, and that Cdc42 colocalizes with Sec10 at the primary cilium. Expression of dominant negative Cdc42 and shRNA-mediated knockdown of both Cdc42 and Tuba, a Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, inhibit ciliogenesis in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Furthermore, exocyst Sec8 and polycystin-2 no longer localize to primary cilia or the ciliary region following Cdc42 and Tuba knockdown. We also show that Sec10 directly interacts with Par6, a member of the Par complex that itself directly interacts with Cdc42. Finally, we show that Cdc42 knockdown results in activation of the MAPK pathway, something observed in cells with dysfunctional primary cilia. These data support a model in which Cdc42 localizes the exocyst to the primary cilium, whereupon the exocyst then targets and docks vesicles carrying proteins necessary for ciliogenesis.

  19. The Small GTPase Cdc42 Is Necessary for Primary Ciliogenesis in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaofeng; Fogelgren, Ben; Lipschutz, Joshua H.

    2011-01-01

    Primary cilia are found on many epithelial cell types, including renal tubular epithelial cells, where they participate in flow sensing. Disruption of cilia function has been linked to the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease. We demonstrated previously that the exocyst, a highly conserved eight-protein membrane trafficking complex, localizes to primary cilia of renal tubular epithelial cells, is required for ciliogenesis, biochemically and genetically interacts with polycystin-2 (the protein product of the polycystic kidney disease 2 gene), and, when disrupted, results in MAPK pathway activation both in vitro and in vivo. The small GTPase Cdc42 is a candidate for regulation of the exocyst at the primary cilium. Here, we demonstrate that Cdc42 biochemically interacts with Sec10, a crucial component of the exocyst complex, and that Cdc42 colocalizes with Sec10 at the primary cilium. Expression of dominant negative Cdc42 and shRNA-mediated knockdown of both Cdc42 and Tuba, a Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, inhibit ciliogenesis in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Furthermore, exocyst Sec8 and polycystin-2 no longer localize to primary cilia or the ciliary region following Cdc42 and Tuba knockdown. We also show that Sec10 directly interacts with Par6, a member of the Par complex that itself directly interacts with Cdc42. Finally, we show that Cdc42 knockdown results in activation of the MAPK pathway, something observed in cells with dysfunctional primary cilia. These data support a model in which Cdc42 localizes the exocyst to the primary cilium, whereupon the exocyst then targets and docks vesicles carrying proteins necessary for ciliogenesis. PMID:21543338

  20. User's manual for the CDC-6600 version of AMPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, P. S.; Vandevender, W. H.

    1977-11-01

    A CDC-6600 version of AMPX-I, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's modular code system for generating coupled multigroup neutron--gamma libraries from ENDF/B data is described. The AMPX modules can generate multigroup neutron cross sections; generate multigroup gamma cross sections; generate gamma yields for gamma-producing neutron interactions; combine neutron cross sections, gamma cross sections, and gamma yields into ''couples sets;'' perform one-dimensional discrete-ordinates-transport or diffusion-theory calculations for neutrons and gammas and, on option, collapse the cross sections to broad-group structure, with the one-dimensional results used as weighting functions; and output multigroup cross sections in convenient formats for other codes. 7 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Technical Review of SRS Dose Reconstrruction Methods Used By CDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, Ali, A

    2005-07-20

    At the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a subcontractor Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc.(ATL) issued a draft report estimating offsite dose as a result of Savannah River Site operations for the period 1954-1992 in support of Phase III of the SRS Dose Reconstruction Project. The doses reported by ATL differed than those previously estimated by Savannah River Site SRS dose modelers for a variety of reasons, but primarily because (1) ATL used different source terms, (2) ATL considered trespasser/poacher scenarios and (3) ATL did not consistently use site-specific parameters or correct usage parameters. The receptors with the highest dose from atmospheric and liquid pathways were within about a factor of four greater than dose values previously reported by SRS. A complete set of technical comments have also been included.

  2. Finite element dynamic analysis on CDC STAR-100 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Computational algorithms are presented for the finite element dynamic analysis of structures on the CDC STAR-100 computer. The spatial behavior is described using higher-order finite elements. The temporal behavior is approximated by using either the central difference explicit scheme or Newmark's implicit scheme. In each case the analysis is broken up into a number of basic macro-operations. Discussion is focused on the organization of the computation and the mode of storage of different arrays to take advantage of the STAR pipeline capability. The potential of the proposed algorithms is discussed and CPU times are given for performing the different macro-operations for a shell modeled by higher order composite shallow shell elements having 80 degrees of freedom.

  3. Sistema de coordenadas para AR

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar Cabello, Arnau

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto realiza un estudio sobre las diferentes opciones referentes a la Realidad Aumentada, como primera parte. La Realidad Aumentada es una tecnología que en los últimos años ha experimentado un gran desarrollo. La Realidad Aumentada consiste en sobreponer información virtual con la ya existente realidad física. Como segunda parte, se escoge una de estas opciones, NyARToolkit, y se explica el funcionamiento del sistema de coordenadas basado en marcadores. El sistema basado en marca...

  4. Sistema de salud de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril Montekio; Guadalupe Medina; Rosana Aquino

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Brasil, que está compuesto por un sector público que cubre alrededor de 75% de la población y un creciente sector privado que ofrece atención a la salud al restante 25% de los brasileños. El sector público está constituido por el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) y su financiamiento proviene de impuestos generales y contribuciones sociales recaudadas por los tres niveles de gobierno (federal, estatal y municipal). El SUS presta servicios de manera...

  5. Un sistema desconocido pero internacional

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Se presenta en este trabajo un estudio sobre el Sistema Internacional de Unidades (SI) en la etapa de Educación Secundaria (13 a 18 años), cuyo objetivo es comprobar si el alumnado conoce las siete magnitudes y unidades fundamentales, que manejan habitualmente en el aula. A partir del currículum de ciencias se han analizado las posibles causas de las deficiencias encontradas en las magnitudes fundamentales y derivadas. Los resultados muestran que el sistema a pesar de ser inter...

  6. El sistema reticulo-endotelial

    OpenAIRE

    Cuartas L., Carlos J.

    2011-01-01

    Definición.-Este nombre fue dado por Aschoff a una categoríacelular, cuyos elementos se encuentran profusamente distribuídos en la trama de sostén de diferentes órganos y tejidos; esos elementos gozan de características funcionales que justifican su individualización en un sistema celular especial. Muchos son los trabajos de investigación que han puesto de manifiesto las propiedades de este sistema celular, a pesar de su conocimiento relativamente reciente. Gracias a ellos, sabemos que esos e...

  7. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura y diversidad genética de la raza Cebú Brahman americano. Se utilizaron 162 animales registrados en la asociación colombiana de criadores de ganado cebú (ASOCEBU de 20 departamentos de Colombia. La genotipificación de los animales se llevó a cabo con el kit StockMarks® for cattle bovine genotyping de Applied Biosystems®, empleando 10 microsatélites dinucleótidos. Los resultados de los distintos análisis multivariados (Análisis de componentes principales y análisis de correspondencias múltiples, de inferencia bayesiana y distancias genéticas interindividuales, demuestran que no se presenta subestructura en la población, lo cual se explica por una alta tasa de migración de animales entre las diferentes fincas y regiones, que homogeniza las frecuencias en todo el país. Además, esta población posee un alto grado de heterocigocidad y diversidad alélica, comparado con otras razas, lo cual refleja su origen de mezcla multiracial. También se encontraron diferencias genéticas entre sexos, lo cual es causado por un proceso reproductivo diferencial, donde actúan diferentes criterios de selección entre sexos. Finalmente, al realizar un análisis de componentes principales para analizar las relaciones genéticas de Cebú Brahman americano colombiano con las razas cebuinas y taurinas, se determinó que esta raza se diferencia genéticamente de las demás razas cebuinas, debido a un aporte genético de razas taurinas

  8. Algunos Hechos Estilizados del Sistema Bancario Peruano

    OpenAIRE

    Espino, Freddy

    2013-01-01

    Estima el tipo de relación que existe entre las principales variables del sistema bancario (colocaciones y depósitos) y las variables macroeconómicas que afectan el desempeño del sistema bancario.

  9. The small G-proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in the mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasyutina, Elena; Martarelli, Benedetta; Brakebusch, Cord;

    2009-01-01

    Rac1 and Cdc42 are small G-proteins that regulate actin dynamics and affect plasma membrane protrusion and vesicle traffic. We used conditional mutagenesis in mice to demonstrate that Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in vivo and in vitro. The deficit in fusion of Rac1 or Cdc42...

  10. Cdc42 is a key regulator of B cell differentiation and is required for antiviral humoral immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbage, Marianne; Keppler, Selina J; Gasparrini, Francesca;

    2015-01-01

    The small Rho GTPase Cdc42, known to interact with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein, is an important regulator of actin remodeling. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Cdc42 exclusively in the B cell lineage is sufficient to render mice unable to mount antibody responses. Indeed Cdc42...

  11. Interphase APC/C-Cdc20 inhibition by cyclin A2-Cdk2 ensures efficient mitotic entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Jamin B; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Proper cell-cycle progression requires tight temporal control of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), a large ubiquitin ligase that is activated by one of two co-activators, Cdh1 or Cdc20. APC/C and Cdc20 are already present during interphase but APC/C-Cdc20 regulation during...

  12. Sistema de incendios inalámbrico

    OpenAIRE

    Menéndez Muñiz, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Sistema de detección de incendios inalámbrico basado en dispositivos "motes" para la monitorización del estado del sistema, detección y reconocimiento de alarmas. Sistema de detecció d'incendis sense fils basat en dispositius "motes" per a la monitorització de l'estat del sistema, detecció i reconeixement d'alarmes.

  13. Cdc45 limits replicon usage from a low density of preRCs in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Philip G; Winter, Sherry L; Zaika, Elena; Cao, Thinh V; Oguz, Umut; Koomen, John M; Hamlin, Joyce L; Alexandrow, Mark G

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about mammalian preRC stoichiometry, the number of preRCs on chromosomes, and how this relates to replicon size and usage. We show here that, on average, each 100-kb of the mammalian genome contains a preRC composed of approximately one ORC hexamer, 4-5 MCM hexamers, and 2 Cdc6. Relative to these subunits, ∼0.35 total molecules of the pre-Initiation Complex factor Cdc45 are present. Thus, based on ORC availability, somatic cells contain ∼70,000 preRCs of this average total stoichiometry, although subunits may not be juxtaposed with each other. Except for ORC, the chromatin-bound complement of preRC subunits is even lower. Cdc45 is present at very low levels relative to the preRC subunits, but is highly stable, and the same limited number of stable Cdc45 molecules are present from the beginning of S-phase to its completion. Efforts to artificially increase Cdc45 levels through ectopic expression block cell growth. However, microinjection of excess purified Cdc45 into S-phase nuclei activates additional replication foci by three-fold, indicating that Cdc45 functions to activate dormant preRCs and is rate-limiting for somatic replicon usage. Paradoxically, although Cdc45 colocalizes in vivo with some MCM sites and is rate-limiting for DNA replication to occur, neither Cdc45 nor MCMs colocalize with active replication sites. Embryonic metazoan chromatin consists of small replicons that are used efficiently via an excess of preRC subunits. In contrast, somatic mammalian cells contain a low density of preRCs, each containing only a few MCMs that compete for limiting amounts of Cdc45. This provides a molecular explanation why, relative to embryonic replicon dynamics, somatic replicons are, on average, larger and origin efficiency tends to be lower. The stable, continuous, and rate-limiting nature of Cdc45 suggests that Cdc45 contributes to the staggering of replicon usage throughout S-phase, and that replicon activation requires reutilization of

  14. El sistema tributario japonés

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyasu Okada

    2002-01-01

    Este documento primeramente trata las tendencias recientes y el estado actual del sistema tributario japonés como antecedentes. Luego resume los impuestos principales y describe el actual sistema. Finalmente trata los incentivos tributarios y los aspectos internacionales del sistema japonés.

  15. Distribuição da altura uterina ao longo da gestação em uma coorte brasileira: comparação com a curva de referência do Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia Distribution of uterine height during pregnancy in a Brazilian cohort: comparison with the reference curve of the Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Rocha Oppermann; Bruce Bartholow Duncan; Sotero Serrate Mengue; José Geraldo Lopes Ramos; Suzanne Jacob Serruya; Maria Inês Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: descrever, em gestantes do Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional (EBDG), a distribuição da altura uterina de acordo com a idade gestacional e validar a curva do Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia (CLAP), curva de referência para a predição de anormalidades do crescimento fetal. MÉTODOS: o EBDG é uma coorte de 5564 gestantes, com mais de 19 anos, seguidas até e após o parto. Entrevistas e medidas antropométricas padronizadas foram feitas no arrolamento entre a 20ª e a 28ª ...

  16. Vitalism, Idéologie and Physiology in Buenos Aires. The Debate between Cosme Argerich and Crisóstomo Lafinur in El Americano, 1819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Di Pasquale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this article aims to analyze the intellectual dispute between the doctor Cosme Mariano Argerich and Juan Crisóstomo Lafinur, philosophy professor. The debate located in the Buenos Aires area and recorded in the press in the journal El Americano originated by the introduction of new teaching linked to the sensualism and the French physiology at the school Unión del Sud in 1819. Content: the article wants to demonstrate the existence of a process of appropriation of knowledge that made these local actors according their interests and positions. Conclusions: the purpose of Argerich and Lafinur was to build consistent arguments in order to convince an incipient public sphere about sensualism and physiology respectively. In their quest to win the dispute, both actors perfected their demonstrations so you can see a different discursive level for the original notions of European authors.

  17. Thoughts on Seeing "El Sistema"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast majority continue well…

  18. Thoughts on Seeing "El Sistema"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast…

  19. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  20. CDC27 protein is involved in radiation response in squamous cell cervix carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, T; Gopal, G; Selvaluxmi, G; Rajalekshmy, K R

    2005-10-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to identify genes involved in radiation response in cervix carcinoma. Differential display technique was used to study the expression profiles of tumour biopsy samples obtained from patients, responding and not responding to treatment. The samples were obtained prior to radiotherapy and subsequent to treatment with Tele-radiation at 10 Gray (Gy). One of the differentially expressed cDNAs, when sequenced was identified to be CDC27. Immuno-histochemical analysis of pre- and post-treated tumour samples from fifteen patients showed the downregulation of expression of CDC27 protein in seven patients. Down-regulation was associated with poorer response to radiotherapy. Cervical cancer cell lines SiHa and C33A were irradiated and their nuclei were stained for expression of CDC27 and analyzed using fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). Down-regulation of CDC27 protein in the irradiated SiHa cell line was associated with greater survival fraction, compared to the irradiated C33A cell line, which had only slight fall in the level of CDC27 protein. This is the first study to suggest a role for CDC27 in radiation response. However, a larger cohort is needed to further confirm the value of CDC27 protein as a predictive marker, for radiation response in cervix cancer.

  1. CDC-42 Orients Cell Migration during Epithelial Intercalation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walck-Shannon, Elise; Lucas, Bethany; Chin-Sang, Ian; Reiner, David; Kumfer, Kraig; Cochran, Hunter; Bothfeld, William; Hardin, Jeff

    2016-11-01

    Cell intercalation is a highly directed cell rearrangement that is essential for animal morphogenesis. As such, intercalation requires orchestration of cell polarity across the plane of the tissue. CDC-42 is a Rho family GTPase with key functions in cell polarity, yet its role during epithelial intercalation has not been established because its roles early in embryogenesis have historically made it difficult to study. To circumvent these early requirements, in this paper we use tissue-specific and conditional loss-of-function approaches to identify a role for CDC-42 during intercalation of the Caenorhabditis elegans dorsal embryonic epidermis. CDC-42 activity is enriched in the medial tips of intercalating cells, which extend as cells migrate past one another. Moreover, CDC-42 is involved in both the efficient formation and orientation of cell tips during cell rearrangement. Using conditional loss-of-function we also show that the PAR complex functions in tip formation and orientation. Additionally, we find that the sole C. elegans Eph receptor, VAB-1, functions during this process in an Ephrin-independent manner. Using epistasis analysis, we find that vab-1 lies in the same genetic pathway as cdc-42 and is responsible for polarizing CDC-42 activity to the medial tip. Together, these data establish a previously uncharacterized role for polarized CDC-42, in conjunction with PAR-6, PAR-3 and an Eph receptor, during epithelial intercalation.

  2. Cdc42-dependent actin dynamics controls maturation and secretory activity of dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anna M.; Stutte, Susanne; Hogl, Sebastian; Luckashenak, Nancy; Dudziak, Diana; Leroy, Céline; Forné, Ignasi; Imhof, Axel; Müller, Stephan A.; Brakebusch, Cord H.; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.

    2015-01-01

    Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is a member of the Rho guanosine triphosphatase family and has pivotal functions in actin organization, cell migration, and proliferation. To further study the molecular mechanisms of dendritic cell (DC) regulation by Cdc42, we used Cdc42-deficient DCs. Cdc42 deficiency renders DCs phenotypically mature as they up-regulate the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 from intracellular storages to the cell surface. Cdc42 knockout DCs also accumulate high amounts of invariant chain–major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II complexes at the cell surface, which cannot efficiently present peptide antigens (Ag’s) for priming of Ag-specific CD4 T cells. Proteome analyses showed a significant reduction in lysosomal MHC class II–processing proteins, such as cathepsins, which are lost from DCs by enhanced secretion. As these effects on DCs can be mimicked by chemical actin disruption, our results propose that Cdc42 control of actin dynamics keeps DCs in an immature state, and cessation of Cdc42 activity during DC maturation facilitates secretion as well as rapid up-regulation of intracellular molecules to the cell surface. PMID:26553928

  3. Uso de ferramentas Web 2.0 pelos periódicos ibero-americanos indexados no Web of Science e Scopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia da Silva Neubert

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar o uso de ferramentas Web pelos periódicos científicos dos países ibero-americanos a fim de identificar quais recursos foram utilizados. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados são exploratórios, documentais e quanti--qualitativos. O universo da pesquisa foi composto pelos 883 periódicos ibero-americanos indexados no Institute for Scientific Information, Web of Knowledge e no Scopus, do ano de 2011. A análise das ferramentas Web adotadas pelos periódicos permitiu a identificação de um número maciço de periódicos científicos eletrônicos: 99,21%. Ferramentas Web 2.0 foram identificados em 9,27% das publicações, dentre as quais se destaca o uso de sites de redes sociais, microblogs, blogs e compartilhadores de vídeos e de imagens. A análise das relações entre as características dos periódicos que utilizam recursos 2.0 mostrou a existência de indicadores de impacto maiores nessas publicações em relação às revistas que não utilizam Web 2.0 em alguns países. Conclui-se que os títulos priorizam o artigo tradicional com opção de impressão e a disseminação dos artigos utilizando plataformas Web, além do uso ainda limitado da Web 2.0.

  4. Las virtudes del sistema binominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Carey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema único de elecciones legislativas chileno, en el que cada distrito elige a dos representantes (M=2, ha sido objeto de controversia y de propuestas de reforma, ya que fue impuesto por el régimen autoritario saliente en 1990. La mayor parte de ellas aboga por la llamada mayor proporcionalidad. Este ensayo sostiene que, a pesar de sus orígenes no democráticos, el sistema M=2 ha funcionado relativamente bien respecto a los sistemas empleados en muchos otros países. En particular, M=2 en Chile entrega una mezcla adecuada de representatividad, gobernabilidad y responsabilidad individual del legislador. El ensayo considera varias alternativas para la reforma y perfila algunos problemas potenciales que cada una implicaría. Si se reforma el sistema chileno, entonces el autor recomienda que se haga por pasos incrementales, no fundamentales -un aumento moderado en la magnitud de cada distrito-, pero manteniendo las listas abiertas y no haciendo el salto a un sistema mixto de miembros (SMMChile's unique system of legislative elections, in which each district elects two representatives (M=2, has been subject to controversy and a target for reform proposals since it was imposed on the country by the outgoing authoritarian regime in 1990. Most reform advocates call for greater proportionality. This essay argues that, desipte its undemocratic origins, the M=2 system has performed quite well relative to systems used in many other countries. In particular, M=2 in Chile delivers a reasonable mix of representativeness, governability, and individual legislator accountability. The essay goes on to consider various alternatives for reform and outlines some potential problems each would entail. If the Chilean system is to be reformed, the essay recommends incrementalism - a moderate increase in district magnitude, perhaps, but maintaining open lists, and no change to a mixed-member system (MMS

  5. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ting; Wang, Wei-Na, E-mail: weina63@aliyun.com; Gu, Mei-Mei; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Cd{sup 2+} induces Cdc42 and MAPKs pathway related gene of Litopenaeus vannamei up-regulation. • Reduction of THC, increase of ROS production and apoptotic cell rate were observed when the shrimps exposure to Cd{sup 2+}. • DsRNA-suppression of LvCdc42 and MAPKs during Cd{sup 2+} stress reduces the ROS production and apoptosis. • We conclude that LvCdc42 and MAPKs play key roles in Cd{sup 2+} stress responses of shrimps. - Abstract: Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals’ stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps’ responses to Cd{sup 2+}. They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses.

  6. Sistemas operativos distribuídos

    OpenAIRE

    Bastidas C., Jose Fernando; Carrillo Guzmán, Herbert; Cifuentes C., David Eduardo; Serrano B., María Fernanda; Vargas Cabas, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Desde hace algunos años el uso de los computadores ha cambiado enormemente, debido a la transición, desde los sistemas centralizados que constan de un único CPU, sus periféricos de memoria y algunas terminales, hacia sistemas de cómputo compuestos por un gran número de CPUs, conectados mediante una red de alta velocidad, conocidos como Sistemas Distribuidos. Aunque los sistemas operativos necesarios para estos Sistemas Distribuidos están apenas en etapa de sur...

  7. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of Cdc42 results in delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Haixin; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Xunwei

    2009-01-01

    . Consistent with this, expression of cyclins D1, A, and E was markedly delayed or reduced in Cdc42LK livers during regeneration. As a potential effector of Cdc42, Rac1 activation was dramatically attenuated in Cdc42LK livers after partial hepatectomy, suggesting it is regulated in a Cdc42-dependent manner....... Activation of certain proliferative signaling pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p70S6 kinase pathways, was delayed in Cdc42LK livers. In addition, dilated bile canaliculi and excessive lipid accumulation were observed in mutant livers during liver...

  8. Multiple alterations of platelet functions dominated by increased secretion in mice lacking Cdc42 in platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleines, Irina; Eckly, Anita; Elvers, Margitta;

    2010-01-01

    formation and exocytosis in various cell types, but its exact function in platelets is not established. Here, we show that the megakaryocyte/platelet-specific loss of Cdc42 leads to mild thrombocytopenia and a small increase in platelet size in mice. Unexpectedly, Cdc42-deficient platelets were able to form...... reduced, suggesting increased clearing of the cells under physiologic conditions. These data point to novel multiple functions of Cdc42 in the regulation of platelet activation, granule organization, degranulation, and a specific role in GPIb signaling....

  9. Cdc20 mediates D-box-dependent degradation of Sp100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ran; Li, Ke-min; Zhou, Cai-hong; Xue, Jing-lun [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ji, Chao-neng, E-mail: Chnji@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Jin-zhong, E-mail: kingbellchen@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc20 is a co-activator of APC/C complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc20 recruits Sp100 and mediates its degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The D-box of Sp100 is required for Cdc20-mediated degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sp100 expresses consistently at both the mRNA and protein levels in cell cycle. -- Abstract: Cdc20 is a co-activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C complex), which recruits substrates at particular phases of the cell cycle and mediates their degradation. Sp100 is a PML-NB scaffold protein, which localizes to nuclear particles during interphase and disperses from them during mitosis, participates in viral resistance, transcriptional regulation, and apoptosis. However, its metabolism during the cell cycle has not yet been fully characterized. We found a putative D-box in Sp100 using the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) predictor database. The putative D-box of Sp100 was verified by mutational analysis. Overexpression of Cdc20 resulted in decreased levels of both endogenous Sp100 protein and overexpressed Sp100 mRNA in HEK 293 cells. Only an overexpressed D-box deletion mutant of Sp100 accumulated in HEK293 cells that also overexpressed Cdc20. Cdc20 knockdown by cdc20 specific siRNA resulted in increased Sp100 protein levels in cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the Cdc20 mediated degradation of Sp100 is diminished by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, which suggests that the ubiquitination pathway is involved in this process. However, unlike the other Cdc20 substrates, which display oscillating protein levels, the level of Sp100 protein remains constant throughout the cell cycle. Additionally, both overexpression and knockdown of endogenous Sp100 had no effect on the cell cycle. Our results suggested that sp100 is a novel substrate of Cdc20 and it is degraded by the ubiquitination pathway. The intact D-box of Sp100 was necessary for this process. These findings expand

  10. NEK11: linking CHK1 and CDC25A in DNA damage checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Melixetian, Marina; Klein, Ditte Kjaersgaard

    2010-01-01

    The DNA damage induced G(2)/M checkpoint is an important guardian of the genome that prevents cell division when DNA lesions are present. The checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis by degrading CDC25A, a key CDK activator. CDC25A proteolysis is controlled by direct phosphorylation events...... is required for beta-TrCP mediated CDC25A polyubiquitylation and degradation. The activity of NEK11 is in turn controlled by CHK1 that activates NEK11 via phosphorylation on serine 273. Since inhibition of NEK11 activity forces checkpoint-arrested cells into mitosis and cell death, NEK11 is, like CHK1...

  11. Introducción al estudio de los sistemas económicos

    OpenAIRE

    García Nossa, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Interdependencia de los sistemas; Coexistencia de los sistemas; Sucesión y coexistencia; Sistemas históricos y sistemas geopolíticos; Factores cuantitativos y cualitativos de los sistemas; Principios generales de los sistemas.

  12. Relaciones entre el derecho internacional y el derecho interno: Nuevas perspectivas doctrinales y jurisprudenciales en el ámbito americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Quiroga León

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la protección de los derechos fundamentales en el marco de las relaciones entre derecho internacional y derecho interno, teniendo como punto central el sistema interamericano y sus órganos de aplicación, La Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, considerando aspectos procedimentales y la adopción de medidas cautelares por esta última. Finalmente, se analiza la superioridad del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos sobre el derecho interno, teniendo como fundamento los casos "Barrios Altos" (Chumbipoma Aguirre y otros, cuya sentencia es del 14 de marzo del 2001 y el caso "La última tentación de Cristo" (Olmedo Bustos y otros cuya sentencia es del 05 de febrero del 2001.This article analyzes the protection of fundamental rights within the framework of the relationship between international and internal law. The core of our analysis is the Inter-American system, and its bodies of application: the Inter- American Human Rights Commission and Court. We consider procedural dimensions as well as precautionary measures pertaining to the latter. Finally, we examine the preeminence of the international law of human rights over internal law, on grounds of the "Barrios Altos" case (Chumbipoma Aguirre et al., decided on March, 2001 y the "La última tentación de Cristo" case (Olmedo Bustos et al. decided on February 5, 2001.

  13. 880 nanosecond particle in cell mover for the CDC 7600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estabrook, K.; Tull, J. E.

    1977-10-04

    A very fast computational method of moving particles for one dimensional electrostatic plasma simulations using integer arithmetic is described. The cloud in cell method forms the basis of this technique. This paper is in the form of a compass compilable subroutine with comments and examples describing methods of using an entirely integer representation to gain up to an order of magnitude increase in speed over equivalent floating point Fortran coding. Integer arithmetic has several advantages over floating point arithmetic for one dimensional particle movers. The adds are much faster, and the binary numerical description allows the implementation of very simple boundary conditions if the simulation region extends from zero to a power of two. Furthermore, integer arithmetic makes very efficient use of each memory bit since there is no floating point exponent. Consequently, it becomes feasible and fast in long word length machines to pack the velocity and position of a particular particle into the same word, thus saving a factor of two in computer storage and/or 10. These advantages are combined with the fact that integer adds and logicals complete in only two computer cycles allowing nearly complete optimization of register and instruction interleaving. The measured timings on a CDC 7600 are 880 nanoseconds and 935 nanoseconds per particle for the periodic and general boundary condition sections respectively. Methods for adapting the technique to other computers are discussed.

  14. Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC Finding highlights importance of preventing infection ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women infected with the Zika virus are 20 times more likely to have ...

  15. Kids 14 and Younger Only Need 2 HPV Vaccine Shots: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Kids 14 and Younger Only Need 2 HPV Vaccine Shots: CDC But agency's revised guidelines still recommend ... and younger require only two doses of the HPV vaccine rather than the previously recommended three shots, U.S. ...

  16. Characterization of a Dual CDC7/CDK9 Inhibitor in Multiple Myeloma Cellular Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natoni, Alessandro [Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Coyne, Mark R. E. [Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Department of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Department of Haematology, Galway University Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Jacobsen, Alan; Rainey, Michael D.; O’Brien, Gemma; Healy, Sandra [Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Montagnoli, Alessia; Moll, Jürgen [Nerviano Medical Sciences S.r.l., Via Pasteur 10, Nerviano 20014 (Italy); O’Dwyer, Michael, E-mail: michael.odwyer@nuigalway.ie [Department of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Department of Haematology, Galway University Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Santocanale, Corrado, E-mail: michael.odwyer@nuigalway.ie [Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2013-07-24

    Two key features of myeloma cells are the deregulation of the cell cycle and the dependency on the expression of the BCL2 family of anti-apoptotic proteins. The cell division cycle 7 (CDC7) is an essential S-phase kinase and emerging CDC7 inhibitors are effective in a variety of preclinical cancer models. These compounds also inhibit CDK9 which is relevant for MCL-1 expression. The activity and mechanism of action of the dual CDC7/CDK9 inhibitor PHA-767491 was assessed in a panel of multiple myeloma cell lines, in primary samples from patients, in the presence of stromal cells and in combination with drugs used in current chemotherapeutic regimens. We report that in all conditions myeloma cells undergo cell death upon PHA-767491 treatment and we report an overall additive effect with melphalan, bortezomib and doxorubicin, thus supporting further assessment of targeting CDC7 and CDK9 in multiple myeloma.

  17. Working at a Ferranti-Argus graphics display linked to a CDC 6600

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows a Ferranti-Argus graphics display linked to a CDC 6600 computer running one of the first interactive graphics packages for physics analysis. The people around are Jean-Claude Marin, Harry Renshall and Emilio Pagiola (right).

  18. Nociones del Sistema Tributario Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froylán Balderas Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente información se encamina a interiorizar al lector en el tema fiscal con palabras sencillas, describiendo en forma sucinta los antecedentes de los tributos, hasta llegar y describir el sistema impositivo actual mexicano, y de ahí estudiar en forma específica el impuesto que tiene más relevancia por la cantidad que se recauda siendo el Impuesto Sobre la Renta.

  19. Mechanisms of Cdc42-mediated rat MSC differentiation on micro/nano-textured topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwen; Song, Yanyan; Shi, Mengqi; Du, Yuanhong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-02-01

    Micro/nano-textured titanium surface topography promotes osteoblast differentiation and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, the response of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to micro/nano-textured topography, and the underlying mechanisms of its effects, are not well understood. We hypothesized that cell division cycle 42 protein (Cdc42), a key member of the Rho GTPases family, may regulate rat MSCs morphology and osteogenic differentiation by micro/nano-textured topography, and that crosstalk between Cdc42 and Wnt/β-catenin is the underlying mechanism. To confirm the hypothesis, we first tested rat MSCs' morphology, cytoskeleton, and osteogenic differentiation on micro/nano-textured topography. We then examined the cells' Wnt pathway and Cdc42 signaling activity. The results show that micro/nano-textured topography enhances MSCs' osteogenic differentiation. In addition, the cells' morphology and cytoskeletal reorganization were dramatically different on smooth surfaces and micropitted/nanotubular topography. Ligands of the canonical Wnt pathway, as well as accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus, were up-regulated by micro/nano-textured topography. Cdc42 protein expression was markedly increased under these conditions; conversely, Cdc42 silencing significantly depressed the enhancement of MSCs osteogenic differentiation by micro/nano-textured topography. Moreover, Cdc42si attenuated p-GSK3β activation and resulted in β-catenin cytoplasmic degradation on the micro/nano-textured topography. Our results indicate that Cdc42 is a key modulator of rat MSCs morphology and cytoskeletal reorganization, and that crosstalk between Cdc42 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling though GSK3β regulates MSCs osteogenic differentiation by implant topographical cues.

  20. Phosphorylation of mammalian CDC6 by cyclin A/CDK2 regulates its subcellular localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B O; Lukas, J; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    1999-01-01

    by CDKs. CDC6 interacts specifically with the active Cyclin A/CDK2 complex in vitro and in vivo, but not with Cyclin E or Cyclin B kinase complexes. The cyclin binding domain of CDC6 was mapped to an N-terminal Cy-motif that is similar to the cyclin binding regions in p21(WAF1/SDI1) and E2F-1. The in vivo...

  1. p34cdc2 acts as a lamin kinase in fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is an intermediate filament network that underlies the nuclear membrane in higher eukaryotic cells. During mitosis in higher eukaryotes, nuclear lamins are phosphorylated by a mitosis- specific kinase and this induces disassembly of the lamina structure. Recently, p34cdc2 protein kinase purified from starfish has been shown to induce phosphorylation of lamin proteins and disassembly of the nuclear lamina when incubated with isolated chick nuclei suggesting that p34cdc2 is l...

  2. CDC25B overexpression stabilises centrin 2 and promotes the formation of excess centriolar foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Boutros

    Full Text Available CDK-cyclin complexes regulate centriole duplication and microtubule nucleation at specific cell cycle stages, although their exact roles in these processes remain unclear. As the activities of CDK-cyclins are themselves positively regulated by CDC25 phosphatases, we investigated the role of centrosomal CDC25B during interphase. We report that overexpression of CDC25B, as is commonly found in human cancer, results in a significant increase in centrin 2 at the centrosomes of interphase cells. Conversely, CDC25B depletion causes a loss of centrin 2 from the centrosome, which can be rescued by treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. CDC25B overexpression also promotes the formation of excess centrin 2 "foci". These foci can accumulate other centrosome proteins, including γ-tubulin and PCM-1, and can function as microtubule organising centres, indicating that these represent functional centrosomes. Formation of centrin 2 foci can be blocked by specific inhibition of CDK2 but not CDK1. CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1 at the G1/S transition is essential for the initiation of centrosome duplication, and Mps1 is reported to phosphorylate centrin 2. Overexpression of wild-type or non-degradable Mps1 exacerbated the formation of excess centrin 2 foci induced by CDC25B overexpression, while kinase-dead Mps1 has a protective effect. Together, our data suggest that CDC25B, through activation of a centrosomal pool of CDK2, stabilises the local pool of Mps1 which in turn regulates the level of centrin 2 at the centrosome. Overexpression of CDC25B may therefore contribute to tumourigenesis by perturbing the natural turnover of centrosome proteins such as Mps1 and centrin 2, thus resulting in the de novo assembly of extra-numerary centrosomes and potentiating chromosome instability.

  3. A Synthetic Interaction between CDC20 and RAD4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae upon UV Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Connors

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of DNA repair can be achieved through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of transiently induced proteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad4 is involved in damage recognition during nucleotide excision repair (NER and, in conjunction with Rad23, recruits other proteins to the site of damage. We identified a synthetic interaction upon UV exposure between Rad4 and Cdc20, a protein that modulates the activity of the anaphase promoting complex (APC/C, a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. The moderately UV sensitive Δrad4 strain became highly sensitive when cdc20-1 was present, and was rescued by overexpression of CDC20. The double mutant is also deficient in elicting RNR3-lacZ transcription upon exposure to UV irradiation or 4-NQO compared with the Δrad4 single mutant. We demonstrate that the Δrad4/cdc20-1 double mutant is defective in double strand break repair by way of a plasmid end-joining assay, indicating that Rad4 acts to ensure that damaged DNA is repaired via a Cdc20-mediated mechanism. This study is the first to present evidence that Cdc20 may play a role in the degradation of proteins involved in nucleotide excision repair.

  4. Cdc42 inhibitor ML141 enhances G-CSF-induced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Song, Xuguang; Ma, Sha; Wang, Xue; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Huanxin; Wu, Qingyun; Zhao, Kai; Cao, Jiang; Qiao, Jianlin; Sun, Xiaoshen; Li, Depeng; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhengyu; Xu, Kailin

    2015-01-01

    G-CSF is the most often used agent in clinical hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization. However, in about 10 % of patients, G-CSF does not efficiently mobilize HSPC in clinically sufficient amounts. Cdc42 activity is involved in HSPC mobilization. In the present study, we explore the impact of Cdc42 inhibitor ML141 on G-CSF-mediated HSPC mobilization in mice. We found that the use of ML141 alone only triggered modest HSPC mobilization effect in mice. However, combination of G-CSF and ML141 significantly promoted HPSC counts and colony forming units in peripheral blood, as compared to mice treated with G-CSF alone. ML141 did not significantly alter the levels of SDF-1 and MMP-9 in the bone marrow, when used alone or in combination with G-CSF. We also found that G-CSF administration significantly increases the level of GTP-bound Cdc42, but does not alter the expression of Cdc42 in the bone marrow. Our data indicate that the Cdc42 signal is a negative regulator in G-CSF-mediated HSPC mobilization, and that inhibition of the Cdc42 signal efficiently improves mobilization efficiency. These findings may provide a new strategy for efficient HSPC mobilization, especially in patients with poor G-CSF response.

  5. Functional roles of PC-PLC and Cdc20 in the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Yu, Yongfeng; Fu, Da; Li, Ziming; Niu, Xiaoming; Liao, Meilin; Lu, Shun

    2010-06-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is the major enzyme in the Phosphatidylcholine (PC) cycle and is involved in many long-term cellular responses such as activation, proliferation, and differentiation events. Cell division cycle 20 homolog (Cdc20) is an essential cell-cycle regulator required for the completion of mitosis. Our previous studies identified the interaction between PC-PLC and Cdc20. Through the interaction, Cdc20 could mediate the degradation of PC-PLC by Cdc20-mediated ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). In this study, we found that PC-PLC might not be involved in cancer metastasis. Inhibition of PC-PLC by D609 could cause cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis inhibition in CBRH-7919 cells. Inhibition of PC-PLC could also influence the cell cycle by arresting the cells in G1 phase, and Cdc20 might be involved in these processes. Taken together, in this report, we provided new evidence for the functional roles of PC-PLC and Cdc20 in the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis in CBRH-7919 cells.

  6. Mutation Analysis of hCDC4 in AML Cells Identifies a New Intronic Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nowak, Maximilian Mossner, Claudia D. Baldus, Olaf Hopfer, Eckhard Thiel, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available hCDC4 (FBW7, FBXW7 is a new potential tumor suppressor gene which provides substrate specificity for SCF (Skp–Cullin–F-box ubiquitin ligases and thereby regulates the degradation of potent oncogenes such as cyclin E, Myc, c-Jun and Notch. Mutations in the hCDC4 gene have been found in several solid tumors such as pancreas, colorectal or endometrial cancer. We carried out a mutation analysis of the hCDC4 gene in 35 samples of patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML to elucidate a possible role of hCDC4 mutations in this disease. By direct DNA sequencing and digestion with Surveyor nuclease one heterozygous mutation in the 5' untranslated region of exon 1, transcript variant 3 was detected. Additionally, we could identify a new intronic SNP downstream of exon 10. The new variation was present in 20% of AML samples and was furthermore confirmed in a panel of 51 healthy individuals where it displayed a frequency of 14%. In conclusion we provide first data that in contrast to several solid tumors, mutations in the hCDC4 gene may not play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AML. Furthermore, we describe a new intronic polymorphism with high frequency in the intron sequence of the hCDC4 gene.

  7. Cdc7p-Dbf4p regulates mitotic exit by inhibiting Polo kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T Miller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cdc7p-Dbf4p is a conserved protein kinase required for the initiation of DNA replication. The Dbf4p regulatory subunit binds Cdc7p and is essential for Cdc7p kinase activation, however, the N-terminal third of Dbf4p is dispensable for its essential replication activities. Here, we define a short N-terminal Dbf4p region that targets Cdc7p-Dbf4p kinase to Cdc5p, the single Polo kinase in budding yeast that regulates mitotic progression and cytokinesis. Dbf4p mediates an interaction with the Polo substrate-binding domain to inhibit its essential role during mitosis. Although Dbf4p does not inhibit Polo kinase activity, it nonetheless inhibits Polo-mediated activation of the mitotic exit network (MEN, presumably by altering Polo substrate targeting. In addition, although dbf4 mutants defective for interaction with Polo transit S-phase normally, they aberrantly segregate chromosomes following nuclear misorientation. Therefore, Cdc7p-Dbf4p prevents inappropriate exit from mitosis by inhibiting Polo kinase and functions in the spindle position checkpoint.

  8. Exoression of CDC10 in Gliomas%CDC10在胶质瘤中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江荣才; 浦佩玉; 焦保华; 于士柱; 王春艳; 康春生; 郑宇; 王广秀

    2002-01-01

    目的:应用微阵列技术探讨CDCl0在星形细胞起源胶质瘤中的表达.方法:术中收集17例不同级的新鲜星形细胞起源胶质瘤标本.提取总RNA后逆转录成33P标记的cDNA探针,与Auas cDNA微阵列杂交,获得相应基因表达谱,与正常脑组织的基因表达谱比较,并应用RT-PCR验证结果.结果:发现CDC10在所有肿瘤基因表达谱中均明显下调;经RT-PCR验证,相对于正常脑组织的高mRNA丰度,所有肿瘤中该基因均下词甚至无表达.结论:应用微阵列平行分析有助于发现已知基因的新功能.CDCl0在星形细胞起源胶质瘤中表达下调,其功能有待进一步分析.

  9. Cdc6 localizes to S- and G2-phase centrosomes in a cell cycle-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Su; Kang, Jeeheon; Bang, Sung Woong; Hwang, Deog Su, E-mail: dshwang@snu.ac.kr

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Cdc6 protein is a component of the pre-replicative complex required for chromosomal replication initiation. • Cdc6 localized to centrosomes of S and G2 phases in a cell cycle-dependent manner. • The centrosomal localization was governed by centrosomal localization signal sequences of Cdc6. • Deletions or substitution mutations on the centrosomal localization signal interfered with centrosomal localization of the Cdc6 proteins. - Abstract: The Cdc6 protein has been primarily investigated as a component of the pre-replicative complex for the initiation of chromosome replication, which contributes to maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Here, we show that Cdc6 localized to the centrosomes during S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. The centrosomal localization was mediated by Cdc6 amino acid residues 311–366, which are conserved within other Cdc6 homologues and contains a putative nuclear export signal. Deletions or substitutions of the amino acid residues did not allow the proteins to localize to centrosomes. In contrast, DsRed tag fused to the amino acid residues localized to centrosomes. These results indicated that a centrosome localization signal is contained within amino acid residues 311–366. The cell cycle-dependent centrosomal localization of Cdc6 in S and G2 phases suggest a novel function of Cdc6 in centrosomes.

  10. Human TRIB2 Oscillates during the Cell Cycle and Promotes Ubiquitination and Degradation of CDC25C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kai Ling; Paredes, Roberto; Carmody, Ruaidhri; Eyers, Patrick A.; Meyer, Stefan; McCarthy, Tommie V.; Keeshan, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) is a member of the mammalian Tribbles family of serine/threonine pseudokinases (TRIB1-3). Studies of TRIB2 indicate that many of the molecular interactions between the single Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) protein and interacting partners are evolutionary conserved. In this study, we examined the relationship between TRIB2 and cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) family of dual-specificity protein phosphatases (mammalian homologues of Drosophila String), which are key physiological cell cycle regulators. Using co-immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that TRIB2 interacts with CDC25B and CDC25C selectively. Forced overexpression of TRIB2 caused a marked decrease in total CDC25C protein levels. Following inhibition of the proteasome, CDC25C was stabilized in the nuclear compartment. This implicates TRIB2 as a regulator of nuclear CDC25C turnover. In complementary ubiquitination assays, we show that TRIB2-mediated degradation of CDC25C is associated with lysine-48-linked CDC25C polyubiquitination driven by the TRIB2 kinase-like domain. A cell cycle associated role for TRIB2 is further supported by the cell cycle regulated expression of TRIB2 protein levels. Our findings reveal mitotic CDC25C as a new target of TRIB2 that is degraded via the ubiquitin proteasome system. Inappropriate CDC25C regulation could mechanistically underlie TRIB2 mediated regulation of cellular proliferation in neoplastic cells. PMID:27563873

  11. The small GTPase Cdc42 modulates the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Mai [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kitaguchi, Tetsuya [Cell Signaling Group, Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore (WABOIS), Waseda University, 11 Biopolis Way, 05-01/02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Numano, Rika [The Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tennpaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Ikematsu, Kazuya [Forensic Pathology and Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kakeyama, Masaki [Laboratory of Environmental Health Sciences, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murata, Masayuki; Sato, Ken [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Tsuboi, Takashi, E-mail: takatsuboi@bio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPase Cdc42. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of fusion events from newly recruited vesicles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles. -- Abstract: Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal microscope that Cdc42 modulated the number of fusion events and the number of dense-core vesicles produced in the cells. Overexpression of a wild-type or constitutively-active form of Cdc42 strongly facilitated high-KCl-induced exocytosis from the newly recruited plasma membrane vesicles in PC12 cells. By contrast, a dominant-negative form of Cdc42 inhibited exocytosis from both the newly recruited and previously docked plasma membrane vesicles. The number of intracellular dense-core vesicles was increased by the overexpression of both a wild-type and constitutively-active form of Cdc42. Consistently, activation of Cdc42 by overexpression of Tuba, a Golgi-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 increased the number of intracellular dense-core vesicles, whereas inhibition of Cdc42 by overexpression of the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein decreased the number of them. These findings suggest that Cdc42 facilitates exocytosis by modulating both the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles and the production of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells.

  12. O Crisol: periódico das alunas do Colégio Americano (Porto Alegre/RS, 1945-1964 - O Crisol: the jornal by students of the Colégio Americano (Porto Alegre/RS, 1945-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóris Bittencourt Almeida, Brasil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho investiga-se o periódico O Crisol, produzido pelas alunas do Colégio Americano, uma escola de Porto Alegre/RS, entre os anos de 1945 e 1964. Esse periódicodiz muito à História da Educação, pois evidencia saberes e práticas que circulavam nacomunidade do Colégio e revela um pouco das representações da cultura juvenil daquele tempo. Aqui interessam os significados dos discursos difundidos pelo periódico nos processos de subjetivação provocados pelos textos e suas possíveis influências na construção das identidades das jovens leitoras e escritoras do jornal. A pesquisa identifica-se com os pressupostos teóricos da História Cultural e se inscreve no campo das práticas de leitura e escrita e de memórias juvenis, tendo como referenciais as concepções da cultura escrita enquanto produção discursiva de um determinado tempo e lugar.Palavras-chave: memórias juvenis, escritas escolares, práticas de escrita. O CRISOL: THE JORNAL BY STUDENTS OF THE COLÉGIO AMERICANO (PORTO ALEGRE/RS, 1945-1964 AbstractThis work investigates the journalO Crisolproduced by students of the Colégio Americano, a school in Porto Alegre/RS, between the years 1945 and 1964.The journal says much to the History of Education, as evidenced knowledges and pratices circulating in the community,showing a bit of representations of youth culture in that time. Herethe interest by meaning’s dissemination of speeches by the journal in the processes of subjectivation caused by texts and their possible influences on the construction of identities of young readers and writers of the newspaper. The research identifies with the theoreticals presuppositions o Cultural History and inscribed in the field of reading and writing practices and memories of youth, taking as reference the concepts of the writing culture as a discursive production of a determinated time and place.Key-words: youth’s memories, written school, writing practices. O CRISOL: EL

  13. La reforma del sistema electoral chileno

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    Mariela Rubano Lapasta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La modificación del sistema electoral público chileno se ha transformado nuevamente en tema de debate público, después de la Reforma Constitucional de 2005. El Gobierno ha propuesto reformar el sistema electoral, sustituirlo por otro que permita a las minorías tener representación en el Congreso. Se abordan brevemente los sistemas electorales en el derecho comparado, en especial el caso chileno, evaluando las ventajas y desventajas del sistema electoral nacional. Se propone recurrir al mecanismo de primarias a fin de elegir a los candidatos. Se concluye que no hay ningún sistema ideal, importa más las características del sistema político y no tanto el método electoral con el cual se eligen a los representantes.

  14. Influências do Ativismo de Hugo Chávez nos Interesses Petrolíferos Norte-Americanos - 10.5102/uri.v0i0.409

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor de Freitas Vasconcelos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute em que medida o discurso nacionalista enunciado por Hugo Chávez, desde 1998, e seu estilo de condução política têm confrontado os interesses petrolíferos norte-americanos, observando-se a atuação venezuelana na Organização dos Países Exportadores de Petróleo. Percebe-se que Chávez tem formulado sua agenda bilateral com os Estados Unidos da América de maneira cada vez mais ideológica e menos pragmática, confrontando tanto os interesses do empresariado quanto do governo norte-americano.

  15. A Amazônia no imaginário norte-americano em tempo de guerra Amazonia in the U.S. wartime imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Garfield

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio delineia a emergência da Amazônia no imaginário norte-americano no período da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Embora a importância geopolítica de diversificação dos mercados fornecedores de borracha e o desenvolvimento da borracha sintética tenham sido discutidos nos Estados Unidos antes do ataque a Pearl Harbor, a subsequente interdição japonesa aos mercados tradicionais do sudeste asiático levou burocratas e cientistas a se apressarem na busca de alternativas. Como em outras regiões da América Latina, as políticas de obtenção e fornecimento, durante a guerra, dividiram os progressistas adeptos do New Deal e os conservadores fiscais. Entretanto, a política de gestão norte-americana também moldou e foi moldada por mitos enraizados acerca das regiões e populações tropicais. Na época, como agora, a Amazônia era muito mais que um lugar: para os norte-americanos, era também uma pedra de toque das ansiedades mais profundas concernentes às questões de raça, classe e nação.This essay traces the emergence of the Amazon in the United States wartime imaginary. Although the geopolitical importance of diversifying rubber markets and developing synthetics had been discussed in the United States before Pearl Harbor, the subsequent Japanese interdiction of traditional Southeast Asian markets sent American government officials and scientists scurrying to find alternatives. As in other regions of Latin America, wartime procurement policies in the Amazon divided New Deal progressives and fiscal conservatives, but these policies also shaped and were shaped by entrenched myths of tropical regions and populations. Then, as now, the Amazon was more than a place, but also a flashpoint for Americans for deeper anxieties concerning questions of race, class, and nation.

  16. Os mexicanos-americanos e a nação americana: resposta ao professor Huntington Mexican-Americans and the American nation: a response to professor Huntington

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Telles

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo baseia-se em uma palestra dada na Texas A&M University em 10 de dezembro de 2005, em resposta a uma palestra anterior do professor Samuel P. Huntington. Os dados obtidos pela ciência social são usados para analisar a tese de Huntington de que os mexicanos estão sobrecarregando as fronteiras americanas. O artigo analisa ainda a evidência de que os mexicanos-americanos estão sendo assimilados culturalmente, mas, em termos econômicos, não são tão bem-sucedidos quanto os descendentes dos primeiros imigrantes europeus; e examina os fatores que diferenciam, e provavelmente continuarão a fazê-lo, a trajetória de incorporação dos mexicanos-americanos. Por fim, recomenda que a opinião pública americana e os políticos façam opções fundamentadas a respeito dos níveis desejáveis de imigração e das pessoas que devem ser aceitas, aperfeiçoem por meio da educação as oportunidades econômicas dos imigrantes e fomentem um futuro multilinguístico e multiétnico para o país.This essay is based on a talk I delivered at Texas A&M University on December 10, 2005, in response to an earlier lecture at the university by Professor Samuel P. Huntington. It relies on social science evidence to first address Huntington's contention that Mexicans are overwhelming American borders. It then turns to evidence that Mexican Americans are in fact assimilating culturally but still have been less economically successful than the descendants of earlier European immigrants. The essay examines factors that have differentiated the Mexican American trajectory of incorporation and are likely to continue to do so. Finally, it calls for the American public and policy makers to make well-informed choices about what levels of immigration are desirable and who should be admitted, to improve immigrants' economic opportunities through education, and to embrace a multilingual and multiethnic future for the country.

  17. Modelo de sistemas tutores inteligentes multiagente

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Alejandro; Vallejos, Félix Anibal; Jiménez Rey, Elizabeth Miriam; Grossi, María Delia; Servetto, Arturo Carlos; Perichinsky, Gregorio

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta una línea de investigación del Proyecto de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de Buenos Aires I015: Manufactura Integrada por Computadora en Sistemas Complejos para el Desarrollo Social, Industrial y de Tecnología. Se introduce conceptos básicos de los campos en los que incursiona esta línea de investigación: Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes (STI) y Sistemas Multiagentes (SMA). Se describe los aspectos esenciales que se deben considerar en el modelado de un sistema ...

  18. Fission Yeast Apc15 Stabilizes MCC-Cdc20-APC/C Complexes, Ensuring Efficient Cdc20 Ubiquitination and Checkpoint Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Karen M; Paldi, Flora; Hardwick, Kevin G

    2017-03-28

    During mitosis, cells must segregate the replicated copies of their genome to their daughter cells with extremely high fidelity. Segregation errors lead to an abnormal chromosome number (aneuploidy), which typically results in disease or cell death [1]. Chromosome segregation and anaphase onset are initiated through the action of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C [2]). The APC/C is inhibited by the spindle checkpoint in the presence of kinetochore attachment defects [3, 4]. Here we demonstrate that two non-essential APC/C subunits (Apc14 and Apc15) regulate association of spindle checkpoint proteins, in the form of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), with the APC/C. apc14Δ mutants display increased MCC association with the APC/C and are unable to silence the checkpoint efficiently. Conversely, apc15Δ mutants display reduced association between the MCC and APC/C, are defective in poly-ubiquitination of Cdc20, and are checkpoint defective. In vitro reconstitution studies have shown that human MCC-APC/C can contain two molecules of Cdc20 [5-7]. Using a yeast strain expressing two Cdc20 genes with different epitope tags, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that this is true in vivo. MCC binding to the second molecule of Cdc20 is mediated via the C-terminal KEN box in Mad3. Somewhat surprisingly, complexes containing both molecules of Cdc20 accumulate in apc15Δ cells, and the implications of this observation are discussed.

  19. cIAP1 regulates TNF-mediated cdc42 activation and filopodia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivin, A; Berthelet, J; Cartier, J; Paul, C; Gemble, S; Morizot, A; Boireau, W; Saleh, M; Bertoglio, J; Solary, E; Dubrez, L

    2014-11-27

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) is a cytokine endowed with multiple functions, depending on the cellular and environmental context. TNF receptor engagement induces the formation of a multimolecular complex including the TNFR-associated factor TRAF2, the receptor-interaction protein kinase RIP1 and the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis cIAP1, the latter being essential for NF-κB activation. Here, we show that cIAP1 also regulates TNF-induced actin cytoskeleton reorganization through a cdc42-dependent, NF-κB-independent pathway. Deletion of cIAP1 prevents TNF-induced filopodia and cdc42 activation. The expression of cIAP1 or its E3-ubiquitin ligase-defective mutant restores the ability of cIAP1(-/-) MEFs to produce filopodia, whereas a cIAP1 mutant unable to bind TRAF2 does not. Accordingly, the silencing of TRAF2 inhibits TNF-mediated filopodia formation, whereas silencing of RIP1 does not. cIAP1 directly binds cdc42 and promotes its RhoGDIα-mediated stabilization. TNF decreases cIAP1-cdc42 interaction, suggesting that TNF-induced recruitment of cIAP1/TRAF2 to the receptor releases cdc42, which in turn triggers actin remodeling. cIAP1 also regulates cdc42 activation in response to EGF and HRas-V12 expression. A downregulation of cIAP1 altered the cell polarization, the cell adhesion to endothelial cells and cell intercalation, which are cdc42-dependent processes. Finally, we demonstrated that the deletion of cIAP1 regulated the HRas-V12-mediated transformation process, including anchorage-dependent cell growth, tumour growth in a xenograft model and the development of experimental metastasis in the lung.

  20. El visón americano Neovison vison (Schreber 1777 en España: posibles causas de su expansión e interacción con otros mamíferos semiacuáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balmori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de poblaciones de visón americano asilvestradas en España data de la década de los 60 del siglo XX. Los individuos procedentes de escapes de granjas peleteras han establecido poblaciones asilvestradas que se han expandido rápidamente por la cuenca del Duero. Tanto los motivos de su exitosa expansión en la submeseta norte como los efectos en la comunidad de vertebrados ligados a los ríos son poco conocidos. En este trabajo se revisan las posibles causas del éxito colonizador del visón americano en España y el previsible impacto sobre las especies de mamíferos semiacuáticos con las que comparte territorio, con especial mención de aquellos cuyas poblaciones pueden verse amenazadas. Se proponen las actuaciones necesarias para favorecer la recuperación de las poblaciones de visón europeo y frenar la expansión del visón americano en la Cuenca del Duero. La evolución de la superficie de ocupación del visón europeo permite albergar cierto optimismo.

  1. As contribuições do II Congresso Médico Latino-Americano para a enfermagem no Brasil Las Contribuciones del II Congreso Médico Latino-Americano para la enfermería en el Brasil The contributions of II Latin American Medical Congress for the Nursing in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Teles Morais

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo sobre as recomendações do II Congresso Médico Latino-Americano, em 1904, para a organização da Enfermagem no Brasil. Objetivos: Caracterizar os médicos brasileiros que participaram do II Congresso Médico Latino-Americano e analisar as recomendações deste Congresso para a Enfermagem. Trata-se de um estudo histórico-social, embasado na análise documental. Resultados: A participação de médicos brasileiros neste evento foi grande. Em meio às discussões de ordem sanitária, figurou a questão da criação de escolas de enfermeiras, apresentada pelo médico Moisés Amaral. Diante das evidências da eficácia de se ter uma enfermeira instruída em escolas próprias, e de acordo com os preceitos da medicina moderna, foi aprovada a proposta para a criação de escolas de enfermagem. Apesar da posição estratégica que os representantes brasileiros nesse Congresso ocupavam no país, não encontramos evidências do empenho deles em trabalhar efetivamente para a criação de escolas de enfermeiras como uma estratégia para enfrentar os problemas sanitários.Estudio sobre las recomendaciones del II Congreso Médico Latino-Americano, en 1904, para la organización de la enfermería el Brasil. Objetivos: Caracterizar los médicos brasileños que participaran del II Congreso Médico Latino-Americano; y analizar las recomendaciones de este congreso para la enfermería. Estudio histórico-social basado en la análisis documental. Resultados: la participación brasileña en este acontecimiento foi grande. En medio a las discusiones sanitarias, figuró la cuestión de creación de escuelas de enfermeríapresentada por el médico Moisés Amaral. Frente a las evidencias de la eficacia de tener una enfermera instruida en escuelas apropiadas y de acuerdo con los preceptos de la medicina moderna fue aprobada la propuesta de creación de escuelas de enfermería. A pesar de la estratégica posición de los representantes brasileños en ese Congreso

  2. Cdc25 Phosphatases Are Required for Timely Assembly of CDK1-Cyclin B at the G2/M Transition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Oleg; Cizmecioglu, Onur; Settele, Florian; Kempf, Tore; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Progression through mitosis requires the coordinated regulation of Cdk1 kinase activity. Activation of Cdk1 is a multistep process comprising binding of Cdk1 to cyclin B, relocation of cyclin-kinase complexes to the nucleus, activating phosphorylation of Cdk1 on Thr161 by the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK; Cdk7 in metazoans), and removal of inhibitory Thr14 and Tyr15 phosphorylations. This dephosphorylation is catalyzed by the dual specific Cdc25 phosphatases, which occur in three isoforms in mammalian cells, Cdc25A, -B, and -C. We find that expression of Cdc25A leads to an accelerated G2/M phase transition. In Cdc25A-overexpressing cells, Cdk1 exhibits high kinase activity despite being phosphorylated on Tyr15. In addition, Tyr15-phosphorylated Cdk1 binds more cyclin B in Cdc25A-overexpressing cells compared with control cells. Consistent with this observation, we demonstrate that in human transformed cells, Cdc25A and Cdc25B, but not Cdc25C phosphatases have an effect on timing and efficiency of cyclin-kinase complex formation. Overexpression of Cdc25A or Cdc25B promotes earlier assembly and activation of Cdk1-cyclin B complexes, whereas repression of these phosphatases by short hairpin RNA has a reverse effect, leading to a substantial decrease in amounts of cyclin B-bound Cdk1 in G2 and mitosis. Importantly, we find that Cdc25A overexpression leads to an activation of Cdk7 and increase in Thr161 phosphorylation of Cdk1. In conclusion, our data suggest that complex assembly and dephosphorylation of Cdk1 at G2/M is tightly coupled and regulated by Cdc25 phosphatases. PMID:20360007

  3. Pasivos, exóticos, vencidos, víctimas. El indígena americano en la cultura oficial española del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyero, Carlos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the role that the american indian has represented in visual culture in Spain during the nineteenth century. The author takes into consideration the history painting and the monuments erected in this period. It is possible to recognise four main issues: 1 The passive, with a double slope political and religious, that conduce to exhibit a natural superiority of spanish people; 2 The resigned and exotic personality, connected to a picturesque vision far from any conflict; 3 The powerful enemy, defeated in spite of his courage; and 4 The considerable nobility, connected to the character as much as the rising of liberal spirit.

    Este artículo analiza el papel que ha representado el indio americano en la cultura visual española durante el siglo XIX. El autor tiene en cuenta la pintura de historia y los monumentos erigidos en este periodo. Es posible reconocer cuatro grandes orientaciones: 1 El pasivo, con una doble vertiente política y religiosa, que conduce a mostrar la natural superioridad del español; 2 El exotismo sumiso, relacionado con una visión pintoresca alejada de cualquier conflicto; 3 El enemigo poderoso, al que sin embargo se derrota; y 4 La caballerosidad respetuosa, relacionada tanto con el carácter como con el afianzamiento del espíritu liberal.

  4. La Organización de Estados Americanos y su incidencia democrática post Trujillo en República Dominicana (1961-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Gallego Cosme

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una reflexión acerca del convulso pe- ríodo comprendido entre el final del régimen del dictador Trujillo y el final de la Guerra Civil en República Domi- nicana. En este recuento de la historia de este pequeño país caribeño, se revisarán las relaciones de su política exterior con sus principales acontecimientos domésticos. En este sentido se prestará especial atención al importan- te papel de la Organización de Estados Americanos y de los Estados Unidos, ambos actores preponderantes con incidencia en el devenir de las siguientes décadas para los dominicanos. AbstractThis paper focuses on a reflection on the turbulent period between the end of Trujillo’s dictatorial regime and the end of the Civil War in Dominican Republic. Through a historical approach of this period of time in this little Caribbean country, issues regarding the Do- minican foreign policies will be reviewed to link them with major events taking place at domestic level. In this respect, special attention will be provided to the import- ant role of the Organization of American States and the United States, both actors with preponderant influence on setting the course for political actions in the following decades in this country’s history. 

  5. La frontera y la línea fronteriza: puntos de vista mexicanos y americanos de la frontera méxico–americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Griswold del Castillo

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de los siglos, los mexicanos y estadounidenses han desarrollado conceptos diferentes con relación a su región fronteriza común. Muchas de las diferencias en perspectivas nacionales, son el resultado de sus culturas históricas y definiciones de interés propio. El propósito de este escrito es delinear en forma general el origen de perspectivas mexicanas y estadounidenses de la región geográfica que ha sido llamada la frontera México- Estados Unidos. Finalmente, el valor real de la historia consiste en que nos permite evaluar ideas y culturas en sus patrones que tienen raíces profundas en nuestra experiencia colectiva pasada. Históricamente, para mexicanos y americanos, la frontera ha sido un lugar de conflicto y mezcla cultural. No es ni ha sido nunca una zona homogénea, ni regional, ni internacionalmente. Es necesario que los que planean comprendan los puntos de convergencia y divergencia en actitudes mexicanas y anglo-mexicanas hacia la frontera común.

  6. "The Americano Dream" ou "The American Dream": o debate contemporâneo sobre a imigração de mexicanos para os Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Antônio Coelho Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo resenho o debate acadêmico suscitado nos Estados Unidos por causa dos argumentos de Huntington sobre a imigração hispânica, sobretudo a de mexicanos, para este país. Em suas obras "The Hispanic challenge" e Who are we?, Huntington argumenta que, por razões demográficas e políticas, os imigrantes mexicanos não se assimilariam ao core culture norte-americano fundado nos valores anglo-protestantes, o que dividiria os EUA em dois povos, duas culturas e duas linguagens. As pesquisas empíricas aqui resenhadas que testaram os argumentos empíricos de Huntington os negaram e os críticos teóricos destes concebem que eles são doutrinários porque expressam uma ideologia settler, bem como manifestam a teoria do conflito do pluralismo cultural e a do colonianismo interno.

  7. Nodulação em cultivares de feijão dos conjuntos gênicos andino e meso-americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Marília Caixeta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a capacidade de nodulação e a especificidade de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. dos conjuntos gênicos andino e meso-americano submetidos a inóculo de Rhizobium. O experimento foi estabelecido em parcelas subdivididas em blocos ao acaso, com quatorze cultivares de feijão e três estirpes de Rhizobium (R. etli KIM 5, R. etli CIAT 632 e R. tropici CIAT 899. Somente as cultivares andinas WAF 15, WAF 7, Mineiro Precoce, WAF 6 e Antioquia 8 apresentaram especificidade na nodulação. Em relação à massa seca dos nódulos, houve diferenças significativas dos tratamentos de inoculação nas cultivares andinas WAF 15, WAF 7, WAF 6 e Diacol Andino, e na cultivar meso-americana Ouro Negro. Nenhuma das cultivares restringiu a nodulação, embora tenham sido verificadas diferenças de até 53 e 103 vezes no número e massa de nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Considerando todas as cultivares e estirpes de rizóbio, WAF 15 foi a cultivar com melhor desempenho em número e massa nodular. WAF 6 foi a cultivar de pior desempenho, chegando quase ao nível de restrição da nodulação com a estirpe R. etli CIAT 632.

  8. Práticas midiáticas de (imigrantes latino-americanos pelo mundo: pela promoção de cidadanias e sociabilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Moratti Frazão

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O livro é resultado de uma pesquisa promovida entre os anos de 2007 e 2009 por meio do “Grupo de Pesquisa Mídia, Cultura e Cidadania”, vinculado ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Comunicação da Unisinos. A proposta foi realizar um mapeamento sobre as práticas de produção midiáticas, feitas por indivíduos ligados ou não a grupos e demais associações de imigrantes latino-americanos, além das organizações que também observam esse fluxo migratório em particular. Tais práticas se referem aos espaços de informação disponíveis na internet, como blogs, sites e demais redes sociais, e por meios impressos como jornais e revistas, locais considerados pela autora como “espaços midiáticos multiterritoriais” (COGO, 2012, p. 15, através dos quais os imigrantes podem estabelecer conexões com suas redes de sociabilidade, bem como promover informações sobre suas comunidades, levando informações que ultrapassam as barreiras transnacionais.

  9. Cdc42 is not essential for filopodium formation, directed migration, cell polarization, and mitosis in fibroblastoid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Wu, Xunwei; Meyer, Hannelore

    2005-01-01

    apparatus into the direction of migration was decreased. However, expression of dominant negative Cdc42 in Cdc42-null cells resulted in strongly reduced directed migration, severely reduced single cell directionality, and complete loss of Golgi polarization and of directionality of protrusion formation...... of Cdc42 did not affect filopodium or lamellipodium formation and had no significant influence on the speed of directed migration nor on mitosis. Cdc42-deficient cells displayed a more elongated cell shape and had a reduced area. Furthermore, directionality during migration and reorientation of the Golgi...

  10. Redundant and nonredundant roles for Cdc42 and Rac1 in lymphomas developed in NPM-ALK transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Ramesh; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Menotti, Matteo; Pulito, Roberta; Brakebusch, Cord; Compagno, Mara; Voena, Claudia; Ambrogio, Chiara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-03-10

    Increasing evidence suggests that Rho family GTPases could have a critical role in the biology of T-cell lymphoma. In ALK-rearranged anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a specific subtype of T-cell lymphoma, the Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 are activated by the ALK oncogenic activity. In vitro studies have shown that Cdc42 and Rac1 control rather similar phenotypes of ALCL biology such as the proliferation, survival, and migration of lymphoma cells. However, their role and possible redundancy in ALK-driven lymphoma development in vivo are still undetermined. We genetically deleted Cdc42 or Rac1 in a mouse model of ALK-rearranged ALCL to show that either Cdc42 or Rac1 deletion impaired lymphoma development, modified lymphoma morphology, actin filament distribution, and migration properties of lymphoma cells. Cdc42 or Rac1 deletion primarily affected survival rather than proliferation of lymphoma cells. Apoptosis of lymphoma cells was equally induced following Cdc42 or Rac1 deletion, was associated with upregulation of the proapoptotic molecule Bid, and was blocked by Bcl2 overexpression. Remarkably, Cdc42/Rac1 double deletion, but not Cdc42 or Rac1 single deletions, completely prevented NPM-ALK lymphoma dissemination in vivo. Thus, Cdc42 and Rac1 have nonredundant roles in controlling ALK-rearranged lymphoma survival and morphology but are redundant for lymphoma dissemination, suggesting that targeting both GTPases could represent a preferable therapeutic option for ALCL treatment.

  11. Sistemas residenciales: conceptos y aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franu00E7oise Dureau

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Luego de volver sobre los orígenes de la noción de sistema residencial familiar en la investigación sobre África y América Latina, el artículo expone las técnicas de recolección desarrolladas en dos encuestas colombianas. El análisis de la morfología espacial de los sistemas residenciales familiares de los Bogotanos pone en evidencia las prácticas pluri-locales de la población, las movilidades que las subtienden y la importancia de la localización en las escogencias residenciales. Con este enfoque, el análisis de las prácticas residenciales se desplaza de la vivienda hacia el acceso a los recursos urbanos localizados: los relacionados con el entorno natural, los producidos por los actores políticos y económicos, pero también aquellos construidos por las prácticas sociales de los habitantes. De esta manera, lo que se propone aquí es una renovación de la lectura de las dinámicas espaciales en términos de territorios y un reconocimiento del habitante como actor pleno de la producción de nuevas configuraciones urbanas.

  12. Temperature dependent expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    p34cdc2 and Cyclin Bi are key components of cell cycle controlling machine and are believed to play a fundamental role in gametogenesis. It is also well known that, in scrotal mammals, spermatogenesis depends greatly on the maintenance of comparatively low temperature in the scrotum. To investigate whether the expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis is actually a temperature dependent event, in situ hybridization, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to study the expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in normal and cryptorchid testis. Results showed that the abdominal temperature had no significant influence on the transcription of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in the spermatogonia and pachytene/diplotene primary spermatocytes, but it blocked the translation of them. Due to the deficiency of p34cdc2 and Cyclin B1, the spermatogonia and pachytene/diplotene primary spermatocytes were unable to form MPF, hence, they couldn't undergo karyokinesis. The development of primary spermato cytes was arrested at the G2 to M phase transition. We also found that testosterone could regulate the Cyclin B1 expression in spermatogenic cells. Muscular injection of testosterone could recover spermatogenesis in the unilateral scrotal testis which was influenced by the contralateral cryptorchid testis, but it could not salvage the spermatogenesis block in the cryptorchid testis.

  13. A Dual E3 Mechanism for Rub1 Ligation to Cdc53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Daniel C.; Monda, Julie K.; Grace, Christy R.R.; Duda, David M.; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Kurz, Thimo; Schulman, Brenda A. (Dundee); (SJCH)

    2010-09-16

    In ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) cascades, a thioester-linked E2 {approx} UBL complex typically interacts with an E3 enzyme for UBL transfer to the target. Here we demonstrate a variant mechanism, whereby the E2 Ubc12 functions with two E3s, Hrt1 and Dcn1, for ligation of the UBL Rub1 to Cdc53's WHB subdomain. Hrt1 functions like a conventional RING E3, with its N terminus recruiting Cdc53 and C-terminal RING activating Ubc12Rub1. Dcn1's potentiating neddylation domain (Dcn1{sup P}) acts as an additional E3, reducing nonspecific Hrt1-mediated Ubc12 {approx} Rub1 discharge and directing Ubc12's active site to Cdc53. Crystal structures of Dcn1{sup P}-Cdc53{sup WHB} and Ubc12 allow modeling of a catalytic complex, supported by mutational data. We propose that Dcn1's interactions with both Cdc53 and Ubc12 would restrict the otherwise flexible Hrt1 RING-bound Ubc12 {approx} Rub1 to a catalytically competent orientation. Our data reveal mechanisms by which two E3s function synergistically to promote UBL transfer from one E2 to a target.

  14. Establishment of a cell model for screening antibody drugs against rheumatoid arthritis with ADCC and CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Hu, Rui; Tu, Song; Cheng, Wen-Jun; Zheng, Qiong; Wang, Jun-Wen; Kan, Wu-Sheng; Ren, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    TNFα played a dominant role in the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinical trials proved the efficacies of anti-TNFα agents for curing RA. However, most researchers were concentrating on their abilities of neutralizing TNFα, the potencies of different anti-TNFα agents varied a lot due to the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). For better understanding and differentiating the potentiality of various candidate anti-TNF reagents at the stage of new drug research and development, present study established a cell model expressing the transmembrane TNFα for usage in in vitro ADCC or CDC assay, meanwhile, the assay protocol described here could provide guidelines for screening macromolecular antibody drugs. A stable cell subline bearing transmembrane TNFα was first established by conventional transfection method, the expression of transmembrane TNFα was approved by flow cytometer, and the performance of the stable subline in ADCC and CDC assay was evaluated, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effector cells, and Adalimumab as the anti-TNFα reagent. The stable cell subline demonstrated high level of surface expression of transmembrane TNFα, and Adalimumab exerted both ADCC and CDC effects on this cell model. In conclusion, the stable cell line we established in present research could be used in ADCC or CDC assay for screening antibody drugs, which would provide in-depth understanding of the potencies of candidate antibody drugs in addition to the traditional TNFα neutralizing assay.

  15. Probing the mechanism of recognition of ssDNA by the Cdc13-DBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Aimee M; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2008-03-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Cdc13 tightly and specifically binds the conserved G-rich single-stranded overhang at telomeres and plays an essential role in telomere end-protection and length regulation. The 200 residue DNA-binding domain of Cdc13 (Cdc13-DBD) binds an 11mer single-stranded representative of the yeast telomeric sequence [Tel11, d(GTGTGGGTGTG)] with a 3 pM affinity and specificity for three bases (underlined) at the 5' end. The structure of the Cdc13-DBD bound to Tel11 revealed a large, predominantly aromatic protein interface with several unusual features. The DNA adopts an irregular, extended structure, and the binding interface includes a long ( approximately 30 amino acids) structured loop between strands beta2-beta3 (L(2-3)) of an OB-fold. To investigate the mechanism of ssDNA binding, we studied the free and bound states of Cdc13-DBD using NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shift changes indicate that the basic topology of the domain, including L(2-3), is essentially intact in the free state. Changes in slow and intermediate time scale dynamics, however, occur in L(2-3), while conformational changes distant from the DNA interface suggest an induced fit mechanism for binding in the 'hot spot' for binding affinity and specificity. These data point to an overall binding mechanism well adapted to the heterogeneous nature of yeast telomeres.

  16. Drug design with Cdc7 kinase: a potential novel cancer therapy target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Sawa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Masaaki Sawa1, Hisao Masai21Carna Biosciences, Inc., Kobe, Japan; 2Genome Dynamics Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Identification of novel molecular targets is critical in development of new and efficient cancer therapies. Kinases are one of the most common drug targets with a potential for cancer therapy. Cell cycle progression is regulated by a number of kinases, some of which are being developed to treat cancer. Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase originally discovered in budding yeast, which has been shown to be necessary to initiate the S phase. Inhibition of Cdc7 in cancer cells retards the progression of the S phase, accumulates DNA damage, and induces p53-independent cell death, but the same treatment in normal cells does not significantly affect viability. Low-molecular-weight compounds that inhibit Cdc7 kinase with an IC50 of less than 10 nM have been identified, and shown to be effective in the inhibition of tumor growth in animal models. Thus Cdc7 kinase can be recognized as a novel molecular target for cancer therapy.Keywords: Cdc7 kinase, cell cycle, replication fork, genome stability, DNA damages, ATP-binding pocket, kinase inhibitor

  17. Inhibition of Cdc42 is essential for Mig-6 suppression of cell migration induced by EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinni; Niu, MengMeng; Chen, Deshi; Chen, Jing; Cao, Yang; Li, Xiaorong; Ying, Haoqiang; Bergholz, Johann; Zhang, Yujun; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2016-08-02

    The adaptor protein Mig-6 is a negative regulator of EGF signaling. It is shown that Mig-6 inhibits cell migration via direct interaction with the ErbB receptors, thereby inhibiting cross-phosphorylation or targeting the receptors for degradation. Mig-6 has also been shown to bind to and inhibit the Rho GTPase Cdc42 to suppress cytoskeletal rearrangement. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which Mig-6 inhibits cell migration via Cdc42 is still not entirely clear. Here, we show that Mig-6 binding to Cdc42 is necessary and sufficient to inhibit EGF-induced filopodia formation and migration. This binding, mediated by four specific residues (I11, R12, M26, R30) in the Mig-6 CRIB domain, is essential for Mig-6 function. In addition, ectopic expression of Cdc42 reverses Mig-6 inhibition of cell migration. Mig-6 CRIB domain, alone, is sufficient to inhibit cell migration. Conversely, Mig-6 binding to EGFR is dispensable for Mig-6-mediated inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, we found that decreased Mig-6 expression correlates with cancer progression in breast and prostate cancers. Together, our results demonstrate that Mig-6 inhibition of Cdc42 signaling is critical in Mig-6 function to suppress cell migration and that dysregulation of this pathway may play a critical role in cancer development.

  18. Los Sistemas tecnológicos Concretos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Usando un enfoque sistémico, se estudian cierto tipo de subsistemas sociales que caracterizan a la sociedad contemporánea. Específicamente se definen aquellos tecnosistemas que realizan el diseño y la ejecución de artefactos y/o sistemas artificiales, los que se denominarán sistemas tecnológicos.

  19. Institucionalização do Sistema Interamericano de Combate às Drogas: Iniciativas e Progressos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Bernardes Rachadel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1806-5023.2013v10n2p25 O presente artigo analisa o tratamento do fenômeno das drogas na América Latina, discutindo os avanços na criação de um sistema continental de combate às drogas, representado pela Comissão Interamericana para o Controle do Abuso de Drogas (CICAD. A primeira parte do trabalho traça uma retrospectiva da criação da CICAD como iniciativa no surgimento de um arcabouço institucional e legal de tratamento do tema das drogas nas Américas. A segunda parte aborda o processo de consolidação da CICAD como instituição central nesse regime, focada em ultrapassar os métodos tradicionais de enfrentamento do fenômeno. Conclui-se que, ao longo da segunda metade do século XX, os países latino-americanos reagiram diante do fenômeno das drogas e que a criação de um regime interamericano para o tema foi fundamental para o fomento da cooperação regional nessa problemática.

  20. Agricultura Apoiada pela Comunidade: poderia a experiência dos agricultores americanos ser útil para os agricultores urbanos brasileiros? Community Supported Agriculture: could the experience of American farmers be useful to Brazilian urban farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Castelo Branco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O projeto "Agricultura Apoiada pela Comunidade" (AAC é uma alternativa de mercado utilizada na Europa e nos EUA. Neste mercado alternativo, os produtores oferecem a sua produção aos consumidores, sob a forma de cestas de alimentos, alguns meses antes de iniciarem a produção de suas culturas. Algum tempo depois, durante alguns meses, os consumidores irão receber os produtos. Atualmente, diversos países têm uma parcela significativa da sua população vivendo na pobreza. Por isso, diversas políticas públicas foram desenhadas nesses países com o objetivo de reduzi-la. O estímulo à agricultura urbana é uma dessas políticas. No entanto, frequentemente, os produtores urbanos pobres têm dificuldades para adquirir os insumos necessários para manter a sua produção. O apoio contínuo do governo local associado ao apoio contínuo da comunidade local poderia ajudar esses produtores a manter o seu sistema de produção. E, para esses agricultores urbanos pobres, o projeto AAC poderia ser um meio alternativo de organização. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter algumas informações sobre o projeto AAC nos EUA e avaliar se consumidores e produtores urbanos pobres de uma cidade brasileira de baixa renda aceitariam se engajar neste tipo de projeto. Os produtores americanos envolvidos no projeto AAC em geral cultivavam uma área inferior a 2 ha, ofereciam diferentes tipos de hortaliças aos consumidores por pelo menos quarto meses e geralmente usavam práticas de produção orgânica. No entanto, havia dificuldades para a manutenção do projeto, sendo o planejamento da produção e a dificuldade de sua manutenção ao longo do tempo os maiores problemas. Alguns consumidores da cidade brasileira pesquisada se mostraram dispostos a participar deste tipo de projeto principalmente pela possibilidade de receberem alimentos frescos e produzidos organicamente. No entanto, o mesmo não ocorreu com os produtores urbanos pobres da cidade. E a raz

  1. A single fission yeast mitotic cyclin B p34cdc2 kinase promotes both S-phase and mitosis in the absence of G1 cyclins.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, D. L.; Nurse, P

    1996-01-01

    Deletion of the fission yeast mitotic B-type cyclin gene cdc13 causes cells to undergo successive rounds of DNA replication. We have used a strain which expresses cdc13 conditionally to investigate re-replication. Activity of Start genes cdc2 and cdc10 is necessary and p34cdc2 kinase is active in re-replicating cells. We tested to see whether other cyclins were required for re-replication using cdc13delta. Further deletion of cig1 and puc1 had no effect, but deletion of cig2/cyc17 caused a se...

  2. 超表达Cdc20基因不影响牛卵母细胞第一极体排出%Over-expression of Cdc20 Gene Has No Effect on Bovine Oocytes First Polar Body Extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文琳; 安鹏; 李伟; 赵贵民; 史芸安; 雷安民

    2012-01-01

    As one of the co-activator of anaphase-promoting complex ( APC) , cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) protein also functions as the target of the spindle assembly checkpoint ( SAC), which is essential for the cell cycle regulation. To investigate the function of Cdc20 during the first polar body extrusion ( PBE I) , Cdc20 CDS was cloned and eukaryotic expression vector pCdc20-Venus was constructed. Using the linear pCdc20-Venus as template, the capped Cdc20-Venus mRNA was synthesized via T7 Mmessage Mmachine Kit ( Ambion). Cdc20 over-expression was performed by microinjection of Cdc20-Venus mRNA into the cytoplasm of bovine oocytes. The results showed that Venus tagged Cdc20 dispersed around the nucleus in HeLa cells. In bovine oocytes, the fluorescence appeared in the whole cytoplasm. However, the PBE I rate in over-expressed group (48. 9% ) is not significant, compared to Venus mRNA injection group (50.9%) and non-injection group (51.1%). Our study demonstrated that the over-expression of Cdc20 in bovine oocytes does not affect the PBE I rate ( P > 0.05).%CDC20(cell division cycle 20)是后期促进复合物(anaphase-promoting complex,APC)的共激活剂之一,也是纺锤体组装检查点(spindle assembly checkpoint,SAC)的靶点,在细胞周期调控中扮演重要角色.为探讨Cdc20在第一极体排出(first polar body extrusion,PBE I)中的作用,Cdc20基因被成功克隆并构建了真核表达载体pCdc20-Venus,随后用T7 Mmessage Mmachine Kit(Ambion)以线性化pCdc20-Venus为模板体外转录(in vitro transcription)获得带帽的Cdc20-Venus mRNA,将Ccdc20-Venus mRNA显微注射到体外培养的牛卵母细胞胞质中进行超量表达.结果表明,真核表达载体pCdc20-Venus转染HeLa细胞后能够正常表达,绿色荧光在细胞核周围呈弥散状分布;将Cdc20-Venus mRNA注射到牛卵母细胞胞质后,胞质内有绿色荧光出现.Cdc20-Venus mRNA注射组卵母细胞的PBE I率(48.9%)与Venus mRNA注射组卵母细胞的PBE I率(50

  3. ORC1/CDC6 and MCM7 distinct associate with chromatin through Trypanosoma cruzi life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderano, Simone; Godoy, Patricia; Soares, Daiane; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Schenkman, Sergio; Elias, M Carolina

    2014-02-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi alternates between replicative and non-replicative stages. We analyzed the expression of components of the pre-replication machinery TcORC1/CDC6 and TcMCM7 and their interaction with DNA in all T. cruzi stages. TcORC1/CDC6 remains in the nuclear space during all stages of the life cycle and interacts with DNA in the replicative stages; however, it does not bind to DNA in the non-replicative forms. Moreover, TcMCM7 is not present in the non-replicative stages. These data suggest that the lacking of DNA replication during the T. cruzi life cycle may be a consequence of the blocking of TcORC1/CDC6-DNA interaction and of the down regulation of the TcMCM7 expression.

  4. Parkin Regulates Mitosis and Genomic Stability through Cdc20/Cdh1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Baek; Kim, Jung Jin; Nam, Hyun-Ja; Gao, Bowen; Yin, Ping; Qin, Bo; Yi, Sang-Yeop; Ham, Hyoungjun; Evans, Debra; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Min; Liu, Tongzheng; Zhang, Haoxing; Billadeau, Daniel D; Wang, Liewei; Giaime, Emilie; Shen, Jie; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Jen, Jin; van Deursen, Jan M; Lou, Zhenkun

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin have been linked to familial Parkinson's disease. Parkin has also been implicated in mitosis through mechanisms that are unclear. Here we show that Parkin interacts with anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) coactivators Cdc20 and Cdh1 to mediate the degradation of several key mitotic regulators independent of APC/C. We demonstrate that ordered progression through mitosis is orchestrated by two distinct E3 ligases through the shared use of Cdc20 and Cdh1. Furthermore, Parkin is phosphorylated and activated by polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) during mitosis. Parkin deficiency results in overexpression of its substrates, mitotic defects, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. These results suggest that the Parkin-Cdc20/Cdh1 complex is an important regulator of mitosis.

  5. Anti-CDC25B autoantibody predicts poor prognosis in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oncogene CDC25B phosphatase plays an important role in cancer cell growth. We have recently reported that patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC have significantly higher serum levels of CDC25B autoantibodies (CDC25B-Abs than both healthy individuals and patients with other types of cancer; however, the potential diagnostic or prognostic significance of CDC25B-Abs is not clear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of serum CDC25B-Abs in patients with ESCC. Methods CDC25B autoantibodies were measured in sera from both 134 patients with primary ESCC and 134 healthy controls using a reverse capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in which anti-CDC25B antibodies bound CDC25B antigen purified from Eca-109 ESCC tumor cells. The clinicopathologic significance of CDC25B serum autoantibodies was compared to that of the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag and cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1(CYFRA21-1. Results Higher levels of CDC25B autoantibodies were present in sera from patients with ESCC (A450 = 0.917, SD = 0.473 than in sera from healthy control subjects (A450 = 0.378, SD = 0.262, P 450 greater than the cut-off value of 0.725. Relatively few patients tested positive for the tumor markers CEA, SCC-Ag and CYFRA21-1 (13.4%, 17.2%, and 32.1%, respectively. A significantly higher number of patients with ESCC tested positive for a combination of CEA, SCC, CYFRA21-1 and CDC25B-Abs (64.2% than for a combination of CEA, SCC-Ag and CYFRA21-1 (41.0%, P P P = 0.001, log-rank. In the N1 subgroup, the cumulative five-year survival rate of CDC25B-seropositive patients was 13.6%, while that of CDC25B-seronegative patients was 54.5% (P = 0.040, log-rank. Conclusions Detection of serum CDC25B-Abs is superior to detection of the tumor markers CEA, SCC-Ag and CYFRA21-1 for diagnosis of ESCC, and CDC25B-Abs are a potential prognostic

  6. Conserved CDC20 cell cycle functions are carried out by two of the five isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kevei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CDC20 and Cdh1/CCS52 proteins are substrate determinants and activators of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C E3 ubiquitin ligase and as such they control the mitotic cell cycle by targeting the degradation of various cell cycle regulators. In yeasts and animals the main CDC20 function is the destruction of securin and mitotic cyclins. Plants have multiple CDC20 gene copies whose functions have not been explored yet. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are five CDC20 isoforms and here we aimed at defining their contribution to cell cycle regulation, substrate selectivity and plant development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studying the gene structure and phylogeny of plant CDC20s, the expression of the five AtCDC20 gene copies and their interactions with the APC/C subunit APC10, the CCS52 proteins, components of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC and mitotic cyclin substrates, conserved CDC20 functions could be assigned for AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2. The other three intron-less genes were silent and specific for Arabidopsis. We show that AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2 are components of the MCC and interact with mitotic cyclins with unexpected specificity. AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2 are expressed in meristems, organ primordia and AtCDC20.1 also in pollen grains and developing seeds. Knocking down both genes simultaneously by RNAi resulted in severe delay in plant development and male sterility. In these lines, the meristem size was reduced while the cell size and ploidy levels were unaffected indicating that the lower cell number and likely slowdown of the cell cycle are the cause of reduced plant growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The intron-containing CDC20 gene copies provide conserved and redundant functions for cell cycle progression in plants and are required for meristem maintenance, plant growth and male gametophyte formation. The Arabidopsis-specific intron-less genes are possibly "retrogenes" and have hitherto undefined

  7. Distrito federal electoral No.34 del estado de California: un estudio de caso sobre la inclusión y representación de ciudadanos americanos de origen mexicano en el sistema político estadounidense

    OpenAIRE

    Cebreros Félix, Erika Eloisa

    2004-01-01

    A partir del censo poblacional de Estados Unidos de América de 2000, se determinó que los hispanos conformarían el grupo minoritario más grande del país, por lo que se les empezó a visualizar en términos políticos y específicamente electorales. Sin embargo, la historia y evolución de la inclusión y representación de los diferentes subgrupos que conforman dicha minoría ha sido poco desarrollada. El concepto de representación es uno de los aspectos fundamentales en el estud...

  8. Analysis of the influence of the expansion of the South American electric system in emissions of greenhouse gases; Analise da influencia da expansao do sistema eletrico Sul-Americano nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, Annemarlen Gehrke [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Blesl, Markus [Institute of Economics and the Rational Use of Energie (IER), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    South America combines economic and population growth with a consequent rapid increase in electricity demand. This can only be covered by building new power plants, use of the remaining renewable potential and expansion of transmission lines. The expansion of supply in all regions, with reliable generation and transmission systems is the greatest challenge for the continent in order to reduce social differences and not to curb economic development. To support the energy planning the application of system models represents useful method. This paper intends to analyze the expansion effect of power plant parks in regard of greenhouse gases emissions using a regionalized model system 'TIMES (The Integrated Markal - EFOM System)'. The model includes 10 South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) with their respective power parks and transmission lines, demand divided in sectors, potential use of renewable energy sources, gas pipelines and possibilities of new interconnections within and between countries. As results are obtained the future installed capacity and generation according the energy use, greenhouse gases emissions, as well as the investments needed to expand the electric system in different scenarios. (author)

  9. Fortalecimiento del sistema judicial del Uruguay por la capacitación del sector humano; de la organización e integración de las escuelas judiciales americanos

    OpenAIRE

    Mariella Leles Da Silva Orcoyen

    2015-01-01

    Contenido: Introducción. Poder judicial. Ministerio Público y Fiscal. Estatuto de los jueces. Reforma procesal.  El fortalecimiento de la justicia por la reforma procesal. Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay. Capacitación.Capacitación para el ingreso a la magistratura. Resultados obtenidos. Estadísticas. Perspectivas futuras. Rol del Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay en la carrera judicial. Autoridades del Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay. Federación Americana de Escuel...

  10. Fortalecimiento del sistema judicial del Uruguay por la capacitación del sector humano; de la organización e integración de las escuelas judiciales americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Leles Da Silva Orcoyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Introducción. Poder judicial. Ministerio Público y Fiscal. Estatuto de los jueces. Reforma procesal.  El fortalecimiento de la justicia por la reforma procesal. Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay. Capacitación.Capacitación para el ingreso a la magistratura. Resultados obtenidos. Estadísticas. Perspectivas futuras. Rol del Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay en la carrera judicial. Autoridades del Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay. Federación Americana de Escuelas de Formación y Perfeccionamiento de Magistrados y Centros de Estudios Judiciales

  11. Hsp90/p50cdc37 is required for mixed-lineage kinase (MLK) 3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wu, Wei; Du, Yan; Santos, Sarah J; Conrad, Susan E; Watson, Jack T; Grammatikakis, Nicholas; Gallo, Kathleen A

    2004-05-07

    Mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase that activates MAPK pathways, including the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways. MLK3 and its family members have been implicated in JNK-mediated apoptosis. A survey of human cell lines revealed high levels of MLK3 in breast cancer cells. To learn more about MLK3 regulation and its signaling pathways in breast cancer cells, we engineered the estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, to stably, inducibly express FLAG epitope-tagged MLK3. FLAG.MLK3 complexes were isolated by affinity purification, and associated proteins were identified by in-gel trypsin digestion followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Among the proteins identified were heat shock protein 90alpha,beta (Hsp90) and its kinase-specific co-chaperone p50(cdc37). We show that endogenous MLK3 complexes with Hsp90 and p50(cdc37). Further experiments demonstrate that MLK3 associates with Hsp90/p50(cdc37) through its catalytic domain in an activity-independent manner. Upon treatment of MCF-7 cells with geldanamycin, an ansamycin antibiotic that inhibits Hsp90 function, MLK3 levels decrease dramatically. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced activation of MLK3 and JNK in MCF-7 cells is blocked by geldanamycin treatment. Our finding that geldanamycin treatment does not affect the cellular levels of the downstream signaling components, MAPK kinase 4, MAPK kinase 7, and JNK, suggests that Hsp90/p50(cdc37) regulates JNK signaling at the MAPK kinase kinase level. Previously identified Hsp90/p50(cdc37) clients include oncoprotein kinases and protein kinases that promote cellular proliferation and survival. Our findings reveal that Hsp90/p50(cdc37) also regulates protein kinases involved in apoptotic signaling.

  12. Cdc2/cyclin B1 regulates centrosomal Nlp proteolysis and subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuelian; Jin, Shunqian; Song, Yongmei; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-11-01

    The formation of proper mitotic spindles is required for appropriate chromosome segregation during cell division. Aberrant spindle formation often causes aneuploidy and results in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of regulating spindle formation and chromosome separation remains to be further defined. Centrosomal Nlp (ninein-like protein) is a recently characterized BRCA1-regulated centrosomal protein and plays an important role in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. In this study, we show that Nlp can be phosphorylated by cell cycle protein kinase Cdc2/cyclin B1. The phosphorylation sites of Nlp are mapped at Ser185 and Ser589. Interestingly, the Cdc2/cyclin B1 phosphorylation site Ser185 of Nlp is required for its recognition by PLK1, which enable Nlp depart from centrosomes to allow the establishment of a mitotic scaffold at the onset of mitosis . PLK1 fails to dissociate the Nlp mutant lacking Ser185 from centrosome, suggesting that Cdc2/cyclin B1 might serve as a primary kinase of PLK1 in regulating Nlp subcellular localization. However, the phosphorylation at the site Ser589 by Cdc2/cyclin B1 plays an important role in Nlp protein stability probably due to its effect on protein degradation. Furthermore, we show that deregulated expression or subcellular localization of Nlp lead to multinuclei in cells, indicating that scheduled levels of Nlp and proper subcellular localization of Nlp are critical for successful completion of normal cell mitosis, These findings demonstrate that Cdc2/cyclin B1 is a key regulator in maintaining appropriate degradation and subcellular localization of Nlp, providing novel insights into understanding on the role of Cdc2/cyclin B1 in mitotic progression.

  13. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic beta cell delamination and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant;

    2014-01-01

    to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell......Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked...

  14. Sistema Distribuido de Gran Escala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fco. Javier Luna Rosas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una nueva forma de balancear la carga dinámicamente combinando un modelo Fuzzy-Logic en conjunto con el algoritmo distribuido Request for Bids (RB, el trabajo es centrado en el modelo Fuzzy-Logic con el propósito de mejorar el balanceo dinámico de carga en un sistema distribuido a gran escala. El modelo Fuzzy-Logic y RB fueron implementados en una arquitectura para balancear la carga bajo el estándar de CORBA y fueron evaluados contra otras estrategias que son bien conocidas en la literatura usando diferentes métricas de carga y mostramos como bajo ciertas condiciones nuestra estrategia obtiene mejores resultados.

  15. Molecular dissection of Cdc6 and the miR-148 family : two stories with common themes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duursma, Anja Maaike

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the molecular dissection of the function of Cdc6 and the miR-148/152 family. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of the DNA replication initiation protein Cdc6 by CDK2/Cyclin E at serine 54 plays a key role in regulating its protein stability. In response to DNA damage, CDK2/Cy

  16. Make a Difference at Your School! CDC Resources Can Help You Implement Strategies to Prevent Obesity Among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviews scientific evidence to determine which school-based policies and practices are most likely to improve key health behaviors among young people, including physical activity and healthy eating. In this document, the CDC identifies ten strategies to help schools prevent obesity by promoting…

  17. Cdc7-Dbf4 Kinase Overexpression in Multiple Cancers and Tumor Cell Lines Is Correlated with p53 Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorine Bonte

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cdc7 is a conserved serine/threonine kinase essential for the initiation of DNA replication, likely by activating the MCM DNA helicase at the G1- to S-phase transition. Cdc7 kinase activity requires association with its regulatory subunit Dbf4/activator of S-phase kinase. Cdc7-Dbf4 is also downstream of the conserved Ataxia telangectasia and RAD3-related kinase that responds to stalled replication forks or DNA damage. In this study, we found that Cdc7 protein was very low or undetectable in normal tissues and cell lines but had increased expression in ∼50% of the 62 human tumor cell lines we examined. Most cell lines with increased Cdc7 protein levels also had increased Dbf4 abundance, and some tumor cell lines had extra copies of the DBF4 gene. A high expression of Cdc7 protein was also detected in primary breast, colon, and lung tumors but not in the matched normal tissues. We also found a high correlation between p53 loss and increased CDC7 and DBF4 expression in primary breast cancers (P = 3.6 × 10−9 and 1.8 × 10−10, respectively and in the cancer cell lines we studied. Therefore, increased Cdc7-Dbf4 abundance may be a common occurrence in human malignancies.

  18. 75 FR 57044 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a..., CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs..., local and territorial health departments address ethical issues in the practice of public health;...

  19. 77 FR 2549 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a... provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues... health departments in their efforts to address public health ethics challenges, approaches for...

  20. 76 FR 29755 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a.... Purpose: The ES will provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics... meeting; discussion of next steps on addressing potential public health ethical issues associated...

  1. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas nativas do continente americano: uma revisão Anthelmintic activity of native American plants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma revisão de plantas nativas do continente americano com atividade anti-helmíntica com a finalidade de subsidiar pesquisas e o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos na área de produtos naturais. Na literatura, foram citadas 22 famílias de plantas, tais como: Moraceae, Asteraceae e Cucurbitaceae, e estudadas cerca de 35 espécies, como a Ficus sp, Cucurbita máxima, e Ruta graveolens, usadas por sua alegada atividade anti-helmíntica. Destas espécies, 26 foram ativas contra alguns helmintos: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus, e Hymenolepsis diminuta. Foi verificado maior número de estudos com parasitas de animais, possivelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência dos helmintos aos tratamentos convencionais disponíveis.This paper is a review of native American plants showing anthelmintic activity in order to give support to research and development of new drugs in the field of natural products. In the literature, 22 plant families were cited, such as: Moraceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, and around 35 species were studied, including Ficus sp, Cucurbita maxima and Ruta graveolens, used for their putative anthelmintic activity. From these species, 26 were active against some helminthes: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus and Hymenolepsis diminuta. Data indicated a larger number of studies with animal parasites, probably due to the resistance of these helminthes to the conventional treatments available.

  2. El envío de indios americanos a la Península Ibérica: aspectos legales (1492-1542

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban MIRA CABALLOS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este presente artículo ofrecemos por primera vez una sistematización sobre la legislación existente en torno a la trata de indios americanos con destino a los mercados esclavistas de la Península Ibérica. Se trata sin duda de un trabajo sumamente novedoso que aporta nueva luz a un aspecto de la Historia Moderna de España que ha pasado casi desapercibido hasta la fecha para la historiografía más reciente. La conclusión principal que se puede extraer de este trabajo es la negativa de la Corona -salvo en los dubitativos momentos iniciales- a que se trajesen indios esclavos a la Península. No obstante, esta legislación prohibitiva sólo sirvió para que los envíos se ralentizaran sin erradicar totalmente una trata que siempre encontró las formas de continuar de una manera más o menos fraudulenta.ABSTRACT: For the first time the present article offers us a systematization about the existing laws concerning the American indians trade with the Iberian Peninsula slaves markets. Undoubtledly, it consists of an extremely original work which casts light on one aspect of the Spanish early modern history that has gone unnoticed to the recent historiography. The main conclusion to be drawn from this work is the Crown's denial for the Indian slaves to be brought, except for the doubts arisen at the beginning. This prohibitive laws only served to slow down the slave shipment without eradicate this practice that always founds to continue new forms, more or less fraudulent.

  3. Las maestras y el ensayo como escritura cívica femenina en Repertorio Americano / Women Teachers, Essays and Civic Writing in “Repertorio Americano”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybel Soto Ramírez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 17 de mayo de 2011 • Aceptado 26 de agosto de 2011 • Corregido 9 de octubre de 2011 Resumen. La escritura femenina, como todas las formas de producción simbólica desde las mujeres, ha existido y se ha desarrollado a pesar del mandato patriarcal de obedecer y callar que pesa sobre el género femenino. No es objetivo en esta reflexión, ahondar en las acciones y las obras de las mujeres transgresoras quienes, a lo largo de la historia y a pesar de, han ejercido esa forma de hacerse presente y afirmarse ante los otros que es la escritura. Mi propósito es identificar a las mujeres, quienes desde el oficio de maestras ejercitaron su escritura, combinaron su rol docente con el de escritoras y en la elaboración de sus discursos cívicos cuestionaron, precisamente, las concepciones de patriotismo y sentimiento cívico dentro del mismo proceso de construcción de una ciudadanía de la cual ellas no disfrutaban. Abstract. Women writing, as any symbolic form of production, has existed and developed despite of the patriarchal imperative commanding women to obey and to remain silent. It is not the objective of this essay to deepen on the deeds and doings of those women who, throughout history and despite patriarchal mandates, have exerted their writing as a transgression as a way to show and to affirm themselves before others. Moreover, my purpose is to identify women in Repertorio Americano (1919-1958 who as teachers and writers elaborated civic discourses and questioned the very meaning of patriotism and civic feelings in the constructions of a citizenship they were not fully and formally entitled to.

  4. Principales sistemas osmóticos orales

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Hernández Torres; Luz María Melgoza Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Los sistemas de liberación convencionales tienen poco control sobre la liberación del fármaco, lo que resulta en concentraciones plasmáticas variables. Como consecuencia, se han desarrollado sistemas de liberación controlada, como los sistemas osmóticos que han demostrado ser independientes de las condiciones psiológicas del cuerpo (pH, alimento y movimientos peristálticos). La liberación del fármaco puede controlarse conociendo de antemano las propiedades psicoquímicas del fármaco y la forma...

  5. Sistemas de conciliación financiera

    OpenAIRE

    Cerro Campón, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Los sistemas de conciliaciones financieras, son sistemas que se basan en la carga de datos. Estos datos son extraídos previamente desde las aplicaciones propias de los movimientos bancarios. Esta información bancaria esta constituida en su mayoría por información sobre precios de distintos mercados. La finalidad de los sistemas de conciliación financiera es comprobar que todas las aplicaciones están alineadas, y que las operaciones realizadas con estos precios no se desvirtualizan de un siste...

  6. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Medina García; Irina Cervantes Bravo

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuer...

  7. Sistemas de salvaguardia en reactores EPR

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En este documento se describe brevemente el funcionamiento de los diversos sistemas de una planta nuclear operada con un reactor de tipo PWR. Más concretamente, el proyecto se centra en una descripción exhaustiva de los sistemas de salvaguardia y seguridad que regulan el funcionamiento de un reactor de tipo EPR, así como la central nuclear que contiene a dicho reactor. El proceso ha consistido en clasificar y resumir los distintos sistemas que operan en dicha planta, estudiando sus caracterís...

  8. El sistema acusatorio oral en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Barrantes, Jessica María; Rodríguez Montoya, Carmen María; Tenorio Jara

    2014-01-01

    El 1.° de enero de 1998 entra en vigencia el nuevo Código Procesal Penal, con lo cual se experimenta una de las reformas más importantes en materia de Administración de Justicia Penal, que implica el paso de un Sistema Procesal Inquisitivo a un Sistema Acusatorio que procura la adversarialidad entre partes. El antiguo Sistema Penal Inquisitivo se caracterizaba en que las funciones de investigar y juzgar se ejercían por el Juez de instrucción, el proceso era escrito y las dil...

  9. Gestor de recursos sobre sistemas virtualizados

    OpenAIRE

    Gavilán García, Jesús Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Creacion, diseño e implementación de una nube (cloud) basado en un clúster de servidores con sistema de ficheros distribuido en red y virtualización de sistemas operativos que mejora la utilización de los recursos disponibles. Esta nueva arquitectura ofrece una nube privada que simplifica la gestión de los servicios y aporta una disminución del coste de mantenimiento, ademas de añadir flexibilidad, dinamismo y escalabilidad al sistema. Las tecnologías con las que se trabaja son GNU/Linux, Xen...

  10. A novel functional polymorphism in the Cdc6 promoter is associated with the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Xingdong; Fang Jianhong; Qiu Fuen; Zhao Jing; Cheng Jiasen [Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Yuan Yunfei; Li Shengping [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhuang Shimei [Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: LSSZSM@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2008-08-25

    Cdc6 is essential for DNA replication and its deregulation is involved in carcinogenesis. To date, the biological significance of the polymorphism in Cdc6 promoter is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of the Cdc6 -515A>G polymorphism (rs4134994) on the individual's susceptibility to cancer and on the function of Cdc6. The Cdc6 -515A>G polymorphism was genotyped in 387 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 389 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The association between the genotypes and the risk for HCC was then estimated by unconditional logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex and HBV status. Compared with the AA homozygotes, the homozygous GG genotype (adjusted OR = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.18-0.72, P = 0.004) or the combined AG/GG genotypes (adjusted OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.86, P = 0.008) were statistically significantly associated with the reduced risk for HCC. Moreover, the analysis using luciferase reporter system showed that the G-allelic Cdc6 promoter displayed a decreased transcriptional activity compared with the A-allelic one. These results indicate that the individuals with G allele may have reduced Cdc6 expression and are therefore in reduced risk for HCC. Further investigation using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that the G allele had a stronger binding strength to nuclear protein(s) which might function as negative regulator(s) for Cdc6 transcription. Our findings suggest that the -515A>G polymorphism may affect the Cdc6 promoter binding affinity with nuclear protein(s) and in turn the Cdc6 expression, which consequently modulates the individual's susceptibility to HCC.

  11. Functions of FZR1 and CDC20, activators of the anaphase-promoting complex, during meiotic maturation of swine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Tadashi; Kano, Kiyoshi; Naito, Kunihiko

    2008-12-01

    Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) and fizzy/cell division cycle 20 related 1 (FZR1) are activators of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which ubiquitinates M-phase regulating proteins, such as cyclin B and securin, and induces their degradation. In the present study, porcine CDC20 and FZR1 were cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and their functions in the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes were analyzed. FZR1 was readily detected in porcine immature oocytes by immunoblotting, but its levels decreased substantially during maturation. In contrast, CDC20 levels rose during oocyte maturation and were highest by the second meiotic metaphase. The inhibition of CDC20 expression by the injection of CDC20 antisense RNA induced the meiotic arrest at the first meiotic metaphase (M1) and the accumulation of a large amount of cyclin B. On the other hand, the inhibition of FZR1 expression accelerated cyclin B accumulation and the start of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), but did not affect the exit from M1. Conversely, the overexpression of FZR1 by the injection of FZR1 mRNA suppressed the cyclin B accumulation and retarded GVBD. Surprisingly, the injection of CDC20 mRNA into the immature oocytes could not increase CDC20 expression, but increased cyclin B accumulation and accelerated the meiotic progression. As CDC20 is a substrate of APC (FZR1), CDC20 might have competed with cyclin B and inhibited the FZR1 function. These results suggest that porcine FZR1 and CDC20 work on the maintenance of meiotic arrest at the first meiotic prophase and on the exit from M1, respectively, and that their functional phases are strictly distinguished during porcine oocyte maturation.

  12. CDC28 phosphorylates Cac1p and regulates the association of chromatin assembly factor I with chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Daniel C B; Kakusho, Naoko; You, Zhiying; Gharib, Marlene; Wyse, Brandon; Drury, Erin; Weinreich, Michael; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Masai, Hisao; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin Assembly Factor I (CAF-I) plays a key role in the replication-coupled assembly of nucleosomes. It is expected that its function is linked to the regulation of the cell cycle, but little detail is available. Current models suggest that CAF-I is recruited to replication forks and to chromatin via an interaction between its Cac1p subunit and the replication sliding clamp, PCNA, and that this interaction is stimulated by the kinase CDC7. Here we show that another kinase, CDC28, phosphorylates Cac1p on serines 94 and 515 in early S phase and regulates its association with chromatin, but not its association with PCNA. Mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites of CDC28 but not of CDC7 substantially reduce the in vivo phosphorylation of Cac1p. However, mutations in the putative CDC7 target sites on Cac1p reduce its stability. The association of CAF-I with chromatin is impaired in a cdc28-1 mutant and to a lesser extent in a cdc7-1 mutant. In addition, mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites by both CDC28 and CDC7 reduce gene silencing at the telomeres. We propose that this phosphorylation represents a regulatory step in the recruitment of CAF-I to chromatin in early S phase that is distinct from the association of CAF-I with PCNA. Hence, we implicate CDC28 in the regulation of chromatin reassembly during DNA replication. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights on the links between cell-cycle regulation, DNA replication and chromatin reassembly.

  13. Dbf4 regulates the Cdc5 Polo-like kinase through a distinct non-canonical binding interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chou; Weinreich, Michael

    2010-12-31

    Cdc7-Dbf4 is a conserved, two-subunit kinase required for initiating eukaryotic DNA replication. Recent studies have shown that Cdc7-Dbf4 also regulates the mitotic exit network (MEN) and monopolar homolog orientation in meiosis I (Matos, J., Lipp, J. J., Bogdanova, A., Guillot, S., Okaz, E., Junqueira, M., Shevchenko, A., and Zachariae, W. (2008) Cell 135, 662-678 and Miller, C. T., Gabrielse, C., Chen, Y. C., and Weinreich, M. (2009) PLoS Genet. 5, e1000498). Both activities likely involve a Cdc7-Dbf4 interaction with Cdc5, the single Polo-like kinase in budding yeast. We previously showed that Dbf4 binds the Cdc5 polo-box domain (PBD) via an ∼40-residue N-terminal sequence, which lacks a PBD consensus binding site (S(pS/pT)(P/X)), and that Dbf4 inhibits Cdc5 function during mitosis. Here we identify a non-consensus PBD binding site within Dbf4 and demonstrate that the PBD-Dbf4 interaction occurs via a distinct PBD surface from that used to bind phosphoproteins. Genetic and biochemical analysis of multiple dbf4 mutants indicate that Dbf4 inhibits Cdc5 function through direct binding. Surprisingly, mutation of invariant Cdc5 residues required for binding phosphorylated substrates has little effect on yeast viability or growth rate. Instead, cdc5 mutants defective for binding phosphoproteins exhibit enhanced resistance to microtubule disruption and an increased rate of spindle elongation. This study, therefore, details the molecular nature of a new type of PBD binding and reveals that Cdc5 targeting to phosphorylated substrates likely regulates spindle dynamics.

  14. CDC28 phosphorylates Cac1p and regulates the association of chromatin assembly factor i with chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Daniel CB; Kakusho, Naoko; You, Zhiying; Gharib, Marlene; Wyse, Brandon; Drury, Erin; Weinreich, Michael; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Masai, Hisao; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin Assembly Factor I (CAF-I) plays a key role in the replication-coupled assembly of nucleosomes. It is expected that its function is linked to the regulation of the cell cycle, but little detail is available. Current models suggest that CAF-I is recruited to replication forks and to chromatin via an interaction between its Cac1p subunit and the replication sliding clamp, PCNA, and that this interaction is stimulated by the kinase CDC7. Here we show that another kinase, CDC28, phosphorylates Cac1p on serines 94 and 515 in early S phase and regulates its association with chromatin, but not its association with PCNA. Mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites of CDC28 but not of CDC7 substantially reduce the in vivo phosphorylation of Cac1p. However, mutations in the putative CDC7 target sites on Cac1p reduce its stability. The association of CAF-I with chromatin is impaired in a cdc28–1 mutant and to a lesser extent in a cdc7–1 mutant. In addition, mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites by both CDC28 and CDC7 reduce gene silencing at the telomeres. We propose that this phosphorylation represents a regulatory step in the recruitment of CAF-I to chromatin in early S phase that is distinct from the association of CAF-I with PCNA. Hence, we implicate CDC28 in the regulation of chromatin reassembly during DNA replication. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights on the links between cell-cycle regulation, DNA replication and chromatin reassembly. PMID:25602519

  15. 75 FR 48699 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--National Biosurveillance Advisory Subcommittee (NBAS) In... roadmap for the human health component of a national biosurveillance system. Matters to be Discussed... guidance in order to expand and strengthen the national portfolio of activities in biosurveillance...

  16. CDC Vital Signs–Cancer and Tobacco Use

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-10

    This podcast is based on the November 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. There is a long list of cancers linked to tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of cancer and cancer deaths. Learn more here.  Created: 11/10/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/10/2016.

  17. Coordination by Cdc42 of Actin, Contractility, and Adhesion for Melanoblast Movement in Mouse Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodham, Emma F; Paul, Nikki R; Tyrrell, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    traverse the dermis to reach the epidermis of the skin and hair follicles. We previously established that Rac1 signals via Scar/WAVE and Arp2/3 to effect pseudopod extension and migration of melanoblasts in skin. Here we show that RhoA is redundant in the melanocyte lineage but that Cdc42 coordinates...

  18. Potential utility of cinacalcet as a treatment for CDC73-related primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Nozawa, Kumiko; Masudo, Katsuhiko; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Asakura, Yumi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2016-07-01

    We report a Japanese pedigree with familial primary hyperparathyroidism due to a CDC73 mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cinacalcet as a treatment for CDC73-related primary hyperparathyroidism. The proband had severe psychomotor retardation and received laryngotracheal separation surgery. At 19 yr of age, he developed acute pancreatitis. Hypercalcemia (12.2-13.8 mg/dL), elevated levels of intact PTH (86-160 pg/mL), and a tumor detected upon neck ultrasonography led to the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. Family history and biochemical examinations revealed that three family members (the proband's mother, elder brother, and maternal grandfather) had primary hyperparathyroidism. We identified a novel heterozygous mutation, c.240delT, p.Glu81Lysfs*28, in the CDC73 gene in three affected family members, excluding the proband's elder brother who refused genetic testing. Parathyroidectomy for the proband was considered as high-risk, because the tumor was located close to the tracheostomy orifice. After receiving approval from the institutional review board and obtaining the consent, we initiated cinacalcet treatment. At 22 yr of age, treatment with 100 mg of cinacalcet maintained serum calcium levels below 11.0 mg/dL with no apparent side effects. Our report presents the potential efficacy of cinacalcet as a treatment for CDC73-related primary hyperparathyroidism, in particularly inoperative cases.

  19. Modulation of yeast telomerase activity by Cdc13 and Est1 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fan; Lu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Chien; Yu, Tai-Yuan; Chang, Chun-Ping; Li, Jing-Ru; Li, Hung-Wen; Lin, Jing-Jer

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase is the enzyme involved in extending telomeric DNA. Control of telomerase activity by modulating its access to chromosome ends is one of the most important fundamental mechanisms. This study established an in vitro yeast telomerase reconstitution system that resembles telomere replication in vivo. In this system, a tailed-duplex DNA formed by telomeric DNA was employed to mimic the structure of telomeres. The core catalytic components of telomerase Est2/Tlc1 RNA were used as the telomeric DNA extension machinery. Using the reconstituted systems, this study found that binding of Cdc13 to telomeric DNA inhibited the access of telomerase to its substrate. The result was further confirmed by a single-molecule approach using the tethered-particle motion (TPM)-based telomerase assay. The findings also showed that the inhibitory effect can be relieved by telomerase-associated protein Est1, consistent with the role of Cdc13 and Est1 in regulating telomere extension in vivo. Significantly, this study found that the DNA binding property of Cdc13 was altered by Est1, providing the first mechanistic evidence of Est1 regulating the access of telomerase to its substrate. Thus, the roles of Cdc13 and Est1 in modulating telomerase activity were clearly defined using the in vitro reconstituted system. PMID:27659693

  20. CDC Vital Signs–Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    This podcast is based on the April 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects. Learn how to protect babies from Zika-related health conditions.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  1. Divergent functions of the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 in podocyte injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blattner, Simone M; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Nishio, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Podocytes are highly specialized epithelial cells with complex actin cytoskeletal architecture crucial for maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. The mammalian Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 are molecular switches that control many cellular processes, but are best known for their roles in ...

  2. CDC Vital Signs–Think Sepsis. Time Matters.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    This podcast is based on the August 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Sepsis is a medical emergency and can happen quickly. Learn the signs of sepsis and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  3. Podocyte-specific loss of cdc42 leads to congenital nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Rizaldy P; Hawley, Steve P; Ruston, Julie;

    2012-01-01

    Rho family GTPases are molecular switches best known for their pivotal role in dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. The prototypic members of this family are Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA; these GTPases contribute to the breakdown of glomerular filtration and the resultant proteinuria...

  4. Rural Americans at Higher Risk of 5 Preventable Causes of Death: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use seatbelts than people who live in urban regions, the study authors said. Rural Americans also have higher rates of poverty, less ... accidental injuries were about 50 percent higher in rural areas than in urban ... 13 issue of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . ...

  5. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  6. SCF(Cyclin F)-dependent degradation of CDC6 suppresses DNA re-replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, David; Hoffmann, Saskia; Komseli, Eirini-Stavroula;

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of genome stability requires that DNA is replicated precisely once per cell cycle. This is believed to be achieved by limiting replication origin licensing and thereby restricting the firing of each replication origin to once per cell cycle. CDC6 is essential for eukaryotic replicatio...

  7. 76 FR 66721 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section l0(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  8. 77 FR 23733 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub....

  9. 75 FR 39264 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub....

  10. Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Rob; Clay-Farrace, Lori; van Zon, Wouter; Yekezare, Mona; Koop, Lars; Ogink, Janneke; Medema, Rene; Pines, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Successful mitosis requires the right protein be degraded at the right time. Central to this is the spindle checkpoint that prevents the destruction of securin and cyclin 131 when there are improperly attached chromosomes. The principal target of the checkpoint is Cdc20, which activates the anaphase

  11. Parkin Regulates Mitosis and Genomic Stability through Cdc20/Cdh1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.B.; Kim, J.J.; Nam, H.J.; Gao, B.; Yin, P.; Qin, B.; Yi, S.Y.; Ham, H.; Evans, D.; Kim, S.H.; Zhang, Jun; Deng, M.; Liu, T.; Zhang, H.; Billadeau, D.D.; Wang, L.; Giaime, E.; Shen, J.; Pang, Y.P.; Jen, J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Lou, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin have been linked to familial Parkinson's disease. Parkin has also been implicated in mitosis through mechanisms that are unclear. Here we show that Parkin interacts with anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) coactivators Cdc20 and Cdh1 to mediate th

  12. Identification of Novel Targets of the Human Cell Cycle Regulatory Protein Cdc34

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    results in a protein unable to complement a cdc34 mutation stages of spermatids and spermatozoa . In contrast, the repres- (34, 64). Comparable...described forms -> [ , i zn in Materials and Methods. Cotransfection of full-length hICERI3y (fly) or IgG heaivy pCS2MT-ICERIIy 1-33 (mini-lIy) with

  13. Cdc42 controls progenitor cell differentiation and beta-catenin turnover in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Lefever, Tine

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation of skin stem cells into hair follicles (HFs) requires the inhibition of beta-catenin degradation, which is controlled by a complex containing axin and the protein kinase GSK3beta. Using conditional gene targeting in mice, we show now that the small GTPase Cdc42 is crucial...

  14. Defective tubulin organization and proplatelet formation in murine megakaryocytes lacking Rac1 and Cdc42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleines, Irina; Dütting, Sebastian; Cherpokova, Deya;

    2013-01-01

    normally in vivo but displayed highly abnormal morphology and uncontrolled fragmentation. Consistently, a lack of Rac1/Cdc42 virtually abrogated proplatelet formation in vitro. Strikingly, this phenotype was associated with severely defective tubulin organization, whereas actin assembly and structure were...

  15. Discovery and characterization of a novel inhibitor of CDC25B,LGH000451

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu FENG; Jia LI; Li-na WANG; Yue-yang ZHOU; Hai-ping YU; Qiang SHEN; Yi ZANG; Yu-bo ZHOU; Jing-ya LI; Hai-xia ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Aim:Cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) phosphatases have recently been consid-ered as potential targets for the development of new cancer therapeutic agents.We aimed to discover novel CDC25B inhibitors in the present study.Methods:A molecular level high-throughput screening (HTS) assay was set up to screen a set of 48000 pure compounds.Results:HTS,whose average Z' factor is 0.55,was finished and LGH00045,a mixed-type CDC25B inhibitor with a novel struc-ture and relative selectivity for protein tyrosine phosphatases,was identified.Furthermore,LGH00045 impaired the proliferation of tumor cells and increased cyclin-dependent kinase 1 inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation.In synchronized HeLa cells,LGH00045 delayed cell cycle progression at the G2-M transition.Conclusion:LGH00045,a novel CDC25B inhibitor identified through HTS,showed good inhibition on the proliferation of tumor cells and affected the cell cycle progression,which makes it a good hit for further structure modification.

  16. Sistemas basados en conocimiento usando Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaida García Valdivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen algunos de los resultados alcanzados en la Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas en cuanto al uso de un lenguaje de Programación Lógica (Prolog en la elaboración de Sistemas Basados en Conocimiento para diferentes áreas del saber como son la medicina, soldadura, educación, sistemas eléctricos de potencia, entre otros. Todos los sistemas elaborados utilizan el paradigma de la programación lógica para la representación del conocimiento de los expertos en los temas en cuestión y además hacen uso de entornos agradables a los usuarios a través interfaces visuales elaboradas en ambientes de programación para súper lenguajes ó utilizan un conjunto de herramientas para la elaboración de sistemas sobre la Web

  17. Frequent alterations of SLIT2-ROBO1-CDC42 signalling pathway in breast cancer: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rittwika; Mukherjee, Nupur; Dasgupta, Hemantika; Islam, Md Saimul; Alam, Neyaz; Roy, Anup; Das, Priyobrata; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the role of SLIT2-ROBO1/2-CDC42 signalling pathways in development of breast cancer (BC). Primary BC samples (n = 150), comprising of almost equal proportion of four subtypes were tested for molecular alterations of SLIT2, ROBO1, ROBO2 and CDC42, the key regulator genes of this pathway. Deletion and methylation frequencies of the candidate genes were seen in the following order: deletion, SLIT2 (38.6%) > ROBO1 (30%) > ROBO2 (7.3%); methylation, SLIT2 (63.3%) > ROBO1 (26.6%) >ROBO2 (9.3%). Majority (80%, 120/150) of the tumours showed alterations (deletion/methylation) in at least one of the candidate genes. Overall, alterations of the candidate genes were as follows: SLIT2, 75.3% (101/150); ROBO1, 45.3% (68/150); ROBO2, 15.3% (23/150). Significantly, higher alteration of SLIT2 locus was observed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) over HER2 subtype (P = 0.0014). Similar trend is also seen in overall alterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1, in TNBC than HER2 subtype (P = 0.0012); of SLIT2 and/or ROBO2 in TNBC than luminal A (P = 0.014) and HER2 subtype (P = 0.048). Immunohistochemical analysis of SLIT2, ROBO1/2 showed reduced expression, concordant with their molecular alterations. Also, high expression of total CDC42 (49/52; 94.2%) and reduced expression of phospho Serine-71 CDC42 (41/52; 78.8%) was observed. Coalterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1, SLIT2 and/or ROBO2 had significant association with reduced expression of phospho Serine-71 CDC42 (P = 0.0012-0.0038). Alterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1, reduced expression of phospho Serine-71 CDC42 predicted poor survival of BC patients. Results indicate the importance of SLIT2-ROBO1-CDC42 signalling pathway in predicting tumour progression.

  18. El sistema presidencial mexicano. Actualidad y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Diego VALADÉS

    2011-01-01

    Este ensayo presenta un análisis del sistema presidencial mexicano desde una perspectiva constitucional. Se hace especial referencia a la concentración del poder presidencial y a las relaciones entre el Congreso y el gobierno. Asimismo, se incluyen consideraciones comparativas entre los sistemas presidenciales estadounidense y mexicano. El concepto vertical del poder en México no ha sido modificado de manera significativa desde su versión original de 1917, por lo que se hacen ostensibles las ...

  19. A single fission yeast mitotic cyclin B p34cdc2 kinase promotes both S-phase and mitosis in the absence of G1 cyclins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D L; Nurse, P

    1996-02-15

    Deletion of the fission yeast mitotic B-type cyclin gene cdc13 causes cells to undergo successive rounds of DNA replication. We have used a strain which expresses cdc13 conditionally to investigate re-replication. Activity of Start genes cdc2 and cdc10 is necessary and p34cdc2 kinase is active in re-replicating cells. We tested to see whether other cyclins were required for re-replication using cdc13delta. Further deletion of cig1 and puc1 had no effect, but deletion of cig2/cyc17 caused a severe delay in re-replication. Deletion of cig1 and cig2/cyc17 together abolished re-replication completely and cells arrested in G1. This, and analysis of the temperature sensitive cdc13-117 mutant, suggests that cdc13 can effectively substitute for the G1 cyclin activity of cig2/cyc17. We have characterized p56cdc13 activity and find evidence that in the absence of G1 cyclins, S-phase is delayed until the mitotic p34cdc2-p56cdc13 kinase is sufficiently active. These data suggest that a single oscillation of p34cdc2 kinase activity provided by a single B-type cyclin can promote ordered progression into both DNA replication and mitosis, and that the level of cyclin-dependent kinase activity may act as a master regulator dictating whether cells undergo S-phase or mitosis.

  20. Gerencia de sistemas conductuales y cambio organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Yáber

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La gerencia de sistemas conductuales es una tecnología basada en un enfoque científico para el análisis del comportamiento en sistemas humanos. Esta tecnología ayuda a las organizaciones a definir y lograr sus metas. Consiste en el análisis, especificación, diseño, implementación, evaluación y reciclaje de sistemas de motivación humana que optimizan el desempeño y desarrollo a nivel del sistema total, departamental e individual de la organización. Utiliza tres modelos: El diseño de sistemas dirigidos hacia la meta, el análisis de «Tres Contingencias» y la gerencia del desempeño para el cambio cultural. Este artículo incluye la descripción del marco teórico y metodológico de la gerencia de sistemas conductuales y su aplicación en las áreas de servicios y producción.

  1. Distribuição da altura uterina ao longo da gestação em uma coorte brasileira: comparação com a curva de referência do Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia

    OpenAIRE

    Oppermann, Maria Lúcia Rocha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Ramos, José Geraldo Lopes; Serruya,Suzanne Jacob; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: descrever, em gestantes do Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional (EBDG), a distribuição da altura uterina de acordo com a idade gestacional e validar a curva do Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia (CLAP), curva de referência para a predição de anormalidades do crescimento fetal. MÉTODOS: o EBDG é uma coorte de 5564 gestantes, com mais de 19 anos, seguidas até e após o parto. Entrevistas e medidas antropométricas padronizadas foram feitas no arrolamento entre a 20ª e a 28ª ...

  2. E se o gringo for negão ? Raça, gênero e sexualidade no Rio de Janeiro a experiência de turistas negros norte-americanos

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Henrique Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    O turismo étnico é, hoje, uma das áreas potenciais para o desenvolvimento daatividade turística nacional, quando o histórico interesse de negros norteamericanos pelo Brasil amplia-se via massificação do produto turístico de recorte identitário. Esta dissertação é o resultado da pesquisa realizada com turistas negros norte-americanos no Rio de Janeiro, que aponta para a forma com que estes turistas, enquanto consumidores, influenciam na reorganização do mercado turístico carioca por meio d...

  3. JUAN M. LOPE BLANCH. El habla de Diego de Ordaz. Contribución a la historia del español americano. México, UNAM. 1985. 233 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. R.

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Este libro reúne los trabajos publicados por Lope Blanch en revistas especializadas y homenajes académicos acerca del idiolecto de este importante americano nacido en tierras leonesas hacia 1480, colonizador de las Antillas, expedicionario a Tierra Firme y a Cuba, conquistador de México y explorador del Orinoco. La base documental está constituida por siete cartas autógrafasque L.B. publica al final del libro en una cuidadosa transcripción que corrige defectos de una edición anterior.

  4. Cogeneration Systems; Sistemas de Cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez M, Manuel F; Huante P, Liborio; Romo M, Cesar A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The present article deals on relevant aspects on the subject of cogeneration within the Mexican territorial limits. In the first place it is presented the role of Mexico in terms of its cogeneration potential, the type of service that has obtained from this predominant modality of cogeneration for self-supplying, the most propitious sectors to develop it, its legislations on the matter, the projects made for the implementation of cogeneration plants, as well as the existing cogeneration schemes for its respective optimization proposals. Without leaving out the analysis on the different types of evaluation on the efficiency of cogeneration systems and the aspects to consider for the election of a generation cycle. [Spanish] El presente articulo trata sobre aspectos relevantes en materia de cogeneracion dentro de los limites territoriales de la nacion mexicana. Se muestra en primer lugar el papel de Mexico en terminos de su potencial de cogeneracion, el tipo de servicio que ha obtenido de esta predominantemente (modalidad de cogeneracion para autoabastecimiento), los sectores mas propicios para desarrollarla, sus legislaciones al respecto, los proyectos realizados para la implementacion de plantas de cogeneracion, asi como los esquemas de cogeneracion existentes con sus respectivas propuestas de optimizacion. Sin dejar de lado el analisis sobre los distintos tipos de evaluacion de la eficiencia de sistemas de cogeneracion y los aspectos a considerar para la eleccion de un ciclo de generacion.

  5. Involvement of HMG-12 and CAR-1 in the cdc-48.1 expression of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Seiji; Higashitani, Nahoko; Otani, Mieko; Higashitani, Atsushi; Ogura, Teru; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi

    2008-06-15

    Caenorhabditis elegans possesses two p97/VCP/Cdc48p homologues, named CDC-48.1 (C06A1.1) and CDC-48.2 (C41C4.8), and their expression patterns and levels are differently regulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanisms of differential expression of two p97 proteins of C. elegans, we performed detailed deletion analysis of their promoter regions. We found that the promoter of cdc-48.1 contains two regions necessary for embryonic and for post-embryonic expression, while the promoter of cdc-48.2 contains the single region necessary for embryonic expression. In particular, two elements (Element A and Element B) and three conserved boxes (Box a, Box b and Box c) were essential for cdc-48.1 expression in embryos and at post-embryonic stages, respectively. By using South-Western blotting and MALDI-TOF MS analysis, we identified HMG-12 and CAR-1 as proteins that bind to Element A and Element B, respectively, from the embryonic nuclear extract. Importantly, we found the decreased expression of p97 in embryos prepared from hmg-12(RNAi) or car-1(RNAi) worms. These results indicate that both HMG-12 and CAR-1 play important roles in embryonic expression of cdc-48.1.

  6. Cdc42p and Rho1p are sequentially activated and mechanistically linked to vacuole membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Michael R.; Jones, Lynden [Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2H7 (Canada); Eitzen, Gary, E-mail: gary.eitzen@ualberta.ca [Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2H7 (Canada)

    2010-03-26

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches, regulating many biological functions via activation of membrane localized signaling cascades. Activation of their switch function is controlled by GTP binding and hydrolysis. Two Rho GTPases, Cdc42p and Rho1p, are localized to the yeast vacuole where they regulate membrane fusion. Here, we define a method to directly examine vacuole membrane Cdc42p and Rho1p activation based on their affinity to probes derived from effectors. Cdc42p and Rho1p showed unique temporal activation which aligned with distinct subreactions of in vitro vacuole fusion. Cdc42p was rapidly activated in an ATP-independent manner while Rho1p activation was kinetically slower and required ATP. Inhibitors that are known to block vacuole membrane fusion were examined for their effect on Cdc42p and Rho1p activation. Rdi1p, which inhibits the dissociation of GDP from Rho proteins, blocked both Cdc42p and Rho1p activation. Ligands of PI(4,5)P{sub 2} specifically inhibited Rho1p activation while pre-incubation with U73122, which targets Plc1p function, increased Rho1p activation. These results define unique activation mechanisms for Cdc42p and Rho1p, which may be linked to the vacuole membrane fusion mechanism.

  7. The tenacious recognition of yeast telomere sequence by Cdc13 is fully exerted by a single OB-fold domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Karen A; Pfaff, Danielle A; Earley, Jennifer N; Altschuler, Sarah E; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2014-01-01

    Cdc13, the telomere end-binding protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a multidomain protein that specifically binds telomeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with exquisitely high affinity to coordinate telomere maintenance. Recent structural and genetic data have led to the proposal that Cdc13 is the paralog of RPA70 within a telomere-specific RPA complex. Our understanding of Cdc13 structure and biochemistry has been largely restricted to studies of individual domains, precluding analysis of how each domain influences the activity of the others. To better facilitate a comparison to RPA70, we evaluated the ssDNA binding of full-length S. cerevisiae Cdc13 to its minimal substrate, Tel11. We found that, unlike RPA70 and the other known telomere end-binding proteins, the core Cdc13 ssDNA-binding activity is wholly contained within a single tight-binding oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide/oligopeptide binding (OB)-fold. Because two OB-folds are implicated in dimerization, we also evaluated the relationship between dimerization and ssDNA-binding activity and found that the two activities are independent. We also find that Cdc13 binding exhibits positive cooperativity that is independent of dimerization. This study reveals that, while Cdc13 and RPA70 share similar domain topologies, the corresponding domains have evolved different and specialized functions.

  8. Cdc42-dependent Modulation of Tight Junctions and Membrane Protein Traffic in Polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Raul; Ruiz, Wily G.; Leung, Som-Ming; Jou, Tzuu-Shuh; Apodaca, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells maintain the asymmetric composition of their apical and basolateral membrane domains by at least two different processes. These include the regulated trafficking of macromolecules from the biosynthetic and endocytic pathway to the appropriate membrane domain and the ability of the tight junction to prevent free mixing of membrane domain-specific proteins and lipids. Cdc42, a Rho family GTPase, is known to govern cellular polarity and membrane traffic in several cell types. We examined whether this protein regulated tight junction function in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and pathways that direct proteins to the apical and basolateral surface of these cells. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells that expressed dominant-active or dominant-negative mutants of Cdc42 under the control of a tetracycline-repressible system. Here we report that expression of dominant-active Cdc42V12 or dominant-negative Cdc42N17 altered tight junction function. Expression of Cdc42V12 slowed endocytic and biosynthetic traffic, and expression of Cdc42N17 slowed apical endocytosis and basolateral to apical transcytosis but stimulated biosynthetic traffic. These results indicate that Cdc42 may modulate multiple cellular pathways required for the maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. PMID:11514615

  9. The RNA-binding protein Spo5 promotes meiosis II by regulating cyclin Cdc13 in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Mayumi; Sato, Masamitsu; Yamashita, Akira; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-03-01

    Meiosis comprises two consecutive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and II. Despite this unique progression through the cell cycle, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the sequential divisions. In this study, we carried out a genetic screen to identify factors that regulate the initiation of meiosis II in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We identified mutants deficient in meiosis II progression and repeatedly isolated mutants defective in spo5, which encodes an RNA-binding protein. Using fluorescence microscopy to visualize YFP-tagged protein, we found that spo5 mutant cells precociously lost Cdc13, the major B-type cyclin in fission yeast, before meiosis II. Importantly, the defect in meiosis II was rescued by increasing CDK activity. In wild-type cells, cdc13 transcripts increased during meiosis II, but this increase in cdc13 expression was weaker in spo5 mutants. Thus, Spo5 is a novel regulator of meiosis II that controls the level of cdc13 expression and promotes de novo synthesis of Cdc13. We previously reported that inhibition of Cdc13 degradation is necessary to initiate meiosis II; together with the previous information, the current findings indicate that the dual control of Cdc13 by de novo synthesis and suppression of proteolysis ensures the progression of meiosis II.

  10. Structural basis of Mcm2-7 replicative helicase loading by ORC-Cdc6 and Cdt1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuanning; Riera, Alberto; Bai, Lin; Sun, Jingchuan; Nandi, Saikat; Spanos, Christos; Chen, Zhuo Angel; Barbon, Marta; Rappsilber, Juri; Stillman, Bruce; Speck, Christian; Li, Huilin

    2017-03-01

    To initiate DNA replication, the origin recognition complex (ORC) and Cdc6 load an Mcm2-7 double hexamer onto DNA. Without ATP hydrolysis, ORC-Cdc6 recruits one Cdt1-bound Mcm2-7 hexamer, thus forming an ORC-Cdc6-Cdt1-Mcm2-7 (OCCM) helicase-loading intermediate. Here we report a 3.9-Å structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae OCCM on DNA. Flexible Mcm2-7 winged-helix domains (WHDs) engage ORC-Cdc6. A three-domain Cdt1 configuration embraces Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6, thus comprising nearly half of the hexamer. The Cdt1 C-terminal domain extends to the Mcm6 WHD, which binds the Orc4 WHD. DNA passes through the ORC-Cdc6 and Mcm2-7 rings. Origin DNA interaction is mediated by an α-helix within Orc4 and positively charged loops within Orc2 and Cdc6. The Mcm2-7 C-tier AAA+ ring is topologically closed by an Mcm5 loop that embraces Mcm2, but the N-tier-ring Mcm2-Mcm5 interface remains open. This structure suggests a loading mechanism of the first Cdt1-bound Mcm2-7 hexamer by ORC-Cdc6.

  11. An Armadillo Motif in Ufd3 Interacts with Cdc48 and is Involved in Ubiquitin Homeostasis and Protein Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G.; Li, G; Schindelin, H; Lennarz, W

    2009-01-01

    The yeast AAA-ATPase Cdc48 and the ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD) proteins play important, evolutionarily conserved roles in ubiquitin dependent protein degradation. The N-terminal domain of Cdc48 interacts with substrate-recruiting cofactors, whereas the C terminus of Cdc48 binds to proteins such as Ufd3 that process substrates. Ufd3 is essential for efficient protein degradation and for maintaining cellular ubiquitin levels. This protein contains an N-terminal WD40 domain, a central ubiquitin-binding domain, and a C-terminal Cdc48-binding PUL domain. The crystal structure of the PUL domain reveals an Armadillo repeat with high structural similarity to importin-a, and the Cdc48-binding site could be mapped to the concave surface of the PUL domain by biochemical studies. Alterations of the Cdc48 binding site of Ufd3 by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in a depletion of cellular ubiquitin pools and reduced activity of the ubiquitin fusion degradation pathway. Therefore, our data provide direct evidence that the functions of Ufd3 in ubiquitin homeostasis and protein degradation depend on its interaction with the C terminus of Cdc48.

  12. Functional mapping of the fission yeast DNA polymerase δ B-subunit Cdc1 by site-directed and random pentapeptide insertion mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Fiona C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA polymerase δ plays an essential role in chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells, being responsible for synthesising the bulk of the lagging strand. In fission yeast, Pol δ is a heterotetrameric enzyme comprising four evolutionarily well-conserved proteins: the catalytic subunit Pol3 and three smaller subunits Cdc1, Cdc27 and Cdm1. Pol3 binds directly to the B-subunit, Cdc1, which in turn binds the C-subunit, Cdc27. Human Pol δ comprises the same four subunits, and the crystal structure was recently reported of a complex of human p50 and the N-terminal domain of p66, the human orthologues of Cdc1 and Cdc27, respectively. Results To gain insights into the structure and function of Cdc1, random and directed mutagenesis techniques were used to create a collection of thirty alleles encoding mutant Cdc1 proteins. Each allele was tested for function in fission yeast and for binding of the altered protein to Pol3 and Cdc27 using the two-hybrid system. Additionally, the locations of the amino acid changes in each protein were mapped onto the three-dimensional structure of human p50. The results obtained from these studies identify amino acid residues and regions within the Cdc1 protein that are essential for interaction with Pol3 and Cdc27 and for in vivo function. Mutations specifically defective in Pol3-Cdc1 interactions allow the identification of a possible Pol3 binding surface on Cdc1. Conclusion In the absence of a three-dimensional structure of the entire Pol δ complex, the results of this study highlight regions in Cdc1 that are vital for protein function in vivo and provide valuable clues to possible protein-protein interaction surfaces on the Cdc1 protein that will be important targets for further study.

  13. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates hair cell planar polarity and cellular patterning in the developing cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjavainen, Anna; Laos, Maarja; Anttonen, Tommi; Pirvola, Ulla

    2015-03-13

    Hair cells of the organ of Corti (OC) of the cochlea exhibit distinct planar polarity, both at the tissue and cellular level. Planar polarity at tissue level is manifested as uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell intrinsic polarity is defined as structural hair bundle asymmetry; positioning of the kinocilium/basal body complex at the vertex of the V-shaped bundle. Consistent with strong apical polarity, the hair cell apex displays prominent actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and polarization of various cell types, and, thus, serves as a candidate regulator of hair cell polarity. We have here induced Cdc42 inactivation in the late-embryonic OC. We show the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of planar polarity of hair cells and in cellular patterning. Abnormal planar polarity was displayed as disturbances in hair bundle orientation and morphology and in kinocilium/basal body positioning. These defects were accompanied by a disorganized cell-surface microtubule network. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a putative Cdc42 effector, colocalized with Cdc42 at the hair cell apex, and aPKC expression was altered upon Cdc42 depletion. Our data suggest that Cdc42 together with aPKC is part of the machinery establishing hair cell planar polarity and that Cdc42 acts on polarity through the cell-surface microtubule network. The data also suggest that defects in apical polarization are influenced by disturbed cellular patterning in the OC. In addition, our data demonstrates that Cdc42 is required for stereociliogenesis in the immature cochlea.

  14. Legislativo e política comercial: a aprovação do TLC com os Estados Unidos nos legislativos sul-americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Feliú Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as votações nominais de três poderes legislativos sul-americanos, Chile, Colômbia e Peru, acerca da ratificação do Tratado de Livre Comércio com os Estados Unidos. A pergunta central é: quais são os fatores determinantes do voto do legislador na aprovação do Tratado de Livre Comércio (TLC com os Estados Unidos? Três fatores centrais emergem da literatura: (i as relações Estados Unidos x América Latina produzem uma clivagem ideológica (direita-esquerda entre os partidos políticos do continente; (ii o pertencimento do legislador à coalizão de governo no poder Legislativo e (iii os fatores sócio-econômicos dos distritos eleitorais dos legisladores. Por meio da utilização do modelo de regressão logística, apontamos que a ideologia dos legisladores peruanos explica os votos dos mesmos no TLC com os Estados Unidos, indicando que quanto mais à esquerda estiver o legislador, menor a probabilidade do mesmo aprovar o referido tratado. No caso chileno, a taxa de desemprego do distrito eleitoral do deputado possui maior capacidade explicativa, revelando que quanto maior a taxa de desemprego, menor a probabilidade de aprovação do TLC com os Estados Unidos. Já no caso do Senado colombiano, há uma forte associação entre o pertencimento do Senador à coalizão de governo e a aprovação do TLC, revelando a influência dessa variável institucional no voto do Senado colombiano. Além do pertencimento ou não à coalizão de governo, a ideologia do partido político do legislador colombiano também se apresenta como fator explicativo relevante do voto do mesmo.

  15. The internal Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 facilitates both spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Zhang, Gang; Sedgwick, Garry G;

    2014-01-01

    Improperly attached kinetochores activate the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and by an unknown mechanism catalyse the binding of two checkpoint proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, to Cdc20 forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Here, to address the functional role of Cdc20 kinetochore localization...... on the SAC because the IC20BD is also required for efficient SAC silencing. Indeed, the IC20BD can disrupt the MCC providing a mechanism for its role in SAC silencing. We thus uncover an unexpected dual function of the second Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 in promoting both efficient SAC signalling and SAC...

  16. Rac1 and Cdc42 are regulators of HRasV12-transformation and angiogenic factors in human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Kim-Hien T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activities of Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for HRas-induced transformation of rodent fibroblasts. What is more, expression of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 is sufficient for their malignant transformation. The role for these two Rho GTPases in HRas-mediated transformation of human fibroblasts has not been studied. Here we evaluated the contribution of Rac1 and Cdc42 to maintaining HRas-induced transformation of human fibroblasts, and determined the ability of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 to induce malignant transformation of a human fibroblast cell strain. Methods Under the control of a tetracycline regulatable promoter, dominant negative mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 were expressed in a human HRas-transformed, tumor derived fibroblast cell line. These cells were used to determine the roles of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 proteins in maintaining HRas-induced transformed phenotypes. Similarly, constitutively active mutants were expressed in a non-transformed human fibroblast cell strain to evaluate their potential to induce malignant transformation. Affymetrix GeneChip arrays were used for transcriptome analyses, and observed expression differences were subsequently validated using protein assays. Results Expression of dominant negative Rac1 and/or Cdc42 significantly altered transformed phenotypes of HRas malignantly transformed human fibroblasts. In contrast, expression of constitutively active mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 was not sufficient to induce malignant transformation. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 29 genes was dependent on Rac1 and Cdc42, many of which are known to play a role in cancer. The dependence of two such genes, uPA and VEGF was further validated in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusion(s The results presented here indicate that expression of both Rac1 and Cdc42 is necessary for maintaining several transformed phenotypes in oncogenic HRas

  17. The cell cycle rallies the transcription cycle: Cdc28/Cdk1 is a cell cycle-regulated transcriptional CDK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chymkowitch, Pierre; Enserink, Jorrit M

    2013-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) Kin28, Bur1 and Ctk1 regulate basal transcription by phosphorylating the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II. However, very little is known about the involvement of the cell cycle CDK Cdc28 in the transcription process. We have recently shown that, upon cell cycle entry, Cdc28 kinase activity boosts transcription of a subset of genes by directly stimulating the basal transcription machinery. Here, we discuss the biological significance of this finding and give our view of the kinase-dependent role of Cdc28 in regulation of RNA polymerase II.

  18. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Raman Deep, E-mail: Takhter.Ramandeep@mayo.edu; Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L., E-mail: Marks.david@mayo.edu; Pagano, Richard E.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited fluid phase endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored fluid phase endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily

  19. MRG15 activates the cdc2 promoter via histone acetylation in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, AndreAna N., E-mail: andreana.pena@gmail.com [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Tominaga, Kaoru; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M. [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Chromatin remodeling is required for transcriptional activation and repression. MRG15 (MORF4L1), a chromatin modulator, is a highly conserved protein and is present in complexes containing histone acetyltransferases (HATs) as well as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Loss of expression of MRG15 in mice and Drosophila results in embryonic lethality and fibroblast and neural stem/progenitor cells cultured from Mrg15 null mouse embryos exhibit marked proliferative defects when compared with wild type cells. To determine the role of MRG15 in cell cycle progression we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with an antibody to MRG15 on normal human fibroblasts as they entered the cell cycle from a quiescent state, and analyzed various cell cycle gene promoters. The results demonstrated a 3-fold increase in MRG15 occupancy at the cdc2 promoter during S phase of the cell cycle and a concomitant increase in acetylated histone H4. H4 lysine 12 was acetylated at 24 h post-serum stimulation while there was no change in acetylation of lysine 16. HDAC1 and 2 were decreased at this promoter during cell cycle progression. Over-expression of MRG15 in HeLa cells activated a cdc2 promoter-reporter construct in a dose-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of MRG15 resulted in decreased promoter activity. In order to implicate HAT activity, we treated cells with the HAT inhibitor anacardic acid and determined that HAT inhibition results in loss of expression of cdc2 mRNA. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation with Tip60 localizes the protein to the same 110 bp stretch of the cdc2 promoter pulled down by MRG15. Additionally, we determined that cotransfection of MRG15 with the known associated HAT Tip60 had a cooperative effect in activating the cdc2 promoter. These results suggest that MRG15 is acting in a HAT complex involving Tip60 to modify chromatin via acetylation of histone H4 at the cdc2 promoter to activate transcription.

  20. Cyclin E gene (CCNE) amplification and hCDC4 mutations in endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Raúl; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Rodríguez-Perales, Sandra; Hardisson, David; Cigudosa, Juan C; Palacios, José

    2003-12-01

    Cyclin E overexpression occurs in a subset of endometrial carcinomas (ECs), but the molecular mechanisms underlying this alteration remain to be established. The present study has analysed amplification of the cyclin E gene (CCNE) and mutation in hCDC4, the gene coding for the F-box protein, which tags phosphorylated cyclin E for proteosomal degradation, to ascertain whether these alterations might be responsible for cyclin E overexpression in ECs. Cyclin E and p53 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in eight atypical endometrial hyperplasias (AEHs), 51 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs), and 22 non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (NEECs). CCNE amplification was analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Mutations in exons 2-11 of the hCDC4 gene were screened by PCR-SSCP-sequencing. Finally, the polymorphic marker D4S1610 was used to assess loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the hCDC4 gene. Cyclin E overexpression was found in 26/81 (32%) cases and was associated with the histological type of the lesion, since it was not found in any AEHs but was present in 27% of EECs and 54.5% of NEECs (p=0.035). Cyclin E overexpression was associated with histological grade (p=0.011) and p53 immunostaining in EECs (p=0.033). CCNE amplification was found in 6 of 37 (16%) ECs examined. There was a significant association between CCNE amplification and the histological type of the lesion, since five (83%) of the six cases with amplification were NEECs (p=0.008). One EEC harboured an hCDC4 mutation: a CGA to CAA (Arg/Gln) change at codon 479. In addition, D4S1610 LOH was found in 7 of 23 (30%) informative cases analysed, but no correlation with cyclin E overexpression was found. However, the tumour with hCDC4 mutation also showed LOH. This is the first study demonstrating that cyclin E overexpression is associated with gene amplification in ECs, these alterations being more frequent in NEECs. Although hCDC4 exhibits a low mutation frequency in ECs

  1. Aplicação do Sistema de Inferência Nebuloso na Determinação de Medicina Preventiva no Sistema de Saúde Complementar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Barone de Medeiros

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação do Sistema de Inferência Nebuloso foi realizada na tentativa de direcionar os custos médicos de operadoras de planos de saúde mediante o estudo de variáveis, previamente, selecionadas por grupos médicos de atuação no mercado. Esta medida irá influenciar as decisões pós entrevista qualificada através do mapeamento do risco dos novos clientes. Este estudo tangibiliza a atual situação do mercado de saúde privada no Brasil, tendo como premissa os escassos recursos da Saúde Pública. Em conseqüência há a tentativa do governo em atender a todos de maneira igualitária, contudo os benefícios a serem oferecidos são, infelizmente, segmentados por não haver recursos para toda a população. O PIB no Brasil equivale a 60% do investimento norte americano em saúde, fonte do relatório do Banco Mundial de 1993, o que representa uma longa jornada de trabalho de nossa economia para o aumento da viabilidade de sobrevivência neste mercado que esta cada vez mais acirrada devido a competição que se encontra o setor e saúde complementar. O objetivo central é restaurar a capacidade comercial deste mercado engessado. A organização de pensamentos dos administradores de saúde (muitos são médicos ainda está ao redor dos procedimentos médicos, pois são eles que alimentam economicamente os Hospitais. Seguindo este foco, são apresentadas vertentes que caracterizam a prevenção como a maior fomentadora de recursos para ambos, operadoras e hospitais, tendo em vista a distribuição dos custos médicos e conseqüentemente o aumento da capacidade dos hospitais em absorver novas técnicas de tratamento, garantindo maior qualidade de vida para os clientes, além de abrir portas para novas parcerias.

  2. Structural bases of dimerization of yeast telomere protein Cdc13 and its interaction with the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Sun; Neal F Lue; Ming Lei; Yuting Yang; Ke Wan; Ninghui Mao; Tai-Yuan Yu; Yi-Chien Lin; Diane C DeZwaan; Brian C Freeman; Jing-Jer Lin

    2011-01-01

    Budding yeast Cdc13-Stnl-Tenl (CST) complex plays an essential role in telomere protection and maintenance, and has been proposed to be a telomere-specific replication protein A (RPA)-like complex. Previous genetic and structural studies revealed a close resemblance between Stn1-Ten1 and RPA32-RPA14. However, the relationship between Cdc13 and RPA70, the largest subunit of RPA, has remained unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding) fold of Cdc13. Although Cdc13 has an RPA70-like domain organization, the structures of Cdc13 OB folds are significantly different from their counterparts in RPA70, suggesting that they have distinct evolutionary origins. Furthermore, our structural and biochemical analyses revealed unexpected dimerization by the N-terminal OB fold and showed that homodimerization is probably a conserved feature of all Cdc13 proteins. We also uncovered the structural basis of the interaction between the Cdc13 N-terminal OB ' fold and the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase a (Pol1), and demonstrated a role for Cdc13 dimerization in Pol1 binding. Analysis of the phenotypes of mutants defective in Cdc13 dimerization and Cdc13-Pol1 interaction revealed multiple mechanisms by which dimerization regulates telomere lengths in vivo. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms and evolution of Cdc13.

  3. Structural bases of dimerization of yeast telomere protein Cdc13 and its interaction with the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase [alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jia; Yang, Yuting; Wan, Ke; Mao, Ninghui; Yu, Tai-Yuan; Lin, Yi-Chien; DeZwaan, Diane C.; Freeman, Brian C.; Lin, Jing-Jer; Lue, Neal F.; Lei, Ming

    2011-08-24

    Budding yeast Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 (CST) complex plays an essential role in telomere protection and maintenance, and has been proposed to be a telomere-specific replication protein A (RPA)-like complex. Previous genetic and structural studies revealed a close resemblance between Stn1-Ten1 and RPA32-RPA14. However, the relationship between Cdc13 and RPA70, the largest subunit of RPA, has remained unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding) fold of Cdc13. Although Cdc13 has an RPA70-like domain organization, the structures of Cdc13 OB folds are significantly different from their counterparts in RPA70, suggesting that they have distinct evolutionary origins. Furthermore, our structural and biochemical analyses revealed unexpected dimerization by the N-terminal OB fold and showed that homodimerization is probably a conserved feature of all Cdc13 proteins. We also uncovered the structural basis of the interaction between the Cdc13 N-terminal OB fold and the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase {alpha} (Pol1), and demonstrated a role for Cdc13 dimerization in Pol1 binding. Analysis of the phenotypes of mutants defective in Cdc13 dimerization and Cdc13-Pol1 interaction revealed multiple mechanisms by which dimerization regulates telomere lengths in vivo. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms and evolution of Cdc13.

  4. Regulación neuroendocrina del sistema inmune

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Hernández, Diana; Tamez Guerra, Reyes S.; RODRÍGUEZ PADILLA, CRISTINA; Tamez Guerra, Patricia; Weber, Richard J.; GÓMEZ FLORES, RICARDO

    2001-01-01

    El sistema inmune recibe señales del sistema nervioso central (cerebro) vía el sistema nervioso autónomo y el sistema endocrino. El sistema inmune, a su vez, envía información al cerebro vía citocinas. Este sistema de retroalimentación es vital para el funcionamiento adecuado del organismo en situaciones normales, y en aquellas en las que la homeostasis se ve perturbada, como en casos de estrés, consumo de drogas (terapéuticas o de abuso), enfermedades infecciosas y...

  5. Sistemas territoriales de salud frente al sistema general de seguridad social en salud de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahir Alexander Gutiérrez Ossa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El artículo expone los elementos y fundamentos que podrían avalar la generación de sistemas de seguridad social en salud territorial, en complementación con el sistema general preexistente. Materiales y Métodos: La eclosión generalizada en los sistemas de salud, implica la revisión de los modelos propuestos de carácter central y territorial. El análisis económico institucional, permite analizar las condiciones que tienen los sistemas generales para impactar en los esquemas territoriales. Resultados: Es el momento preciso, para que el sistema general en Colombia responda efectivamente en la materia, y que tanto ello, podría dar cuenta de la capacidad sistémica del mismo en el escenario territorial. Discusión: Es importante, que las gobernaciones y municipios planteen el alcance de dicha iniciativa. El Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud en Colombia, gira en torno a modelos y no a la concepción de sistema de salud efectivamente. Conclusiones: La definición de sistema de salud está opacando la atención para definir lo que implica efectivamente la salud, independiente de cualquier sistema al que se pretenda apuntar al final. Palabras clave: Cobertura de Servicios Públicos de Salud, Evaluación en Salud, Sistemas Multiinstitucionales, Sistemas Nacionales de Salud, Políticas Públicas de Salud. (Fuente: DeCS BIREME. Cómo citar este artículo: Gutiérrez Ossa JA, Restrepo Avendaño RD. Sistemas territoriales de salud frente al sistema general de seguridad social en salud de Colombia. Rev Cuid. 2014; 5(1: 623-32.

  6. Impacto econômico no tratamento do glaucoma: volume de gotas de colírios antiglaucomatosos brasileiros e norte-americanos Economic impact of glaucoma treatment: Brazilian and North-american antiglaucomatous eyedrop volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Roizenblatt

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar o exame de gotas de colírios antiglaucomatosos norte-americanos e brasileiros, e a repercussão no custo do tratamento. Métodos: Estudo volumétrico da gota e conseqüente número de gotas por mililitro, com estabelecimento da duração média de cada frasco de colírio para a posologia e custo anual do tratamento. Resultados: A gota de Alphagan® brasileiro foi em média 18% maior que a norte-americana, com duração média de 30,8 dias e custo anual de R$ 440,70; o AlphaganTM norte-americano teve duração média de 36,3 dias e custo anual de R$374,10, ou seja, 17,8% de diferença no custo anual. A gota de Betoptic S® brasileiro foi 38,4% maior que a norte-americana, com duração de 31,3 dias e custo anual de R$ 192,60; o Betoptic S TM norte-americano teve duração de 43,3 dias e custo anual de R$ 139,40, ou seja, 38,1% de diferença no custo anual. A gota de Iopidine® brasileiro foi 46,3% maior que a norte-americana, com duração de 35,7 dias e custo anual de R$ 365,00; o IopidineTM norte-americano teve duração de 52,6 dias e custo anual de R$ 248,40, ou seja, 46,9% de diferença no custo anual. A gota de Timoptol® foi 14,7% maior que a norte-americana, com duração de 45,4 dias e custo anual de R$ 58,40; o TimopticTM norte-americano teve duração de 52,1 dias e custo anual de R$ 51,00, ou seja, 14,5% de diferença no custo anual. Conclusões: Em todos os colírios o volume da gota brasileira foi estatisticamente maior, acarretando menor duração do frasco, maior custo anual do tratamento com desperdício significativo e prejuízo para o consumidor.Purpose: To assess the volume of each drop of Brazilian commercially available antiglaucomatous eyedrops and to compare the results with North-american equivalents in order to evaluate the economic implications. Methods: Volumetric study of drops and related impact in the cost of treatment. Results: Brazilian Alphagan® drop volume was 18% larger and the bottle had a

  7. Komunikační mix společnosti CDC Data s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá komunikačním mixem, který je sestaven pro firmu CDC Data s.r.o. Tato firma provozuje servis a prodej výpočetní techniky a služby s nimi spojené. Práce analyzuje komunikační mix firmy, firmu samotnou a zkoumat okolí firmy a nakonec navrhne zlepšení použití nástrojů komunikačního mixu. This bachelor thesis analyzes the comunicate mix of company CDC Data s.r.o. This company operates with services and sale of computational technique. Thesis also analyzes proccesses i...

  8. A Review of the CDC Recommendations for Prevention of HAIs in Outpatient Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, J Hudson

    2015-05-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most health care-associated infections (HAIs) are caused by contamination from the hands of health care providers or patients, contamination from the environment, and contamination from the patient's own skin. To mitigate common sources of infection transmission, frontline health care providers must be compliant with basic infection-prevention interventions, including hand hygiene, environmental cleaning and disinfection, safe injection practices, and designation of a trained health care professional to be responsible for the infection prevention and control program. Integration of CDC recommendations should incorporate a bundled approach to these interventions and should be part of a comprehensive approach to infection prevention and control. Effective infection-prevention practices in outpatient settings are critical for reducing the risk of infection transmission, improving patient safety and patient outcomes, and reducing costs associated with health care delivery.

  9. Fisetin induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest by inactivating cdc25C-cdc2 via ATM-Chk1/2 activation in human endometrial cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ying Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is one of the most prevalent gynaecological malignancies where, currently available therapeutic options remain limited. Recently phytochemicals are exploited for their efficiency in cancer therapy. The present study investigates the anti-proliferative effect of fisetin, a flavonoid on human endometrial cancer cells (KLE and Hec1 A. Fisetin (20-100 µM effectively reduced the viability of Hec1 A and KLE cells and potentially altered the cell population at G2/M stage. Expression levels of the cell cycle proteins (cyclin B1, p-Cdc2, p-Cdc25C, p-Chk1, Chk2, p-ATM, cyclin B1, H2AX, p21 and p27 were analyzed. Fisetin suppressed cyclin B1 expression and caused inactiva-tion of Cdc25C and Cdc2 by increasing their phosphorylation levels and further activated ATM, Chk1 and Chk2. Increased levels of p21 and p27 were observed as well. These results suggest that fisetin induced G2/M cell cycle arrest via inactivating Cdc25c and Cdc2 through activation of ATM, Chk1 and Chk2.

  10. CDC Vital Signs–HIV and Injection Drug Use

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-29

    This podcast is based on the December 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Sharing needles, syringes, and other injection equipment puts you at risk for getting HIV and other infections, including hepatitis. Learn how to reduce your HIV risk.  Created: 11/29/2016 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Tuberculosis Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/29/2016.

  11. CDC Vital Signs–Native Americans With Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-10

    This podcast is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.  Created: 1/10/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/10/2017.

  12. CDC Vital Signs–Too Loud for Too Long!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Being around too much loud noise—like a leaf blower or rock concert—can cause permanent hearing loss. Learn how to prevent hearing loss.  Created: 2/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/7/2017.

  13. CDC Signos Vitales: Piense en la septicemia. El tiempo es crucial. (Think Sepsis. Time Matters.)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de agosto del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. La septicemia es una emergencia médica y puede ocurrir rápidamente. Conozca los signos de la septicemia y la forma de prevenirla.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  14. CDC Vital Signs–Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    This podcast is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  15. CDC Vital Signs–Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This podcast is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  16. CDC Vital Signs-Zika and Pregnancy: What You Should Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-04-01

    This podcast is based on the April 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. A pregnant woman who is infected with Zika virus can pass it to her fetus which is linked to microcephaly, a serious birth defect. This podcast discusses how to protect yourself from Zika virus.  Created: 4/1/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/1/2016.

  17. CDC Vital Signs-ADHD in Young Children: What You Should Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-03

    This podcast is based on the May 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. For children ages two to five who have ADHD, behavior therapy is recommended before prescribing medicine. This therapy teaches parents ways to improve their child’s behavior and can work as well as medicine, without the risk of side effects.  Created: 5/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/3/2016.

  18. Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical for intestinal stem cell division, survival, and differentiation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamori, Ryotaro; Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan

    2012-01-01

    activity in the intestinal epithelium, where continued cell division takes place. Furthermore, mice haploinsufficient for both Cdc42 and Rab8a in the intestine demonstrated abnormal crypt morphogenesis and epithelial transporter physiology, further supporting their functional interaction. These data...

  19. 75 FR 61505 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) Correction: This.... Contact Person for More Information: Walter W. Williams, M.D., M.P.H., Designated Federal Officer,...

  20. Azaindole-Based Inhibitors of Cdc7 Kinase: Impact of the Pre-DFG Residue, Val 195.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yunsong; Stewart, Kent D; Florjancic, Alan S; Harlan, John E; Merta, Philip J; Przytulinska, Magdalena; Soni, Nirupama; Swinger, Kerren K; Zhu, Haizhong; Johnson, Eric F; Shoemaker, Alexander R; Penning, Thomas D

    2013-02-14

    To investigate the role played by the unique pre-DFG residue Val 195 of Cdc7 kinase on the potency of azaindole-chloropyridines (1), a series of novel analogues with various chloro replacements were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against Cdc7. X-ray cocrystallization using a surrogate protein, GSK3β, and modeling studies confirmed the azaindole motif as the hinge binder. Weaker hydrophobic interactions with Met 134 and Val 195 by certain chloro replacements (e.g., H, methyl) led to reduced Cdc7 inhibition. Meanwhile, data from other replacements (e.g., F, O) indicated that loss of such hydrophobic interaction could be compensated by enhanced hydrogen bonding to Lys 90. Our findings not only provide an in-depth understanding of the pre-DFG residue as another viable position impacting kinase inhibition, they also expand the existing knowledge of ligand-Cdc7 binding.

  1. The role of cDC1s in vivo: CD8 T cell priming through cross-presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Derek; Murphy, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The cDC1 subset of classical dendritic cells is specialized for priming CD8 T cell responses through the process of cross-presentation. The molecular mechanisms of cross-presentation remain incompletely understood because of limited biochemical analysis of rare cDC1 cells, difficulty in their genetic manipulation, and reliance on in vitro systems based on monocyte- and bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells. This review will discuss cross-presentation from the perspective of studies with monocyte- or bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells while highlighting the need for future work examining cDC1 cells. We then discuss the role of cDC1s as a cellular platform to combine antigen processing for class I and class II MHC presentation to allow the integration of “help” from CD4 T cells during priming of CD8 T cell responses. PMID:28184299

  2. 75 FR 4830 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ...), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a... health ethics questions and issues arising from programs, scientists, and practitioners. Matter to...

  3. SCODA para el Desarrollo de Sistemas Multiagente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. Román

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El planteamiento de implementar sistemas multiagente de forma que puedan reutilizarse con distintos objetivos, dota a los desarrolladores de una metodología más eficaz en sus fines. Este artículo presenta SCODA, una arquitectura basada en cinco principios: estandaridad, especialización, facilidad de implementación, reutilización y computación distribuida. SCODA pretende facilitar el desarrollo de sistemas multiagente, basándose en el concepto de pequeños grupos de agentes denominados Comunidades Inteligentes Especializadas (CIE. Las CIE cuentan con funcionalidades específicas que permiten llevar a cabo la implementación de sistemas multiagente de forma escalable, dentro del marco de SCODA, pudiendo ser reutilizadas en diversos desarrollos.

  4. Contexto General de los Sistemas Agrarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez Escobar Norberto

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta ponencia introdujo y delimitó el campo de trabajo para el panel: Formas o Sistemas de Producción Agraria. En ella se presentó y discutió la definición del concepto de FORMA DE PRODUCCION e igualmente planteó la taxonomía más general o "agrupamientos" de los sistemas de producción agraria en Colombia. Se identificaron cinco grupos de formas, en proceso de estructuración, empresariales, campesinas, de economía natural y experimentales; y a continuación se caracterizó y explicó cada uno de los cinco agrupamientos. La ponencia terminó sustentando la validez del trabajo académico basado en el enfoque de sistemas y presentó la evolución reciente de esta forma de trabajo en la Universidad Nacional, Seccional Medellín.

  5. Single site suppressors of a fission yeast temperature-sensitive mutant in cdc48 identified by whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N Marinova

    Full Text Available The protein called p97 in mammals and Cdc48 in budding and fission yeast is a homo-hexameric, ring-shaped, ubiquitin-dependent ATPase complex involved in a range of cellular functions, including protein degradation, vesicle fusion, DNA repair, and cell division. The cdc48+ gene is essential for viability in fission yeast, and point mutations in the human orthologue have been linked to disease. To analyze the function of p97/Cdc48 further, we performed a screen for cold-sensitive suppressors of the temperature-sensitive cdc48-353 fission yeast strain. In total, 29 independent pseudo revertants that had lost the temperature-sensitive growth defect of the cdc48-353 strain were isolated. Of these, 28 had instead acquired a cold-sensitive phenotype. Since the suppressors were all spontaneous mutants, and not the result of mutagenesis induced by chemicals or UV irradiation, we reasoned that the genome sequences of the 29 independent cdc48-353 suppressors were most likely identical with the exception of the acquired suppressor mutations. This prompted us to test if a whole genome sequencing approach would allow us to map the mutations. Indeed genome sequencing unambiguously revealed that the cold-sensitive suppressors were all second site intragenic cdc48 mutants. Projecting these onto the Cdc48 structure revealed that while the original temperature-sensitive G338D mutation is positioned near the central pore in the hexameric ring, the suppressor mutations locate to subunit-subunit and inter-domain boundaries. This suggests that Cdc48-353 is structurally compromized at the restrictive temperature, but re-established in the suppressor mutants. The last suppressor was an extragenic frame shift mutation in the ufd1 gene, which encodes a known Cdc48 co-factor. In conclusion, we show, using a novel whole genome sequencing approach, that Cdc48-353 is structurally compromized at the restrictive temperature, but stabilized in the suppressors.

  6. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  7. MEK kinases are regulated by EGF and selectively interact with Rac/Cdc42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanger, G R; Johnson, N L; Johnson, G L

    1997-08-15

    MEK kinases (MEKKs) 1, 2, 3 and 4 are members of sequential kinase pathways that regulate MAP kinases including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs). Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of COS cells demonstrated differential MEKK subcellular localization: MEKK1 was nuclear and in post-Golgi vesicular-like structures; MEKK2 and 4 were localized to distinct Golgi-associated vesicles that were dispersed by brefeldin A. MEKK1 and 2 were activated by EGF, and kinase-inactive mutants of each MEKK partially inhibited EGF-stimulated JNK activity. Kinase-inactive MEKK1, but not MEKK2, 3 or 4, strongly inhibited EGF-stimulated ERK activity. In contrast to MEKK2 and 3, MEKK1 and 4 specifically associated with Rac and Cdc42 and kinase-inactive mutants blocked Rac/Cdc42 stimulation of JNK activity. Inhibitory mutants of MEKK1-4 did not affect p21-activated kinase (PAK) activation of JNK, indicating that the PAK-regulated JNK pathway is independent of MEKKs. Thus, in different cellular locations, specific MEKKs are required for the regulation of MAPK family members, and MEKK1 and 4 are involved in the regulation of JNK activation by Rac/Cdc42 independent of PAK. Differential MEKK subcellular distribution and interaction with small GTP-binding proteins provides a mechanism to regulate MAP kinase responses in localized regions of the cell and to different upstream stimuli.

  8. Micro-supercapacitors from carbide derived carbon (CDC) films on silicon chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peihua; Heon, Min; Pech, David; Brunet, Magali; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Gogotsi, Yury; Lofland, Samuel; Hettinger, Jeffrey D.; Simon, Patrice

    2013-03-01

    Interdigitated on-chip micro-supercapacitors based on Carbide Derived Carbon (CDC) films were fabricated and tested. A titanium carbide (TiC) film was patterned and treated with chlorine to obtain a TiC derived carbon (TiC-CDC) film, followed by the deposition of two types of current collectors (Ti/Au and Al) using standard micro-fabrication processes. CDC based micro-supercapacitors were electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy using a 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate, NEt4BF4, in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte. A capacitance of 0.78 mF for the device and 1.5 mF cm-2 as the specific capacitance for the footprint of the device was measured for a 2 V potential range at 100 mV s-1. A specific energy of 3.0 mJ cm-2 and a specific power of 84 mW cm-2 were calculated for the devices. These devices provide a pathway for fabricating pure carbon-based micro-supercapacitors by micro-fabrication, and can be used for powering micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and electronic devices.

  9. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  10. P-cadherin promotes collective cell migration via a Cdc42-mediated increase in mechanical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutoni, Cédric; Bazellieres, Elsa; Le Borgne-Rochet, Maïlys; Comunale, Franck; Brugues, Agusti; Séveno, Martial; Planchon, Damien; Thuault, Sylvie; Morin, Nathalie; Bodin, Stéphane; Trepat, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell migration (CCM) is essential for organism development, wound healing, and metastatic transition, the primary cause of cancer-related death, and it involves cell–cell adhesion molecules of the cadherin family. Increased P-cadherin expression levels are correlated with tumor aggressiveness in carcinoma and aggressive sarcoma; however, how P-cadherin promotes tumor malignancy remains unknown. Here, using integrated cell biology and biophysical approaches, we determined that P-cadherin specifically induces polarization and CCM through an increase in the strength and anisotropy of mechanical forces. We show that this mechanical regulation is mediated by the P-cadherin/β-PIX/Cdc42 axis; P-cadherin specifically activates Cdc42 through β-PIX, which is specifically recruited at cell–cell contacts upon CCM. This mechanism of cell polarization and migration is absent in cells expressing E- or R-cadherin. Thus, we identify a specific role of P-cadherin through β-PIX–mediated Cdc42 activation in the regulation of cell polarity and force anisotropy that drives CCM. PMID:26783302

  11. Psiconeuroinmunología: Conexiones entre sistema nervioso y sistema inmune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García López, Luis Joaquín

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La psiconeuroinmunología es una nueva parcela de la ciencia que apenas lleva tres décadas, pero que en los últimos años ha sido objeto de una enorme atención por diversos grupos de investigación. El articulo pretende exponer brevemente cómo están organizados los sistemas inmune y neuroendocrino, para después presentar los hallazgos que hasta el momento intentan dar explicación de las relaciones entre ambos con el sistema nervioso, así como las influencias de unos sobre otros, más concretamente expresar la relación entre los tres sistemas responsables de la defensa del organismo y, más ampliamente, de su mantenimiento homeostático. Cuando se trata de amenazas, el sistema nervioso central tiene que decidir qué sistema se pone en marcha, el sistema de estrés como energía para el ataque o la huida (un animal que nos quiere atacar, el sistema inmune para neutralizar el antígeno (un virus que nos quiere atacar o ambos (la energía es necesaria también para el sistema inmune. Como parece ser que en muchas ocasiones la depresión aparece tras los esfuerzos infructuosos de puesta en marcha de estrategias de afrontamiento, también hemos repasado sucintamente algunas investigaciones que relacionan al sistema inmune con la depresión, así como con los trastornos del sueño. Se finaliza con las aportaciones que la psicología puede ofrecer a nivel terapéutico.

  12. An attenuated strain of Bacillus anthracis (CDC 684 has a large chromosomal inversion and altered growth kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivins Bruce E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An isolate originally labeled Bacillus megaterium CDC 684 was found to contain both pXO1 and pXO2, was non-hemolytic, sensitive to gamma-phage, and produced both the protective antigen and the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule. These phenotypes prompted Ezzell et al., (J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:223 to reclassify this isolate to Bacillus anthracis in 1990. Results We demonstrate that despite these B. anthracis features, the isolate is severely attenuated in a guinea pig model. This prompted whole genome sequencing and closure. The comparative analysis of CDC 684 to other sequenced B. anthracis isolates and further analysis reveals: a CDC 684 is a close relative of a virulent strain, Vollum A0488; b CDC 684 defines a new B. anthracis lineage (at least 51 SNPs that includes 15 other isolates; c the genome of CDC 684 contains a large chromosomal inversion that spans 3.3 Mbp; d this inversion has caused a displacement of the usual spatial orientation of the origin of replication (ori to the termination of replication (ter from 180° in wild-type B. anthracis to 120° in CDC 684 and e this isolate also has altered growth kinetics in liquid media. Conclusions We propose two alternative hypotheses explaining the attenuated phenotype of this isolate. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the skewed ori/ter relationship in CDC 684 has altered its DNA replication and/or transcriptome processes resulting in altered growth kinetics and virulence capacity. Hypothesis 2 suggests that one or more of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in CDC 684 has altered the expression of a regulatory element or other genes necessary for virulence.

  13. El Derecho Administrativo del Sistema Comunitario Andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tendencias contemporáneas del Derecho Administrativo es el reconocimiento de su existencia más allá de las fronteras de un Estado. Bajo esa premisa, se busca demostrar que en la Comunidad Andina de Naciones se configuran los elementos suficientes para afirmar que existe un Derecho Administrativo Comunitario Andino, en la medida en que de las normas andinas se desprende la existencia de una función administrativa andina, una organización administrativa al seno del Sistema Andino de Integración, un sistema de fuentes administrativas andina y un contencioso administrativo comunitario.

  14. Sistemas dinámicos planos

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Henao, Jorge Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: En el documento se hace una presentación de los sistemas dinámicos planos, en particular los continuos provenientes de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias de segundo orden o de sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales simultáneas de primer orden. Se introduce la teoría con ejemplos cuidadosamente seleccionados que hacen especial énfasis en las propiedades tipológicas de las soluciones y se dedica toda una sección a la obtención de una demostración del Teorema de Poincaré-Bendixson. La pa...

  15. Caos e simetrias em sistemas quanticos

    OpenAIRE

    Righi, Assis Francisco Moro

    1989-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro de Ciencias Fisicas e Matematicas Neste trabalho são investigadas algumas propriedades espectrais de dois sistemas quânticos não separáveis: o hamiltoniano de Henon-Heiles e o oscilador harmônico bidimensional com perturbação sugerida por Pullen e Edmonds do tipo x2y2. Foi confirmado que estes sistemas apresentam uma transição do comportamento quântico regular para o comportamento quântico irregular, também chamado caó...

  16. Ortogonalidad y capacidad en sistemas MIMO masivo

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Ibáñez, Irene

    2014-01-01

    La tecnología MIMO constituye un antes y un después en los sistemas de comunicaciones inalámbricas. Esta tecnología ofrece multitud de beneficios que nos acercan a cumplir con los desafíos impuestos por las limitaciones en un canal inalámbrico así como por las restricciones de nuestros recursos o el espacio físico ocupado por las antenas, entre otros. Además de explotar tanto la dimensión temporal como la frecuencial en sistemas inalámbricos convencionales con una única antena, las posibilida...

  17. As unidades fundamentais do sistema internacional (SI)

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Nos últimos anos de docência no Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, redigimos, para uso dos alunos, um pequeno memorando sobre as unidades fundamentais do Sistema Internacional - as unidade de base -, tendo em vista, principalmente, a correção da escrita das ditas unidades, seus múltiplos e seus submúltiplos. Esse escasso conjunto de menos de meia dúzia de páginas foi sendo gradualmente alargado, de forma a incluir referência aos sistemas de unidades primitivos e sua evolução, como ta...

  18. Algoritmos array para filtragem de sistemas lineares

    OpenAIRE

    Gildson Queiroz de Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Esta dissertação desenvolve filtro de informação, algoritmos array para estimador do erro médio mínimo quadrático para sistemas lineares sujeitos a saltos Markovianos e algoritmos array rápidos para filtragem de sistemas singulares convencionais. Exemplos numéricos serão apresentados para mostrarem as vantagens dos algoritmos array deduzidos. Parte dos resultados obtidos nesta pesquisa serão publicados no seguinte artigo: Terra et al. (2007). Terra, M. H., Ishihara, J. Y. and Jesus, G. Q. (20...

  19. Sistema de salud de Perú

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen las condiciones generales de salud de la población peruana y, con mayor detalle, el sistema peruano de salud: su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos con los que cuenta, y las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan. Asimismo se discute el estado en el que se encuentran la generación de información y la investigación, y la participación de los ciudadanos en la gestión y evaluación del sistema. E...

  20. Sistema de salud de México

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Gómez Dantés; Sergio Sesma; Victor M. Becerril; Felicia M. Knaul; Héctor Arreola; Julio Frenk

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema mexicano de salud. En la primera parte se discuten las condiciones de salud de la población mexicana, con énfasis en los padecimientos emergentes que constituyen las principales causas de muerte, diabetes, enfermedades isquémicas del corazón, padecimientos cerebrovasculares y cáncer. En la segunda parte se describe la estructura básica del sistema, las instituciones que lo conforman, la población a la que cubre, los beneficios que reciben los afiliados d...

  1. Educação bilíngüe e multiculturalismo: o exemplo americano = Bilingual education and multiculturalism: the american example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiditch, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma visão histórica de educação bilingüe nos Estados Unidos e mostra que a forma como ela foi compreendida mudou através dos anos. O artigo focaliza as diferentes políticas educacionais e a legislação que regulamentam o uso de outras linguas que não o inglês no sistema educacional público e privado nos EUA. Políticas públicas que tratam do ensino de inglês como segunda língua também são discutidas. A perspectiva histórica apresentada no artigo percorre diferentes momentos da história americana e mostra como eles afetaram as políticas educacionais que guiam o uso do inglês e de linguas estrangeiras nas escolas (ex: imigração, o Sputnik, o movimento de direitos civis, e mais recentemente o Nenhuma Criança Deixada para Trás. O artigo mostra as vantagens de se viver em uma sociedade multicultural, e também como o sistema de educação pública pode se beneficiar deste fato, e como administradores e educadores devem abordar diversidade lingüística e cultural tanto dentro como fora da sala de aula

  2. El sistema linfático: el gran olvidado del sistema circulatorio

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En el presente artículo se analizan los modelos mentales y las concepciones alternativas que tienen los estudiantes de distintos niveles educativos sobre el sistema linfático como componente del sistema circulatorio. Se establece una relación con las dificultades que se salvaron a lo largo de la historia en la adquisición de dichos conocimientos. Los resultados muestran una deficiente relación entre los sistemas linfáticos y sanguíneos, una falta de conocimientos tanto anatómicos ...

  3. El sistema linfático: el gran olvidado del sistema circulatorio.

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos Martínez, Susana; Gavidia Catalán, Valentín

    2014-01-01

    En el presente artículo se analizan los modelos mentales y las concepciones alternativas que tienen los estudiantes de distintos niveles educativos sobre el sistema linfático como componente del sistema circulatorio. Se establece una relación con las dificultades que se salvaron a lo largo de la historia en la adquisición de dichos conocimientos. Los resultados muestran una deficiente relación entre los sistemas linfáticos y sanguíneos, una falta de conocimientos tanto anatómicos como fisioló...

  4. Distribuição da altura uterina ao longo da gestação em uma coorte brasileira: comparação com a curva de referência do Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia Distribution of uterine height during pregnancy in a Brazilian cohort: comparison with the reference curve of the Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Rocha Oppermann

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever, em gestantes do Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional (EBDG, a distribuição da altura uterina de acordo com a idade gestacional e validar a curva do Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia (CLAP, curva de referência para a predição de anormalidades do crescimento fetal. MÉTODOS: o EBDG é uma coorte de 5564 gestantes, com mais de 19 anos, seguidas até e após o parto. Entrevistas e medidas antropométricas padronizadas foram feitas no arrolamento entre a 20ª e a 28ª semana. Os prontuários foram revisados segundo protocolo padronizado, abrangendo os períodos de pré-natal e parto. As análises referem-se a 3539 gestantes com datação da gravidez confirmada por ultra-sonografia. Determinamos as propriedades diagnósticas dos percentis 10 e 90 de altura uterina de ambas as curvas (EBDG e CLAP como indicadores de anormalidade no peso neonatal. RESULTADOS: as medidas de altura uterina no EBDG foram maiores que as do CLAP em todas as semanas de gestação (1 a 4 cm e 2 a 6 cm, respectivamente, nos percentis 10 e 90. O percentil 10 do CLAP identificou como pequenas as medidas uterinas de 0,3 a 1,7% das gestantes brasileiras, ao passo que o percentil 90 classificou como grandes as medidas uterinas de 42 a 57% das brasileiras. A sensibilidade do percentil 10 do CLAP para predizer recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional variou de 0,8 a 6% e a especificidade do percentil 90 para predizer grandes para a idade gestacional, de 46 a 61%. CONCLUSÕES: a curva de referência do CLAP não reflete o padrão de crescimento uterino das gestantes brasileiras, limitando sua capacidade de identificar anormalidades de crescimento fetal, especialmente a restrição de crescimento.PURPOSE: to describe, in participants of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (EBDG, the percentile distribution of uterine height by gestational age and to validate the use of percentiles of the chart derived by the "Centro Latino-Americano

  5. The C-Terminal Domain of Yeast PCNA Is Required for Physical And Functional Interactions With Cdc9 DNA Ligase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Chapados, B.R.; Schmidt, K.H.; Kolodner, R.D.; Tainer, J.A.; Tomkinson, A.E.

    2007-07-13

    There is compelling evidence that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA sliding clamp, co-ordinates the processing and joining of Okazaki fragments during eukaryotic DNA replication. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of functional PCNA:ligase I interactions has been incomplete. Here we present the co-crystal structure of yeast PCNA with a peptide encompassing the conserved PCNA interaction motif of Cdc9, yeast DNA ligase I. The Cdc9 peptide contacts both the inter-domain connector loop (IDCL) and residues near the C-terminus of PCNA. Complementary mutational and biochemical results demonstrate that these two interaction interfaces are required for complex formation both in the absence of DNA and when PCNA is topologically linked to DNA. Similar to the functionally homologous human proteins, yeast RFC interacts with and inhibits Cdc9 DNA ligase whereas the addition of PCNA alleviates inhibition by RFC. Here we show that the ability of PCNA to overcome RFC-mediated inhibition of Cdc9 is dependent upon both the IDCL and the C-terminal interaction interfaces of PCNA. Together these results demonstrate the functional significance of the {beta}-zipper structure formed between the C-terminal domain of PCNA and Cdc9 and reveal differences in the interactions of FEN-1 and Cdc9 with the two PCNA interfaces that may contribute to the coordinated, sequential action of these enzymes.

  6. Novel Activities of Select NSAID R-Enantiomers against Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor I Oprea

    Full Text Available Rho family GTPases (including Rac, Rho and Cdc42 collectively control cell proliferation, adhesion and migration and are of interest as functional therapeutic targets in numerous epithelial cancers. Based on high throughput screening of the Prestwick Chemical Library® and cheminformatics we identified the R-enantiomers of two approved drugs (naproxen and ketorolac as inhibitors of Rac1 and Cdc42. The corresponding S-enantiomers are considered the active component in racemic drug formulations, acting as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs with selective activity against cyclooxygenases. Here, we show that the S-enantiomers of naproxen and ketorolac are inactive against the GTPases. Additionally, more than twenty other NSAIDs lacked inhibitory action against the GTPases, establishing the selectivity of the two identified NSAIDs. R-naproxen was first identified as a lead compound and tested in parallel with its S-enantiomer and the non-chiral 6-methoxy-naphthalene acetic acid (active metabolite of nabumetone, another NSAID as a structural series. Cheminformatics-based substructure analyses-using the rotationally constrained carboxylate in R-naproxen-led to identification of racemic [R/S] ketorolac as a suitable FDA-approved candidate. Cell based measurement of GTPase activity (in animal and human cell lines demonstrated that the R-enantiomers specifically inhibit epidermal growth factor stimulated Rac1 and Cdc42 activation. The GTPase inhibitory effects of the R-enantiomers in cells largely mimic those of established Rac1 (NSC23766 and Cdc42 (CID2950007/ML141 specific inhibitors. Docking predicts that rotational constraints position the carboxylate moieties of the R-enantiomers to preferentially coordinate the magnesium ion, thereby destabilizing nucleotide binding to Rac1 and Cdc42. The S-enantiomers can be docked but are less favorably positioned in proximity to the magnesium. R-naproxen and R-ketorolac have potential for rapid

  7. Novel Activities of Select NSAID R-Enantiomers against Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Sklar, Larry A.; Agola, Jacob O.; Guo, Yuna; Silberberg, Melina; Roxby, Joshua; Vestling, Anna; Romero, Elsa; Surviladze, Zurab; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Waller, Anna; Ursu, Oleg; Hudson, Laurie G.; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Rho family GTPases (including Rac, Rho and Cdc42) collectively control cell proliferation, adhesion and migration and are of interest as functional therapeutic targets in numerous epithelial cancers. Based on high throughput screening of the Prestwick Chemical Library® and cheminformatics we identified the R-enantiomers of two approved drugs (naproxen and ketorolac) as inhibitors of Rac1 and Cdc42. The corresponding S-enantiomers are considered the active component in racemic drug formulations, acting as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with selective activity against cyclooxygenases. Here, we show that the S-enantiomers of naproxen and ketorolac are inactive against the GTPases. Additionally, more than twenty other NSAIDs lacked inhibitory action against the GTPases, establishing the selectivity of the two identified NSAIDs. R-naproxen was first identified as a lead compound and tested in parallel with its S-enantiomer and the non-chiral 6-methoxy-naphthalene acetic acid (active metabolite of nabumetone, another NSAID) as a structural series. Cheminformatics-based substructure analyses—using the rotationally constrained carboxylate in R-naproxen—led to identification of racemic [R/S] ketorolac as a suitable FDA-approved candidate. Cell based measurement of GTPase activity (in animal and human cell lines) demonstrated that the R-enantiomers specifically inhibit epidermal growth factor stimulated Rac1 and Cdc42 activation. The GTPase inhibitory effects of the R-enantiomers in cells largely mimic those of established Rac1 (NSC23766) and Cdc42 (CID2950007/ML141) specific inhibitors. Docking predicts that rotational constraints position the carboxylate moieties of the R-enantiomers to preferentially coordinate the magnesium ion, thereby destabilizing nucleotide binding to Rac1 and Cdc42. The S-enantiomers can be docked but are less favorably positioned in proximity to the magnesium. R-naproxen and R-ketorolac have potential for rapid translation and

  8. Migração internacional recente no amazonas: o caso dos Hispano-americanos Latest international migration in the amazon: the case of Hispanic-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Antônio da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A imigração para o Amazonas continua sendo um campo aberto à pesquisa antropológica, seja aquela de cunho histórico, ainda pouco pesquisada, seja a mais recente, sobretudo a oriunda de países fronteiriços da Região Amazônica. Entretanto, o grande desafio que se coloca aos estudiosos dessa temática é superar a referência teórica que norteou as análises que tiveram como marco explicativo os ciclos econômicos, entre eles o da borracha. No caso da imigração recente para o Amazonas, a tentação é relacioná-la também com o ciclo de desenvolvimento econômico propiciado pela criação da Zona Franca de Manaus em 1967, fator que poderia por si só explicar a presença de novos imigrantes, entre eles os hispano-americanos. Compreender a lógica e as especificidades dessa presença é o que pretendemos discutir neste artigo, que se insere em uma preocupação de pensar a imigração no Amazonas não apenas como um fenômeno demográfico e econômico, mas sobretudo como um processo social de mão dupla, ou seja, que afeta tanto a sociedade de origem quanto a de acolhida, em suas dimensões sociais e culturais, nas relações de gênero e nos processos identitários.Immigration to Amazonas state remains an open field for anthropological research, either that of a historical nature, still poorly researched, or that with a current focus, especially from neighboring countries of the Amazon region. However, the great challenge posed to scholars of the subject is to overcome the theoretical framework that guided analysis based on business cycles, such as rubber. In the case of recent immigration to the Amazonas state, the challenge is also to relate it to the cycle of economic development made possible by the creation of the Manaus Free Trade Zone, in 1967. This factor alone could explain the presence of new immigrants, among them, Hispanics. This article, which intends to discuss the rationale and the specifics of this presence, is immerse

  9. Estabilización robusta de sistemas lineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Leyva Castellanos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra un conjunto de resultados que permiten abordar el problema de la estabilización robusta de una familia de sistemas lineales positivos. Se describen dos nuevas aplicaciones en la teoría de control positivo para sistemas compartimentales y se muestra la aplicación de un teorema de robustez para tales sistemas

  10. CDC25A Protein Stability Represents a Previously Unrecognized Target of HER2 Signaling in Human Breast Cancer: Implication for a Potential Clinical Relevance in Trastuzumab Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Brunetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The CDC25A-CDK2 pathway has been proposed as critical for the oncogenic action of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 in mammary epithelial cells. In particular, transgenic expression of CDC25A cooperates with HER2 in promoting mammary tumors, whereas CDC25A hemizygous loss attenuates the HER2-induced tumorigenesis penetrance. On the basis of this evidence of a synergism between HER2 and the cell cycle regulator CDC25A in a mouse model of mammary tumorigenesis, we investigated the role of CDC25A in human HER2-positive breast cancer and its possible implications in therapeutic response. HER2 status and CDC25A expression were assessed in 313 breast cancer patients and we found statistically significant correlation between HER2 and CDC25A (P = .007. Moreover, an HER2-positive breast cancer subgroup with high levels of CDC25A and very aggressive phenotype was identified (P = .005. Importantly, our in vitro studies on breast cancer cell lines showed that the HER2 inhibitor efficacy on cell growth and viability relied also on CDC25A expression and that such inhibition induces CDC25A down-regulation through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and DNA damage response activation. In line with this observation, we found a statistical significant association between CDC25A overexpression and trastuzumab-combined therapy response rate in two different HER2-positive cohorts of trastuzumab-treated patients in either metastatic or neoadjuvant setting (P = .018 for the metastatic cohort and P = .021 for the neoadjuvant cohort. Our findings highlight a link between HER2 and CDC25A that positively modulates HER2- targeted therapy response, suggesting that, in HER2-positive breast cancer patients, CDC25A overexpression affects trastuzumab sensitivity.

  11. Cdc42 Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Migration Through Wnt/β-Catenin and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway After Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Zhao, Jun-Ying; Wang, Wu-Tao; Li, Zheng-Wei; He, Ai-Ping; Song, Xiao-Yang

    2017-01-17

    Schwann cells (SCs) are unique glial cells in the peripheral nerve and may secrete multiple neurotrophic factors, adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix molecules to form the microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration, guiding and supporting nerve proliferation and migration. Cdc42 plays an important regulatory role in dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton. However, there is a little study referred to regulation and mechanism of Cdc42 on glial cells after peripheral nerve injury. The present study investigated the role of Cdc42 in the proliferation and migration of SCs after sciatic nerve injury. Cdc42 expression was tested, showing that the mRNA and protein expression levels of Cdc42 were significantly up-regulated after sciatic nerve injury. Then, we isolated and purified SCs from injuried sciatic nerve at day 7. The purified SCs were transfected with Cdc42 siRNA and pcDNA3.1-Cdc42, and the cell proliferation, cell cycle and migration were assessed. The results implied that Cdc42 siRNA remarkably inhibited Schwann cell proliferation and migration, and resulted in S phase arrest. While pcDNA3.1-Cdc42 showed a contrary effect. Besides, we also observed that Cdc42 siRNA down-regulated the protein expression of β-catenin, Cyclin D1, c-myc and p-p38, which were up-regulated by pcDNA3.1-Cdc42. Meanwhile, the inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin and p38 MAPK signaling pathway IWP-2 and SB203580 significantly inhibited the effect of pcDNA3.1-Cdc42 on cell proliferation and migration. Overall, our data indicate that Cdc42 regulates Schwann cell proliferation and migration through Wnt/β-catenin and p38 MAPK signaling pathway after sciatic nerve injury, which provides further insights into the therapy of the sciatic nerve injury.

  12. Regulatory effects of Rock2 on cell cycle checkpoint Cdc25A%Rock2对细胞周期检查点Cdc25A的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天德; 余新; 袁荣发; 王庆诺; 杨志强; 邵江华

    2012-01-01

    AIM; To invesligale the regulalory effecls of Rho - associated coiled - coil - containing prolein ki-nase 2(Rock2) on the cell cycle checkpoinl cell division cycle 25A(Cdc25A). METHODS; The prolein expression levels of Rock2 and Cdc25A in 51 pairs of hepalocellular carcinoma and the adjacenl lissues were delecled by Weslern blol-ling. shRock2 plasmids were constructed, selecled and slably lransfecled inlo hepalocellular carcinoma Huh -7 and HepG2 cells. The prolein expression of Cdc25A in the cells was determined by Weslern blolling. Based on the Rock2 interfering sequences, we designed the primers and changed the 4 indicated bases via sile - specific mulagenesis. The Rock2 - mulanl plasmid was verified by sequencing and was lransfecled inlo slable Rock2 - knockdown cells. The prolein expression of Cdc25A was delecled by Weslern blolling, and the cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The prolein levels of checkpoint kinase( Chk) 1/Chk2 were also delected in slable Rock2 - knockdown cells. The interaction between Rock2 and Cdc25A was measured by co - immunoprecipilalion, and the co - localization of Rock2 and Cdc25A was delected by confo-cal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS; Rock2 and Cdc25A were apparently up - regulated in hepalocellular carcinoma,with a significantly positive correlation. The protein expression of Cdc25A was significantly down - regulated in slable Rock2 - knockdown cells. The expression of Chkl and Chk2 was not changed following knockdown of Rock2. The co - immunoprecipilation resulls verified thai Rock2 bound to Cdc25A. The resulls of confocal laser scanning microscopy showed thai Rock2 and Cdc25A were co -localized in hepalocellular carcinoma cells. CONCLUSION; Rock2 positively regulates the cell cycle checkpoint Cdc25A, which is independenl of Chkl/Chk2 and this may provide a new larget gene for Ireat-ment of hepalocellular carcinoma.%目的:探讨肝癌细胞中Rho相关含卷曲螺旋蛋白激酶2(Rock2)对细胞周期检

  13. La morera: una alternativa viable para los sistemas de alimentación animal en el trópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. García

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión sobre las principales características de las especies de morera y sus potencialidades como plantas forrajeras en las condiciones tropicales; se hace énfasis en los aspectos relacionados con su taxonomía, distribución geográfica, principales usos, manejo agronómico, composición química, valor nutritivo y principales metabolitos secundarios presentes en su biomasa. Las especies de morera, oriundas del continente euroasiático, pertenecen a la familia Moraceae. En ese sentido, Morus alba y Morus nigra son las mayormente estudiadas por su gran distribución mundial. Desde tiempos ancestrales la morera se ha utilizado en Asia para la alimentación del gusano que produce la seda y los estudios agronómicos realizados en la sericultura han proporcionado numerosas informaciones. Sin embargo, la influencia de los principales factores en la producción de forraje solamente ha sido estudiada en forma intensiva después de su introducción al Continente Americano a partir de 1980. La morera se caracteriza por presentar una sobresaliente producción de biomasa (2-30 tMS/ha/año, contenidos elevados de proteína cruda (>15% MS, adecuada fracción fibrosa (20-40% y digestibilidad entre 70 y 90%. La biomasa contiene agentes pronutricionales (flavonoides, cumarinas, esteroles, saponinas, lectinas y fitoestrógenos. No obstante, los contenidos de estos metabolitos no sobrepasan los niveles críticos establecidos para los rumiantes y solamente los tres últimos grupos presentan potencial antinutricional en monogástricos. En virtud de sus singulares características, las especies de morera constituyen excelentes alternativas alimentarias en los sistemas tropicales de bajos insumos.

  14. Sistemas territoriales de salud frente al sistema general de seguridad social en salud de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El artículo expone los elementos y fundamentos que podrían avalar la generación de sistemas de seguridad social en salud territorial, en complementación con el sistema general preexistente. Materiales y Métodos: La eclosión generalizada en los sistemas de salud, implica la revisión de los modelos propuestos de carácter central y territorial. El análisis económico institucional, permite analizar las condiciones que tienen los sistemas generales para impactar en los esquemas terri...

  15. ENEA presenta sistema ADS per trattamento scorie

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Arriva il sistema Ads (Accelerator driven system) per il trattamento dei rifiuti radioattivi. Lo studio di fattibilita' per l' innovativa tecnologia, realizzato da un gruppo di lavoro congiunto Enea, Cea, Cern e Ansaldo, e' stato presentato oggi nel corso di un workshop presieduto dal premio Nobel per la fisica, Carlo Rubbia" (1/2 page).

  16. Sistema de Reinscripciones Vía Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Alicia Góngora Serna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este Proyecto se enfoca al diseño de una página Web para optimizar el sistema de reinscripciones del Instituto Tecnológico de Aguascalientes (ITA, la cual permite que los alumnos utilicen menos tiempo en el proceso de inscripción, además de facilitar que dicha actividad se pueda realizar desde su hogar. Para la elaboración de este proyecto se requirió de Tecnologías web como HTML, JavaScript y JSP. La información necesaria fue reutilizada de los datos que actualmente genera el sistema de reinscripciones. La investigación que se llevó a cabo para sustentar este proyecto indaga desde la historia del Internet, una explicación breve de las tecnologías Web requeridas, algunos sistemas de reinscripciones de diferentes escuelas de nivel superior del país, así como el funcionamiento básico del sistema actual de reinscripciones del ITA

  17. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Medina García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuerzas minoritarias en la integración del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados, la división que se hace del territorio en circunscripciones electorales, la barrera electoral que se fija a los partidos políticos para acceder a la representación en el Parlamento, la fórmula de asignación que se aplica a la votación obtenida, para finalmente concluir que el sistema electoral mexicano es esencialmente mayoritario aun cuando se vista de proporcional.

  18. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Medina García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuerzas minoritarias en la integración del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados, la división que se hace del territorio en circunscripciones electorales, la barrera electoral que se fija a los partidos políticos para acceder a la representación en el Parlamento, la fórmula de asignación que se aplica a la votación obtenida, para finalmente concluir que el sistema electoral mexicano es esencialmente mayoritario aun cuando se vista de proporcional.

  19. El Sistema and American Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The brainchild of Jose Antonio Abreu, El Sistema, a music education program for aspiring orchestra musicians launched in Venezuela for students of limited means and now spreading to other parts of the world, has become a subject of interest to music teachers and teacher educators in North America. This article examines a bit of the program's…

  20. Diálogos latino-americanos. Correspondência entre Ángel Rama, Berta e Darcy Ribeiro. Organización, estudios y notas de Haydée Ribeiro Coelho y Pablo Rocca. São Paulo: Global Editora, 2015. 189 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Diálogos latino-americanos. Correspondência entre Ángel Rama, Berta e Darcy Ribeiro. Organización, estudios y notas de Haydée Ribeiro Coelho y Pablo Rocca. São Paulo: Global Editora, 2015. 189 pp.

  1. Sistemas ultrasónicos para la irrigación del sistema de conductos radiculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La eliminación de los restos de tejido pulpar vital y necrótico y de los microorganismos del sistema de conductos radiculares, es esencial para el éxito en endodoncia. La desinfección del canal radicular mediante la irrigación e instrumentación es el factor más importante en la prevención y tratamiento de la periodontitis apical. Al ser imposible con la instrumentación llegar a todas las áreas del sistema de conductos, la irrigación cobra especial importancia. Por este motivo, en la última década se han desarrollado una serie de sistemas de dispensación y agitación de irrigantes, tales como los ultrasonidos. En concreto, en este artículo de revisión se evalúa la información disponible de los diez últimos años sobre la efectividad de los sistemas ultrasónicos para eliminar bacterias, tejido pulpar, restos de dentina y barrillo dentinario, la capacidad de estos dispositivos para hacer que el irrigante penetre en el sistema de conductos radiculares y la seguridad en su uso. Los resultados de la revisión muestran que los sistemas ultrasónicos son más eficaces en el desbridamiento químico, biológico y físico del sistema de conductos radiculares que los sistemas de irrigación convencional, a la vez que son seguros.

  2. Sistemas de Cultivo de la Papa en Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango U. Ernesto

    1948-04-01

    Full Text Available Existen tres sistemas de cultivo entre los que se encuentran el sistema de tapado, sistema de destapado y el sistema de cepillado. Es necesario aclarar que la mayor utilidad que se obtiene con el sistema de cepillado sobre el de destapado, no compensa las pérdidas del suelo, puesto que este queda inutilizado por mucho tiempo, siendo necesario abandonarlo por varios años, antes de volver a lograr una cosecha remuneradora. Además se obtienen cosechas de papa demasiado bajas lo que merma considerablemente los rendimientos de la zona.

  3. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This “licensing” ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of cyclical events at the meiosis I to meiosis I

  4. Cdc42EP3/BORG2 and Septin Network Enables Mechano-transduction and the Emergence of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Calvo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs are non-cancerous cells found in solid tumors that remodel the tumor matrix and promote cancer invasion and angiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that Cdc42EP3/BORG2 is required for the matrix remodeling, invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor-growth-promoting abilities of CAFs. Cdc42EP3 functions by coordinating the actin and septin networks. Furthermore, depletion of SEPT2 has similar effects to those of loss of Cdc42EP3, indicating a role for the septin network in the tumor stroma. Cdc42EP3 is upregulated early in fibroblast activation and precedes the emergence of the highly contractile phenotype characteristic of CAFs. Depletion of Cdc42EP3 in normal fibroblasts prevents their activation by cancer cells. We propose that Cdc42EP3 sensitizes fibroblasts to further cues—in particular, those activating actomyosin contractility—and thereby enables the generation of the pathological activated fibroblast state.

  5. ATR, Claspin and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex regulate Chk1 and Cdc25A in the absence of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Syljuåsen, Randi G; Lukas, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    The ATR and Chk1 kinases are essential to maintain genomic integrity. ATR, with Claspin and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex, activates Chk1 after DNA damage. Chk1-mediated phosphorylation of the Cdc25A phosphatase is required for the mammalian S-phase checkpoint. Here, we show that during physiological...... S phase the regulation of the Chk1-Cdc25A pathway depends on ATR, Claspin, Rad9, and Hus1. Human cells with chemically or genetically ablated ATR showed inhibition of Chk1-dependent phosphorylation of Cdc25A, and they accumulated Cdc25A without external DNA damage. Furthermore, si......RNA-mediated depletion of Claspin, Rad9 and Hus1 also stabilized Cdc25A. ATR ablation also inhibited the activatory phosphorylation of Chk1 on serine 345. Thus, the ATR-Chk1-Cdc25A pathway represents an integral part of physiological S-phase progression, and interference with this mechanism undermines viability...

  6. Isolation of a cdc28 mutation that abrogates the dependence of S phase on completion of M phase of the budding yeast cell cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santanu Kumar Ghosh; Pratima Sinha

    2000-01-01

    We have isolated a mutation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisisae CDC28 gene that allows cdc13 cells, carrying damaged DNA, to continue with the cell division cycle. While cdc13 mutant cells are arrested as large-budded cells at the nonpermissive temperature 37°C, the cdc13 cdc28 double mutant culture showed cells with one or more buds, most of which showed apical growth. The additional buds emerged without the intervening steps of nuclear division and cell separation. We suggest that the cdc28 mutation abrogates a checkpoint function and allows cells with damaged or incompletely replicated DNA an entry to another round of cell cycle and bypasses the mitotic phase of the cell cycle.

  7. 猪带绦虫CDC37基因的克隆、表达与组织定位研究%Prokaryotic Expression and Histolocalization of the Taenia solium CDC37 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄江; 李波; 戴佳琳; 张爱华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To express Taenia solium gene encoding cell division cycle 37 protein (TsCDC37) and investigate its antigenicity and localization in adults of Taenia solium. Methods The complete coding sequence of TsCDC37 was amplified by PCR based on the recombinant plasmid clone from the cDNA library of adult Taenia solium. The PCR product was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+). The recombinant expression plasmid was identified by PCR, double endonuclease digestion and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21/DE3 and followed by expression of the protein induced by IPTG. The mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified reeombinant TsCDC37 formulated in Freund's adjuvant. The antigenicity of the reeombinant protein was examined by Western blotting. The localization of TsCDC37 in adult worms was demonstrated by immunofluorescent technique. Results The reeombinant expression vector was constructed successfully. The reeombinant protein was about M, 52 000, it was then purified and specifically recognized by immunosera of SD rats and sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Taenia saginata or Taenia asiatica. The immunofluorescence assay revealed that TsCDC37 located at the tegument of T. solium adult and the eggs. Conclusion TsCDC37 gene has been expressed with immunoreactivity. The reeombinant protein is mainly expressed in tegument and egg, and is a common antigen of the three human taenia cestodes.%目的 原核表达猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)细胞分裂周期蛋白37(cell division cycle 37,TsCDC37),并对其进行组织定位和免疫原性研究.方法 通过Blastx分析从猪带绦虫成虫cDNA质粒文库中筛选出 TsCDC37基因,PCR扩增CDC37基因,以pET-28a(+)为载体构建目的基因原核表达体系,在大肠埃希菌(E.coli)BL-21/DE3 中诱导表达,纯化的重组蛋白免疫SD大鼠制备免疫血清,Western blotting分析重组蛋白的免疫原性,免疫组织化学方法观察TsCDC37在

  8. Coloquio Ibero-Americano de Historia de la Enfermería: nuevas perspectivas de la producción intelectual en historia de la enfermería

    OpenAIRE

    Almerinda Moreira; Fernando Porto; Genival Fernandes de Freitas; Paulo Fernando de Souza Campos

    2009-01-01

    A produção intelectual apresentada no I Simpósio Ibero-Americano de História da Enfermagem foi organizada a partir de três eixos temáticos: antropologia do cuidado, história das instituições de ensino, de assistência e agremiações de enfermagem e história de vida, totalizando 198 estudos. Mediante os resultados apresentados a produção mostrada no simpósio apontou para a tendência dos estudos em história da enfermagem, nos eixos temáticos, pela ordem de interesse dos pesquisadores em: história...

  9. Los TLC de Estados Unidos con países latinoamericanos: un modelo de integración económica “superficial” para el continente americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julián Tole

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El modelo TLC de Estados Unidos se convierte en un instrumento de integración “ideal” para mejorar sus intereses geopolíticos y geoeconómicos en el continente americano, pues facilita la construcción de peldaños o pequeños bloques que mejorarán su peso en la escena internacional y en algunos sectores del comercio internacional. En tal contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el modelo “hecho a la medida” por Estados Unidos para regular y profundizar la liberalización comercial, sin considerar de ninguna manera un mayor grado de integración, con los países latinoamericanos.

  10. Los TLC de Estados Unidos con países latinoamericanos: un modelo de integración económica “superficial” para el continente americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julián Tole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El modelo TLC de Estados Unidos se convierte en un instrumento de integración “ideal” para mejorar sus intereses geopolíticos y geoeconómicos en el continente americano, pues facilita la construcción de peldaños o pequeños bloques que mejorarán su peso en la escena internacional y en algunos sectores del comercio internacional. En tal contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el modelo “hecho a la medida” por Estados Unidos para regular y profundizar la liberalización comercial, sin considerar de ninguna manera un mayor grado de integración, con los países latinoamericanos.

  11. Manuel J. Peláez (dir., Diccionario de Canonistas y Eclesiasticistas Europeos y Americanos (Tomo I, AV Akademikerverlag GmbH & Co. KG, EAE, Saarbrücken, 2012, 547 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Alcaide-Pulido

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ¿Por qué se otorga escasa atención a los canonistas y eclesiasticistas dentro del Derecho canónico y del Derecho eclesiástico? Esta es la cuestión que surge y el motivo de la aparición de la obra Diccionario de canonistas y eclesiasticistas europeos y americanos. Dicha obra aparece como una necesidad científica emanada de la escasa atención que en el ámbito citado se presta a canonistas y a eclesiasticistas, a través de una recopilación de los pensadores más influyentes en las diversas áreas que comprenden el Derecho Canónico y Eclesiástico, a lo largo del último milenio y, por ende, también de interés para iushistoricistas.

  12. "A un salto por donde se despeña el arroyo de chillo" o la concepción de la estética del paisaje americano como medio aleccionador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ochoa Roa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone un examen del romance “A un salto por donde se despeña el arroyo de Chillo”, propuesta estética de Hernando Domínguez Camargo, como parte de la concepción de este poeta criollo del paisaje americano como medio didáctico en contra de la arrogancia. This article proposes an exam of the romance “A un salto por donde se despeña el arroyo de Chillo”, written by Hernando Domínguez Camargo, as part of the American creole poet’s vision as an instructive means against arrogance.

  13. Sistema de inferencia difusa basado en relaciones Booleanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbert Eduardo Espitia Cuchango

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este documento describe la estructura de un sistema de inferencia difusa basado en relaciones booleanas. La teoría relacionada con lógica y conjuntos booleanos es una buena herramienta para el diseño de automatismos y sistemas digitales. Una variación con la cual se busca mejorar los sistemas basados en automatismos consiste en emplear conjuntos difusos en lugar de booleanos. Lo anterior se realiza con el objetivo de tener una acción continua en el actuador del automatismo. Al realizar esta variación y al aplicar la metodología de diseño de los sistemas de automatismos, aparecen los sistemas de inferencia difusa basados en relaciones booleanas.Aunque inicialmente esta propuesta se realizó considerando sistemas de automatismos, se observa que es posible extenderla a sistemas de inferencia difusa.

  14. Sequencing Analysis of Mutant Allele $cdc$28-$srm$ of Protein Kinase CDC28 and Molecular Dynamics Study of Glycine-Rich Loop in Wild-Type and Mutant Allele G16S of CDK2 as Model

    CERN Document Server

    Koltovaya, N A; Kholmurodov, Kh T; Kretov, D A

    2005-01-01

    The central role that cyclin-dependent kinases play in the timing of cell division and the high incidence of genetic alteration of CDKs or deregulation of CDK inhibitors in a number of cancers make CDC28 of the yeast \\textit{Saccharomyces cerevisiae }very attractive model for studies of mechanisms of CDK regulation. Earlier it was found that certain gene mutations including \\textit{cdc28-srm} affect cell cycle progression, maintenance of different genetic structures and increase cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation. A~\\textit{cdc28-srm} mutation is not temperature-sensitive mutation and differs from the known \\textit{cdc28-ts }mutations because it has the evident phenotypic manifestations at 30 $^{\\circ}$C. Sequencing analysis of \\textit{cdc28-srm} revealed a single nucleotide substitution G20S. This is a third glycine in a conserved sequence GxGxxG in the G-rich loop positioned opposite the activation T-loop. Despite its demonstrated importance, the role of the G-loop has remained unclear. The crystal stru...

  15. Investigation of Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) with Swirl for Gas Turbine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil Hasan, Ahmed Essam ElDin

    Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) with swirl is investigated for gas turbine engine applications due to its benefits for ultra-low pollutants emission, improved pattern factor and thermal field uniformity, low noise emission, and stable combustion with the alleviation of combustion instabilities. Adequate and fast mixing between the injected air and internally recirculated hot reactive gases to form hot and diluted oxidant is critical for CDC, followed by rapid mixing with the fuel. This results in distributed reaction zone instead of a concentrated thin flame front as observed in conventional diffusion flames, leading to avoidance of hot spot regions and providing reduced NOx and CO emissions. The focus of this dissertation is to develop and demonstrate CDC in a cylindrical combustor for application to stationary gas turbine combustors. The dissertation examines the sequential development of ultra-low emission colorless distributed combustor operating at a nominal thermal intensity of 36MW/m3-atm. Initially, the role of swirl is evaluated through comparing the performance of swirling and non-swirling configurations with focus on pollutants emission, stability, and isothermal flowfield through particle image velocimetry. Different fuel injection locations have also been examined, and based on performance a swirling configuration have been down selected for further investigations demonstrating emissions as low as 1 PPM of NO with a 40% reduction compared to non-swirling configuration. Further investigations were performed to outline the impact of inlet air temperature and combustor pressure on reaction distribution and combustor performance. Next, Fuel flexibility has been examined with view to develop CDC combustors that can handle different gaseous and liquid fuels, both traditional and renewable. These fuels included diluted methane, hydrogen enriched methane, propane, ethanol, kerosene, JP-8, Hydrogenated Renewable Jet fuel, and novel biofuel. Swirling CDC

  16. A cidade como sentimento: história e memória de um acontecimento na sociedade contemporânea - o incêndio do Gran Circus Norte-Americano em Niterói, 1961

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    Paulo Knauss

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo relaciona história do acontecimento e história urbana para discutir a problemática da memória nas sociedades contemporâneas. A pesquisa aborda o caso do incêndio do Gran Circus Norte-Americano, ocorrido em 17 de dezembro de 1961, na cidade de Niterói, então capital do antigo estado do Rio de Janeiro. O fato é conhecido como um dos maiores incêndios da história em termos de número de vítimas fatais, e se afirmou na memória da cidade. O trabalho tem como base fontes da imprensa e fontes orais. A análise demonstra como o acontecimento se estabelece entre história e memória e define a cidade como sentimento.The study connects urban history and event history to discuss the memory in contemporary societies. The research analyzes the fire of the Gran Circus Norte-Americano in December 17, 1961, in the city of Niterói, when it still was the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The fact is known as one of the biggest fires in history in terms of fatal victims’ number, and that has been established in the city memory. The work is based on press sources and oral sources. The analysis shows how the event is established between history and memory, and defines the city as feeling.

  17. Lista actualizada y clave ilustrada para los géneros de misidáceos (Crustacea, Peracarida del Mar Intra-Americano Updated checklist and illustrated key to mysid (Crustacea, Peracarida genera from the Intra-American Sea

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    Manuel Ortiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista actualizada y una clave ilustrada para la identificación de los 38 géneros marinos, estuarinos y estigobios de los misidáceos que habitan en el Mar Intra-Americano. Estos crustáceos incluyen 6 familias, 5 subfamilias y 5 tribus dentro de los órdenes Lophogastrida y Mysida. El primero contiene 5 géneros y el segundo 33; de éstos, 35 habitan el ambiente marino y el salobre, 2 el cárstico y 1, Antromysis, vive en cualquiera de los 3 ambientes. Los géneros Anchialina, Siriella, Mysidopsis, Mysidium y Heteromysis se distribuyen ampliamente en todo el Mar Intra-Americano. Contrariamente a Chalaraspidum, Euchaetomera, Eucopia, Gironomysis, Metamblyops, Mysidella, Palaumysis, Platymysis, Pleurerythrops, Pseudomma y Synerythrops con una distribución geográfica restringida. El Mar Caribe y el Golfo de México representan las 2 regiones biogeográficas con mayor número de géneros de misidáceos.An updated checklist and an illustrated key for the identification of the 38 genera of marine, estuarine and stygobitic opossum shrimps recorded from the Intra-American Sea, are presented. These crustaceans were included in 6 families, 5 subfamilies, and 5 tribes, into the suborders Lophogastrida and Mysida. First order grouped 5 genera and the second 33. Of these genera, 35 live in marine and estuarine environments, 2 are stygobitic and another, Antromysis, is distributed in each one. The genera Anchialina, Siriella, Mysidopsis, Mysidium and Heteromysis have a wide distribution in overall Intra-American Sea, instead of Chalaraspidum, Euchaetomera, Eucopia, Gironomysis, Metamblyops, Mysidella, Palaumysis, Platymysis, Pleurerythrops, Pseudomma and Synerythrops with a restricted geographical distribution. The Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico constitute the regions with the biggest number of mysids genera.

  18. Winter hibernation and UCHL1-p34cdc2 association in toad oocyte maturation competence.

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    Zhichao Kuang

    Full Text Available Currently, it is believed that toad oocyte maturation is dependent on the physiological conditions of winter hibernation. Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1 is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. In this paper, we first supply evidence that tUCHL1 is highly evolutionarily conserved. Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity as factors in the response of oocytes to winter hibernation. In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. Recombinant tUCHL1 absorbed p34(cdc2, a component of MPF, in obviously larger quantities from mature oocytes than from immature oocytes, and p13(suc1 was isolated from tUCHL1 with a dependence on the ATP regeneration system, suggesting that still other functions may be involved in their association that require phosphorylation. In oocytes from hibernation-interrupted toads, the p34(cdc2 protein level was significantly lower than in oocytes from toads in artificial hibernation, providing an explanation for the different quantities isolated by recombinant tUCHL1 pull-down and, more importantly, identifying a mechanism involved in the toad oocyte's dependence on a low environmental temperature during winter hibernation. Therefore, in toads, tUCHL1 binds p34(cdc2 and plays a role in oocyte maturation. However, neither tUCHL1 nor cyclin B1 respond to low temperatures to facilitate oocyte maturation competence during winter hibernation.

  19. Slit2 inhibits glioma cell invasion in the brain by suppression of Cdc42 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiin, Jia-Jean; Hu, Bo; Jarzynka, Michael J; Feng, Haizhong; Liu, Kui-Wei; Wu, Jane Y; Ma, Hsin-I; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    Acquisition of insidious invasiveness by malignant glioma cells involves multiple genetic alterations in signaling pathways. Slit2, a chemorepulsive factor, controls cell migration of neuronal and glial cells during development and inhibits chemotaxic migration of various types of cells in vitro. However, the role of Slit2 in vitro remains controversial, and the biological significance of Slit2 expression in cancer cell invasion in vivo has not yet been determined. In the present study, we characterized the effects of Slit2 expression on the migration and invasion of invasive glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. By reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, Slit2 was found to be expressed at lower levels in primary glioma specimens and invasive glioma cells compared with normal human brain cells and astrocytes. Ectopic expression of Slit2 or treatment with recombinant Slit2 on glioma cells attenuates cell migration and invasion through inhibition of Cdc42 activity in vitro. Cellular depletion of Robo1, a cognate receptor for Slit2, prevented Slit2 inhibition of Cdc42 activity and glioma cell migration. In vivo, expression of Slit2 by invasive SNB19 glioma cells markedly inhibited glioma cell infiltration into the brain of mice. Moreover, impediment of glioma cell invasion by Slit2 did not affect the expression of N-cadherin and beta-catenin in glioma cells. These results provide the first evidence demonstrating that Slit2-Robo1 inhibits glioma invasion through attenuating Cdc42 activity in vitro and in the brain. Understanding the mechanisms of Slit2-Robo1 inhibition of glioma cell invasion will foster new treatments for malignant gliomas.

  20. Improving effector functions of antibodies for cancer treatment: Enhancing ADCC and CDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Natsume

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Akito Natsume, Rinpei Niwa, Mitsuo SatohAntibody Research Laboratories, Research Division, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd.,/Machida-shi, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: As platforms for therapeutic agents, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs have already been approved, and several MAbs have demonstrated clinical effectiveness in a variety of malignancies. However, several issues have also been emerging in antibody therapy, such as high cost and insufficient drug action. Recently, to improve MAb activity in humans, effector functions have been subjects of focus, especially antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC. Extensive efforts have been made to enhance these effector functions of MAbs, and successful approaches have been reported by us and others, wherein the binding activity of MAbs to FcγRIIIa or C1q is increased by introducing amino acid mutations into heavy chain constant regions or through glyco-modification of Fc-linked oligosaccharides. In addition, one of the next approaches to optimizing therapeutic antibodies would be to combine multiple enhancing modifications into a single antibody platform to overcome the diverse mechanisms of clinical resistance of tumor cells. For this aim, we have recently developed a successful combination composed of ADCC-enhancing modification by the fucose depletion from Fc-linked oligosaccharides and CDC-enhancing modification by IgG1 and IgG3 isotype shuffling in heavy chains, which could be of great value for the development of third-generation antibody therapeutics.Keywords: ADCC, CDC, effector functions, Fc oligosaccharides, IgG isotypes, nonfucosylated IgG