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Sample records for cd45 side population

  1. Quantitative gene expression profiling of CD45(+) and CD45(-) skeletal muscle-derived side population cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvistgaard; Jensen, Line;

    2011-01-01

    a satellite cell subpopulation) remain in the mSPCD45(-) fraction, and we show that these cells express high levels of many of the known myogenic precursor/stem cell related markers, including Pax7 and Myf5. © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.......The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we...... describe the isolation of adult mouse normal skeletal muscle residing SPCD45(+) and SPCD45(-) cells from a parent mononuclear muscle-derived cell (MDC) population. Relative quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) of 64 genes revealed that mSPCD45(-) compared with mSPCD45(+) was enriched for cells expressing...

  2. Non-cultured adipose-derived CD45(-) side population cells are enriched for progenitors that give rise to myofibres in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Schrøder, Henrik D; Jensen, Charlotte H

    2008-01-01

    Side population (SP) cells are highly able to exclude the Hoechst 33342 dye through membrane transporters, a feature associated with cell immaturity and therefore proposed as a marker of stem cells. Herein we demonstrate that the adipose tissue derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) contains...

  3. CD27(-)CD45(+) γδ T cells can be divided into two populations, CD27(-)CD45(int) and CD27(-)CD45(hi) with little proliferation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaira, Kosuke; Kimura, Shin-Nosuke; Fujieda, Nao; Kobayashi, Yukari; Kambara, Kaori; Takahashi, Takuya; Izumi, Takamichi; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Kakimi, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-23

    In addition to the majority of T cells which carry the αβ T cell receptor (TCR) for antigen, a distinct subset of about 1-5% of human peripheral blood T cells expressing the γδ TCR contributes to immune responses to infection, tissue damage and cancer. T cells with the Vδ2(+) TCR, usually paired with Vγ9, constitute the majority of these γδ T cells. Analogous to αβ T cells, they can be sorted into naive (CD27(+)CD45RA(+)), central memory (CD27(+)CD45RA(-)), effector memory (CD27(-)CD45RA(-)), and terminally-differentiated effector memory (CD27(-)CD45RA(+)) phenotypes. Here, we found that CD27(-)CD45RA(+) γδ T cells can be further divided into two populations based on the level of expression of CD45RA: CD27(-)CD45RA(int) and CD27(-)CD45RA(hi). Those with the CD27(-)CD45RA(hi) phenotype lack extensive proliferative capacity, while those with the CD27(-)CD45RA(int) phenotype can be easily expanded by culture with zoledronate and IL-2. These CD27(-)CD45RA(hi) potentially exhausted γδ T cells were found predominantly in cancer patients but also in healthy subjects. We conclude that γδ T cells can be divided into at least 5 subsets enabling discrimination of γδ T cells with poor proliferative capacity. It was one of our goals to predict the feasibility of γδ T cell expansion to sufficient amounts for adoptive immunotherapy without the necessity for conducting small-scale culture tests. Fulfilling the ≥1.5% criterion for γδ T cells with phenotypes other than CD27(-)CD45RA(hi), may help avoid small-scale culture testing and shorten the preparation period for adoptive γδ T cells by 10 days, which may be beneficial for patients with advanced cancer.

  4. Murine bone marrow Lin⁻Sca⁻1⁺CD45⁻ very small embryonic-like (VSEL cells are heterogeneous population lacking Oct-4A expression.

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    Krzysztof Szade

    Full Text Available Murine very small embryonic-like (VSEL cells, defined by the Lin(-Sca-1(+CD45(- phenotype and small size, were described as pluripotent cells and proposed to be the most primitive hematopoietic precursors in adult bone marrow. Although their isolation and potential application rely entirely on flow cytometry, the immunophenotype of VSELs has not been extensively characterized. Our aim was to analyze the possible heterogeneity of Lin(-Sca(+CD45(- population and investigate the extent to which VSELs characteristics may overlap with that of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. The study evidenced that murine Lin(-Sca-1(+CD45(- population was heterogeneous in terms of c-Kit and KDR expression. Accordingly, the c-Kit(+KDR(-, c-Kit(-KDR(+, and c-Kit(-KDR(- subpopulations could be distinguished, while c-Kit(+KDR(+ events were very rare. The c-Kit(+KDR(- subset contained almost solely small cells, meeting the size criterion of VSELs, in contrast to relatively bigger c-Kit(-KDR(+ cells. The c-Kit(-KDR(-FSC(low subset was highly enriched in Annexin V-positive, apoptotic cells, hence omitted from further analysis. Importantly, using qRT-PCR, we evidenced lack of Oct-4A and Oct-4B mRNA expression either in whole adult murine bone marrow or in the sorted of Lin(-Sca-1(+CD45(-FSC(low population, even by single-cell qRT-PCR. We also found that the Lin(-Sca-1(+CD45(-c-Kit(+ subset did not exhibit hematopoietic potential in a single cell-derived colony in vitro assay, although it comprised the Sca-1(+c-Kit(+Lin(- (SKL CD34(-CD45(-CD105(+ cells, expressing particular HSC markers. Co-culture of Lin(-Sca-1(+CD45(-FSC(low with OP9 cells did not induce hematopoietic potential. Further investigation revealed that SKL CD45(-CD105(+ subset consisted of early apoptotic cells with fragmented chromatin, and could be contaminated with nuclei expelled from erythroblasts. Concluding, murine bone marrow Lin(-Sca-1(+CD45(-FSC(low cells are

  5. CD45lowc-Kithigh cells have hematopoietic properties in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells first arise from the aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in a mouse embryo. We have previously reported that in cultures of the dispersed AGM region, CD45lowc-Kit+ cells possess the ability to reconstitute multilineage hematopoietic cells, but investigations are needed to show that this is not a cultured artifact and to clarify when and how this population is present. Based on the expression profile of CD45 and c-Kit in freshly dissociated AGM cells from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E12.5 and aorta cells in the AGM from E13.5 to E15.5, we defined six cell populations (CD45−c-Kit−, CD45−c-Kitlow, CD45−c-Kithigh, CD45lowc-Kithigh, CD45highc-Kithigh, and CD45highc-Kitverylow). Among these six populations, CD45lowc-Kithigh cells were most able to form hematopoietic cell colonies, but their ability decreased after E11.5 and was undetectable at E13.5 and later. The CD45lowc-Kithigh cells showed multipotency in vitro. We demonstrated further enrichment of hematopoietic activity in the Hoechst dye-effluxing side population among the CD45lowc-Kithigh cells. Here, we determined that CD45lowc-Kithigh cells arise from the lateral plate mesoderm using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiation system. In conclusion, CD45lowc-Kithigh cells are the major hematopoietic cells of mouse AGM.

  6. Characterization of side population cells from human airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Shaheen, Furquan; Johnson, Andrew; Wadsworth, Samuel; Pechkovsky, Dmitri V; Jacoby, David B; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M; Knight, Darryl A

    2008-10-01

    The airway epithelium is the first line of contact with the inhaled external environment and is continuously exposed to and injured by pollutants, allergens, and viruses. However, little is known about epithelial repair and in particular the identity and role of tissue resident stem/progenitor cells that may contribute to epithelial regeneration. The aims of the present study were to identify, isolate, and characterize side population (SP) cells in human tracheobronchial epithelium. Epithelial cells were obtained from seven nontransplantable healthy lungs and four asthmatic lungs by pronase digestion. SP cells were identified by verapamil-sensitive efflux of the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342. Using flow cytometry, CD45(-) SP, CD45(+) SP, and non-SP cells were isolated and sorted. CD45(-) SP cells made up 0.12% +/- 0.01% of the total epithelial cell population in normal airway but 4.1% +/- 0.06% of the epithelium in asthmatic airways. All CD45(-) SP cells showed positive staining for epithelial-specific markers cytokeratin-5, E-cadherin, ZO-1, and p63. CD45(-) SP cells exhibited stable telomere length and increased colony-forming and proliferative potential, undergoing population expansion for at least 16 consecutive passages. In contrast with non-SP cells, fewer than 100 CD45(-) SP cells were able to generate a multilayered and differentiated epithelium in air-liquid interface culture. SP cells are present in human tracheobronchial epithelium, exhibit both short- and long-term proliferative potential, and are capable of generation of differentiated epithelium in vitro. The number of SP cells is significantly greater in asthmatic airways, providing evidence of dysregulated resident SP cells in the asthmatic epithelium. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:18653771

  7. CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells have hematopoietic properties in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

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    Nobuhisa, Ikuo, E-mail: nobuhisa.scr@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Yamasaki, Shoutarou [Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Ramadan, Ahmed [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Taga, Tetsuya, E-mail: taga.scr@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells first arise from the aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in a mouse embryo. We have previously reported that in cultures of the dispersed AGM region, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells possess the ability to reconstitute multilineage hematopoietic cells, but investigations are needed to show that this is not a cultured artifact and to clarify when and how this population is present. Based on the expression profile of CD45 and c-Kit in freshly dissociated AGM cells from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E12.5 and aorta cells in the AGM from E13.5 to E15.5, we defined six cell populations (CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup -}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup low}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup high}, and CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup very} {sup low}). Among these six populations, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells were most able to form hematopoietic cell colonies, but their ability decreased after E11.5 and was undetectable at E13.5 and later. The CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells showed multipotency in vitro. We demonstrated further enrichment of hematopoietic activity in the Hoechst dye-effluxing side population among the CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells. Here, we determined that CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells arise from the lateral plate mesoderm using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiation system. In conclusion, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells are the major hematopoietic cells of mouse AGM.

  8. Dynamics of 103K/N and 184M/V HIV-1 drug resistant populations: relative comparison in plasma virus RNA versus CD45RO+T cell proviral DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard; Tolstrup, M; Bertelsen, L;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Viral populations defined by 103K/N and 184M/V as linked or single mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase gene were investigated in plasma samples and compared with previous findings in the CD45RO(+)T cell compartment. OBJECTIVE: To develop an ARMS assay for plasma virions and to...... investigate the expression of resistance mutations (103N and 184V) and dynamic interactions between proviral DNA and plasma virions. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical cross-sectional study, including 11 patients on lamivudine efavirenz and/or nevirapine therapy. The viral populations were determined by an assay based...

  9. Further phenotypic characterization of the primitive lineage− CD34+CD38−CD90+CD45RA− hematopoietic stem cell/progenitor cell sub-population isolated from cord blood, mobilized peripheral blood and patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most primitive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)/progenitor cell (PC) population reported to date is characterized as being Lin−CD34+CD38−CD90+CD45R. We have a long-standing interest in comparing the characteristics of hematopoietic progenitor cell populations enriched from normal subjects and patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In order to investigate further purification of HSCs and for potential targetable differences between the very primitive normal and CML stem/PCs, we have phenotypically compared the normal and CML Lin−CD34+CD38−CD90+CD45RA− HSC/PC populations. The additional antigens analyzed were HLA-DR, the receptor tyrosine kinases c-kit and Tie2, the interleukin-3 cytokine receptor, CD33 and the activation antigen CD69, the latter of which was recently reported to be selectively elevated in cell lines expressing the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. Notably, we found a strikingly low percentage of cells from the HSC/PC sub-population isolated from CML patients that were found to express the c-kit receptor (<1%) compared with the percentages of HSC/PCs expressing the c-kitR isolated from umbilical cord blood (50%) and mobilized peripheral blood (10%). Surprisingly, Tie2 receptor expression within the HSC/PC subset was extremely low from both normal and CML samples. Using in vivo transplantation studies, we provide evidence that HLA-DR, c-kitR, Tie2 and IL-3R may not be suitable markers for further partitioning of HSCs from the Lin−CD34+CD38−CD90+CD45RA− sub-population

  10. Genomic organization of the channel catfish CD45 functional gene and CD45 pseudogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kountikov, Evgueni; Wilson, Melanie; Miller, Norman; Clem, William; Bengtén, Eva; Quiniou, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    CD45 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, which in mammals plays an important role in T and B cell receptor and cytokine signaling. Recently, a catfish cDNA was shown to contain all characteristic CD45 features: an alternatively spliced amino-terminus, a cysteine-rich region, three fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region, and two phosphotyrosine phosphatase domains. However, analyses of CD45 cDNAs from various catfish lymphoid cell lines demonstrated that catfish CD45 is uniqu...

  11. Evaluation of CD45 protein expression and transcript in canine small clear cell/T zone lymphoma.

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    Marzia Cozzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine small clear cell lymphoma is a peculiar lymphoma entity with T-zone histopathological pattern andindolent clinical course. From an immunophenotypic point of view the main feature is the lack of CD45 staining by flow-cytometry (FC, which accounts for >95% of cases. Underlying mechanisms have never been investigated.Aim of this work was to evaluate CD45 protein and mRNA expression in small clear cell lymphoma.Lymph nodes of 18 cases and 11 controls, with either reactive hyperplasia or CD45-positive high grade T-cell lymphoma, were investigated. FC was performed on lymph node fine needle aspiration and CD45 median fluorescence intensity (MFI was then evaluated on small clear cells and normal residual T-lymphocytes. CD45 surface expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemical reaction on paraffin wax-embedded lymph node sections.Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed on cases and controls. Total RNA was isolated from cell suspension in RNA later. The generated CD45cDNA was amplified and ΔΔCt method was used for the relative mRNA quantification.CD45-MFI in neoplastic cells was <1% compared to normal residual T-lymphocytes in the same sample. Cells were also negative for CD45 stain on histopathological preparations. RT-PCR showed a significantly lower amount of CD45 transcript in neoplastic samples compared to controls, likely due to the residual population.Results showed the lack of CD45 surface antigen and the virtually absence of CD45-mRNA in small clear cell lymphoma. We hypothesize a possible genomic/epigenomic aberration; further studies are in progress to investigate the pathogenesis of this aberrancy and the possible linkage to lymphomagenesis.

  12. CD45RB is a novel molecular therapeutic target to inhibit Abeta peptide-induced microglial MAPK activation.

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    Yuyan Zhu

    -linking negatively regulates microglial Abeta phagocytosis while increasing potentially neurotoxic inflammation. Therefore, agonism of CD45RB PTP activity may be an effective therapeutic target for novel agents to treat AD due to its Abeta lowering, and inflammation reducing, properties that are particularly targeted at microglial cells. Such treatments may be more effective with less potential to produce systemic side-effects than therapeutics which induce non-specific, systemic down-regulation of inflammation.

  13. Radiosensitivity of CD45RO+ memory and CD45RO- naive T cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiosensitivities of various human T-cell subsets were investigated by a proliferation assay and by a single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Each T-cell subset was purified using a cell sorter and was induced to proliferate by ionomycin and interleukin 2. Unsorted T cells showed biphasic dose-survival curves, indicating the heterogeneity of T cells in terms of radiosensitivity. Purified CD4+ helper and CD8+ killer T cells showed similar biphasic dose-survival curves. Hence both T-cell subsets were composed of cells of different radiosensitivity. The T-cell subsets belonging to different activation stages such as CD45RO+ memory and CD45RO- naive T cells had different dose-survival curves. The former was more radiosensitive than the latter. The high radiosensitivity of CD45RO+ cells was also demonstrated by single-cell gel electrophoresis after irradiation. This is the first demonstration that a particular cell surface marker on T cells is correlated with greater radiosensitivity. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. CD49d- Treg Cells with High Suppressive Capacity are Remarkably Less Efficient on Activated CD45RA- than on Naive CD45RA+ Teff Cells

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    Britta Kraczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impairment of regulatory T cells (Tregs in common autoimmune diseases seems likely. However, the extent of Treg deficiency (number, function or differential susceptibility of T effector cells (Teffs to suppression is not completely understood. We hypothesize that even in healthy individuals both cell populations are heterogeneous and differ in their suppressive capability and their susceptibility to suppression. Material and Methods: Lymphocytes were enriched by MACS for CD4+CD25+ Tregs or CD4+CD25- Teffs. After multicolour staining (anti-CD25, anti-CD127, anti-CD49d or anti-CD45RA highly purified Treg and Teff subpopulations were collected by FACS. Functional capacity of Tregs or suppressive susceptibility of Teffs was analyzed in an in vitro assay. Results: When CD4+CD25highCD127-/low CD49d- Tregs were tested on naive CD4+CD127+CD25-CD45RA+ Teffs (93.8 % suppression was almost complete, while the suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25highCD127-/low CD49d+ Tregs was significantly less (71.8 %. Suppressive activity was low when CD4+CD25highCD127-/low CD49d+ Tregs were analyzed on CD4+CD127+CD25-CD45RA- Teffs (48.7%. Conclusion: Although CD49d+ Tregs are functional, the suppressive capacity is significantly lower compared to CD49d- Tregs. CD45RA+ Teffs can be completely suppressed, while CD45RA- Teffs display relative resistance. Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of Tregs as well as Teffs has to be considered when analyzing deficiencies in immune regulation.

  15. Radiosensitivity of CD45RO{sup +} memory and CD45RO{sup {minus}} naive T cells in culture

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    Uzawa, Akiko; Suzuki, Gen; Nakata, Yukiko; Akashi, Makoto; Ohyama, Harumi; Akanuma, Atsuo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1994-01-01

    Radiosensitivities of various human T-cell subsets were investigated by a proliferation assay and by a single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Each T-cell subset was purified using a cell sorter and was induced to proliferate by ionomycin and interleukin 2. Unsorted T cells showed biphasic dose-survival curves, indicating the heterogeneity of T cells in terms of radiosensitivity. Purified CD4{sup +} helper and CD8{sup +} killer T cells showed similar biphasic dose-survival curves. Hence both T-cell subsets were composed of cells of different radiosensitivity. The T-cell subsets belonging to different activation stages such as CD45RO{sup +} memory and CD45RO{sup {minus}} naive T cells had different dose-survival curves. The former was more radiosensitive than the latter. The high radiosensitivity of CD45RO{sup +} cells was also demonstrated by single-cell gel electrophoresis after irradiation. This is the first demonstration that a particular cell surface marker on T cells is correlated with greater radiosensitivity. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Identification of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the reactive stroma of a prostate cancer xenograft by side population analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria-Martinez, Albert [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Barquinero, Jordi [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Banc de Sang i Teixits, Barcelona (Spain); Barbosa-Desongles, Anna; Hurtado, Antoni; Pinos, Tomas [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Seoane, Joan [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Medical Oncology program, Vall d' Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Poupon, Marie-France [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Morote, Joan [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Servei d' Urologia. Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Reventos, Jaume [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Munell, Francina, E-mail: fmunell@ir.vhebron.net [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Cancer stem cells are a distinct cellular population that is believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Recent data suggest that solid tumors also contain another type of stem cells, the mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which contribute to the formation of tumor-associated stroma. The Hoechst 33342 efflux assay has proved useful to identify a rare cellular fraction, named Side Population (SP), enriched in cells with stem-like properties. Using this assay, we identified SP cells in a prostate cancer xenograft containing human prostate cancer cells and mouse stromal cells. The SP isolation, subculture and sequential sorting allowed the generation of single-cell-derived clones of murine origin that were recognized as MSC by their morphology, plastic adherence, proliferative potential, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation ability and immunophenotype (CD45{sup -}, CD81{sup +} and Sca-1{sup +}). We also demonstrated that SP clonal cells secrete transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and that their inhibition reduces proliferation and accelerates differentiation. These results reveal the existence of SP cells in the stroma of a cancer xenograft, and provide evidence supporting their MSC nature and the role of TGF-{beta}1 in maintaining their proliferation and undifferentiated status. Our data also reveal the usefulness of the SP assay to identify and isolate MSC cells from carcinomas.

  17. Characterization and localization of side population cells in the lens

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Mikako; Toyoda, Chizuko; Kaneko, Yuka; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Aizu-Yokota, Eriko; Takehana, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Side population (SP) cells were isolated and the possibility whether lens epithelial cells contain stem cells was investigated. Methods Mouse lens epithelial cells were stained by Hoechst 33342 and then sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The expression of stem cell markers in sorted SP cells and the main population of epithelial cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Localization of SP cells in the mouse lens was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Resul...

  18. High prevalence of side population in human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G; Fiegl, Heidi; Wolf, Barbara; Huber, Julia; Klocker, Helmut; Gastl, Guenther; Sopper, Sieghart; Wolf, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are essential platforms for performing cancer research on human cells. We here demonstrate that, across tumor entities, human cancer cell lines harbor minority populations of putative stem-like cells, molecularly defined by dye extrusion resulting in the side population phenotype. These findings establish a heterogeneous nature of human cancer cell lines and argue for their stem cell origin. This should be considered when interpreting research involving these model systems.

  19. 小儿传染性单核细胞增多症患者外周血CD45RO+、CD45RA+T淋巴细胞亚群表达的研究%Study on the Expression of CD45RO+ and CD45RA+T Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood of Children Patients with Infectious Mononucleosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正平; 王志琴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of CD45RO+ and CD45RA+T lymphocytess in peripheral blood in children with infectious mononucleosis. Method The expression of CD45RO+ and CD45RA+T lymphocytess in peripheral blood of children patients and controls was detected by flow cytometry. Results Compared with the control, the expression of CD4+CD45RO+ T lymphocytess in children with infectious mononucleosis in acute stage obviously increased (P < 0.05), but the expression of CD4+CD45RA+ T lymphocytes was lower (P < 0.05 ). The expression of CD4+CD45RO+ T lymphocytes in children in recovery stage was siginificantly lower than those in acute stage (P < 0.05) , but was still higher than those in control (P < 0.05). The expression of CD4+CD45RA+ T lymphocytes in children in convalescence stage was siginificantly higher than those in acute stage (P< 0.05), but was still lower than those in control (P< 0.05). Conclusion CD4+CD45RO+ and CD4+CD45RA+T lymphocytes play an important role in cell immunity in children with infectious mononucleosis. The decrease of CD45RA+Th cell is one of the important reason to immune function overbalance.%目的 探讨传染性单核细胞增多症(IM)患儿CD4T辅助淋巴细胞CD4CD45RO和CD4CD45RAT淋巴细胞亚群的变化.方法 用流式细胞术检测了30例活动期IM、急性期及恢复期患者CD4T辅助细胞CD45RO、CD45RA的表达率,并与对照组进行了比较.结果 IM患者急性期与对照组相比CD4CD45RO明显增高(PCD45RA明显对低于对照组(PCD45RO与急性期比较明显降低(PCD45RA与急性期相比明显升高(PCD45RO和CD4CD45RAT淋巴细胞在IM患者的细胞免疫中起重要作用,CD45RAT辅助细胞减少是导致机体免疫功能失去平衡的重要原因.

  20. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  1. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  2. Malignant T cells exhibit CD45 resistant Stat3 activation and proliferation in cutaneous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn Frej; Helvad, Rikke; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth;

    2010-01-01

    CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase, which is well-known for regulating antigen receptor signalling in T and B cells via its effect on Src kinases. It has recently been shown that CD45 can also dephosphorylate Janus kinases (Jaks) and thereby regulate Signal transducer and activator of transcr......-mediated inhibition of proliferation. In conclusion, our data suggest that CD45 dysregulation might play a role in the aberrant proliferation and Jak3/Stat3 activation in CTCL....

  3. Characterization of Side Population Cells from Human Airway Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Shaheen, Furquan; Johnson, Andrew; Wadsworth, Samuel; Pechkovsky, Dmitri V; Jacoby, David B.; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M.; Knight, Darryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The airway epithelium is the first line of contact with the inhaled external environment and is continuously exposed to and injured by pollutants, allergens, and viruses. However, little is known about epithelial repair and in particular the identity and role of tissue resident stem/progenitor cells that may contribute to epithelial regeneration. The aims of the present study were to identify, isolate, and characterize side population (SP) cells in human tracheobronchial epithelium. Epithelia...

  4. Population and housing: A two-sided relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara H. Mulder

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the relationship between population and housing. I argue that this relationship is two-sided. On the one hand, the size of a population, and particularly the number of households, determines the demand for housing. On the other hand, the availability of suitable and affordable housing may attract certain categories of migrants. It also influences young people's opportunities to leave the parental home, marry or cohabit, and have children. Furthermore, home-ownership hampers residential mobility and migration by binding people to a place.

  5. Expression of CD45RA and CD45RO in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mycosis fungoides%蕈样肉芽肿患者外周血单一核细胞CD45RA及CD45RO表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静; 梁再赋; 张士发; 狄正鸿; 郭英军

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨蕈样肉芽肿(Mycosis fungoides,MF)患者外周血单个核细胞CD45RA及CD45RO的表达及其与MF发病的关系.方法:应用双荧光抗体标记、流式细胞仪检测15例MF患者外周血单个核细胞CD45RA及CD45RO的表达.结果:(1)MF患者外周血CD3+、CD3+CD8+细胞与正常对照比较差异不显著(P>0.05).(2)MF患者外周血CD4+细胞低于正常对照,差异非常显著(P<0.001).(3)MF患者外周血T细胞CD3+CD4+/CD3+CD8+比值低于正常对照,差异显著(P<0.001).(4)MF患者外周血CD45RA+细胞低于正常对照,差异非常显著(P<0.001),CD45RO+细胞高于正常对照,差异非常显著(P<0.001).(5)MF患者外周血CD45RO+/CD45RA+比值高于正常对照,差异非常显著(P<0.001).(6)MF患者外周血CD4+CD45RA+细胞低于正常对照,差异非常显著(P<0.001).(7)MF患者外周血CD4+CD45RO+细胞及CD8+CD45RO+细胞均高于正常对照,差异非常显著(均P<0.001).(8)MF患者外周血CD4+CD45RO+/CD4+CD45RA+比值及CD8+CD45RO+/CD8+CD45RA+比值均高于正常对照,差异非常显著(P<0.01及P<0.001).结论:MF患者外周血中,不仅存在CD4+亚群失调和CD4+/CD8+比值降低,而且在CD4+和CD8+亚群中也存在CD45RA+、CD45RO+亚群失调和CD45RO+/CD45RA+比值升高,从而导致的机体免疫功能紊乱,可能与MF的发病或病情加剧有关.

  6. A novel stem cell source for vasculogenesis in ischemia: subfraction of side population cells from dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iohara, Koichiro; Zheng, Li; Wake, Hiroaki; Ito, Masataka; Nabekura, Junichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Into, Takeshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako

    2008-09-01

    Cell therapy with stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to stimulate vasculogenesis as a potential treatment for ischemic disease is an exciting area of research in regenerative medicine. EPCs are present in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and adipose tissue. Autologous EPCs, however, are obtained by invasive biopsy, a potentially painful procedure. An alternative approach is proposed in this investigation. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. We isolated a highly vasculogenic subfraction of side population (SP) cells based on CD31 and CD146, from dental pulp. The CD31(-);CD146(-) SP cells, demonstrating CD34+ and vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (VEGFR2)/Flk1+, were similar to EPCs. These cells were distinct from the hematopoietic lineage as CD11b, CD14, and CD45 mRNA were not expressed. They showed high proliferation and migration activities and multilineage differentiation potential including vasculogenic potential. In models of mouse hind limb ischemia, local transplantation of this subfraction of SP cells resulted in successful engraftment and an increase in the blood flow including high density of capillary formation. The transplanted cells were in proximity of the newly formed vasculature and expressed several proangiogenic factors, such as VEGF-A, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and MMP3. Conditioned medium from this subfraction showed the mitogenic and antiapoptotic activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, subfraction of SP cells from dental pulp is a new stem cell source for cell-based therapy to stimulate angiogenesis/vasculogenesis during tissue regeneration. PMID:18583536

  7. A novel stem cell source for vasculogenesis in ischemia: subfraction of side population cells from dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iohara, Koichiro; Zheng, Li; Wake, Hiroaki; Ito, Masataka; Nabekura, Junichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Into, Takeshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako

    2008-09-01

    Cell therapy with stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to stimulate vasculogenesis as a potential treatment for ischemic disease is an exciting area of research in regenerative medicine. EPCs are present in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and adipose tissue. Autologous EPCs, however, are obtained by invasive biopsy, a potentially painful procedure. An alternative approach is proposed in this investigation. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. We isolated a highly vasculogenic subfraction of side population (SP) cells based on CD31 and CD146, from dental pulp. The CD31(-);CD146(-) SP cells, demonstrating CD34+ and vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (VEGFR2)/Flk1+, were similar to EPCs. These cells were distinct from the hematopoietic lineage as CD11b, CD14, and CD45 mRNA were not expressed. They showed high proliferation and migration activities and multilineage differentiation potential including vasculogenic potential. In models of mouse hind limb ischemia, local transplantation of this subfraction of SP cells resulted in successful engraftment and an increase in the blood flow including high density of capillary formation. The transplanted cells were in proximity of the newly formed vasculature and expressed several proangiogenic factors, such as VEGF-A, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and MMP3. Conditioned medium from this subfraction showed the mitogenic and antiapoptotic activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, subfraction of SP cells from dental pulp is a new stem cell source for cell-based therapy to stimulate angiogenesis/vasculogenesis during tissue regeneration.

  8. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.CD45_positive_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. The phosphatase domains of CD45 are required for ligand induced T-cell receptor downregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Menné, C;

    2000-01-01

    Down-regulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) plays an important role in modulating T-cell responses, both during T-cell development and in mature T cells. At least two distinct pathways exist for TCR down-regulation: down-regulation following TCR ligation; and down-regulation following activation...... of protein kinase C (PKC). Ligand-induced TCR down-regulation is dependent on protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity and seems to be closely related to T-cell activation. In addition, previous studies have indicated that ligand-induced TCR down-regulation is dependent on the expression of CD45, a...... transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase. The role of the different domains of CD45 in TCR down-regulation was investigated in this study. We found that the phosphatase domains of CD45 are required for efficient ligand-induced TCR down-regulation. In contrast, the extracellular domain of CD45 is dispensable...

  17. Identification of side population cells in chicken embryonic gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelard, Elodie; Raucci, Franca; Montillet, Guillaume; Pain, Bertrand

    2015-02-01

    The side population (SP) phenotype, defined by the ability of a cell to efflux fluorescent dyes such as Hoechst, is common to several stem/progenitor cell types. In avian species, SP phenotype has been identified in pubertal and adult testes, but nothing is known about its expression during prenatal development of a male gonad. In this study, we characterized the Hoechst SP phenotype via the cytofluorimetric analysis of disaggregated testes on different days of chicken embryonic development. Male prenatal gonads contained a fraction of SP cells at each stage analyzed. At least two main SP fractions, named P3 and P4, were identified. The percentage of P3 fraction decreased as development proceeds, whereas P4 cell number was not affected by gonad growth. Functional inhibition of BCRP1 channel membrane using Verapamil and/or Ko143 showed that P3, but not P4 phenotype, was dependent on BCRP1 activity. Molecular analysis of both P3- and P4-sorted fractions revealed a differential RNA expression pattern, indicating that P3 cells mainly contained germinal stem cell markers, whereas P4 was preferentially composed of both Sertoli and Leydig cell progenitor markers. Finally, these findings provided evidence that the SP phenotype is a common feature of both germ and somatic cells detected in chicken developing testis.

  18. Levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells correlate with outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, F; Gross-Goupil, M; Tournay, E; Taylor, M; Vimond, N; Jacques, N; Billiot, F; Mauguen, A; Hill, C; Escudier, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Methods: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) and day 14 during treatment (46 pts received sunitinib and 9 pts received sorafenib). Circulating endothelial cells (CD45−CD31+CD146+7-amino-actinomycin (7AAD)− cells) were measured in 1 ml whole blood using four-color flow cytometry (FCM). Circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells were measured in progenitor-enriched fractions by four-color FCM. Plasma VEGF, sVEGFR2, SDF-1α and sVCAM-1 levels were determined by ELISA. Correlations between baseline CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells, plasma factors, as well as day 1–day 14 changes in CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor, plasma factor levels, and response to TKI, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: No significant correlation between markers and response to TKI was observed. No association between baseline CEC, plasma VEGF, sVEGFR-2, SDF-1α, sVCAM-1 levels with PFS and OS was observed. However, baseline CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cell levels were associated with PFS (P=0.01) and OS (P=0.006). Changes in this population and in SDF-1α levels between day 1 and day 14 were associated with PFS (P=0.03, P=0.002). Changes in VEGF and SDF-1α levels were associated with OS (P=0.02, P=0.007). Conclusion: Monitoring CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells, plasma VEGF and SDF-1α levels could be of clinical interest in TKI-treated mRCC pts to predict outcome. PMID:21386843

  19. In multiple myeloma, only a single stage of neoplastic plasma cell differentiation can be identified by VLA-5 and CD45 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawstron, A C; Barrans, S L; Blythe, D; English, A; Richards, S J; Fenton, J A; Davies, F E; Child, J A; Jack, A S; Morgan, G J

    2001-06-01

    The nature of the proliferating fraction in myeloma is still not known and understanding the characteristics of this fraction is central to the development of effective novel therapies. However, myeloma plasma cells typically show a very low rate of proliferation and this complicates accurate analysis. Although the level of CD45 and/or VLA-5 has been reported to identify proliferating 'precursor' plasma cells, there are discrepancies between these studies. We have therefore used a rigorous sequential gating strategy to simultaneously analyse cycle status and immunophenotype with respect to CD45, VLA-5 and a range of other integrin molecules. In 11 presentation myeloma patients, the proliferative fraction was distributed evenly between CD45+ and CD45- cells, however, cycling plasma cells were consistently VLA-5-. There was close correlation between the expression of VLA-5 and a range of other integrin molecules (CD11a, CD11c, CD103), as well as the immunoglobulin-associated molecules CD79a/b (Spearman, n = 10, P < 0.0001). In short-term culture, cells that were initially VLA-5-showed increasing VLA-5 expression with time. However, simultaneous analysis of the DNA-binding dye 7-amino-actinomycin D demonstrated that this was not as a result of differentiation, as VLA-5+ plasma cells were all non-viable. This was confirmed in freshly explanted plasma cells from nine patients. Discrete stages of plasma cell differentiation could not be distinguished by the level of CD45 or VLA-5 expression. The results indicate that there is a single stage of plasma cell differentiation, with the phenotype CD38+CD138+VLA-5-. These findings support the hypothesis that neoplastic bone marrow plasma cells represent an independent, self-replenishing population.

  20. Targeting CD45RB alters T cell migration and delays viral clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bock; Sutherland, Robyn M; Zhan, Yifan; Deliyannis, Georgia; Brown, Lorena E; Lew, Andrew M

    2006-02-01

    CD45 is a receptor tyrosine phosphatase essential for TCR signaling. One isoform, CD45RB, is down-regulated in memory cells and targeting CD45RB with a specific antibody has been shown to inhibit graft rejection. Its role in immunity to infection, however, has not been tested. Here, we report the effect of anti-CD45RB antibody treatment on the induction of anti-influenza CD8+ T cells and viral clearance. Anti-CD45RB-treated mice had delayed pulmonary viral clearance compared with untreated mice whose infection was completely cleared by day 8 post-infection. In anti-CD45RB-treated mice, the total CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers in both the lungs and mediastinal nodes were substantially reduced at days 5 and 8; this effect was less marked for the spleen. CD8+ T cells specific for influenza virus were also reduced compared with the control group in all three organs at day 8. By day 11, when both treated and control groups showed no virus remaining in the lungs, specific CD8+ T cell numbers were at similar low levels. Homing to lymph nodes and lung of dye-labeled T cells was greatly inhibited (by >80%) by anti-CD45RB treatment. This reduced homing corresponded with reduced CD62L and beta1-integrin expression in both uninfected and infected mice. Since CD62L plays a critical role in homing lymphocytes to lymph nodes, and high levels of CD62L and alpha4beta1-integrin are expressed by lymphocytes that home to bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, we suggest that reduced expression of these molecules is a key explanation for the delay in immune responses. PMID:16361310

  1. Flow Cytometry of the Side Population: Tips & Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Sales-Pardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Side Population (SP has become an important hallmark for the definition of the stem cell compartment, especially in the detection of these cells and in their physical isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. SP cells are CD34neg and were discovered using ultraviolet excitation based on the efflux of Hoechst 33342 (Ho342. Although the method works as originally described, we believe that this method is difficult for most investigators. First, because the ability to discriminate SP cells is based on the differential retention of Ho342 during a functional assay; second, because of the difficulties in setting the right experimental and acquisition conditions; and third, because the analysis of the acquired data requires an extensive expertise on flow cytometry to accurately detect the SP events. Methods: First of all and mainly for the SP application, the laser beam paths were exhaustively checked to ensure the lowest coefficients of variation. Blood suspensions were prepared by erythrocyte lysis with ammonium chloride and hematopoietic cells were labeled with Ho342. Results: The Ho342 concentration and the staining procedure are critical for the optimal resolution of the SP cells. Although UV laser alignment is very important to resolve the dim tail that outlines the SP, the problem with Ho342 excitation is not the Hoechst Blue emission, but rather the Hoechst Red's (because of the weak emission. Conclusions: Each laboratory must establish its own expected ranges based on its instrument and results may vary slightly due to instrument differences such as the narrowness of the band pass filters, laser power, laser emission wavelength, nozzle type, differential of pressure, light collection system (cuvette versus jet-in-air and beam shaping optics.

  2. Isolation of Side Population Cells and Detection of ABCG2 from SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-guang; PAN Yi-fei; GUO Gui-long; HU Xiao-qu; HUANG Ka-te; ZHANG Xiao-hua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Side population cells (SP cells) are a new type of stem cells. They mainly express ABCG2/BCRP1 and have the ability to eliminate DNA dye Hoechst33342. Many studies showed that side population cells were able of self-renewal, differentiation and carcinogenesis in cancers. Our investigation aimed at isolation of side population cells and ABCG2 positive subpopulation from colon cancer cell line SW480 and identification of their characteristics of cancer stem cells. Methods: side population cells and non-side population cells of colon cancer cell line SW480 were isolated with DNA dye Hoechst33342 and their cell cycles were measured by flow cytometry. Expression of ABCG2 of SW480 was measured by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and its proportion was measured by flow cytometry. Results: SW480 contained 2.29% side population cells. The fraction of side population cells decreased greatly to 0.40% by treatment with verapamil. The fraction of side population cells in S-G2M cell cycle was 16.14%, which was much lower than the fraction (34.05%) of non-side population cells in S-G2M. In SW480, ABCG2 positive cells, which proportion was 9.66%, were small, circular or oval, lack of psuedopods, similar to poor differentiation. On the contrary, the ABCG2 negative cells were large, polygonal, with many psuedopods, similar to high differentiation. Conclusion: our assay identified that side population cells did exist in SW480 and had a quiescence characteristic of stem cells. ABCG2 positive subpopulation occupied about 9.66% of SW480 and may have the ability to promote cell self-renewal and inhibit cell differentiation. Therefore, to isolate ABCG2 positive subpopulation from side population cells may be an alternative to study colorectal cancer stem cells.

  3. Expression of the Memory Marker CD45RO on Helper T Cells in Macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentine, Michael; Song, Kejing; Maresh, Grace A.; Mack, Heather; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Polacino, Patricia; Ho, On; Cristillo, Anthony; Chung, Hye Kyung; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Pincus, Seth H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In humans it has been reported that a major site of the latent reservoir of HIV is within CD4+ T cells expressing the memory marker CD45RO, defined by the mAb UCHL1. There are conflicting reports regarding the expression of this antigen in macaques, the most relevant animal species for s

  4. Astragaloside Ⅱ triggers T cell activation through regulation of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ping WAN; Li-xin GAO; Li-fei HOU; Xiao-qian YANG; Pei-lan HE; Yi-fu YANG; Wei TANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the immunomodulating activity of astragalosides,the active compounds from a traditional tonic herb Astragalus membranaceus Bge,and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions,focusing on CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (CD45 PTPase),which plays a critical role in T lymphocyte activation.Methods:Primary splenocytes and T cells were prepared from mice.CD45 PTPase activity was assessed using a colorimetric assay.Cell proliferation was measured using a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay.Cytokine proteins and mRNAs were examined with ELISA and RT-PCR,respectively.Activation markers,including CD25 and CD69,were analyzed using flow cytometry.Activation of LCK (Tyr505) was detected using Western blot analysis.Mice were injected with the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide (CTX,80 mg/kg),and administered astragaloside Ⅱ (50 mg/kg).Results:Astragaloside Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,and Ⅳ concentration-dependently increased the CD45-mediated of pNPP/OMFP hydrolysis with the EC50 values ranged from 3.33 to 10.42 μg/mL.Astragaloside Ⅱ (10 and 30 μg/mL) significantly enhanced the proliferation of primary splenocytes induced by ConA,alloantigen or anti-CD3.Astragaloside Ⅱ (30 μg/mL) significantly increased IL-2 and IFN-y secretion,upregulated the mRNA levels of IFN-y and T-bet in primary splenocytes,and promoted CD25 and CD69 expression on primary CD4+T cells upon TCR stimulation.Furthermore,astragaloside Ⅱ (100 ng/mL) promoted CD45-mediated dephosphorylation of LCK (Tyr505) in primary T cells,which could be blocked by a specific CD45 PTPase inhibitor.In CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice,oral administration of astragaloside Ⅱ restored the proliferation of splenic T cells and the production of IFN-Y and IL-2.However,astragaloside Ⅱ had no apparent effects on B cell proliferation.Conclusion:Astragaloside Ⅱ enhances T cell activation by regulating the activity of CD45 PTPase,which may explain why Astragalus membranaceus Bge is used as a tonic

  5. Different associations of CD45 isoforms with STAT3, PKC and ERK regulate IL-6-induced proliferation in myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zheng

    Full Text Available In response to interleukin 6 (IL-6 stimulation, both CD45RO and CD45RB, but not CD45RA, translocate to lipid rafts. However, the significance of this distinct translocation and the downstream signals in CD45 isoforms-participated IL-6 signal are not well understood. Using sucrose fractionation, we found that phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 and STAT1 were mainly localized in lipid rafts in response to IL-6 stimulation, despite both STAT3 and STAT1 localizing in raft and non-raft fractions in the presence or absence of IL-6. On the other hand, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, and phosphorylated ERK were localized in non-raft fractions regardless of the existence of IL-6. The rafts inhibitor significantly impeded the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT1 and nuclear translocation, but had little effect on (and only postponing the phosphorylation of ERK. This data suggests that lipid raft-dependent STAT3 and STAT1 pathways are dominant pathways of IL-6 signal in myeloma cells. Interestingly, the phosphorylation level of STAT3 but not STAT1 in CD45+ cells was significantly higher compared to that of CD45- cells, while the phosphorylation level of ERK in CD45+ myeloma cells was relatively low. Furthermore, exogenously expressed CD45RO/RB significantly enhanced STAT3, protein kinase C (PKC and downstream NF-κB activation; however, CD45RA/RB inhibited IL-6-induced ERK phosphorylation. CD45 also enhanced the nuclear localization of STAT3 but not that of STAT1. In response to IL-6 stimulation, CD45RO moved into raft compartments and formed a complex with STAT3 and PKC in raft fraction, while CD45RA remained outside of lipid rafts and formed a complex with ERK in non-raft fraction. This data suggests a different role of CD45 isoforms in IL-6-induced signaling, indicating that while CD45RA/RB seems inhibit the rafts-unrelated ERK pathway, CD45RO/RB may actually work to enhance the rafts-related STAT3 and PKC

  6. The catalytic activity of the CD45 membrane-proximal phosphatase domain is required for TCR signaling and regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, D M; Sap, J; Silvennoinen, O;

    1994-01-01

    Cell surface expression of CD45, a receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), is required for T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated signal transduction. Like the majority of transmembrane PTPases, CD45 contains two cytoplasmic phosphatase domains, whose relative in vivo function is not...

  7. Auxiliary splice factor U2AF26 and transcription factor Gfi1 cooperate directly in regulating CD45 alternative splicing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyd, F.; Dam, G.B. ten; Moroy, T.

    2006-01-01

    By alternative splicing, different isoforms of the transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase CD45 are generated that either enhance or limit T cell receptor signaling. We report here that CD45 alternative splicing is regulated by cooperative action of the splice factor U2AF26 and the transcription factor G

  8. TCR usage, gene expression and function of two distinct FOXP3(+)Treg subsets within CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells identified by expression of CD39 and CD45RO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingying; Goodall, Jane C; Zhang, Libin; Putintseva, Ekaterina V; Lam, Brian; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Wei; Yin, Jian; Lin, Li; Li, Ting; Wu, Xin; Yeo, Giles; Shugay, Mikhail; Chudakov, Dmitriy M; Gaston, Hill; Xu, Huji

    2016-03-01

    FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are indispensable for immune homeostasis, but their study in humans is complicated by heterogeneity within Treg, the difficulty in purifying Tregs using surface marker expression (e.g. CD25) and the transient expression of FOXP3 by activated effector cells. Here, we report that expression of CD39 and CD45RO distinguishes three sub-populations within human CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells. Initial phenotypic and functional analysis demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD39(+)CD45RO(+) cells had properties consistent with effector Treg, CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD39(-)CD45RO(-) cells were naïve Treg and CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD39(-)CD45RO(+) cells were predominantly non-Treg with effector T-cell function. Differences in these two newly identified Treg subsets were corroborated by studies of gene expression and TCR analysis. To apply this approach, we studied these two newly identified Treg subsets in ankylosing spondylitis, and showed impairment in both effector and naïve Treg. This work highlights the importance of discriminating Treg subsets to enable proper comparisons of immune regulatory capacity in healthy individuals and those with inflammatory disease.

  9. Effects of Anti-CD45RB Monoclonal Antibody for T Lymphocyte Subsets in Mice Heart Transplantation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, C-Y; Wang, X-F; Qi, H; Li, F-R

    2016-08-01

    Anti-CD45RB monoclonal antibody (anti-CD45RBmAb), as a new immune tolerance inducer, may inhibit T cell proliferation and induce immune tolerance through competitive combination with CD45RB on the T cell surface, which blocks the conduction of activation signals. However, how anti-CD45RBmAb plays its role on T lymphocyte subsets during immunosuppression remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the effects of anti-CD45RBmAb on CD3(+) T lymphocyte both in vitro and in allogeneic heart transplant model in vivo. Interestingly, anti-CD45RBmAb could inhibit the proliferation of T cells, promote the transformation of T lymphocyte to Treg and Th2 cells, suppress the transformation to Th17 and Th1 cells, increase the number of Ts cells, decrease the number of Tm cells and thus play a role in immune inhibition and induction of immune tolerance. PMID:27146476

  10. CD4+CD45RBHi Interleukin-4 Defective T Cells Elicit Antral Gastritis and Duodenitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dohi, Taeko; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Koga, Toshiya; Etani, Yuri; Yoshino, Naoto; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Mcghee, Jerry R

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed the gastrointestinal inflammation which develops following adoptive transfer of IL-4 gene knockout (IL-4−/−) CD4+CD45RBHi (RBHi) T cells to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) or to T cell-deficient, T cell receptor β and δ double knockout (TCR−/−) mice. Transfer of IL-4−/− RBHi T cells induced a similar type of colitis to that seen in SCID or TCR−/− recipients of wild-type (wt) RBHi T cells as reported previously. Interestingly, transfer of both wt and IL-4−/− RBHi T cell...

  11. Optimized Stem Cell Detection Using the DyeCycle-Triggered Side Population Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Maximilian; Wolf, Dominik; Sopper, Sieghart

    2016-01-01

    Tissue and cancer stem cells are highly attractive target populations for regenerative medicine and novel potentially curative anticancer therapeutics. In order to get a better understanding of stem cell biology and function, it is essential to reproducibly identify these stem cells from biological samples for subsequent characterization or isolation. ABC drug transporter expression is a hallmark of stem cells. This is utilized to identify (cancer) stem cells by exploiting their dye extrusion properties, which is referred to as the “side population assay.” Initially described for high-end flow cytometers equipped with ultraviolet lasers, this technique is now also amenable for a broader scientific community, owing to the increasing availability of violet laser-furnished cytometers and the advent of DyeCycle Violet (DCV). Here, we describe important technical aspects of the DCV-based side population assay and discuss potential pitfalls and caveats helping scientists to establish a valid and reproducible DCV-based side population assay. In addition, we investigate the suitability of blue laser-excitable DyeCycle dyes for side population detection. This knowledge will help to improve and standardize detection and isolation of stem cells based on their expression of ABC drug transporters. PMID:26798352

  12. Optimized Stem Cell Detection Using the DyeCycle-Triggered Side Population Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Boesch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue and cancer stem cells are highly attractive target populations for regenerative medicine and novel potentially curative anticancer therapeutics. In order to get a better understanding of stem cell biology and function, it is essential to reproducibly identify these stem cells from biological samples for subsequent characterization or isolation. ABC drug transporter expression is a hallmark of stem cells. This is utilized to identify (cancer stem cells by exploiting their dye extrusion properties, which is referred to as the “side population assay.” Initially described for high-end flow cytometers equipped with ultraviolet lasers, this technique is now also amenable for a broader scientific community, owing to the increasing availability of violet laser-furnished cytometers and the advent of DyeCycle Violet (DCV. Here, we describe important technical aspects of the DCV-based side population assay and discuss potential pitfalls and caveats helping scientists to establish a valid and reproducible DCV-based side population assay. In addition, we investigate the suitability of blue laser-excitable DyeCycle dyes for side population detection. This knowledge will help to improve and standardize detection and isolation of stem cells based on their expression of ABC drug transporters.

  13. Phylogeography and population dynamics of the white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) in the North Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Banguera-Hinestroza, E.

    2014-02-27

    Highly mobile species in the marine environment may be expected to show little differentiation at the population level, but this is often not the case. Instead cryptic population structure is common, and effective conservation will require an understanding of how these patterns evolve. Here we present an assessment from both sides of the North Atlantic of differentiation among populations of a dolphin species that inhabits mainly pelagic waters, the Atlantic white-sided dolphin. We compare eleven putative populations in the western and eastern North Atlantic at mtDNA and microsatellite DNA loci and find reduced nucleotide diversity and signals for historical bottlenecks and post-bottleneck expansions in all regions. We calculate expansion times to have occurred during the early Holocene, following the last glacial maximum (LGM). We find evidence for connectivity among populations from either side of the North Atlantic, and differentiation between putative populations in the far northeast compared with all other areas sampled. Some data suggest the possibility of separate refugia during the LGM explaining this pattern, although ongoing ecological processes may also be a factor. We discuss the implications for developing effective programs of conservation and management in the context of ongoing anthropogenic impact. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  14. Identification of a population of cells with hematopoietic stem cell properties in mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a primary source of definitive hematopoietic cells in the midgestation mouse embryo. In cultures of dispersed AGM regions, adherent cells containing endothelial cells are observed first, and then non-adherent hematopoietic cells are produced. Here we report on the characterization of hematopoietic cells that emerge in the AGM culture. Based on the expression profiles of CD45 and c-Kit, we defined three cell populations: CD45low c-Kit+ cells that had the ability to form hematopoietic cell colonies in methylcellulose media and in co-cultures with stromal cells; CD45low c-Kit- cells that showed a granulocyte morphology; CD45high c-Kitlow/- that exhibited a macrophage morphology. In co-cultures of OP9 stromal cells and freshly prepared AGM cultures, CD45low c-Kit+ cells from the AGM culture had the abilities to reproduce CD45low c-Kit+ cells and differentiate into CD45low c-Kit- and CD45high c-Kitlow/- cells, whereas CD45low c-Kit- and CD45high c-Kitlow/- did not produce CD45low c-Kit+ cells. Furthermore, CD45low c-Kit+ cells displayed a long-term repopulating activity in adult hematopoietic tissue when transplanted into the liver of irradiated newborn mice. These results indicate that CD45low c-Kit+ cells from the AGM culture have the potential to reconstitute multi-lineage hematopoietic cells

  15. Role of the CD45 (T-200) molecule in anti-CD3-triggered T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, R L; Shanahan, F; Niederlehner, A; Targan, S R

    1988-11-01

    NK-depleted human peripheral blood lymphocytes can be modulated with anti-CD3 to kill certain targets during 3-hr cytotoxicity assays. When triggered by anti-CD3 antibody, these effector T cells killed only NK-sensitive targets, such as K562 and HEL 92.1.7, and NK-resistant targets, such as Daudi, whose killing is inhibited by anti-CD45 (T-200) monoclonal antibodies, such as 13.3. NK-sensitive targets, MOLT-4, U266/AF10, Jurkat, and CCFR-CEM, and 10 NK-resistant cell lines, including Raji, IM-9, U698, U937, and GM-1056, whose killing is not inhibited by anti-CD45 monoclonal antibodies, were not killed by alpha-CD3-T effectors, suggesting that the CD45 molecule may be involved in the killing process. Anti-CD3-triggered T cell killing of target cells was inhibited greater than 95% by the monoclonal antibody 13.3. This inhibition of cytotoxicity by 13.3 was not due to competition of this IgG1 antibody for Fc receptor binding site on the target cell, since the IgG1 monoclonal antibody anti-beta 2-microglobulin did not block cytotoxicity. Single cell assays and calcium pulse assays showed that CD45 is involved in a postbinding, pre-calcium-dependent stage, similar to that shown for NK cytotoxicity. There was a relative shift of importance of different epitopes of CD45 in anti-CD3-T cytotoxicity compared to NK cytotoxicity. Anti-CD45 antibodies which bind to the C terminus end of the molecule played a more important role in anti-CD3-T cytotoxicity than NK cytotoxicity. Thus, a subset of T cells exists that exhibits anti-CD3-triggered non-MHC-restricted killing of certain NK-sensitive and NK-resistant targets in association with a CD45 molecule which is functionally different from the NK CD45 molecule.

  16. Side Population Cells from Human Melanoma Tumors Reveal Diverse Mechanisms for Chemoresistance

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuchun; Ellis, Lixia Z; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Takeda, Moe; Robinson, William A.; Robinson, Steven; Liu, Weimin; Lewis, Karl D.; McCarter, Martin D; Gonzalez, Rene; David A Norris; Roop, Dennis R.; Spritz, Richard A.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Fujita, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    Side population (SP) is identified as cells capable of excluding the fluorescent Hoechst dye and anticancer drugs, and represents hematopoietic stem cells and chemoresistant cells from several solid tumors. In this study, we confirmed the presence of SP cells in tumors from melanoma patients. Melanoma SP cells overexpressed ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCB1 and ABCB5. We generated a direct in vivo xenograft model, and demonstrated that SP cells were resistant to paclitaxel, a sub...

  17. Single Targeted Exon Mutation Creates a True Congenic Mouse for Competitive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The C57BL/6-CD45.1STEM Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Francois E. Mercier; David B. Sykes; David T. Scadden

    2016-01-01

    Defining the molecular regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) requires in vivo functional analyses. Competitive bone marrow transplants (BMTs) compare control and test HSPCs to demonstrate the functional role of a genetic change or chemical perturbation. Competitive BMT is enabled by antibodies that specifically recognize hematopoietic cells from congenic mouse strains due to variants of the cell surface protein CD45, designated CD45.1 and CD45.2. The current congenic c...

  18. Side population sorting separates subfractions of cycling and non-cycling intestinal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. von Furstenberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here that side population (SP sorting allows for the simultaneous isolation of two intestinal stem cell (ISC subsets from wild-type (WT mice which are phenotypically different and represent cycling and non-cycling pools of cells. Following 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU injection, in the upper side population (USP the percentage of EdU+ was 36% showing this fraction to be highly proliferative. In the lower side population (LSP, only 0.4% of cells were EdU+, indicating this fraction to be predominantly non-cycling. Using Lgr5-EGFP mice, we show that Lgr5-EGFPhi cells, representing actively cycling ISCs, are essentially exclusive to the USP. In contrast, using histone 2B-YFP mice, SP analysis revealed YFP label retaining cells (LRCs in both the USP and the LSP. Correspondingly, evaluation of the SP fractions for mRNA markers by qRT-PCR showed that the USP was enriched in transcripts associated with both quiescent and active ISCs. In contrast, the LSP expressed mRNA markers of quiescent ISCs while being de-enriched for those of the active ISC. Both the USP and LSP are capable of generating enteroids in culture which include the four intestinal lineages. We conclude that sorting of USP and LSP fractions represents a novel isolation of cycling and non-cycling ISCs from WT mice.

  19. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: α (Group A = 20 patients, recombinant FSH-β (Group B = 20 patients, and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients. All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology, but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment.

  20. The new violet laser dye, Krome Orange, allows an optimal polychromatic immunophenotyping based on CD45-KO gating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preijers, F.W.M.B.; Huys, E.; Leenders, M.; Nieto, L.; Gautherot, E.; Moshaver, B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polychromatic immunophenotyping improves characterization of leukocyte subpopulations and their malignant counterparts. However, the lack of various fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) hinders the formation of multi-color panels. CD45 appears to be an important MoAb for im

  1. Cyclosporine inhibits long-term survival in cardiac allografts treated with monoclonal antibody against CD45RB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parry, N; Lazarovits, AI; Wang, JJ; Garcia, B; Luke, P; Poppema, S; Zhong, R

    1999-01-01

    Background: We have previously reported that a monoclonal antibody to CD45RB is a novel immunosuppressive agent; however, the optimal regimen in cardiac allografts remains unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine the optimal protocol of this therapy and its interaction with cyclosporin

  2. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Back, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Balkin, Ethan R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Frayo, Shani; Hylarides, Mark; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.

    2013-05-15

    Anti-CD45 Radioimmunotherapy using an Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide 211At Combined with Bone Marrow Transplantation Prolongs Survival in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model ABSTRACT Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies (Ab) labeled primarily with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse.

  3. CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, Radha [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Eligar, Sachin M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Kumar, Natesh [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: padma@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL-induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

  4. A CD45-based barcoding approach to multiplex mass-cytometry (CyTOF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Liyun; Ong, Raymond; Li, Juntao; Albani, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    CyTOF enables the study of the immune system with a complexity, depth, and multidimensionality never achieved before. However, the full potential of using CyTOF can be limited by scarce cell samples. Barcoding strategies developed based on direct labeling of cells using maleimido-monoamide-DOTA (m-DOTA) provide a very useful tool. However, using m-DOTA has some inherent problems, mainly associated with signal intensity. This may be a source of uncertainty when samples are multiplexed. As an alternative or complementary approach to m-DOTA, conjugating an antibody, specific for a membrane protein present on most immune cells, with different isotopes could address the issues of stability and signal intensity needed for effective barcoding. We chose for this purpose CD45, and designed experiments to address different types of cultures and the ability to detect extra- and intra-cellular targets. We show here that our approach provides an useful alternative to m-DOTA in terms of sensitivity, specificity, flexibility, and user-friendliness. Our manuscript provides details to effectively barcode immune cells, overcoming limitations in current technology and enabling the use of CyTOF with scarce samples (for instance precious clinical samples). PMID:25645694

  5. CD4+CD25- T cells that express latency-associated peptide on the surface suppress CD4+CD45RBhigh-induced colitis by a TGF-beta-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oida, Takatoku; Zhang, Xingmin; Goto, Masao; Hachimura, Satoshi; Totsuka, Mamoru; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Weiner, Howard L

    2003-03-01

    Murine CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells have been reported to express latency-associated peptide (LAP) and TGF-beta on the surface after activation, and exert regulatory function by the membrane-bound TGF-beta in vitro. We have now found that a small population of CD4(+) T cells, both CD25(+) and CD25(-), can be stained with a goat anti-LAP polyclonal Ab without being stimulated. Virtually all these LAP(+) cells are also positive for thrombospondin, which has the ability to convert latent TGF-beta to the active form. In the CD4(+)CD45RB(high)-induced colitis model of SCID mice, regulatory activity was exhibited not only by CD25(+)LAP(+) and CD25(+)LAP(-) cells, but also by CD25(-)LAP(+) cells. CD4(+)CD25(-)LAP(+) T cells were part of the CD45RB(low) cell fraction. CD4(+)CD25(-)LAP(-)CD45RB(low) cells had minimal, if any, regulatory activity in the colitis model. The regulatory function of CD25(-)LAP(+) cells was abrogated in vivo by anti-TGF-beta mAb. These results identify a new TGF-beta-dependent regulatory CD4(+) T cell phenotype that is CD25(-) and LAP(+). PMID:12594277

  6. Single Targeted Exon Mutation Creates a True Congenic Mouse for Competitive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The C57BL/6-CD45.1STEM Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois E. Mercier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Defining the molecular regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs requires in vivo functional analyses. Competitive bone marrow transplants (BMTs compare control and test HSPCs to demonstrate the functional role of a genetic change or chemical perturbation. Competitive BMT is enabled by antibodies that specifically recognize hematopoietic cells from congenic mouse strains due to variants of the cell surface protein CD45, designated CD45.1 and CD45.2. The current congenic competitor strain, B6.SJL-Ptprca Pepcb/BoyJ (CD45.1, has a substantial inherent disadvantage in competition against the C57BL/6 (CD45.2 strain, confounding experimental interpretation. Despite backcrossing, the congenic interval over which the B6.SJL-Ptprca Pepcb/BoyJ strain differs is almost 40 Mb encoding ∼300 genes. Here, we demonstrate that a single amino acid change determines the CD45.1 epitope. Further, we report on the single targeted exon mutant (STEM mouse strain, CD45.1STEM, which is functionally equivalent to CD45.2 cells in competitive BMT. This strain will permit the precise definition of functional roles for candidate genes using in vivo HSPC assays.

  7. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In breast cancer it is never the primary tumour that is fatal; instead it is the development of metastatic disease which is the major cause of cancer related mortality. There is accumulating evidence that suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. Breast cancer stem cell populations, including side population cells (SP), have been shown to be primitive stem cell-like populations, being long-lived, self-renewing and highly proliferative. SP cells are identified using dual wavelength flow cytometry combined with Hoechst 33342 dye efflux, this ability is due to expression of one or more members of the ABC transporter family. They have increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and apoptotic stimuli and have increased migratory potential above that of the bulk tumour cells making them strong candidates for the metastatic spread of breast cancer. Treatment of nearly all cancers usually involves one first-line agent known to be a substrate of an ABC transporter thereby increasing the risk of developing drug resistant tumours. At present there is no marker available to identify SP cells using immunohistochemistry on breast cancer patient samples. If SP cells do play a role in breast cancer progression/Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC), combining chemotherapy with ABC inhibitors may be able to destroy both the cells making up the bulk tumour and the cancer stem cell population thus preventing the risk of drug resistant disease, recurrence or metastasis

  8. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of cancer stem-like side population cells in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Long; Wu, Jian-Bing; Yi, Feng-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies in cancer biology suggest that chemotherapeutic drug resistance and tumor relapse are driven by cells within a tumor termed 'cancer stem cells'. In the present study, a Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion technique was used to identify cancer stem‑like side population (SP) cells in colon carcinoma, which accounted for 3.4% of the total cell population. Following treatment with verapamil, the population of SP cells was reduced to 0.6%. In addition, the sorted SP cells exhibited marked multidrug resistance and enhanced cell survival rates compared with non‑SP cells. The SP cells were able to generate more tumor spheres and were CD133 positive. Subsequent biochemical analysis revealed that the levels of the adenosine triphosphate‑binding cassette sub‑family G member 2 transporter protein, B‑cell lymphoma anti‑apoptotic factor and autocrine production of interleukin‑4 were significantly enhanced in the colon cancer SP cells, which contributed to drug resistance, protection of the cells from apoptosis and tumor recurrence. Therefore, the findings suggested that treatment failure and colon tumorigenesis is dictated by a small population of SP cells, which indicate a potential target in future therapies.

  9. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Kelly M. [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); Kirby, John A. [Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Lennard, Thomas W.J. [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Meeson, Annette P., E-mail: annette.meeson@ncl.ac.uk [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); North East England Stem Cell Institute, Bioscience Centre, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-19

    In breast cancer it is never the primary tumour that is fatal; instead it is the development of metastatic disease which is the major cause of cancer related mortality. There is accumulating evidence that suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. Breast cancer stem cell populations, including side population cells (SP), have been shown to be primitive stem cell-like populations, being long-lived, self-renewing and highly proliferative. SP cells are identified using dual wavelength flow cytometry combined with Hoechst 33342 dye efflux, this ability is due to expression of one or more members of the ABC transporter family. They have increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and apoptotic stimuli and have increased migratory potential above that of the bulk tumour cells making them strong candidates for the metastatic spread of breast cancer. Treatment of nearly all cancers usually involves one first-line agent known to be a substrate of an ABC transporter thereby increasing the risk of developing drug resistant tumours. At present there is no marker available to identify SP cells using immunohistochemistry on breast cancer patient samples. If SP cells do play a role in breast cancer progression/Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC), combining chemotherapy with ABC inhibitors may be able to destroy both the cells making up the bulk tumour and the cancer stem cell population thus preventing the risk of drug resistant disease, recurrence or metastasis.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Lineage(-)CD45(-)Sca-1(+) VSEL Phenotypic Cells Residing in Adult Mouse Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Ryusuke; Iwaki, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Sumide, Keisuke; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Fujioka, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Yutaka; Uemura, Yasushi; Asano, Hiroaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Sonoda, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Murine bone marrow (BM)-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (BM VSELs), defined by a lineage-negative (Lin(-)), CD45-negative (CD45(-)), Sca-1-positive (Sca-1(+)) immunophenotype, were previously reported as postnatal pluripotent stem cells (SCs). We developed a highly efficient method for isolating Lin(-)CD45(-)Sca-1(+) small cells using enzymatic treatment of murine bone. We designated these cells as bone-derived VSELs (BD VSELs). The incidences of BM VSELs in the BM-derived nucleated cells and that of BD VSELs in bone-derived nucleated cells were 0.002% and 0.15%, respectively. These BD VSELs expressed a variety of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), and endothelial cell markers. The gene expression profile of the BD VSELs was clearly distinct from those of HSCs, MSCs, and ES cells. In the steady state, the BD VSELs proliferated slowly, however, the number of BD VSELs significantly increased in the bone after acute liver injury. Moreover, green fluorescent protein-mouse derived BD VSELs transplanted via tail vein injection after acute liver injury were detected in the liver parenchyma of recipient mice. Immunohistological analyses suggested that these BD VSELs might transdifferentiate into hepatocytes. This study demonstrated that the majority of the Lin(-)CD45(-)Sca-1(+) VSEL phenotypic cells reside in the bone rather than the BM. However, the immunophenotype and the gene expression profile of BD VSELs were clearly different from those of other types of SCs, including BM VSELs, MSCs, HSCs, and ES cells. Further studies will therefore be required to elucidate their cellular and/or SC characteristics and the potential relationship between BD VSELs and BM VSELs.

  11. Flipping the switches: CD40 and CD45 modulation of microglial activation states in HIV associated dementia (HAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jingji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microglial dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of a number of neurodegenerative disorders including HIV associated dementia (HAD. HIV promotion of an M1 antigen presenting cell (APC - like microglial phenotype, through the promotion of CD40 activity, may impair endogenous mechanisms important for amyloid- beta (Aβ protein clearance. Further, a chronic pro-inflammatory cycle is established in this manner. CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor which negatively regulates CD40L-CD40-induced microglial M1 activation; an effect leading to the promotion of an M2 phenotype better suited to phagocytose and clear Aβ. Moreover, this CD45 mediated activation state appears to dampen harmful cytokine production. As such, this property of microglial CD45 as a regulatory "off switch" for a CD40-promoted M1, APC-type microglia activation phenotype may represent a critical therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of neurodegeneration, as well as microglial dysfunction, found in patients with HAD.

  12. Developing visual images for communicating information aboutantiretroviral side effects to a low-literate population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowse, Ros; Ramela, Thato; Barford, Kirsty-Lee; Browne, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are linked to altered quality of life and adherence. Poor adherence has also been associated with low health-literacy skills, with an uninformed patient more likely to make ARV-related decisions that compromise the efficacy of the treatment. Low literacy skills disempower patients in interactions with healthcare providers and preclude the use of existing written patient information materials, which are generally written at a high reading level. Visual images or pictograms used as a counselling tool or included in patient information leaflets have been shown to improve patients' knowledge, particularly in low-literate groups. The objective of this study was to design visuals or pictograms illustrating various ARV side effects and to evaluate them in a low-literate South African Xhosa population. Core images were generated either from a design workshop or from posed photos or images from textbooks. The research team worked closely with a graphic artist. Initial versions of the images were discussed and assessed in group discussions, and then modified and eventually evaluated quantitatively in individual interviews with 40 participants who each had a maximum of 10 years of schooling. The familiarity of the human body, its facial expressions, postures and actions contextualised the information and contributed to the participants' understanding. Visuals that were simple, had a clear central focus and reflected familiar body experiences (e.g. vomiting) were highly successful. The introduction of abstract elements (e.g. fever) and metaphorical images (e.g. nightmares) presented problems for interpretation, particularly to those with the lowest educational levels. We recommend that such visual images should be designed in collaboration with the target population and a graphic artist, taking cognisance of the audience's literacy skills and culture, and should employ a multistage iterative process of modification and

  13. Persistence of side population cells with high drug efflux capacity in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the persistence of side population (SP) cells in pancreatic cancer and their role and mechanism in the drug resistance.METHODS:The presentation of side population cells in pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and its proportion change when cultured with Gemcitabine,was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining and FACS analysis.The expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 was detected by realtime PCR in either SP cells or non-SP cells.RESULTS:SP cells do exist in PANC-1,with a median of 3.3% and a range of 2.1-8.7%.After cultured with Gemcitabine for 3 d,the proportion of SP cells increased significantly(3.8% ± 1.9%,10.7% ± 3.7%, t = 4.616,P = 0.001 < 0.05).ABCB1 and ABCG2 expressed at higher concentrations in SP as compared with non-SP cells (ABCBI: 1.15 ± 0.72, 5.82 ± 1.16, t = 10.839,P = 0.000 < 0.05; ABCG2:1.16 ± 0.75,5.48 ± 0.94,t = 11.305,P = 0.000 < 0.05),which may contribute to the efflux of fluorescent staining and drug resistance.CONCLUSION:SP cells with inherently high resistance to chemotherapeutic agents do exist in pancreatic cancers,which may be candidate cancer stem cells contributing to the relapse of the tumor.

  14. Different population structure in genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Casal-Lopez

    2015-12-01

    Here, through a phylogeographic study based on mitochondrial molecular markers, we found different structures on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar, as well as faunistic connections probably established on both sides during Miocene. Our results show that populations may have followed different and complex histories and species have suffered diverse events of vicariance and dispersion. While north Moroccan population show a well-defined structure, showing not only unique haplotypes, but different species, the case of the southern populations of the Iberian endemism, Luciobarbus sclateri Günther, 1868, differs substantially.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations in adult mouse cardiac side population cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lushaj, Entela B., E-mail: lushaj@surgery.wisc.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Lozonschi, Lucian; Barnes, Maria; Anstadt, Emily; Kohmoto, Takushi [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the presence and potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations in adult cardiac stem cells. Cardiac side population (SP) cells were isolated from 12-week-old mice. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen for the presence of mtDNA deletion mutations in (a) freshly isolated SP cells and (b) SP cells cultured to passage 10. When present, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutation was analyzed in single cell colonies. The effect of different levels of deletion mutations on SP cell growth and differentiation was determined. MtDNA deletion mutations were found in both freshly isolated and cultured cells from 12-week-old mice. While there was no significant difference in the number of single cell colonies with mtDNA deletion mutations from any of the groups mentioned above, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutations was significantly higher in the cultured cells, as determined by quantitative PCR. Within a single clonal cell population, the detectable mtDNA deletion mutations were the same in all cells and unique when compared to deletions of other colonies. We also found that cells harboring high levels of mtDNA deletion mutations (i.e. where deleted mtDNA comprised more than 60% of total mtDNA) had slower proliferation rates and decreased differentiation capacities. Screening cultured adult stem cells for mtDNA deletion mutations as a routine assessment will benefit the biomedical application of adult stem cells.

  16. Characterization of Side Cell Populations Obtained from Human Amnion Mesenchymal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; PIAO Zhengfu; Mamoru Kobayashi; Koji Sasaki; DING Shu-qin; Aiko Kikuchi; Isao Kamo; Norio Sakuragawa

    2009-01-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal cells (AMCs) contain multipotent cells. To enrich such multipotent stem cells, we applied to AMCs the new method for the isolation of side population (SP) cells used for the enrichment of multipotent stem cells from many tissues. We succeeded in obtaining SP cells from AMCs (AMC-SP cells). AMC-SP cells were found in 0.2% of AMCs, irrespective of the length of pregnant period, ranging from 37 to 40 weeks. Cell cycle analyses uggested that AMC-SP cells belonged to a cell population that proliferated very slowly and/or was in a quiescent state in the amniotic membrane. Upon culturing, they proliferated with 40 to 80 cell doublings. However, they did not form colonies in a soft agarose culture, whereas HepG2 cells, representative human hepatoma cells formed many large colonies. These results suggest that AMC-SP cells that have considerable value for the use of regenerative medicine can be managed safely in vitro.

  17. Noninvasive identification of left-sided heart failure in a population suspected of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wouter; Konings, Thelma C; Heymans, Martijn W; Boonstra, Anco; Bogaard, Harm Jan; van Rossum, Albert C; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2015-08-01

    Exclusion of pulmonary hypertension secondary to left-sided heart disease (left heart failure (LHF)) is pivotal in the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In case of doubt, invasive measurements are recommended. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether it is possible to diagnose LHF using noninvasive parameters in a population suspected of PAH.300 PAH and 80 LHF patients attended our pulmonary hypertension clinic before August 2010, and were used to build the predictive model. 79 PAH and 55 LHF patients attended our clinic from August 2010, and were used for prospective validation.A medical history of left heart disease, S deflection in V1 plus R deflection in V6 in millimetres on ECG, and left atrial dilation or left valvular heart disease that is worse than mild on echocardiography were independent predictors of LHF. The derived risk score system showed good predictive characteristics: R(2)=0.66 and area under the curve 0.93. In patients with a risk score ≥72, there is 100% certainty that the cause of pulmonary hypertension is LHF. Using this risk score system, the number of right heart catheterisations in LHF may be reduced by 20%.In a population referred under suspicion of PAH, a predictive model incorporating medical history, ECG and echocardiography data can diagnose LHF noninvasively in a substantial percentage of cases. PMID:25837029

  18. Human endometrial side population cells exhibit genotypic, phenotypic and functional features of somatic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cervelló

    Full Text Available During reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes around 480 cycles of growth, breakdown and regeneration should pregnancy not be achieved. This outstanding regenerative capacity is the basis for women's cycling and its dysfunction may be involved in the etiology of pathological disorders. Therefore, the human endometrial tissue must rely on a remarkable endometrial somatic stem cells (SSC population. Here we explore the hypothesis that human endometrial side population (SP cells correspond to somatic stem cells. We isolated, identified and characterized the SP corresponding to the stromal and epithelial compartments using endometrial SP genes signature, immunophenotyping and characteristic telomerase pattern. We analyzed the clonogenic activity of SP cells under hypoxic conditions and the differentiation capacity in vitro to adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Finally, we demonstrated the functional capability of endometrial SP to develop human endometrium after subcutaneous injection in NOD-SCID mice. Briefly, SP cells of human endometrium from epithelial and stromal compartments display genotypic, phenotypic and functional features of SSC.

  19. Deletion of Pten in CD45-expressing cells leads to development of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma but not myeloid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirantes, Cristina; Dosil, Maria Alba; Hills, David; Yang, Jian; Eritja, Núria; Santacana, Maria; Gatius, Sònia; Vilardell, Felip; Medvinsky, Alexander; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2016-04-14

    Since its discovery in the late 1990s, Pten has turned out to be one of the most important tumor suppressor genes. Pten loss results in increased activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, which is associated with increased proliferation, survival, and neoplastic growth. Here, we have addressed the effects of conditional deletion of Pten in hematopoietic cells by crossing Pten conditional knockout mice with a knock-in mouse expressing the Cre recombinase in the CD45 locus. CD45 is also known as leukocyte common antigen, and it is expressed in virtually all white cells and in hematopoietic stem cells. Using a reporter mouse, we demonstrate that CD45:Cre mouse displays recombinase activity in both myeloid and lymphoid cells. However, deletion of Pten in CD45-expressing cells induces development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma, but not other hematologic malignancies. PMID:26773036

  20. MiR-888 regulates side population properties and cancer metastasis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengjian; Chen, Liangbiao

    2014-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have recently been reported to possess properties related to cancer metastasis. However, the mechanism by which microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate these properties remains unclear. This study aims to investigate a correlation between miRNAs and the side population (SP) of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with CSC properties. miR-888 was found in our previous study to be up-regulated in SP cells and predicted to target E-Cadherin directly, indicating a potential role in maintaining SP properties and regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer metastasis. After the over-expression of miR-888 in MCF-7 cells and knock-down of its expression in SP cells, we found that miR-888 played a role in maintaining CSC-related properties. Next, miR-888 was found to regulate the EMT process by targeting related gene expression. Lastly, MCF-7 cells over-expressing miR-888 exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to adhere to the extracellular matrix and an increased potential for migration and invasion, whereas knock-down of miR-888 expression in SP cells reversed these trends. In conclusion, miR-888 maintains SP properties and regulates EMT and metastasis in MCF-7 cells, potentially by targeting E-Cadherin expression.

  1. A role for matrix stiffness in the regulation of cardiac side population cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yiling; Bayomy, Ahmad F; Gomez, Marcus V; Bauer, Michael; Du, Ping; Yang, Yanfei; Zhang, Xin; Liao, Ronglih

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of the local microenvironment may have important influence on the fate and function of adult tissue progenitor cells, altering the regenerative process. This is particularly critical following a myocardial infarction, in which the normal, compliant myocardial tissue is replaced with fibrotic, stiff scar tissue. In this study, we examined the effects of matrix stiffness on adult cardiac side population (CSP) progenitor cell behavior. Ovine and murine CSP cells were isolated and cultured on polydimethylsiloxane substrates, replicating the elastic moduli of normal and fibrotic myocardium. Proliferation capacity and cell cycling were increased in CSP cells cultured on the stiff substrate with an associated reduction in cardiomyogeneic differentiation and accelerated cell ageing. In addition, culture on stiff substrate stimulated upregulation of extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins gene expression in CSP cells. Collectively, we demonstrate that microenvironment properties, including matrix stiffness, play a critical role in regulating progenitor cell functions of endogenous resident CSP cells. Understanding the effects of the tissue microenvironment on resident cardiac progenitor cells is a critical step toward achieving functional cardiac regeneration.

  2. Factors Influencing the Abundance of the Side Population in a Human Myeloma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui-Lin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Side population (SP refers to a group of cells, which is capable to efflux Hoechst 33342, a DNA-binding dye. SP cells exist both in normal and tumor tissues. Although SP abundance has been used as an indicator for disease prognostic and drug screening in many research projects, few studies have systematically examined the factors influencing SP analysis. In this study we aim to develop a more thorough understanding of the multiple factors involved in SP analysis including Hoechst 33342 staining and cell culture. RPMI-8226, a high SP percentage (SP% human myeloma cell line was employed here. The results showed that SP% was subject to staining conditions including: viable cell proportion, dye concentration, staining cell density, incubation duration, staining volume, and mix interval. In addition, SP% was highest in day one after passage, while dropped steadily over time. This study shows that both staining conditions and culture duration can significantly affect SP%. In this case, any conclusions based on SP% should be interpreted cautiously. The relation between culture duration and SP% suggests that the incidence of SP cells may be related to cell proliferation and cell cycle phase. Maintaining these technical variables consistently is essential in SP research.

  3. microRNA Expression Profiling of Side Population Cells in Human Lung Cancer and Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao XU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Recent studies indicate that the side population (SP which is an enriched source of cancer stem cells (CSCs is the root cause of tumor growth and development. SP appears to be highly resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy which becomes an important factor in tumor recurrence and metastasis. The aim of this study is to determine the difference of microRNA expression profiles between SP cells and non-SP cells so as to lay necessary basis for research on the function of miRNA in lung cancer stem cells. Methods SP and non-SP cells were isolated using flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 dye efflux assay from human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell. The total RNA was extracted. The microarray detection system was employed to analyze whether there was difference in miRNA expression profile between SP and non-SP cells. Results A total of 85 differentially expressed miRNA were found, including 32 over-expression and 53 low-expression miRNA in SP. Conclusion miRNA may play important roles in tumorigenesis of lung cancer stem cell. The study of miRNA contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanism of lung cancer stem cell.

  4. Increased CD45RA+ FoxP3(low regulatory T cells with impaired suppressive function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg in the control of the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE has not been well defined. Therefore, we dissect the phenotypically heterogeneous CD4(+FoxP3(+ T cells into subpopulations during the dynamic SLE development. METHODLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the proliferative and suppressive capacities of different CD4(+ T cell subgroups between active SLE patients and healthy donors, we employed CD45RA and CD25 as surface markers and carboxyfluorescein diacetatesuccinimidyl ester (CFSE dilution assay. In addition, multiplex cytokines expression in active SLE patients was assessed using Luminex assay. Here, we showed a significant increase in the frequency of CD45RA(+FoxP3(low naive Treg cells (nTreg cells and CD45RA(-FoxP3(low (non-Treg cells in patients with active SLE. In active SLE patients, the increased proportions of CD45RA(+FoxP3(low nTreg cells were positively correlated with the disease based on SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI and the status of serum anti-dsDNA antibodies. We found that the surface marker combination of CD25(+CD45RA(+ can be used to defined CD45RA(+FoxP3(low nTreg cells for functional assays, wherein nTreg cells from active SLE patients demonstrated defective suppression function. A significant correlation was observed between inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12 and TNFα, and the frequency of nTreg cells. Furthermore, the CD45RA(+FoxP3(low nTreg cell subset increased when cultured with SLE serum compared to healthy donor serum, suggesting that the elevated inflammatory cytokines of SLE serum may promote nTreg cell proliferation/expansion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that impaired numbers of functional CD45RA(+FoxP3(low naive Treg cell and CD45RA(-FoxP3(low non-suppressive T cell subsets in inflammatory conditions may contribute to SLE development. Therefore, analysis of subsets of FoxP3(+ T cells, using a

  5. Measurability of side chain rotational isomer populations NMR and molecular mechanics of cobalt glycyl-leucine dipeptide model system

    CERN Document Server

    Haydock, C; Likic, V A; Prendergast, F G; Macura, S; Haydock, Christopher; Juranic, Nenad; Likic, Vladimir A.; Prendergast, Franklyn G.; Macura, Slobodan

    1999-01-01

    The cobalt glycyl-leucine dipeptide is a model system for studying the effects of Karplus equation calibration, molecular mechanics accuracy, backbone conformation, and thermal motions on the measurability of side chain rotational isomer populations. We analyze measurements of 8 vicinal coupling constants about the alpha to beta-carbon and beta to gamma-carbon bonds of the leucine side chain and of 10 NOESY cross relaxation rates across these bonds. Molecular mechanics and peptide and protein crystallographic databases are an essential part of this analysis because they independently suggest that the trans gauche-plus and gauche-minus trans rotational isomers of the leucine side chain predominate. They also both suggest that puckering of the cobalt dipeptide ring system reduces the gauche-plus gauche-plus rotational isomer population to less than about 10%. At the present +/- 1 Hz calibration accuracy of Karplus equations for vicinal coupling constants, the predominant trans gauche-plus and gauche-minus trans...

  6. Effect of Bcl-2 and Bax on survival of side population cells from hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the role and significance of side population (SP) cells from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatocarcinogenesis, development, relapse and metastasis, we simulated the denutrition conditions that cancer cells experience in clinical therapy, observed the different anti-apoptosis ability of SP cells and non-SP cells under such conditions, and established the possible effects of P53, Bcl-2 and Bax on survival of SP cells.METHODS: We used flow cytometry to analyze and sort the SP and non-SP cells in established HCC lines MHCC97and hHCC. We evaluated cell proliferation by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and investigated the expression of p53, bd-2 and bax genes during denutrition,by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining.RESULTS: The percentage of SP cells in the two established HCC lines was 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively.SP cells had greater anti-apoptosis and proliferation ability than non-SP cells. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in SP and non-SP cells differed during denutrition. The former was up-regulated in SP cells, and the latter was up-regulated in non-SP cells.CONCLUSION: It may be that different upstream molecules acted and led to different expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax in these two cell lines. There was a direct relationship between up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax and higher anti-apoptosis ability in SP cells. It may be that the existence and activity of SP cells are partly responsible for some of the clinical phenomena which are seen in HCC, such as relapse or metastasis. Further research on SP cells may have potential applications in the field of anticancer therapy.

  7. Sorting and biological characteristics analysis for side population cells in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yegui; Gao, Hucheng; Liu, Mingdong; Mao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cause of the tumor worldwide, its incidence is increasing year by year. This study aims to investigate the sorting and biological characteristics of side population (SP) cells. Human HCC tissues used were obtained from patients undergoing surgical resection. SP cells were sorted using flow cytometry. Cell cycle assay, apoptosis assay and colony formation assay were performed to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. Invasion assay was employed to examine SP cell invasion. Tumorigenicity assay was used to evaluate tumorigenicity. HCC related microRNAs (miRNA) were analyzed using Micro-array analysis. Target genes were predicted using miRNA database. GO analsis was employed to predict target gene function. Apoptosis percentage was lower and cell viability was higher in SP cells than non-SP (NSP) cells. Colony forming ability of SP cells was significantly higher than NSP cells. Transwell assay positive cells in SP cells were higher significantly than NSP cells. Tumorigenicity of SP cells was higher significantly than NSP cells. 107 differentially expression miRNA were discovered, including 45 up-expressed miRNAs and 62 down-expressed miRNAs in SP cells. Up-regulated hsa-miR-193b-3p and hsa-miR-505-3p predict 25 and 35 target genes, and correlated with 4 and 42 GO terms, respectively. Down-regulated hsa-miR-200a-3p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-130b-3p predict 133, 48 and 127 target genes, and correlate with 10, 7 and 109 GO terms, respectively. In conclusion, proliferation, colony formation, anti-apoptosis, self-renewal capavility, invasive characteristic and tumorigenicity in SP cells isolated from HCC tissues was higher compared to NSP cells. Therefore, sorted SP cells could characterize with biological functions of cancer stem cells.

  8. Cigarette smoke promotes drug resistance and expansion of cancer stem cell-like side population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi An

    Full Text Available It is well known that many patients continue to smoke cigarettes after being diagnosed with cancer. Although smoking cessation has typically been presumed to possess little therapeutic value for cancer, a growing body of evidence suggests that continued smoking is associated with reduced efficacy of treatment and a higher incidence of recurrence. We therefore investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC on drug resistance in the lung cancer and head and neck cancer cell lines A549 and UMSCC-10B, respectively. Our results showed that CSC significantly increased the cellular efflux of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. This was accompanied by membrane localization and increased expression of the multi-drug transporter ABCG2. The induced efflux of doxorubicin was reversed upon addition of the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, confirming the role of ABCG2. Treatment with CSC increased the concentration of phosphorylated Akt, while addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked doxorubicin extrusion, suggesting that Akt activation is required for CSC-induced drug efflux. In addition, CSC was found to promote resistance to doxorubicin as determined by MTS assays. This CSC-induced doxurbicin-resistance was mitigated by mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor, suggesting that nicotine is at least partially responsible for the effect of CSC. Lastly, CSC increased the size of the side population (SP, which has been linked to a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. In summary, CSC promotes chemoresistance via Akt-mediated regulation of ABCG2 activity, and may also increase the proportion of cancer stem-like cells, contributing to tumor resilience. These findings underscore the importance of smoking cessation following a diagnosis of cancer, and elucidate the mechanisms of continued smoking that may be detrimental to treatment.

  9. Differential requirement for the CD45 splicing regulator hnRNPLL for accumulation of NKT and conventional T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yabas

    Full Text Available Natural killer T (NKT cells represent an important regulatory T cell subset that develops in the thymus and contains immature (NK1.1(lo and mature (NK1.1(hi cell subsets. Here we show in mice that an inherited mutation in heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein L-like protein (hnRNPLL(thunder, that shortens the survival of conventional T cells, has no discernible effect on NKT cell development, homeostasis or effector function. Thus, Hnrpll deficiency effectively increases the NKT∶T cell ratio in the periphery. However, Hnrpll mutation disrupts CD45RA, RB and RC exon silencing of the Ptprc mRNA in both NKT and conventional T cells, and leads to a comparably dramatic shift to high molecular weight CD45 isoforms. In addition, Hnrpll mutation has a cell intrinsic effect on the expression of the developmentally regulated cell surface marker NK1.1 on NKT cells in the thymus and periphery but does not affect cell numbers. Therefore our results highlight both overlapping and divergent roles for hnRNPLL between conventional T cells and NKT cells. In both cell subsets it is required as a trans-acting factor to regulate alternative splicing of the Ptprc mRNA, but it is only required for survival of conventional T cells.

  10. CD45/CD8 myeloid histioid antigen and plasma cell antibody immune response in a case of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu-Velez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response in metastatic melanoma is not well established and therefore is of particular interest to test for recruitment of immune cells to the tumor. A 46-year-old Caucasian female was evaluated for an asymptomatic right forearm mass. The lesion had been present for at least 4 years and had become painful 4 months ago. Biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin (H and E staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis were performed on the primary tumor and on sentinel lymph nodes. The H and E staining was consistent with metastatic melanoma. Positive staining was noted on the tumor cells with S-100, Mart-1/Melan A/CD63, PNL2, HMB45, and tyrosinase. Peritumoral and intratumoral inflammatory cells stained positive for CD8, CD45, PCNA, myeloid histoid antigen, antihuman plasma cell antibody, and focal BRCA1. The staining patterns of CD8/CD45, myeloid histoid antigen and plasma cell antibody on inflammatory cells around the melanoma cells suggest an unusual type of immune response.

  11. Protection against bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is associated with allograft CCR7+ CD45RA- T regulatory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aric L Gregson

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS is the major obstacle to long-term survival after lung transplantation, yet markers for early detection and intervention are currently lacking. Given the role of regulatory T cells (Treg in modulation of immunity, we hypothesized that frequencies of Treg in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF after lung transplantation would predict subsequent development of BOS. Seventy BALF specimens obtained from 47 lung transplant recipients were analyzed for Treg lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry, in parallel with ELISA measurements of chemokines. Allograft biopsy tissue was stained for chemokines of interest. Treg were essentially all CD45RA(-, and total Treg frequency did not correlate to BOS outcome. The majority of Treg were CCR4(+ and CD103(- and neither of these subsets correlated to risk for BOS. In contrast, higher percentages of CCR7(+ Treg correlated to reduced risk of BOS. Additionally, the CCR7 ligand CCL21 correlated with CCR7(+ Treg frequency and inversely with BOS. Higher frequencies of CCR7(+ CD3(+CD4(+CD25(hiFoxp3(+CD45RA(- lymphocytes in lung allografts is associated with protection against subsequent development of BOS, suggesting that this subset of putative Treg may down-modulate alloimmunity. CCL21 may be pivotal for the recruitment of this distinct subset to the lung allograft and thereby decrease the risk for chronic rejection.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Side Population Cells in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-liang Zhu; Long-bang Chen; Jing-hua Wang; Xin-yi Xia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There has been an increasing interest in recent years in the role of stem cells.With an extensive understanding of their biology,a major role for stem cells in the malignant process has been proposed and the existence of cancer stem cells(CSCs) has been confirmed in hematopoietic malignancies and solid organ malignancies including brain cancer,breast,prostate,colon,and pancreatic cancer.Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in most large cities of China.It is possible that lung cancer contains cancer stem cells responsible for its malignancy.The aim of this study is to identify,characterize and enrich the CSC population that drives and maintains lung adenocarcinoma growth and metastasis.Methods: Side population(SP) cell analysis and sorting were applied on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line and an attempt to further enrich them by preliminary serum-free culture before fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was done.Stem cell properties of SP cells were evaluated by their proliferative index,colony-forming efficiency,tumorigenic potential,bi-differentiation capacity and the expression of common stem cell surface markers.Results: Lung cancer cells could grow in a serum-free Medium(SFM) as non-adherent spheres similar to neurospheres or mammospheres.The proportion of SP cells in cell spheres was significantly higher than that in cells grown as monolayers.SP cells had a greater proliferative index,a higher colony-forming efficiency and a greater ability to form tumor in vivo.SP cells were both CCA positive and SP-C positive while non-SP cells were only SP-C positive.Flow cytometric analysis of cell phenotype showed that SP cells expressed CD133 and CD44,the common cell surface markers of cancer stem cells,while non-SP cells only expressed CD44.Conclusion: SP cells existed in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and they could be further enriched by preliminary serum-free culture before FACS sorting.SP cells possessed the properties of

  13. Identification and Characterization of Side Population Cells in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-liang Zhu; Long-bang Chen; Jing-hua Wang; Xin-yi Xia

    2010-01-01

    Objective:There has been an increasing interest in recent years in the role of stem cells.With an extensive understanding of their biology,a major role for stem cells in the malignant process has been proposed and the existence of cancer stem cells(CSCs)has been confirmed in hematopoietic malignancies and solid organ malignancies including brain cancer,breast,prostate,colon,and pancreatic cancer.Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in most large cities of China.It is possible that lung cancer contains cancer stem cells responsible for its malignancy.The aim of this study is to identify,characterize and enrich the CSC population that drives and maintains lung adenocarcinoma growth and metastasis.Methods:Side population(SP)cell analysis and sorting were applied on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line and an attempt to further enrich them by preliminary serum-free culture before fluorescence activated cell sorting(FACS)was done.Stem cell properties of SP cells were evaluated by their proliferative index,colony-forming efficiency,tumorigenic potential,bi-differentiation capacity and the expression of common stem cell surface markers.Results:Lung cancer cells could grow in a serum-free Medium(SFM)as non-adherent spheres similar to neurospheres or mammospheres.The proportion of SP cells in cell spheres was significantly higher than that in cells grown as monolayers.SP cells had a greater proliferative index,a higher colony-forming efficiency and a greater ability to form tumor in vivo.SP cells were both CCA positive and SP-C positive while non-SP cells were only SP-C positive.Flow cytometric analysis of cell phenotype showed that SP cells expressed CD133 and CD44,the common cell surface markers of cancer stem cells,while non-SP cells only expressed CD44.Conclusion:SP cells existed in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and they could be further enriched by preliminary serum-free culture before FACS sorting.SP cells possessed the properties of cancer stem

  14. Reishi Protein LZ-8 Induces FOXP3+ Treg Expansion via a CD45-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Alleviates Acute Intestinal Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yeh Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available LZ-8, an immunomodulatory protein isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (also known as Ling-Zhi or Reishi, has been shown to promote cell proliferation and IL-2 production in T cells. In this study, we show that LZ-8 induces the expansion of both murine and human CD4+ T cells into FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg cells. LZ-8 treatment was found to stimulate a 4-fold and a 10-fold expansion in the Treg populations of murine and human primary CD4+ T cells, respectively. In addition, the expression of CTLA-4 and IL-10 was induced in LZ-8-treated CD4+ T cells. Using neutralizing antibodies and gene-deficient T-cell lines, we also found that LZ-8 promotes Treg expansion through a CD45-mediated signaling pathway and that the CD18-dependent induction of IL-2 was involved in Treg formation and IL-10 production. The suppressive activity of LZ-8 was confirmed using a murine model of DSS-induced colitis; the disease was alleviated by the adoptive transfer of LZ-8-treated CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, a new regulatory function for LZ-8 was identified, and the molecular mechanisms underlying this function were elucidated.

  15. Using species distribution model to estimate the wintering population size of the endangered scaly-sided merganser in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available Scaly-sided Merganser is a globally endangered species restricted to eastern Asia. Estimating its population is difficult and considerable gap exists between populations at its breeding grounds and wintering sites. In this study, we built a species distribution model (SDM using Maxent with presence-only data to predict the potential wintering habitat for Scaly-sided Merganser in China. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC method suggests high predictive power of the model (training and testing AUC were 0.97 and 0.96 respectively. The most significant environmental variables included annual mean temperature, mean temperature of coldest quarter, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of driest quarter. Suitable conditions for Scaly-sided Merganser are predicted in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, especially in Jiangxi, Hunan and Hubei Provinces. The predicted suitable habitat embraces 6,984 km of river. Based on survey results from three consecutive winters (2010-2012 and previous studies, we estimated that the entire wintering population of Scaly-sided Merganser in China to be 3,561 ± 478 individuals, which is consistent with estimate in its breeding ground.

  16. The leukocyte common antigen (CD45) on human pre-B leukemia cells: variant glycoprotein form expression during the cell exposure to phorbol ester is blocked by a nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line REH6 was utilized for characterization of CD45 glycoprotein by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing four distinct CD45 antigen specificities, i.e. nonrestricted CD45, restricted, CD45RA, CD45RB and CD45R0. Immunoprecipitation revealed two antigen specificities on REH6 cells of m.w. 220 kDa and 190 kDa, both presenting wide range of isoelectric point pI∼6.0-7.5. Nonrestricted CD45 epitopes were not affected by the sialyl acid cleavage with sodium meta-periodate or neuraminidase, but were sensitive to both, tunicamycin, the N-glycosylation inhibitor and monensin, an inhibitor of protein transport through the Golgi compartment. O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase from Pasteurella haemolytica A1 partially cleaved CD45RA and CD45RB epitopes, while nonrestricted CD45 determinants were not affected by this enzyme. Limited proteolysis of this antigen resulted in the appearance of 160-180 kDa peptide domains which retained CD45 epitopes. Further, the treatment of cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced marked down-regulation of 220 and 190 kDa isoforms and the appearance of new 210, 180 and 170 kDa variant glycoprotein forms which were not found on parental cells. This PMA effect was not accompanied by the programmed cell death and was markedly blocked by a nonselective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor iso-quinoline sulfonamide H7. Modulation of CD45 by phorbol esters might serve as an in vitro model for an additional insight into the function of CD45 in hematopoietic cells. (author)

  17. A Depleting Anti-CD45 Monoclonal Antibody as Isolated Conditioning for Bone Marrow Transplantation in the Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Jäger

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody (mAb against the leukocyte common antigen CD45 (RT7 in rats could facilitate bone marrow transplantation (BMT. This study in rats evaluates a depletive rat anti-RT7a mAb as isolated tool for BMT conditioning without using irradiation or any chemotherapeutic / immunosuppressive agent.The model used a CD45 di-allelic polymorphism (RT7a/RT7b. The anti-RT7a mAb was intravenously administered to LEW.1W rats (RT1uRT7a at 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg. 1x108 BM cells of MHC syngeneic (RT1u, MHC disparate (RT1l or MHC haploidentical (RT1u/l donors were transplanted. All BM donor strains carried the RT7b allele so that their CD45+ cells were not affected by the anti-RT7a mAb. Recipients were monitored for reconstitution and donor-chimerism in blood leukocytes.mAb dosages of 5 or 10 mg/kg were myelosuppressive, whereas 15 mg/kg was myeloablative. Multi-lineage donor-chimerism at day 100 indicated engraftment of MHC syngeneic BM after any used mAb dosage (5 mg/kg: 46+/-7%; 10 mg/kg: 62+/-5%; 15 mg/kg: 80+/-4%. MHC disparate BM resulted in autologous reconstitution after conditioning by 10 mg/kg of the mAb and caused transient chimerism ending up in death associated with aplasia after conditioning by 15 mg/kg of the mAb. MHC haploidentical BM (F1 to parental engrafted only after conditioning by 15 mg/kg (chimerism at day 100: 78+/-7%. Abandonment of α/β TCR+ cell depletion from BM grafts impaired the engraftment process after conditioning using 15 mg/kg of the mAb in the MHC syngeneic setting (2 of 6 recipients failed to engraft and the MHC haploidentical setting (3 of 6 recipients failed.This depletive anti-RT7a mAb is myelosuppressive and conditions for engraftment of MHC syngeneic BM. The mAb also facilitates engraftment of MHC haploidentical BM, if a myeloablative dose is used. RT7b expressing, BM-seeded α/β TCR+ cells seem to impair the engraftment process after myeloablative mAb conditioning.

  18. The human cytomegalovirus UL11 protein interacts with the receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45, resulting in functional paralysis of T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildar Gabaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (CMV exerts diverse and complex effects on the immune system, not all of which have been attributed to viral genes. Acute CMV infection results in transient restrictions in T cell proliferative ability, which can impair the control of the virus and increase the risk of secondary infections in patients with weakened or immature immune systems. In a search for new immunomodulatory proteins, we investigated the UL11 protein, a member of the CMV RL11 family. This protein family is defined by the RL11 domain, which has homology to immunoglobulin domains and adenoviral immunomodulatory proteins. We show that pUL11 is expressed on the cell surface and induces intercellular interactions with leukocytes. This was demonstrated to be due to the interaction of pUL11 with the receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45, identified by mass spectrometry analysis of pUL11-associated proteins. CD45 expression is sufficient to mediate the interaction with pUL11 and is required for pUL11 binding to T cells, indicating that pUL11 is a specific CD45 ligand. CD45 has a pivotal function regulating T cell signaling thresholds; in its absence, the Src family kinase Lck is inactive and signaling through the T cell receptor (TCR is therefore shut off. In the presence of pUL11, several CD45-mediated functions were inhibited. The induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple signaling proteins upon TCR stimulation was reduced and T cell proliferation was impaired. We therefore conclude that pUL11 has immunosuppressive properties, and that disruption of T cell function via inhibition of CD45 is a previously unknown immunomodulatory strategy of CMV.

  19. Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes can Target Chemoresistant Side-Population Tumor Cells in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Jessica A.; Cruz, Conrad R.; Leen, Ann M; Ku, Stephanie; LU, AN; Rousseau, Alexandra; Heslop, Helen E.; Rooney, Cliona M; Bollard, Catherine M.; Foster, Aaron E.

    2010-01-01

    Side-population (SP) analysis has been used to identify progenitor cells from normal and malignant tissues as well as revealing tumor cells with increased resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Despite enhanced chemoresistance, tumor SP cells may still express tumor associated antigens (TAA) which may render them susceptible to elimination by the immune system. In this study, we show that both Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) cell lines and primary HL tumor samples contain a distinct SP phenotype. ...

  20. Concurrent hypermulticolor monitoring of CD31, CD34, CD45 and CD146 endothelial progenitor cell markers for acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Yumi [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myung Hyun [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Hyuk, Song Woo [Cardiology College of Medicine, Korea University (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soo Young [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Joon Myong, E-mail: jmsong@snu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We observe EPCs and HPCs in patient for AMI diagnosis. • We detect two EPC subtypes using quantum dot and AOTF. • Quantum dot has narrower emission wavelength range than fluorescence dye. • AOTF provide smaller spectral interference than bandpass filters. • Quantum dot and AOTF are suitable for detecting large number of molecular markers concurrently. - Abstract: The circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in blood of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patient have been monitored in many previous studies. The number of circulating EPC increases in the blood of patients at onset of the AMI. EPC is originated from bone marrow. It performs vessel regeneration. There are many markers used for detecting EPC. Four of these markers, CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD146, were concurrently detected at the single cell level for the identification of EPC in the present preliminary study. The CD45 negative cell sorting was performed to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) acquired from four AMI patients with a magnetic bead sorter, since, EPCs expressed CD45 negative or dim. The resultant PBMC eluents were treated with quantum-antibody conjugates for the probing four different markers of EPCs and then applied to a high-content single cell imaging cytometer using acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The use of quantum dot, with narrow emission wavelength range and AOTF enabling cellular image at a particular single wavelength, is very advantageous for accurate high-content AMI diagnosis based on simultaneous monitoring of many markers. The number of EPC increased as compared with control in three of four AMI patients. In this approach, two EPC subtypes were found, CD31(+), CD34(+), CD45(−/dim), CD146(−) as early outgrowth EPCs and CD31(+), CD34(+), CD45(−/dim), CD146(+) as late outgrowth EPCs. Patient 1 had CD31(+), CD34(+), CD45(−/dim), CD146(+) cells whose percentage was 4.21% of cells. Patient 2 had 2.38% of CD31(+), CD34(+), CD45(

  1. Enhanced population of side band of {sup 155}Gd in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Masumi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    In the Coulomb excitation of {sup 155}Gd with heavy projectiles, {sup 32}S, {sup 58}Ni and {sup 90}Zr, unexpectedly large enhancement of a positive-parity side band has been observed. This enhancement could not be reproduced by a Coulomb-excitation calculation taking into account the recommended upper limits of E1 or E3 transitions, which are compiled in the whole mass region, and is proportional to the electric field accomplished in the Coulomb-scattering process. (author)

  2. Signal transduction by HLA-DR is mediated by tyrosine kinase(s) and regulated by CD45 in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Martin, P J; Schieven, G L;

    1991-01-01

    , but the inhibitory effect of CD45 dominated over the enhancing effect of CD4. These data indicate that PTK activation is obligatory for DR-induced (Ca2+)i responses, suggesting a linkage between these pathways in class II signal transduction. This conclusion is consistent with our observation that in activated human...

  3. Colitis-inducing potency of CD4+ T cells in immunodeficient, adoptive hosts depends on their state of activation, IL-12 responsiveness, and CD45RB surface phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Bregenholt, S; Bonhagen, K;

    1999-01-01

    We studied the induction, severity and rate of progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induced in SCID mice by the adoptive transfer of low numbers of the following purified BALB/c CD4+ T cell subsets: 1) unfractionated, peripheral, small (resting), or large (activated) CD4+ T cells; 2......) fractionated, peripheral, small, or large, CD45RBhigh or CD45RBlow CD4+ T cells; and 3) peripheral IL-12-unresponsive CD4+ T cells from STAT-4-deficient mice. The adoptive transfer into SCID host of comparable numbers of CD4+ T cells was used to assess the colitis-inducing potency of these subsets. Small CD45...... a late-onset IBD manifest > 20 wk posttransfer. In SCID mice with IBD transplanted with IL-12-responsive CD4+ T cells, the colonic lamina propria CD4+ T cells showed a mucosa-seeking memory/effector CD45RBlow Th1 phenotype abundantly producing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. In SCID mice transplanted with IL-12...

  4. Dynamic Behaviour of a Population of Controlled-by-price Demand Side Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Han, Xue; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    It is described that controlling or shedding by price the power consumption of a population of thermostatic loads introduces in the aggregate consumption dynamic effects th at cannot be disregarded if electrical flexible demand is meant to supply power system services. It is shown that inducing...... a desynchronization in the consumption contributes to damp t he oscillations. Results are supported by Monte Carlo simulat ions of a population of buildings equipped with electric space he ating whose consumption is indirect controlled by a dynamic price of the electricity....

  5. Side population cells isolated from KATO Ⅲ human gastric cancer cell line have cancer stem cell-like characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Jun She; Peng-Ge Zhang; Xuan Wang; Xiang-Ming Che; Zi-Ming Wang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether the side population (SP)cells possess cancer stem cell-like characteristics in vitro and the role of SP cells in tumorigenic process in gastric cancer.METHODS:We analyzed the presence of SP cells in different human gastric carcinoma cell lines,and then isolated and identified the SP cells from the KATO Ⅲ human gastric cancer cell line by flow cytometry.The clonogenic ability and self-renewal were evaluated by clone and sphere formation assays.The related genes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.To compare tumorigenic ability,SP and non-side population (NSP) cells from the KATO Ⅲ human gastric cancer cell line were subcutaneously injected into nude mice.RESULTS:SP cells from the total population accounted for 0.57% in KATO Ⅲ,1.04% in Hs-746T,and 0.02% in AGS (CRL-1739).SP cells could grow clonally and have self-renewal capability in conditioned media.The expression of ABCG2,MDRI,Bmi-1 and Oct-4 was different between SP and NSP cells.However,there was no apparent difference between SP and NSP cells when they were injected into nude mice.CONCLUSION:SP cells have some cancer stem celllike characteristics in vitro and can be used for studying the tumorigenic process in gastric cancer.

  6. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy with 90Y but not 177Lu is effective treatment in a syngeneic murine leukemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnnie J Orozco

    Full Text Available Radioimmunotherapy (RIT for treatment of hematologic malignancies has primarily employed monoclonal antibodies (Ab labeled with 131I or 90Y which have limitations, and alternative radionuclides are needed to facilitate wider adoption of RIT. We therefore compared the relative therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT employing 90Y and 177Lu in a syngeneic, disseminated murine myeloid leukemia (B6SJLF1/J model. Biodistribution studies showed that both 90Y- and 177Lu-anti-murine CD45 Ab conjugates (DOTA-30F11 targeted hematologic tissues, as at 24 hours 48.8 ± 21.2 and 156 ± 14.6% injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g of 90Y-DOTA-30F11 and 54.2 ± 9.5 and 199 ± 11.7% ID/g of 177Lu-DOTA-30F11 accumulated in bone marrow (BM and spleen, respectively. However, 90Y-DOTA-30F11 RIT demonstrated a dose-dependent survival benefit: 60% of mice treated with 300 µCi 90Y-DOTA-30F11 lived over 180 days after therapy, and mice treated with 100 µCi 90Y-DOTA-30F11 had a median survival 66 days. 90Y-anti-CD45 RIT was associated with transient, mild myelotoxicity without hepatic or renal toxicity. Conversely, 177Lu- anti-CD45 RIT yielded no long-term survivors. Thus, 90Y was more effective than 177Lu for anti-CD45 RIT of AML in this murine leukemia model.

  7. Quantitative image cytometry measurements of lipids, DNA, CD45 and cytokeratin for circulating tumor cell identification in a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futia, Gregory L.; Qamar, Lubna; Behbakht, Kian; Gibson, Emily A.

    2016-04-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) identification has applications in both early detection and monitoring of solid cancers. The rarity of CTCs, expected at ~1-50 CTCs per million nucleated blood cells (WBCs), requires identifying methods based on biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for accurate identification. Discovery of biomarkers with ever higher sensitivity and specificity to CTCs is always desirable to potentially find more CTCs in cancer patients thus increasing their clinical utility. Here, we investigate quantitative image cytometry measurements of lipids with the biomarker panel of DNA, Cytokeratin (CK), and CD45 commonly used to identify CTCs. We engineered a device for labeling suspended cell samples with fluorescent antibodies and dyes. We used it to prepare samples for 4 channel confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total data acquired at high resolution from one sample is ~ 1.3 GB. We developed software to perform the automated segmentation of these images into regions of interest (ROIs) containing individual cells. We quantified image features of total signal, spatial second moment, spatial frequency second moment, and their product for each ROI. We performed measurements on pure WBCs, cancer cell line MCF7 and mixed samples. Multivariable regressions and feature selection were used to determine combination features that are more sensitive and specific than any individual feature separately. We also demonstrate that computation of spatial characteristics provides higher sensitivity and specificity than intensity alone. Statistical models allowed quantification of the required sensitivity and specificity for detecting small levels of CTCs in a human blood sample.

  8. Endothelial Side Population Cells Contribute to Tumor Angiogenesis and Antiangiogenic Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hisamichi; Wakabayashi, Taku; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Muramatsu, Fumitaka; Takara, Kazuhiro; Eino, Daisuke; Yamane, Keitaro; Iba, Tomohiro; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2016-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in tumor growth, with an undisputed contribution of resident endothelial cells (EC) to new blood vessels in the tumor. Here, we report the definition of a small population of vascular-resident stem/progenitor-like EC that contributes predominantly to new blood vessel formation in the tumor. Although the surface markers of this population are similar to other ECs, those from the lung vasculature possess colony-forming ability in vitro and contribute to angiogenesis in vivo These specific ECs actively proliferate in lung tumors, and the percentage of this population significantly increases in the tumor vasculature relative to normal lung tissue. Using genetic recombination and bone marrow transplant models, we show that these cells are phenotypically true ECs and do not originate from hematopoietic cells. After treatment of tumors with antiangiogenic drugs, these specific ECs selectively survived and remained in the tumor. Together, our results established that ECs in the peripheral vasculature are heterogeneous and that stem/progenitor-like ECs play an indispensable role in tumor angiogenesis as EC-supplying cells. The lack of susceptibility of these ECs to antiangiogenic drugs may account for resistance of the tumor to this drug type. Thus, inhibiting these ECs might provide a promising strategy to overcome antiangiogenic drug resistance. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3200-10. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197162

  9. Sange fra Vestkysten – en overset side af populærmusikken i Danmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Kayser Nielsen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Det vestjyske musikmiljø, på kysten fra Grænsen til Skagen, henlever en stille tilværelse i den danske kulturelle offentlighed og er med enkelte markante undtagelser næsten ukendt på den populærkulturelle musikscene. Denne artikel er et forsøg på at give mæle til et populærkulturelt marginalområde af Danmark; ikke for at placere det i en offerrolle, men snarere for at komplettere billedet af dansk musikkultur ved at pege på en center/periferi-tilgang. Nærmere bestemt foretages der analyser af de tematikker – kærlighed, politik, arbejde, kristentro, hjemstedsfornemmelse – der er så fremtrædende i den vestjyske musikkultur. Det er en grundtanke, at en opmærksomhed på også denne del af dansk musikliv er ønskværdig i henseende til udformningen af et kulturelt demokrati med henblik på en ligeværdig anerkendelse. 

  10. Identification of a novel population of human cord blood cells with hematopoietic and chondrocytic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen E JAY; Anne ROULEAU; T Michael UNDERHILL; Mickie BHATIA

    2004-01-01

    With the exception of mature erythrocytes, cells within the human hematopoietic system are characterized by the cell surface expression of the pan-leukocyte receptor CD45. Here, we identify a novel subset among mononuclear cord blood cells depleted of lineage commitment markers (Lin-) that are devoid of CD45 expression. Surprisingly, functional examination of Lin-CD45- cells also lacking cell surface CD34 revealed they were capable of multipotential hematopoietic progenitor capacity. Co-culture with mouse embryonic limb bud cells demonstrated that Lin-CD45-CD34- cells were capable of contributing to cartilage nodules and differentiating into human chondrocytes. BMP-4, a mesodermal factor known to promote chondrogenesis, significantly augmented Lin-CD45-CD34- differentiation into chondrocytes.Moreover, unlike CD34+ human hematopoietic stem cells, Lin-CD45-CD34- cells were unable to proliferate or survive in liquid cultures, whereas single Lin-CD45-CD34- cells were able to chimerize the inner cell mass (ICM) of murine blastocysts and proliferate in this embryonic environment. Our study identifies a novel population of Lin-CD45-CD34-cells capable of commitment into both hematopoietic and chondrocytic lineages, suggesting that human cord blood may provide a more ubiquitous source of tissue with broader developmental potential than previously appreciated.

  11. Expressions of PD-1, CD45 RO and OX40 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue%食管鳞状细胞癌组织中 PD-1、CD45 RO 和 OX40的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭莉霞; 李建生; Dige Andom; 王丽萍; 张毅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨食管鳞状细胞癌(ESCC)组织中程序性细胞死亡1(PD-1)、CD45RO和OX40的表达状况及意义。方法:应用免疫组化SP法检测118例ESCC、39例癌旁不典型增生及39例正常食管组织中PD-1、CD45 RO和OX40的表达情况。结果:3种组织中PD-1、CD45 RO和OX40的阳性表达率差异有统计学意义(χ2=32.923,24.171,33.008, P<0.001)。 ESCC组织中3者的表达明显高于正常组织(P<0.01)。 OX40的表达与ESCC患者的TNM分期、淋巴结转移有关(χ2=8.787,9.756,P<0.05),PD-1、CD45RO的表达与ESCC患者临床病理指标无关(P>0.05)。 ESCC组织中OX40与CD45RO的表达呈正关联(rP =0.351,P<0.001)。结论:PD-1、CD45RO和OX40可能在ESCC恶变过程中发挥了重要作用。 OX40可能与ESCC的侵袭和转移有关。%Aim:To study the expressions of PD-1,CD45RO and OX40 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ES-CC) tissue.Methods:The expressions of PD-1,CD45RO and OX40 were detected by immunohistochemistry in 118 cases of ESCC,39 cases of adjacent atypical hyperplasia and 39 cases of normal esophageal tissue .Results:There were signifi-cant differences in the expressions of PD-1, CD45RO and OX40 among the 3 kinds of tissue (χ2 =32.923,24.171 and 33.008, P0.05).OX40 expression was positively associated with CD45RO expression in ESCC(rP =0.351, P<0.001).Conclusion:PD-1, CD45RO and OX40 protein may play key roles in the carcinogenesis of ESCC .Further-more, OX40 might directly influence invasiveness and metastasis of ESCC .

  12. Activated human CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells indirectly inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation through downregulation of P2X7R signalling.

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    Vanessa Beynon

    Full Text Available Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that control the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. Inflammasomes play an important role in the control of immunity to tumors and infections, and also in autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms controlling the activation of human inflammasomes are largely unknown. We found that human activated CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells specifically suppress P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, without affecting P2X7R-independent NLRP3 or NLRP1 inflammasome activation. The concomitant increase in pro-IL-1β production induced by activated memory T-cells concealed this effect. Priming with IFNβ decreased pro-IL-1β production in addition to NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition and thus unmasked the inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. IFNβ suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation through an indirect mechanism involving decreased P2X7R signaling. The inhibition of pro-IL-1β production and suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by IFNβ-primed human CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells is partly mediated by soluble FasL and is associated with down-regulated P2X7R mRNA expression and reduced response to ATP in monocytes. CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells from multiple sclerosis (MS patients showed a reduced ability to suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation, however their suppressive ability was recovered following in vivo treatment with IFNβ. Thus, our data demonstrate that human P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation is regulated by activated CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells, and provide new information on the mechanisms mediating the therapeutic effects of IFNβ in MS.

  13. Anti-CD45 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy using Bismuth-213: High Rates of Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival in a Mouse Myeloid Leukemia Xenograft Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagel, John M; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Back, Tom; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Park, Steven I; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Orgun, Nural; Orozoco, Johnnie; Shenoi, Jaideep; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, Ajay K; Green, Damian J; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Press, Oliver W

    2011-07-21

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. α-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path-length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to β-emitting radionuclides for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Accordingly, we have used 213Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5 ± 1.1% of the injected dose of 213Bi was delivered per gram of tumor. α imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after 213Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a β-emitting radionuclide (90Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 μCi of 213Bi- or 90Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for >100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an α-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of AML.

  14. Participation of CD45, NKR-P1A and ANK61 antigen in rat hepatic NK cell (pit cell)-mediated target cell cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Zhong Luo; David Vermijlen; B lent Ahishali; Vasilis Triantis; Eddie Wisse; Karin Vanderkerken; Peter J.K. Kuppen

    2000-01-01

    AIM Several triggering receptors have been described to be involved in natural killer (NK) cellmediated target cytotoxicity. In these studies, NK cells derived from blood or spleen were used. Pit cells are liver-specific NK cells that possess a higher level of natural cytotoxicity and a different morphology when compared to blood NK cells. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of the NK-triggering molecules NKR-P1A, ANK61 antigen, and CD45 in pit cell-mediated killing of target cells. METHODS 51 Cr-release and DNA fragmentation were used to quantify target cell lysis and apoptosis, respectively. RESULTS Flow cytometric analysis showed that pit cells expressed CD45, NKR-P1A, and ANK61 antigen. Treatment of pit cells with monoclonal antibody ( mAb ) to CD45 ( ANK74 ) not only inhibited CC531s or YAC-1 target lysis but also apoptosis induced by pit cells. The mAbs to NKRP1A (3.2.3) and ANK61 antigen (ANK61) had no effect on pit cell-mediated CC531s or YAC-1 target cytolysis or apoptosis, while they did increase the Fcγ receptor positive (FcγR+) P815 cytolysis and apoptosis. This enhanced cytotoxicity could he inhibited by 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, an inhibitor of granzymes. CONCLUSION These results indicate that CD45 participates in pit cell-mediated CC531s and YAC-1 target cytolysis and apoptosis. NKR-P1A and ANK61 antigen on pit cells function as activation structures against FcγR+ P815 cells, which was mediated by the perforin/granzyme pathway.

  15. The large ectodomains of CD45 and CD148 regulate their segregation from and inhibition of ligated T-cell receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Shaun-Paul; Choudhuri, Kaushik; Zhang, Hao; Bridge, Marcus; Basat, Alp Bugra; Dustin, Michael L; van der Merwe, P Anton

    2013-05-23

    T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering results in a cascade of intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation events that ultimately leads to T-cell activation. It is dependent on changes in the relative activities of membrane-associated tyrosine kinases and phosphatases near the engaged TCR. CD45 and CD148 are transmembrane tyrosine phosphatases with large ectodomains that have activatory and inhibitory effects on TCR triggering. This study investigates whether and how the ectodomains of CD45 and CD148 modulate their inhibitory effect on TCR signaling. Expression in T cells of forms of these phosphatases with truncated ectodomains inhibited TCR triggering. In contrast, when these phosphatases were expressed with large ectodomains, they had no inhibitory effect. Imaging studies revealed that truncation of the ectodomains enhanced colocalization of these phosphatases with ligated TCR at the immunological synapse. Our results suggest that the large ectodomains of CD45 and CD148 modulate their inhibitory effect by enabling their passive, size-based segregation from ligated TCR, supporting the kinetic-segregation model of TCR triggering.

  16. Effect of estradiol on proliferation and differentiation of side population stem/progenitor cells from murine endometrium

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    Xu Jing

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our previous study, endometrium side population cells (SP cells were isolated from postpartum murine uterus, and characterized by a heterogeneous population of stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of estrogen on the proliferation and differentiation of SP cells. Methods SP and non-SP cells of postpartum murine endometrium were isolated by DNA dye Hoechst 33342. The expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Real-time PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The proliferation and differentiation of SP cells treated with different concentrations [10(-8 M-10(-6 M] of estradiol (E2 and E2+ ICI182780 (Faslodex, inhibitor of ESR1 were measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazoly1-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT and clonogenic assays. Results (1 SP cells expressed ESR1 at a higher level than non-SP cells. (2 The level of E2 in the serum and the expression of ESR1 in the uterus of postpartum murine changed in the same manner with the ratio of SP cells to total uterus cells at a different postpartum time point. ESR1, as ABCG2 is also predominantly located in the stroma and the glandular epithelium of the uterus. (3 10(-6 M E2 notably promoted the proliferation of SP cells after treatment for 24 h. This effect could be inhibited by ICI182780. E2 at the concentration of 10(-7 M or 10(-8 M was sent to impair the large cloning efficiency (CE of SP cells. Conclusions The effect of estrogen on the proliferation and differentiation of endometrium SP cells via ESR1 was observed and it was in a concentration dependent fashion. Clearly, more work is needed to understand the in vivo effect of E2 at the physiological concentration on the differentiation of SP cells.

  17. Characterization of cancer stem-like cells in the side population cells of human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-hong ZHANG; Ai-zhen CAI; Xue-ming WEI; Li DING; Feng-zhi LI; Ai-ming ZHENG; Da-jiang DAI

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer.Many kinds of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells,including several gastric cancer cell lines.This study is aimed to identify the cancer stem-like cells in the SP of gastric cancer cell line MKN-45.Methods:We used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort SP cells in the human gastric carcinoma cell line MKN-45 (cells labeled with Hoechst 33342) and then characterized the cancer stem-like properties of SP cells.Results:This study found that the SP cells had higher clone formation efficiency than major population (MP) cells.Five stemness-related gene expression profiles,including OCT-4,SOX-2,NANOG,CD44,and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters gene ABCG2,were tested in SP and MP cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Western blot was used to show the difference of protein expression between SP and MP cells.Both results show that there was significantly higher protein expression in SP cells than in MP cells.When inoculated into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice,SP cells show higher tumorigenesis tendency than MP cells.Conclusions:These results indicate that SP cells possess cancer stem cell properties and prove that SP cells from MKN-45 are gastric cancer stem-like cells.

  18. SUBPOPULATION PROFILES OF T HELPER CELLS EXPRESSING CD45RA AND CD31 MARKERS IN CHILDREN AFTER THYMECTOMY PERFORMED UPON SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

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    Yu. I. Rovda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymectomy is a stage of surgery when treating some congenital heart defects. Thymus gland is the central organ of immune system. This organ is the primary site of T-cell lymphopoiesis and central tolerance to autoantigens during fetal and early postnatal life. If performed neonatally or in infancy, the thymectomy may cause restriction of these immune functions. Suppression of T-cell lymphopoiesis in children with thymectomy can be estimated as a subpopulation of thymic naive T helper cells (CD3+CD4+CD45RA+CD31+. To perform this task, we evaluated subpopulations of thymic naive T helper lymphocytes with CD3+CD4+CD45RA+CD31+ phenotype in the children (n = 40 who underwent thymectomy during surgical treatment of congenital heart diseases in neonates, or in early postnatal life. Their data were compared with children who underwent surgical treatment of congenital heart disease without thymectomy at the same age periods (n = 12, and healthy children (n = 23. We have revealed that thymectomy in frames of surgery of congenital heart disease leads to reduced thymic naive T helper lymphocytes with CD3+CD4+CD45RA+CD31+ phenotype in peripheral blood. Early execution of thymectomy is associated with deficiency of the thymic naive T helper lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, as well as a decrease in T helper cells (CD3+CD4+. The number thymic naive T helper lymphocytes in peripheral blood negatively corrrelated with terms elapsed after the surgery of congenital heart defects in children.

  19. Analysis of CD45- [CD34+/KDR+] endothelial progenitor cells as juvenile protective factors in a rat model of ischemic-hemorrhagic stroke.

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    Julius L Decano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of juvenile protective factors (JPFs which are altered with age and contribute to adult-onset diseases could identify novel pathways for reversing the effects of age, an accepted non-modifiable risk factor to adult-onset diseases. Since endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been observed to be altered in stroke, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, said EPCs are candidate JPFs for adult-onset stroke. A priori, if EPC aging plays a 'master-switch JPF-role' in stroke pathogenesis, juvenile EPC therapy alone should delay stroke-onset. Using a hypertensive, transgenic-hyperlipidemic rat model of spontaneous ischemic-hemorrhagic stroke, spTg25, we tested the hypothesis that freshly isolated juvenile EPCs are JPFs that can attenuate stroke progression and delay stroke onset. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FACS analysis revealed that CD45- [CD34+/KDR+] EPCs decrease with progression to stroke in spTg25 rats, exhibit differential expression of the dual endodthelin-1/VEGFsp receptor (DEspR and undergo differential DEspR-subtype specific changes in number and in vitro angiogenic tube-incorporation. In vivo EPC infusion of male, juvenile non-expanded cd45-[CD34+/KDR+] EPCs into female stroke-prone rats prior to stroke attenuated progression and delayed stroke onset (P<0.003. Detection of Y-chromosome DNA in brain microvessels of EPC-treated female spTg25 rats indicates integration of male EPCs into female rat brain microvessels. Gradient-echo MRI showed delay of ischemic-hemorrhagic lesions in EPC-treated rats. Real-time RT-PCR pathway-specific array-analysis revealed age-associated gene expression changes in CD45-[CD34+/KDR]EPC subtypes, which were accelerated in stroke-prone rats. Pro-angiogenic genes implicated in intimal hyperplasia were increased in stroke-prone rat EPCs (P<0.0001, suggesting a maladaptive endothelial repair system which acts like a double-edged sword repairing while predisposing to age

  20. Levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells correlate with outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, F.; Gross-Goupil, M; Tournay, E; Taylor, M; Vimond, N.; Jacques, N; Billiot, F.; Mauguen, A.; Hill, C.; Escudier, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Methods: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) a...

  1. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis inversely correlates with side population phenotype and function in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H; Bourboulia, D; Jensen-Taubman, S; Isaac, B; Wei, B; Stetler-Stevenson, W G

    2014-02-27

    The side population (SP) in human lung cancer cell lines and tumors is enriched with cancer stem cells. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis known as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), characterized for its ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), has been shown by several laboratories to impede tumor progression through MMP-dependent or -independent mechanisms. We recently reported that forced expression of TIMP-2, as well as the modified form Ala+TIMP-2 (that lacks MMP inhibitory activity) significantly blocks growth of A549 human lung cancer cells in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying TIMP-2 antitumor effects are not fully characterized. Here, we examine the hypothesis that the TIMP-2 antitumor activity may involve regulation of the SP in human lung cancer cells. Indeed, using Hoechst dye efflux assay and flow cytometry, as well as quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis, we found that endogenous TIMP-2 mRNA levels showed a significant inverse correlation with SP fraction size in six non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. In A549 cells expressing increased levels of TIMP-2, a significant decrease in SP was observed, and this decrease was associated with lowered gene expression of ABCG2, ABCB1 and AKR1C1. Functional analysis of A549 cells showed that TIMP-2 overexpression increased chemosensitivity to cytotoxic drugs. The SP isolated from TIMP-2-overexpressing A549 cells also demonstrated impaired migratory capacity compared with the SP from empty vector control. More importantly, our data provide strong evidence that these TIMP-2 functions occur independent of MMP inhibition, as A549 cells overexpressing Ala+TIMP-2 exhibited identical behavior to those overexpressing TIMP-2 alone. Our findings provide the first indication that TIMP-2 modulates SP phenotype and function, and suggests that TIMP-2 may act as an endogenous suppressor of the SP in human lung cancer cells.

  2. Establishment of chronic colitis SCID mice model induced by CD45RBhigh CD4+ naive T cells%CD45RBhigh CD4+幼稚T细胞诱导严重联合免疫缺陷型小鼠慢性结肠炎模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘占举

    2006-01-01

    目的:建立CD45RBhigh CD4+幼稚T细胞诱导严重联合免疫缺陷型(SCID)小鼠慢性结肠炎模型,并探讨该结肠炎模型的免疫病理特征.方法:采用流式细胞仪分离BALB/c小鼠(H-2d基因表型)脾脏CD45RBhigh CD4+幼稚T细胞,经尾静脉或腹腔注射植入21只同基因型SCID小鼠体内,观察慢性结肠炎的发生.8周后处死SCID小鼠,分离结肠黏膜固有层内CD4+ T淋巴细胞,体外刺激,分别采用ELISA法和RT-PCR法检测炎症结肠黏膜组织内炎症细胞因子(IFN-γ、IL-2、IL-4、IL-5、TNF-α)及其mRNA的表达水平.以16只正常BALB/c小鼠作对照.结果:CD45RBhigh CD4+幼稚T细胞植入SCID小鼠(4.1±0.3)周后,小鼠体重开始下降,大便变软;(7.4±0.6)周后出现腹泻、体重明显下降、脱肛等慢性结肠炎症状;组织病理检查发现结肠黏膜层、黏膜下层、肌层及浆膜层有大量的淋巴细胞浸润,以黏膜层和黏膜下层明显,并出现肠上皮细胞炎性增生、黏膜溃疡形成.与正常BALB/c小鼠比较,CD45RBhigh CD4+幼稚T细胞诱导后,SCID小鼠结肠黏膜固有层CD4+T细胞IFN-γ、IL-2、TNF-α分泌水平增高(P<0.005),结肠黏膜组织内IL-2、IFN-γ、TNF-α mRNA水平亦升高(P<0.005).结论:CD45RBhigh CD4+幼稚T细胞可诱导SCID小鼠发生慢性结肠炎.

  3. SPARC, FOXP3, CD8 and CD45 correlation with disease recurrence and long-term disease-free survival in colorectal cancer.

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    Angela Chew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SPARC is a matricellular protein involved in tissue remodelling, cell migration and angiogenesis, while forkhead box P3 (FOXP3 protein functions as a transcription factor involved in immune cell regulation. Both SPARC and FOXP3 can play an anti-tumorigenic role in cancer progression. The aim was to determine if SPARC, FOXP3, CD8 and CD45RO expression levels are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC stage, disease outcome and long-term cancer-specific survival (CSS in stage II and III CRC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: SPARC expression was initially assessed in 120 paired normal and stage I-IV CRCs. Subsequently, approximately 1000 paired patient samples of stage II or III CRCs in tissue microarrays were stained for SPARC, FOXP3, CD8 or CD45RO. Proportional hazards modelling assessed correlations between these markers and clinicopathological data, including disease outcome and cancer specific survival (CSS. Both SPARC and FOXP3 expression were significantly greater in CRC than normal colon (p<0.0001. High SPARC expression correlated with good disease outcome (≥60 mths without disease recurrence, p = 0.0039 and better long-term CSS in stage II CRC (<0.0001. In stage III CRC, high SPARC expression correlated with better long-term CSS (p<0.0001 and less adjuvant chemotherapy use (p = 0.01. High FOXP3 correlated with a good disease outcome, better long-term CSS and less adjuvant chemotherapy use in stage II (p<0.0037, <0.0001 and p = 0.04 respectively, but not in stage III CRC. High CD8 and CD45RO expression correlated with better disease outcome in stage II CRC, and better CSS, but the differences were not as marked as for SPARC and FOXP3. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that high SPARC and FOXP3 are associated with better disease outcome in stage II CRC and may be prognostic indicators of CSS. Further assessment of whether these markers predict patients at high risk of recurrence with stage II CRC and functional studies of these

  4. The differential frequency of Lineage(-)CRTH2(-)CD45(+)NKp44(-)CD117(-)CD127(+)ILC subset in the inflamed terminal ileum of patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Doty, Andria L; Iqbal, Atif; Glover, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of various components of the immune system has been reported in the inflamed gut of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are novel innate effector lymphocytes which can rapidly respond to danger signals, from invading pathogens or tissue damage, to maintain homeostasis, especially along the mucosal surfaces. The purpose of this study is to compare composition of the intestinal ILCs subsets of CD patients with differential inflammatory conditions of the terminal ileum, which are marked by distinct histological appearances and mucosal profiles of cytokines. We observed alterations in the frequency of Lineage(-)CRTH2(-)CD45(+)NKp44(-)CD117(-)CD127(+)ILC subset in the inflamed terminal ileum. PMID:27215784

  5. Crickets Are Not a Free Lunch: Protein Capture from Scalable Organic Side-Streams via High-Density Populations of Acheta domesticus

    OpenAIRE

    Mark E Lundy; Parrella, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and...

  6. IgG/IgE bullous pemphigoid with CD45 lymphocytic reactivity to dermal blood vessels, nerves and eccrine sweat glands

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    Ana Maria Abreu-Velez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bullous pemphigoid (BP, the most common autoimmune blistering disease, is mediated by autoantibodies. BP primarily affects the elderly and is characterized by the development of urticarial plaques surmounted by subepidermal blisters, and the deposition of immunoglobulins and complement at the basement membrane zone (BMZ of the skin. BP is immunologically characterized by the development of autoantibodies targeting two structural proteins of the hemidesmosomes, BP180 (collagen XVII and BP230 (BPAG1. Case Report: A 63 -year-old Caucasian female patient was evaluated for a 4 day history of several itching, erythematous blisters on her extremities. Biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E examination, as well as Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, immunohistochemistry (IHC and direct immunofluorescence (DIF analysis were performed. Results: H&E demonstrated a subepidermal blister, with partial re-epithelialization of the blister floor. Within the blister lumen, numerous neutrophils were present, with occasional eosinophils and lymphocytes also noted. Within the dermis, a mild, superficial, perivascular and periadnexal infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes and occasional eosinophils was identified, with mild perivascular leukocytoclastic debris. The PAS stain was positive at the BMZ, and around selected blood vessels, nerves and sweat glands. DIF revealed linear deposits of IgG and Complement/C3 and fibrinogen at the BMZ, and around selected dermal nerves, blood vessels and sweat glands. Strong granular deposits of IgE were also observed, colocalizing with monoclonal antibodies to Collagen IV (CIV. By IHC, positive CD45 staining of lymphocytes was seen surrounding selected dermal blood vessels, eccrine sweat glands, and nerves. Conclusion : The patient displayed IgG, IgE, and fibrinogen autoantibodies against the BMZ, as well as around some dermal nerves and sweat glands; their binding in the skin could trigger complement activation. In addition, the

  7. 131I-Anti-CD45 Antibody Plus Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide before Allogeneic Hematophoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Remission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagel, John M.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Eary, Janet F.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Ruffner, Katherine; Nemecek, Eneida; Sickle, Eileen; Durack, Larry; Carreras, Jeanette; Horowitz, Mary; Press, Oliver W.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, Paul J.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to improve outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we conducted a Phase I/II study in which targeted irradiation delivered by 131I-anti-CD45 antibody was combined with targeted busulfan (BU; area-under-curve, 600-900 ng/ml) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 120 mg/kg). Fifty-two of 59 patients (88%) receiving a trace 131I-labeled dose of 0.5 mg/kg anti-CD45 murine antibody had higher estimated absorbed radiation in bone marrow and spleen than in any other organ. Forty-six patients were treated with 102-298 mCi 131I delivering an estimated 5.3-19 (mean 11.3) Gy to marrow, 17-72 (mean 29.7) Gy to spleen, and 3.5 Gy (n=4) to 5.25 Gy (n=42) to the liver. The estimated 3-year non-relapse mortality and disease-free survival (DFS) were 21% and 61%, respectively. These results were compared to those from 509 similar International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry patients transplanted using BU/CY alone. After adjusting for differences in age and cytogenetics-risk, the hazard of mortality among all antibody-treated patients was 0.65 times that of the Registry patients (95% CI 0.39-1.08; p=.09). The addition of targeted hematopoietic irradiation to conventional BU/CY is feasible and well tolerated, and Phase II results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further study.

  8. Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Lundy

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (p99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production.

  9. Aging induced loss of stemness with concomitant gain of myogenic properties of a pure population of CD34(+)/CD45(-) muscle derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bipasha; Shenoy, P Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by the functional decline of cells, tissues, and organs, as well as, a striking increase in susceptibility to a wide range of diseases. Within a tissue, both differentiated cells and adult stem cells are susceptible to intrinsic and extrinsic changes while aging. Muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) are tissue specific stem cells which have been studied well for their multipotential nature. Although there are reports relating to diminished function and regenerative capacity of aged MDSCs as compared to their young counterparts, not much has been reported relating to the concomitant gain in unipotent nature of aged MDSCs. In this study, we report an inverse correlation between aging and expression of adult/mesenchymal stem cell markers and a direct correlation between aging and myogenecity in MDSCs. Aged MDSCs were able to generate a greater number of dystrophin positive myofibres, as compared to, the young MDSCs when transplanted in muscle of dystrophic mice. Our data, therefore, suggests that aging stress adds to the decline in stem cell characteristics with a concomitant increase in unipotency, in terms of, myogenecity of MDSCs. This study, hence, also opens the possibilities of using unipotent aged MDSCs as potential candidates for transplantation in patients with muscular dystrophies.

  10. Inhibitory effect 0f melatonin on the elevation 0f CD45 expression induced by hypoxia in BV-2 microglia%褪黑素对低氧诱导的BV-2小胶质细胞CD45表达增高的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚景春; 张庆柱; 张世玲; 程艳娜; 纪建波

    2004-01-01

    目的研究褪黑素对低氧激活的小胶质细胞CD45表达的影响,以探讨褪黑素的抗衰老和抗阿尔茨海默病的作用机制。方法体外培养BV-2小胶质细胞,用终浓度为2.0 mmol·L-1的连二亚硫酸钠作用48 h,造成慢性低氧模型,药物处理组在低氧的同时给予褪黑素。相差显微镜下观察小胶细质胞形态学变化,流式细胞术测定缺氧状态下BV-2小胶质细胞表面CD45的表达;体外培养BV-2小胶质细胞用终浓度为0.01,0.1,1.0 μmol·L-1的褪黑素作用5 min,加入20mg·L-1的脂多糖37℃孵育12 h,Griess试剂法检测培养上清中NO的含量。结果连二亚硫酸钠引起的低氧可明显增加BV-2小胶质细胞CD45的表达,荧光强度增至23.9±14.2(对照组为0.80±0.73),低氧也可使小胶质细胞的形态发生阿米巴样变,而0.01,0.1,1.0 pmol·L-1的褪黑素可剂量依赖性地减少低氧诱导的CD45表达,抑制由低氧引起的小胶质细胞的阿米巴样变。但褪黑素对脂多糖诱导的BV-2小胶质细胞培养液中NO的升高无明显抑制作用。结论褪黑素抑制小胶质细胞的激活与其抗氧化作用密切相关,可能是其抗炎和防治阿尔茨海默病作用的重要理论基础。%AIM To study the action of melatonin on the expression of CDA5 in BV-2 microglia and the influence of melatonin on BV-2 microglia activation so as to explore the antiaging and anti-Alzheimer's disease mechanisms of melatonin.METHODS Hypoxia in cultured BV-2 microglia was induced by sodium dithionite 2.0 mmol· L- 1for 48 h.The expression of CD45 on the BV-2 microglia surface was measured by flow cytometry,the morphological changes of BV-2 microglia were photographed with the phase-contrast microscope.BV-2 microglia were exposed to 20 mg· L-1 lipopolysaccharides 5 min after treated with 0.01,0.1,1.0 μmol· L- 1 of melatonin,then incubated for 12 h.NO level in the medium was determined by Griess reagent.RESULTS The

  11. 尿阿尔茨海默病相关神经丝蛋白与外周血 CD45RA+T 细胞亚群联合检测早期诊断阿尔茨海默病%Combined detection of urinary AD7c-NTP and peripheral blood CD45RA+ T lymphocyte subsets in early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 郑文选; 袁栋才; 张金荣; 魏琰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨尿阿尔茨海默病相关神经丝蛋白(Alzheimer disease related neural thread protein,AD7c-NTP)与外周血淋巴细胞 CD45RA+ T 亚型联合检测在阿尔茨海默病(AD)早期诊断中的价值。方法根据 Peterson制订的轻度认知功能障碍(MCI)诊断标准和美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)有关 AD 的诊断标准,选取 AD 患者32例(AD 组),MCI 患者30例(MCI 组),另选60例健康者作为对照组。对比各组尿 AD7c-NTP 与CD45RA+ T 细胞亚群变化及诊断价值。结果①CD45RA+ T 蛋白表达水平在 AD 组和 MCI 组显著低于对照组(P 0.05);③尿 AD7c-NTP 在 AD 组和 MCI 组中的含量较对照组显著升高(P 0.05);④CD45RA+ T 与 AD7c-NTP 联合诊断具有较好的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值。结论 AD7c-NTP 与 CD45RA+ T 联合检测是诊断 AD 早期病变的较好指标,提升二者单独应用时的预测价值,为 AD 早期诊断及疗效监测提供参考。%Objective To investigate the significance of the combined detection of urinary Alzheimer disease related neural thread protein (AD7c-NTP)and peripheral blood CD45RA+ T lymphocyte subsets in early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.Methods According to the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (Peterson 2004b)and American Diagnostic criteria and Statistical Manual of mental disorders Ⅳ for Alzheimer disease,62 patients were enrolled in this study and then grouped into AD group (n = 32)and mild cognitive impairment group (MCI group,n =30).Sixty healthy individuals were recruited as control group.Then,the urinary AD7c-NTP and peripheral blood CD45RA+ T lymphocyte subsets were determined and compared. Results The expression of CD45RA in AD and MCI groups were significantly less than that in control group (P 0.05).The content of urinary AD7c-NTP in AD and MCI groups were markedly higher than that of control group (P 0.05 ).The combined detection of urinary AD7

  12. IL-18Rα-deficient CD4+T cells induce intestinal inflammation in the CD45RBhitransfer model of colitis despite impaired innate responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmkvist, Petra; Pool, Lieneke; Hägerbrand, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    IL-18 has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however its role in the regulation of intestinal CD4+ T-cell function remains unclear. Here we show that murine intestinal CD4+ T cells express high levels of IL-18Rα and provide evidence that IL-18Rα expression is induced on these ce......IL-18 has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however its role in the regulation of intestinal CD4+ T-cell function remains unclear. Here we show that murine intestinal CD4+ T cells express high levels of IL-18Rα and provide evidence that IL-18Rα expression is induced...... on these cells subsequent to their entry into the intestinal mucosa. Using the CD45RBhi T-cell transfer colitis model, we show that IL-18Rα is expressed on IFN-γ+, IL-17+ and IL-17+IFN-γ+ effector CD4+ T cells in the inflamed colonic lamina propria (cLP) and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and is required...... for the optimal generation and/or maintenance of IFN-γ-producing cells in the cLP. In the steady state and during colitis, TCR-independent cytokine-induced IFN-γ and IL-17 production by intestinal CD4+ T cells was largely IL-18Rα−dependent. Despite these findings however, IL-18Rα−deficient CD4+ T cells induced...

  13. PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles Coated with Anti-CD45RO and Loaded with HDAC Plus Protease Inhibitors Activate Latent HIV and Inhibit Viral Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yong; Liu, Xinkuang; Zhou, Shuping; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Fujina; Xie, Chunmei; Cai, Shuyu; Wei, Jia; Zhu, Yongqiang; Hou, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Activating HIV-1 proviruses in latent reservoirs combined with inhibiting viral spread might be an effective anti-HIV therapeutic strategy. Active specific delivery of therapeutic drugs into cells harboring latent HIV, without the use of viral vectors, is a critical challenge to this objective. In this study, nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol diblock copolymers conjugated with anti-CD45RO antibody and loaded with the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and/or protease inhibitor nelfinavir (Nel) were tested for activity against latent virus in vitro. Nanoparticles loaded with SAHA, Nel, and SAHA + Nel were characterized in terms of size, surface morphology, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug release, and toxicity to ACH-2 cells. We show that SAHA- and SAHA + Nel-loaded nanoparticles can target latently infected CD4+ T-cells and stimulate virus production. Moreover, nanoparticles loaded with SAHA + NEL were capable of both activating latent virus and inhibiting viral spread. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel reagent for targeting and eliminating latent HIV reservoirs.

  14. Inhibition of CK2α down-regulates Hedgehog/Gli signaling leading to a reduction of a stem-like side population in human lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulin Zhang

    Full Text Available Protein kinase CK2 is frequently elevated in a variety of human cancers. The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway has been implicated in stem cell maintenance, and its aberrant activation has been indicated in several types of cancer, including lung cancer. In this study, we show that CK2 is positively involved in Hh/Gli signaling in lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299. First, we found a correlation between CK2α and Gli1 mRNA levels in 100 primary lung cancer tissues. Down-regulation of Gli1 expression and transcriptional activity were demonstrated after the silencing of CK2α in lung cancer cells. In addition, CK2α siRNA down-regulated the expression of Hh target genes. Furthermore, two small-molecule CK2α inhibitors led to a dose-dependent inhibition of Gli1 expression and transcriptional activity in lung cancer cells. Reversely, forced over-expression of CK2α resulted in an increase both in Gli1 expression and transcriptional activity in A549 cells. Finally, the inhibition of Hh/Gli by CK2α siRNA led to a reduction of a cancer stem cell-like side population that shows higher ABCG2 expression level. Thus, we report that the inhibition of CK2α down-regulates Hh/Gli signaling and subsequently reduces stem-like side population in human lung cancer cells.

  15. Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Mark E; Parrella, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (pacid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and the crude fat (CF) content (y=N/ADF+CF) explaining most of the variability between feed treatments (p = 0.02; R2 = 0.96). In addition, for populations of crickets that were able to survive to a harvestable size, the feed conversion ratios measured were higher (less efficient) than those reported from studies conducted at smaller scales and lower population densities. Compared to the industrial-scale production of chickens, crickets fed a poultry feed diet showed little improvement in protein conversion efficiency, a key metric in determining the ecological footprint of grain-based livestock protein. Crickets fed the solid filtrate from food waste processed at an industrial scale via enzymatic digestion were able to reach a harvestable size and achieve feed and protein efficiencies similar to that of chickens. However, crickets fed minimally-processed, municipal-scale food waste and diets composed largely of straw experienced >99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production. PMID:25875026

  16. Dose dependent side effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle labeling on cell motility in two fetal stem cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Diana

    Full Text Available Multipotent stem cells (SCs could substitute damaged cells and also rescue degeneration through the secretion of trophic factors able to activate the endogenous SC compartment. Therefore, fetal SCs, characterized by high proliferation rate and devoid of ethical concern, appear promising candidate, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide nanoparticles (SPIOn, routinely used for pre-clinical cell imaging and already approved for clinical practice, allow tracking of transplanted SCs and characterization of their fate within the host tissue, when combined with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. In this work we investigated how SPIOn could influence cell migration after internalization in two fetal SC populations: human amniotic fluid and chorial villi SCs were labeled with SPIOn and their motility was evaluated. We found that SPIOn loading significantly reduced SC movements without increasing production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Moreover, motility impairment was directly proportional to the amount of loaded SPIOn while a chemoattractant-induced recovery was obtained by increasing serum levels. Interestingly, the migration rate of SPIOn labeled cells was also significantly influenced by a degenerative surrounding. In conclusion, this work highlights how SPIOn labeling affects SC motility in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, shedding the light on an important parameter for the creation of clinical protocols. Establishment of an optimal SPIOn dose that enables both a good visualization of grafted cells by MRI and the physiological migration rate is a main step in order to maximize the effects of SC therapy in both animal models of neurodegeneration and clinical studies.

  17. Lin28a is a putative factor in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties in side population cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are among the target cells of cancer therapy because they are uniquely involved in both cancer progression and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. We identified side population (SP) cells, which are known to be an enriched population of CSC, in five oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC9, SCC25, TOSCC7, TOSCC17, and TOSCC23). The percentages of SP cells ranged from 0% to 3.3%, with TOSCC23 cells showing the highest percentages of SP cells (3.3% of the total cell population). The SP cells isolated from TOSCC23 cells also showed greater cell proliferation and invasion compared to non-SP (MP) cells. Therefore, our initial findings suggested that SP cells were enriched for CSC-like cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of cell proliferation-related and anti-apoptotic genes was greater in SP cells compared to MP cells. We focused on Lin28a, which showed the highest expression (approximately 22-fold) among the upregulated genes. The overexpression of Lin28a in TOSCC23 cells increased their proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. These findings suggest that Lin28a is an appropriate CSC target molecule for OSCC treatment - Highlights: ► Lin28a is a SP cell-specific factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. ► SP cells in OSCC cells show cancer stem cell-like properties. ► Lin28a regulates OSCC proliferative and invasive activities

  18. Lin28a is a putative factor in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties in side population cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S.; Tanaka, J.; Okada, S.; Isobe, T.; Yamamoto, G.; Yasuhara, R.; Irie, T.; Akiyama, C.; Kohno, Y.; Tachikawa, T.; Mishima, K., E-mail: mishima-k@dent.showa-u.ac.jp

    2013-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are among the target cells of cancer therapy because they are uniquely involved in both cancer progression and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. We identified side population (SP) cells, which are known to be an enriched population of CSC, in five oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC9, SCC25, TOSCC7, TOSCC17, and TOSCC23). The percentages of SP cells ranged from 0% to 3.3%, with TOSCC23 cells showing the highest percentages of SP cells (3.3% of the total cell population). The SP cells isolated from TOSCC23 cells also showed greater cell proliferation and invasion compared to non-SP (MP) cells. Therefore, our initial findings suggested that SP cells were enriched for CSC-like cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of cell proliferation-related and anti-apoptotic genes was greater in SP cells compared to MP cells. We focused on Lin28a, which showed the highest expression (approximately 22-fold) among the upregulated genes. The overexpression of Lin28a in TOSCC23 cells increased their proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. These findings suggest that Lin28a is an appropriate CSC target molecule for OSCC treatment - Highlights: ► Lin28a is a SP cell-specific factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. ► SP cells in OSCC cells show cancer stem cell-like properties. ► Lin28a regulates OSCC proliferative and invasive activities.

  19. Expression of CD 68, CD 45 and human leukocyte antigen-DR in central and peripheral giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor of long bones, and tuberculous granuloma: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: CD 68 and CD 45 expression was found in central giant cell granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma and GCT, suggesting the origin from mononuclear phagocyte system and considering their clinical behavior of osteoclast type. High expressivity of HLA-DR in tuberculous granulomas which is an essential factor for presentation of the microbial antigen to CD 4 helper cells thus reassuring the fact that they are up-regulated in response to infection.

  20. Isolation and characterization of human trophoblast side-population (SP cells in primary villous cytotrophoblasts and HTR-8/SVneo cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoka Takao

    Full Text Available Recently, numerous studies have identified that immature cell populations including stem cells and progenitor cells can be found among "side-population" (SP cells. Although SP cells isolated from some adult tissues have been reported elsewhere, isolation and characterization of human trophoblast SP remained to be reported. In this study, HTR-8/SVneo cells and human primary villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs were stained with Hoechst 33342 and SP and non-SP (NSP fractions were isolated using a cell sorter. A small population of SP cells was identified in HTR-8/SVneo cells and in vCTBs. SP cells expressed several vCTB-specific markers and failed to express syncytiotrophoblast (STB or extravillous cytotrophopblast (EVT-specific differentiation markers. SP cells formed colonies and proliferated on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF feeder cells or in MEF conditioned medium supplemented with heparin/FGF2, and they also showed long-term repopulating property. SP cells could differentiate into both STB and EVT cell lineages and expressed several differentiation markers. Microarray analysis revealed that IL7R and IL1R2 were exclusively expressed in SP cells and not in NSP cells. vCTB cells sorted as positive for both IL7R and IL1R2 failed to express trophoblast differentiation markers and spontaneously differentiated into both STB and EVT in basal medium. These features shown by the SP cells suggested that IL7R and IL1R2 are available as markers to detect the SP cells and that vCTB progenitor cells and trophoblast stem cells were involved in the SP cell population.

  1. Stem cell-like differentiation potentials of endometrial side population cells as revealed by a newly developed in vivo endometrial stem cell assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endometrial stem/progenitor cells contribute to the cyclical regeneration of human endometrium throughout a woman's reproductive life. Although the candidate cell populations have been extensively studied, no consensus exists regarding which endometrial population represents the stem/progenitor cell fraction in terms of in vivo stem cell activity. We have previously reported that human endometrial side population cells (ESP, but not endometrial main population cells (EMP, exhibit stem cell-like properties, including in vivo reconstitution of endometrium-like tissues when xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. The reconstitution efficiency, however, was low presumably because ESP cells alone could not provide a sufficient microenvironment (niche to support their stem cell activity. The objective of this study was to establish a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay employing cell tracking and tissue reconstitution systems and to examine the stem cell properties of ESP through use of this assay. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ESP and EMP cells isolated from whole endometrial cells were infected with lentivirus to express tandem Tomato (TdTom, a red fluorescent protein. They were mixed with unlabeled whole endometrial cells and then transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized immunodeficient mice. These mice were treated with estradiol and progesterone for eight weeks and nephrectomized. All of the grafts reconstituted endometrium-like tissues under the kidney capsules. Immunofluorescence revealed that TdTom-positive cells were significantly more abundant in the glandular, stromal, and endothelial cells of the reconstituted endometrium in mice transplanted with TdTom-labeled ESP cells than those with TdTom-labeled EMP cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo

  2. Low thymic output in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome measured by CCR9+CD45RA+ T cell counts and T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, K; Abrahamsen, Gitte Meldgaard; Foelling, I;

    2010-01-01

    -expression of CD3, CD45RA and CCR9 (r=0.84) as well as with the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subtypes. RTE-related T cell counts also paralleled age-related TREC reductions. CD45RA+ T cells correlated well with absolute counts of CD4+ (r=0.87) and CD8+ (r=0.75) RTE-related T cells. Apart from CD45RA- T cells, all T......Thymic hypoplasia is a frequent feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, but we know little about patients' age-related thymic output and long-term consequences for their immune system. We measured the expression of T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (TREC) and used flow cytometry for...... direct subtyping of recent thymic emigrant (RTE)-related T cells in 43 patients (aged 1-54 years; median 9 years) from all over Norway and in age-matched healthy controls. Thymic volumes were estimated by ultrasound in patients. TREC levels correlated well with RTE-related T cells defined by co...

  3. Side population cells of common tumor%常见恶性肿瘤侧群细胞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱超; 钱军

    2014-01-01

    侧群细胞(SP)是指利用荧光染料Hoechst33342外排特性而筛选出来的细胞群体.SP具有肿瘤干细胞特性,在肿瘤的发生、发展中发挥极其重要的作用.目前国内外对于各类常见恶性肿瘤SP都进行了较为广泛的研究.对SP的研究可为肿瘤的诊断和治疗提供新的思路和方法.%Side population cells (SPs) are selected by the efflux features of fluorescent dye Hoechst33342.SPs have the characteristics of cancer stem cells,and play an extremely important role in the occurrence and development of tumors.At present,the SPs in common types of malignant tumor have been studied extensively at home and abroad.The study of SPs may shed some light on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of Exomite Pro on Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) populations and honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies: efficacy, side effects and residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananaki, Chrysoula; Goras, Georgios; Huggett, Nicola; Karazafiris, Emmanouel; Dimou, Maria; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In this research, we examined the application of thymol-based powder, directly over the top of the brood frames in colonies with different population in a 2-year study. The efficacy against mites, the side effects on bees and the contamination of honey were studied comparably to thymol-based gel treatment. In one-store colonies, thymol-based powder treatment gave average efficacy 64.5% and did not differ significantly from thymol-based gel treatment (65.4%). The natural mortality in control colonies was 41.4% and the corrected efficacy (E T) during 2 years was 39.4 and 40.9%, respectively. In two-store bee colonies, the application of thymol-based powder on top of each hive body gave higher E T (45,4%) than on top of the double body hive (40.4%), without statistically significant differences. The average concentration of thymol residues in honey 24 days after the application was 368 and 1,119 μg kg(-1) for the honey of colonies treated with thymol-based powder and thymol-base gel, respectively. PMID:24549753

  5. Effects of intermittent hypoxia and light aerobic exercise on circulating stem cells and side population, after strenuous eccentric exercise in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian; Ferreira, Inês; Ríos-Kristjánsson, Juan Gabriel; Rizo-Roca, David; García Godoy, Maria Dolors; Rico, Laura G; Rubi-Sans, Gerard; Torrella, Joan Ramon; Pagès, Teresa; Petriz, Jordi; Viscor, Ginés

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to address if intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) exposure can help to increase the number of peripheral blood circulating progenitor cells and side population (SP) stem cells, in order to establish the usefulness of this intervention for skeletal muscle repair, because these cells play a role in tissue regeneration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in two basal states: untrained and trained and compared with 1, 3, 7 and 14 days stages of damage recovery of trained rats that had suffered skeletal muscle injury. Three experimental groups were studied: rats with passive recovery (CTRL); rats exposed to IHH after muscle damage (HYP); and, trained rats that, in addition to IHH, performed light aerobic exercise sessions (EHYP). We observed an increase in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (mean = 0.153% of cells) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (mean = 0.0020% of cells) in EHYP on day 7. Also these cells showed characteristics of more primitive progenitors in comparison to the other experimental groups (mean = 0.107% of cells), as deduced by retention of the promising fluorescent probe Vybrant Dye Cycle Violet. We concluded that intermittent exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in combination with light aerobic exercise increased the number of HSCs and EPCs on the 7th day in EHYP group, although the exercise-induced stimulus showed a reverse effect on SP kinetics. PMID:25266982

  6. Evaluation of the impact of Exomite Pro on Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) populations and honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies: efficacy, side effects and residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananaki, Chrysoula; Goras, Georgios; Huggett, Nicola; Karazafiris, Emmanouel; Dimou, Maria; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In this research, we examined the application of thymol-based powder, directly over the top of the brood frames in colonies with different population in a 2-year study. The efficacy against mites, the side effects on bees and the contamination of honey were studied comparably to thymol-based gel treatment. In one-store colonies, thymol-based powder treatment gave average efficacy 64.5% and did not differ significantly from thymol-based gel treatment (65.4%). The natural mortality in control colonies was 41.4% and the corrected efficacy (E T) during 2 years was 39.4 and 40.9%, respectively. In two-store bee colonies, the application of thymol-based powder on top of each hive body gave higher E T (45,4%) than on top of the double body hive (40.4%), without statistically significant differences. The average concentration of thymol residues in honey 24 days after the application was 368 and 1,119 μg kg(-1) for the honey of colonies treated with thymol-based powder and thymol-base gel, respectively.

  7. 肠癌SW-620肿瘤细胞SP亚群研究%Side population in human colon cancer cell line SW-620

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高钢龙; 刘文勇; 张学利; 顾岩; 王兵; 张萍; 叶冬霞

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify the ratio of the side population (SP) of cancer stem-like cells in colon cancer cell line SW-620 and separate the SP and NSP cells, and initially identify whether the SP cells have some stem-cell bionomics. Methods SW-620 tumor cells suspension was stained with Ho-echst33342 and PI in the absence or presence of verapamil. Then the SP was analyzed by flow cytometry ( FCM). The SP and NSP cells were separated by FCM. The disparity of SP and NSP cells was detected by colon forming and cell growth plot experiment. The oncogenicity of SP cells and NSP cells was identified in nude mice. Results SP cells accounted for 0.1%-1.0% of the SW-620 cells, which were decreased to 0.01% by verapamil. 7.5 × 105 SP cells were separated by FCM. SP and NSP cells had disparity in colon forming and cell growth plot experiment. The nude mouse oncogenicity experiment revealed that the nude mice could erupt tumor by injection of 1 × 105 SP cells, but the nude mice could not erupt tumor by injection of 1 × 105 NSP cells. Conclusion Human colon cancer cell line SW-620 contains SP that can be decreased by verapamil. SP cells can be separated by FCM. SP and NSP cells have disparity in colon forming and cell growth plot experiment. The nude mouse oncogenicity experiment reveals that SP cells have a higher oncogenicity than NSP cells.%目的 观察肠癌细胞株SW-620中肿瘤干细胞相关的SP(side population)亚群比例,分选出相关的SP和NSP细胞,并鉴别相关的SP是否具有干细胞某些生物学特性.方法 制备SW-620细胞悬液,经Hoechst33342和PI染色(其中对照组同时加入拮抗剂维拉帕米),流式细胞仪分析SP亚群.通过流式细胞仪分选出肠癌细胞株SW-620中SP细胞.克隆形成实验和噻唑蓝(MTT)实验检测SP和NSP细胞增殖能力的差异.裸鼠体内成瘤对比实验验证SP细胞和NSP细胞致瘤性.结果 SP亚群占SW-620细胞的1.0%左右,维拉帕米阻断后减少为0.01%左右.流

  8. An Integrated Analysis of the Genome-Wide Profiles of DNA Methylation and mRNA Expression Defining the Side Population of a Human Malignant Mesothelioma Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Chul; Kim, Na-Yon; Seo, Yu-Ri; Kim, Yongbaek

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is a hallmark of all cancers and functions as the major barrier against effective cancer therapy. In contrast to genetic mutations, the role of epigenetic modifications in the generation and maintenance of heterogeneous cancer cells remains largely undetermined. This study was performed to evaluate the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the tumor cell heterogeneity using side population (SP) and non-SP cells isolated from a human malignant mesothelioma (HMM) cell line. The subpopulations of cancer cells were analyzed by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and RNA-seq methodology. The RNA-seq data were analyzed with the MeDIP-seq data in an integrated way to identify the epigenetically modified genes that defined the SP. Concomitant changes in mRNA expression and DNA methylation were found in 122 genes, including 118 down-regulated genes with hypermethylation and 4 up-regulated genes with hypomethylation. Gene ontology revealed that a large portion of the genes belonged to the groups of biological processes such as stem cell maintenance, stem cell development, stem cell differentiation, and the negative regulation of the developmental process. Among these genes, BNC1, RPS6KA3, TWSG1 and DUSP15 contained aberrant methylation in the CpG islands of the promoter region, indicating that the genes regulated by DNA methylation characterized a distinct subpopulation of HMM cells. The present study provided valuable information to shed light on the epigenetic contributions to the generation and maintenance of tumor cell heterogeneity.

  9. Up-regulation of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex expression in side-population cells derived from a human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tetsunori; Kusunoki, Soshi; Tabu, Kouichi; Okabe, Hitomi; Yamada, Izumi; Taga, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Akemi; Makino, Shintaro; Takeda, Satoru; Kato, Kiyoko

    2016-01-01

    The continual proliferation and differentiation of trophoblasts are critical for the maintenance of pregnancy. It is well known that the tissue stem cells are associated with the development of tissues and pathologies. It has been demonstrated that side-population (SP) cells identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) are enriched with stem cells. The SP cells in HTR-8/SVneo cells derived from human primary trophoblast cells were isolated by FACS. HTR-8/SVneo-SP cell cultures generated both SP and non-SP (NSP) subpopulations. In contrast, NSP cell cultures produced NSP cells and failed to produce SP cells. These SP cells showed self-renewal capability by serial colony-forming assay. Microarray expression analysis using a set of HTR-8/SVneo-SP and -NSP cells revealed that SP cells overexpressed several stemness genes including caudal type homeobox2 (CDX2) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus D (LY6D) gene was the most highly up-regulated in HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. LY6D gene reduced its expression in the course of a 7-day cultivation in differentiation medium. SP cells tended to reduce its fraction by treatment of LY6D siRNA indicating that LY6D had potential to maintain cell proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. On ontology analysis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway was involved in the up-regulated genes on microarray analysis. HTR-SVneo-SP cells showed enhanced migration. This is the first report that LY6D was important for the maintenance of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. EMT was associated with the phenotype of these SP cells.

  10. Characterization of cancer stem-like cells derived from a side population of a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line, SGC-996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin-xing [Division of General Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: dr_wangjian@yahoo.com.cn [Division of General Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Wang, Hao-lu; Wang, Wei; Yin, Xiao-bin; Li, Qi-wei [Division of General Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Chen, Yu-ying; Yi, Jing [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of the Education Ministry for Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis, Institutes of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We sorted SP cells from a human gallbladder carcinoma cell lines, SGC-996. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP cells displayed higher proliferation and stronger clonal-generating capability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP cells showed more migratory and invasive abilities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP cells were more resistant and tumorigenic than non-SP counterparts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABCG2 might be a candidate as a marker for SP cells. -- Abstract: The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes that CSCs, which can renew themselves proliferate infinitely, and escape chemotherapy, become the root of recurrence and metastasis. Previous studies have verified that side population (SP) cells, characterized by their ability to efflux lipophilic substrate Hoechst 33342, to share many characteristics of CSCs in multiplying solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to sort SP cells from a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line, SGC-996 and to preliminarily identify the biological characteristics of SP cells from the cell line. Using flow cytometry we effectively sorted SP cells from the cell line SGC-996. SP cells not only displayed higher proliferative, stronger clonal-generating, more migratory and more invasive capacities, but showed stronger resistance. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrated that SP cells were more tumorigenic than non-SP counterparts in vivo. Real-time PCR analysis and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) was significantly higher in SP cells. Hence, these results collectively suggest that SP cells are progenitor/stem-like cells and ABCG2 might be a candidate marker for SP cells in human gallbladder cancer.

  11. Characterization of cancer stem-like cells derived from a side population of a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line, SGC-996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We sorted SP cells from a human gallbladder carcinoma cell lines, SGC-996. ► SP cells displayed higher proliferation and stronger clonal-generating capability. ► SP cells showed more migratory and invasive abilities. ► SP cells were more resistant and tumorigenic than non-SP counterparts. ► ABCG2 might be a candidate as a marker for SP cells. -- Abstract: The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes that CSCs, which can renew themselves proliferate infinitely, and escape chemotherapy, become the root of recurrence and metastasis. Previous studies have verified that side population (SP) cells, characterized by their ability to efflux lipophilic substrate Hoechst 33342, to share many characteristics of CSCs in multiplying solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to sort SP cells from a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line, SGC-996 and to preliminarily identify the biological characteristics of SP cells from the cell line. Using flow cytometry we effectively sorted SP cells from the cell line SGC-996. SP cells not only displayed higher proliferative, stronger clonal-generating, more migratory and more invasive capacities, but showed stronger resistance. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrated that SP cells were more tumorigenic than non-SP counterparts in vivo. Real-time PCR analysis and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) was significantly higher in SP cells. Hence, these results collectively suggest that SP cells are progenitor/stem-like cells and ABCG2 might be a candidate marker for SP cells in human gallbladder cancer.

  12. Effects of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia extracts on the side population phenotype of human epithelial cancer cells: toward targeting multidrug resistance in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyakkal, Naseer; Appadath Beeran, Asmy; Balaji, Sai A; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Ranganath Pai, Sreedhara; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports suggest the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like cancer cells, termed as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which bear functional and phenotypic resemblance with the adult, tissue-resident stem cells. Side population (SP) assay based on differential efflux of Hoechst 33342 has been effectively used for the isolation of CSCs. The drug resistance properties of SP cells are typically due to the increased expression of ABC transporters leading to drug efflux. Conventionally used chemotherapeutic drugs may often leads to an enrichment of SP, revealing their inability to target the drug-resistant SP and CSCs. Thus, identification of agents that can reduce the SP phenotype is currently in vogue in cancer therapeutics. Withania somnifera (WS) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including cancer. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of ethanolic (ET) extracts of WS and TC on the cancer SP phenotype. Interestingly, we found significant decrease in SP on treatment with TC-ET, but not with WS-ET. The SP-inhibitory TC-ET was further fractionated into petroleum ether (TC-PET), dichloromethane (TC-DCM), and n-butyl alcohol (TC-nBT) fractions using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Our data revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM, but not TC-nBT, significantly inhibited SP in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry-based functional assays revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM significantly inhibited ABC-B1 and ABC-G2 transporters and sensitized cancer cells toward chemotherapeutic drug-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, the TC-PET and TC-DCM may harbor phytochemicals with the potential to reverse the drug-resistant phenotype, thus improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25549922

  13. Effects of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia extracts on the side population phenotype of human epithelial cancer cells: toward targeting multidrug resistance in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyakkal, Naseer; Appadath Beeran, Asmy; Balaji, Sai A; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Ranganath Pai, Sreedhara; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports suggest the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like cancer cells, termed as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which bear functional and phenotypic resemblance with the adult, tissue-resident stem cells. Side population (SP) assay based on differential efflux of Hoechst 33342 has been effectively used for the isolation of CSCs. The drug resistance properties of SP cells are typically due to the increased expression of ABC transporters leading to drug efflux. Conventionally used chemotherapeutic drugs may often leads to an enrichment of SP, revealing their inability to target the drug-resistant SP and CSCs. Thus, identification of agents that can reduce the SP phenotype is currently in vogue in cancer therapeutics. Withania somnifera (WS) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including cancer. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of ethanolic (ET) extracts of WS and TC on the cancer SP phenotype. Interestingly, we found significant decrease in SP on treatment with TC-ET, but not with WS-ET. The SP-inhibitory TC-ET was further fractionated into petroleum ether (TC-PET), dichloromethane (TC-DCM), and n-butyl alcohol (TC-nBT) fractions using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Our data revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM, but not TC-nBT, significantly inhibited SP in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry-based functional assays revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM significantly inhibited ABC-B1 and ABC-G2 transporters and sensitized cancer cells toward chemotherapeutic drug-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, the TC-PET and TC-DCM may harbor phytochemicals with the potential to reverse the drug-resistant phenotype, thus improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  14. EGFR/Src/Akt signaling modulates Sox2 expression and self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sandeep

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cells are thought to be responsible for the initiation and progression of cancers. In non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs, Hoechst 33342 dye effluxing side population (SP cells are shown to have stem cell like properties. The oncogenic capacity of cancer stem-like cells is in part due to their ability to self-renew; however the mechanistic correlation between oncogenic pathways and self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells has remained elusive. Here we characterized the SP cells at the molecular level and evaluated its ability to generate tumors at the orthotopic site in the lung microenvironment. Further, we investigated if the self-renewal of SP cells is dependent on EGFR mediated signaling. Results SP cells were detected and isolated from multiple NSCLC cell lines (H1650, H1975, A549, as well as primary human tumor explants grown in nude mice. SP cells demonstrated stem-like properties including ability to self-renew and grow as spheres; they were able to generate primary and metastatic tumors upon orthotopic implantation into the lung of SCID mice. In vitro study revealed elevated expression of stem cell associated markers like Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog as well as demonstrated intrinsic epithelial to mesenchymal transition features in SP cells. Further, we show that abrogation of EGFR, Src and Akt signaling through pharmacological or genetic inhibitors suppresses the self-renewal growth and expansion of SP-cells and resulted in specific downregulation of Sox2 protein expression. siRNA mediated depletion of Sox2 significantly blocked the SP phenotype as well as its self-renewal capacity; whereas other transcription factors like Oct4 and Nanog played a relatively lesser role in regulating self-renewal. Interestingly, Sox2 was elevated in metastatic foci of human NSCLC samples. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Sox2 is a novel target of EGFR-Src-Akt signaling in NSCLCs that modulates self-renewal and expansion of

  15. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  16. “胡焕庸线”的稳定性及其两侧人口集疏模式差异%Study on the stability of Hu Line and different spatial patterns of population growth on its both sides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚伟; 刘盛和; 赵美风

    2015-01-01

    The Hu Line for population distribution in China has been regarded as one of the greatest geographical discoveries in China because it reveals the significant spatial characteristics of China's human-land relationship. Thus, the stability and significance for spatial development of Hu Line have become a major concern after the dramatic economic and social changes since China's reform and opening-up in 1978. With the support of GIS, this paper conducts a statistical analysis and systematic investigation on the stability and spatial patterns of population growth on both sides of Hu Line by constructing the spatial database of China's census data from 1982 to 2010 and initiating a new method for identifying the spatial patterns of population growth. The findings are as follows: (1) The Hu Line has been rather stable, while a new tendency of population change has emerged. On the whole, the ratio of population on both sides of Hu Line has roughly been kept at 94:6 (the southeastern side:the northwestern side) in the last 30 years. However, the proportion of population on the southeastern side of Hu Line has been slightly decreasing, while that on the northwestern side of Hu Line has been slightly increasing, which is benefited from its higher rate of natural population growth. (2) The spatial patterns of population growth on both sides of Hu Line were quite different. The agglomeration degree of population distribution on the southeastern side of Hu Line increased greater. The areas with negative population growth rate have rapidly expanded, malnly located south of the Qinling Mountalns- Hualhe River line and the northeastern China, while the areas with the fast population growth rate concentrated in the areas such as the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region. Thus, the spatial pattern of population growth on the southeastern side of Hu Line presented an aggregating and diffusion mode of Matthew effect. (3) The spatial

  17. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction ... Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When to Seek Help PSA Rising ...

  18. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP2A induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and increases the number of side population stem-like cancer cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Li Kong

    Full Text Available It has been recently reported that a side population of cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC displayed characteristics of stem-like cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of such stem-like cell populations in NPC remain unclear. Epstein-Barr virus was the first identified human tumor virus to be associated with various malignancies, most notably NPC. LMP2A, the Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent protein, has been reported to play roles in oncogenic processes. We report by immunostaining in our current study that LMP2A is overexpressed in 57.6% of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumors sampled and is mainly localized at the tumor invasive front. We found also in NPC cells that the exogenous expression of LMP2A greatly increases their invasive/migratory ability, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-like cellular marker alterations, and stimulates stem cell side populations and the expression of stem cell markers. In addition, LMP2A enhances the transforming ability of cancer cells in both colony formation and soft agar assays, as well as the self-renewal ability of stem-like cancer cells in a spherical culture assay. Additionally, LMP2A increases the number of cancer initiating cells in a xenograft tumor formation assay. More importantly, the endogenous expression of LMP2A positively correlates with the expression of ABCG2 in NPC samples. Finally, we demonstrate that Akt inhibitor (V greatly decreases the size of the stem cell side populations in LMP2A-expressing cells. Taken together, our data indicate that LMP2A induces EMT and stem-like cell self-renewal in NPC, suggesting a novel mechanism by which Epstein-Barr virus induces the initiation, metastasis and recurrence of NPC.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of La11+xHg45-x and RE11Hg44.5 (RE = Nd, Sm) as hettotypes of the Sm11Cd45 structure type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambornino, Frank; Schwärzer, Kuno; Hoch, Constantin

    2016-10-01

    The mercury-rich amalgams La11+xHg45-x and RE11Hg44.5 (space group F4bar3m (No. 216), La11+xHg45-x : a = 21.9342(19) Å, RE = Nd: a = 21.7384(14) Å; RE = Sm: a = 21.6555(4) Å), were synthesized by dissolving the respective rare earth metals in a mercury surplus and subsequently distilling off the excess. The compounds were characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray methods together with ab-initio band structure calculations. Both crystal structures deviate significantly and in different ways from their common aristotype, the Sm11Cd45 structure type. In La11+xHg45-x (x = 0.7(1)) two crystallographic sites show mixed occupancy, whereas in RE11Hg44.5 one of the Hg positions is fully unoccupied. Their band structures exhibit typical broad Hg d states at low energies, and a strong mixing of s and p states indicates a mercury sublattice with high connectivity.

  20. Characterization of highly frequent epitope-specific CD45RA+/CCR7+/- T lymphocyte responses against p53-binding domains of the human polyomavirus BK large tumor antigen in HLA-A*0201+ BKV-seropositive donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajac Paul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human polyomavirus BK (BKV has been implicated in oncogenic transformation. Its ability to replicate is determined by the binding of its large tumor antigen (LTag to products of tumor-suppressor genes regulating cell cycle, as specifically p53. We investigated CD8+ T immune responses to BKV LTag portions involved in p53 binding in HLA-A*0201+ BKV LTag experienced individuals. Peptides selected from either p53-binding region (LTag351–450 and LTag533–626 by current algorithms and capacity to bind HLA-A*0201 molecule were used to stimulate CD8+ T responses, as assessed by IFN-γ gene expression ex vivo and detected by cytotoxicity assays following in vitro culture. We observed epitope-specific immune responses in all HLA-A*0201+ BKV LTag experienced individuals tested. At least one epitope, LTag579–587; LLLIWFRPV, was naturally processed in non professional antigen presenting cells and induced cytotoxic responses with CTL precursor frequencies in the order of 1/20'000. Antigen specific CD8+ T cells were only detectable in the CD45RA+ subset, in both CCR7+ and CCR7- subpopulations. These data indicate that widespread cellular immune responses against epitopes within BKV LTag-p53 binding regions exist and question their roles in immunosurveillance against tumors possibly associated with BKV infection.

  1. Isolation of side population cells from gallbladder carcinoma of human being and the expression of ABCG2 gene%人胆囊癌SP细胞的分离及ABCG2的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the side population cells (SP cells) exist in human gallbladder carcinoma cell line and the differences of drug resistance gene ABCG2 expression in SP cells, non-SP cells and GBC-SD cell lines. Methods:Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) was used to sort the SP and non-SP cells from GBC-SD cell line of gallbladder carcinoma of human being. Then, the sorting cells were cultured and detected the expression of ABCG2 gene among the SP cells, non-SP cells and GBC-SD cell lines by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence chemistry, western blot and flow cytometry techniques. Results:A very small fraction cells (0.64 ± 0.08%) were isolated through FACS analysis which had the potency of stem cells and highly expressed ABCG2 gene (89.56 ± 3.86%). On the contrary, there were nearly no expression in non-SP cells (1.32 ± 0.49%) and lower expression in GBC-SD cell line (12.37 ±1.61%). Conclusion: The side population cells that had the potency of stem ceils existed in human gallbladder carcinoma cell line and over-expressed the drug resistance gene ABCG2. They may be play an important role in drug resistance of tumor.

  2. Graphene Side Gate Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Low, Tony; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; Zhu, Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Various mesoscopic devices exploit electrostatic side gates for their operation. In this paper, we investigate how voltage-biasing of graphene side gates modulates the electrical transport characteristics of graphene channel. We explore myriads of typical side gated devices such as symmetric dual side gates and asymmetric single side gate biasing, in monolayer and bilayer graphene. The side gates modulate the electrostatic doping in the graphene channel whose effect is reflected in transport ...

  3. Método imunomagnético associado ao meio MesenCult® na obtenção de células mononucleares da medula óssea de coelhos negativas para o anticorpo monoclonal CD45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo detse artigo é de descrever um protocolo de isolamento das células mononucleares da medula óssea de coelhos, seguido de purificação celular por depleção negativa com o anticorpo monoclonal CD45 e posterior expansão em meio de cultura MesenCult®. Dez coelhos machos adultos, da raça Nova Zelândia, com idade média de 1,0±0,2 anos e peso médio 3,5±0,24kg, foram utilizados para padronização da metodologia. O isolamento das células mononuclares da medula óssea foi realizado pelo gradiente de densidade Ficoll-paque® e a purificação e obtenção das células- pela depleção negativa com o anticorpo monoclonal CD45 em base imunomagnética. A população celular obtida foi expandida posteriormente em meio de cultura MesenCult®. No isolamento pelo gradiente de icoll-Paque® foi obtido um rendimento médio de 7,31x106 células/mL. Após purificação e obtenção das possíveis células-tronco mesenquimais pela base imunomagnética, houve um decréscimo do rendimento para 2,28x106 células/mL, mas o processo de expansão foi incrementado pelo cultivo celular. Os resultados indicaram que as células obtidas da fração mononuclear da medula óssea, cultivadas in vitro foram capazes de gerar células aderentes 24 horas após o cultivo, com predominância de células fibroblastóides sugestivas de células-tronco mesenquimais. Concluiu-se que a obtenção de células-tronco mesenquimais pode ser alcançada após purificação das células mononucleares da medula óssea de coelhos pelo método imunomagético, o meio de cultura MesenCult® proporciona um ambiente adequado para a rápida expansão in vitro e o número de passagens exerce influência negativa sobre as características morfológicas das células.

  4. A comparison of the biodistribution and biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CD66 mAb BW 250/183 and {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CD45 mAb YTH 24.5 with regard to suitability for myeloablative radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, Inga [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Gebaeude 210, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, 55101, Mainz (Germany); Kull, Thomas; Glatting, Gerhard; Kotzerke, Jorg; Rattat, Dirk; Reske, Sven N. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Bunjes, Donald; Dohner, Hartmut [Department of Hematology, University Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Hale, Geoffrey [Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is an effective method of achieving myeloablation in leukaemia patients prior to stem cell transplantation (SCT). We wished to compare the approaches of specific binding to leukaemic blasts and non-specific binding to benign red marrow cells, which results in a myeloablative ''cross-fire'' effect. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the biodistribution and biokinetics of the anti-CD45 mAb YTH 24.5 and the anti-CD66 mAb BW 250/183 with regard to their suitability for myeloablative RIT. The red marrow selective anti-CD66 mAb BW 250/183 (IgG1) binds to normal granulopoietic cells. In contrast, the anti-CD45 mAb YTH 24.5 (IgG2b) binds to 85-90% of acute leukaemic blasts and almost all haematopoietic white cells. Patients with leukaemic blast infiltration of the marrow <25% and assigned for RIT and SCT were included. Twelve patients (eight male, four female; median age 46{+-}7 years) with AML (5), CML (5) or ALL (2) were examined. Both mAbs were labelled with technetium-99m. Within 48 h, 906{+-}209 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CD66 mAb and 760{+-}331 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CD45 mAb were injected consecutively. Scintigraphic and urinary measurements were performed 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after injection. Serum activities were evaluated 2, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min and 2, 4 and 24 h after injection. Compared with the anti-CD45 mAb, the anti-CD66 mAb showed an approximately fourfold higher accumulation in the red marrow, a 2.5-fold lower accumulation in the liver and similar accumulation in the kidneys. The serum activity (% of the injected dose) initially decreased faster for the anti-CD45 mAb but was similar for the two mAbs 24 h after injection: 3.3%{+-}1.2% (anti-CD66 mAb) and 2.4%{+-}1.1% (anti-CD45 mAb). The cumulated urinary excretion was 17%{+-}6.6% (anti-CD66 mAb) and 27.3%{+-}7.9% (anti-CD45 mAb) 24 h after application. In these patients with low tumour load, the anti-CD66 mAb BW 250

  5. Anthropological research on the urban population inhabiting the city of Iaşi during the medieval period. The 17th century necropolis located on the eastern side of ’’Curtea Domneasca’’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica-Monica Groza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains anthropological data regarding a series of 111 human skeletons (discovered in 60 inhumation tombs unearthed from the medieval necropolis (17th century located on the eastern side of ’’Curtea Domnească’’ of Iaşi. By analysing each skeleton according to the methodology used in paleoanthropological research, we distinguished a set of biometric and morphological features which signalized in the end the common anthropological features of the group inhumed in this medieval necropolis. We point out that the anthropological research conducted upon 96 adult skeletons (70 males and 26 females indicates, on average, a population of over-medium height in the case of males and tall in the case of females, with a wide, high and moderately long neurocranium, a brachycephalic cranial index, hypsicranic and metriocranic skullcap, oval metriometope forehead, with intermediate crests and medium-sized occipital bone. The faces are mesoprosope and mesene with mesoconch orbits and mesorrhine noses. The mandibular robustness is moderate in the case of males and reduced in the case of females, while the shaping of the cranial bone is more accentuated at the former. Analyzing the main biometric and morphological indicators, we established that the primary background for this population group can be defined as dinarico-mediteranido, with secondary Alpinoid, Nordoid and East-Europoid influences.

  6. 'Side-by-side'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-01

    France is a nuclear power nation. And this is not going to change. However, at the same time, the country is also pursuing massive investments in the expansion of renewable energies. According to France's President Nicolas Sarkozy, the motto should be: 'side-by-side' rather than 'one or the other'. For the PV sector, whose success was unbroken during the crisis in 2009, the signal is positive and could mean sustained growth. (orig.)

  7. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  8. 胃癌侧群细胞与肿瘤干细胞的研究新思路%New ideas for researches of gastric cancer side population cells and cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晨旭; 钱军

    2013-01-01

    以肿瘤于细胞(CSC)理论为基础,人们一直在探索恶性肿瘤的治疗方案.胃癌侧群细胞(SP)具有肿瘤干细胞特性.从胃癌侧群细胞出发,基于肿瘤干细胞理论,探讨胃癌的分子靶向治疗策略,可以为胃癌的早期诊断、治疗效果的鉴定、预后以及胃癌的治疗道路寻找新的方向.%Based on the theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs),people have been searching for the treatments of malignant cancers.Gastric cancer side population cells (SP) have the characteristics of CSCs.Searching for the molecular targeted therapy strategy of gastric cancer which embarks from the gastric cancer SP and is based on the theory of CSCs provides a new direction for the treatment,early diagnosis,therapeutic effect and prognosis of gastric cancer.

  9. Isolation and identification of side population cells in human cervical cancer and analysis of biological characteristics%人宫颈癌侧群细胞的分选及其生物学特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋菁华; 王克芳; 李斌; 张军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To isolate side population (SP) cells from human cervical cancer cells and to determine the characteristics of cancer stem cells, so as to investigate the feasibility of starting research on cervical cancer stem cells from the SP cells. Methods The human cervical cancer cells were obtained from fresh human cervical cancer tissue of 40 patients who were diagnosed as cervical cancer. Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 dye efflux assay were used to isolate SP cells and NSP cells from the cervical cancer cells. The proliferation and differentiation of the two sub - population cells were observed. The two sub - population cells were injected into nude mice subcutaneously to observe their tumorigenesis ability. The inhibition rates of SP and NSP cells were assessed after treatment with chemotherapy drugs ( cisplatin) to evaluate the resistance. Results The proportion of SP cells excluding Hoechst 33342 dye in the human cervical cancer cells was 2. 04% ±0. 93% , and the proportion of the SP cells was decreased with the the degree of reduction of differentiation(P <0. 05). Cell growth curve indicated that proliferative capacity of the SP cells was better than the NSP cells (P<0. 05). The SP cells demonstrated stronger tumorigenesis ability in nude mice. As few as 1 x 103 SP cells could give rise to new tumors in xenotransplantation, with a tumorigenesis ability 100 times as high as that of the NSP cells. The time of tumor formation was significantly reduced. After treatment with different concentrations of chemotherapy drugs (cisplatin) for 24h, the SP cells had significantly lower inhibition rate than the NSP cells ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Human cervical cancer cells contains a small subpopulation of cells excluding Hoechst 33342 dye. The more poorly the cell line differentiated, the fewer the proportion it contained. The SP cells has better proliferative capacity in vitro and stronger tumorigenicity than the NSP cells, with strongly resistant to chemotherapy

  10. One-sided arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    When is an argument to be called one-sided? When is putting forward such an argument fallacious? How can we develop a model for critical discussion, such that a fallaciously one-sided argument corresponds to a violation of a discussion rule? These issues are dealt with within 'the limits of the dial

  11. ESTABLISHMENT AND DISCUSSION OF A METHOD FOR SORTING OVARIAN CANCER SIDE POPULATION THOUGH FLOW CYTOMETRY%卵巢癌侧群细胞流式分选方法的建立及探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟泳圳; 李力; 钟艳平; 张玮

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To sorting side group (side population,SP) cells in ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3,discusses the best dyeing concentration of Hoechst33342 and the optimal cell density of SKOV3 suspension.Methods:Preparation SKOV3 single cell suspension,with fluorescent dye Hoechst33342 and 7-AAD dyeing,adding verapamil toantagonism group,incubation1×106/mL SKOV3 cell 90 min with different concentration of Hoechst33342 (2.5,3,4,5,and 6 mg/L),flow cytometry instrument detection proportion of SP cell and living cells choosing different cell density (6× 105,7×105,8×105,9×105,1×106 cells/mL) of SKOV3 cell suspension,3 mg/L Hoechst33342 incubation 90 minutes,flow cytometry instrument detection proportion of SP cell and living cell.Results:Hoechst33342 blue and red double parameter map showed that SP cells located in the lower left corner of the two fluorescences were weaker areas.For the same hoechst33342 concentration,with the increase of cell density,SP cell proportion increased;for the same SKOV3 cell suspension,with the increase of hoechst33342 concentration,proportion of SP cell and living cell decreased.The best dyeing conditions of ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 were cell density of 8× 105 cells/mL,join Hoechst33342 final concentration was 3 mg/L,37℃ water bath for 90 min.The SP cell ratio was (1.12±0.104)%,and cell can maintain good activity.Conclusion:SP cell subsets exist in human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3,Hoechst33342 concentration and SKOV3 cell density is an important factor affecting in SP cell proportion and the activity of the cells.%目的:探讨分选卵巢癌细胞株SKOV3中的侧群(side population,SP)细胞的荧光染料Hoechst33342的最佳染色浓度及SKOV3的最适细胞密度.方法:制备SKOV3细胞悬液,以荧光染料Hoechst33342和7-AAD染色,维拉帕米拮抗对照,选择不同浓度的Hoechst33342(2.5,3,4,5,6 mg/L)孵育1×106个/mL SKOV3细胞90 min,流式细胞仪检测SP细胞比例及活细胞比例;

  12. Side-wall sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, B.

    1969-11-01

    A side-wall sampler which is capable of taking samples from the walls of test holes to a depth of 1,000 ft or more is described. Samples have been extracted from till, clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sands in drift and nonindurated bedrock from more than 1,000 test holes in S. Saskatchewan. Side-hole sampling is faster and cheaper than conventional sampling methods and is ideally suited for geological investigations. Mineralogical paleonto- locical and radiocarbon analyses have been determined on side-hole cores.

  13. Side Payments in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Hauser; Duncan I. Simester; Birger Wernerfelt

    1997-01-01

    Side payments, known politely as gainsharing and pejoratively as bribery, are prevalent in marketing. Indeed, many management schools have added ethics modules to their basic marketing courses to discuss these issues and there is much discussion of side payments in the literature (e.g., Adams 1995, Borrus [Borrus, Amy. 1995. A world of greased palms. (November 6) 36–38.], Mauro [Mauro, Paolo. 1997. Why worry about corruption? . Washington, D.C.], Mohl [Mohl, Bruce. 1996. Auto dealers color su...

  14. 甲状腺癌中类干细胞的侧群细胞的分离及鉴定%Isolation and characterization of a stem-like side population in thyroid cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菀姣; 兰玲; 郑旭琴; 武晓泓; 徐宽枫; 蒋琳; 唐伟; 崔岱

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究不同甲状腺肿瘤细胞中是否存在具备干细胞特性的侧群(side population,SP)细胞,同时比较侧群细胞和非侧群(non-SP)细胞生长、成瘤及侵袭性的差异.方法:以多种人甲状腺未分化癌细胞株为对象,利用干细胞高表达ABCG2转运体,可将荧光染料Hoechst泵出胞外的特性,运用双波长流式细胞仪从不同的甲状腺肿瘤细胞株中分选出具有干细胞特性的侧群细胞,进而通过半定量PCR及免疫荧光染色比较侧群和非侧群细胞的干细胞标志OCT4及肿瘤耐药基因ABCG2、MDR1表达的情况,采用克隆形成率及细胞侵袭迁移实验比较两组细胞群的克隆形成能力和侵袭转移能力.结果:人甲状腺未分化癌细胞株中存在具有干细胞特性的侧群细胞,该群细胞高表达干细胞标志OCT4及肿瘤耐药基因ABCG2和MDR1;同时在体外培养中,此侧群细胞可产生侧群细胞和非侧群细胞;侧群细胞比非侧群细胞具有更强的体外克隆形成能力和侵袭转移能力.结论:甲状腺肿瘤细胞中存在具有干细胞特性的侧群细胞,此群细胞可生成普通的瘤体细胞,提示该群细胞可能是肿瘤耐药和复发的根源.%Objective: To identify the presence of cancer stem-like cells (side population,SP) in thyroid cancer and compare the growth pattern,clonogenity and invasive potential between cancer SP and non-SP cells. Methods; Three different human anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines(including HTh74,SW1736,and C643) were stained with Hoechst 33342 and sorted for a small fraction of SP by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The gene expression of stem cell marker-0ct4 (oetamer-binding transcription factor 4) and genes related to cancer resistance and relapse-ABCG2(ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2) and MDR1 (mullidrug resistance 1) in SP and non-SP cells was compared by performing RT-PCH and immunofluorescenl staining. Colony formation assay was performed to

  15. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  16. Working the Dark Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    half—dark side—documents the making and nature of the dark side by analyzing a series of legal memos from the Department of Justice's Office of Legal Council and from the White House and concludes by relating its findings to traditional ideas about emergency action, national security, and torture....... By analyzing official reports and testimonies from soldiers partaking in the War On Terror, the dissertation's second part—dark arts—focuses on the transformation of the dark side into a productive space in which “information” and the hunt for said information overshadowed all legal, ethical, or political...

  17. Colorectal cancers choosing sides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albuquerque, Cristina; Bakker, Elvira R. M.; van Veelen, Wendy; Smits, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of sporadic colorectal cancer which predominantly occur in the distal colon, most mismatch repair deficient tumours arise at the proximal side. At present, these regional preferences have not been explained properly. Recently, we have screened colorectal tumours for mutat

  18. Side effects of ergotamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyler, WJ

    1996-01-01

    Ergotamine has been used for many years in the treatment of migraine, although there is Little formal clinical evidence that it is significantly more efficacious than placebo. A number of side effects associated with ergotamine have been reported in the literature, including myocardial infarction, i

  19. Engineered Ionizable Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymes, Gisela D; Grosman, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of mechanistic ion-channel biology is to obtain structural information from well-defined functional states. In the case of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, the open-channel conformation is particularly elusive owing to its transient nature and brief mean lifetime. In this Chapter, we show how the analysis of single-channel currents recorded from mutants engineered to contain single ionizable side chains in the transmembrane region can provide specific information about the open-channel conformation without any interference from the closed or desensitized conformations. The method takes advantage of the fact that the alternate binding and unbinding of protons to and from an ionizable side chain causes the charge of the protein to fluctuate by 1 unit. We show that, in mutant muscle acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (AChRs), this fluctuating charge affects the rate of ion conduction in such a way that individual proton-transfer events can be identified in a most straightforward manner. From the extent to which the single-channel current amplitude is reduced every time a proton binds, we can learn about the proximity of the engineered side chain to the lumen of the pore. And from the kinetics of proton binding and unbinding, we can calculate the side-chain's affinity for protons (pK a), and hence, we can learn about the electrostatic properties of the microenvironment around the introduced ionizable group. The application of this method to systematically mutated AChRs allowed us to identify unambiguously the stripes of the M1, M2 and M3 transmembrane α-helices that face the pore's lumen in the open-channel conformation in the context of a native membrane. PMID:26381938

  20. Pen-side testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen-side diagnostic testing is often required to provide real time information about the health status of an animal or herd. The rapid results are generally needed in the face of a disease outbreak where the diagnostician/clinician is presented with dead or dying animals. Another use of pen-side tests is as part of a preventive medicine/herd health programme, where the information can be used for determining pathogen incidence and prevalence in the herd, identifying potential carrier animals or evaluating subtle changes in overall herd health as a result of management changes. Still another area is as a part of health certification before sale or stocking, or during processing following slaughter. Advanced testing methods, which in the past were only appropriate for use in a laboratory setting, have now been formatted for use in the field. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and immunochromatorgraphy have greatly enhanced diagnostic pen-side capabilities. These test systems allow for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of target antigen or antibody and require little or no scientific equipment. Because of the wide format flexibility these immunochemical technologies allow, they have come to dominate the diagnostic industry, both in the laboratory and in the field. Using liquid phase or precipitating chromogens, the tests can be visually interpreted and do not need instrumentation. Immunochromatography, a simplified assay system, has found widespread application as a field or pen-side test. The entire assay takes only one or two steps, and the results appear within 5-10 minutes. In the future, DNA based diagnostics will become more adaptable for use in the field. The DNA hybridization systems are at present cumbersome and require elevated temperatures. Companies are currently working to develop fast formulas that provide results in less than an hour, have a limited number of steps and can be performed at lower temperatures. (author)

  1. 人卵巢癌细胞株侧群细胞的生物学特征%Biological characteristics of the side population of human ovarian epithelial cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 王沂峰; 黄奕俊

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究人卵巢癌细胞株细胞中乳腺癌耐药蛋白与侧群细胞表型的关系,并探讨侧群细胞在卵巢癌病理牛理中的作用以及卵巢癌细胞株在卵巢癌肿瘤干细胞研究中的应用. 方法 利用流式细胞术从人卵巢浆液腺癌细胞株OVCAR3中分离排斥双苯酰亚胺(Hoechst 33342)染色的侧群细胞以及能被其染色的非侧群细胞,比较两个亚群的细胞集落形成率,并检验其在软琼脂平板生长的能力.同时以免疫印迹和免疫荧光染色检测两种细胞的乳腺癌耐药蛋白表达情况. 结果 OVCAR3细胞株中排斥Hoechst 33342的细胞占2.0%,此活动对维拉帕米(verapamil)敏感.侧群细胞和非侧群细胞克隆形成率分别为46.17%±23.27%和6.17%±3.06%,侧群细胞克隆形成率高于非侧群细胞(P<0.05),并能在软琼脂平板中生长、形成球形的细胞集落.侧群细胞表达乳腺癌耐药蛋白. 结论 人卵巢浆液腺癌细胞株中存在排斥Hoechst 33342染色、对维拉帕米敏感的侧群细胞,是维持细胞株的主要因素,其表型与乳腺癌耐药蛋白相关.OVCAR3可用于卵巢癌肿瘤干细胞的研究.%Objectives Existence of side population (SP) in human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3 and characteristics of both stem cells and cancer cells were detected. Relation between SP phenotype and ABCG2 protein( ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2/breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP) was examined,and the potential to use OVCAR3 as tools for investigating the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs)was estimated as well. Methods Hoechst 33342 efflux SP cells and dye-uptaking non-SP cells were separated by flow cytometry from human serous ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line OVCAR3. Cell colonyforming efficiency (CFE) of both subgroups ware evaluated. Soft agar assay was performed to compare the growth capacity of SP cells and non-SP cells. ABCG2 expression was detected by Western blotting and immunofluoreacence using

  2. Putting the Side first

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    SIDE Minerals is a relative newcomer to the South African mining industry. It combines coal and anthracite mining and has base and precious metal interests. Side Minerals has offices in Boksburg from where its mining operations in Delmas, Witbank and Carolina in the Eastern Transvaal, and Newcastle in Natal are controlled. Lakeside Colliery at Witbank -a mine with a life expectancy of 15 years - is both an underground and opencast operation with an annual production capacity of 1,2 Mt of high, medium and low grade coal. Opencast extraction there is by the strip mining method. This is done on contract by Concor Mining Opencast Division, a member of the Concor Holding Group. A high wall face provides entry to the underground operations. Eastside Colliery at Carolina, which has the capacity to produce 480 000 tons of coal a year, is currently an opencast operation with underground mining scheduled to begin during 1994. Westside Colliery near Delmas is on a care and maintenance basis, but it has the capacity to produce 600 000 tons of low grade phosphorous coal which is required by the ferro-alloy and steel industries. 2 figs.

  3. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  4. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  5. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Chau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane L Chau1, Vanessa Walker2, Latha Pai3, Lwin M Cho4University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA 1Division Geriatric Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, 3Psychiatry, 4Geriatric Medicine, Sierra Nevada Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.Keywords: opiates, pain, elderly, side effects

  6. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Raffaele Dalla; Zinicola, Roberto; Iaria, Maurizio

    2014-08-27

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its incidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perforation. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  7. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele; Dalla; Valle; Roberto; Zinicola; Maurizio; Iaria

    2014-01-01

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anas-tomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its in-cidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perfora-tion. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  8. Side Effects in Steering Fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Wortel, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I will give a formal definition of side effects. I will do so by modifying a system for modelling program instructions and program states, Quantified Dynamic Logic, to a system called DLAf (for Dynamic Logic with Assignments as Formulas), which in contrast to QDL allows assignments in formulas and makes use of short-circuit evaluation. I will show the underlying logic in those formulas to be a variant of short-circuit logic called repetition-proof short-circuit logic. Using DLAf I will define the actual and the expected evaluation of a single instruction. The side effects are then defined to be the difference between the two. I will give rules for composing those side effects in single instructions, thus scaling up our definition of side effects to a definition of side effects in deterministic \\dlaf-programs. Using this definition I will give a classification of side effects, introducing as most important class that of marginal side effects. Finally, I will show how to use our system for calcul...

  9. Side-View Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face recognition techniques to be used in house safety applications. Our aim is to recognize people as they pass through a door, and estimate their location in the house. Here, we compare available databas...

  10. The Moon's near side megabasin and far side bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Since Luna and Lunar Orbiter photographed the far side of the Moon, the mysterious dichotomy between the face of the Moon as we see it from Earth and the side of the Moon that is hidden has puzzled lunar scientists. As we learned more from the Apollo sample return missions and later robotic satellites, the puzzle literally deepened, showing asymmetry of the crust and mantle, all the way to the core of the Moon. This book summarizes the author’s successful search for an ancient impact feature, the Near Side Megabasin of the Moon and the extensions to impact theory needed to find it. The implications of this ancient event are developed to answer many of the questions about the history of the Moon.

  11. Interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Cerdeira, Cecilia; Fan, Boyu; Barizien, Antoine; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    The inverted flag instability occurs when an elastic plate that is free at its leading edge and clamped at its trailing edge is subjected to an axial wind. The oscillating motion that follows has received recent attention. However, previous studies have focused on the dynamics of a single flag even though these are rarely found isolated in natural phenomena, such as the fluttering of leaves in the wind. The interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags has been investigated, analyzing the effects of the distance between flags and the wind speed. Both in-phase and anti-phase coupling have been observed for different ranges of these parameters.

  12. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I;

    2015-01-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects...... be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  13. Side Effects of Side Effects Information in Drug Information Leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, H. Pander; Klaassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which drug information leaflets given to patients were improved in two ways, first by adding a short introductory paragraph on the nature of side effects generally, and second by adjusting frequency descriptors to more accurately reflect pretesting of the drug. Explains that participants in the study were less likely to…

  14. Peptide nanotube aligning side chains onto one side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yuki; Mitani, Shota; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2016-06-01

    A novel pseudo cyclic penta-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine, two β-alanines, and a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid (CP5ES) is synthesized and investigated on peptide nanotube (PNT) formation. When the PNT is formed with the maximum number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the cyclic peptides, the sequence enables the alignment of the side chains, naphthyl groups, on one side of the PNT. Microscopic and spectroscopic observations of CP5ES crystals reveal that CP5ES forms rod- or needle-shaped molecular assemblies showing exciton coupling of the Cotton effect and predominant monomer emission, which are different from a reference cyclic tri-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine and two β-alanines. Insertion of a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid into β-amino acids in the cyclic skeleton is therefore suggested to be effective to make the side chains aligning on one side of the PNT. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27282135

  15. Dark Side of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Side of the Universe (DSU) workshops bring together a wide range of theorists and experimentalists to discuss current ideas on models of the dark side, and relate them to current and future experiments. This year's DSU will take place in the colorful Norwegian city of Bergen. Topics include dark matter, dark energy, cosmology, and physics beyond the standard model. One of the goals of the workshop is to expose in particular students and young researchers to the fascinating topics of dark matter and dark energy, and to provide them with the opportunity to meet some of the best researchers in these areas .

  16. Side-View Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N. J.; Biggelaar, van den, M.

    2011-01-01

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss the use of side-view face recognition in house safety applications. Our goal is to recognize people as they pass through doors in order to estimate their location in the house. In order to preserve p...

  17. Increased Proportion of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Population in Cord Blood of Neonates Born to Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarits, Orsolya; Zóka, András; Barna, Gábor; Al-Aissa, Zahra; Rosta, Klára; Rigó, János; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Somogyi, Anikó; Firneisz, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) population in the cord blood of neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a hypothesis generating pilot study, due to that, neonatal polycythemia may be the consequence of GDM pregnancy. Forty-five pregnant women with GDM (last trimester mean HbA1C = 33.9 mmol/mol) and 42 (nondiabetic) control pregnant women were enrolled after their routine 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between the 24th and 28th gestational week (with expected differences in their mean routine clinical characteristics: plasma glucose at OGTT: 0' = 5.07 vs. 4.62 mM, 120' = 8.9 vs. 5.76 mM, age = 35.07 vs. 31.66 years, prepregnancy body mass index = 27.9 vs. 23.9 kg/m(2), GDM vs. control, respectively) on a voluntary basis after signing the informed consent. EDTA-treated cord blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry and the software Kaluza1.2 using CD45 and CD34-specific fluorescent antibodies to identify the HSPC population (CD34(+) cells within the CD45(dim) blast gate). The proportion of CD34(+)CD45(dim) HSPCs among the nucleated cells was significantly (P treatment types (P cells in the cord blood may possibly be related to altered fetal stem cell mobilization in GDM pregnancy, yet these results should be interpreted only as preliminary due to the small sample sizes.

  18. Identifying Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We review the burgeoning literature on two-sided markets focusing on the different definitions that have been proposed. In particular, we show that the well-known definition given by Evans is a particular case of the more general definition proposed by Rochet and Tirole. We then identify t

  19. The DarkSide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  20. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed.

  1. Nonprescription ibuprofen: side effect profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, S A; Waksman, J A; Dash, B H

    1992-01-01

    Single doses of nonprescription analgesics are commonly used to treat self-diagnosed conditions. To evaluate the safety of single doses of nonprescription-strength ibuprofen, we examined reported side effects from 15 double-blind, randomized, controlled trials we conducted of the drug to treat various common painful conditions (e.g., headache, sore throat). All studies included placebo and another nonprescription analgesic, acetaminophen. A total of 878 subjects received ibuprofen 200 or 400 mg, 849 acetaminophen 650 or 1000 mg, and 852 placebo. The overall frequency of side effects was comparable: ibuprofen 2.4%, acetaminophen 3.2%, and placebo 2.1%. The frequency of central nervous system symptoms was 0.8%, 2.1%, and 0.9%, respectively. Upper gastro-intestinal upset ranged from 0.8-0.9% of subjects in all groups. We conclude that single doses of nonprescription ibuprofen are well tolerated and demonstrate a side effect profile indistinguishable from that of acetaminophen and placebo. PMID:1437701

  2. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  3. Shortest Paths With Side Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Paolo; Bicchi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We present a complete characterization of shortest paths to a goal position for a vehicle with unicycle kinematics and a limited range sensor, constantly keeping a given landmark in sight. Previous work on this subject studied the optimal paths in case of a frontal, symmetrically limited Field--Of--View (FOV). In this paper we provide a generalization to the case of arbitrary FOVs, including the case that the direction of motion is not an axis of symmetry for the FOV, and even that it is not contained in the FOV. The provided solution is of particular relevance to applications using side-scanning, such as e.g. in underwater sonar-based surveying and navigation.

  4. 49 CFR 238.217 - Side structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side structure. 238.217 Section 238.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.217 Side structure. Each passenger car shall comply with the following: (a) Side posts...

  5. A Novel Population of Mesenchymal Progenitors with Hematopoietic Potential Originated from CD14- Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu, Peng Liu, Jie Feng, Yan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemopoietic system derived progenitor cells with mesenchymal features have been identified including CD14+ monocyte-derived progenitors. However, it is unclear whether there are mesenchyme derived progenitors with hematopoietic potential. Herein, we identified a novel CD14- cell-derived population with both mesenchymal and hematopoietic features in rat peripheral blood, and this cell population is different from the CD14+ monocyte-derived progenitors but designated peripheral blood multipotential mesenchymal progenitors (PBMMPs. Phenotype analysis demonstrated expression of mesenchymal markers in PBMMPs including BMPRs, Endoglin/CD105, Fibronectin (Fn, Vimentin (Vim, Collagen (Col I/II/III along with hematopoietic marker CD34. CD14+ cell-derived population shared the same characteristics with CFs. In mixed culture of CD14+ and CD14- cells, PBMMPs were a predominant component and expressed CD29high, CD73high, CD34high, CD45low and CD90. Except for the value of mixed T lymphocytes and CD14+ cell-derived population, hematopoietic characters of cultured PBMMPs were indicated by CD14-/CD34+/CD45-/CD90+. The mesenchymal origin was further confirmed by comparing PBMMPs with bone marrow stromal cells. Finally, we transplanted PBMMPs into a skin wound model, and results showed the specific potential of PBMMPs in not only extracellular matrix secretion but epidermal regeneration. This study provides evidence that peripheral blood contains common hematopoietic-mesenchymal progenitors from both hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages, and CD34+ mesenchymal progenitors are a possible alternative source of epidermal cells in wound healing.

  6. [New side effects of proton pump inhibitors; time for reflection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, N J; Numans, M E

    2016-01-01

    Large population studies published recently have revealed additional risks of chronic use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Dementia and renal failure were reported as long-term follow-up side effects of chronic use, in addition to the previously known increased risk for various infections, osteoporosis and metabolic disturbances. In the light of ongoing over-prescription of PPIs, this should lead to reconsideration of individual indications. PMID:27334088

  7. Isolation and tracing of side population from lentivirus-transduced GFP-positive ovarian cancer cells%以慢病毒构建的GFP阳性卵巢肿瘤细胞中侧群细胞的分离和动物活体内示踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彤; 姜桦; 丰有吉; 张国平; 林晓龙; 龚文佳; 陈秋雷; 魏勋斌

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过慢病毒将绿色荧光蛋白(green fluorescent protein,GFP)基因转入卵巢癌细胞中,研究慢病毒感染对细胞泵出Hoechst 33342能力的影响,追踪GFP(+)侧群(side population,SP)细胞在裸鼠体内的荧光表达和肿瘤成像.方法 选用人卵巢癌细胞株HO-8910PM,以慢病毒感染GFP基因至人卵巢癌细胞株HO-8910PM,摸索以Ubiquitin启动子构建的慢病毒颗粒对该细胞的最佳感染复数(multiplicity of infection,MOI).以流式细胞仪分选表达GFP的卵巢癌细胞株,获得高纯度的GFP(+)HO-8910PM,检测GFP表达对Hoechst 33342染色的影响.再以流式细胞仪分选GFP(+)SP细胞,将分选的GFP(+)SP细胞注射入裸鼠皮下,观察GFP(+)SP细胞的致瘤能力,并在体内观测GFP(+)SP来源肿瘤的荧光成像.结果 Ubiquitin启动子构建的慢病毒感染不影响卵巢癌细胞拒染Hoechst 33342的能力,分选的GFP(+)SP细胞仍能在裸鼠体内形成表达GFP的肿瘤,成瘤能力和未感染细胞相比无显著变化,GFP阳性肿瘤在成像系统中可见荧光表达.结论 慢病毒感染不影响卵巢癌细胞拒染Hoechst 33342的能力,慢病毒感染后分选的GFP(+)SP细胞仍能在裸鼠体内形成表达GFP的肿瘤,成瘤能力和未感染细胞相比无显著变化,GFP标记可以作为研究卵巢癌细胞在动物活体内生物学行为的示踪标记.

  8. The Lighter Side of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    1996-10-01

    From the drop of an apple to the stately dance of the galaxies, gravity is omnipresent in the Cosmos. Even with its high profile, gravity is the most enigmatic of all the known basic forces in nature. The Lighter Side of Gravity presents a beautifully clear and completely nontechnical introduction to the phenomenon of this force in all its manifestations. Astrophysicist Jayant Narlikar begins with an historical background to the discovery of the law of gravitation by Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century. Using familiar analogies, interesting anecdotes, and numerous illustrations to get across subtle effects and difficult points to readers, he goes on to describe the general theory of relativity and some of its strange and unfamiliar ideas such as curved spacetime, the bending of light, and black holes. Since first publication in 1982 (W.H. Freeman), Dr. Narlikar has brought his book completely up to date and expanded it to include the discovery of gigantic gravitational lenses in space, the findings of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, the detection of dark matter in galaxies, the investigation of the very early Universe, and other new ideas in cosmology. This lucid and stimulating book presents a clear approach to the intriguing phenomenon of gravity for everyone who has ever felt caught in its grip. Jayant Narlikar is the winner of many astronomical prizes and the author of Introduction to Cosmology (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

  9. Distributed video coding with multiple side information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Brites, C.; Ascenso, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of some decoder side information. The quality of the side information has a major impact on the DVC rate-distortion (RD) performance in the same way...... the quality of the predictions had a major impact in predictive video coding. In this paper, a DVC solution exploiting multiple side information is proposed; the multiple side information is generated by frame interpolation and frame extrapolation targeting to improve the side information of a single...... estimation mode. Compared with the best available single side information solutions, the proposed DVC solution with multiple side information robustly improves the RD performance for the set of test sequences....

  10. Car Side Structure Crashworthiness in Pole and Moving Deformable Barrier Side Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dazhi; DONG Guang; ZHANG Jinhuan; HUANG Shilin

    2006-01-01

    To clearly understand passenger car structure's crashworthiness in typical side impacts of pole and moving deformable barrier (MDB) impact modes, which could assist the establishment of Chinese vehicle side impact safety regulations, a full midsized car finite element model, calibrated by pole side impact test, was built and the pole side impact according to European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and the MDB side impact according to ECE R95 regulations were simulated with LS-DYNA. The accelerations and the structure deformations from simulations were compared. It can be concluded that the pole side impact focuses primarily on side structure crashworthiness as a result of large intrusions, while the MDB side impact focuses primarily on full side structure crashworthiness. Accordingly, occupant protection strategies focus on different aspects to improve side impact safety. In the pole side impact the objective is to maintain the passenger compartment and protect the passenger's head from impacting the pole, while in the MDB side impact the objective is to protect the full human body. In the design of the car side structures, at least these two tests should be considered for assessing their side impact crashworthiness. Conducting these two side impact tests as certified tests provides insights into car safety during side impacts.

  11. Right-side and left-side colon cancer follow different pathways to relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Kerry M.; Hummon, Amanda B.; Buechler, Steven

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cancer of the ascending (right-side) colon is different from cancer of the descending (left-side) colon at the molecular level. Using microarray data from 102 right-side colon carcinomas and 95 left-side colon carcinomas we show that different pathways dominate progression to relapse in right-side and left-side colon cancer. Right-side tumors at a high risk for relapse exhibit elevated expression of cell cycle control genes and elevated Wnt signaling. On the oth...

  12. Tissue-specific populations of leukocytes in semen-producing organs of the normal, hemicastrated, and vasectomized mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Thomas E; Kiessling, Rachel L; Kiessling, Ann A

    2003-03-01

    Semen HIV is separate and distinct from blood HIV and work has revealed that seminal plasma HIV particles do not arise from infected cells in semen. These findings indicate that semen-producing organs contain multiple, separate populations of HIV host cells. To test this hypothesis, we have examined leukocytes in semen-producing organs of male mice. Cells expressing F4/80 (tissue-specific macrophage marker) were abundant in testicular interstitium and as dendritic-like cells in the lumenal epithelium of the epididymis, especially the initial segment. Cells expressing CD45 (panleukocyte marker) were found rarely in the testicular interstitium, commonly in epididymal epithelium, were most abundant in the interstitium of the epididymis, and were more readily released from minced tissues than were F4/80(+) cells. Unlike the testis and epididymis, F4/80(+) cells in seminal vesicles also appeared to be CD45(+). Seminal vesicle leukocytes were restricted to the epithelium surrounding the lumen and were not released by mincing. CD11b (monocyte/B cell marker) was detected in testicular and seminal vesicle interstitium, but not in the epididymis. Hemicastration and vasectomy caused a limited redistribution of the leukocytes. These findings confirm the existence of tissue-specific populations of leukocytes in semen-producing organs and indicate that some populations are highly tissue adherent. The regionalized, tissue-adherent macrophages in the testicular interstitium, the initial segment of the caput epididymis, and the seminal vesicle epithelium suggest the existence of reservoirs of HIV-infected cells in humans that could contribute virus particles, but not infected cells, to semen and possibly blood. PMID:12689416

  13. Isolation and characterisation of human gingival margin-derived STRO-1/MACS1 and MACS2 cell populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karim M Fawzy El-Sayed; Sebastian Paris; Christian Graetz; Neemat Kassem; Mohamed Mekhemar; Hendrick Ungefroren; Fred Fandrich; Christof Dorfer

    2015-01-01

    Recently, gingival margin-derived stem/progenitor cells isolated via STRO-1/magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) showed remarkable periodontal regenerative potential in vivo. As a second-stage investigation, the present study’s aim was to perform in vitro characterisation and comparison of the stem/progenitor cell characteristics of sorted STRO-1-positive (MACS1) and STRO-1-negative (MACS2) cell populations from the human free gingival margin. Cells were isolated from the free gingiva using a minimally invasive technique and were magnetically sorted using anti-STRO-1 antibodies. Subsequently, the MACS1 and MACS2 cell fractions were characterized by flow cytometry for expression of CD14, CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146/MUC18 and STRO-1. Colony-forming unit (CFU) and multilineage differentiation potential were assayed for both cell fractions. Mineralisation marker expression was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MACS1 and MACS2 cell fractions showed plastic adherence. MACS1 cells, in contrast to MACS2 cells, showed all of the predefined mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell characteristics and a significantly higher number of CFUs (P,0.01). More than 95%of MACS1 cells expressed CD105, CD90 and CD73;lacked the haematopoietic markers CD45, CD34 and CD14, and expressed STRO-1 and CD146/MUC18. MACS2 cells showed a different surface marker expression profile, with almost no expression of CD14 or STRO-1, and more than 95%of these cells expressed CD73, CD90 and CD146/MUC18, as well as the haematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 and CD105. MACS1 cells could be differentiated along osteoblastic, adipocytic and chondroblastic lineages. In contrast, MACS2 cells demonstrated slight osteogenic potential. Unstimulated MACS1 cells showed significantly higher expression of collagen I (P,0.05) and collagen III (P,0.01), whereas MACS2 cells demonstrated higher expression of osteonectin (P,0.05;Mann–Whitney). The present study is the first to compare gingival

  14. Interference Channels with Correlated Receiver Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nan; Gunduz, Deniz; Goldsmith, Andrea J.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The problem of joint source-channel coding in transmitting independent sources over interference channels with correlated receiver side information is studied. When each receiver has side information correlated with its own desired source, it is shown that source-channel code separation is optimal. When each receiver has side information correlated with the interfering source, sufficient conditions for reliable transmission are provided based on a joint source-channel coding scheme using the ...

  15. Constrained Source Coding with Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidoth, Amos; Malär, Andreas; Wigger, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    The source-coding problem with side information at the decoder is studied subject to a constraint that the encoder---to whom the side information is unavailable---be able to compute the decoder's reconstruction sequence to within some distortion. For discrete memoryless sources and finite single-letter distortion measures, an expression is given for the minimal description rate as a function of the joint law of the source and side information and of the allowed distortions at the encoder and ...

  16. Discriminatory Lossy Source Coding: Side Information Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Ravi; Sankar, Lalitha; Poor, H. Vincent

    2011-01-01

    A lossy source coding problem is studied in which a source encoder communicates with two decoders, one with and one without correlated side information with an additional constraint on the privacy of the side information at the uninformed decoder. Two cases of this problem arise depending on the availability of the side information at the encoder. The set of all feasible rate-distortion-equivocation tuples are characterized for both cases. The difference between the informed and uninformed ca...

  17. Nonparametric Analysis of Two-Sided Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Senay Sokullu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an empirical semiparametric model for two-sided markets. Contrary to existing empirical literature on two-sided markets, we do not rely on linear network effects. Instead, network effects and probability distribution functions of net benefits of two sides are specified nonparametrically. The demand functions and the network effect functions of readers and advertisers are estimated by nonparametric IV estimation using a data set from German magazine industry. The ill-posed...

  18. Physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games in elite rugby league players. Sixteen male rugby league players participated in 'on-side' and 'off-side' games. Both small-sided games were played in a 40- × 40-m playing area. The 'off-side' game permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. Players were permitted to pass backward or forward (to an 'off-side' player). The 'on-side' game also permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. However, players were only permitted to pass backward to players in an 'on-side' position. Heart rate and movement patterns (via global positioning system) were recorded continuously throughout both games. Data were collected on the distance covered, number of high-acceleration and velocity efforts, and recovery between efforts. Video footage was also taken to track the performance of the players. Post hoc inspection of the footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals. In comparison to 'on-side' games, 'off-side' games had a greater number of involvements ("touches"), passes, and effective passes. However, the cognitive demands of 'on-side' games were greater than 'off-side' games. 'Off-side' games resulted in a greater total distance covered, greater distance covered in mild and moderate accelerations, and greater distance covered in low, moderate, and high-velocity efforts. There were also a greater number of short duration recovery periods between efforts in 'off-side' games. The results of this study demonstrate that 'off-side' games provide greater physiological and skill demands than 'on-side' games. 'Off-side' games may provide a practical alternative to 'on-side' games for the development of skill and fitness in elite rugby league players.

  19. Source Coding With Encoder Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.; Zamir, Ram

    2004-01-01

    We introduce the idea of distortion side information, which does not directly depend on the source but instead affects the distortion measure. We show that such distortion side information is not only useful at the encoder, but that under certain conditions, knowing it at only the encoder is as good as knowing it at both encoder and decoder, and knowing it at only the decoder is useless. Thus distortion side information is a natural complement to the signal side information studied by Wyner a...

  20. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  1. Laterality and flight: concurrent tests of side-bias and optimality in flying tree swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, James T; Ratcliffe, John M; Cerasale, David J; Winkler, David W

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural side-bias occurs in many vertebrates, including birds as a result of hemispheric specialization and can be advantageous by improving response times to sudden stimuli and efficiency in multi-tasking. However, behavioural side-bias can lead to morphological asymmetries resulting in reduced performance for specific activities. For flying animals, wing asymmetry is particularly costly and it is unclear if behavioural side-biases will be expressed in flight; the benefits of quick response time afforded by side-biases must be balanced against the costs of less efficient flight due to the morphological asymmetry side-biases may incur. Thus, competing constraints could lead to context-dependent expression or suppression of side-bias in flight. In repeated flight trials through an outdoor tunnel with obstacles, tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) preferred larger openings, but we did not detect either individual or population-level side-biases. Thus, while observed behavioural side-biases during substrate-foraging and copulation are common in birds, we did not see such side-bias expressed in obstacle avoidance behaviour in flight. This finding highlights the importance of behavioural context for investigations of side-bias and hemispheric laterality and suggests both proximate and ultimate trade-offs between species-specific cognitive ecology and flight biomechanics.

  2. Laterality and flight: concurrent tests of side-bias and optimality in flying tree swallows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Mandel

    Full Text Available Behavioural side-bias occurs in many vertebrates, including birds as a result of hemispheric specialization and can be advantageous by improving response times to sudden stimuli and efficiency in multi-tasking. However, behavioural side-bias can lead to morphological asymmetries resulting in reduced performance for specific activities. For flying animals, wing asymmetry is particularly costly and it is unclear if behavioural side-biases will be expressed in flight; the benefits of quick response time afforded by side-biases must be balanced against the costs of less efficient flight due to the morphological asymmetry side-biases may incur. Thus, competing constraints could lead to context-dependent expression or suppression of side-bias in flight. In repeated flight trials through an outdoor tunnel with obstacles, tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor preferred larger openings, but we did not detect either individual or population-level side-biases. Thus, while observed behavioural side-biases during substrate-foraging and copulation are common in birds, we did not see such side-bias expressed in obstacle avoidance behaviour in flight. This finding highlights the importance of behavioural context for investigations of side-bias and hemispheric laterality and suggests both proximate and ultimate trade-offs between species-specific cognitive ecology and flight biomechanics.

  3. SIGNIFICANCE OF СD4+ Т-LYMPHOCYTE POPULATIONS MONITORING FOR DIAGNOSING AND FORECASTING OF ORGANISM REACTION ON TRANSPLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Onishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review article the necessity of adaptation and introduction into clinical practice of simultaneous monitoring of immune blood cells and cytokines in patients with grafted organs for a choice of individual tactic of immuno- suppressive therapy, determination of its efficiency and forecasting is proved. It is emphasized, that with the spe- cial attention it ought to concern to characteristic of CD4 + T-lymphocytes and to definition of an interrelation of their separate populations in peripheral blood (Treg, Th17, Tact memory cells – CD4+CD25hiCD127hiCD45RO since they are the basic participants of immune system reaction on grafts. 

  4. Identifying Cross-Sided Liquidity Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Skjeltorp (Johannes); E. Sojli (Elvira); W.W. Tham (Wing Wah)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the relevance of the cross-sided externality between liquidity makers and takers from the two-sided market perspective. We use exogenous changes in the make/take fee structure, minimum tick-size and technological shocks for liquidity takers and makers, as exper

  5. Classical data compression with quantum side information

    OpenAIRE

    Devetak, I.; Winter, A.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of classical data compression when the decoder has quantum side information at his disposal is considered. This is a quantum generalization of the classical Slepian-Wolf theorem. The optimal compression rate is found to be reduced from the Shannon entropy of the source by the Holevo information between the source and side information.

  6. Metabolic Network Prediction of Drug Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Itay; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-03-23

    Drug side effects levy a massive cost on society through drug failures, morbidity, and mortality cases every year, and their early detection is critically important. Here, we describe the array of model-based phenotype predictors (AMPP), an approach that leverages medical informatics resources and a human genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) to predict drug side effects. AMPP is substantially predictive (AUC > 0.7) for >70 drug side effects, including very serious ones such as interstitial nephritis and extrapyramidal disorders. We evaluate AMPP's predictive signal through cross-validation, comparison across multiple versions of a side effects database, and co-occurrence analysis of drug side effect associations in scientific abstracts (hypergeometric p value = 2.2e-40). AMPP outperforms a previous biochemical structure-based method in predicting metabolically based side effects (aggregate AUC = 0.65 versus 0.59). Importantly, AMPP enables the identification of key metabolic reactions and biomarkers that are predictive of specific side effects. Taken together, this work lays a foundation for future detection of metabolically grounded side effects during early stages of drug development. PMID:27135366

  7. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  8. Study of turbine with side channel runner

    OpenAIRE

    Jandourek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with proposal of constructional solving turbine with side channel. Basis for the design is lossy characteristics of the valve. The intention is to replace hydraulic closures by turbine with side channel runner. Hydraulic losses in the flow restriction in turn replaced by the electricity generation in the comparable characteristics of valve and turbine.

  9. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the dif

  10. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  11. Effect of knee joint angle on side-to-side strength ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

    2014-10-01

    Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength are typically tested at different joint angles due to the differences in length-tension relationships of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The efficiency of strength testing can be improved if the same angle can be used to test both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal angle for isometric knee strength testing by examining the effect of knee angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios. Eighteen active young people (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength were tested on both sides at 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The effect of knee flexion angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios, raw torque values, and side-to-side flexor-to-extensor torque ratios were assessed. Side-to-side knee extensor peak torque ratios and knee flexor-to-extensor torque ratios differed significantly by knee flexion angle (p = 0.024 and p = 0.011, respectively), but side-to-side knee flexor peak torque ratios did not differ significantly (p = 0.311). When considering both side-to-side peak torque ratios and flexor-to-extensor torque ratios, the values were more symmetrical (i.e., closer to 100%) only at 60° of knee flexion. Our results indicate that both the knee flexors and the knee extensors can be tested clinically at 60° of knee flexion. Our results also indicate that the hamstrings can be tested at any of the 3 angles if the examiner is interested in side-to-side ratios rather than raw torque values. These results may facilitate more efficient and flexible clinical knee strength testing.

  12. PI3K/mTOR信号通路参与胰腺肿瘤干细胞样SP细胞生存增殖的调控%Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is critical for survival and proliferation of pancreatic cancer stem-like side population cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 周蒙滔; 王春友; 刘涛; 吴河水; 周峰; 熊炯炘; 赵刚; 杨明; 殷涛

    2008-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify the side population (SP) cells in pancreatic cancer and investigate the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) pathway in the survival and proliferation of them. Methods Pancreatic cancer cell of the lines PANC-1, BXPC-3, ASPC-1, PC-3, aad SW-1990 were cultured. Hoechst 33432 staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) were used to sort the SP cells. Verapamil, inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was added before the Hoechst 33342 inoculation to observe its influence on the SP proportion. Media with LY294002, specific inhibitor of PI3K, or rapamycin, specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (roTOR), were used to culture PANC-1 cells to observe the survival of cells. Twenty-one NOD-SCID mice were randomly divided into 7 equal groups. Four groups were inoculated subcutaneously with SP cells of the concentrations of 5×105, 5×104, 5×103, or 1×103 at the right axillary fossa and with non-SP cells at the left then Hcechst 33342 staining, flow cytometrie sorting were used to detect the content of SP cells at the left axillary fossa The other 3 groups were injected subcutaneously with non-Hoechst 33342 treated cells of the concentrations of 5×105, 5×104, 5×103, or 1×103 at the right axillary fossa and PBS at the left axillary fossa. Ten weeks later the mice were killed to undergo pathological examination. Results All cell lines were found to exhibit verapamil-sensitive SP cells except BXPC-3 cells. The SP cell proportion of the PANC-1 cells was 7.84%. No SP cell was found in the cells treated with verapamil. The colonyformation ability of the SP cells was (43.7±3.1) %, significantly higher than those of the non-SP cells and cells without Hcechst 33342 cells [(8.3±1.6)% and (10.2±1.9)% respectively, both P=0.000]. The tumorigenic ability of the SP cells was 100 times as those of the non-SP cells and Hoechst 33342 untreated cells. After addition of LY

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  14. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yourself during radiation therapy Radiation therapy can damage healthy body tissues in or near the area being treated, which can cause side effects. Many people worry about this part of their cancer treatment. Before ...

  15. Side- ja turvanguamet / Indrek Süld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süld, Indrek

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: 2003 : annual report : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35; 2003 : godovoi ottshjot : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35. Ülevaade AS-i Eesti Raudtee side- ja turvanguameti tegevusest 2003. aastal. Skeem

  16. Two-sided Heterogeneity and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Moxnes, Andreas; Ulltveit-Moe, Karen Helene

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies of firms within industries consistently report substantial heterogeneity in measures of performance such as size and productivity. This paper explores the consequences of joint heterogeneity on the supply side (sellers) and the demand side (buyers) in international trade using a novel transaction-level dataset from Norway. Domestic exporters as well as foreign importers are explicitly identified in each transaction to every destination. The buyer-seller linked data reveal a ...

  17. Reliability in Source Coding with Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Benjamin G.; Wagner, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    We study error exponents for source coding with side information. Both achievable exponents and converse bounds are obtained for the following two cases: lossless source coding with coded information (SCCSI) and lossy source coding with full side information (Wyner-Ziv). These results recover and extend several existing results on source-coding error exponents and are tight in some circumstances. Our bounds have a natural interpretation as a two-player game between nature and the code designe...

  18. Source Coding with Fixed Lag Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.

    2004-01-01

    We consider source coding with fixed lag side information at the decoder. We focus on the special case of perfect side information with unit lag corresponding to source coding with feedforward (the dual of channel coding with feedback) introduced by Pradhan. We use this duality to develop a linear complexity algorithm which achieves the rate-distortion bound for any memoryless finite alphabet source and distortion measure.

  19. The Two Sides of Money Laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Corina – Maria ENE

    2014-01-01

    The mainly goal of money laundering is to carry out more and more illegal economic transactions or activities to produce individual or groups gains and then to legitimate them. Money laundering converts illicit source of money generated by criminal activities in order to hide the connection between money and their original illegal activities. This is one of money laundering side. The second side implies corruption. While money laundering is a passing channel for illicit funds due to its crimi...

  20. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  1. Nonlinear time series analysis of knee and ankle kinematics during side by side treadmill walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessler, Jeff A.; De Leone, Charles J.; Gilliland, Sara

    2009-06-01

    Nonlinear time series analysis was used to estimate maximal Lyapunov exponents of select ankle and knee kinematics during three different conditions of treadmill walking: independent, side by side, and side by side with forced synchronization of stepping. Stride to stride variability was significantly increased for the condition in which individuals walked side by side and synchronized unintentionally when compared to the conditions of forced synchronization and independent walking. In addition, standard deviations of three kinematic variables of lower extremity movement were significantly increased during the condition in which unintentional synchronization occurred. No relationship was found between standard deviation and estimates of maximal Lyapunov exponents. An increase in kinematic variability during side by side walking for nonimpaired individuals who are not at risk of falling suggests that variability in certain aspects of performance might be indicative of a healthy system. Modeling this variability for an impaired individual to imitate may have beneficial effects on locomotor function. These results may therefore have implications for the rehabilitation of gait in humans by suggesting that a different functional outcome might be achieved by practicing side by side walking as opposed to more commonly used strategies involving independent walking.

  2. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  3. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Santana-Mora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.

  4. Immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. Transfer of immunity with primed CD45RC+ and CD45RC- CD4 T-cell subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P;

    1996-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen CD4 T cells were separated by antibody...

  5. [Selected aspects of oral contraception side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    The first hormonal pill was approved in the 60s of the twentieth century Since that time, oral contraception has been used worldwide by dozens of women due to its high availability as well as relative ease and safety of taking. The main side effects of oral contraception include elevated risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Estrogens increase the probability of VTE development, depending on the dose in medication, and third-generation progestins increase the risk of VTE development more than older-generation progestins. Also, the coexistence of hereditary thrombophilia increases the risk of VTE development in women using oral contraceptives. Other side effects include changes in the carbohydrate and lipid economy Progestins in oral contraceptives decrease HDL cholesterol levels but increase LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Additionally estrogens are a recognized mitogenic factor for the epithelium of the mammary gland, acting proliferative on the glandular tissue and in the same way influence on the increased risk of breast cancer development. Patients sometimes complain about some subjective side symptoms such as headache, mood changes, nausea, back pain, breast pain and swelling, as well as decreased libido. Some patients discontinue oral contraception due to fear of side effects or temporary ailments before con- sulting their doctor what may result in unintended pregnancy The aim of the following paper was to present most frequent side effects of oral contraception, ways of their moni- toring and diagnosis. PMID:25669065

  6. The DarkSide-50 outer detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D’Angelo, D.; D’Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Aldo, Ianni; Andrea, Ianni; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; DSkorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.; The DarkSide Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    DarkSide-50 is a dark matter detection experiment searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), in Gran Sasso National Laboratory. For experiments like DarkSide-50, neutrons are one of the primary backgrounds that can mimic WIMP signals. The experiment consists of three nested detectors: a liquid argon time projection chamber surrounded by two outer detectors. The outermost detector is a 10 m by 11 m cylindrical water Cherenkov detector with 80 PMTs, designed to provide shielding and muon vetoing. Inside the water Cherenkov detector is the 4 m diameter spherical boron-loaded liquid scintillator veto, with a cocktail of pseudocumene, trimethyl borate, and PPO wavelength shifter, designed to provide shielding, neutron vetoing, and in situ measurements of the TPC backgrounds. We present design and performance details of the DarkSide-50 outer detectors.

  7. Communication technologies for demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities, specifically for the purposes of Demand Side Management (DSM). Demand Side Management has the objective to change the customer`s end use of energy in a manner that benefits both the customer and the utility. For example, peak demand may be reduced, and the peak demand may be relocated to off peak periods. Thus additional investments in generation and network may be avoided. A number of Demand Side Management functions can be implemented if a communication system is available between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The total communication capacity that is needed, will depend on several factors, such as the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number and type of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, while some other functions need to have two-way communication

  8. One-sided flux of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the one-body window-friction pricture for inelastic heavy-ion collisions the one-sided flux of nucleons passing the window in the mean potential plays the role of the frictional form factor. In this paper a quantum mechanical operator for the one-sided flux is defined. Its expectation value calculated with any given many-body wave function yields the number of particles crossing an area element dA vector per unit time in one direction. The quantum one-sided flux is compared to the classical one calculated with a uniform momentum distribution up to the Fermi momentum. The wave function was taken from a model calculation for a fermion gas in a one-dimensional box. 1 figure

  9. Areeda-turner in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the Areeda–Turner rule to two-sided markets. We show that a two-sided monopolist may find it short-run profit-maximizing to charge a price below marginal cost on one side of the market. Hence showing that the price is below marginal cost on one side of a two-sided market cannot be consider

  10. Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer; Ditzel, Nicholas;

    2011-01-01

    The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been hampered by the absence of easy and reproducible protocols. hESC grown in feeder-free conditions, often show a sub population of fibroblast-like, stromal cells growing between the colonies. Thus, we examined...... the possibility that these cells represent a population of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hESC-stromal). Two in house derived hES cell lines (Odense3 and KMEB3) as well as an externally derived cell line (Hues8) were transitioned to feeder-free conditions. A sub population of fibroblast-like cells established...... between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100μg/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When...

  11. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  12. Server-side Statistics Scripting in PHP

    OpenAIRE

    Jan de Leeuw

    1997-01-01

    On the UCLA Statistics WWW server there are a large number of demos and calculators that can be used in statistics teaching and research. Some of these demos require substantial amounts of computation, others mainly use graphics. These calculators and demos are implemented in various different ways, reflecting developments in WWW based computing. As usual, one of the main choices is between doing the work on the client-side (i.e. in the browser) or on the server-side (i.e. on our WWW ser...

  13. Evidence for the perceptual origin of right-sided feeding biases in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenina, Karina; Giljov, Andrey; Ivkovich, Tatiana; Malashichev, Yegor

    2016-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of many cetacean species features the side biases at the population level. The origin of these behavioural lateralisations remains generally unclear. Here we explored lateralisation in aerial display of resident orcas in different behavioural contexts. Side preferences were analysed in lunging during foraging and breaching. One event of each type of displays per individually identified orca was used for analysis. Orcas showed a population-level preference to lunge on the right side when foraging (75% of lunges). In contrast, no lateralisation was found in breaching (54% of breaches to the right, 45% to the left). The right-sided bias in foraging found in orcas is in line with evidence from other whales, both baleen and toothed, and confirms the uniformity of feeding biases among cetaceans. In contrast to breaching, lunging in orcas was associated with fish pursuit, that is, with focused attention to and sensory perception of prey stimulus. The emergence of lateralisation in lunging and the absence of significant bias in breaching suggest that feeding biases in whales are underpinned by sensory lateralisation, that is, by lateralised hemispheric processing of sensory information about the prey. Evidence from orcas may be extrapolated to other cetaceans since right-sided biases in lunging during foraging is a very widespread phenomenon and likely to have a common origin. Our findings support the hypothesis that right-sided feeding biases are determined by left-hemisphere specialisation. PMID:26156788

  14. The acute side effects of bright light therapy: a placebo-controlled investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeny Botanov

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of numerous clinical and non-clinical applications of bright light therapy (LT in recent decades, the prevalence and severity of LT side effects have not yet been fully explicated. A few adverse LT effects-headache, eye strain, irritability, and nausea-have been consistently reported among depressed individuals and other psychiatric cohorts, but there exists little published evidence regarding LT side effects in non-clinical populations, who often undergo LT treatment of considerably briefer duration. Accordingly, in the present study we examined, in a randomized sample of healthy young adults, the acute side effects of exposure to a single 30-minute session of bright white light (10,000 lux versus dim red light (< 500 lux. Across a broad range of potential side effects, repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed no significant group-by-time (Pre, Post interactions. In other words, bright light exposure was not associated with a significantly higher incidence of any reported side effect than was the placebo control condition. Nevertheless, small but statistically significant increases in both eye strain and blurred vision were observed among both the LT and control groups. Overall, these results suggest that the relatively common occurrence of adverse side effects observed in the extant LT literature may not fully extend to non-clinical populations, especially for healthy young adults undergoing LT for a brief duration.

  15. Immunological network activation by low-dose rate irradiation. Analysis of cell populations and cell surface molecules in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate whole body irradiation on biodefense and immunological systems were investigated using female C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These B6 mice were exposed continuously to {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low-dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI for 0 - 12 weeks at a dose rate of 0.95 mGy/hr. In the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of the irradiated mice, changes in cell populations and cell surface molecules were examined. The cell surface functional molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD45R/B220, ICAM-1, Fas, NK-1.1, CXCR4, and CCR5), and activation molecules (THAM, CD28, CD40, CD44H, CD70, B7-1, B7-2, OX-40 antigen, CTLA-4, CD30 ligand, and CD40 ligand) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells and cell surface CD8 molecule expressions on the CD8{sup +} T cells increased significantly to 120-130% after 3 weeks of the irradiation, compared to non-irradiated control mice. On the other hand, the percentage of CD45R/B220{sup +} CD40{sup +} B cells, which is one of the immunological markers of inflammation, infection, tumor, and autoimmune disease, decreased significantly to 80-90% between the 3rd to 5th week of irradiation. There was no significant difference in other cell population rates and cell surface molecule expression. Furthermore, abnormal T cells bearing mutated T cell receptors induced by high-dose rate irradiation were not observed throughout this study. These results suggest that low-dose rate irradiation activates the immunological status of the whole body. (author)

  16. Water Quality Performance of Three Side-by-Side Permeable Pavement Surface Materials: Three Year Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities are increasingly installing structural low impact development (LID) practices to mange stormwater and reduce pollutant loads associated with stormwater runoff. Permeable pavement is a LID practice that has limited research on working-scale, side-by-side performance o...

  17. Illinois Early Childhood Program Standards Matrix. (A Side-by-Side Comparison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Human Services, East St. Louis. Head Start State Collaboration Office.

    This document contains a matrix offering a side-by-side comparison of almost 40 criteria among 7 sets of early childhood program standards. The standards are: (1) Head Start Program Performance Standards; (2) Illinois Department of Children and Family Services Child Care Licensing Standards; (3) Illinois Department of Human Services (IDHS) Center…

  18. Computer-mediated communication as a channel for social resistance : The strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Lea, M; Corneliussen, RA; Postmes, T; Ter Haar, W

    2002-01-01

    In two studies, the authors tested predictions derived from the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) concerning the potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to serve as a means to resist powerful out-groups. Earlier research using the SIDE model indicates that the anonym

  19. Functionally Graded Ceramics Fabricated with Side-by-Side Tape Casting for Use in Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Bahl, Christian; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm;

    2015-01-01

    Functionally graded ceramic tapes have been fabricated by a side-by-side tape casting technique. This study shows the possibility and describes the main principles of adjacent coflow of slurries resulting in formation of thin plates of graded ceramic material. Results showed that the small variat...

  20. A Numerical Study of Some Potential Sources of Error in Side-by-Side Seismometer Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L. Gary

    1990-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents the results of a series of computer simulations of potential errors in test data, which might be obtained when conducting side-by-side comparisons of seismometers. These results can be used as guides in estimating potential sources and magnitudes of errors one might expect when analyzing real test data. First, the derivation of a direct method for calculating the noise levels of two sensors in a side-by-side evaluation is repeated and extended slightly herein. This bulk of this derivation was presented previously (see Holcomb 1989); it is repeated here for easy reference. This method is applied to the analysis of a simulated test of two sensors in a side-by-side test in which the outputs of both sensors consist of white noise spectra with known signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's). This report extends this analysis to high SNR's to determine the limitations of the direct method for calculating the noise levels at signal-to-noise levels which are much higher than presented previously (see Holcomb 1989). Next, the method is used to analyze a simulated test of two sensors in a side-by-side test in which the outputs of both sensors consist of bandshaped noise spectra with known signal-to-noise ratios. This is a much more realistic representation of real world data because the earth's background spectrum is certainly not flat. Finally, the results of the analysis of simulated white and bandshaped side-by-side test data are used to assist in interpreting the analysis of the effects of simulated azimuthal misalignment in side-by-side sensor evaluations. A thorough understanding of azimuthal misalignment errors is important because of the physical impossibility of perfectly aligning two sensors in a real world situation. The analysis herein indicates that alignment errors place lower limits on the levels of system noise which can be resolved in a side-by-side measurement. It also indicates that alignment errors are the source of the fact that

  1. Promoting Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE world's population reached 5 billion in 1987,then 6 billion in 1999;now,in 2011,it is 7 billion.For a country with a set birth control policy,the way in which Chinese people and the media view this number has greatly changed.People are increasingly reflecting on the concept of population from a more scientific and rational perspective.This shift is a change from how people perceived population in the past.

  2. Side chain conformational averaging in human dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Lisa M; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2014-02-25

    The three-dimensional structures of the dihydrofolate reductase enzymes from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR or ecE) and Homo sapiens (hDHFR or hE) are very similar, despite a rather low level of sequence identity. Whereas the active site loops of ecDHFR undergo major conformational rearrangements during progression through the reaction cycle, hDHFR remains fixed in a closed loop conformation in all of its catalytic intermediates. To elucidate the structural and dynamic differences between the human and E. coli enzymes, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of side chain flexibility and dynamics in complexes of hDHFR that represent intermediates in the major catalytic cycle. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation dispersion experiments show that, in marked contrast to the functionally important motions that feature prominently in the catalytic intermediates of ecDHFR, millisecond time scale fluctuations cannot be detected for hDHFR side chains. Ligand flux in hDHFR is thought to be mediated by conformational changes between a hinge-open state when the substrate/product-binding pocket is vacant and a hinge-closed state when this pocket is occupied. Comparison of X-ray structures of hinge-open and hinge-closed states shows that helix αF changes position by sliding between the two states. Analysis of χ1 rotamer populations derived from measurements of (3)JCγCO and (3)JCγN couplings indicates that many of the side chains that contact helix αF exhibit rotamer averaging that may facilitate the conformational change. The χ1 rotamer adopted by the Phe31 side chain depends upon whether the active site contains the substrate or product. In the holoenzyme (the binary complex of hDHFR with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), a combination of hinge opening and a change in the Phe31 χ1 rotamer opens the active site to facilitate entry of the substrate. Overall, the data suggest that, unlike ecDHFR, hDHFR requires minimal backbone conformational rearrangement as

  3. Protection of the side of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, A; Mills, N J

    1996-07-01

    The side of the head is a frequent impact site for pedal cyclists, motorcyclists, and industrial workers. It is vulnerable to impact, yet many helmet standards do not have impact tests at the side of the helmet. Laboratory impact tests should reproduce the phenomena in real impacts, but usually they do not allow the headform to rotate, or ignore the effect of the neck on the motion of the head. The authors designed a linkage, simulating the flexibility of the neck, for use with anthropomorphic dummies in helmet testing. Impacts at the side of the helmet, normal to the helmet surface, were made with flat and hemispherical strikers. Head rotation during impacts caused the impact site to move, in some cases to below the level protected by the helmet. The peak angular head acceleration correlated with the peak linear accelerations. Neck flexibility means that helmets can protect the head from higher kinetic energy impacts than those specified in standards using immovable headforms or impact anvils. The load spreading efficiency of polypropylene foam, used in soft shell bicycle helmets, is better than that of polystyrene foam. The authors conclude that the side of the head can be protected by a suitable helmet design.

  4. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  5. Struck by a lance through his side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Boldsen, Jesper Lier

    2010-01-01

    The Danish King Canute the Saint was killed in St Alban church in Odense July 1086. According to a legend the king was kneeling in prayers when a lance thrust to his side killed him. Our re-examination of the skeleton presumed to belong to Canute showed a slimly build man with an approximate...

  6. On one-sided torsion pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the concept of a torsion pair in a pre-triangulated category induced by Beligiannis and Reiten, the notion of a left (right) torsion pair in the left (right) triangulated category is introduced and investigated. We provide new connections between different aspects of torsion pairs in one-sided triangulated categories, pre-triangulated categories, stable categories and derived categories.

  7. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  8. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  9. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  10. Analyzing One-Sided vs. Two-Sided Subduction Arising from Mantle Convection Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. S.; Becker, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Purely thermal plate tectonic generation models struggle to consistently reproduce one-sided subduction as is observed on Earth (Tackley 2000; Van Heck and Tackley 2008; Foley and Becker 2009), and instead produce two-sided subduction where the subducting slab contains a significant flux of material from both plates. The models of Crameri et al. (2012) demonstrate that the implementation of a free upper surface boundary condition and the inclusion of a weak hydrated crust can facilitate one-sided subduction. We employ a similar model configuration to Crameri et al. (2012) to further investigate the dynamics and energetics which are associated with one-sided vs. two-sided subduction. We use a 2D finite difference code based off of the algorithms of I2ELVIS (Gerya and Yuen 2007) where material parameters are tracked on Lagrangian markers and the Stokes and Energy equations are solved on a Cartesian grid. A free surface is implemented by a low viscosity and density 'sticky air layer' (Schmeling et al., 2008; Crameri et al., 2012) with the stabilization routine of Duretz et al. (2011) to prevent the 'drunken seaman' instability (Kaus et al., 2010). The effects of a weak crust, shear heating, a free surface or free slip upper mechanical boundary condition, plasticity as a function of depth or pressure, and the sticky air layer thermal conductivity on one-sided vs. two-sided subduction are investigated. When we observe one-sided subduction it is transient and can smoothly evolve back to a two-sided configuration. In our models, 'sidedness' is a spectrum, rather than either discretely one or two sided, and the models move between the two regimes throughout the model runs. We observe that the thermal conductivity of the sticky air layer can influence the dynamics of the convective domain. Elevated values of thermal conductivity compared to those of rock must be implemented in the sticky air layer in order to maintain a constant temperature at the surface of the convective

  11. Effects of number of side dumps and side dump angles on outlet parameters in a side-dump combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedpoor, M.; Doustdar, M. M.; Soltani, H.; Chegini, M.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical study on the effect of side-dump number on fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been investigated in present paper. The mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit is named as the effective mass fraction. In the first step we have considered a side-dump combustor with two dumps and dump angle of 0o (plumb to cylinder) and by increasing the entrance airflow velocity from 20 to 30, 40 and 50 (m/s) respectively, the mean diameter of fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied. After this step, we have changed the number of dumps from two to four and we have repeated last examination again. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multiphase, multicomponent code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

  12. Traditional Jewelry on Both Sides of the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chaushev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Ancient times Danube River acts as stabile and almost uncontested Northern border of Bulgarian lands. For a very long period it divides different populations speaking different languages, developing different cultures and political units. In the same times Danube River unites it is both banks by cheap and easy to manage transportation. More than this Danube as a liquid border connects populations from the both banks with Central Europe serving as a vehicle for people, goods, money and ideas. The aim of this article is to explore one particular segment of culture connections - the evolution of traditional jewelry from 19th to early 20th century in the region of Northern Bulgaria and Southern Romania. The focus is on snake or dragon motifs carved on belt buckles originated from both sides of the border. This and related believes and cult practices reveals close cultural and commercial ties crossing Danube River. During my research I came across material that showed that those motifs were found in several Balkan countries (Serbia and Greece. The decoration of this traditional jewelry is typical for the Orient, but it is common among the Christian population of the Balkan Peninsula. It shows that in those times the Danube River was acting mostly as natural, not as a political or cultural border.

  13. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  14. Server-side Statistics Scripting in PHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Leeuw

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available On the UCLA Statistics WWW server there are a large number of demos and calculators that can be used in statistics teaching and research. Some of these demos require substantial amounts of computation, others mainly use graphics. These calculators and demos are implemented in various different ways, reflecting developments in WWW based computing. As usual, one of the main choices is between doing the work on the client-side (i.e. in the browser or on the server-side (i.e. on our WWW server. Obviously, client-side computation puts fewer demands on the server. On the other hand, it requires that the client downloads Java applets, or installs plugins and/or helpers. If JavaScript is used, client-side computations will generally be slow. We also have to assume that the client is installed properly, and has the required capabilities. Requiring too much on the client-side has caused browsing machines such as Netscape Communicator to grow beyond all reasonable bounds, both in size and RAM requirements. Moreover requiring Java and JavaScript rules out such excellent browsers as Lynx or Emacs W3. For server-side computing, we can configure the server and its resources ourselves, and we need not worry about browser capabilities and configuration. Nothing needs to be downloaded, except the usual HTML pages and graphics. In the same way as on the client side, there is a scripting solution, where code is interpreted, or a ob ject-code solution using compiled code. For the server-side scripting, we use embedded languages, such as PHP/FI. The scripts in the HTML pages are interpreted by a CGI program, and the output of the CGI program is send to the clients. Of course the CGI program is compiled, but the statistics procedures will usually be interpreted, because PHP/FI does not have the appropriate functions in its scripting language. This will tend to be slow, because embedded languages do not deal efficiently with loops and similar constructs. Thus a first

  15. Imaginary populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abraín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  16. The Dark Side of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A combo photo released by the China National Space Administration(CNSA)on December 11 shows a crater on the dark side of the moon.This image was reportedly taken by Chang’e-1, the country’s first lunar probe,on December 4. On December 12,a grand ceremony was held in Beijing to celebrate the success of the first stage of China’s lunar probe program.President Hu Jintao announced on the occasion that the

  17. Photon side-bands in mesoscopics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews several applications of photonic side bands, used by Buttiker and Landauer (Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1739 (1982)) in their theory of traversal time in tunneling, in transport and optics of mesoscopic systems. Topics include generalizations of the transmission theory of transport to...... time-dependent situations, optics and transport of mesoscopic systems in THz electromagnetic fields, and phase-measurements of photon-assisted tunneling through a quantum dot. (C) 1998 Academic Press Limited....

  18. The light and dark side of TARP

    OpenAIRE

    Uhde, Andre; Farruggio, Christian; Tobias C. Michalak

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the impact of the first announcement of TARP, the announcement of revised TARP, respective capital infusions under TARP-CPP and capital repayments on changes in shareholder value and the risk exposure of supported U.S. banks. Our analysis reveals a light and a dark side of TARP. While announcements as well as capital repayments may provoke positive wealth effects and a decrease in bank risk, equity capital injections to banks are observed to be a severe imp...

  19. The human side of animal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2001-01-01

    An important element of behavioral research with nonhuman animals is that insights are drawn from it about human behavior, what is called here the human side of animal behavior. This article examines the origins of comparing human behavior to that of other animals, the ways in which such comparisons are described, and considerations that arise in evaluating the validity of those comparisons. The rationale for such an approach originated in the reductionism of experimental physiology and the u...

  20. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  1. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  2. Population neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, T

    2016-01-01

    Population neuroscience endeavors to identify influences shaping the human brain from conception onwards, thus generating knowledge relevant for building and maintaining brain health throughout the life span. This can be achieved by studying large samples of participants drawn from the general population and evaluated with state-of-the-art tools for assessing (a) genes and their regulation; (b) external and internal environments; and (c) brain properties. This chapter reviews the three elements of population neuroscience (principles, tools, innovations, limitations), and discusses future directions in this field. PMID:27637950

  3. Side-information Scalable Source Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Chao

    2007-01-01

    The problem of side-information scalable (SI-scalable) source coding is considered in this work, where the encoder constructs a progressive description, such that the receiver with high quality side information will be able to truncate the bitstream and reconstruct in the rate distortion sense, while the receiver with low quality side information will have to receive further data in order to decode. We provide inner and outer bounds for general discrete memoryless sources. The achievable region is shown to be tight for the case that either of the decoders requires a lossless reconstruction, as well as the case with degraded deterministic distortion measures. Furthermore we show that the gap between the achievable region and the outer bounds can be bounded by a constant when square error distortion measure is used. The notion of perfectly scalable coding is introduced as both the stages operate on the Wyner-Ziv bound, and necessary and sufficient conditions are given for sources satisfying a mild support condi...

  4. Safety Assessment for a Side-by-side Offloading Mooring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Sun; Qiang He; Shangmao Ai

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the safety properties of an offloading system with side-by-side (SBS) mooring in which the FPSO is moored by a yoke system in the field of BZ25-1,it is necessary to analyze those properties.According to the experience of similar projects,tow strategies of different offloading arrangements were discussed by using the 3-D radiation/diffraction theory and quasi-static time domain method to assess their respective safety properties.Through the safety assessment analysis of different arrangement comparisons,various ways to improve the safety properties of offloading systems with side-by-side mooring were verified by analyzing the tension in the mooring lines and the fender deflection.Through comparison it can be concluded that by enlarging the key factors properly,including the size of the fenders and the hawsers as well as the number of hawsers,a better satiety performance can be achieved.

  5. Side-to-Side Cold Welding for Controllable Nanogap Formation from "Dumbbell" Ultrathin Gold Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaole; Wang, Binjun; Xu, Shang; Lu, Yang; Shen, Yajing

    2016-06-01

    Cold welding has been regarded as a promising bottom-up nanofabrication technique because of its ability to join metallic nanostructures at room temperature with low applied stress and without introducing damage. Usually, the cold welding process can be done instantaneously for ultrathin nanowires (diameter welded in the "side-to-side" mode in a highly controllable manner and can form an extremely small nanogap via a relatively slow welding process (up to tens of minutes, allowing various functional applications). By combining in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis and molecular dynamic simulations, we further reveal the underlying mechanism for this "side-to-side" welding process as being dominated by atom kinetics instead of thermodynamics, which provides critical insights into three-dimensional nanosystem integration as well as the building of functional nanodevices. PMID:27173140

  6. Electronic vs. Open Outcry: Side-by-Side Trading of KCBT Wheat Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Samarth; Brorsen, B. Wade

    2011-01-01

    This study compares liquidity costs of electronic and open-outcry wheat futures contracts traded side-by-side on the Kansas City Board of Trade. Liquidity costs are considerably lower in the electronic market. Liquidity costs in the electronic market are still considerably lower after eliminating the bias created by splitting orders in the electronic market. Price volatility and transaction size are positively related to liquidity costs, while a negative relation is found between daily volume...

  7. 2D flow around stationary side-by-side square columns at low Reynolds number

    OpenAIRE

    Mengzhao, Guan; Shengwei, Ma; Siracusa, Francesca; Chang-Wei, Kang; Teck-Bin Arthur, Lim; Weymouth, Gabriel; Tutty, Owen; Mingyi, Tan; Hudson, Dominic; Kumar Jaiman, Rajeev; Chih-Hua, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Flow over two side-by-side square columns is studied numerically and experimentally at low Reynolds number (Re=100-200) to investigate the effects of the gap distance on the behaviour of the flow. Different gap distances between two square columns are simulated to analyse the interactions of laminar wakes with a gap flow. Four different flow regimes are observed based on different gap distance. Experimental test are performed to validate the simulations. A new water tank has been built specif...

  8. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  9. Stabilization of Gob-Side Entry with an Artificial Side for Sustaining Mining Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-sheng Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A concrete artificial side (AS is introduced to stabilize a gob-side entry (GSE. To evaluate the stability of the AS, a uniaxial compression failure experiment was conducted with large and small-scale specimens. The distribution characteristics of the shear stress were obtained from a numerical simulation. Based on the failure characteristics and the variation of the shear stress, a failure criterion was determined and implemented in the strengthening method for the artificial side. In an experimental test, the distribution pattern of the maximum shear stress showed an X shape, which contributed to the failure shape of the specimen. The shear stress distribution and failure shape are induced by a combination of two sets of shear stresses, which implies that failure of the AS follows the twin shear strength theory. The use of anchor bolts, bolts, and anchor bars enhances the shear strength of the artificial side. When this side is stable, the components can constrain the lateral deformation as well as improve the internal friction angle and cohesion. When the AS is damaged, the components prevent the sliding of broken blocks along the shear failure plane and improve the residual strength of the artificial side. When reinforced with an anchor bar, the AS is still stable even after mining operations for three years.

  10. Angle Specific Analysis of Side-to-Side Asymmetry in the Shoulder Rotators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio V. Ruas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although side-to-side asymmetry of the shoulder rotators calculated by independent peak torque (IPT has been used for interpretation of injury risks in athletes, it may not measure strength through the entire range of motion (ROM tested. The aim of this study was to compare side-to-side asymmetry of the shoulder rotators between independent peak torque (IPT and ten-degree angle specific torque (AST. Twenty healthy adult males (24.65 ± 2.4 years performed concentric and eccentric internal rotation (IR and external rotation (ER of the preferred and non-preferred arms on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s through 150° of total ROM. The total ROM was divided into 14 ten-degree angles of the physiological ROM from −90° of ER to 60° of IR. Concentric and eccentric IR IPT (10.5% ± 8.7% and 12.1% ± 7.2% and ER IPT (13.6% ± 9.8% and 8.7% ± 5.6% were significantly less than AST at several angles (p < 0.05. IPT might lead to erroneous interpretations of side-to-side asymmetry in the shoulder rotators and does not represent the entire ROM tested. This information could be used to prescribe strength exercises to enhance overhead performance and reduce risk of shoulder injuries.

  11. Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  12. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.M., Bruzell; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.;

    2013-01-01

    -office = 39.3% [n = 28]; p >0.05; 95% CI [OR]: 0.198‑1.102) whereas prevalence of gingival irritation was higher after in-office treatment (at-home = 14.0%; in-office = 35.7%; p ... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  13. Cardiologic side effects of psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Marano; Gianandrea Traversi; Enrico Romagnoli; Valeria Catalano; Marzia Lotrionte; Antonio Abbate; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai; Marianna Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs can produce cardiovascular side effects associated with a degree of cardiotoxicity.The coexistence of a heart disease complicates the management of mental illness,can contribute to a reduced quality of life and a worse illness course.The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in cardiac patients might affect the clinical outcome and morbidity.Moreover,the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions remains unclear.This paper discusses the known cardiovascular complications of psychotropic drugs and analyzes the important implications of antidepressive treatment in patients with previous cardiac history.

  14. The Other Side of GDP Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Yong; Cai Fang

    2011-01-01

    @@ THE rise of China's GDP ranking has not only led the world to rediscover China, but also reminded China to examine its own development.Both sides of the issue should be considered. On the one hand, China topping Japan [the world's previous second largest economy] in terms of GDP marks the rising of Chinas economic status, which is a milestone in the modern world economic history since Japan replaced the former Federal Republic of Germany as the world's second largest economy in 1968.

  15. Side chain polysiloxanes with phthalocyanine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ganicz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Side chain polysiloxane with 5-(pentyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine moieties is synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction. The phase behavior and thermooptical properties of the polysiloxane and starting 2-(pent-4-enyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine is examined by POM (Polarizing optical microscopy, TOA (thermooptical analysis, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, AFM (atomic force microscopy and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering studies. The effect of the attachment of phthalocyanine to polysiloxane chains over phase transitions and phase morphology is discussed in details.

  16. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2003-12-01

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO{sub 2} mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka. (author)

  17. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO2 mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka

  18. The Right Side of Einstein's Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegel, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in observational cosmology have led to attempts to make modifications on both sides of the Einstein equation to explain some of the puzzling new findings. What follows is an examination of the source of gravity that we usually find on the right hand side of Einstein's equation. The outcome is a modified version of the stress-energy tensor that is the source of the gravitational field. The derivation is based on the kinetic theory of a gas of identical particles with no internal structure. The presentation here is in two parts. In Part I, I describe the stress tensor that Xinzhong Chen and I have proposed for the matter tensor for a nonrelativistic gas with input from Hongling Rao and Jean-Luc Thiffeault. Our derivation of the equations of fluid dynamics is based on kinetic theory without recourse to the standard Chapman-Enskog approximation. In Part II, I present the analogous derivation of our form for the stress-energy tensor in the relativistic case. Then I exhibit its application to th...

  19. Antilensing: the bright side of voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-11

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters. PMID:23383886

  20. THE TWO SIDES OF MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina – Maria ENE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainly goal of money laundering is to carry out more and more illegal economic transactions or activities to produce individual or groups gains and then to legitimate them. Money laundering converts illicit source of money generated by criminal activities in order to hide the connection between money and their original illegal activities. This is one of money laundering side. The second side implies corruption. While money laundering is a passing channel for illicit funds due to its criminal origin source, such funds may derive from corruption offences. All corruption’s forms represent the most important illicit funds branches for money laundering process. Corrupt people methods used to exploit the national and international financial system reflect the relationship between those two criminal activities. Criminals achieve their personal interests by hiding their corruption proceeds and transfer these gains to official economies. Corruption spread in any society entails money laundering spread, and the converse, too. There is a quite “indecent” relationship between money laundering and corruption. This paper tries to identify the multiple connections between the two phenomenons showing the negative impacts these criminal behaviours are having on the national and international economy. We conclude by highlighting the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in order to fight against money laundering and corruption by integrating these problem frameworks at national level. International community must focus their resources on money laundering and corruption risks areas and maximize their response impact.

  1. Side effects of cytokines approved for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (aldesleukin (rhIL-2), oprelvekin (rhIL-11), filgrastim and tbo-filgrastim (rhG-CSF), sargramostim (rhGM-CSF), metreleptin (rh-leptin) and the rh-erythropoietins, epoetin and darbepoietin alfa. Anakinra, a recombinant receptor antagonist for IL-1, is in the IL-1 family; recombinant interferons alfa-1, alfa-2, beta-1 and gamma-1 make up the interferon family; palifermin (rhKGF) and becaplermin (rhPDGF) are in the PDGF family; and rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 represent the TGFβ family. The main physicochemical features, FDA-approved indications, modes of action and side effects of these approved cytokines are presented. Underlying each adverse events profile is their pleiotropism, potency and capacity to release other cytokines producing cytokine 'cocktails'. Side effects, some serious, occur despite cytokines being endogenous proteins, and this therefore demands caution in attempts to introduce individual members into the clinic. This caution is reflected in the relatively small number of cytokines currently approved by regulatory agencies and by the fact that 14 of the FDA-approved preparations carry warnings, with 10 being black box warnings. PMID:25270293

  2. Nonlinear electron acoustic structures generated on the high-potential side of a double layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pottelette

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High-time resolution measurements of the electron distribution function performed in the auroral upward current region reveals a large asymmetry between the low- and high-potential sides of a double-layer. The latter side is characterized by a large enhancement of a locally trapped electron population which corresponds to a significant part (~up to 30% of the total electron density. As compared to the background hot electron population, this trapped component has a very cold temperature in the direction parallel to the static magnetic field. Accordingly, the differential drift between the trapped and background hot electron populations generates high frequency electron acoustic waves in a direction quasi-parallel to the magnetic field. The density of the trapped electron population can be deduced from the frequency where the electron acoustic spectrum maximizes. In the auroral midcavity region, the electron acoustic waves may be modulated by an additional turbulence generated in the ion acoustic range thanks to the presence of a pre-accelerated ion beam located on the high-potential side of the double layer. Electron holes characterized by bipolar pulses in the electric field are sometimes detected in correlation with these electron acoustic wave packets.

  3. A CD45-based barcoding approach to multiplex mass-cytometry (CyTOF)

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Liyun; Ong, Raymond; Li, Juntao; Albani, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    CyTOF enables the study of the immune system with a complexity, depth, and multidimensionality never achieved before. However, the full potential of using CyTOF can be limited by scarce cell samples. Barcoding strategies developed based on direct labeling of cells using maleimido-monoamide-DOTA (m-DOTA) provide a very useful tool. However, using m-DOTA has some inherent problems, mainly associated with signal intensity. This may be a source of uncertainty when samples are multiplexed. As an a...

  4. On flow equivalence of one-sided topological Markov shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    We introduce notions of suspension and flow equivalence on one-sided topological Markov shifts, which we call one-sided suspension and one-sided flow equivalence, respectively. We prove that one-sided flow equivalence is equivalent to continuous orbit equivalence on one-sided topological Markov shifts. We also show that the zeta function of the flow on a one-sided suspension is a dynamical zeta function with some potential function and that the set of certain dynamical zeta functions is invar...

  5. Stellar Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on ne

  6. Population success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  7. Demand Side Management in non-residential buildings; Demand Side Management in Nichtwohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungwirth, Johannes [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik (IfE)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the fluctuating supply characteristics and a paradigm shift, the strong expansion of renewable energy generators expect the structure of the concept of energy supply. An integration of renewables into the electricity grid requires new ways to compensate the discrepancy between production and consumption. The implementation of a demand-side management requires an electrical load and the possibility to control consumers in response to an external signal. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on innovative systems for the realization of a demand-side management in non-residential buildings.

  8. Metabolic and Endocrine Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Tahiroglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.

  9. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J. [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  10. Object detection in side scan sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwu; Cheng, Binbin; Chen, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Automatic target detection is a challenging task as the response from an underwater target may vary greatly depending on its configuration, sonar parameters and the environment. We propose a Z- test algorithm for target detection in side scan sonar image which avoids this problem that covers the variation in the target response. A Z-test is performed on the means of the pixel gray levels within and outside the window area, a detection being called when the value of test statistic feature exceeds a certain threshold. The algorithm is formulated for real-time execution on limited memory commercial-of-the-shelf platforms and is capable of detection objects on the seabed-bottom.

  11. The Siding Spring Hazard at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Bauer, James; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony; Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin; Stevenson, Rachel; Tricarico, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at the extremely close distance of 136,000 km in Oct 2014, giving Mars orbiting spacecraft an up-close and unprecedented view of this dynamically new comet. However, 100 minutes after the closest approach to the nucleus, Mars passes within 30,000 km of the comet's orbit. Here, large dust grains may be found on impacting trajectories, potentially posing a fatal hazard to the spacecraft. Such large grains must be ejected from the comet nucleus well before the time of encounter. Therefore, we propose IRAC imaging of this comet to assess the present-day gas production rate, which will aid dust impact hazard assessment.

  12. The quantum capacity with symmetric side channels

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G; Winter, A; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.; Winter, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We present an upper bound for the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex. Our bound can be interpreted as the capacity of a channel for high-fidelity communication when assisted by the family of all channels mapping symmetrically to their output and environment. The bound seems to be quite tight, and for degradable quantum channels it coincides with the unassisted channel capacity. Using this symmetric side channel capacity, we find new upper bounds on the capacity of the depolarizing channel. We also briefly indicate an analogous notion for distilling entanglement using the same class of (one-way) channels, yielding one of the few genuinely 1-LOCC monotonic entanglement measures.

  13. The two sides of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Devine, S R

    2001-01-01

    /p/n sup + and essentially two p-n junctions within one device. With increasing bias voltage, as the electric field is extending into the detector bulk from opposite sides of the silicon detector, there are two distinct depletion regions that collect charge signal independently. Summing the signal charge from the two regions, one is able to reconstruct the initial energy of the incident particle. From Transient Current measurements it is apparent that E-field manipulation is possible by excess carrier injection, enabling a high enough E-field to extend across the width of the detector, allowing for efficient charge collection. Results are presented on in situ irradiation of silicon detector's at cryogenic temperature. The results show that irradiation at cryogenic temperatures does not detrimentally effect a silicon detectors performance when compared to its irradiation at room temperature. Operation of silicon devices at cryogenic temperatures offers the advantage of reducing radiation-induced leakage curren...

  14. Side-Scan-Sonar Points for Hudson River, NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Side Scan Point Files. These points correspond to individual pings which produced hte side-scan-sonar backscatter imagery. Sonar data were collected November 6 to...

  15. Putative population of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from mediastinal tissue during cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit N; Yockman, James; Vargas, Vanessa; Bull, David A

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been isolated from various adult human tissues and are valuable for not only therapeutic applications but for the study of tissue homeostasis and disease progression. Subcutaneous adipose depots have been shown to contain large amounts of stem cells. There is little information that has been reported to date describing the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from visceral adipose tissue. In this study, we describe a mesenchymal stem cell population isolated from mediastinal adipose depots. The cells express CD44, CD105, CD166, and CD90 and are negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. In addition, the cells have a multilineage potential, with the ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic cell types. The biological function of visceral adipose tissue remains largely unknown and uncharacterized. However, the proximity of adipose tissue to the heart suggests a potential role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in obesity. In addition, with the ability of fat to regulate metabolic activity in humans, this novel stem cell source may be useful to further study the mechanisms involved in metabolic disorders.

  16. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW OVER TWO SIDE-BY-SIDE CIRCULAR CYLINDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SARVGHAD-MOGHADDAM Hesam; NOOREDIN Navid; GHADIRI-DEHKORDI Behzad

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper,the unsteady,viscous,incompressible and 2-D flow around two side-by-side circular cylinders was simulated using a Cartesian-staggered grid finite volume based method.A great-source term technique was employed to identify the solid bodies (cylinders) located in the flow field and boundary conditions were enforced by applying the ghost-cell technique.Finally,the characteristics of the flow around two side-by-side cylinders were comprehensively obtained through several computational simulations.The computational simulations were performed for different transverse gap ratios (1.5≤T/D≤4) in laminar (Re =100,200 ) and turbulent (Re =104) regimes,where T and D are the distance between the centers of cylinders and the diameter of cylinders,respectively.The Reynolds number is based on the diameter of cylinders,D.The pressure field and vorticity distributions along with the associated streamlines and the time histories of hydrodynamic forces were also calculated and analyzed for different gap ratios.Generally,different flow patterns were observed as the gap ratio and Reynolds number varied.Accordingly,the hydrodynamic forces showed irregular variations for small gaps while they took a regular pattern at higher spacing ratios.

  17. LARGE EDDY SIMULATION AND SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF FLOW AROUND TWO SQUARE CYLINDERS ARRANGED SIDE BY SIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏英杰; 朱蒙生; 何钟怡

    2004-01-01

    Large eddy simulation cooperated with the second order full extension ETG (Euler-Taylor-Galerkin) finite element method was applied to simulate the flow around two square cylinders arranged side by side at a spacing ratio of 1.5. The second order full extension ETG finite element method was developed by Wang and He. By means of Taylor expansion of terms containing time derivative, time derivative is replaced by space derivative. The function of it is equal to introducing an artificial viscosity term. The streamlines of the flow at different moments were obtained. The time history of drag coefficient, lift coefficient and the streamwise velocity on the symmetrical points were presented. Furthermore, the symmetrical problem of the frequency spectrum of flow around two square cylinders arranged side by side were studied by using the spectral analysis technology. The data obtained at the initial stage are excluded in order to avoid the influence of initial condition on the results. The power spectrums of drag coefficient, lift coefficient, the streamwise velocity on the symmetrical points were analyzed respectively.The results show that although the time domain process of dynamic parameters is nonsymmetrical, the frequency domain process of them is symmetrical under the symmetrical boundary conditions.

  18. Quantitative flow characteristics for side-by-side square cylinders via PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Sercan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, instantaneous and time-averaged flow structures downstream of the sharp-edged single and two and three side-by-side square cylinders (SCs immersed in a uniform open channel water flow were studied by a technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV. Experimental results of wake flow structures were presented for gap ratios (G/D in the range of 1.0”G/D”3.0 for Reynolds number values of 1050, 2450 and 3400. Flow structures depending on the square cylinder (SC configurations and Reynolds number were discussed. It has been found that the development of the vortex shedding as well as the flow structure were substantially altered for side-by-side SCs comparing to the single SC. Asymmetrical and biased wake structures were observed because of the jetlike flow between the SCs for two SCs cases for the gap ratio less than 2.0. Depending on the gap spacing between the SCs, the interaction results of time2 averaged vorticity, velocity vector field, Reynolds stress correlations and streamline patterns in the wake region form a distinguished flow structure. Strouhal numbers for the single square cylinder for 1050≤Re≤3400 are found in the range of 0.12-0.13. The present results have supported the previous works by providing detailed quantitative experimental information with PIV in the wake region of the SC and might be helpful for validation of numerical studies and designers.

  19. Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  20. The Karavanke range - from its dividing to the uniting role between the Slovenians on the both sides of the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals on socio-political development of Karavanke mountains, which had changing the division- and conecting role in historical development, especialy for slovene population, living on both sides of border. This mountain barriere became in 19th century conecting area for Slovenes of Carniola and Carinthia. After World War I., Karavanke became a border zone with strong division- function. Even though, the local population of both sides found some posibilities to comunicate with each other, what finnaly led to the today's larger transborder cooperation. In frame of this, slovene minority in Carinthia has a visible role and function.

  1. Organizational mediators siding with or against the powerful party?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; P. Laskewitz; E. van de Vliert

    1994-01-01

    Examined whether, instead of being impartial, a mediator may side with one party as a function of the disputants' power differences (power balancing theory), the mediator's legitimacy judgments (siding theory), or the disputants' capacity to sanction the mediator (siding theory). A questionnaire stu

  2. Market definition in two-sided markets : Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Affeldt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the economics of two-sided markets, we provide suggestions for the definition of the relevant market in cases involving two-sided platforms, such as media outlets, online intermediaries, payment cards companies, and auction houses. We also discuss when a one-sided approach may be harmle

  3. CD26 Expression on T Helper Populations and sCD26 Serum Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Oscar J.; Varela-Calviño, Rubén; López-González, Tania; Calviño-Sampedro, Cristina; Viñuela, Juan E.; Mouriño, Coral; Hernández-Rodríguez, Íñigo; Rodríguez-López, Marina; Aspe de la Iglesia, Bruno; Pego, José María

    2015-01-01

    We studied dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV, CD26) expression in different T helper cells and serum soluble DPP-IV/sCD26 levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, correlated these with disease activity score (DAS), and examined how they were affected by different therapies, conventional or biological (anti-TNF, anti-CD20 and anti-IL6R or Ig-CTLA4). The percentage of CD4+CD45R0+CD26- cells was greatly reduced in patients (up to 50%) when compared with healthy subjects. Three other subsets of CD4 cells, including a CD26high Th1-associated population, changed variably with therapies. Data from these subsets (frequency and staining density) significantly correlated with DAS28 or DAS28 components but different in each group of patients undergoing the different therapies. Th17 and Th22 subsets were implicated in RA as independent CCR4+ and CCR4- populations each, with distinct CD26 expression, and were targeted with varying efficiency by each therapy. Serum DPP-IV activity rather than sCD26 levels was lower in RA patients compared to healthy donors. DPP-IV and sCD26 serum levels were found related to specific T cell subsets but not to disease activity. We conclude that, according to their CD26 expression, different cell subsets could serve to monitor RA course, and an uncharacterized T helper CD26- subset, not targeted by therapies, should be monitored for early diagnosis. PMID:26177310

  4. Identification of a novel human memory T-cell population with the characteristics of stem-like chemo-resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Emori, Makoto; Shibayama, Yuji; Mizushima, Emi; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Keiji; Kaya, Mitsunori; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Kubo, Terufumi; Himi, Tetsuo; Ichimiya, Shingo; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    High-dose chemotherapy may kill not only tumor cells but also immunocytes, and frequently induces severe lymphocytopenia. On the other hand, patients who recover from the nadir maintain immunity against infection, suggesting the existence of an unknown memory T-cell population with stress resistance, long-living capacity, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, the differentiation system of T-cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T-cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. Here we report a novel human T-cell memory population, "young memory" T (TYM) cells. TYM cells are defined by positive expression of CD73, which represents high aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity and CXCR3 among CD8(+)CD45RA(+)CD62L(+) T cells. TYM proliferate upon TCR stimulation, with differentiation capacity into TCM and TEM and drug resistance. Moreover, TYM are involved in memory function for viral and tumor-associated antigens in healthy donors and cancer patients, respectively. Regulation of TYM might be very attractive for peptide vaccination, adoptive cell-transfer therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:27471640

  5. Flow and wall shear stress in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomosis of venous coronary artery bypass grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulikakos Dimos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS, in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Methods One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT. Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized. Results CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle. Conclusion CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis

  6. Side Chain Engineering in Solution-Processable Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2014-01-14

    Side chains in conjugated polymers have been primarily utilized as solubilizing groups. However, these side chains have roles that are far beyond. We advocate using side chain engineering to tune a polymer\\'s physical properties, including absorption, emission, energy level, molecular packing, and charge transport. To date, numerous flexible substituents suitable for constructing side chains have been reported. In this Perspective article, we advocate that the side chain engineering approach can advance better designs for next-generation conjugated polymers. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see §...

  8. Indian populations

    CERN Multimedia

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  9. Hyperprolactinaemia - a risperidone side-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ruzić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Pavesić-Radonja, Aristea; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta

    2010-03-01

    A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently - risperidone, a 2 mg dose in the evening. After commencing the antipsychotic treatment, the symptoms started to weaken and a steady remission was obtained. Two years after a regular risperidone administration (in combination with fluoxetine, alprazolam and flurazepam) the patient reported some "bleeding" in October 2006. Hormonal blood tests were performed and high prolactin values were registered (2567.0 mIJ/L),due to which a gradual risperidone retractement was indicated. Medicamentous hyperprolactinaemia is a well known side effect of risperidone. A gradual risperidone retractement lead to a lowered and normal prolactin level within a month. PMID:20305606

  10. The Darker Side of the Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Mignolo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Darker Side of the Renaissance focuses on coloniality rather than on Europe’s witch and alchemist hunt. Today I would dare to say also that this expression refers us to the historical foundation of coloniality. At the same time, coloniality statement is called into question, as well as the distinction between the known object and the knowing subject, an assumption on which the Eurocentric project of “modernity” and “modernization” disciplines lie. The preface marks the enunciation with which the statement is stated. That is, it rejects the "point zero epistemology" denounced by Santiago Castro-Gómez. This means the reader should be always pay attention to the ennunciation s/he states him/herself, to the hand drawing the hand. Those of us dwelling at Abya-Yala/America are surrounded by the historical foundation of modernity/coloniality, we are a living part of that process, which only “scientific” alignment can make us believe we are looking at something (e.g., colonization touching what we are today

  11. Dynamic model for automotive side impact crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ludong; Taghvaeeyan, Saber; Rajamani, Rajesh

    2014-07-01

    A rigid body model to represent a side impact crash is constructed using five degrees-of-freedom (dof) for the vehicle and three dof for each occupant in the vehicle. Nonlinear stiffness and damping elements and the presence of physical gaps between several components make the model highly nonlinear. The model is validated using experimental crash test data from a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) database. To simplify the parameter identification process and reduce the number of parameters to be identified at each stage, a two-step process is adopted in which the vehicle is first assumed to be unaffected by the presence of the occupants, and its model parameters are identified. Subsequently, the parameters in the occupant models are identified. The active set method with a performance index that includes both the L2 and L∞ norms is used for parameter identification. A challenge is posed by the fact that the optimisation problem involved is non-convex. To overcome this challenge, a large set of random initial values of parameter estimates is generated and the optimisation method is applied with all these initial conditions. The values of parameters that provide the minimal performance index from the entire set of initial conditions are then chosen as the best parameter values. The optimal parameters values thus identified are shown to significantly improve the match between the model responses and the experimentally measured sensor signals from the NHTSA crash test.

  12. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  13. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  14. The Dark side of World of Warcraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    understand, perceive or conceptualise fellow players in-side the game world. The analysis of ‘the other’ in WoW rests upon Jean-Paul Sartre’s phenomenological description of ‘the other’ through ‘the look’ in Being and Nothingness (1992). According to Sartre do living beings become aware of themselves through...... as embedded in architectural layout of game world. The ‘look’ of the other can emanate from buildings as Sartre points out in Being and Nothingness or as Michel Foucault teaches us in Discipline and Punish (1995) when he describes how ‘the look’ works as a social disciplining power embedded...... in the architectural design or as this paper argues in the spatial design of WoW. The analysis of ‘the look’ embedded in the spatial design of WoW’s game world and how it influences players perception of each other rests on Foucault’s epistemological insights. The juxtaposition of Sartre’s phenomenology and Foucault...

  15. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  16. Hybrid Client Side Phishing Websites Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdous Kausar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phishing tricks to steal personal or credential information by entering victims into a forged website similar to the original site, and urging them to enter their information believing that this site is legitimate. The number of internet users who are becoming victims of phishing attacks is increasing beside that phishing attacks have become more sophisticated. In this paper we propose a client-side solution to protect against phishing attacks which is a Firefox extension integrated as a toolbar that is responsible for checking whether recipient website is trusted or not by inspecting URLs of each requested webpage. If the site is suspicious the toolbar is going to block it. Every URL is evaluated corresponding to features extracted from it. Three heuristics (primary domain, sub domain, and path and Naïve Bayes classification using four lexical features combined with page ranking received from two different services (Alexa, and Google page rank used to classify URL. The proposed method requires no server changes and will prevent internet users from fraudulent sites especially from phishing attacks based on deceptive URLs. Experimental results show that our approach can achieve 48% accuracy ratio using a test set of 246 URL, and 87.5% accuracy ratio by excluding NB addition tested over 162 URL.

  17. [The democratic side of science-fiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecellier, Charles-Henri

    2011-04-01

    Suspicion towards technological advances has progressively grown during the xx(th) century. However, in the XXI(st) century, reading the NBIC (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science) report of the National Science Foundation, we can note that science has caught up with science fiction. These changes in public mentality on one side and in scientific capacities on the other argue for an evolution of the debate on sciences. The recent example of the national debate on nanotechnology in France has clearly shown that the public is no longer waiting for additional sources of scientific knowledge but rather waiting for the recognition of its authority to participate in the definition of the national R&D priority and associated scientific strategies. This is all the more legitimate that these strategies will have profound impact on the future of our societies and therefore cannot be decided only by scientists. Hence, it is crucial to identify innovative tools promoting debate on sciences and their technological spin-off. Here, we contend that science fiction has major assets that could face this challenge and facilitate the dialogue between sciences and society.

  18. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  19. Interface Oscillation in the Side-by-Side (SBS) Tape Casting of Functionally Graded Ceramics (FGCs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Bulatova, Regina; Hattel, Jesper Henri;

    2012-01-01

    slurries. The rheological behavior of the slurries are extracted from experiments and used in the ANSYS FLUENT commercial code to develop a fluid flow model for the non-Newtonian ceramic slurries and evaluate the interface oscillation between the stripes in SBS tape casting. The Numerical results show......Room temperature magnetic refrigeration is a new highly efficient and environmentally protective technology. Although it has not been maturely developed, it shows great applicable prosperity and seems to be a potential substitute for the traditional vapor compression technology. Tape Casting is a...... common process in producing multilayer ceramics, which now is used for producing side-by-side (SBS) functionally graded ceramics (FGCs). These FGCs are mostly used in the magnetic refrigeration sectors due to the varying composition of the magnetocaloric materials so that the magnetic transition...

  20. SIDE-BY-SIDE TESTS OF DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Six differently designed evacuated tubular collectors, ETCs, utilizing solar radiation from all directions, have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co., four heat pipe ETCs from Sunda Technolgoy Co....... and one all-glass ETC with heat pipe from Exoheat AB. The collectors have been investigated side-by-side in an outdoor test facility for a long period. During the measurements, the operating conditions – such as weather conditions, inlet and mean solar collector fluid temperatures have been the same. Thus...... a direct performance comparison is possible. The results of the measurements will be presented in this paper. Among other things, the influence on the thermal performance of the absorber design will be explained. Further, it will be illustrated how the thermal performances of the different collector types...

  1. Side by side tests of two SDHW systems with solar collectors with and without antireflection treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Han, Jiangong; Perers, Bengt;

    2015-01-01

    Two low flow SDHW systems based on mantle tanks are tested side by side in a laboratory test facility for solar heating systems under the same weather and operation conditions. The systems are identical with the exception that one system is equipped with a solar collector with antireflection...... agreement between measured and calculated thermal performances for both systems. The extra thermal performance of the system with the solar collector with the anti reflection treated glass cover is a strong function of the solar fraction. In sunny periods with high solar fractions the percentage extra...... treated glass while the other system has a collector with a normal glass. Measurements of the thermal performance of the two systems have been carried out for a long measuring period. The thermal performances of the systems have also been calculated with a detailed simulation model. There is a good...

  2. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  3. Side-by-Side Comparison of CPV Module and System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Matthew; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah; Ghosal, Kanchan; Burroughs, Scott; Libby, Cara; Enbar, Nadav

    2016-07-01

    A side-by-side comparison is made between concentrator photovoltaic module and system direct current aperture efficiency data with a focus on quantifying system performance losses. The individual losses measured/calculated, when combined, are in good agreement with the total loss seen between the module and the system. Results indicate that for the given test period, the largest individual loss of 3.7% relative is due to the baseline performance difference between the individual module and the average for the 200 modules in the system. A basic empirical model is derived based on module spectral performance data and the tabulated losses between the module and the system. The model predicts instantaneous system direct current aperture efficiency with a root mean square error of 2.3% relative.

  4. Flow Features of Three Side-by-side Circular Cylinders at Low Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Junkao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the fluctuation of kinetic parameter of cylinder matrix in incompressible stationary flow, the flow fluid around three side-by-side circular cylinders are simulated using Immersed Boundary–Lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM. Drag and lift force of the three cylinders are investigated as the interval between each cylinder varied from zero to five times of the cylinder diameter. Five flow patterns are defined according to the vortices structure in the downstream of the cylinders. Power spectrum analysis of lift force is developed to explain the vortex patterns. Through the research, we find the strength and phase of the gap flow play an important role in the vortex formatting process. The vortices shedding from different cylinders neutralize and combine in the near wake, contributing a lot to the variation of forces.

  5. Integrated planning in supply chains with buy-side and sell-side marketplaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roshan Gaonkar; N Viswanadham

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we develop a quadratic programming model for partner selection and planning in integrated supply chain networks embedded with both sell-side and buy-side electronic marketplaces. Such a scenario arises in several practical applications. In particular, we consider a contract manufacturer who procures components from suppliers through a component marketplace and sells its manufactured sub-assemblies to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), through a sub-assembly marketplace. In these web-enabled supply chains, embedded with upstream and downstream electronic marketplaces, we need methods for online supply-chain partner selection based on pricing and delivery schedules. In this paper, we develop and present such a model that selects partners, synchronizes supply chain activities and optimizes the profit through optimal revenue pricing and cost minimization.

  6. The Dark Side of Neutron Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    We review severe constraints on asymmetric bosonic dark matter based on observations of old neutron stars. Under certain conditions, dark matter particles in the form of asymmetric bosonic WIMPs can be eectively trapped onto nearby neutron stars, where they can rapidly thermalize and concentrate...... in the core of the star. If some conditions are met, the WIMP population can collapse gravitationally and form a black hole that can eventually destroy the star. Based on the existence of old nearby neutron stars, we can exclude certain classes of dark matter candidates....

  7. The Dark Side of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kouvaris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review severe constraints on asymmetric bosonic dark matter based on observations of old neutron stars. Under certain conditions, dark matter particles in the form of asymmetric bosonic WIMPs can be effectively trapped onto nearby neutron stars, where they can rapidly thermalize and concentrate in the core of the star. If some conditions are met, the WIMP population can collapse gravitationally and form a black hole that can eventually destroy the star. Based on the existence of old nearby neutron stars, we can exclude certain classes of dark matter candidates.

  8. A Survey of Caffeine Use and Associated Side Effects in a College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Douglas; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 270 college students concerning their caffeine consumption. Results suggest there is identifiable group using excessive amounts of caffeine. Identified several deleterious effects possibly related to caffeine use. Approximately 75 percent of caffeine users surveyed rarely sought information on caffeine content of products or avoided…

  9. 发电侧如何促进需求侧管理%How to Improve Demand Side Management in Generation Side

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳德容

    2002-01-01

    Combining with the practice of DSM in China, the paper analyzes the role of engaging demand side management in generation side. Also it deeply studies how to promote demand side management in generation side, which rarelyinvolves in the published literature all over the world. Besides, it discovers the interactions of interdependence and competition between demand side managenent and generation side operation. Lastly it studies the example of demand side management in generation side in Shenzhen.

  10. Why fruits go to the dark side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-11-01

    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  11. The Dark Side of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Henry

    1986-10-01

    Wood's The Dark Side of the Earth is another addition to the growing list of books on the recent revolution in the earth sciences. Wood rightly points out that any new book on the topic should break new ground. In the preface, he writes of himself and his book that he has benefited from previous accounts by saving himself research time, and that his book, unlike others, “attempts to tell one complete story of the study of the Earth, geologists, geophysicists, dreamers and all” (p. vi). Wood is ambitious, for his work covers much of 19th-century geology as well as the development, reception, rejection, and eventual acceptance of mobilist ideas. Before discussing the work of the German meteorologist and geophysicist Alfred L. Wegener, American glacial geomorphologist Frank Taylor, and several of their predecessors who proposed “mobilist” ideas, he manages to string together brief descriptions of the contributions of (among others) German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner, British geologists James Hutten and John Playfair, British engineer William Smith, British geologist Charles Lyell, American geologists James Hall and James Dwight Dana, British volcanologist William Lowthian Green, American geologist Grove Karl Gilbert, French geologist Elie de Beaumont, British geologist and mathematician Osmond Fisher, American geologist Clarence Dutton, British mathematician and physicist Lord Kelvin, Austrian geologist Eduard Suess, French geologist Marcel Bertrand, and American geologist Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin. Moreover, Wood offers an interesting thesis about the revolution in the earth sciences. He claims that the real revolution was not the replacement of fixist views with the mobilist ones of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics, but rather the replacement of geology with the new discipline of the earth sciences in which geophysics and geochemistry play the central role.

  12. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Chotibut, Thiparat

    2016-01-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuations-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of interacting populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bazykin, Alexander D

    1998-01-01

    This book contains a systematic study of ecological communities of two or three interacting populations. Starting from the Lotka-Volterra system, various regulating factors are considered, such as rates of birth and death, predation and competition. The different factors can have a stabilizing or a destabilizing effect on the community, and their interplay leads to increasingly complicated behavior. Studying and understanding this path to greater dynamical complexity of ecological systems constitutes the backbone of this book. On the mathematical side, the tool of choice is the qualitative the

  14. Biomechanically based design and performance targets for a 3-year old child crash dummy for front and side impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratingen, M.R. van; Twisk, D.; Schrooten, M.; Barnes, A.; Platten, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Q-series of child dummies is a new family of advanced child dummies covering the complete child population up to 12 years. The 'Q-series' design is not only advanced in terms of its biomechanical basis, it is also developed to be used in both front and side impact making it the first 'multi-dire

  15. Double Sided Si(Ge)/Sapphire/III-Nitride Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of the present invention is a double sided hybrid crystal structure including a trigonal Sapphire wafer containing a (0001) C-plane and having front and rear sides. The Sapphire wafer is substantially transparent to light in the visible and infrared spectra, and also provides insulation with respect to electromagnetic radio frequency noise. A layer of crystalline Si material having a cubic diamond structure aligned with the cubic direction on the (0001) C-plane and strained as rhombohedron to thereby enable continuous integration of a selected (SiGe) device onto the rear side of the Sapphire wafer. The double sided hybrid crystal structure further includes an integrated III-Nitride crystalline layer on the front side of the Sapphire wafer that enables continuous integration of a selected III-Nitride device on the front side of the Sapphire wafer.

  16. Transport properties of a random binary side-coupled chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dong-Sheng; Lu Xiu-Juan; Zhang Yong-Mei; Zhu Chen-Ping

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of a random binary side-coupled chain by using the transfer-matrix technique. It is found that there are resonant states in the systems with short-range correlations between the host chain atoms and the side-coupled atoms. The analytic expressions for the extended states are also presented in the systems with the side couplings between like atoms and between unlike atoms.

  17. Two-sided Internet Platforms: A Business Model Lifecycle Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Muzellec, Laurent; Ronteau, Sébastien; Lambkin, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Multi-sided platforms bring together two or more distinct but interdependent groups of customers, normally described as B2B and B2C. Two-sided platforms have proliferated rapidly with the Internet and this has led to the development of new business models to monetize innovative value propositions in online markets. This paper puts forward a model of the evolution of the marketing strategies and business models of two-sided Internet businesses. In this model, Internet inter...

  18. On Cascade Source Coding with A Side Information "Vending Machine"

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Simeone, Osvaldo; Choudhuri, Chiranjib; Mitra, Urbashi

    2012-01-01

    The model of a side information "vending machine" accounts for scenarios in which acquiring side information is costly and thus should be done efficiently. In this paper, the three-node cascade source coding problem is studied under the assumption that a side information vending machine is available either at the intermediate or at the end node. In both cases, a single-letter characterization of the available trade-offs among the rate, the distortions in the reconstructions at the intermediat...

  19. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canli Eyüb

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres

  20. Population, Population Density, and Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Nestmann, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    In a model on population and endogenous technological change, Kremer combines a short-run Malthusian scenario where income determines the population that can be sustained, with the Boserupian insight that greater population spurs technological change and can therefore lift a country out of its Malthusian trap. We show that a more realistic version of the model, which combines population and population density, allows deeper insights into these processes. The incorporation of population densit...

  1. Review: Tales from Both Sides of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    Our brain has two hemispheres that specialize in different jobs-the right side processes spatial and temporal information, and the left side controls speech and language. How these two sides come together to create one mind is explained by pioneering neuroscientist Michael Gazzaniga in his new book, Tales from Both Sides of the Brain : A Life in Neuroscience (Ecco/Harper Collins, 2015). Gazzaniga is director of the SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and a Dana Alliance member. PMID:27408671

  2. Measuring side effects after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... side effects. Using pharynx cancer as an example, the purpose of this article is to summarize the possibilities and limitations of different methods for measurement of radiotherapy-induced side effects. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-17......Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... measure is obtainable, and the case of a patient-relevant measure is even rarer. Radiotherapy is often followed by complex symptoms not easily quantifiable by the observer. Quantitative patient reported side effects can be retrieved using validated questionnaires, but this kind of data is often difficult...

  3. Simultaneous in vivo truncation of pectic side chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Borkhardt, Bernhard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2009-01-01

    . These modifications often prevent gelation, which has been a major functional requirement of commercial pectins until recently. We have previously shown that modification of pectin is possible through heterologous expression of pectin degrading enzymes in planta. To test the effect of simultaneous...... modification of the two main neutral pectic side chains in pectic rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI), we constitutively expressed two different enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana that would either modify the galactan or the arabinan side chains, or both side chains simultaneously. Our analysis showed that the...... simultaneous truncation of arabinan and galactan side chains is achievable and does not severely affect the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana....

  4. On Cascade Source Coding with A Side Information "Vending Machine"

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Choudhuri, Chiranjib; Mitra, Urbashi

    2012-01-01

    The model of a side information "vending machine" accounts for scenarios in which acquiring side information is costly and thus should be done efficiently. In this paper, the three-node cascade source coding problem is studied under the assumption that a side information vending machine is available either at the intermediate or at the end node. In both cases, a single-letter characterization of the available trade-offs among the rate, the distortions in the reconstructions at the intermediate and at the end node, and the cost in acquiring the side information are derived under given conditions.

  5. Source Coding with a Side Information "Vending Machine"

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Tsachy; Permuter, Haim H.

    2009-01-01

    We study source coding in the presence of side information, when the system can take actions that affect the availability, quality, or nature of the side information. We begin by extending the Wyner-Ziv problem of source coding with decoder side information to the case where the decoder is allowed to choose actions affecting the side information. We then consider the setting where actions are taken by the encoder, based on its observation of the source. Actions may have costs that are commens...

  6. Meta-heuristic algorithm to solve two-sided assembly line balancing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, A. D.; Maruf, A.

    2016-02-01

    Two-sided assembly line is a set of sequential workstations where task operations can be performed at two sides of the line. This type of line is commonly used for the assembly of large-sized products: cars, buses, and trucks. This paper propose a Decoding Algorithm with Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (TLBO), a recently developed nature-inspired search method to solve the two-sided assembly line balancing problem (TALBP). The algorithm aims to minimize the number of mated-workstations for the given cycle time without violating the synchronization constraints. The correlation between the input parameters and the emergence point of objective function value is tested using scenarios generated by design of experiments. A two-sided assembly line operated in an Indonesia's multinational manufacturing company is considered as the object of this paper. The result of the proposed algorithm shows reduction of workstations and indicates that there is negative correlation between the emergence point of objective function value and the size of population used.

  7. Metabolic disturbances, side effect profile and effectiveness of clozapine in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on effect of clozapine on metabolic syndrome in adolescent patients with psychosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders prior to clozapine and while receiving clozapine. Secondary aims were to study the effectiveness and side effect profile of clozapine. Materials and Methods: Thirteen child and adolescent patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and a follow-up beyond 6 months. Assessments were made for metabolic profile, effectiveness by positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS, and side effects. Results: Prior to starting of clozapine, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23%. After 3 months on clozapine, 38.5% (5/13 patients fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome and further on follow-up beyond 6 months (with last observation carried forward 46.2% (6/13 had developed metabolic syndrome. There was a significant reduction in PANSS scores at 3 months and follow-up more so in those who developed metabolic syndrome at 3 months. Among the other side effects, hypersalivation was the most common side effect (100% followed by sedation (69%. Conclusion: Half the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents on clozapine can be attributed to other factors prior to starting of clozapine, and another half can be attributed to clozapine. Clozapine is effective in an adolescent population.

  8. Terrorism, civil war, one-sided violence and global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Khan, Maria R; Sapkota, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict and related violence, including terrorism and one-sided violence, has profound effects on people's health and lives. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) occurring in 2002 attributable to all causes and specific communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Deaths resulting from terrorism, war and one-sided violence were positively associated with all cause as well as a number of communicable and noncommunicable disease-specific DALYs across the majority of sex and age subgroups of the populace, controlling for an array of economic factors empirically shown to affect public health. Overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 was associated with a 0.16% increase in DALYs lost to all causes in 2002 in the total world population. There was little variation in the magnitude of these associations between males and females and between communicable and noncommunicable diseases. The results of the present study can begin to guide post-conflict recovery by focusing on interventions targeting both noncommunicable as well as communicable diseases, thereby highlighting the full health costs of war and ultimately providing a strong rationale for promoting peace.

  9. Effects of uniform magnetic field on the interaction of side-by-side rising bubbles in a viscous liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadidi, Amin; Jalali-Vahid, Davood [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Effects of uniform magnetic fields on the interaction and coalescence of side-by-side rising bubbles of dielectric fluids were not studied; so in the present research, effects of different strengths of uniform magnetic field on the interaction of two bubbles rising side by side in a viscous and initially stagnant liquid are studied, numerically. For numerical modeling of the problem, a full computer code was developed to solve the governing equations which are continuity, Navier-Stokes, magnetic field and interface capturing equations which are level set and re-initialization equations. The finite volume method is used for the discretization of the hydrodynamic equations where the finite difference method is used to discretization of the magnetic field equations. The results are compared with available numerical and experimental results which show a good agreement. It is found that the uniform magnetic field can be used for contactless control of side-by-side coalescence of bubbles.

  10. Side-to-side growth discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: association with function, activity and social participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Bueno Zonta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate side-to-side discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP, and investigate associations of these discrepancies with patients’ age at initiation of physical therapy, motor and cognitive function, and degree of activities and social participation. Method: We obtained eight side-to-side measurements from 24 HCP children with mean age 49.3±5.2 months. Results: Early initiation of physical therapy was associated with lower discrepancy in hand length (p=0.037. Lower foot length discrepancy was associated with lower requirement for caregiver assistance in activities related to mobility. Increased side-to-side discrepancy was associated with reduced wrist extension and increased spasticity. Discrepancy played a larger role in children with hemineglect and in those with right involvement. Conclusion: Increased discrepancy in HCP children was associated with reduced degree of activity/social participation. These results suggest an association between functional use of the extremities and limb growth.

  11. FLOW PAST TWO ROTATING CIRCULAR CYLINDERS IN A SIDE-BY-SIDE ARRANGEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao-hui; LIN Jian-zhong; TU Cheng-xu; WANG Hao-li

    2009-01-01

    Measurements were performed using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to analyze the modification of flow by the combined effects of the rotation and the Reynolds number on the flow past two rotating circular cylinders in a side-by-side-arrangement at a range of , (α is the rotational speed) at one gap spacing of (T and d are the distance between the centers of two cylinders and the cylinder diameter, respectively). A new Immersed-Lattice Boltzmann Method (ILBM) scheme was used to study the effect of the gap spacing on the flow. The results show that the vortex shedding is suppressed as rotational speed increases. The flow reaches a steady state when the vortex shedding for both cylinders is completely suppressed at critical rotational speed. As the rotational speed further increases, the separation phenomenon in the boundary layers disappears at the attachment rotational speed. The critical rotational speed and attachment rotational speed become small as Reynolds number increases. The absolute rotational speed of cylinders should be large at same critical rotational speed and attachment rotational speed in the case of large Reynolds number. The gap spacing has an important role in changing the pattern of vortex shedding. It is very different in the mechanism of vortex shedding suppression for the flows around two rotating cylinders and single rotating cylinder.

  12. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

    1980-08-01

    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

  13. Numerical Study on Interaction Between Two Bubbles Rising Side by Side in CMC Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wenyuan; YIN Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation was performed to investigate the interaction of two bubbles rising side by side in shear-thinning fluid using volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with continuous surface force (CSF) method.By considering rheological characteristics of fluid,this approach was able to accurately capture the deformation of bubble interface,and validated by comparing with the experimental results.The rising of bubble pairs with different configurations,including horizontal alignment and oblique alignment,was simulated by the method.The influences of the bubble initial distance and the bubble alignment were studied by analyzing the bubble deformation,rising paths and flow fields surrounding bubbles.The results indicate that within certain initial bubble spacing of S* =3.3(S* =SI/D,SI initial distance between bubbles,and D bubble diameter),the dynamic interaction between two bubbles aligned horizontally shows repulsive effect that decreases with the increase of initial bubble spacing,but weakens to certain degree by the shear-thinning properties of fluid.However,the interaction between two bubbles aligned obliquely presents a repulsive effect for the small angle involved but an attractive impact for the large one,which is yet strengthened by the rheological characteristics of fluid.

  14. Modality-specific communication enabling gait synchronization during over-ground side-by-side walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivotofsky, Ari Z; Gruendlinger, Leor; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2012-10-01

    An attentive observer will notice that unintentional synchronization of gait between two walkers on the street seems to occur frequently. Nonetheless, the rate of occurrence and motor-sensory mechanisms underlying this phase-locking of gait have only recently begun to be investigated. Previous studies have either been qualitative or carried out under non-natural conditions, e.g., treadmill walking. The present study quantitatively examined the potential sensory mechanisms that contribute to the gait synchronization that occurs when two people walk side by side along a straight, over-ground, pathway. Fourteen pairs of subjects walked 70 m under five conditions that manipulated the available sensory feedback. The modalities studied were visual, auditory, and tactile. Movement was quantified using a trunk-mounted tri-axial accelerometer. A gait synchronization index (GSI) was calculated to quantify the phase synchronization of the gait rhythms. Overall, 36% of the walks exhibited synchrony. Tactile and auditory feedback showed the greatest ability to synchronize, while visual feedback was the least effective. The results show that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, quantifiable, and has modality-specific properties.

  15. Side-by-side ANFIS as a useful tool for estimating correlated thermophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieu, Stéphane; Faugeroux, Olivier; Traoré, Adama; Claudet, Bernard; Bodnar, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, an artificial intelligence-based approach dealing with the estimation of correlated thermophysical properties is designed and evaluated. This new and "intelligent" approach makes use of photothermal responses obtained when homogeneous materials are subjected to a light flux. Commonly, gradient-based algorithms are used as parameter estimation techniques. Unfortunately, such algorithms show instabilities leading to non-convergence in case of correlated properties to be estimated from a rebuilt impulse response. So, the main objective of the present work was to simultaneously estimate both the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of homogeneous materials, from front-face or rear-face photothermal responses to pseudo random binary signals. To this end, we used side-by-side neuro-fuzzy systems (adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems) trained with a hybrid algorithm. We focused on the impact on generalization of both the examples used during training and the fuzzification process. In addition, computation time was a key point to consider. That is why the developed algorithm is computationally tractable and allows both the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of homogeneous materials to be simultaneously estimated with very good accuracy (the generalization error ranges between 4.6% and 6.2%).

  16. Material Selection for Hawsers for a Side-by-side Offloading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiayu Qian; Liping Sun; Linfeng Song

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a theoretical guide for choosing the material for the hawsers for the FPSO side-by-side offloading system, which is moored by the yoke system, the 3D potential flow theory and full coupled time-domain analysis are presented to study the dynamic response of the offloading system. The MingZhu FPSO offloading system in the field BZ25-1 is simulated here;and four different characteristic fiber ropes are used as the material for the hawsers. To acquire an accurate hawser line tension, the polynomial fitting method is used to calculate the nonlinear stiffness of the hawsers. By comparing the hawser lines’ tension and the relative motion between the FPSO and the shuttle tanker, a suitable material for the hawser lines is chosen and discussed in this paper. The results indicate that the nonlinear stiffness characteristic of the fiber rope has a small effect on the relative motion of the vessels, but the hawser lines’ tension is greatly influenced by the different characteristics of the fiber ropes. The hawser lines’ tension with nonlinear stiffness is in accordance with the one with the upper and lower bound linear stiffness, which proves this method of fitting the fiber ropes’ nonlinear stiffness is reasonable and reliable.

  17. Propulsive performance of unsteady tandem hydrofoils in a side-by-side configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Peter A.; Quinn, Daniel B.; Boschitsch, Birgitt M.; Smits, Alexander J.

    2014-04-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented on two identical bio-inspired hydrofoils oscillating in a side-by-side configuration. The time-averaged thrust production and power input to the fluid are found to depend on both the oscillation phase differential and the transverse spacing between the foils. For in-phase oscillations, the foils exhibit an enhanced propulsive efficiency at the cost of a reduction in thrust. For out-of-phase oscillations, the foils exhibit enhanced thrust with no observable change in the propulsive efficiency. For oscillations at intermediate phase differentials, one of the foils experiences a thrust and efficiency enhancement while the other experiences a reduction in thrust and efficiency. Flow visualizations reveal how the wake interactions lead to the variations in propulsive performance. Vortices shed into the wake from the tandem foils form vortex pairs rather than vortex streets. For in-phase oscillation, the vortex pairs induce a momentum jet that angles towards the centerplane between the foils, while out-of-phase oscillations produce vortex pairs that angle away from the centerplane between the foils.

  18. Organizational mediators siding with or against the powerful party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskewitz, P; Van de Vliert, E; De Dreu, C K W

    1994-01-01

    Instead of being impartial, a mediator may side with one party as a function of the disputants' power differences, the mediator's legitimacy judgments, or the disputants' capacity to sanction the mediator. According to the power balancing theory, a mediator sides with the party that has a power disa

  19. Frictional work in double-sided tablet compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ruiz, A; Wihervaara, M; Hakkinen, M; Juslin, M; Paronen, P

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction during double-sided tablet compression. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and lactose were tabletted with a compaction simulator with symmetrical and asymmetrical double-sided sawtooth punch displacement profiles. The estimation of force transmission in a powder column was based on an exponential equation, including the material parameter consisting of both the friction coefficient and Poisson's ratio. This parameter was predetermined from a single-sided compression. A novel equation was derived from a previously presented equation for friction work in single-sided tablet compression. The basic assumption was drawn from the linearly decreasing movement of infinitely thin particle layers, which are produced as the compressing punch surface approaches the other punch. This calculation was also based on the assumption that the equilibrium point, where the particles do not move, is halfway between the punches in the symmetrical profile and at a distance proportional to the amplitudes of the asymmetrical upper and lower sawtooth profiles. The tensile strength of tablets compressed with single-double-sided profiles was identical, and thus the behavior of the materials studied under compression was independent of the compression profiles. The friction work values that were calculated with the proposed expression for double-sided profiles were close to the theoretical values, as estimated by calculations based on compressions with single-sided profiles. In conclusion, the novel mathematical expression opens new possibilities for the evaluation of friction in double-sided compression; for example, in rotary press tabletting. PMID:9109053

  20. Rare combination of dextrocardia with right-sided Poland syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jae Bum; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Kim, Yeo Hyang

    2012-10-01

    The combination of right-sided Poland syndrome and dextrocardia is rare. To our knowledge, reports regarding this subject are lacking in the published literature to date. Previous reports suggested that dextrocardia may be part of the left sided Poland syndrome. We report and discuss this rare combination.

  1. SLAR = USGS Side Looking Airborne Radar Mosaics: 1981 - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) is an image-producing system that derives its name from the fact that the radar beam is transmitted from the side of the...

  2. Weakening of a Polyethylene Chain by Methyl Side Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Wijs, G.A. de; Groot, R.A. de; Meier, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of methyl side groups on the strength of a single polyethylene chain is calculated with Density Functional Theory. Using transition state theory, the scission rate is calculated as function of stress for bonds next to a methyl side group. The increase in the scission rate due to the prese

  3. Side effects of azathioprine in patients with Crohn's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Dirk de; Goullet, M.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials 0-15% of patients discontinued azathioprine due to side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of side effects leading to discontinuation of azathioprine and to determine predictive factors for discontinuation. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analysis of c

  4. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  5. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica;

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...... on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199...... drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de....

  6. Status and Results from DarkSide-50

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Alden

    2015-01-01

    DarkSide-50 is the first physics detector of the DarkSide dark matter search program. The detector features a dual-phase underground-argon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of 50 kg active mass surrounded by an organic liquid-scintillator neutron veto (30 tons) and a water-Cherenkov muon detector (1000 tons). The TPC is currently fully shielded and operating underground at Gran Sasso National Laboratory. A first run of 1422 kg-day exposure with atmospheric argon represents the most sensitive dark matter search using a liquid argon target. The TPC is now filled with underground argon, greatly reduced in 39Ar, and DarkSide-50 is in its final configuration for an extended dark matter search. Overviews of the design, performance, and results obtained so far with DarkSide-50 will be presented, along with future prospects for the DarkSide program.

  7. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  8. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER, is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes

  9. THE DILEMMA OF DEMAND SIDE POLICIES VERSUS SUPPLY SIDE POLICIES FOR RELAUNCHING CAPITALIST ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The first important economic recession in this century started in USA with the burst of real estate bubble followed by the bankruptcy of some investment and commercial banks and the collapse of capital market. The financial-banking crisis spilt over the world economy and caused the second deepest economic recession in the last 80 years. The financial crisis has badly affected almost all market economies and was the result of a combination between market failures and mistakes made in macroeconomic policies. In the financial sector there was not enough regulation and supervision of corporate governance while in goods industry the pressure of over-regulation led to higher factor costs and supply contraction. The direct result of supply side policies and particularly of monetarist instruments is seen now clearly in the USA: large deficits, huge debts, reduced savings, heavy dependence on foreign money (capital and resources, relatively low domestic output and supply.

  10. Analysis of Kirk effect of an innovated high side Side-Isolated N-LDMOS device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ciou Jhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ESOA of LDMOS device is very critical for power device performance. Kirk effect is the one of the major problem which leads to poor ESOA performance. The cause of the problem mainly due to the high beta value of parasitic NPN transistor in the p-body. In this study, we proposed a new 3D high side Side–Isolated N-Channel LDMOS which we have obtained not only benchmark Ron and breakdown performance, but also better ESOA without Kirk effect. We have compared the analysis of Kirk effect between the new device and the conventional N–LDMOS structure with LATID technique for the formation of the p–body of both device structures.

  11. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. PMID:23499979

  12. Immediate Small Side Branch Occlusion after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ostovan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small side branches, albeit less important than their larger counterparts, have not yet received due attention in the literature. Nor has there ever been a comparison between drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents apropos side branch occlusion. The aim of this study was to compare the patency of small (≥0.5 and ≤1.5 mm in diameter side branches with respect to bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents immediately after their deployment.Methods: This prospective bi-center study, conducted between June 2005 and January 2007, enrolled 82 patients treated with ≥1 of two stents (TAXUSTM LiberteTM or LiberteTM. Side branches ≥0.5 and <1.5 mm in diameter arising from the main vessel at the lesion site were evaluated. Results: Thirty-eight patients were treated with 42 LiberteTM stents (58 side branches and forty-four patients with 50 TAXUSTM LiberteTM (102 side branches. The rate of small side branch occlusion was 35.3% (36 in the TAXUSTM LiberteTM group compared to 29.31% (15 in the LiberteTM group (P-value= 0.7. The presence of type 1 side branch morphology (Lefevre classification was the most powerful predictor of small side branch occlusion (P-value=0.03. Conclusion: This study shows that drug-eluting stents are not inferior to bare metal stents as regards small side branch occlusion during coronary stenting

  13. A MADYMO model of near-side human occupants in side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; King, A I; Cavanaugh, J M

    1994-05-01

    The protection of automotive occupants against broadside collisions is of current interest due to the implementation of a new Federal standard on side impact. There is controversy as to the validity of the standard, the best criterion to assess injury to the thorax and the type and manner in which padding should be used. Although it has been shown in a series of 17 cadaveric tests that paper honeycomb can reduce thoracic injuries dramatically, there are still concerns regarding the loss of air space between the door and the occupant due to the presence of the padding and regarding the loss of protection for the thorax when there is no engagement of the shoulder with the intruding side structure of the car. This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional rigid body model to simulate cadaveric experiments carried out at Wayne State University. Model parameters were chosen to yield human-like responses at the level of the shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis. The model was then used to study the effect of padding on injury parameters related to the nearside occupant when a relatively thick padding is used (up to 100 mm). It was also used to study the increase in force on the thorax when shoulder engagement is lost. Laboratory tests were conducted with full shoulder engagement but in the field most cars have a low beltline (window sill) which effectively eliminates shoulder contact if the arms are outstretched in a normal driving posture. If a sufficiently soft padding was used, the model did not predict an increase in thoracic force level or any of the injury parameters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8078331

  14. Spectral analysis of pressures measured on two high-rise building models in side-by-side arrangement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.J.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van; Blocken, B.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure measurements on a square plan form high-rise building model and two square high-rise building models in side-by-side arrangement were analysed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to define peak frequencies resulting from interference. For the isolated building model, a reduced frequency

  15. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  16. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective.

  17. Influence of nozzle random side loads on launch vehicle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nilabh; Tkacik, Peter T.; Keanini, Russell G.

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that the dynamic performance of a rocket or launch vehicle is enhanced when the length of the divergent section of its nozzle is reduced or the nozzle exit area ratio is increased. However, there exists a significant performance trade-off in such rocket nozzle designs due to the presence of random side loads under overexpanded nozzle operating conditions. Flow separation and the associated side-load phenomena have been extensively investigated over the past five decades; however, not much has been reported on the effect of side loads on the attitude dynamics of rocket or launch vehicle. This paper presents a quantitative investigation on the influence of in-nozzle random side loads on the attitude dynamics of a launch vehicle. The attitude dynamics of launch vehicle motion is captured using variable-mass control-volume formulation on a cylindrical rigid sounding rocket model. A novel physics-based stochastic model of nozzle side-load force is developed and embedded in the rigid-body model of rocket. The mathematical model, computational scheme, and results corresponding to side loading scenario are subsequently discussed. The results highlight the influence of in-nozzle random side loads on the roll, pitch, yaw, and translational dynamics of a rigid-body rocket model.

  18. A gecko-inspired double-sided adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Gu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoping

    2013-12-21

    Geckos' outstanding abilities to adhere to various surfaces are widely credited to the large actual contact areas of the fibrillar and hierarchical structures on their feet. These special features regulate the essential structural compliance for every attachment and thus provide robust yet reversible adhesions. Inspired by gecko's feet and our commonly used double-faced tape, we have successfully fabricated a gecko-inspired double-sided dry adhesive by using porous anodic alumina template assisted nano-wetting on a stiff polymer. It was determined that the obtained 2-sided structure showed largely decreased effective stiffness compared with its 1-sided counterpart, which favored better compliance and interfacial integrity. We also demonstrated that the repeatable double-sided adhesive improved the macroscopic normal and shear adhesion capacities over the widely-studied 1-side structure by ~50% and ~85%, respectively. By using the synthetic double-sided adhesive, the usage of traditional pressure-sensitive/chemical adhesives could be well avoided. Besides, the double-sided nanostructures showed great potential in finding new interesting properties and practical applications for the synthetic dry adhesives.

  19. Rational Design of Coordination Polymers with Flexible Oxyethylene Side Chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Young; Gao, Chunji; Lee, Suck Hyun; Kwon, O Pil [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    We rationally designed and synthesized metallopolymers with organic 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) linkers with different lengths of oxyethylene side chains in order to examine the influence of side chains on the coordination characteristics. While in a previous report the BDC linkers with alkyl side chains were found to form three-dimensional (3D) isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) structures or one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymeric structures with short -O(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}CH{sub 3} or long -O(CH{sub 2}){sub 9}CH{sub 3} side chains, respectively, new BDC linkers with oxyethylene side chains of the same lengths, -(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3} and -(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}CH{sub 3}, form only 3D IRMOF structures. This result is attributed to the higher flexibility and smaller volume of oxyethylene side chains compared to alkyl side chains

  20. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica;

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins that...... responsible for hyperesthesia in mice, which, in turn, can be prevented by a drug that selectively inhibits HTR7. Taken together, we show that a large fraction of complex drug side effects are mediated by individual proteins and create a reference for such relations.......Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins that...... cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause...

  1. Coding with Side Information for Radiation-Tolerant Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, E.; Jeon, S.; Negi, R.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Cheng, M. K.

    2011-11-01

    Memory devices aboard spacecraft experience radiation-induced errors either in the form of temporary upsets (soft errors) or permanent defects (hard or stuck-at errors). Error-correcting codes (ECCs) are used to recover memory content from errors where defective cells are either regarded as erasures by the decoder or entire blocks containing defective cells are marked as unusable. In this article, alternative coding schemes are investigated for memory devices in space, where the encoder is provided with the locations of the defective cells, denoted by side information. This coding approach has the potential to improve the overall storage capacity of memory devices, since the information theoretic capacity of a channel where side information is only available at the encoder is the same as the capacity where side information is available at both the encoder and decoder. Spacecraft memory controllers typically scrub memory devices periodically for errors. Partial side information can be obtained during this scrubbing process by comparing the ECC decoder output with its input and thereby avoid the need for additional cell tests or storage overhead. In between scrubbings, the encoder can use this partial side information to account for permanent defects to improve reliability or to increase the storage capacity of onboard memory devices. In order to achieve performance gains for practical memory systems, several coding schemes that adaptively incorporate the codeword with the known side information are proposed in this article. The proposed coding schemes are evaluated by numerical simulations on a memory channel model characterized by soft and hard errors. Simulation results show that while coding with complete side information at the encoder offers the most performance gain compared to when coding without side information is used, coding with partial side information can close the gap between the optimal and current approach without incurring much additional overhead

  2. Cascade Source Coding with a Side Information "Vending Machine"

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Choudhuri, Chiranjib; Simeone, Osvaldo; Mitra, Urbashi

    2012-01-01

    The model of a side information "vending machine" (VM) accounts for scenarios in which the measurement of side information sequences can be controlled via the selection of cost-constrained actions. In this paper, the three-node cascade source coding problem is studied under the assumption that a side information VM is available and the intermediate and/or at the end node of the cascade. A single-letter characterization of the achievable trade-off among the transmission rates, the distortions ...

  3. Profit-shifting in two-sided markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how multinational two-sided platform firms set their prices on intra firm transactions. Two-sided platform firms derive income from two customer groups that are connected through at least one positive network externality from one group to the other. A main finding is that even in the absence of taxation transfer prices deviate from marginal cost of production. A second result of the paper is that it is inherently difficult to establish arm s length prices in two sided-markets. ...

  4. Double Sided Watermark Embedding and Detection with Perceptual Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Jidong

    2007-01-01

    In our previous work, we introduced a double-sided technique that utilizes but not reject the host interference. Due to its nice property of utilizing but not rejecting the host interference, it has a big advantage over the host interference schemes in that the perceptual analysis can be easily implemented for our scheme to achieve the locally bounded maximum embedding strength. Thus, in this work, we detail how to implement the perceptual analysis in our double-sided schemes since the perceptual analysis is very important for improving the fidelity of watermarked contents. Through the extensive performance comparisons, we can further validate the performance advantage of our double-sided schemes.

  5. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  6. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as temporary or permanent materials. The side effects of the materials are then discussed based on clinical and cellular views.

  7. Improved side information generation for distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    information generation method, fewer bits will be requested from the encoder and more reliable decoded frames will be obtained. In this paper, a side information generation method is introduced to further improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of transform domain distributed video coding. This algorithm......As a new coding paradigm, distributed video coding (DVC) deals with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. The performance of DVC highly depends on the quality of side information. With a better side...... consists of a variable block size based Y, U and V component motion estimation and an adaptive weighted overlapped block motion compensation (OBMC). The proposal is tested and compared with the results of an executable DVC codec released by DISCOVER group (DIStributed COding for Video sERvices). RD...

  8. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  9. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl;

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs......, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19...

  10. Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren;

    1996-01-01

    Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester structures suitable for permanent optical storage are described. The synthesis and characterization of the polyesters together with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray investigations are discussed. Optical anisotropic investigations and h...

  11. A design of emission regulation with supply side response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitherto, supply side response has received little attention in welfare analysis. Without considering that when a policy environmental changes supply side may change production plan in response to it, a policy evaluation has been conducted. Since 1980s, such a policy evaluation without considering supply side response is much dangerous, and sometimes a probability to select incorrect policy evaluation has become suggested. When government conducts its policy change, expected profit in enterprise changes. Therefore, enterprise must be remade up an optimum strategy on a base of this new expected profit. If an aim of government consists in to maximize welfare of whole society, government needs to conduct a policy evaluation due to welfare analysis under considering such background, here is described to propose an environmental policy considering supply side response. (G.K.)

  12. Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159602.html Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study ... increase risk for joint and tissue disease, including arthritis, new research suggests. "We keep having referrals coming ...

  13. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  14. A New Method to Analyse Two-Side Tapered Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Guo-Fang; NING Ji-Ping; SHANG Lian-Ju; HAN Qun; CHEN Zhi-Qiang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We discuss the characters of two-side tapered waveguides. Then, based on some approximations, a simple but practical and efficient method is developed to design the taper waveguide. The results are compared with other methods in a good agreement.

  15. Side-Scan-Sonar Lines for Hudson River, NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Side Scan Sonar and Subbottom Profiler Tracklines. Data was collected November 5 to December 15, 2009, in the estuary north from Saugerties to Troy. Fugro utilized...

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability ...

  17. A Case Report of Left-Sided Headache with Rhinocleisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case Report A patient, with a complaint of a left-sided headache plus a rhinocleisis for a month, was admitted to our hospital. The clinical diagnosis showed that it was a primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the nasopharynx.

  18. Incorporating Side Information in Probabilistic Matrix Factorization with Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Ryan Prescott; Murray, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) is a powerful method for modeling data associated with pairwise relationships, finding use in collaborative filtering, computational biology, and document analysis, among other areas. In many domains, there is additional information that can assist in prediction. For example, when modeling movie ratings, we might know when the rating occurred, where the user lives, or what actors appear in the movie. It is difficult, however, to incorporate this side information into the PMF model. We propose a framework for incorporating side information by coupling together multiple PMF problems via Gaussian process priors. We replace scalar latent features with functions that vary over the space of side information. The GP priors on these functions require them to vary smoothly and share information. We successfully use this new method to predict the scores of professional basketball games, where side information about the venue and date of the game are relevant for the outcome.

  19. Effect of Overlaid Material on Optical Transmission of Side-Polished Fiber Made by Wheel Side Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chun-He Bai

    2008-01-01

    The performance of optical power transmission through a side-polished fiber on which materials of different refractive indices were overlaid is investigated. The experiments show that the transmitted optical power through the side-polished fiber varies with the refractive index of the overlaid material. The result of our experiments fits well the theoretical calculation.Side-polished fiber manufactured by wheel polishing method can be used not only to control optical power transmission through the fiber core but also as a refractive index sensor.

  20. Coding Side-Information for Implementing Cubic Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, B. Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the implementation of the cubic public-key transformation, a public-key cryptographic scheme that requires sending of additional side-information. A coding scheme for the side-information, based on the residue number system, is presented. In the conventional one-to-one encryption mapping also, such coding can be used to send additional like that of watermarking, which could be used to detect man-in-the-middle attacks or used for authentication.

  1. A Demand-Side Theory of Antitakeover Defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    This article develops a demand-and-supply framework to analyze the adoption of antitakeover defenses and constructs a demand-side theory of antitakeover provisions ("ATP's"). The article views the decision to go public without ATP's as a decision to produce an unshielded target and shows that the classic literature focused on the costs of producing such a target but barely accounted for demand-side considerations. The article argues that the more firms there are producing unsheilded targets...

  2. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    OpenAIRE

    O. B. Zhukov; A. V. Verzin; P. L. Penkov

    2013-01-01

    One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler k...

  3. Supply-side Issues in the Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Hsieh; David Norman; David Orsmond

    2012-01-01

    Supply-side factors can affect the responsiveness of new dwelling construction to changes in housing demand. Recent reports and liaison with industry participants point to a range of supply-side rigidities in the Australian housing market, including the length and complexity of the planning process, issues related to the provision and funding of infrastructure, land ownership and geographical constraints, and other challenges related to infill development. In recognition of this, governments ...

  4. Summary Side Event on Partnerships for Inclusive Business

    OpenAIRE

    Pfisterer, Stella

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDuring the 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan (South Korea) in November 2011, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development together with the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Global Compact, the International Business Leaders Forum, the Bertelsmann Stiftung, the Partnerships Resource Centre and UNDP, hosted a side event about Partnerships for Inclusive Business. A summary of this side event can be found by clicking on the link below.

  5. Polyorchidism: a torted right-sided supernumerary testis

    OpenAIRE

    Thyoka, Mandela; Lall, Anupam; Godse, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly defined by the presence of more than two histologically proven testes. The commonest variant is triorchidism, the supernumerary testis being commonly reported on the left side. Most cases of polyorchidism are found incidentally in association with undescended testis, hydrocele, hernia or torsion. We report a right-sided triorchidism in a 15-year-old boy found at time of groin exploration for an irreducible right inguinal hernia.

  6. The Side Effects of Insecticide Efficient Biocidals to Beneficial Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek, Muharrem; ÖZKAN, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Unawares usage of biocidals effects not only natural resources, environment and human health but also can damage beneficial insects which suppresses pests. Herein, the side effects of insecticide efficient biocidals to important beneficial insects was handled and measures on sustainable biocidal usages was discussed. The side effects of Deltamethrin, Azadirachtin, Spinosad and Bacillus thuringinensis biocidals to certain important beneficial insects were evaluated with literature data. Negati...

  7. UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF RIGHT SIDED BOCHDALEK HERNIA IN AN ADULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of abdominal content through a persistent embryonic pleuroperitonial hiatus is most common form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital anomaly in neonatal and postnatal patients and occur in about one in 2,200 to 12,500 live births, but it is rare in adults . 1 75% to 90% occur on left side . 2,3,4 Here we present a rare case of 24 years old male patient with Bochdalek hernia on right side

  8. Demand-side management for energy in the region

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar Davidovich Gitelman; Boris Evgenyevich Ratnikov; Mikhail Viktorovich Kozhevnikov

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with a promising approach to solving the problem of investment in the regional electric power industry — the application of demand-side management, the essence of which lies in proactive interaction of energy companies with customers, based on the balance of economic interests. The features of the concept and its tools are revealed, positive results of its implementation for energy market players and the region are shown, and examples of demand-side management pr...

  9. A Two-Sided Optimization for Theater Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G.; Carlyle, M.; Diehl, D; Kline, J.; Wood, K.

    2005-01-01

    Operations Research, 53, pp. 263-275. Center for Infrastructure Defense (CID) Paper. We describe JOINT DEFENDER, a new two-sided optimization model for planning the pre-positioning of defensive missile interceptors to counter an attack threat. In our basic model, a defender pre-positions ballistic missile defense platforms to minimize the worst-case damage an attacker can achieve; we assume that the attacker will be aware of defensive pre-positioning decisions, and that both sides have ...

  10. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: An unusual side effect of meropenem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalel Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient was hospitalized as a case of pneumonia. He was diabetic, hypertensive and post Hepatitis "C" "H-C". He reported skin eruption following administration of meropenem. Skin biopsy revealed acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. To elucidate this side effect, we conducted a literature search - this is the second case induced by meropenem. The diagnosis was made after excluding all other possible causes. Dermatologists and clinicians must be aware of this an unusual side effect.

  11. Side chain and backbone ordering in a polypeptide

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Y; Hansmann, U H E

    2006-01-01

    We report results from multicanonical simulations of polyglutamic acid chains of length of ten residues. For this simple polypeptide we observe a decoupling of backbone and side-chain ordering in the folding process. While the details of the two transitions vary between the peptide in gas phase and in an implicit solvent, our results indicate that, independent of the specific surroundings, upon continuously lowering the temperature side-chain ordering occurs only after the backbone topology is completely formed.

  12. Single Sided Messaging v. 0.6.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-20

    Single-Sided Messaging (SSM) is a portable, multitransport networking library that enables applications to leverage potential one-sided capabilities of underlying network transports. It also provides desirable semantics that services for highperformance, massively parallel computers can leverage, such as an explicit cancel operation for pending transmissions, as well as enhanced matching semantics favoring large numbers of buffers attached to a single match entry. This release supports TCP/IP, shared memory, and Infiniband.

  13. Single-Sided Electromagnetic Induction Heating Based on IGBT

    OpenAIRE

    Song Wang; Guangda Li; Xiaokun Li

    2014-01-01

    A single-sided induction heating system based on IGBT is proposed. The system includes the series resonant circuit, control circuit, and auxiliary circuit. The main circuit includes rectifier, filter, inverter, and resonant circuit. A drive circuit is designed for IGBT combing some protection circuits. We have a simulation of the single-sided induction heating system in ANSYS. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results. The performance of the system is promising. And al...

  14. Left-sided gallbladder: Its clinical significance and imaging presentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the importance of preoperative diagnosis and presentation of left-sided gallbladder using ultrasound (US), CT and angiography.METHODS: Retrospective review of 1482 patients who underwent enhanced CT scanning was performed. Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed if a right-sided ligamentum teres was present. The image presentations on US, CT and angiography were also reviewed.RESULTS: Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed in nine patients. The associated abnormalities on CT imaging included portal vein anomalies, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe of the liver,club-shaped portal vein in the right lobe of the liver, and difficulty in identifying segment Ⅳ. Angiography in six of nine patients demonstrated abnormal portal venous system (trifurcation type in four of six patients). The main hepatic arteries followed the portal veins in all six patients. The segment Ⅳ artery was identified in four of six patients using angiography, although segment Ⅳ was difficult to define on CT imaging. Hepatectomy was performed in three patients with concomitant liver tumor and the diagnosis of left-sided gallbladder was confirmed intraoperatively.CONCLUSION: Left-sided gallbladder is an important clinical entity in hepatectomy due to its associated portal venous and biliary anomalies. It should be considered in US, CT and angiography images that demonstrate no definite segment IV, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe, and club-shaped right anterior portal vein.

  15. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages. PMID:7448666

  16. Double-sided FoxFET biased microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the field effect transistor, integrated onto AC-coupled silicon detectors, as a novel technique for biasing the implanted p+ strips [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 310 (1991) 155], was first employed for the OPAL microvertex detector. The detector has proved very successful, with ladders of three single-sided detectors showing signal/noise of 22 : 1 with MX5 readout electronics [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 324 (1993) 34; Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 32 (1993) 208]. This technique has been extended to bias also the n+ strips and p strips on the ohmic side of a double-sided detector [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, to be submitted]. Full-size detectors with orthogonal readout have been fabricated by Micron and tested with MX7 readout on both sides. Both the junction and ohmic sides of these detectors have similar signal/noise values to those for single-sided wafers [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, to be submitted]. Test structures have been irradiated with beta particles to study the radiation hardness of the devices, and probe station electrical measurements of the detectors and test structures are presented. ((orig.))

  17. Distribution side of pleural effusion in heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Kyu; Park, Young Ha; Jung, Se Young; Park, Seog Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    The interrelationship between the etiology of pleural effusion and the side of its occurrence has been a subject of clinical interest for many years. It has often been stated that pleural effusion caused by congestive heart failure tends to occur on the right side. However, some authors contended that such a side proclivity is not reliable. In the present study, the authors investigated the laterally of effusion caused by various cardiovascular diseases complicated by heart failure. We reviewed the chest X-ray films and clinical records of 68 patients with proven pleural effusion resulted from heart failure. 1. There were 34 men and 34 women with the age ranging from 10 to 84 years with the mean of 59. 2. The diagnoses were rheumatic heart disease (2 patients), coronary heart disease (10 patients), hypertensive heart disease (8 patients), mitral valvular disease (18 patients), aortic valvular disease (3 patients), and miscellaneous (27 patients). 3. 34 patients had unilateral pleural effusion, 25 and 9, right and left, respectively. Of the 34 patients with bilateral effusion, 13 patients had predominantly right-sided effusion, 5 patients had predominantly left-sided effusion and 16 patients had evenly distributed bilateral effusion. Thus, 55.8% of effusion was right-sided.

  18. Whose side are you on? Relational orientations and their impacts on side-taking among Dutch and Chinese employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huadong; Van de Vliert, Evert; Shi, Kan; Huang, Xu

    2008-01-01

    Informal relationships often influence employees who intervene in an interpersonal conflict between colleagues. We investigate and report the effects of relational orientations (reciprocity orientation and communal orientation) on employee preference of choosing sides between an acquaintance and a f

  19. Education Vital Signs: Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1985-01-01

    Population changes and demographics shape the future of public schools. Includes statistics on ethnic makeup of student population, the projected baby boomlet, children of working mothers, households without children, and the aging population. (MD)

  20. Simulating Population Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  1. Meta-sided Exchange Rings and Their Extensions%Meta-sided exchange环及其扩张

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉琴; 何建伟; 卲海琴

    2010-01-01

    讨论了meta-sided exchange环的性质.证明了如果R是Abelian meta-sided exchange环,则对R的任意素理想P,都有R/P是局部环;如果R是Abelian环,(S,≤)是严格序幺半群且对任意s∈S,都有0≤s,则广义幂级数环[[RS,≤

  2. Developing STR databases on structured populations: the native South Siberian population versus the Russian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava V; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2009-09-01

    Developing a forensic DNA database on a population that consists of local ethnic groups separated by physical and cultural barriers is questionable as it can be genetically subdivided. On the other side, small sizes of ethnic groups, especially in alpine regions where they are sub-structured further into small villages, prevent collecting a large sample from each ethnic group. For such situations, we suggest to obtain both a total population database on allele frequencies across ethnic groups and a list of theta-values between the groups and the total data. We have genotyped 558 individuals from the native population of South Siberia, consisting of nine ethnic groups, at 17 autosomal STR loci of the kit packages AmpFlSTR SGM Plus i, Cyrillic AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus. The groups differentiate from each other with average theta-values of around 1.1%, and some reach up to three to four percent at certain loci. There exists between-village differentiation as well. Therefore, a database for the population of South Siberia is composed of data on allele frequencies in the pool of ethnic groups and data on theta-values that indicate variation in allele frequencies across the groups. Comparison to additional data on northeastern Asia (the Chukchi and Koryak) shows that differentiation in allele frequencies among small groups that are separated by large geographic distance can be even greater. In contrast, populations of Russians that live in large cities of the European part of Russia are homogeneous in allele frequencies, despite large geographic distance between them, and thus can be described by a database on allele frequencies alone, without any specific information on theta-values.

  3. Application of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in gastric bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ri-Xing; Yan, Wen-Mao; Li, You-Guo; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the feasibility of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). METHODS Seventy-seven patients received side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum by utilization of linear stapler in LRYGB from April 2012 to July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS All patients were successfully completed laparoscopic gastric bypass with the side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum. No patient was switched to laparotomy during operation. No early complications including gastrointestinal anastomotic bleeding, fistula, obstruction, deep vein thrombosis, incision infections, intra-abdominal hernia complications were found. One patient complicated with stricture of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1.3%) and six patients complicated with incomplete intestinal obstruction (7.8%). BMI and HbA1c determined at 3, 6, 12, 24 mo during follow up period were significantly reduced compared with preoperative baselines respectively. The percentage of patients who maintain HbA1c (%) < 6.5% without taking antidiabetic drugs reached to 61.0%, 63.6%, 75.0%, and 63.6% respectively. The outcome parameters of concomitant diseases were significantly improved too. CONCLUSION Present surgery is a safety and feasibility procedure. It is effective to lighten the body weight of patients and improve type 2 diabetes and related complications. PMID:27729746

  4. A protein-dependent side-chain rotamer library.

    KAUST Repository

    Bhuyan, M.S.

    2011-12-14

    Protein side-chain packing problem has remained one of the key open problems in bioinformatics. The three main components of protein side-chain prediction methods are a rotamer library, an energy function and a search algorithm. Rotamer libraries summarize the existing knowledge of the experimentally determined structures quantitatively. Depending on how much contextual information is encoded, there are backbone-independent rotamer libraries and backbone-dependent rotamer libraries. Backbone-independent libraries only encode sequential information, whereas backbone-dependent libraries encode both sequential and locally structural information. However, side-chain conformations are determined by spatially local information, rather than sequentially local information. Since in the side-chain prediction problem, the backbone structure is given, spatially local information should ideally be encoded into the rotamer libraries. In this paper, we propose a new type of backbone-dependent rotamer library, which encodes structural information of all the spatially neighboring residues. We call it protein-dependent rotamer libraries. Given any rotamer library and a protein backbone structure, we first model the protein structure as a Markov random field. Then the marginal distributions are estimated by the inference algorithms, without doing global optimization or search. The rotamers from the given library are then re-ranked and associated with the updated probabilities. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed protein-dependent libraries significantly outperform the widely used backbone-dependent libraries in terms of the side-chain prediction accuracy and the rotamer ranking ability. Furthermore, without global optimization/search, the side-chain prediction power of the protein-dependent library is still comparable to the global-search-based side-chain prediction methods.

  5. Generating Single-sided Subduction with Parameterized Mantle Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. J.; Tan, E.; Ma, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction on Earth is one-sided, where one oceanic plate sinks beneath the overriding plate. However, subduction zones in most numerical models tends to develop two-sided subduction, where both plates sink to the mantle. In this study, we use numerical model to find out how the existence of low viscosity wedge (LVW) can enable single-sided subduction and affects the flow in the subduction system.At the mantle wedge, water released from dehydrated oceanic crust serpentinized the mantle, which forms the LVW. LVW is an important part of the subduction system and provides efficient lubricant between the subducting slab and overriding lithosphere. Single-sided subduction can be generated in numerical models by different techniques, including prescribed plate velocity, non-Newtonian rheology, and free surface. These techniques either requires kinematic boundary condition, which produce mantle flow inconsistent with the buoyancy, or costs great amount of computational resources when solving nonlinear equations. In this study, we tried to generating single-sided subduction with Newtonian viscosity and free slip surface. A set of tracers representing hydrated oceanic crust are placed near the surface. As the tracers subducted with the lithosphere, we assume that the oceanic crust becomes dehydrated and serpentinizes the mantle wedge above. A parameterized LVW is placed above the subducted tracers in the models. We test with different upper/lower depth limits of the LVW and the viscosity of the LVW. Both overriding plate and subducting plate's surface velocity relative to the trench is calculated in order to determine whether the subduction is one-sided.Results of our numerical models show that not only the low viscosity wedge above the slab is essential for the formation of one-side subduction, a low viscosity layer in between two tectonic plates is also needed to provide the slab efficient lubricant after the subduction started. On the other hand, the plate's age, which

  6. Triptans and CNS side-effects: pharmacokinetic and metabolic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, D W; Martin, V

    2004-06-01

    Triptans are the treatment of choice for acute migraine. While seemingly a homogenous group of drugs, results from a meta-analysis reveal significant differences in efficacy and tolerability among oral triptans. The incidence of drug-related central nervous system (CNS) side-effects with some triptans is as high as 15% and may be associated with functional impairment and reduced productivity. The occurrence of adverse events associated with triptans in general, and CNS side-effects in particular, may lead to a delay in initiating or even avoidance of an otherwise effective treatment. Potential explanations for differences among triptans in the incidence of CNS side-effects may relate to pharmacological and pharmacokinetic differences, including receptor binding, lipophilicity, and the presence of active metabolites. Of the triptans reviewed, at clinically relevant doses, almotriptan 12.5 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg and sumatriptan 50 mg had the lowest incidence of CNS side-effects, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 and 5 mg had the highest incidence. The most likely explanations for the differences in CNS side-effects among triptans are the presence of active metabolites and high lipophilicity of the parent compound and active metabolites. Eletriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan have active metabolites, while lipophilicity is lowest for almotriptan and sumatriptan. If CNS side-effects are a clinically relevant concern in the individual patient, use of a triptan with a low incidence of CNS side-effects may offer the potential for earlier initiation of treatment and more effective outcomes. PMID:15154851

  7. Side effects of anti-TNFa therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Valcamonica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To report adverse events registered in our population affected by JIA and treated with anti-TNFa blockers. Methods: Ninety-five patients were enrolled to be treated with Etanercept, median age 14 years (range 4-34; median duration of therapy 12 months (range1-40. 19 patients were als treated with MTX (median dose 12.5 mg/week. Fifty-six patients were enrolled to be treated with Infliximab associated with MTX (median dose of MTX 8.8mg/week, median age 23.2 years (range 7.8-34.9; median duration of therapy 20.1 months (range 1.4-60.4. All adverse events were divided in definitely, probably and possibly related to the biologic agent. Results: Side effects definitely related to Infliximab were the reactions to infusions and the Anti-dsDNA positivity. Side effects definitely related to Etanercept were severe headache and thrombocytopenia. Side effects probably correlated to both the biological agents were behavioural modifications and pain amplification syndrome. Probably correlated to the treatment with Etanercept was the onset of Crohn’s disease in 3 patients. Possibly correlated to the biological agents were the new onset or flare-up of Chronic Iridocyclitis and single cases of thyroideal cancer, hypoglossal nerve paralysis and a severe Cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection. No case of tuberculosis infection was registered during this study. Conclusions: Treatment with a TNFa antagonist seems to be associated with various adverse events. Some of them, like onset of Crohn’s disease, behavioural modifications are unusual and others, like pain amplification syndrome were never described before. Children and young adults affected by JIA should be monitored very carefully so as to limit as much as possible the risk of serious side effects on anti-TNFa therapy.

  8. Dirac cones, Floquet side bands, and theory of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Aaron; Arsenault, A.; Pereg-Barnea, T.

    2016-10-01

    Pump-probe techniques with high temporal resolution allow one to drive a system of interest out of equilibrium and at the same time probe its properties. Recent advances in these techniques open the door to studying new, nonequilibrium phenomena such as Floquet topological insulators and superconductors. These advances also necessitate the development of theoretical tools for understanding the experimental findings and predicting new ones. In the present paper, we provide a theoretical foundation to understand the nonequilibrium behavior of a Dirac system. We present detailed numerical calculations and simple analytic results for the time evolution of a Dirac system irradiated by light. These results are framed by appealing to the recently revitalized notion of side bands [A. Farrell and T. Pereg-Barnea, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 106403 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.106403; Phys. Rev. B 93, 045121 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.045121], extended to the case of nonperiodic drive where the fast oscillations are modified by an envelope function. We apply this formalism to the case of photocurrent generated by a second probe pulse. We find that, under the application of circularly polarized light, a Dirac point only ever splits into two copies of side bands. Meanwhile, the application of linearly polarized light leaves the Dirac point intact while producing side bands. In both cases the population of the side bands are time dependent through their nonlinear dependence on the envelope of the pump pulse. Our immediate interest in this work is in connection to time- and angle-resolved photoemission experiments, where we find excellent qualitative agreement between our results and those in the literature [Wang et al., Science 342, 453 (2013), 10.1126/science.1239834]. However, our results are general and may prove useful beyond this particular application and should be relevant to other pump-probe experiments.

  9. Predicting bed form roughness: the influence of lee side angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Winter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Flow transverse bedforms (ripples and dunes) are ubiquitous in rivers and coastal seas. Local hydrodynamics and transport conditions depend on the size and geometry of these bedforms, as they constitute roughness elements at the bed. Bedform influence on flow energy must be considered for the understanding of flow dynamics, and in the development and application of numerical models. Common estimations or predictors of form roughness (friction factors) are based mostly on data of steep bedforms (with angle-of-repose lee slopes), and described by highly simplified bedform dimensions (heights and lengths). However, natural bedforms often are not steep, and differ in form and hydraulic effect relative to idealised bedforms. Based on systematic numerical model experiments, this study shows how the hydraulic effect of bedforms depends on the flow structure behind bedforms, which is determined by the bedform lee side angle, aspect ratio and relative height. Simulations reveal that flow separation behind bedform crests and, thus, a hydraulic effect is induced at lee side angles steeper than 11 to 18° depending on relative height, and that a fully developed flow separation zone exists only over bedforms with a lee side angle steeper than 24°. Furthermore, the hydraulic effect of bedforms with varying lee side angle is evaluated and a reduction function to common friction factors is proposed. A function is also developed for the Nikuradse roughness (k s), and a new equation is proposed which directly relates k s to bedform relative height, aspect ratio and lee side angle.

  10. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  11. Source Coding When the Side Information May Be Delayed

    CERN Document Server

    Simeone, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    For memoryless sources, delayed side information at the decoder does not improve the rate-distortion function. However, this is not the case for more general sources with memory, as demonstrated by a number of works focusing on the special case of (delayed) feedforward. In this paper, a setting is studied in which the encoder is potentially uncertain about the delay with which measurements of the side information are acquired at the decoder. Assuming a hidden Markov model for the sources, at first, a single-letter characterization is given for the set-up where the side information delay is arbitrary and known at the encoder, and the reconstruction at the destination is required to be (near) lossless. Then, with delay equal to zero or one source symbol, a single-letter characterization is given of the rate-distortion region for the case where side information may be delayed or not, unbeknownst to the encoder. The characterization is further extended to allow for additional information to be sent when the side ...

  12. Novel high torque bearingless two-sided rotary ultrasonic motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; CHEN Wei-shan; XIE Tao; LIU Jun-kao

    2007-01-01

    Applications are limited at present because the currently available ultrasonic motors (USMs) do not provide sufficiently high torque and power. The conventional travelling-wave USM needs the bearing to support, which required lubricant. To solve the above problem, a bearingless travelling-wave USM is designed. First, a novel structure of the two-sided USM consisting ora two-sided teeth stator and two disk-type rotors is designed. And the excitation principle of the two-sided travelling-wave USM is analyzed. Then, using ANSYS software, we set up the model of the stator to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the stator. The shape of the vibration mode was obtained. Last, the load characteristics of the USM are measured using experimental method. The maximum stall torque and the no-load speed were obtained. The results showed that the characteristics of the two-sided USM are better than those of the conventional one-sided USM.

  13. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women.

  14. Neuropsychologic side-effects of tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Markus J; Spartà, Giuseppina; Laube, Guido F; Miozzari, Marco; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Calcineurin inhibition with tacrolimus has been used after renal transplantation (RTPL) as rescue therapy for insufficient immunological control or if cyclosporin A (CSA) toxicity occurred. Neurologic side-effects occur but are rare in children, usually presenting as tremor; however, serious complications, e.g. the posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are also documented. Twenty children (10 girls) were switched to tacrolimus: 11 (55%) for immunological reasons (n = 9: steroid-resistant rejection; n = 2: recurrent rejections) and nine for CSA side-effects. Tacrolimus was started at a median of 8 wk (range 10 d to 8.7 yr) after RTPL and was continued for a median of 2.5 yr (range 5 wk to 4.6 yr). Renal function significantly improved over a period of 12 months following conversion to tacrolimus (glomerular filtration rate 56 +/- 19 vs. 66 +/- 16 mL/min/1.73 m2; p side-effects were neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in three children, ranging from anorexia nervosa-like symptoms with weight loss, amenorrhea, depression and school problems to severe insomnia and to aggressive and anxious behavior in one child. Only the latter child was exposed to toxic tacrolimus blood levels. All side-effects were fully reversible after discontinuation of tacrolimus. In conclusion, tacrolimus had a beneficial effect on renal function and was well tolerated in the majority of pediatric patients. However, neuropsychologic and behavioral side-effects are important and maybe underrecognized in children. PMID:12709079

  15. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. PMID:27001402

  16. Alaska Department of Fish and Game Juneau, Alaska: South Central Moose Population Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study aiming to delineate populations and subpopulations of moose on the west side of the lower Susitna Valley and to assess their seasonal movement patterns

  17. Estimating Population Dynamics without Population Data

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Chambers; Vangelis Tzouvelekas

    2012-01-01

    We develop a biologically correct cost system for production systems facing invasive pests that allows the estimation of population dynamics without a priori knowledge of their true values. We apply that model to a data set for olive producers in Crete and derive from it predictions about the underlying populations dynamics. Those dynamics are compared to information on population dynamics obtained from pest sampling with extremely favorable results.

  18. Individual-motivational factors in the acceptability of demand-side and supply-side measures to reduce carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more than a third of all carbon dioxide emissions in the UK are generated by the domestic sector, individuals need to make drastic changes to their current lifestyle in order to play their part in climate change mitigation. Not only do they need to change their personal behaviour, they also have to accept new low-carbon technologies in order to decarbonise the energy they are using. This study uses an adapted version of the Value–Belief-Norm (VBN) model () to examine individual-motivational factors in the acceptability of demand-side and supply-side strategies to reduce carbon emissions. The study found that environmental identity, climate change concern, and personal norms are all significantly associated with the acceptability of both demand-side measures and supply-side technologies. While personal values were also important, their associations were mediated by more specific factors. Overall, the adapted VBN model was better able to explain the acceptability of low-carbon behaviours than of low-carbon energy-supply technologies. Concern about energy security appeared to be of limited importance. It was negatively associated with the willingness to engage in low-carbon behaviours, suggesting that a shift in focus towards energy security issues may not necessarily help a transition to a low-carbon society. - Highlights: ► An adapted VBN model is proposed to study environmentally significant behaviour.► Environmental identity is important for both demand-side and supply-side measures.► Energy security concern is of limited importance to support for supply-side measures.► Energy security concern reduces the willingness to engage in low-carbon behaviours.

  19. Interstrand side chain--side chain interactions in a designed beta-hairpin: significance of both lateral and diagonal pairings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syud, F A; Stanger, H E; Gellman, S H

    2001-09-12

    The contributions of interstrand side chain-side chain contacts to beta-sheet stability have been examined with an autonomously folding beta-hairpin model system. RYVEV(D)PGOKILQ-NH2 ((D)P = D-proline, O = ornithine) has previously been shown to adopt a beta-hairpin conformation in aqueous solution, with a two-residue loop at D-Pro-Gly. In the present study, side chains that display interstrand NOEs (Tyr-2, Lys-9, and Leu-11) are mutated to alanine or serine, and the conformational impact of the mutations is assessed. In the beta-hairpin conformation Tyr-2 and Leu-11 are directly across from one another (non-hydrogen bonded pair). This "lateral" juxtaposition of two hydrophobic side chains appears to contribute to beta-hairpin conformational stability, which is consistent with results from other beta-sheet model studies and with statistical analyses of interstrand residue contacts in protein crystal structures. Interaction between the side chains of Tyr-2 and Lys-9 also stabilizes the beta-hairpin conformation. Tyr-2/Lys-9 is a "diagonal" interstrand juxtaposition because these residues are not directly across from one another in terms of the hydrogen bonding registry between the strands. This diagonal interaction arises from the right-handed twist that is commonly observed among beta-sheets. Evidence of diagonal side chain-side chain contacts has been observed in other autonomously folding beta-sheet model systems, but we are not aware of other efforts to determine whether a diagonal interaction contributes to beta-sheet stability.

  20. Development, prototyping and characterization of double sided silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, Anita; Singh, Arvind; Aggarwal, Bharti; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Murali Krishna, L. V.; Das, D.

    2016-10-01

    Double sided DC-coupled silicon strip detectors with geometry of 65 mm×65 mm have been developed in India for nuclear physics experiments. The detectors have 64 P+ strips on the front side and 64 N+ strips on the backside with a pitch of 0.9 mm. These detectors were fabricated using a twelve mask layer process involving double sided wafer processing technology. Semiconductor process and device simulations were carried out in order to theoretically estimate the impact of important design and process parameters on the breakdown voltage of detectors. The performance of the first lot of prototype detectors has been studied using static characterization tests and using an alpha source. The characterization results demonstrate that the detectors have low leakage currents and good uniformity over the detector area of about 40 cm2. Overview of the detector design, fabrication process, simulation results and initial characterization results of the detectors are presented in this paper.

  1. A NUMERICAL STUDY ON SIDE HULL OPTIMIZATION FOR TRIMARAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; ZHANG Shi-lian

    2011-01-01

    Due to the interaction between the main hull and side hulls, different layouts and lengths of side hulls affect the wave loads significantly.Based on three-dimensional potential theory and Green's function, this article gives the significant values for wave loads, including vertical shear forces and vertical bending moments at different locations on the main hull, and transverse bending moments at the junction of the cross structure and main hull.In addition, a parametric optimization of wave loads for different layouts and lengths of side hulls were perfomed.Several speeds and wave headings were also considered.Finally, spectral analysis was conducted to attain load distribution.The conclusions of this study are conducive to the design and optimization of this new type of ship.

  2. Epidermoid cyst radiologically mistaken as a left sided subpulmonic effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameh, Ibrahim Sersar; Gewaeli, NourEldeen Noaman; Hamza, Usama Ali; Awadalla, Mohammed Mounir el-said

    2003-09-01

    A 33-year-old female had a left sided chest pain for the last 3 months. Chest X-ray showed a left basal opacity. Computed tomography chest suggested a left sided subpulmonic effusion (17.5x12.2x13 cm) with thick enhanced walls with marked collapse of the left lower lobe and displacement of the heart and mediastinum to the right side. Trial of thoracocentesis was done and it was positive. Trial of intercostal tube insertion was done with a sense of very thick pleura and the patient developed a vasovagal attack. Accordingly, exploratory thoracotomy was decided. Intraoperative assessment showed a huge anterosuperior mediastinal cyst attached to the pericardium and was successfully resected. The pathological findings were compatible with epidermoid cyst. PMID:17670071

  3. Čerenkov free-electron laser with side walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkal, Yashvir; Kumar, Vinit

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a Čerenkov free-electron laser (CFEL) with metallic side walls, which are used to confine an electromagnetic surface mode supported by a thin dielectric slab placed on top of a conducting surface. This leads to an enhancement in coupling between the optical mode and the co-propagating electron beam, and consequently, performance of the CFEL is improved. We set up coupled Maxwell-Lorentz equations for the system, in analogy with an undulator based conventional FEL, and obtain formulas for the small-signal gain and growth rate. It is shown that small signal gain and growth rate in this configuration are larger compared to the configuration without the side walls. In the nonlinear regime, we solve the coupled Maxwell-Lorentz equations numerically and study the saturation behaviour of the system. It is found that the Čerenkov FEL with side walls saturates quickly, and produces powerful coherent terahertz radiation.

  4. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  7. Human Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  8. Some Current Population Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeuber, Conrad

    Population trends in the 1960's and early 1970's are examined in this 1972 speech in terms of overall national trends, the growth of metropolitan areas, the rural population, geographic shifts, internal migration, the black population, and living arrangements. It is noted that population growth in the 1960's was unevenly distributed within age…

  9. Robotic complete mesocolic excision for right-sided colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozben, Volkan; Baca, Bilgi; Atasoy, Deniz; Bayraktar, Onur; Aghayeva, Afag; Cengiz, Turgut Bora; Erguner, Ilknur; Karahasanoglu, Tayfun; Hamzaoglu, Ismail

    2016-10-01

    Complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation for right-sided colon cancer has been proven to provide superior oncologic outcomes and survival advantage when compared to standard lymphadenectomy [1]. A number of studies comparing conventional laparoscopic versus open CME have shown feasibility and safety of the laparoscopic approach with acceptable oncological profile and postoperative outcomes [2, 3]. The introduction of robotic systems with its technical advantages, including improved vision, better ergonomics and precise dissection, has further revolutionized minimally invasive approach in colorectal surgery. However, there seems to be a relatively slow adoption of robotic approach in the CME technique for right-sided colon cancer. This video demonstrates our detailed operative technique and feasibility for performing right-sided CME robotically. The surgical procedure is performed with a medial-to-lateral approach through four 8-mm robotic and one assistant ports. First, the ileocolic vessels are isolated, clipped and transected near their origins. Cephalad dissection continues along the ventral aspect of the superior mesenteric vein. Staying in the embryological planes between the mesocolon and retroperitoneal structures, mesenteric dissection is extended up to the root of the right colic vessels, if present, and the middle colic vessels, which are clipped and divided individually near their origins. After the terminal ileum is transected using an endolinear staple, the colon is mobilized fully from gastrocolic tissue and then from its lateral attachments. The transverse colon is transected under the guidance of near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Creation of an intracorporeal side-to-side ileotransversostomy anastomosis and extraction of the specimen complete the operation. We consider robotic CME to be feasible, safe and oncologically adequate for the treatment of right-sided colon cancer. Its technical advantages may lead to further

  10. Variable-focus side-firing endoscopic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberg, Vladimir G.; Black, Michael

    1996-05-01

    Conventional side-firing fiber technology exhibits performance limitations and utilizes expensive single-use only devices which often require multiple fibers for laser prostatectomy. Another limitation of existing side-firing fiber technology is its inability to focus the beam to create incisions for urologic applications such as laser TURP (transurethral resectional prostatectomy), tumor necrosis, lithotripsy, genital warts, and photodynamic therapy. Newly introduced variable-focus side-firing endoscopic device utilizes either one or two lenses and a mirror, onto a single cylinder of molded glass. The laser beam exits the optical fiber, passes through the lens, strikes the cylindrical mirror, and traverses the cylindrical surface. Depending on the design, the laser beam is reflected at the angles ranging from 30 degrees to 120 degrees out of the cylindrical lens. A second lens can be formed onto the side of the cylindrical surface at the beam's exit point. Another advantage of the innovative side-firing device is its capability to provide versatile matching to multiple laser wavelengths from 360 nm to 2.5 microns, and achieve power densities great enough to perform vaporization, incision and coagulation of tissue. Precise focusing of the laser beam results in reduced tissue necrosis of surrounding the treatment area as well as in decreased laser radiation back-scattering. Surgeons can very the focus by adjusting the distance from the tip to the target area. The variable focus side-firing device provides a focused beam at the range of 1.0 to 1.5 mm, for incision. Outside this range, it produces a defocused beam for coagulation.

  11. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoon Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain.

  12. The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2016-03-16

    Nuclear recoil events produced by neutron scatters form one of the most important classes of background in WIMP direct detection experiments, as they may produce nuclear recoils that look exactly like WIMP interactions. In DarkSide-50, we both actively suppress and measure the rate of neutron-induced background events using our neutron veto, composed of a boron-loaded liquid scintillator detector within a water Cherenkov detector. This paper is devoted to the description of the neutron veto system of DarkSide-50, including the detector structure, the fundamentals of event reconstruction and data analysis, and basic performance parameters.

  13. Light scattering of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Á.; Lörincz, E.; Ramanujam, P.S.;

    2002-01-01

    Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering characteris...... for the domain size in thin liquid crystalline polyester layers being responsible for the dominant light scattering. The characteristic domain Sizes obtained from the Fourier transformation of polarization microscopic Pictures confirm these values.......Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering...

  14. Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebger, I; Rutloh, M; Hoffmann, U;

    2002-01-01

    -g) is achieved by a low power density (1 mW/cm(2) and dose of 0.5 mW/cm(2)s). Higher power densities result in a decrease of the maximum dichroism and, finally, the initially induced small anisotropy is erased during continuing light exposure. At a constant high power density of about 700 mW/cm(2......The photoorientation process in a polyester with 4-cyano-4'-alkoxyazobenzene side group and long methylene spacers in the side and the main-chain was studied as a function of irradiation with linearly polarized light of 488 nm under systematic variation of the power density and temperature...

  15. FINANCIAL SIDE ANALYSIS OF LOCAL AUTONOMY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICHIM CRISTINEL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial side of local autonomy expresses the capacity of local communities to have their own revenue and expenditure budget, distinct from that of the state in which revenues can cover expenses incurred to meet their requirements. The analysis of financial autonomy of administrative-territorial units in Romania is an interesting but complex approach given that some factors are actually difficult to predict and quantify.The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of financial side of local autonomy and analyze this in Romania based on indicators established in recent years for measuring the position of administrative-territorial units in relation to central government.

  16. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-26

    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  17. The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agnes, P; Albuquerque, I F M; Alexander, T; Alton, A K; Arisaka, K; Back, H O; Baldin, B; Biery, K; Bonfini, G; Bossa, M; Bottino, B; Brigatti, A; Brodsky, J; Budano, F; Bussino, S; Cadeddu, M; Cadonati, L; Cadoni, M; Calaprice, F; Canci, N; Candela, A; Cao, H; Cariello, M; Carlini, M; Catalanotti, S; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; Cocco, A G; Covone, G; Crippa, L; D'Angelo, D; D'Incecco, M; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; De Deo, M; De Vincenzi, M; Derbin, A; Devoto, A; Di Eusanio, F; Di Pietro, G; Edkins, E; Empl, A; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Fomenko, K; Foster, G; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Giganti, C; Goretti, A M; Granato, F; Grandi, L; Gromov, M; Guan, M; Guardincerri, Y; Hackett, B R; Herner, K R; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I; Johnson, T; Jollet, C; Keeter, K; Kendziora, C L; Kobychev, V; Koh, G; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kubankin, A; Li, X; Lissia, M; Lombardi, P; Luitz, S; Ma, Y; Machulin, I N; Mandarano, A; Mari, S M; Maricic, J; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Meyers, P D; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Montanari, D; Monte, A; Montuschi, M; Monzani, M E; Mosteiro, P; Mount, B J; Muratova, V N; Musico, P; Napolitano, J; Nelson, A; Odrowski, S; Orsini, M; Ortica, F; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Parmeggiano, S; Pelczar, K; Pelliccia, N; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Pordes, S; Pugachev, D A; Qian, H; Randle, K; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Reinhold, B; Renshaw, A L; Romani, A; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Rountree, S D; Sablone, D; Saggese, P; Saldanha, R; Sands, W; Sangiorgio, S; Savarese, C; Segreto, E; Semenov, D A; Shields, E; Singh, P N; Skorokhvatov, M D; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Stanford, C; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Tatarowicz, J; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Trinchese, P; Unzhakov, E V; Vishneva, A; Vogelaar, B; Wada, M; Walker, S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Watson, A W; Westerdale, S; Wilhelmi, J; Wojcik, M M; Xiang, X; Xu, J; Yang, C; Yoo, J; Zavatarelli, S; Zec, A; Zhong, W; Zhu, C; Zuzel, G

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear recoil events produced by neutron scatters form one of the most important classes of background in WIMP direct detection experiments, as they may produce nuclear recoils that look exactly like WIMP interactions. In DarkSide-50, we both actively suppress and measure the rate of neutron-induced background events using our neutron veto, composed of a boron-loaded liquid scintillator detector within a water Cherenkov detector. This paper is devoted to the description of the neutron veto system of DarkSide-50, including the detector structure, the fundamentals of event reconstruction and data analysis, and basic performance parameters.

  18. Nonchamber, Root-Side, Inert-Gas Purging During Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, William F.; Rybicki, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved apparatus distributes inert gas to protect against oxidation on root side of weld during welding and after welding while joint remains hot. Simple and lightweight; readily moved along weld path in synchronism with torch. Because it concentrates inert gas where needed, consumes gas at relatively low rate, and not necessary to monitor oxygen content of protective atmosphere. Apparatus does not obscure view of root side of weld. Used for full-penetration plasma-arc welding of such reactive metals as aluminum/lithium alloys and titanium.

  19. Integrated resource strategic planning and power demand-side management

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Zhaoguang; Wen, Quan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Resource Strategic Planning and Power Demand-Side Management elaborates two important methods - Integrated Resource Strategic Planning (IRSP) and Demand Side Management (DSM) - in terms of methodology modeling, case studies and lessons learned. This book introduces a prospective and realistic theory of the IRSP method and includes typical best practices of DSM for energy conservation and emission reduction in different countries. It can help energy providers and governmental decision-makers formulate policies and make plans for energy conservation and emission reduction, and can hel

  20. Self-reported side-effects of anti-retroviral treatment among IDUs: a 7-year longitudinal study (APROCO-COPILOTE COHORT ANRS CO-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Villes, Virginie; Raffi, François; Protopopescu, Camelia; Preau, Marie; Salmon, Dominique; Taieb, Audrey; Lang, Jean-Marie; Verdon, Renaud; Chene, Geneviève; Spire, Bruno

    2007-08-01

    The introduction of potent anti-retroviral treatment (ART) has transformed HIV disease into a chronic condition with the prospect, for the patient, of strict adherence to effective but life-long treatments. Within this framework, a major issue that can negatively affect adherence is the side-effects of the treatment. To date, studies documenting how individuals HIV-infected through drug injection (IDUs) experience ART-related side effects are sparse. Longitudinal data collected from the APROCO-COPILOTE cohort have been used to compare the experience of ART-related side-effects who have been HIV-infected via injecting drug use and non-IDU patients. A 20-item list was used to collect self-reported side-effects over a 7-year follow up period. Of 922 patients, 15% were IDUs. At any given visit, IDUs reported a significantly higher number of side-effects and had approximately twice the risk of reporting any side effect than non-IDUs. Most commonly reported side-effects were dry skin, fatigue, vomiting, bone troubles, insomnia. After adjustment for social conditions, depressive symptoms, use of sleeping pills and time since HIV diagnosis, IDUs reported experiencing significantly more side-effects than non-IDUs. Whether or not this is related to sensitivity to pain or to other comorbidities is difficult to establish. Further research is needed to understand how substitution treatment can mediate the relationship between exposure to opioids and side-effects. Providing appropriate care to reduce side-effects, thereby increasing adherence to ART in this population, remains a major challenge especially in those countries scaling up ART. Incorporating symptom management and improving access to analgesic medications within a model of comprehensive care for HIV-infected IDUs, could reduce the impact of drug-related and HIV-related harms and induce better long-term treatment outcomes and quality of life. PMID:17689377