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Sample records for cd44 expression positively

  1. CD44-positive cancer stem cells expressing cellular prion protein contribute to metastatic capacity in colorectal cancer.

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    Du, Lei; Rao, Guanhua; Wang, Hongyi; Li, Baowei; Tian, Weili; Cui, Jiantao; He, Leya; Laffin, Brian; Tian, Xiuyun; Hao, Chunyi; Liu, Hongmin; Sun, Xin; Zhu, Yushan; Tang, Dean G; Mehrpour, Maryam; Lu, Youyong; Chen, Quan

    2013-04-15

    Cancer stem cells are implicated in tumor progression, metastasis, and recurrence, although the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the expression of cellular prion protein (PrPc, PRNP) is positively correlated with an increased risk of metastasis in colorectal cancer. PrPc defines a subpopulation of CD44-positive cancer stem cells that contributes to metastatic capacity. PrPc(+)CD44(+) colorectal cancer stem cells displayed high liver metastatic capability, unlike PrPc(-)CD44(+) stem cells, that was inhibited by RNAi-mediated attenuation of PrPc. Notably, administration of PrPc monoclonal antibodies significantly inhibited tumorigenicity and metastasis of colorectal cancer stem cells in mouse models of orthotopic metastasis. PrPc promoted epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the ERK2 (MAPK1) pathway, thereby conferring high metastatic capacity. Our findings reveal the function of PrPc in regulating EMT in cancer stem cells, and they identify PrPc as candidate therapeutic target in metastatic colorectal cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  2. CD44 Expression and Soluble CD44 as a Potential Marker of Tumor Load in Pediatric Acute Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharkawy, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    CD44 standard transcript (CD44s) is known to be widely expressed on ANLL and in a high percentage of ALL where it is reported to correlate with tumor burden. Different isoforms have been reported to be expressed on ANLL and/or ALL with various impact on prognosis. In the present study the expression of CD44s and its variant isoforms CD44v4, v6 and v7/8 were analyzed in 76 newly diagnosed children with acute leukemia and correlated with immuno phenotyping, TLC and tumor burden. Patients and Methods: The cases comprised 62 ALL and 14 ANLL cases, ALL cases included 42 males and 20 females with an age range of I to 17 years, a mean of 3.6 years and a median of 4 years. ANLL cases included 4 males and 10 females with an age range of 2 to 16 years, a mean of 9 years and a median of 9.5 years. CD44s was detected on all ANLL and 98.3% (61/62) of ALL cases tested. CD44v4 was encountered, probably for the first time, in 7/52 ALL and 1/14 ANLL; no other variants were encountered. Serum CD44 (sCD44) level was elevated in 25/35 ALL and in 11/14 ANLL with no correlation to CD44s expression. CD44 variant isoform expression could be used as a marker for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) in positive cases. Serum CD44s levels can also be used as a tumor marker for follow up of patients and monitoring of therapy in ALL and ANLL cases independent of CD44 expression

  3. Expression and Function of CD44 in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma.

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    Sacks, Joelle D; Barbolina, Maria V

    2015-11-11

    CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein, has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in women. Here, we review recent reports on the expression and function of CD44 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Further functional data for CD44 in peritoneal adhesion and metastatic progression and its association with stem cells is highlighted. Recent studies utilizing CD44 for therapeutic targeting are also discussed.

  4. Expression of CD44v6 and Its Association with Prognosis in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinomas

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    Dang-xia Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate CD44v6 protein expression and its prognostic value of CD44v6 in ovarian carcinoma. The expression of CD44v6 was analyzed in 62 patients with ovarian carcinoma by immunohistochemical method. The data obtained were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The present study clearly demonstrates that tumor tissues from 41 (66.1% patients showed positive expression with CD44v6. The expression of CD44v6 was significantly correlated with histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade of ovarian carcinomas. Concerning the prognosis, the survival period of patients with CD44v6 positive was shorter than that of patients with CD44v6 negative (36.6% versus 66.7%, 5-year survival, P<0.05. Univariate analysis showed that CD44v6 expression, histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade were associated with 5-year survival, and CD44v6 expression was associated with histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade and 5-year survival. In multivariate analysis, using the COX-regression model, CD44v6 expression was important prognostic factor. In conclusion, these results suggest that CD44v6 may be related to histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade of ovarian carcinomas, and CD44v6 may be an important molecular marker for poor prognosis in ovarian carcinomas.

  5. Expression of CD44 variants in human inflammatory synovitis

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    Hale, L.P. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Haynes, B.F.; McCachren, S. [Duke Univ. Arthritis Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The cell surface hyaluronate receptor CD44 has previously been shown to have immunomodulatory activity and to be upregulated in inflammatory synovitis. Since these findings were reported, the genomic structure of CD44 has been delineated, and multiple splice variants have been described. Therefore, we determined which CD44 variant exons are present during inflammatory synovitis by a combination of Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of synovial RNA. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the sites of expression of individual v6 and v9 exons in synovial tissue. The standard (S) or hematopoietic isoform, CD44S, was the predominant form of CD44 expressed in synovium and was expressed by most cell types. Other isoforms, containing alternatively spliced exons in the proximal extracellular domain, were found by RT-PCR, but at lower levels than CD44S. The second most prevalent form was CD44E, which has an insertion of three exons (v8-v10) in the proximal extracellular domain. Immunohistochemical studies showed that reactivity with v9-specific antibodies was primarily in macrophages, particularly those in the synovial lining layer. CD44 exon v6, previously reported to be important in immune activation and in epithelial tumor metastasis, was also expressed in synovial lining cells and in occasional synovial interstitial cells. The presence of CD44 variants containing v9 in rheumatoid synovial macrophages may be important in the adhesion and activation of mononuclear phagocytes in the synovium and, thus, may be a target for novel antiinflammatory therapies in the future. The role of CD44 isoforms in cellular adhesion, immune activation, and joint erosion in inflammatory synovitis deserves further study. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 56 refs.

  6. CD44v6 expression is related to mesenchymal phenotype and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

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    Saito, Seiya; Okabe, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Masayuki; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Baba, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Youhei; Kurashige, Junji; Miyamoto, Yuji; Baba, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) is a cancer stem cell marker in many tumors, and is one of the CD44 isoforms.CD44v6 has been reported to correlate with tumor progression and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. However, the relevance of CD44s and CD44v6 to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the clinical importance of CD44s and CD44v6 and their relevance to EMT in 113 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer treated by curative resection. The relevance of CD44v6 knockdown to the phenotype of colon cancer cells was examined using small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for CD44v6 in vitro. CD44v6 expression showed a significant inverse correlation with E-cadherin expression (P=0.0007) and a positive correlation with vimentin expression (P=0.0096). A multivariate analysis showed that high CD44v6 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival (P=0.01, HR=3.05) and overall survival (P=0.025, HR=3.16). The clinical significance and the relevance of CD44s expression to EMT markers was noted to a lesser extent compared to CD44v6 expression. The knockdown of CD44v6 decreased vimentin expression, cell invasion and HGF-induced cell migration, but conferred only a slight effect on E-cadherin expression in colon cancer cells (HCT116 and LoVo). CD44v6 is related to poor outcome of patients with colorectal cancer via upregulation of the mesenchymal phenotype.

  7. CD44 isoforms are heterogeneously expressed in breast cancer and correlate with tumor subtypes and cancer stem cell markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Eleonor; Lövgren, Kristina; Fernö, Mårten; Grabau, Dorthe; Borg, Åke; Hegardt, Cecilia; Honeth, Gabriella; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Saal, Lao H; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia; Ringnér, Markus; Vallon-Christersson, Johan; Jönsson, Göran; Holm, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    The CD44 cell adhesion molecule is aberrantly expressed in many breast tumors and has been implicated in the metastatic process as well as in the putative cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment. We aimed to investigate potential associations between alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 and CSCs as well as to various breast cancer biomarkers and molecular subtypes. We used q-RT-PCR and exon-exon spanning assays to analyze the expression of four alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms as well as the total expression of CD44 in 187 breast tumors and 13 cell lines. ALDH1 protein expression was determined by IHC on TMA. Breast cancer cell lines showed a heterogeneous expression pattern of the CD44 isoforms, which shifted considerably when cells were grown as mammospheres. Tumors characterized as positive for the CD44 + /CD24 - phenotype by immunohistochemistry were associated to all isoforms except the CD44 standard (CD44S) isoform, which lacks all variant exons. Conversely, tumors with strong expression of the CSC marker ALDH1 had elevated expression of CD44S. A high expression of the CD44v2-v10 isoform, which retain all variant exons, was correlated to positive steroid receptor status, low proliferation and luminal A subtype. The CD44v3-v10 isoform showed similar correlations, while high expression of CD44v8-v10 was correlated to positive EGFR, negative/low HER2 status and basal-like subtype. High expression of CD44S was associated with strong HER2 staining and also a subgroup of basal-like tumors. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of CD44 isoform expression data divided tumors into four main clusters, which showed significant correlations to molecular subtypes and differences in 10-year overall survival. We demonstrate that individual CD44 isoforms can be associated to different breast cancer subtypes and clinical markers such as HER2, ER and PgR, which suggests involvement of CD44 splice variants in specific oncogenic signaling pathways. Efforts to link CD44 to

  8. Expression of CD44 splice variants in human primary brain tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaijk, P.; Troost, D.; Morsink, F.; Keehnen, R. M.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D. A.; Pals, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    Expression of CD44, particularly of certain splice variants, has been linked to tumor progression and metastatic potential in a number of different animal and human cancers. Although differential expression of CD44 standard epitopes (CD44s) in human brain tumors has been reported, the expression of

  9. Conditional expression of CD44 isoforms in lymphoma cells: influence on hyaluronate binding and tumor growth

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    Fu, J.

    2002-03-01

    CD44 describes a family of surface proteins consisting of many isoforms due to alternative splice of ten 'variant' exons. Members of this family are involved in various processes including hematopoiesis, lymphocyte activation and homing, limb development, wound healing and tumor progression. Clinically, CD44 has been shown to be a prognostic factor for several human cancers. To answer the question which isoform might be relevant for tumor progression and to gain an insight into the mechanism of its function, I established transfectants of the LB lymphoma cell line in which the expression of four CD44 isoforms, namely CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10, CD44v8-10 and CD44s, was controlled by the Tet-off promoter. In the presence of Doxycycline, the expression was repressed. Removal of Doxycycline switched on expression and the maximal CD44 amount was obtained within two days. The transfectants were characterized regarding their ability to bind to the extracellular matrix component hyaluronate (HA). Overexpression of all four CD44 isoforms conferred the ability to bind HA on LB cells. Other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were bound in an isotype-specific fashion. CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10 and CD44v8-10 showed high binding affinity to chondroitin A, B and C, and low affinity to heparin, heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate. CD44s could not bind to these GAGs. Among these three variants, the binding ability of CD44v3-10 was the strongest. CD44 clustering seemed to play a crucial role for HA binding. Both CD44s and CD44v8-10 formed reduction-sensitive complexes in LB cells. The complexes are homooligomers or heterooligomers composed of different isoforms. Cys286 in CD44 transmember domain was not responsible for the formation of reduction-sensitive oligomer or for the enhanced HA binding in LB cell line. Using a conditional dimerization system the requirement of CD44 oligomerization for HA binding was directly demonstrated. The induction of oligomerization increased HA binding

  10. Conditional expression of CD44 isoforms in lymphoma cells: influence on hyaluronate binding and tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J.

    2002-03-01

    CD44 describes a family of surface proteins consisting of many isoforms due to alternative splice of ten 'variant' exons. Members of this family are involved in various processes including hematopoiesis, lymphocyte activation and homing, limb development, wound healing and tumor progression. Clinically, CD44 has been shown to be a prognostic factor for several human cancers. To answer the question which isoform might be relevant for tumor progression and to gain an insight into the mechanism of its function, I established transfectants of the LB lymphoma cell line in which the expression of four CD44 isoforms, namely CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10, CD44v8-10 and CD44s, was controlled by the Tet-off promoter. In the presence of Doxycycline, the expression was repressed. Removal of Doxycycline switched on expression and the maximal CD44 amount was obtained within two days. The transfectants were characterized regarding their ability to bind to the extracellular matrix component hyaluronate (HA). Overexpression of all four CD44 isoforms conferred the ability to bind HA on LB cells. Other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were bound in an isotype-specific fashion. CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10 and CD44v8-10 showed high binding affinity to chondroitin A, B and C, and low affinity to heparin, heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate. CD44s could not bind to these GAGs. Among these three variants, the binding ability of CD44v3-10 was the strongest. CD44 clustering seemed to play a crucial role for HA binding. Both CD44s and CD44v8-10 formed reduction-sensitive complexes in LB cells. The complexes are homooligomers or heterooligomers composed of different isoforms. Cys286 in CD44 transmember domain was not responsible for the formation of reduction-sensitive oligomer or for the enhanced HA binding in LB cell line. Using a conditional dimerization system the requirement of CD44 oligomerization for HA binding was directly demonstrated. The induction of oligomerization increased HA binding. Finally, I

  11. Characterization of CD44 expressed on alveolar macrophages in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis

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    Katoh, S; Matsubara, Y; Taniguchi, H; Fukushima, K; Mukae, H; Kadota, J; Matsukura, S; Kohno, S

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 may play an important role in neutrophil infiltration in the airways of patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). Furthermore, alveolar macrophages could produce IL-8 subsequent to CD44-hyaluronic acid (HA) interaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of CD44 expressed on alveolar macrophages to the pathogenesis of DPB. We examined the concentration of soluble CD44 (sCD44) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and CD44 expression on macrophages in BALF from patients with DPB before and after low-dose, long-term macrolide therapy. We also assessed the HA-binding ability of alveolar macrophages as a functional analysis of the CD44 molecule. The sCD44 concentration in BALF was significantly lower in patients with DPB than in healthy volunteers. Percentages of alveolar macrophages expressing low CD44 (CD44 low+) and HA-nonbinding alveolar macrophages were higher in patients with DPB compared with healthy volunteers. Furthermore, macrolide therapy normalized CD44 expression and HA-binding ability of macrophages in BALF from DPB patients. Our findings suggest that alveolar macrophage dysfunction could result from abnormalities of CD44 expression in patients with DPB and that these events could contribute to the pathogenesis of DPB. PMID:11737075

  12. Pancreatic cancer cells express CD44 variant 9 and multidrug resistance protein 1 during mitosis.

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    Kiuchi, Shizuka; Ikeshita, Shunji; Miyatake, Yukiko; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers with high metastatic potential and strong chemoresistance. Its intractable natures are attributed to high robustness in tumor cells for their survival. We demonstrate here that pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) with an epithelial phenotype upregulate cell surface expression of CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9), an important cancer stem cell marker, during the mitotic phases of the cell cycle. Of five human CD44(+) PCC lines examined, three cell lines, PCI-24, PCI-43 and PCI-55, expressed E-cadherin and CD44 variants, suggesting that they have an epithelial phenotype. By contrast, PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells expressed vimentin and ZEB1, suggesting that they have a mesenchymal phenotype. PCCs with an epithelial phenotype upregulated cell surface expression of CD44v9 in prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and downregulated CD44v9 expression in late-telophase, cytokinesis and interphase. Sorted CD44v9-negative PCI-55 cells resumed CD44v9 expression when they re-entered the mitotic stage. Interestingly, CD44v9(bright) mitotic cells expressed multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) intracellularly. Upregulated expression of CD44v9 and MDR1 might contribute to the intractable nature of PCCs with high proliferative activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MicroRNA miR-328 regulates zonation morphogenesis by targeting CD44 expression.

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    Chia-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Morphogenesis is crucial to initiate physiological development and tumor invasion. Here we show that a microRNA controls zonation morphogenesis by targeting hyaluronan receptor CD44. We have developed a novel system to study microRNA functions by generating constructs expressing pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs. Using this system, we have demonstrated that expression of miR-328 reduced cell adhesion, aggregation, and migration, and regulated formation of capillary structure. Protein analysis indicated that miR-328 repressed CD44 expression. Activities of luciferase constructs harboring the target site in CD44, but not the one containing mutation, were repressed by miR-328. Zonation morphogenesis appeared in cells transfected by miR-328: miR-328-transfected cells were present on the surface of zonating structures while the control cells stayed in the middle. MiR-328-mediated CD44 actions was validated by anti-CD44 antibody, hyaluronidase, CD44 siRNA, and CD44 expression constructs. In vivo experiments showed that CD44-silencing cells appeared as layers on the surfaces of nodules or zonating structures. Immuno-histochemistry also exhibited CD44-negative cells on the surface layers of normal rat livers and the internal zones of Portal veins. Our results demonstrate that miR-328 targets CD44, which is essential in regulating zonation morphogenesis: silencing of CD44 expression is essential in sealing the zonation structures to facilitate their extension and to inhibit complex expansion.

  14. Expression of Bmi-1, P16, and CD44v6 in Uterine Cervical Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Mei-ying; Li, Lin; Feng, Shu-ying; Hong, Shun-jia

    2012-01-01

    Bmi-1, a putative proto-oncogene, is a core member of the polycomb gene family, which is expressed in many human tumors. The p16 protein negatively regulated cell proliferation, whereas CD44v6 is associated with proliferation as an important protein. Additionally, CD44v6 is an important nuclear antigen closely correlated to tumor metastasis. The present study aims to investigate the expression and significance of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 in uterine cervical carcinoma (UCC). A total of 62 UCC, 30 cervical neoplasic, and 20 normal cervical mucosal tissues were used in the current study. The expression of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 in these tissues was determined using immunohistochemical assay. The relationships among the expression of these indices, the clinicopathologic features of UCC, and the survival rate of UCC patients were also discussed. The correlation between Bmi-1 protein expression and p16 or CD44v6 protein in UCC was analyzed. The expression of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 was significantly high in cervical carcinoma compared with that in the cervical neoplasia and normal colorectal mucosa (P<0.05). The over-expression of Bmi-1 protein in UCC was apparently related to the distant metastasis (P<0.01) and the tumor, nodes and metastasis-classification, i.e. the TNM staging, World Health Organization (P<0.05). Nevertheless, the positive expression of p16 protein in UCC was not significantly associated with the clinicopathologic features (P>0.05). The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the over-expression of Bmi-1 significantly decreased the survival rate of UCC patients (P<0.05). A strong correlation indicated that there was statistical significance between the expression of Bmi-1 and CD44V6 proteins in UCC (r=0.419, P=0.001). The over-expression of Bmi-1 and CD44v6 protein closely correlate to the tumorigenesis, metastasis, and prognosis of UCC. Bmi-1 and CD44v6 may be used to predict the prognosis of cervical carcinoma. Bmi-1 may indirectly regulate the

  15. Expression of CD44 variant proteins in human colorectal cancer is related to tumor progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielenga, V. J.; Heider, K. H.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Adolf, G. R.; van den Berg, F. M.; Ponta, H.; Herrlich, P.; Pals, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    Specific CD44 variant glycoproteins are overexpressed at particular stages of colorectal tumor progression. Some variants of the CD44 glycoprotein without exon v6 sequences appear at the earliest stage of tumorigenesis, i.e., in early adenomas. Expression of variants containing exon v6 sequences is

  16. The Prognostic Significance of CD44V6, CDH11, and β-Catenin Expression in Patients with Osteosarcoma

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    Zhouming Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the expression of and the relationship between CD44V6, CDH11, and β-catenin. The expression of these cell adhesion molecules was detected in 90 osteosarcoma and 20 osteochondroma specimens using immunohistochemistry. Associations between these parameters and clinicopathological data were also examined. The expression rates of CD44V6, CDH11, and β-catenin were 25.0% (5/20, 70.0% (14/20, and 20.0% (4/20 in osteochondroma specimens, respectively. Compared to osteochondromas, the proportions of expression of CD44V6 and β-catenin in osteosarcoma specimens increased to 65.6% (59/90 and 60.0% (54/90, respectively. However, the expression rate of CDH11 in osteosarcomas was reduced to 40.0% (36/90. The expression of these markers was significantly associated with metastasis and overall survival (P<0.05. Survival analysis revealed that patients with increased expression of CD44V6 and β-catenin as well as decreased expression of CDH11 were correlated with a shorter survival time. Multivariate analysis indicated that clinical stage, metastasis status, and the expression of CD44V6, CDH11, and β-catenin were found to be associated with overall survival. Further, the expression of β-catenin and that of CD44V6 were positively correlated with each other. Thus, our results indicated abnormal expression of CD44V6, CDH11, and β-catenin in osteosarcomas and osteochondromas, which may provide important indicators for further research.

  17. Prognostic significance of CD44s expression in resected non-small cell lung cancer

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    Ko Yoon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD44s is a cell adhesion molecule known to mediate cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix, a prerequisite for tumor cell migration. CD44s plays an important role in invasion and metastasis of various cancers. In the present study, we sought to determine whether CD44s is involved in clinical outcomes of patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Using immunohistochemical staining, we investigated CD44s protein expression using tissue array specimens from 159 patients with resected NSCLC (adenocarcinoma (AC; n = 82 and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n = 77. Additionally, the immunoreactivity of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 was also studied. The clinicopathological implications of these molecules were analyzed statistically. Results High CD44s expression was detected more frequently in NSCLC patients with SCC (66/72; 91.7% than in those with AC histology (P 0.001. Additionally, high CD44s expression was significant correlated with more advanced regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021. In multivariate analysis of survival in NSCLC patients with AC histology, significant predictors were lymph node metastasis status (P P = 0.046, and high CD44s expression (P = 0.014. For NSCLC patients with SCC histology, the significant predictor was a more advanced tumor stage (P = 0.015. No significant association was found between CD44s and clinical outcome (P = 0.311. Conclusions High CD44s expression was a negative prognostic marker with significance in patients with resected NSCLC, particularly those with AC histology, and was independent of tumor stage.

  18. The Expression and Regulation of the Cell Adhesion Molecule CD44 in Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ge, Lisheng

    1997-01-01

    ... alternative splicing signals of CD44 variant exons as control elements in CEPT. In our colon cancer metastasis to liver model, we developed dual modulation vectors to increase tissue-specific expression of cytosine deaminase (CD...

  19. miR-199a-3p targets CD44 and reduces proliferation of CD44 positive hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

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    Henry, Jon C. [Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH (United States); Park, Jong-Kook; Jiang, Jinmai; Kim, Ji Hye [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Nagorney, David M.; Roberts, Lewis R. [Divisions of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Banerjee, Soma [Center for Liver Research, School of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata (India); Schmittgen, Thomas D., E-mail: Schmittgen.2@osu.edu [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} miR-199a-3p targets CD44 in HCC. {yields} Proliferation and invasion are reduced by miR-199a-3p in CD44+ HCC. {yields} miR-199a-3p is reduced and CD44 protein is increased in HCC tissues. {yields} The duplex form of miR-199a-3p mimetic is required for activity. -- Abstract: Previous work by us and others reported decreased expression of miR-199a-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues compared to adjacent benign tissue. We report here a significant reduction of miR-199a-3p expression in 7 HCC cell lines. To determine if miR-199a-3p has a tumor suppressive role, pre-miR-199a-3p oligonucleotides were transfected into the HCC cell lines. Pre-miR-199a-3p oligonucleotide reduced cell proliferation by approximately 60% compared to control oligonucleotide in only two cell lines (SNU449 and SNU423); the proliferation of the other 5 treated cell lines was similar to control oligonucleotide. A pre-miR-199a-3p oligonucleotide formulated with chemical modifications to enhance stability while preserving processing, reduced cell proliferation in SNU449 and SNU423 to the same extent as the commercially available pre-miR-199a-3p oligonucleotide. Furthermore, only the duplex miR-199a-3p oligonucleotide, and not the guide strand alone, was effective at reducing cell viability. Since a CD44 variant was essential for c-Met signaling [V. Orian-Rousseau, L. Chen, J.P. Sleeman, P. Herrlich, H. Ponta, CD44 is required for two consecutive steps in HGF/c-Met signaling, Genes Dev. 16 (2002) 3074-3086] and c-Met is a known miR-199a-3p target, we hypothesized that miR-199a-3p may also target CD44. Immunoblotting confirmed that only the two HCC lines that were sensitive to the effects of pre-miR-199a-3p were CD44+. Direct targeting of CD44 by miR-199a-3p was confirmed using luciferase reporter assays and immunoblotting. Transfection of miR-199a-3p into SNU449 cells reduced in vitro invasion and sensitized the cells to doxorubicin; both effects were enhanced

  20. CD44 and SSEA-4 positive cells in an oral cancer cell line HSC-4 possess cancer stem-like cell characteristics.

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    Noto, Zenko; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Koike, Chika; Fathy, Moustafa; Tsuno, Hiroaki; Tomihara, Kei; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Cancer may be derived from cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), which are tumor-initiating cells that have properties similar to those of stem cells. Identification and isolation of CSCs needs to be improved further. CSCs markers were examined in human oral cancer cell lines by flow cytometry. The stem cell properties of subpopulations expressing different markers were assessed further by in vitro sphere formation assays, expression of stemness genes, drug resistance assays, and the ability to form tumors in nude mice. We demonstrated that CSCs could be isolated by the cell surface markers CD44 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4). CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibited cancer stem-like properties, including extensive self-renewal into the bulk of cancer cells. In vivo xenograft experiments indicated that CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibit the highest tumorigenic capacity compared with the remaining subpopulations and parental cells. Double-positive cells for CD44 and SSEA-4 exhibited preferential expression of some stemness genes and were more resistant to the anticancer drugs, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In addition, cells expressing CD44 and SSEA-4 were detected in all tumor specimens analyzed, while coexpression of CD44 and SSEA-4 was not detectable in normal oral mucosa. Our findings suggest that CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibit the characteristics of CSCs in oral squamous cell carcinoma and provide a target for the development of more effective therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients

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    Scimeca, Manuel; Bonanno, Elena; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Baldi, Jacopo; Mauriello, Alessandro; Orlandi, Augusto; Tancredi, Virginia; Gasbarra, Elena; Tarantino, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem cells activity. In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology. PMID:26101529

  2. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Scimeca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem cells activity. In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology.

  3. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Expressing CD44 Are Enriched for Stem Cell-Like Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Fiscus, Ronald R.; Tung, James W.; Tin, Vicky Pui-Chi; Cheng, Lik Cheung; Sihoe, Alan Dart-Loon; Fink, Louis M.; Ma, Yupo; Wong, Maria Pik

    2010-01-01

    Background The cancer stem cell theory hypothesizes that cancers are perpetuated by cancer stem cells (CSC) or tumor initiating cells (TIC) possessing self-renewal and other stem cell-like properties while differentiated non-stem/initiating cells have a finite life span. To investigate whether the hypothesis is applicable to lung cancer, identification of lung CSC and demonstration of these capacities is essential. Methodology/Principal Finding The expression profiles of five stem cell markers (CD34, CD44, CD133, BMI1 and OCT4) were screened by flow cytometry in 10 lung cancer cell lines. CD44 was further investigated by testing for in vitro and in vivo tumorigenecity. Formation of spheroid bodies and in vivo tumor initiation ability were demonstrated in CD44+ cells of 4 cell lines. Serial in vivo tumor transplantability in nude mice was demonstrated using H1299 cell line. The primary xenografts initiated from CD44+ cells consisted of mixed CD44+ and CD44− cells in similar ratio as the parental H1299 cell line, supporting in vivo differentiation. Semi-quantitative Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) showed that both freshly sorted CD44+ and CD44+ cells derived from CD44+-initiated tumors expressed the pluripotency genes OCT4/POU5F1, NANOG, SOX2. These stemness markers were not expressed by CD44− cells. Furthermore, freshly sorted CD44+ cells were more resistant to cisplatin treatment with lower apoptosis levels than CD44− cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of 141 resected non-small cell lung cancers showed tumor cell expression of CD44 in 50.4% of tumors while no CD34, and CD133 expression was observed in tumor cells. CD44 expression was associated with squamous cell carcinoma but unexpectedly, a longer survival was observed in CD44-expressing adenocarcinomas. Conclusion/Significance Overall, our results demonstrated that stem cell-like properties are enriched in CD44-expressing subpopulations of some lung cancer cell lines. Further investigation is required to clarify

  4. Isolation of All CD44 Transcripts in Human Epidermis and Regulation of Their Expression by Various Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Kwesi; Numata, Sanae; Ishii, Norito; Krol, Rafal P; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Hamada, Takahiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Karashima, Tadashi; Ohata, Chika; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Saya, Hideyuki; Haftek, Marek; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    CD44, a cell surface proteoglycan, is involved in many biological events. CD44 transcripts undergo complex alternative splicing, resulting in many functionally distinct isoforms. To date, however, the nature of these isoforms in human epidermis has not been adequately determined. In this study, we isolated all CD44 transcripts from normal human epidermis, and studied how their expressions are regulated. By RT-PCR, we found that a number of different CD44 transcripts were expressed in human epidermis, and we obtained all these transcripts from DNA bands in agarose and acrylamide gels by cloning. Detailed sequence analysis revealed 18 CD44 transcripts, 3 of which were novel. Next, we examined effects of 10 different agents on the expression of CD44 transcripts in cultured human keratinocytes, and found that several agents, particularly epidermal growth factor, hydrogen peroxide, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, retinoic acid, calcium and fetal calf serum differently regulated their expressions in various patterns. Furthermore, normal and malignant keratinocytes were found to produce different CD44 transcripts upon serum stimulation and subsequent starvation, suggesting that specific CD44 isoforms are involved in tumorigenesis via different CD44-mediated biological pathways.

  5. Prognostic Evaluation of Vimentin Expression in Correlation with Ki67 and CD44 in Surgically Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Myoteri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Radical surgical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy is the most effective treatment for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. However, relatively few studies investigate the prognostic significance of biological markers in PDAC. This study aims to look into the expressions of vimentin, Ki67, and CD44 in PDAC surgical specimens and their potential prognostic implications in survival. Method. The study was designed as retrospective, and vimentin, Ki67, and CD44 expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 53 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases. Overall survival was assessed by the Kaplan–Meier method. Results. Patients’ median age was 68 years. The median survival was 18 months. The tumors were T3-4 in 40/53 (75.5%, and metastases in lymph nodes were found in 42 out of 53 (79.2% cases. On multivariate analysis, the size of primary tumor (p<0.001, the surgical resection margin status (p=0.042, and vimentin expression (p=0.011 were independently correlated with overall survival. Conclusions. Long-term survival after resection of PDAC is still about 15%. Vimentin expression is a potential independent adverse prognostic molecular marker and should be included in histopathological reports. Also, CD44 expression correlates with high Ki67, vimentin positivity, and N stage and may represent a potential target of novel therapeutic modalities in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients.

  6. Induction of CD44 variant 9-expressing cancer stem cells might attenuate the efficacy of chemoradioselection and Worsens the prognosis of patients with advanced head and neck cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeichiro Aso

    Full Text Available At our institute, a chemoradioselection strategy has been used to select patients for organ preservation on the basis of response to an initial 30-40 Gy concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT. Patients with a favorable response (i.e., chemoradioselected; CRS have demonstrated better outcomes than those with an unfavorable response (i.e., nonchemoradioselected; N-CRS. Successful targeting of molecules that attenuate the efficacy of chmoradioselection may improve results. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of a novel cancer stem cell (CSC marker, CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9, with cellular refractoriness to chemoradioselection in advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC.Through a medical chart search, 102 patients with advanced HNSCC treated with chemoradioselection from 1997 to 2008 were enrolled. According to our algorithm, 30 patients were CRC following induction CCRT and 72 patients were N-CRS. Using the conventional immunohistochemical technique, biopsy specimens and surgically removed tumor specimens were immunostained with the anti-CD44v9 specific antibodies.The intrinsic expression levels of CD44v9 in the biopsy specimens did not correlate with the chemoradioselection and patient survival. However, in N-CRS patients, the CD44v9-positive group demonstrated significantly (P = 0.008 worse prognosis, than the CD44v9-negative group. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that among four candidate factors (T, N, response to CCRT, and CD44v9, CD44v9 positivity (HR: 3.145, 95% CI: 1.235-8.008, P = 0.0163 was significantly correlated with the poor prognosis, along with advanced N stage (HR: 3.525, 95% CI: 1.054-9.060, P = 0.0228. Furthermore, the survival rate of the CD44v9-induced group was significantly (P = 0.04 worse than the CD44v9-non-induced group.CCRT-induced CD44v9-expressing CSCs appear to be a major hurdle to chemoradioselection. CD44v9-targeting seems to be a promising strategy to enhance the efficacy of

  7. Glycoprotein CD44 expression in normal, hyperplasic and neoplastic endometrium. An immunohistochemical study including correlations with p53, steroid receptor status and proliferative indices (PCNA, MIB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorianakou, N; Ioachim, E; Mitselou, A; Kitsou, E; Zagorianakou, P; Stefanaki, S; Makrydimas, G; Agnantis, N J

    2003-01-01

    We have studied by immunohistochemistry the presence and localization of CD44, estrogen and progesterone receptors, p53 and proliferative associated indices (MIB1, PCNA) in archival endometrial tissue, in order to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value as well as the possible correlations between them. We examined 186 samples of endometrial tissue (100 endometrial carcinomas of endometrioid type, 40 cases of hyperplasia and 46 of normal endometrium). Patient records were examined for FIGO stage, grade, and depth of myometrial invasion, histology, and lympho-vascular space invasion. Strong membranous immunostaining (> 10% of neoplastic cells) was observed in 45% of the carcinomas. A statistically significant correlation was found in the expression of protein in stromal cells, when compared with epithelial cells (p failed to show any statistical correlation with tumor grade or with vessel invasion. The expression of the protein was lower in FIGO Stage II compared with Stage I (p = 0.03). A positive relation of CD44 expression with progesterone receptor status (p = 0.02) was detected. CD44 expression was also positively associated with the proliferation associated with the proliferative index MIB1 (p = 0.001). CD44 is closely related to the secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle and its expression is decreased in hyperplasia (simple or complex with or without atypia) and in cancer cases. These observations suggest that decreased CD44 expression might be functionally involved in the multiple mechanisms of the development and progression of endometrial lesions.

  8. Expression of CD44 on two lines of transplantable melanoma cells--relationship with cytokine secretion and tumor progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Wójcik

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work it was investigated if a spontaneous alteration of the native melanotic transplantable melanoma form into amelanotic form, connected with the tumor progression, is accompanied by changes of CD44 surface glycoprotein expression. We also tried to find out if there exists any correlation between changes in CD44 expression and IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 secretion. Cells of two hamster transplantable melanoma lines: melanotic and amelanotic were used. The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 in supernatants were determined by the ELISA test. For the detection of CD44 expression by flow cytometry, isolated melanoma cells were stained with the rat anti-mouse CD44 monoclonal antibody. The stained cells were also examined using a fluorescence microscope and a confocal microscopy system. The obtained results indicate that a spontaneous alteration of the native melanotic form into amelanotic form and the associated tumor progression was accompanied by a decrease in CD44 glycoprotein expression on the cell surface and a decrease in IL-6, TNF-alpha and especially IL-10 secretion by amelanotic melanoma cells. Our observations suggest a relationship between CD44 expression and locally secreted cytokines in the course of transplantable melanoma progression.

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of CD44s in human neuroblastic tumors: Moroccan experience and highlights on current data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabyaoui, Imane; Tahiri-Jouti, Nadia; Serhier, Zineb; Bennani-Othmani, Mohamed; Sibai, Hicham; Itri, Mohamed; Benchekroun, Said; Zamiati, Soumaya

    2013-02-27

    Peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs), including neuroblastoma (NB), ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB) and ganglioneuroma (GN), are extremely heterogeneous pediatric tumors responsible for 15 % of childhood cancer death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of CD44s ('s': standard form) cell adhesion molecule by comparison with other specific prognostic markers. An immunohistochemical profile of 32 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pNTs tissues, diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2010, was carried out. Our results have demonstrated the association of CD44s negative pNTs cells to lack of differentiation and tumour progression. A significant association between absence of CD44s expression and metastasis in human pNTs has been reported. We also found that expression of CD44s defines subgroups of patients without MYCN amplification as evidenced by its association with low INSS stages, absence of metastasis and favorable Shimada histology. These findings support the thesis of the role of CD44s glycoprotein in the invasive growth potential of neoplastic cells and suggest that its expression could be taken into consideration in the therapeutic approaches targeting metastases. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1034403150888863

  10. Li-Fraumeni syndrome with simultaneous osteosarcoma and liver cancer: Increased expression of a CD44 variant isoform after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Go J; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Osumi, Tomoo; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Hosaka, Seiichi; Morioka, Hideo; Mukai, Makio; Masugi, Yohei; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2012-01-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome that is commonly associated with a germline mutation in the tumor suppressor gene p53. Loss of p53 results in increased expression of CD44, a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, which is involved in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we report a change in the expression of a CD44 variant isoform (CD44v8-10) in an 8-year-old female LFS patient with osteosarcoma and atypical liver cancer after chemotherapy. The patient visited a clinic with a chief complaint of chronic pain in a bruise on her right knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) raised the possibility of a bone malignancy. Biochemical testing also revealed significantly elevated levels of AFP, which strongly suggested the existence of a primary malignancy in the liver. MRI imaging showed the simultaneous development of osteosarcoma and liver cancer, both of which were confirmed upon biopsy. Combined therapy with surgical resection after chemotherapy was successful in this patient. Regardless of the absence of a familial history of hereditary cancer, a germline mutation in p53 was identified (a missense mutation defined as c.722 C>T, p.Ser241Phe). To better understand the cancer progression and response to treatment, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of biopsy specimens obtained before and after chemotherapy was performed using a specific antibody against CD44v8-10. This case demonstrates the ectopic up-regulation of CD44v8-10 in a biopsy sample obtained after cytotoxic chemotherapy, which confers high levels of oxidative stress on cancer cells. Because the alternative splicing of CD44 is tightly regulated epigenetically, it is possible that micro-environmental stress resulting from chemotherapy caused the ectopic induction of CD44v8-10 in vivo

  11. The CD44(high tumorigenic subsets in lung cancer biospecimens are enriched for low miR-34a expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K Basak

    Full Text Available Cellular heterogeneity is an integral part of cancer development and progression. Progression can be associated with emergence of cells that exhibit high phenotypic plasticity (including "de-differentiation" to primitive developmental states, and aggressive behavioral properties (including high tumorigenic potentials. We observed that many biomarkers that are used to identify Cancer Stem Cells (CSC can label cell subsets in an advanced clinical stage of lung cancer (malignant pleural effusions, or MPE. Thus, CSC-biomarkers may be useful for live sorting functionally distinct cell subsets from individual tumors, which may enable investigators to hone in on the molecular basis for functional heterogeneity. We demonstrate that the CD44(hi (CD44-high cancer cell subsets display higher clonal, colony forming potential than CD44(lo cells (n=3 and are also tumorigenic (n=2/2 when transplanted in mouse xenograft model. The CD44(hi subsets express different levels of embryonal (de-differentiation markers or chromatin regulators. In archived lung cancer tissues, ALDH markers co-localize more with CD44 in squamous cell carcinoma (n=5/7 than Adeno Carcinoma (n=1/12. MPE cancer cells and a lung cancer cell line (NCI-H-2122 exhibit chromosomal abnormalities and 1p36 deletion (n=3/3. Since miR-34a maps to the 1p36 deletion site, low miR-34a expression levels were detected in these cells. The colony forming efficiency of CD44(hi cells, characteristic property of CSC, can be inhibited by mir-34a replacement in these samples. In addition the highly tumorigenic CD44(hi cells are enriched for cells in the G2 phase of cell cycle.

  12. Spatial and temporal expression of CD44 isoforms in the developing and growing joints of the rat limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, K J; Reiter, R S; Kurriger, G L; Martin, J A; Maynard, J A; Stevens, J W

    1998-01-01

    Hyaluronan is an integral component of proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrices such as hyaline cartilage. Hyaluronan is commonly found in embryonic tissue and is important in the formation of hydrated matrices that allow cellular expansion and migration. Cell surface hyaluronan-binding proteins such as CD44 are presumed to be important in the cellular interactions with hyaluronan in both of these processes. The primary aim of this study was to document the spatial and temporal expressions of CD44 isoforms during the development and growth of the diarthrodial joints of rat limbs. With use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the CD44s isoform is selectively identified as localized to a single cell layer on opposing sides of the joint at the first appearance of joint cavitation (on the 18th day of gestation). After joint formation in the neonate, the expression of the CD44s isoform in the cells at the joint surface is lost. These findings suggest that the CD44s isoform has a role in the development of the diarthrodial joint, presumably through interaction with hyaluronan.

  13. High Expression of Osteopontin and CD44v6 in Odontogenic Keratocysts

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Ping Wang; Bu-Yuan Liu

    2009-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are more aggressive and more osteolytic lesions than dentigerous cysts (DCs) and radicular cysts (RCs). Osteopontin (OPN) is related to cancer metastasis and bone destruction. Binding of OPN to its cell membrane receptors integrin αv and CD44v6 can enhance tumor cell motility, migration, invasion and spread. This study assessed the possible contribution of OPN, integrin αv and CD44v6 to the local aggressive behavior and osteolytic ability of OKCs. Methods: We...

  14. Expression of a human homing receptor (CD44) in lymphoid malignancies and related stages of lymphoid development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, E.; Meijer, C. J.; Radaskiewicz, T.; van Dongen, J. J.; Pieters, R.; Figdor, C. G.; Hooftman, A.; Pals, S. T.

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocyte adhesion to high endothelial venules, a central step during extravasation into lymphoid tissues, involves an 85 to 95-kD class of lymphocyte surface glycoproteins, which fall in the cluster of CD44 antigens. In this paper we describe the expression of this homing receptor glycoprotein

  15. Stable alterations of CD44 isoform expression in prostate cancer cells decrease invasion and growth and alter ligand binding and chemosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kui; Tang, Yaqiong; Habermehl, Gabriel K; Iczkowski, Kenneth A

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulated CD44 expression characterizes most human cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). PCa loses expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) that is present in benign epithelium, and overexpresses the novel splice variant isoform, CD44v7-10. Using retroviral gene delivery to PC-3M PCa cells, we expressed luciferase-only, enforced CD44s re-expression as a fusion protein with luciferase at its C-terminus or as a protein separate from luciferase, or knocked down CD44v7-10 by RNAi. Invasion, migration, proliferation, soft agar colony formation, adhesion, Docetaxel sensitivity, and xenograft growth assays were carried out. Expression responses of merlin, a CD44 binding partner, and growth-permissive phospho-merlin, were assessed by western blot. Compared to luciferase-only PC-3M cells, all three treatments reduced invasion and migration. Growth and soft agar colony formation were reduced only by re-expression of CD44s as a separate or fusion protein but not CD44v7-10 RNAi. Hyaluronan and osteopontin binding were greatly strengthened by CD44s expression as a separate protein, but not a fusion protein. CD44v7-10 RNAi in PC-3M cells caused marked sensitization to Docetaxel; the two CD44s re-expression approaches caused minimal sensitization. In limited numbers of mouse subcutaneous xenografts, all three alterations produced only nonsignificant trends toward slower growth compared with luciferase-only controls. The expression of CD44s as a separate protein, but not a fusion protein, caused emergence of a strongly-expressed, hypophosphorylated species of phospho-merlin. Stable re-expression of CD44s reduces PCa growth and invasion in vitro, and possibly in vivo, suggesting CD44 alterations have potential as gene therapy. When the C-terminus of CD44s is fused to another protein, most phenotypic effects are lessened, particularly hyaluronan adhesion. Finally, CD44v7-10, although it was not functionally significant for growth, may be a target for chemosensitization

  16. Stimulation of epidermal calcium gradient loss increases the expression of hyaluronan and CD44 in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-E; Jun, J-E; Choi, E-H; Ahn, S-K; Lee, S-H

    2010-08-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a major extracellular matrix component in epidermis, has been found to accumulate in the epidermis after disruption of the epidermal barrier; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this process are not yet clear. Alterations in the epidermal calcium gradient are an important signal for permeability-barrier homeostasis. Thus, we hypothesized that epidermal calcium-ions might regulate HA expression. To investigate whether changes in the epidermal calcium gradient and subsequent induction of cytokines regulate HA, HA synthase (HAS) and HA receptor (CD44) expression in mouse epidermis, and to clarify the mechanisms of HA induction. Sonophoresis of 1.5 mmol/L Ca(2+)-containing gel or Ca(2+)-free gel was performed to manipulate the epidermal Ca(2+) content without disrupting the permeability barrier. We also manipulated the Ca(2+) gradient by tape-stripping with or without 2 h immersion in 1.2 mmol/L Ca(2+)-containing solutions. Next we inhibited cytokine activity using tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or interleukin (IL)-1 inhibitors before sonophoresis. Six hours after each treatment, the expression of HA, HAS and CD44 were analysed using reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemical stains. Sonophoresis of Ca(2+)-free gel significantly increased HA, HAS3 and CD44 expression in epidermis and in tape-stripped skin. However, the inhibition of Ca(2+) decrease in the upper epidermis by sonophoresis of Ca(2+)-containing gel or immersion of barrier-disrupted skin into a Ca(2+)-containing solution attenuated these inductions. Specific inhibitors of TNF-alpha and IL-1 specific inhibitors also abolished the sonophoresis-induced expression of HA, HAS3 and CD44. These results suggest that modulations in epidermal calcium regulate HA and CD44 expression directly or via induction of cytokines.

  17. A hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel enabling CD44-mediated chondrocyte binding and gapmer oligonucleotide release for modulation of gene expression in osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yunpeng; López-Ruiz, Elena; Wengel, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an attractive biomaterial for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment due to inherent functional and compatibility properties as an endogenous knee joint component. In this work, we describe a HA-based hydrogel with the dual functionality of increased CD44-dependent chondrocyte......:3) for identifying designs displaying optimal engagement of OA patient-derived CD44-expressing chondrocytes. Correlation was found between cell binding and CD44 expression, with maximal binding exhibited at a HA/chitosan ratio of 7:3, that was 181% higher than CD44-negative MCF-7 cell control cells. Transfection...

  18. CD44 in hematological neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertweck, Magdalena Katharina; Erdfelder, Felix; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton

    2011-05-01

    The CD44 protein family spans a large group of transmembrane glycoproteins acquired by alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. The great heterogeneity in molecular structure is reflected in its various important functions: CD44 mediates (1) interaction between cell and extracellular matrix, (2) signal submission, e.g., by acting as co-receptor for membrane-spanning receptor tyrosine kinases or by association with intracellular molecules initiating several signaling pathways, and (3) anchor function connecting to the cytoskeleton via the ezrin-radixin-moesin protein family. The expression pattern of the different CD44 isoforms display strong variations dependent on cell type, state of activation, and differentiation stage. In hematopoietic cells, CD44 mediates interaction of progenitor cells and bone marrow stroma during hematopoiesis, regulates maturation, and activation-induced cell death in T cells, influences neutrophil and macrophage migration as well as cytokine production, and participates in lymphocyte extravasation and migration. CD44 is involved in development and progress of hematological neoplasias by enhancement of apoptotic resistance, invasiveness, as well as regulation of bone marrow homing, and mobilization of leukemia-initiating cells into the peripheral blood. Thereby altered CD44 expression functions as marker for worse prognosis in most hematological malignancies. Additionally, CD44 expression levels can be used to distinguish between different hematological neoplasias and subtypes. Concerning new treatment strategies, CD44 displays promising potential either by direct targeting of CD44 expressed on the malignant cells or reversing an acquired resistance to primary treatment mediated through altered CD44 expression. The former can be achieved by antibody or hyaluronan-based immunotherapy.

  19. Novel Hyaluronic Acid Conjugates for Dual Nuclear Imaging and Therapy in CD44-Expressing Tumors in Mice In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ravindra Dhar; Klippstein, Rebecca; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; Hodgins, Naomi; Mei, Kuo-Ching; Sosabowski, Jane; Hider, Robert C.; Abbate, Vincenzo; Gupta, Prem N.; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid, a natural CD44 receptor ligand, has attracted attention in the past years as a macromolecular delivery of anticancer agents to cancer. At the same time, the clinical applications of Gemcitabine (Gem) have been hindered by its short biological half-life, high dose and development of drug resistance. This work reports the synthesis of a hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate for nuclear imaging, and in vivo Gem delivery to CD44-expressing solid tumors in mice. HA was individually conjugated, via amide coupling, to Gem (HA-Gem), 4'-(aminomethyl)fluorescein hydrochloride (HA-4'-AMF) or tris(hydroxypyridinone) amine (HA-THP) for cancer therapy, in vitro tracking or single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging, respectively. Gem conjugation to HA was directly confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and UV-visible spectrometry, or indirectly by a nucleoside transporter inhibition study. Gem conjugation to HA improved its plasma stability, reduced blood hemolysis and resulted in delayed cytotoxicity in vitro. Uptake inhibition studies in colon CT26 and pancreatic PANC-1 cells, by flow cytometry, revealed that uptake of fluorescent HA conjugate is CD44 receptor and macropinocytosis-dependent. Gamma scintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging confirmed the relatively prolonged blood circulation profile and uptake in CT26 (1.5 % ID/gm) and PANC-1 (1 % ID/gm) subcutaneous tumors at 24 h after intravenous injection in mice. Four injections of HA-Gem at ~15 mg/kg, over a 28-day period, resulted in significant delay in CT26 tumor growth and prolonged mice survival compared to the free drug. This study reports for the first time dual nuclear imaging and drug delivery (Gem) of HA conjugates to solid tumors in mice. The conjugates show great potential in targeting, imaging and killing of CD44-over expressing cells in vivo. This work is likely to open new avenues for the application of HA

  20. [Expression and significance of E-cadherin, CD44v6, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Mi-Xia; Wu, Cui-Huan; Yang, Xiu-Ping

    2008-02-01

    E-cadherin (E-cad), CD44v6 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) play important roles in invasion and metastasis of cancers. This study was to investigate the correlations of the expression of E-cad, CD44v6, and PCNA to the invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The expression of E-cad, CD44v6 and PCNA in 86 specimens of NSCLC and 40 specimens of adjacent normal tissues were detected by EnVision immunohistochemistry. The high expression rate of E-cad was significantly lower in NSCLC than in adjacent normal tissues (53.5% vs. 80.0%, Pcad staining in NSCLC tissues was correlated to differentiation, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (Pcad expression (r=-0.554, Pcad, CD44v6, and PCNA were prognostic factors of NSCLC. Multivariate analysis showed that E-cad and TNM stage were independent prognostic indicators (Pcad, CD44v6 and PCNA play important roles in invasion and metastasis of NSCLC. The expression of E-cad, CD44v6 and PCNA may be of prognostic value in patients with NSCLC.

  1. Menstrual endometrial cells from women with endometriosis demonstrate increased adherence to peritoneal cells and increased expression of CD44 splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jason S; Liu, Ya-Guang; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Binkley, Peter A; Holden, Alan E C; Schenken, Robert S

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that adherence of endometrial epithelial (EECs) and stromal cells (ESCs) to peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) is partly regulated by ESC/EEC CD44 interactions with PMC associated hyaluronan. CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein and major ligand for hyaluronan, has numerous splice variants which may impact hyaluronan binding. Here, we assessed whether ESCs and EECs from women with endometriosis demonstrate increased adherence to PMCs and examined CD44 splice variants' potential role in this process. In vitro study. Academic medical center. Fertility patients with and without endometriosis. Menstrual endometrium was collected from women with and without endometriosis confirmed surgically. The adherence of ESC/EECs to PMCs was measured. The ESC/EEC CD44 splice variants were assessed using dot-blot analysis. The ESCs and EECs from women with endometriosis demonstrated increased adherence to PMCs. The predominant CD44 splice variants expressed by ESCs and EECs from women with and without endometriosis were v3, v6, v7, v8, v9, and v10. The ESCs and EECs from women with endometriosis were more likely to express v6, v7, v8, and v9. Increased eutopic endometrial-PMC adherence and CD44 splice variant expression may contribute to the histogenesis of endometriotic lesions. Elucidation of factors controlling this expression may lead to novel endometriosis therapies. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Absent/weak CD44 intensity and positive human papillomavirus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma indicates a very high survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Näsman, Anders; Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Marklund, Linda; Lindquist, David; Dalianis, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus DNA positive (HPV DNA +) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have better clinical outcome than those with HPV DNA negative (HPV DNA −) OSCC upon intensive oncological treatment. All HPV DNA + OSCC patients may not require intensive treatment, however, but before potentially deintensifying treatment, additional predictive markers are needed. Here, we examined HPV, p16 INK4a , and CD44 in OSCC in correlation to clinical outcome. Pretreatment tumors from 290 OSCC patients, the majority not receiving chemotherapy, were analyzed for HPV DNA by Luminex and for p16 INK4a and CD44 by immunohistochemistry. 225/290 (78%) tumors were HPV DNA + and 211/290 (73%) overexpressed p16 INK4a , which correlated to presence of HPV (P < 0.0001). Presence of HPV DNA, absent/weak CD44 intensity staining correlated to favorable 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) by univariate and multivariate analysis, and likewise for p16 INK4a by univariate analysis. Upon stratification for HPV, HPV DNA + OSCC with absent/weak CD44 intensity presented the significantly best 3-year DFS and OS, with >95% 3-year DFS and OS. Furthermore, in HPV DNA + OSCC, p16 INK4a + overexpression correlated to a favorable 3-year OS. In conclusion, patients with HPV DNA + and absent/weak CD44 intensity OSCC presented the best survival and this marker combination could possibly be used for selecting patients for tailored deintensified treatment in prospective clinical trials. Absence of/weak CD44 or presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was shown as a favorable prognostic factors in tonsillar and tongue base cancer. Moreover, patients with the combination of absence of/weak CD44 and presence of HPV DNA presented a very favorable outcome. Therefore, we suggest that this marker combination could potentially be used to single out patients with a high survival that could benefit from a de-escalated oncological treatment

  3. Impact of Expression of CD44, a Cancer Stem Cell Marker, on the Treatment Outcomes of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Patients With Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Atsushi, E-mail: amotegi@east.ncc.go.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Fujii, Satoshi [Pathology Division, Research Center for Innovative Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Zenda, Sadamoto; Arahira, Satoko [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Tahara, Makoto [Division of Head and Neck Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Hayashi, Ryuichi [Division of Head and Neck Surgery, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Akimoto, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the significance of CD44 protein expression on the treatment outcomes of radiation therapy in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) with or without p16 protein expression in the tumor tissue. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of 58 OPSCC patients who had undergone radiation therapy and examined the tumor tissue expressions of CD44 and p16 protein by immunohistochemical staining. The correlations between the expressions of these proteins and the patients' treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: The data of 58 consecutive OPSCC patients who had undergone definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy were analyzed. The male/female ratio was 55:3, and the median age was 64 years. The clinical stage of the disease was stage II in 7 patients, stage III in 5 patients, stage IVA in 35 patients, and stage IVB in 11 patients. Of the patients, 79% received additional induction and/or concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up duration was 34 months. The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS) and locoregional control (LRC) rates of all the patients, regardless of the results of immunohistochemistry, were 73%, 64% and 76%, respectively. The PFS and LRC rates in the CD44{sup −} patients (86% and 93%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the CD44{sup +} patients (57% and 70%, respectively). The PFS and LRC rates in the p16{sup +} patients (83% and 90%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the p16{sup −} patients (45% and 61%, respectively). Patients who were CD44{sup −}/p16{sup +} showed the best LRC rates, and those who were CD44{sup +}/p16{sup −} showed the worst PFS and LRC rates among all the groups. Conclusions: Profiling of CD44 and p16 protein expressions by immunohistochemical staining is useful for predicting the treatment outcomes in patients with OPSCC undergoing definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy.

  4. Downregulation of CD44 reduces doxorubicin resistance of CD44+CD24- breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc PV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pham Van Phuc, Phan Lu Chinh Nhan, Truong Hai Nhung, Nguyen Thanh Tam, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Vuong Gia Tue, Duong Thanh Thuy, Phan Kim NgocLaboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, VietnamBackground: Cells within breast cancer stem cell populations have been confirmed to have a CD44+CD24- phenotype. Strong expression of CD44 plays a critical role in numerous types of human cancers. CD44 is involved in cell differentiation, adhesion, and metastasis of cancer cells.Methods: In this study, we reduced CD44 expression in CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells and investigated their sensitivity to an antitumor drug. The CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells were isolated from breast tumors; CD44 expression was downregulated with siRNAs followed by treatment with different concentrations of the antitumor drug.Results: The proliferation of CD44 downregulated CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells was decreased after drug treatment. We noticed treated cells were more sensitive to doxorubicin, even at low doses, compared with the control groups.Conclusions: It would appear that expression of CD44 is integral among the CD44+CD24- cell population. Reducing the expression level of CD44, combined with doxorubicin treatment, yields promising results for eradicating breast cancer stem cells in vitro. This study opens a new direction in treating breast cancer through gene therapy in conjunction with chemotherapy.Keywords: antitumor drugs, breast cancer stem cells, CD44, CD44+CD24- cells, doxorubicin

  5. Intragraft Tubular Vimentin and CD44 Expression Correlate With Long-Term Renal Allograft Function and Interstitial Fibrosis and Tubular Atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kers, Jesper; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; Rondeau, Eric; Claessen, Nike; Idu, Mirza M.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Bemelman, Fréderike J.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; Florquin, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    Background. Development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is the main histologic feature involved in renal allograft deterioration. The aim of this study was to validate whether de novo tubular expression of CD44 (transmembrane glycoprotein) and vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker),

  6. Delayed wound healing in aged skin rat models after thermal injury is associated with an increased MMP-9, K6 and CD44 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Oriana; Oriana, Simonetti; Lucarini, Guendalina; Guendalina, Lucarini; Cirioni, Oscar; Oscar, Cirioni; Zizzi, Antonio; Antonio, Zizzi; Orlando, Fiorenza; Fiorenza, Orlando; Provinciali, Mauro; Mauro, Provinciali; Di Primio, Roberto; Roberto, Di Primio; Giacometti, Andrea; Andrea, Giacometti; Offidani, Annamaria; Annamaria, Offidani

    2013-06-01

    Age-related differences in wound healing have been documented but little is known about the wound healing mechanism after burns. Our aim was to compare histological features and immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), collagen IV, K6 and CD44 in the burn wound healing process in aged and young rats. Following burns the appearance of the wound bed in aged rats had progressed but slowly, resulting in a delayed healing process compared to the young rats. At 21 days after injury, epithelial K6, MMP-9 and CD44 expression was significantly increased in aged rats with respect to young rats; moreover, in the aged rat group we observed a not fully reconstituted basement membrane. K6, MMP-9 and CD44 expression was significantly increased in wounded skin compared to unwounded skin both in young and aged rats. We hypothesise that delayed burn skin wound healing process in the aged rats may represent an age dependent response to injury where K6, MMP-9 and CD44 play a key role. It is therefore possible to suggest that these factors contribute to the delayed wound healing in aged skin and that modulation could lead to a better and faster recovery of skin damage in elderly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Histopathological evaluation and expression of the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell-like markers CD105 and CD44 in the synovial membrane of patients with primary versus secondary hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdean, Sabin Gligore; Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Fetyko, Annamaria; Roman, Ciprian Oliviu; Turcu, Mihai; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2017-02-01

    To present the morphological changes of classic primary versus rapidly progressive and secondary hip osteoarthritis (HO) and to examine the expression of two pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell-like markers in the synovial membrane. A prospective observational study was conducted in 57 consecutive cases of radiologically confirmed HO in which total hip arthroplasty was performed. Based on the radiological and clinicopathological features, the cases were divided into three categories: classic primary HO (group A; n=16), rapidly destructive HO (group B; n=24), and HO secondary to avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head (group C; n=17). Immunostains were performed using the markers CD44 and CD105. The cases from group A were mainly characterized by a marked perivascular inflammatory infiltrate and simple synovial hyperplasia. In group B, the papillary type of synovial hyperplasia was found and presence of chondromatosis, ossification, and ectopic follicles with germinal centers in the subsynovial layer was characteristic, whereas marked calcification and/or ossification were seen in group C. Focal expression of the CD105 and CD44 was noted in the hyperplastic synovial cells and subsynovial layer in cases from group A, whereas synovial cells from group B were diffusely positive for both CD44 and CD105. In secondary HO, CD44 marked the inflammatory cells. Mobilization of the CD44/CD105 positive synovial cells seems to play a role in the genesis of HO. The number of the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell-like cells derived from the hyperplastic synovial cells might be related to the severity of possible immune-mediated rapidly destructive HO. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  8. Calcium oxalate crystal adherence to hyaluronan-, osteopontin-, and CD44-expressing injured/regenerating tubular epithelial cells in rat kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asselman (Marino); A. Verhulst; M.E. de Broe; C.F. Verkoelen

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRetention of crystals in the kidney is an essential early step in renal stone formation. Studies with renal tubular cells in culture indicate that hyaluronan (HA) and osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual cell surface receptor CD44 play an important role in calcium oxalate

  9. Evaluation of a novel type of imaging probe based on a recombinant bivalent mini-antibody construct for detection of CD44v6-expressing squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haylock, Anna-Karin; Spiegelberg, Diana; Mortensen, Anja C; Selvaraju, Ram K; Nilvebrant, Johan; Eriksson, Olof; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Nestor, Marika V

    2016-02-01

    We have developed the CD44v6-targeting human bivalent antibody fragment AbD19384, an engineered recombinant human bivalent Fab antibody formed via dimerization of dHLX (synthetic double helix loop helix motif) domains, for potential use in antibody-based molecular imaging of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region. This is a unique construct that has, to the best of our knowledge, never been assessed for molecular imaging in vivo before. The objective of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro and in vivo binding properties of radio-iodinated AbD19384, and to assess its utility as a targeting agent for molecular imaging of CD44v6-expressing tumors. Antigen specificity and binding properties were assessed in vitro. In vivo specificity and biodistribution of 125I-AbD19384 were next evaluated in tumor-bearing mice using a dual-tumor setup. Finally, AbD19384 was labeled with 124I, and its imaging properties were assessed by small animal PET/CT in tumor bearing mice, and compared with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG). In vitro studies demonstrated CD44v6-specific binding with slow off-rate for AbD19384. A favorable biodistribution profile was seen in vivo, with tumor-specific uptake. Small animal PET/CT images of 124I-AbD19384 supported the results through clearly visible high CD44v6-expressing tumors and faintly visible low expressing tumors, with superior imaging properties compared to 18F-FDG. Tumor-to-blood ratios increased with time for the conjugate (assessed up to 72 h p.i.), although 48 h p.i. proved best for imaging. Biodistribution and small-animal PET studies demonstrated that the recombinant Fab-dHLX construct AbD19384 is a promising tracer for imaging of CD44v6 antigen expression in vivo, with the future aim to be used for individualized diagnosis and early detection of squamous cell carcinomas in the head and neck region. Furthermore, this proof-of-concept research established the feasibility of using

  10. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Go J.; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 high / c-Myc low and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 low / c-Myc high

  11. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Go J., E-mail: medical21go@yahoo.co.jp; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup high}/ c-Myc {sup low} and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup low}/ c-Myc {sup high}.

  12. Biomarker screening of oral cancer cell lines revealed sub-populations of CD133-, CD44-, CD24- and ALDH1- positive cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC ranks sixth worldwide for cancer-related mortality. For the past several decades the mainstay of treatment for HNSCC has been surgery and external beam radiation, although more recent trials combining chemotherapy and radiation have demonstrated improvements. However, cancer recurrence and treatment failures continue to occur in a significant percentage of patients. Recent advances in tumor biology have led to the discovery that many cancers, including HNSCC, may contain subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like properties that may explain relapse and recurrence. The objective of this study was to screen existing oral cancer cell lines for biomarkers specific for cells with stem cell-like properties. RNA was isolated for RT-PCR screening using primers for specific mRNA of the biomarkers: CD44, CD24, CD133, NANOG, Nestin, ALDH1, and ABCG2 in CAL27, SCC25 and SCC15 cells. This analysis revealed that some oral cancer cell lines (CAL27 and SCC25 may contain small subpopulations of adhesion- and contact-independent cells (AiDC that also express tumor stem cell markers, including CD44, CD133, and CD24. In addition, CAL27 cells also expressed the intracellular tumor stem cell markers, ALDH1 and ABCG2. Isolation and culture of the adhesion- and contact-independent cells from CAL27 and SCC25 populations revealed differential proliferation rates and more robust inhibition by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, as well as the chemotherapeutic agents Cisplatin and Paclitaxel, within the AiDC CAL27 cells. At least one oral cancer cell line (CAL27 contained subpopulations of cells that express specific biomarkers associated with tumor stem cells which were morphologically and phenotypically distinct from other cells within this cell line.

  13. CD44 is involved in mineralization of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Liang; Huang, Yu-Yuan; Lung, Jrhau; Yeh, Ying-Yi; Yuan, Kuo

    2013-03-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with various biological functions. Histologic studies have shown that CD44 is strongly expressed in odontoblasts at the appositional stage of tooth development. We investigated whether CD44 is involved in the mineralization of dental pulp cells. Ten human third molars with incomplete root formation were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry of CD44. Dental pulp cells isolated from another 5 human third molars were assayed for their viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red staining in vitro after silencing stably their expression of CD44 by using the short hairpin RNA technique. The CD44 knockdown cells were cultured on a collagen sponge and transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surfaces of immunocompromised mice. After 6 weeks, the subcutaneous tissues were processed for alizarin red staining and immunohistochemistry of human specific antigen. The dental pulp cells transduced with control short hairpin RNA were used as the control in all assays. CD44 is expressed in odontogenic cells with active mineral deposition during tooth development. Odontoblasts in the root ends of immature teeth express a stronger CD44 signal compared with those in the crown portion. When CD44 expression was stably suppressed in dental pulp cells, their mineralization activities were substantially decreased in both in vitro and in vivo assays. CD44 may play a crucial role in the initial mineralization of tooth-associated structures. However, further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of a new CD44st in increasing the invasion capability of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xin Jian; Jiang, Hua; Zhao, Xv Peng; Jiang, Wei Mei

    2011-01-01

    CD44, a hyaluronan (HA) receptor, is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, angiogenesis, presentation of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors to the corresponding receptors, and docking of proteases at the cell membrane, as well as in signaling for cell survival. The CD44 gene contains 20 exons that are alternatively spliced, giving rise to many CD44 isoforms, perhaps including tumor-specific sequences. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect CD44st mRNA and CD44 protein in sensitive MCF-7, Lovo, K562 and HL-60 cell lines as well as their parental counterparts, respectively. The full length cDNA encoding CD44st was obtained from the total RNA isolated from MCF-7/Adr cells by RT-PCR, and subcloned into the pMD19-T vector. The CD44st gene sequence and open reading frame were confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis and nucleotide sequencing, and then inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1. The pcDNA3.1-CD44st was transfected into MCF-7 cells using Lipofectamine. After transfection, the positive clones were obtained by G418 screening. The changes of the MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes and protein levels were detected by RT-PCR and gelatin zymography, respectively. The number of the cells penetrating through the artificial matrix membrane in each group (MCF-7, MCF-7+HA, MCF-7/neo, MCF-7/neo+HA, MCF-7/CD44st, MCF-7/CD44st+HA and MCF-7/CD44st+Anti-CD44+HA) was counted to compare the change of the invasion capability regulated by the CD44st. Erk and P-Erk were investigated by Western blotting to approach the molecular mechanisms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression regulated by the CD44st. Sensitive MCF-7, Lovo, K562 and HL-60 cells did not contain CD44st mRNA and CD44 protein. In contrast, the multidrug resistance MCF-7/Adr, Lovo/Adr, K562/Adr and HL-60/Adr cells expressed CD44st mRNA and CD44 protein. The CD44st m

  15. ExpressÃo da L-Selectina e do CD44 nas leucemias linfÃides agudas em crianÃas e dolescentes.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Willian Lustosa de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    IntroduÃÃo â AlteraÃÃes na expressÃo ou funÃÃo das molÃculas de adesÃo (MA) nas cÃlulas leucÃmicas podem contribuir para a evoluÃÃo e no comportamento biolÃgico das leucemias agudas. A expressÃo aumentada nas LLAs parece relacionar-se aos mecanismos de disseminaÃÃo extramedular dos linfoblastos, infiltraÃÃo do SNC e formaÃÃo de massas tumorais. Objetivos â Analisar a expressÃo da L-selectina e do CD44 nas LLAs em crianÃas e adolescentes. Avaliar os fatores prognÃsticos (idade, sexo, leucom...

  16. Transfer of Genomics Information to Flow Cytometry: Expression of CD27 and CD44 Discriminates Subtypes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vášková, M.; Mejstříková, E.; Kalina, T.; Martinková, Patrícia; Omelka, M.; Trka, J.; Starý, J.; Hrušák, O.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2005), s. 876-878 ISSN 0887-6924 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : transfer * genomics * information * cytometry * expression * discriminates * subtypesacute * lymphoblastic * leukemia Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 6.612, year: 2005

  17. CD44 variant, but not standard CD44 isoforms, mediate disassembly of endothelial VE-cadherin junction on metastatic melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Fu, Changliang; Bai, Huiyuan; Song, Erqun; Dong, Cheng; Song, Yang

    2014-12-20

    Loss of endothelial adherens junctions is involved in tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that, in the metastatic Lu1205 melanoma cells, expression of the CD44 variant CD44v8-v10 induced junction disassembly and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin phosphorylation at Y658 and Y731. Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated CD44 knockdown or sialic acid cleavage reversed these effects. Moreover, microspheres coated with recombinant CD44v8-v10 promoted endothelial junction disruption. Overexpression of CD44v8-v10 but not of standard CD44 (CD44s) promoted gap formation in the non-metastatic WM35 melanoma cells, whereas CD44 knockdown or neuraminidase treatment dramatically diminished melanoma transendothelial migration. Endothelial cells transfected with the phosphomimetic VE-cadherin mutant Y658E supported transmigration of CD44-silenced Lu1205 cells. Our findings imply that CD44 variant isoform (CD44v) but not CD44s regulates endothelial junction loss, promoting melanoma extravasation. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CD117+CD44+ Stem T Cells Develop in the Thymus and Potently Suppress T-cell Proliferation by Modulating the CTLA-4 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yang; Hu, Zhansheng; Gu, Wen; Liu, Gang; Shi, Bingyin; Liu, Enqi; Liu, Tie

    2017-03-09

    CD117 is expressed on double-negative (DN; CD4 - CD8 - ) cells (Nat Rev Immunol 14:529-545; 2014), but whether it is expressed in other stages and its subsequent functions are unclear. We used an improved method of flow cytometry to analyze different populations of thymocytes (Sci Rep 4:5781; 2014). The expression of CD117 and CTLA-4 were directly assayed in the early stage of thymocytes. Flow cytometry was used to analyze different populations of thymocytes, and T-cell proliferation assays, RT-PCR, and real-time RT-PCR were used to characterize the stem cells and examine the function of CD44 + CD117 + cells. In DN cells, CD117 expression was greatest on CD44 + CD25 + cells (DN 2 ), followed by CD44 + CD25 - (DN 1 ), CD44 - CD25 + (DN 3 ), and CD44 - CD25 - (DN 4 ) cells. In thymocytes, CD117 expression was highest in DN cells, followed by single-positive (SP; CD4 or CD8) and double-positive (DP; CD4 + CD8 + ) cells.  Especially, CD117 expression was positively associated with CD44 and CTLA-4 expression. CTLA-4 expression was highest in DN cells, followed by SP and DP cells. CTLA-4 expression was positively associated with CD25, CD44, and Foxp3 expression. CD44 + CD117 + T cells expressed more CTLA-4, which suppressed T-cell proliferation and blocked CTLA-4 to cause antibody-induced T-cell proliferation. These results suggest that CD44 + CD117 + T cells are stem cells and a specific T-cell phenotype that initially develops in the thymus, but they do not progress through DN 3 and DN 4 stages, lack a DP stage, and potently suppress T-cell proliferation and modulate the CTLA-4 pathway.

  19. Hyaluronan-CD44v3 interaction with Oct4-Sox2-Nanog promotes miR-302 expression leading to self-renewal, clonal formation, and cisplatin resistance in cancer stem cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Lilly Y W; Wong, Gabriel; Earle, Christine; Chen, Liqun

    2012-09-21

    Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly malignant cancer associated with major morbidity and mortality. In this study, we determined that human HNSCC-derived HSC-3 cells contain a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) characterized by high levels of CD44v3 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) expression. These tumor cells also express several stem cell markers (the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) and display the hallmark CSC properties of self-renewal/clonal formation and the ability to generate heterogeneous cell populations. Importantly, hyaluronan (HA) stimulates the CD44v3 (an HA receptor) interaction with Oct4-Sox2-Nanog leading to both a complex formation and the nuclear translocation of three CSC transcription factors. Further analysis reveals that microRNA-302 (miR-302) is controlled by an upstream promoter containing Oct4-Sox2-Nanog-binding sites, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrate that stimulation of miR-302 expression by HA-CD44 is Oct4-Sox2-Nanog-dependent in HNSCC-specific CSCs. This process results in suppression of several epigenetic regulators (AOF1/AOF2 and DNMT1) and the up-regulation of several survival proteins (cIAP-1, cIAP-2, and XIAP) leading to self-renewal, clonal formation, and cisplatin resistance. These CSCs were transfected with a specific anti-miR-302 inhibitor to silence miR-302 expression and block its target functions. Our results demonstrate that the anti-miR-302 inhibitor not only enhances the expression of AOF1/AOF2 and DNMT1 but also abrogates the production of cIAP-1, cIAP-2, and XIAP and HA-CD44v3-mediated cancer stem cell functions. Taken together, these findings strongly support the contention that the HA-induced CD44v3 interaction with Oct4-Sox2-Nanog signaling plays a pivotal role in miR-302 production leading to AOF1/AOF2/DNMT1 down-regulation and survival of protein activation. All of these events are critically important for the acquisition of cancer

  20. PDGF suppresses the sulfation of CD44v and potentiates CD44v-mediated binding of colon carcinoma cells to fibrin under flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina S Alves

    Full Text Available Fibrin(ogen mediates sustained tumor cell adhesion and survival in the pulmonary vasculature, thereby facilitating the metastatic dissemination of tumor cells. CD44 is the major functional fibrin receptor on colon carcinoma cells. Growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, induce post-translational protein modifications, which modulate ligand binding activity. In view of the roles of PDGF, fibrin(ogen and CD44 in cancer metastasis, we aimed to delineate the effect of PDGF on CD44-fibrin recognition. By immunoprecipitating CD44 from PDGF-treated and untreated LS174T colon carcinoma cells, which express primarily CD44v, we demonstrate that PDGF enhances the adhesion of CD44v-coated beads to immobilized fibrin. Enzymatic inhibition studies coupled with flow-based adhesion assays and autoradiography reveal that PDGF augments the binding of CD44v to fibrin by significantly attenuating the extent of CD44 sulfation primarily on chondroitin and dermatan sulfate chains. Surface plasmon resonance assays confirm that PDGF enhances the affinity of CD44v-fibrin binding by markedly reducing its dissociation rate while modestly increasing the association rate. PDGF mildly reduces the affinity of CD44v-hyaluronan binding without affecting selectin-CD44v recognition. The latter is attributed to the fact that CD44v binds to selectins via sialofucosylated O-linked residues independent of heparan, dermatan and chondroitin sulfates. Interestingly, PDGF moderately reduces the sulfation of CD44s and CD44s-fibrin recognition. Collectively, these data offer a novel perspective into the mechanism by which PGDF regulates CD44-dependent binding of metastatic colon carcinoma cells to fibrin(ogen.

  1. Integrin alpha 10, CD44, PTEN, cadherin-11 and lactoferrin expressions are potential biomarkers for selecting patients in need of central nervous system prophylaxis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Siria A; Kuusisto, Milla; Haapasaari, Kirsi-Maria; Sormunen, Raija; Lehtinen, Tuula; Klaavuniemi, Tuula; Eray, Mine; Jantunen, Esa; Soini, Ylermi; Vasala, Kaija; Böhm, Jan; Salokorpi, Niina; Koivunen, Petri; Karihtala, Peeter; Vuoristo, Jussi; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Kuittinen, Outi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Central nervous system (CNS) relapse is a devastating complication that occurs in about 5% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Currently, there are no predictive biological markers. We wanted to study potential biomarkers of CNS tropism that play a role in adhesion, migration and/or in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The expression levels of ITGA10, CD44, PTEN, cadherin-11, CDH12, N-cadherin, P-cadherin, lactoferrin and E-cadherin were studied with IHC and IEM. GEP was performed to see whether found expressional changes are regulated at DNA/RNA level. IHC included 96 samples of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), secondary CNS lymphoma (sCNSL) and systemic DLBCL (sDLBCL). IEM included two PCNSL, one sCNSL, one sDLBCL and one reactive lymph node samples. GEP was performed on two DLBCL samples, one with and one without CNS relapse. CNS disease was associated with enhanced expression of cytoplasmic and membranous ITGA10 and nuclear PTEN (P < 0.0005, P = 0.002, P = 0.024, respectively). sCNSL presented decreased membranous CD44 and nuclear and cytoplasmic cadherin-11 expressions (P = 0.001, P = 0.006, P = 0.048, respectively). In PCNSL lactoferrin expression was upregulated (P < 0.0005). IEM results were mainly supportive of the IHC results. In GEP CD44, cadherin-11, lactoferrin and E-cadherin were under-expressed in CNS disease. Our results are in line with previous studies, where gene expressions in extracellular matrix and adhesion-related pathways are altered in CNS lymphoma. This study gives new information on the DLBCL CNS tropism. If further verified, these markers might become useful in predicting CNS relapses. PMID:28854563

  2. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-11-04

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity.

  3. Thermochemotherapy effect of nanosized As2O3/Fe3O4 complex on experimental mouse tumors and its influence on the expression of CD44v6, VEGF-C and MMP-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongsheng

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thermotherapy and arsenic have been shown to be active against a broad spectrum of cancers. To reduce the limitations of conventional thermotherapy, improve therapeutic anticancer activity, reduce the toxicity of arsenic on normal tissue, and increase tissue-specific delivery, we prepared a nanosized As2O3/Fe3O4 complex (Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in As2O3. We assessed the thermodynamic characteristics of this complex and validated the hyperthermia effect, when combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, on xenograft HeLa cells (human cervical cancer cell line in nude mice. We also measured the effect on the expression of CD44v6, VEGF-C, and MMP-9 which were related to cancer and/or metastasis. Results The nanosized As2O3/Fe3O4 particles were approximately spherical, had good dispersibility as evidenced by TEM, and an average diameter of about 50 nm. With different concentrations of the nanosized As2O3/Fe3O4 complex, the correspondingsuspension of magnetic particles could attain a steady temperature ranging from 42°C to 65°C when placed in AMF for 40 min. Thermochemotherapy with the nanosized As2O3/Fe3O4 complex showed a significant inhibitory effect on the mass (88.21% and volume (91.57% of xenograft cervical tumors (p 2O3/Fe3O4 complex significantly inhibited the expression of CD44v6, VEGF-C, and MMP-9 mRNA (p Conclusion As2O3/Fe3O4 complex combined with MFH had is a promising technique for the minimally invasive elimination of solid tumors and may be have anticancerometastasic effect by inhibiting the expression of CD44v6, VEGF-C, and MMP-9.

  4. Rb suppresses collective invasion, circulation and metastasis of breast cancer cells in CD44-dependent manner.

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    Kui-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Basal-like breast carcinomas (BLCs present with extratumoral lymphovascular invasion, are highly metastatic, presumably through a hematogenous route, have augmented expression of CD44 oncoprotein and relatively low levels of retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor. However, the causal relation among these features is not clear. Here, we show that Rb acts as a key suppressor of multiple stages of metastatic progression. Firstly, Rb suppresses collective cell migration (CCM and CD44-dependent formation of F-actin positive protrusions in vitro and cell-cluster based lymphovascular invasion in vivo. Secondly, Rb inhibits the release of single cancer cells and cell clusters into the hematogenous circulation and subsequent metastatic growth in lungs. Finally, CD44 expression is required for collective motility and all subsequent stages of metastatic progression initiated by loss of Rb function. Altogether, our results suggest that Rb/CD44 pathway is a crucial regulator of CCM and metastatic progression of BLCs and a promising target for anti-BLCs therapy.

  5. Importance of CD44 in the proliferation and mineralization of periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y; Yang, Y; Yuan, K

    2014-12-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that exhibits various biological functions. Histological studies have shown that CD44 is expressed in periodontal ligament (PDL). We investigated the role of CD44 in the in vitro biological functions of PDL cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry were used to examine CD44 protein expression in mouse molars and human PDL cells, respectively. PDL cells isolated from human third molars were assayed for their proliferation and mineralization after stably silencing their expression of CD44 using the small hairpin RNA technique. An osteogenesis-associated quantitative polymerase chain reaction array was used to identify downstream molecules of CD44 signaling in osteogenic medium. The PDL cells, transduced with control small hairpin RNA, were used as controls in all assays. PDLs expressed CD44 in vitro and in vivo. When CD44 expression was stably suppressed in PDL cells, their proliferation and mineralization activities in both media were substantially decreased. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction array and Western blotting verified that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were downregulated after CD44 was knocked down in PDL cells. Exogenous FGF-1 attenuated the proliferative suppression of CD44 knockdown cells. Exogenous BMP-2 rescued the suppressed mineralization of CD44 knockdown cells more than ICAM-1 did. The in vitro assays demonstrated that CD44 is crucial for the proliferation and mineralization of PDL cells and is possibly mediated by BMP-2, FGF-1 and ICAM-1. Further studies are required to verify the mediators and identify the physiological ligands of CD44 for possible application in periodontal regeneration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Regulation of proximal tubular epithelial cell CD44-mediated binding and internalisation of hyaluronan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stuart George; Ito, Takafumi; Phillips, Aled Owain

    2003-09-01

    Increased expression of the connective tissue polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) in the renal corticointerstitium is associated with progressive renal fibrosis. Numerous studies have demonstrated involvement proximal tubular epithelial cells in the fibrotic process and in the current study we have characterised their expression of the HA receptor, CD44, and examined changes in CD44 expression and function in response to either IL-1beta or glucose. Characterisation of CD44 splice variant expression was carried out in primary cultures of human proximal tubular cells (PTC) and HK2 cells. Binding and internalisation HA was examined by addition of exogenous of fluorescein-HA (fl-HA), and expression of CD44 examined by immunoblot analysis and flow cytometry. Alteration in "functional" CD44 was determined by immunoprecipitation of CD44 following stimulation in the presence of fl-HA. PTC, both primary culture and the PTC cell line, HK2, express at least 5 CD44 splice variants, the expression of which are not altered by addition of either IL-1beta or 25mM D-glucose. Addition of either stimulus increased cell surface binding and internalisation of fl-HA and increased expression of functionally active CD44. Increased binding and internalisation of fl-HA, was blocked by anti-CD44 antibody, and by the inhibition of O-glycosylation. The data demonstrate that stimuli inducing PTC HA synthesis also regulate PTC-HA interactions. Furthermore increased HA binding and internalisation is the result of post-translational modification of CD44 by O-glycosylation, rather than by alteration in expression of CD44 at the cell surface, or by alternate use of CD44 splice variants.

  7. A novel Cd8-cis-regulatory element preferentially directs expression in CD44hiCD62L+ CD8+ T cells and in CD8αα+ dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Shinya; Hombauer, Matthias; Hassan, Hammad; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Yasmin, Nighat; Naoe, Yoshinori; Bilic, Ivan; Moser, Mirjam A; Hainberger, Daniela; Mayer, Herbert; Seiser, Christian; Bergthaler, Andreas; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Ellmeier, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    CD8 coreceptor expression is dynamically regulated during thymocyte development and is tightly controlled by the activity of at least 5 different cis-regulatory elements. Despite the detailed characterization of the Cd8 loci, the regulation of the complex expression pattern of CD8 cannot be fully explained by the activity of the known Cd8 enhancers. In this study, we revisited the Cd8ab gene complex with bioinformatics and transgenic reporter gene expression approaches to search for additional Cd8 cis-regulatory elements. This led to the identification of an ECR (ECR-4), which in transgenic reporter gene expression assays, directed expression preferentially in CD44(hi)CD62L(+) CD8(+) T cells, including innate-like CD8(+) T cells. ECR-4, designated as Cd8 enhancer E8VI, was bound by Runx/CBFβ complexes and Bcl11b, indicating that E8VI is part of the cis-regulatory network that recruits transcription factors to the Cd8ab gene complex in CD8(+) T cells. Transgenic reporter expression was maintained in LCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells upon infection, although short-term, in vitro activation led to a down-regulation of E8VI activity. Finally, E8VI directed transgene expression also in CD8αα(+) DCs but not in CD8αα-expressing IELs. Taken together, we have identified a novel Cd8 enhancer that directs expression in CD44(hi)CD62L(+) CD8(+) T cells, including innate-like and antigen-specific effector/memory CD8(+) T cells and in CD8αα(+) DCs, and thus, our data provide further insight into the cis-regulatory networks that control CD8 expression. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  8. Alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms containing exon v10 promote cellular adhesion through the recognition of chondroitin sulfate-modified CD44

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, R K; Droll, A; Dougherty, S T; Carpenito, C; Cooper, D L; Dougherty, G J

    1999-01-01

    Correlations have been noted between the expression of certain alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms and the metastatic propensity of various histologically distinct tumor cell types. The precise mechanism by which particular CD44 isoforms contribute to the metastatic process is, however, unclear. In

  9. Epigenetic regulation of CD44 in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberth, Sonja; Schneider, Björn; Rosenwald, Andreas; Hartmann, Elena M; Romani, Julia; Zaborski, Margarete; Siebert, Reiner; Drexler, Hans G; Quentmeier, Hilmar

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) by promoter CpG island hypermethylation is a hallmark of cancer. To assay its extent in human lymphoma, methylation of 24 TSG was analyzed in lymphoma-derived cell lines as well as in patient samples. We screened for TSG methylation using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) in 40 lymphoma-derived cell lines representing anaplastic large cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), Hodgkin lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as well as in 50 primary lymphoma samples. The methylation status of differentially methylated CD44 was verified by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. Gene expression of CD44 and its reactivation by DNA demethylation was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and on the protein level by flow cytometry. Induction of apoptosis by anti-CD44 antibody was analyzed by annexin-V/PI staining and flow cytometry. On average 8 ± 2.8 of 24 TSG were methylated per lymphoma cell line and 2.4 ± 2 of 24 TSG in primary lymphomas, whereas 0/24 TSG were methylated in tonsils and blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Notably, we identified that CD44 was hypermethylated and transcriptionally silenced in all BL and most FL and DLBCL cell lines, but was usually unmethylated and expressed in MCL cell lines. Concordant results were obtained from primary lymphoma material: CD44 was not methylated in MCL patients (0/11) whereas CD44 was frequently hypermethylated in BL patients (18/29). In cell lines with CD44 hypermethylation, expression was re-inducible at mRNA and protein levels by treatment with the DNA demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, confirming epigenetic regulation of CD44. CD44 ligation assays with a monoclonal anti-CD44 antibody showed that CD44 can mediate apoptosis in CD44 + lymphoma cells. CD44 hypermethylated, CD44 - lymphoma cell lines were consistently

  10. CD44v6 regulates growth of brain tumor stem cells partially through the AKT-mediated pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Jijiwa

    Full Text Available Identification of stem cell-like brain tumor cells (brain tumor stem-like cells; BTSC has gained substantial attention by scientists and physicians. However, the mechanism of tumor initiation and proliferation is still poorly understood. CD44 is a cell surface protein linked to tumorigenesis in various cancers. In particular, one of its variant isoforms, CD44v6, is associated with several cancer types. To date its expression and function in BTSC is yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate the presence and function of the variant form 6 of CD44 (CD44v6 in BTSC of a subset of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. Patients with CD44(high GBM exhibited significantly poorer prognoses. Among various variant forms, CD44v6 was the only isoform that was detected in BTSC and its knockdown inhibited in vitro growth of BTSC from CD44(high GBM but not from CD44(low GBM. In contrast, this siRNA-mediated growth inhibition was not apparent in the matched GBM sample that does not possess stem-like properties. Stimulation with a CD44v6 ligand, osteopontin (OPN, increased expression of phosphorylated AKT in CD44(high GBM, but not in CD44(low GBM. Lastly, in a mouse spontaneous intracranial tumor model, CD44v6 was abundantly expressed by tumor precursors, in contrast to no detectable CD44v6 expression in normal neural precursors. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse CD44v6 or OPN, but not its dominant negative form, resulted in enhanced growth of the mouse tumor stem-like cells in vitro. Collectively, these data indicate that a subset of GBM expresses high CD44 in BTSC, and its growth may depend on CD44v6/AKT pathway.

  11. Chondroitin sulfate addition to CD44H negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffell, Brian; Johnson, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds hyaluronan, an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, in a tightly regulated manner. This regulated interaction has been implicated in inflammation and tumor metastasis. CD44 exists in the standard form, CD44H, or as higher molecular mass isoforms due to alternative splicing. Here, we identify serine 180 in human CD44H as the site of chondroitin sulfate addition and show that lack of chondroitin sulfate addition at this site enhances hyaluronan binding by CD44. A CD44H-immunoglobulin fusion protein expressed in HEK293 cells, and CD44H expressed in murine L fibroblast cells were modified by chondroitin sulfate, as determined by reduced sulfate incorporation after chondroitinase ABC treatment. Mutation of serine 180 or glycine 181 in CD44H reduced chondroitin sulfate addition and increased hyaluronan binding, indicating that serine 180 is the site for chondroitin sulfate addition in CD44H and that this negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

  12. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Nicole F. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maurer, Jochen [Sanford-Burnham, Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sheng, Huiming [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bensussan, Armand [INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, F-75475 Paris (France); Department of Immunology, Dermatology and Oncology, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMRS976 F-75475 Paris (France); Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Laboratory of Autoimmunity, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Braciak, Todd A., E-mail: tbraciak@tpims.org [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-07-13

    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.

  13. CD44 Interacts with HIF-2α to Modulate the Hypoxic Phenotype of Perinecrotic and Perivascular Glioma Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Elinn; Grassi, Elisa S.; Pantazopoulou, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors enhance glioma stemness, and glioma stem cells have an amplified hypoxic response despite residing within a perivascular niche. Still, little is known about differential HIF regulation in stem versus bulk glioma cells. We show that the intracellular domain of stem cell...... marker CD44 (CD44ICD) is released at hypoxia, binds HIF-2α (but not HIF-1α), enhances HIF target gene activation, and is required for hypoxia-induced stemness in glioma. In a glioma mouse model, CD44 was restricted to hypoxic and perivascular tumor regions, and in human glioma, a hypoxia signature...... correlated with CD44. The CD44ICD was sufficient to induce hypoxic signaling at perivascular oxygen tensions, and blocking CD44 cleavage decreased HIF-2α stabilization in CD44-expressing cells. Our data indicate that the stem cell marker CD44 modulates the hypoxic response of glioma cells and that the pseudo-hypoxic...

  14. Concise Review: Emerging Role of CD44 in Cancer Stem Cells: A Promising Biomarker and Therapeutic Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongmin; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Wei, Daoyan

    2015-09-01

    The reception and integration of the plethora of signals a cell receives from its microenvironment determines the cell's fate. CD44 functions as a receptor for hyaluronan and many other extracellular matrix components, as well as a cofactor for growth factors and cytokines, and thus, CD44 is a signaling platform that integrates cellular microenvironmental cues with growth factor and cytokine signals and transduces signals to membrane-associated cytoskeletal proteins or to the nucleus to regulate a variety of gene expression levels related to cell-matrix adhesion, cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Accumulating evidence indicates that CD44, especially CD44v isoforms, are cancer stem cell (CSC) markers and critical players in regulating the properties of CSCs, including self-renewal, tumor initiation, metastasis, and chemoradioresistance. Furthermore, there is ample evidence that CD44, especially CD44v isoforms, are valuable prognostic markers in various types of tumors. Therefore, therapies that target CD44 may destroy the CSC population, and this holds great promise for the cure of life-threatening cancers. However, many challenges remain to determining how best to use CD44 as a biomarker and therapeutic target. Here we summarize the current findings concerning the critical role of CD44/CD44v in the regulation of cancer stemness and the research status of CD44/CD44v as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer. We also discuss the current challenges and future directions that may lead to the best use of CD44/CD44v for clinical applications. Mounting evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are mainly responsible for cancer aggressiveness, drug resistance, and tumor relapse. CD44, especially CD44v isoforms, have been identified as CSC surface markers for isolating and enriching CSCs in different types of cancers. The current findings concerning the critical role of CD44/CD44v in regulation of cancer stemness and the research

  15. CD44 deficiency enhanced Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus dissemination and inflammation response in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Pingping; Chen, Yaosheng; Wei, Zigong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is responsible for peritonitis, septicemia, meningitis, arthritis and several other serious diseases in various species. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD44 is implicated in the process of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, the role of CD44 in the host response to S. zooepidemicus infection was investigated in a mouse model. Upon intraperitoneal infection with S. zooepidemicus, the expression of CD44 on the peritoneal exudate cells from wild-type (WT) mice was increased. CD44 deficiency accelerated mortality, which was accompanied by increased peritoneal bacterial growth and dissemination to distant body sites. CD44 knock-out (KO) mice showed enhanced early inflammatory cell recruitment into the peritoneal fluid on S. zooepidemicus infection. In line with this, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines in peritoneal exudate cells and peritoneal macrophages of CD44 KO mice were increased compared with those of WT mice. In addition, CD44 deficiency was associated with reduced expression of A20, a negative regulator in TLR signaling. Overall, the present study suggests that CD44 plays a protective role in antibacterial defense against S. zooepidemicus in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Shi, Donghong [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhou, Xianguang [National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Jiang; Zeng, Zhiyong; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Jing [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Wang, Jiandong [Department of Pathology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Longjiang [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Teng, Zhaogang, E-mail: tzg@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lu, Guangming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles are synthesized. • The mechanism of CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles is revealed. • This new delivery system increased the drug accumulation in vitro and in vivo. • This new delivery system offers an effective approach to treat multidrug resistance. - Abstract: Multidrug resistance is a major impediment for the successful chemotherapy in breast cancer. CD44 is over-expressed in multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells. CD44 monoclonal antibody exhibits anticancer potential by inhibiting proliferation and regulating P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux activity in multidrug resistant cells. Thereby, CD44 monoclonal antibody in combination with chemotherapeutic drug might be result in enhancing chemosensitivity and overcoming multidrug resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the CD44 monoclonal antibody functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing doxorubicin on human breast resistant cancer MCF-7 cells. The data showed that CD44-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles increased cytotoxicity and enhanced the downregulation of P-glycoprotein in comparison to CD44 antibody. Moreover, CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles provided active target, which promoted more cellular uptake of DOX in the resistant cells and more retention of DOX in tumor tissues than unengineered counterpart. Animal studies of the resistant breast cancer xenografts demonstrated that CD44-engineered drug delivery system remarkably induced apoptosis and inhibited the tumor growth. Our results indicated that the CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system offers an effective approach to overcome multidrug resistance in human breast cancer.

  17. CD44 antibodies and immune thrombocytopenia in the amelioration of murine inflammatory arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Mott

    Full Text Available Antibodies to CD44 have been used to successfully ameliorate murine models of autoimmune disease. The most often studied disease model has been murine inflammatory arthritis, where a clear mechanism for the efficacy of CD44 antibodies has not been established. We have recently shown in a murine passive-model of the autoimmune disease immune thrombocytopenia (ITP that some CD44 antibodies themselves can induce thrombocytopenia in mice, and the CD44 antibody causing the most severe thrombocytopenia (IM7, also is known to be highly effective in ameliorating murine models of arthritis. Recent work in the K/BxN serum-induced model of arthritis demonstrated that antibody-induced thrombocytopenia reduced arthritis, causing us to question whether CD44 antibodies might primarily ameliorate arthritis through their thrombocytopenic effect. We evaluated IM7, IRAWB14.4, 5035-41.1D, KM201, KM114, and KM81, and found that while all could induce thrombocytopenia, the degree of protection against serum-induced arthritis was not closely related to the length or severity of the thrombocytopenia. CD44 antibody treatment was also able to reverse established inflammation, while thrombocytopenia induced by an anti-platelet antibody targeting the GPIIbIIIa platelet antigen, could not mediate this effect. While CD44 antibody-induced thrombocytopenia may contribute to some of its therapeutic effect against the initiation of arthritis, for established disease there are likely other mechanisms contributing to its efficacy. Humans are not known to express CD44 on platelets, and are therefore unlikely to develop thrombocytopenia after CD44 antibody treatment. An understanding of the relationship between arthritis, thrombocytopenia, and CD44 antibody treatment remains critical for continued development of CD44 antibody therapeutics.

  18. A role for CD44 in an antigen-induced murine model of pulmonary eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Kawakita, Kumiko; Tominaga, Akira; Kincade, Paul W.; Matsukura, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies established that IL-5–producing CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in allergic respiratory inflammation. It was also reported that CD4+ T cells express higher levels of CD44 in the airway than in peripheral blood of patients with allergic respiratory diseases. We have used experimental pulmonary eosinophilia induced in mice by Ascaris suum (Asc) extract to investigate the role of CD44 in the development of allergic respiratory inflammation. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-CD44 mAb prevented both lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. Anti-CD44 mAb also blocked antigen-induced elevation of Th2 cytokines as well as chemokines (CCL11, CCL17) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Treatment with anti-CD44 mAb inhibited the increased levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) and leukotriene concentrations in BALF that typically result from antigen challenge. Anti-CD44 mAb also blocked antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. An anti-CD44 mAb (IM7) inhibited the HA-binding ability of splenocytes associated with decreased levels of CD44. Soluble CD44 levels in serum were increased in Asc-challenged IM7–treated mice, but not in KM201-treated mice, compared with Asc-challenged rat IgG–treated mice. Ab’s that block CD44-HA binding reduced allergic respiratory inflammation by preventing lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. Thus, CD44 may be critical for development of allergic respiratory inflammation. PMID:12750406

  19. CD44 splice variants as prognostic markers in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielenga, V. J.; van der Voort, R.; Mulder, J. W.; Kruyt, P. M.; Weidema, W. F.; Oosting, J.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; van Krimpen, C.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Pals, S. T.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Splice variants of CD44 play a causal role in the metastatic spread of pancreatic carcinoma in the rat. In previous studies we have shown that homologues of these CD44 isoforms (CD44v6) are overexpressed during colorectal tumorigenesis in man and that CD44v6 overexpression is associated

  20. CD44v6 down-regulation is an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome of colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Liu, Qin; Lin, Dongliang; Lai, Maode

    2015-01-01

    We aim to investigate the variation of CD44v6 expression in the normal-adenoma-primary carcinoma-liver metastasis sequence and its prognostic impact on colorectal carcinomas. The difference in CD44v6 expression between the tumor center and invasive front was also assessed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD44v6 on two cohorts. The first was tissue microarrays including 402 primary CRCs sampled from the tumor center and the invasive margin. The second was whole-tissue sections, consisting of 217 adenomas, 72 primary carcinomas, and the corresponding metastatic carcinomas. In the first cohort, we found that CD44v6 down-regulation was inclined to lymph node metastasis and perineural invasion, and had an unfavorable prognosis compared with CD44v6 up-regulation. In the second cohort, CD44v6 expression was predominant in adenoma over primary carcinoma and liver metastasis in multiple steps (normal primary carcinoma and liver metastasis). In addition, our analysis showed that CD44v6 expression was decreased at the invasion front of the CRC compared with the center of the tumor. In conclusion, the maximal expression of CD44v6 in adenoma plays a crucial role in colorectal carcinogenesis, while loss of CD44v6 expression on the cell surface of the tumor edge enhances the progression of metastasis. CD44v6 down-regulation is an independent prognostic factor for strikingly worse disease-specific survival.

  1. Evaluation of Stem Cell Markers, CD44/CD24 in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hashemi Arabi

    2014-05-01

    Four breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 ، T47D ، MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB468 were purchased from National cell Bank of Iran based in Iran Pasture Institute and were cultured in high glucose DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS. Cells were stained with antiCD44-PE and antiCD24-FITC antibodies and Status of CD44 and CD24 as markers of breast cancer stem cells were evaluated using flow cytometer and fluorescent microscopy.Evaluation of CD44 and CD24 as markers of breast cancer stem cells showed that MDA-MB231 with 97±1.2% CD44+/CD24-/low cells is significantly different from the others that they were mainly CD44 and CD24 positive cells(p

  2. Cleavage of Hyaluronan and CD44 Adhesion Molecule Regulate Astrocyte Morphology via Rac1 Signalling.

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    Anna Konopka

    Full Text Available Communication of cells with their extracellular environment is crucial to fulfill their function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The literature data provide evidence that such a communication is also important in case of astrocytes. Mechanisms that contribute to the interaction between astrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM proteins are still poorly understood. Hyaluronan is the main component of ECM in the brain, where its major receptor protein CD44 is expressed by a subset of astrocytes. Considering the fact that functions of astrocytes are tightly coupled with changes in their morphology (e.g.: glutamate clearance in the synaptic cleft, migration, astrogliosis, we investigated the influence of hyaluronan cleavage by hyaluronidase, knockdown of CD44 by specific shRNA and CD44 overexpression on astrocyte morphology. Our results show that hyaluronidase treatment, as well as knockdown of CD44, in astrocytes result in a "stellate"-like morphology, whereas overexpression of CD44 causes an increase in cell body size and changes the shape of astrocytes into flattened cells. Moreover, as a dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is supposed to be responsible for morphological changes of cells, and this reorganization is controlled by small GTPases of the Rho family, we hypothesized that GTPase Rac1 acts as a downstream effector for hyaluronan and CD44 in astrocytes. We used FRET-based biosensor and a dominant negative mutant of Rac1 to investigate the involvement of Rac1 activity in hyaluronidase- and CD44-dependent morphological changes of astrocytes. Both, hyaluronidase treatment and knockdown of CD44, enhances Rac1 activity while overexpression of CD44 reduces the activity state in astrocytes. Furthermore, morphological changes were blocked by specific inhibition of Rac1 activity. These findings indicate for the first time that regulation of Rac1 activity is responsible for hyaluronidase and CD44-driven morphological

  3. Cleavage of Hyaluronan and CD44 Adhesion Molecule Regulate Astrocyte Morphology via Rac1 Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Anna; Zeug, Andre; Skupien, Anna; Kaza, Beata; Mueller, Franziska; Chwedorowicz, Agnieszka; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M; Dzwonek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Communication of cells with their extracellular environment is crucial to fulfill their function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The literature data provide evidence that such a communication is also important in case of astrocytes. Mechanisms that contribute to the interaction between astrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are still poorly understood. Hyaluronan is the main component of ECM in the brain, where its major receptor protein CD44 is expressed by a subset of astrocytes. Considering the fact that functions of astrocytes are tightly coupled with changes in their morphology (e.g.: glutamate clearance in the synaptic cleft, migration, astrogliosis), we investigated the influence of hyaluronan cleavage by hyaluronidase, knockdown of CD44 by specific shRNA and CD44 overexpression on astrocyte morphology. Our results show that hyaluronidase treatment, as well as knockdown of CD44, in astrocytes result in a "stellate"-like morphology, whereas overexpression of CD44 causes an increase in cell body size and changes the shape of astrocytes into flattened cells. Moreover, as a dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is supposed to be responsible for morphological changes of cells, and this reorganization is controlled by small GTPases of the Rho family, we hypothesized that GTPase Rac1 acts as a downstream effector for hyaluronan and CD44 in astrocytes. We used FRET-based biosensor and a dominant negative mutant of Rac1 to investigate the involvement of Rac1 activity in hyaluronidase- and CD44-dependent morphological changes of astrocytes. Both, hyaluronidase treatment and knockdown of CD44, enhances Rac1 activity while overexpression of CD44 reduces the activity state in astrocytes. Furthermore, morphological changes were blocked by specific inhibition of Rac1 activity. These findings indicate for the first time that regulation of Rac1 activity is responsible for hyaluronidase and CD44-driven morphological changes of

  4. Lung cancer tumorigenicity and drug resistance are maintained through ALDH(hi)CD44(hi) tumor initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Xiao, Zhijie; Wong, Sunny Kit-Man; Tin, Vicky Pui-Chi; Ho, Ka-Yan; Wang, Junwen; Sham, Mai-Har; Wong, Maria Pik

    2013-10-01

    Limited improvement in long term survival of lung cancer patients has been achieved by conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. To explore the potentials of tumor initiating cells (TIC)-directed therapy, it is essential to identify the cell targets and understand their maintenance mechanisms. We have analyzed the performance of ALDH/CD44 co-expression as TIC markers and treatment targets of lung cancer using well-validated in vitro and in vivo analyses in multiple established and patient-derived lung cancer cells. The ALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset showed the highest enhancement of stem cell phenotypic properties compared to ALDH(hi)CD44(lo), ALDH(lo)CD44(hi), ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) cells and unsorted controls. They showed higher invasion capacities, pluripotency genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors expression, lower intercellular adhesion protein expression and higher G2/M phase cell cycle fraction. In immunosuppressed mice, the ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)xenografts showed the highest tumor induction frequency, serial transplantability, shortest latency, largest volume and highest growth rates. Inhibition of sonic Hedgehog and Notch developmental pathways reduced ALDH+CD44+ compartment. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy resulted in higher AALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset viability and ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) subset apoptosis fraction. ALDH inhibition and CD44 knockdown led to reduced stemness gene expression and sensitization to drug treatment. In accordance, clinical lung cancers containing a higher abundance of ALDH and CD44-coexpressing cells was associated with lower recurrence-free survival. Together, results suggested theALDH(hi)CD44(hi)compartment was the cellular mediator of tumorigenicity and drug resistance. Further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms underlying ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)TIC maintenance would be beneficial for the development of long term lung cancer control.

  5. Differentiation of breast cancer stem cells by knockdown of CD44: promising differentiation therapy

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    Pham Phuc V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs are the source of breast tumors. Compared with other cancer cells, cancer stem cells show high resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Targeting of BCSCs is thus a potentially promising and effective strategy for breast cancer treatment. Differentiation therapy represents one type of cancer stem-cell-targeting therapy, aimed at attacking the stemness of cancer stem cells, thus reducing their chemo- and radioresistance. In a previous study, we showed that down-regulation of CD44 sensitized BCSCs to the anti-tumor agent doxorubicin. This study aimed to determine if CD44 knockdown caused BCSCs to differentiate into breast cancer non-stem cells (non-BCSCs. Methods We isolated a breast cancer cell population (CD44+CD24- cells from primary cultures of malignant breast tumors. These cells were sorted into four sub-populations based on their expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers. CD44 knockdown in the BCSC population was achieved using small hairpin RNA lentivirus particles. The differentiated status of CD44 knock-down BCSCs was evaluated on the basis of changes in CD44+CD24- phenotype, tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice, and gene expression in relation to renewal status, metastasis, and cell cycle in comparison with BCSCs and non-BCSCs. Results Knockdown of CD44 caused BCSCs to differentiate into non-BCSCs with lower tumorigenic potential, and altered the cell cycle and expression profiles of some stem cell-related genes, making them more similar to those seen in non-BCSCs. Conclusions Knockdown of CD44 is an effective strategy for attacking the stemness of BCSCs, resulting in a loss of stemness and an increase in susceptibility to chemotherapy or radiation. The results of this study highlight a potential new strategy for breast cancer treatment through the targeting of BCSCs.

  6. The role of CD44 in the pathophysiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

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    Julia Christine Gutjahr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CD44 interactions with hyaluronan (HA play a key role in various malignancies, supporting tumor cell migration, adhesion, and survival. In contrast to solid tumors, the expression of CD44 standard and variant forms and their functional interplay with hyaluronan is less understood in hematological malignancies. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a highly abundant B cell malignancy with a well coordinated balance between cell cycle-arrest and proliferation of tumor subpopulations. The long-term survival and proliferation of CLL cells requires their dynamic interactions with stromal and immune cells in lymphoid organs. Interactions of HA with CD44 and HA-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM contribute to CLL cell localization, and hence CLL pathophysiology, by shaping homing, interstitial migration, and adhesion of the tumor cells. CD44 can complex with key prognostic factors of CLL, particularly CD38 and CD49d, bridging the gap between prognosis and cellular function. Here, we review the current evidence for the individual and associated contributions of CD44 to CLL pathophysiology, the dynamic functional regulation of CD44 upon CLL cell activation, and possible therapeutic strategies targeting CD44 in CLL.

  7. Podoplanin, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and CD44v6 in recurrent ameloblastoma: their distribution patterns and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siar, Chong Huat; Ishak, Ismadi; Ng, Kok Han

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign but locally infiltrative odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a high risk for recurrence. Podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelium marker, putatively promotes collective cell migration and invasiveness in this neoplasm. However, its role in the recurrent ameloblastoma (RA) remains unclear. As morphological, signaling, and genetic differences may exist between primary and recurrent tumors, clarification of their distribution patterns is of relevance. Podoplanin was examined immunohistochemically in conjunction with E-cadherin, β-catenin, and CD44v6 in 25 RA. Immunostaining according to tumor area, cellular type, and location, and relationship of these proteins were analyzed. Findings were compared with 25 unrelated primary ameloblastomas (UPA). All four proteins were detected in RA and UPA samples. Expression rates for each protein were not significantly different between these two groups. RA demonstrated significant upregulation of podoplanin at the invasive front (P 0.05). Immunolocalization for all four proteins was predominantly membranous and less frequently cytoplasmic. Pre-ameloblast-like cells were podoplanin(+) /CD44v6(-), while stellate reticulum-like cells were podoplanin(-)/CD44v6(+). Acanthomatous, granular cell, and desmoplastic variants in both RA and UPA were podoplanin(-/low) but stained weak-to-moderate for E-cadherin, β-catenin, and CD44v6. Stromal fibroblasts and lymph channels were variably podoplanin-positive. Podoplanin, β-catenin, and CD44v6 upregulation at the tumor invasive fronts in RA and UPA supports a differential regulatory role by these molecules in mediating collective cell migration and local invasiveness. E-cadherin downregulation suggests altered cell adhesion function during tumor progression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. In situ identification of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells in primary human breast carcinomas.

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    Giuseppe Perrone

    Full Text Available Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD24- cells in routine surgical specimens, 56 primary breast carcinoma cases were analysed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the results were compared using flow cytometry analysis to correlate the amount and distribution of the CD44+/CD24- population with clinicopathological features. Using these methods, we showed that the breast carcinoma cells displayed four distinct sub-populations based on the expression pattern of CD44 and CD24. The CD44+/CD24- cells were found in 91% of breast tumours and constituted an average of 6.12% (range, 0.11%-21.23% of the tumour. A strong correlation was found between the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cells in primary tumours and distant metastasis development (p = 0.0001; in addition, there was an inverse significant association with ER and PGR status (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively. No relationship was evident with tumour size (T and regional lymph node (N status, differentiation grade, proliferative index or HER2 status. In a multivariate analysis, the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells was an independent factor related to metastasis development (p = 0.004. Our results indicate that confocal analysis of fluorescence-labelled breast cancer samples obtained at surgery is a reliable method to identify the CD44+/CD24- tumourigenic cell population, allowing for the stratification of breast cancer patients into two groups with substantially different relapse rates on the basis of CD44+/CD24- cell percentage.

  9. In situ identification of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells in primary human breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giuseppe; Gaeta, Laura Maria; Zagami, Mariagiovanna; Nasorri, Francesca; Coppola, Roberto; Borzomati, Domenico; Bartolozzi, Francesco; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele; Cavani, Andrea; Muda, Andrea Onetti

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD24- cells in routine surgical specimens, 56 primary breast carcinoma cases were analysed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the results were compared using flow cytometry analysis to correlate the amount and distribution of the CD44+/CD24- population with clinicopathological features. Using these methods, we showed that the breast carcinoma cells displayed four distinct sub-populations based on the expression pattern of CD44 and CD24. The CD44+/CD24- cells were found in 91% of breast tumours and constituted an average of 6.12% (range, 0.11%-21.23%) of the tumour. A strong correlation was found between the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cells in primary tumours and distant metastasis development (p = 0.0001); in addition, there was an inverse significant association with ER and PGR status (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). No relationship was evident with tumour size (T) and regional lymph node (N) status, differentiation grade, proliferative index or HER2 status. In a multivariate analysis, the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells was an independent factor related to metastasis development (p = 0.004). Our results indicate that confocal analysis of fluorescence-labelled breast cancer samples obtained at surgery is a reliable method to identify the CD44+/CD24- tumourigenic cell population, allowing for the stratification of breast cancer patients into two groups with substantially different relapse rates on the basis of CD44+/CD24- cell percentage.

  10. The interaction between aromatase, metalloproteinase 2,9 and cd44 in breast cancer A interação entre aromatase, metalloproteinase 2, 9 e cd44 no câncer de mama

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    Fábio Bagnoli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study intends to verify the expression levels and correlation of aromatase, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 and CD44 in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC when both are found in the same breast. METHODS: One hundred and ten cases were evaluated by tissue microarray (TMA and immunohistochemically screened with anti-aromatase polyclonal antibodies, anti-MMP-2 monoclonal antibodies, anti-MMP-9 policlonal antibodies and anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: Aromatase was expressed in IDC and DCIS in 63 (57.3% and 60 (67% of the cases respectively; MMP-2 was similarly expressed in IDC and DCIS in 15 (13.60% cases; MMP-9 was positively expressed in IDC and DCIS in 83 (75.50% and 82 (74.50% cases, respectively; CD44 was positively expressed in IDC and DCIS in 49 (44.50% and 48 (42.60% of the cases, respectively; all of them were highly correlated (pOBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo é verificar as expressões e correlações da aromatase, metalloproteinase 2 da matriz (MMP2, metalloproteinase 9 da matriz (MMP-9 e CD44 no carcinoma ductal in situ (CDIS e carcinoma ductal infiltrativo (CDI quando ambos estão presentes simultaneamente na mesma mama. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 110 casos pelo método de tissue microarray (TMA e através da utilização de anticorpos policlonais antiaromatase, anticorpos monoclonais anti-MMP-2, anticorpos policlonais anti-MMP-9 e anticorpos monoclonais anti-CD44. RESULTADOS: A aromatase estava expressa de forma positiva no CDI e CDIS em 63 (57,3% e 60 (67% casos, respectivamente. A expressão de MMP-2 estava expressa de forma positiva em 15 (13,6% casos tanto no CDI, quanto no CDIS. A expressão da MMP-9 estava expressa de forma positiva em 83 (75,5% e 82 (74,5% casos de CDI e CDIS, respectivamente. A expressão de CD44 estava expressa de forma positiva em 49 (44,5% e 48 (42,6% casos de CDI e CDIS, respectivamente. Todos eles

  11. Effects of CD44 Ligation on Signaling and Metabolic Pathways in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    KAUST Repository

    Madhoun, Nour Y.

    2017-04-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a blockage in the differentiation of myeloid cells at different stages. CD44-ligation using anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been shown to reverse the blockage of differentiation and to inhibit the proliferation of blasts in most AML-subtypes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this property have not been fully elucidated. Here, we sought to I) analyze the effects of anti-CD44 mAbs on downstream signaling pathways, including the ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2) and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathways and II) use state-of-the-art Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology to determine the global metabolic changes during differentiation induction of AML cells using anti-CD44 mAbs and other two previously reported differentiation agents. In the first objective (Chapter 4), our studies provide evidence that CD44-ligation with specific mAbs in AML cells induced an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The use of the MEK inhibitor (U0126) significantly inhibited the CD44-induced differentiation of HL60 cells, suggesting that ERK1/2 is critical for the CD44-triggered differentiation in AML. In addition, this was accompanied by a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, which are strongly correlated with the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In the second objective (Chapter 5), 1H NMR experiments demonstrated that considerable changes in the metabolic profiles of HL60 cells were induced in response to each differentiation agent. These most notable metabolites that significantly changed upon CD44 ligation were involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glycolysis such as, succinate, fumarate and lactate. Therefore, we sought to analyze the mechanisms underlying their alterations. Our results revealed that anti-CD44 mAbs treatment induced upregulation in fumarate hydratase (FH) expression and its activity which was accompanied by a

  12. Kaempferol regulates OPN–CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Hong-Bo; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Heng-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies show that osteopontin (OPN) and its receptor cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) are two pro-inflammatory cytokines contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of kaempferol, a naturally occurring flavonoid compound, on atherogenesis and the mechanisms involved. The experiments were performed in aorta and plasma from C57BL/6J control and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE −/− ) mice treated or not with kaempferol (50 or 100 mg/kg, intragastrically) for 4 weeks. Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area, improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and increased the maximal relaxation value concomitantly with decrease in the half-maximum effective concentration, plasma OPN level, aortic OPN expression, and aortic CD44 expression in ApoE −/− mice. In addition, treatment with kaempferol also significantly decreased reactive oxygen species production in mice aorta. The present results suggest that kaempferol regulates OPN–CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE −/− mice. -- Graphical abstract: Kaempferol regulates OPN–CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE −/− mice. Highlights: ► OPN–CD44 pathway plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. ► We examine lesion area, OPN and CD44 changes after kaempferol treatment. ► Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area in ApoE −/− mice. ► Kaempferol treatment decreased aortic OPN and CD44 expressions in ApoE −/− mice. ► Kaempferol regulates OPN–CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis.

  13. Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hong-Bo, E-mail: xhbzhb@yahoo.com [College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Lu, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Zhi-Liang [Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Zhang, Heng-Bo [Furong District Red Cross Hospital, Changsha 410126 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Recent studies show that osteopontin (OPN) and its receptor cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) are two pro-inflammatory cytokines contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of kaempferol, a naturally occurring flavonoid compound, on atherogenesis and the mechanisms involved. The experiments were performed in aorta and plasma from C57BL/6J control and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice treated or not with kaempferol (50 or 100 mg/kg, intragastrically) for 4 weeks. Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area, improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and increased the maximal relaxation value concomitantly with decrease in the half-maximum effective concentration, plasma OPN level, aortic OPN expression, and aortic CD44 expression in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. In addition, treatment with kaempferol also significantly decreased reactive oxygen species production in mice aorta. The present results suggest that kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE{sup -/-} mice. -- Graphical abstract: Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OPN-CD44 pathway plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine lesion area, OPN and CD44 changes after kaempferol treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol treatment decreased aortic OPN and CD44 expressions in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis.

  14. CD44: molecular interactions, signalling and functions in the nervous system.

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    Grzegorz Marek Wilczynski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CD44 is the major surface hyaluronan receptor implicated in intercellular and cell-matrix adhesion, cell migration and signalling. It is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated protein with several isoforms resulting from alternative gene splicing. The CD44 molecule consists of several domains serving different functions: the N-terminal extracellular domain, the stem region, the transmembrane domain and the C-terminal tail. In the nervous system, CD44 expression occurs in both glial and neuronal cells. The role of CD44 in the physiology and pathology of the nervous system is not entirely understood, however, there exists evidence suggesting it might be involved in the axon guidance, cytoplasmic Ca2+ clearance, dendritic arborization, synaptic transmission, epileptogenesis, oligodendrocyte and astrocyte differentiation, post-traumatic brain repair and brain tumour development.

  15. Senescent Atrophic Epidermis Retains Lrig1+ Stem Cells and Loses Wnt Signaling, a Phenotype Shared with CD44KO Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Laurent; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Kaya, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    Lrig1 is known to repress the epidermal growth through its inhibitory activity on EGFR, while CD44 promotes it. We analyzed the expression of these molecules in senescent atrophic human epidermis and in the epidermis of CD44KO mice. In normal human epidermis, Lrig1+ cells form clusters located in the basal layer in which CD44 expression is downregulated and Lef1 expression reflects an active Wnt signaling. In senescent atrophic human epidermis, we found retention of Lrig1high+ cells all along the basal layer, forming no clusters, with decrease of CD44 and lef1 expression. In vitro silencing of CD44 indicated that CD44 may be required for Wnt signaling. However, if looking at the ear epidermis of CD44KO mice, we only found a limited interfollicular epidermal atrophy and unchanged Lrig1high+ cells in the hair follicle. Cell lineage tracing further revealed that interfollicular epidermis did lost its self-renewing capacity but that its homeostasis relied on Lrig1-derived keratinocytes migrating from the hair follicle. Therefore, we conclude that CD44 downregulation is part of the phenotype of senescent atrophic human epidermis, and contributes to reduce Wnt signaling and to alter Lrig1high+ stem cell distribution.

  16. Dynamic emergence of the mesenchymal CD44(pos)CD24(neg/low) phenotype in HER2-gene amplified breast cancer cells with de novo resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Cufí, Silvia; Del Barco, Sonia; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Brunet, Joan; Menendez, Javier A

    2010-06-18

    Evidence is mounting that the occurrence of the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) cell population, which contains potential breast cancer (BC) stem cells, could explain BC clinical resistance to HER2-targeted therapies. We investigated whether de novo refractoriness to the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Tzb; Herceptin) may relate to the dynamic regulation of the mesenchymal CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) phenotype in HER2-positive BC. We observed that the subpopulation of Tzb-refractory JIMT-1 BC cells exhibiting CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low)-surface markers switched with time. Low-passage JIMT-1 cell cultures were found to spontaneously contain approximately 10% of cells bearing the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) immunophenotype. Late-passage (>60) JIMT-1 cultures accumulated approximately 80% of CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) cells and closely resembled the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low)-enriched ( approximately 85%) cell population constitutively occurring in HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 mesenchymal BC cells. Dynamic expression of mesenchymal markers was not limited to CD44/CD24 because high-passages of JIMT-1 cells exhibited also reduced expression of the HER2 protein and over-secretion of pro-invasive/metastatic chemokines and metalloproteases. Accordingly, late-passage JIMT-1 cells displayed an exacerbated migratogenic phenotype in plastic, collagen, and fibronectin substrates. Intrinsic genetic plasticity to efficiently drive the emergence of the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) mesenchymal phenotype may account for de novo resistance to HER2 targeting therapies in basal-like BC carrying HER2 gene amplification. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tunable CD44-specific cellular retargeting with hyaluronic acid nanoshells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Morten F.; Olesen, Morten T. J.; Gjelstrup, Mikkel C.

    2014-01-01

    of different Mw was covalently grafted onto model polystyrene nanoparticles and advanced surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy performed to quantify and evaluate the effect of the coating procedure. Specific CD44-mediated retargeting was investigated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy...... that indicates an extended and nonconstricted HA polymer surface. Reduced non-specific particle interaction in CD44- cells was shown for all HA nanoshells but CD44-dependent cellular retargeting and internalization in CD44+ cells was highly dependent on the coating HA Mw properties. Conclusion The combination...... of advanced surface characterization and evaluation of particle interactions in isogenic cells with and without CD44 receptor demonstrates direct evidence for the dual capacity of HA for stealth and CD44-mediated retargeting tunable by the HA molecular weight....

  18. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells.

  19. Hyaluronate fragments reverse skin atrophy by a CD44-dependent mechanism.

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    Gürkan Kaya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skin atrophy is a common manifestation of aging and is frequently accompanied by ulceration and delayed wound healing. With an increasingly aging patient population, management of skin atrophy is becoming a major challenge in the clinic, particularly in light of the fact that there are no effective therapeutic options at present. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Atrophic skin displays a decreased hyaluronate (HA content and expression of the major cell-surface hyaluronate receptor, CD44. In an effort to develop a therapeutic strategy for skin atrophy, we addressed the effect of topical administration of defined-size HA fragments (HAF on skin trophicity. Treatment of primary keratinocyte cultures with intermediate-size HAF (HAFi; 50,000-400,000 Da but not with small-size HAF (HAFs; 400,000 Da induced wild-type (wt but not CD44-deficient (CD44-/- keratinocyte proliferation. Topical application of HAFi caused marked epidermal hyperplasia in wt but not in CD44-/- mice, and significant skin thickening in patients with age- or corticosteroid-related skin atrophy. The effect of HAFi on keratinocyte proliferation was abrogated by antibodies against heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF and its receptor, erbB1, which form a complex with a particular isoform of CD44 (CD44v3, and by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations provide a novel CD44-dependent mechanism for HA oligosaccharide-induced keratinocyte proliferation and suggest that topical HAFi application may provide an attractive therapeutic option in human skin atrophy.

  20. Hyaluronan functionalizing QDs as turn-on fluorescent probe for targeted recognition CD44 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shang; Huo, Danqun; Hou, Changjun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao

    2017-09-01

    The recognition of tumor markers in living cancer cells has attracted increasing interest. In the present study, the turn-on fluorescence probe was designed based on the fluorescence of thiolated chitosan-coated CdTe QDs (CdTe/TCS QDs) quenched by hyaluronan, which could provide the low background signal for sensitive cellular imaging. This system is expected to offer specific recognition of CD44 receptor over other substances owing to the specific affinity of hyaluronan and CD44 receptor ( 8-9 kcal/mol). The probe is stable in aqueous and has little toxicity to living cells; thus, it can be utilized for targeted cancer cell imaging. The living lung cancer cell imaging experiments further demonstrate its value in recognizing cell-surface CD44 receptor with turn-on mode. In addition, the probe can be used to recognize and differentiate the subtypes of lung cancer cells based on the difference of CD44 expression on the surface of lung cancer cells. And, the western blot test further confirmed that the expression level of the CD44 receptor in lung cancer cells is different. Therefore, this probe may be potentially applied in recognizing lung cancer cells with higher contrast and sensitivity and provide new tools for cancer prognosis and therapy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Syngeneic Mouse Models of Oral Cancer Are Effectively Targeted by Anti-CD44-Based NIR-PIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Tadanobu; Nakamura, Yuko; Okuyama, Shuhei; Ogata, Fusa; Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Choyke, Peter L; Allen, Clint; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-12-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered one of the most aggressive subtypes of cancer. Anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are a potential therapy against CD44 expressing OSCC; however, to date the therapeutic effects have been disappointing. Here, a new cancer treatment is described, near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), that uses anti-CD44 mAbs conjugated to the photoabsorber IR700DX. This conjugate is injected into mice harboring one of three CD44 expressing syngeneic murine oral cancer cell (MOC) lines, MOC1 (immunogenic), MOC2 mKate2 (moderately immunogenic), and MOC2-luc (poorly immunogenic). Binding of the anti-CD44-IR700 conjugate was shown to be specific and cell-specific cytotoxicity was observed after exposure of the cells to NIR light in vitro The anti-CD44-IR700 conjugate, when assessed in vivo , demonstrated deposition within the tumor with a high tumor-to-background ratio. Tumor-bearing mice were separated into four cohorts: no treatment; 100 μg of anti-CD44-IR700 i.v. only; NIR light exposure only; and 100 μg of anti-CD44-IR700 i.v. with NIR light exposure. NIR-PIT therapy, compared with the other groups, significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in all three cell model systems. In conclusion, these data reveal that anti-CD44 antibodies are suitable as mAb-photoabsorber conjugates for NIR-PIT in MOC cells. Implications: This study using syngeneic mouse models, which better model the disease in humans than conventional xenografts, suggests that NIR-PIT with anti-CD44-IR700 is a potential candidate for the treatment of OSCC. Mol Cancer Res; 15(12); 1667-77. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Non-small cell lung cancer cyclooxygenase-2-dependent invasion is mediated by CD44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, M; Luo, J; Zhu, L; Lin, Y; Dougherty, G J; Sharma, S; Huang, M; Pold, M; Batra, R K; Dubinett, S M

    2001-06-15

    Elevated tumor cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression is associated with increased angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and suppression of host immunity. We have previously shown that genetic inhibition of tumor COX-2 expression reverses the immunosuppression induced by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To assess the impact of COX-2 expression in lung cancer invasiveness, NSCLC cell lines were transduced with a retroviral vector expressing the human COX-2 cDNA in the sense (COX-2-S) and antisense (COX-2-AS) orientations. COX-2-S clones expressed significantly more COX-2 protein, produced 10-fold more prostaglandin E(2), and demonstrated an enhanced invasive capacity compared with control vector-transduced or parental cells. CD44, the cell surface receptor for hyaluronate, was overexpressed in COX-2-S cells, and specific blockade of CD44 significantly decreased tumor cell invasion. In contrast, COX-2-AS clones had a very limited capacity for invasion and showed diminished expression of CD44. These findings suggest that a COX-2-mediated, CD44-dependent pathway is operative in NSCLC invasion. Because tumor COX-2 expression appears to have a multifaceted role in conferring the malignant phenotype, COX-2 may be an important target for gene or pharmacologic therapy in NSCLC.

  3. A CD44high/EGFRlow subpopulation within head and neck cancer cell lines shows an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and resistance to treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea La Fleur

    Full Text Available Mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is high due to emergence of therapy resistance which results in local and regional recurrences that may have their origin in resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs or cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT phenotype. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of using the cell surface expression of CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, both of which have been used as stem cell markers, to identify subpopulations within HNSCC cell lines that differ with respect to phenotype and treatment sensitivity. Three subpopulations, consisting of CD44(high/EGFR(low, CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low cells, respectively, were collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population showed a spindle-shaped EMT-like morphology, while the CD44(low population was dominated by cobblestone-shaped cells. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population was enriched with cells in G0/G1 and showed a relatively low proliferation rate and a high plating efficiency. Using a real time PCR array, 27 genes, of which 14 were related to an EMT phenotype and two with stemness, were found to be differentially expressed in CD44(high/EGFR(low cells in comparison to CD44(low cells. Moreover, CD44(high/EGFR(low cells showed a low sensitivity to radiation, cisplatin, cetuximab and gefitinib, and a high sensitivity to dasatinib relative to its CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low counterparts. In conclusion, our results show that the combination of CD44 (high and EGFR (low cell surface expression can be used to identify a treatment resistant subpopulation with an EMT phenotype in HNSCC cell lines.

  4. Role of CD44 and Variants in Membrane-Cytoskeleton Interactions, Adhesion, Metastasis and Human Breast Cancers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourguignon, Lilly

    1998-01-01

    .... In this study we have analyzed the expression of CD44v3-containing isoforms CONTAINING HEPARIN SULFATE ADDITION SITES FOR GROWTH FACTOR BINDING in primary breast tumors, axillary nodal metastases...

  5. Role of Stro1+/CD44+ stem cells in myometrial physiology and uterine remodeling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Aymara; Prusinski, Lauren; Yang, Qiwei; Diaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Stone, Lelyand; Diamond, Michael P; Simón, Carlos; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of myometrial functions during pregnancy has been considered the result of the integration of endocrine and mechanical signals. Nevertheless, uterine regeneration is poorly understood, and the cellular source within the gravid uterus is largely unexplored.In this study, we isolated and quantified the myometrial stem cells (MSC) population from pregnant female Eker rat uteri, by using Stro1/CD44 surface markers. We demonstrated that prior parity significantly increased the percentage of Stro1+/CD44+ MSC because of injured tissue response. Interestingly, we established that Stro1+/CD44+ MSC respond efficiently to physiological cues when they were treated in vitro under different dose-dependent pregnant rat serum.Previous studies reveal strong regulatory links between O2 availability and stem cell function. Based on these premises, cell proliferation assays showed that isolated Stro1+/CD44+ MSC possess a higher proliferative rate under hypoxic versus normoxic conditions. We also detected a total of 37 upregulated and 44 downregulated hypoxia-related genes, which were differentially expressed in Stro1+/CD44+ MSC, providing an alternative approach to infer into complex molecular mechanisms such as energy metabolism, inflammatory response, uterine expansion, and/or remodeling.Since these cells preferentially grow under low oxygen conditions, we propose that the increase of the rat uterus during pregnancy involves myometrial oxygen consumption, thereby enhancing MSC proliferation. Moreover, pregnancy-induced mechanical stretching results in hypoxic conditions, ultimately creating an environment that promotes stem cell proliferation and further uterine enlargement, which is essential for a successful pregnancy. In summary, all of these data support that rat Stro1+/CD44+ MSC contribute to uterine enlargement during pregnancy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction.

  6. Role of the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains of CD44 in the rolling interaction of lymphoid cells with hyaluronan under physiologic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Istvan; Lesley, Jayne; Ko, Wendy; Gonda, Andrea; Stoop, Reinout; Hyman, Robert; Mikecz, Katalin

    2003-03-28

    CD44 can function as an adhesion receptor that mediates leukocyte rolling on hyaluronan (HA). To study the contributions of different domains of the standard isoform of CD44 to cell rolling, a CD44-negative mouse T lymphoma AKR1 was transfected with wild type (WT) or mutated cDNA constructs. A parallel flow chamber was used to study the rolling behavior of CD44 transfectants on immobilized HA. For CD44WT transfectants, the fraction of cells that rolled and the rolling velocity was inversely proportional to the amount of cell surface CD44. When the cytoplasmic domain distal to Gly(305) or sequences that serve as binding sites for cytoskeletal linker proteins, were deleted or replaced with foreign sequences, no significant changes in the rolling behavior of mutant cells, compared with the transfectant expressing CD44WT, were observed. Transfectants lacking 64 amino acids of the cytoplasmic tail distal to Cys(295) adhered to HA but showed enhanced rolling at low shear forces. When 83 amino acids from the "non-conserved" membrane-proximal region of the CD44 extracellular domain were deleted, cells adhered firmly to the HA substrate and did not roll at any fluid shear force tested. Unlike wild type cells that exhibited a nearly homogeneous distribution of CD44 on a smooth cell surface, cells expressing the non-conserved region deletion mutant accumulated CD44 in membrane protrusions. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin B precluded the formation of membrane protrusions, however, treated cells still adhered firmly to HA and did not roll. We conclude that interaction between the cytoplasmic domain of CD44 and the cytoskeleton is not required for cell rolling on immobilized ligand. The strong effect of deletion of the non-conserved region of the extracellular domain argues for a critical role of this region in CD44-dependent rolling and adhesion interactions with HA under flow.

  7. WNT5A inhibits metastasis and alters splicing of Cd44 in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jiang

    Full Text Available Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt. Low expression of WNT5A is correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The highly invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and 4T1, express very low levels of WNT5A. To determine if enhanced expression of WNT5A would affect metastatic behavior, we generated WNT5A expressing cells from the 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 parental cell lines. WNT5A expressing cells demonstrated cobblestone morphology and reduced in vitro migration relative to controls. Cell growth was not altered. Metastasis to the lung via tail vein injection was reduced in the 4T1-WNT5A expressing cells relative to 4T1-vector controls. To determine the mechanism of WNT5A action on metastasis, we performed microarray and whole-transcriptome sequence analysis (RNA-seq to compare gene expression in 4T1-WNT5A and 4T1-vector cells. Analysis indicated highly significant alterations in expression of genes associated with cellular movement. Down-regulation of a subset of these genes, Mmp13, Nos2, Il1a, Cxcl2, and Lamb3, in WNT5A expressing cells was verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Significant differences in transcript splicing were also detected in cell movement associated genes including Cd44. Cd44 is an adhesion molecule with a complex genome structure. Variable exon usage is associated with metastatic phenotype. Alternative spicing of Cd44 in WNT5A expressing cells was confirmed using RT-PCR. We conclude that WNT5A inhibits metastasis through down-regulation of multiple cell movement pathways by regulating transcript levels and splicing of key genes like Cd44.

  8. Autocrine/paracrine prostaglandin E2 production by non-small cell lung cancer cells regulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 and CD44 in cyclooxygenase-2-dependent invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mariam; Batra, Raj K; Luo, Jie; Lin, Ying; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Pold, Mehis; Sharma, Sherven; Dubinett, Steven M

    2002-12-27

    Tumor cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is known to be associated with enhanced tumor invasiveness. In the present study, we evaluated the importance of the COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its signaling through the EP4 receptor in mediating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) invasiveness. Genetic inhibition of tumor COX-2 led to diminished matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, CD44, and EP4 receptor expression and invasion. Treatment of NSCLC cells with exogenous 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2 significantly increased EP4 receptor, CD44, and MMP-2 expression and matrigel invasion. In contrast, anti-PGE2 decreased EP4 receptor, CD44, and MMP-2 expression in NSCLC cells. EP4 receptor signaling was found to be central to this process, because antisense oligonucleotide-mediated inhibition of tumor cell EP4 receptors significantly decreased CD44 expression. In addition, agents that increased intracellular cAMP, as is typical of EP4 receptor signaling, markedly increased CD44 expression. Moreover, MMP-2-AS treatment decreased PGE2-mediated CD44 expression, and CD44-AS treatment decreased MMP-2 expression. Thus, PGE2-mediated effects through EP4 required the parallel induction of both CD44 and MMP-2 expression because genetic inhibition of either MMP-2 or CD44 expression effectively blocked PGE2-mediated invasion in NSCLC. These findings indicate that PGE2 regulates COX-2-dependent, CD44- and MMP-2-mediated invasion in NSCLC in an autocrine/paracrine manner via EP receptor signaling. Thus, blocking PGE2 production or activity by genetic or pharmacological interventions may prove to be beneficial in chemoprevention or treatment of NSCLC.

  9. Assessing Specific Oligonucleotides and Small Molecule Antibiotics for the Ability to Inhibit the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dana; Lee, Chow H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Coding Region Determinant-Binding Protein (CRD-BP) and its orthologs have confirmed their functional role in mRNA stability and localization. CRD-BP is present in extremely low levels in normal adult tissues, but it is over-expressed in many types of aggressive human cancers and in neonatal tissues. Although the exact role of CRD-BP in tumour progression is unclear, cumulative evidence suggests that its ability to physically associate with target mRNAs is an important criterion for its oncogenic role. CRD-BP has high affinity for the 3′UTR of the oncogenic CD44 mRNA and depletion of CRD-BP in cells led to destabilization of CD44 mRNA, decreased CD44 expression, reduced adhesion and disruption of invadopodia formation. Here, we further characterize the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction and assess specific antisense oligonucleotides and small molecule antibiotics for their ability to inhibit the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction. CRD-BP has a high affinity for binding to CD44 RNA nts 2862–3055 with a Kd of 645 nM. Out of ten antisense oligonucleotides spanning nts 2862–3055, only three antisense oligonucleotides (DD4, DD7 and DD10) were effective in competing with CRD-BP for binding to 32P-labeled CD44 RNA. The potency of DD4, DD7 and DD10 in inhibiting the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction in vitro correlated with their ability to specifically reduce the steady-state level of CD44 mRNA in cells. The aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin effectively inhibited the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction in vitro. Assessing the potential inhibitory effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics including neomycin on the CRD-BP-CD44 mRNA interaction in cells proved difficult, likely due to their propensity to non-specifically bind nucleic acids. Our results have important implications for future studies in finding small molecules and nucleic acid-based inhibitors that interfere with protein-RNA interactions. PMID:24622399

  10. Preparation and bioevaluation of {sup 177}Lu-labelled anti-CD44 for radioimmunotherapy of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Young; Hong, Young Don; Jung, Sung Hee; Choi, Sun Ju [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    CD44 is a particular adhesion molecule and facilitates both cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. In particular, splice variants of CD44 are particularly overexpressed in a large number of malignancies and carcinomas. In this study, the {sup 177}Lu-labelled CD44 targeting antibody was prepared and bioevaluated in vitro and in vivo. Anti-CD44 was immunoconjugated with the equivalent molar ratio of cysteine-based dtPA-ncS and radioimmunoconjugated with {sup 177}Lu at room temperature within 15 minutes. the stability was tested in human serum. An in vitro study was carried out in Ht-29 human colon cancer cell lines. For the biodistribution study {sup 177}Lu-labelled anti-CD44 was injected in xenograft mice. Anti-CD44 was immunoconjugated with cysteinebased dtPA-ncS and purified by a centricon filter system having a molecular cut-off of 50 kda. radioimmunoconjugation with {sup 177}Lu was reacted for 15 min at room temperature. the radiolabeling yield was >99%, and it was stable in human serum without any fragmentation or degradation. The radioimmunoconjugate showed a high binding affinity on HT-29 colon cancer cell surfaces. In a biodistribution study, the tumor-to-blood ratio of the radioimmunoconjugate was 43 : 1 at 1 day post injection (p.i) in human colon cancer bearing mice. the anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody for the targeting of colon cancer was effectively radioimmunoconjugated with {sup 177}Lu. the in vitro high immunoactivity of this radioimmunoconjugate was determined by a cell binding assay. In addition, the antibody's tumor targeting ability was demonstrated with very high uptake in tumors. this radioimmunoconjugate is applicable to therapy in human colon cancer with highly expressed CD44.

  11. Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Models by Interference With CD44v6 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Jannasch, Katharina; Shatirishvili, Marine; Fuchs, Beatrix; Chiblak, Sara; Morton, Jennifer; Tawk, Bouchra; Lindner, Thomas; Sansom, Owen; Alves, Frauke; Warth, Arne; Schwager, Christian; Mier, Walter; Kleeff, Jörg; Ponta, Helmut; Abdollahi, Amir; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cells with high metastatic potential and stem cell-like characteristics express the cell surface marker CD44. CD44 isoforms that include the v6 exon are co-receptors for the receptor tyrosine kinases MET and Vascular Endothelial Growth factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). We studied CD44v6 signaling in several pancreatic cancer cell lines, and its role in tumor growth and metastasis in several models of pancreatic cancer. We analyzed the effects of v6 peptides that interfere with the co-receptor functions of CD44v6 for MET and VEGFR-2 in tumors and metastases grown from cells that express different CD44 isoforms, including CD44v6. The peptides were injected into rats with syngeneic tumors and mice with orthotopic or xenograft tumors. We also tested the effects of the peptides in mice with xenograft tumors grown from patient tumor samples and mice that express an oncogenic form of RAS and develop spontaneous pancreatic cancer (KPC mice). We measured levels of CD44v6 messenger RNA (mRNA) in pancreatic cancer tissues from 136 patients. Xenograft tumors grown from human cancer cells injected with v6 peptides were smaller and formed fewer metastases in mice. The v6 peptide was more efficient than the MET inhibitor crizotinib and/or the VEGFR-2 inhibitor pazopanib in reducing xenograft tumor growth and metastasis. Injection of KPC mice with the v6 peptide increased their survival time. Injection of mice and rats bearing metastases with the v6 peptide induced regression of metastases. Higher levels of CD44v6 mRNA in human pancreatic tumor tissues were associated with increased expression of MET, tumor metastasis, and shorter patient survival times. Peptide inhibitors of CD44v6 isoforms block tumor growth and metastasis in several independent models of pancreatic cancer. The v6 peptides induced regression of metastases. Levels of CD44v6 mRNA are increased, along with those of MET mRNA, in patients with metastatic pancreatic tumors, compared with nonmetastatic tumors

  12. Soluble CD44 concentration in the serum and peritoneal fluid samples of patients with different stages of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Aryaee, Hadis; Mirzajani, Ebrahim; Yasin, Ashraf Ale; Fathi, Abdolsatar

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological disease defined by the histological presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity, most commonly implanted over visceral and peritoneal surface within the female pelvis. CD44 is a membrane protein expressed by human endometrial cells, and it has been shown to promote the adhesion of endometrial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of soluble CD44 (sCD44) in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) samples of patients with different stages of endometriosis. 39 PF and serum samples from normal healthy and 130 samples from different stages of patients with endometriosis (33 cases of stage I, 38 stage II, 30 stage III and 29 stage IV) were included in this study. Total protein concentration (TPC) and the level of s-cMet in the serum were determined by Bio-Rad protein assay based on the Bradford dye procedure and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. No significant change in the TPC was seen in the serum of patients with endometriosis when compared to normal controls. Results obtained demonstrated that all serum and peritoneal fluid samples, presented sCD44 expression, whereas, starting from stages I to IV endometriosis, a significant increase of sCD44 expression was observed as compared to control group. The results of this study show that a high expression of sCD44 is correlated with advanced stages of endometriosis. It is also concluded that the detection of serum and/or peritoneal fluid sCD44 may be useful in classifying endometriosis.

  13. Atomistic fingerprint of hyaluronan-CD44 binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorio, Joni; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2017-01-01

    that hyaluronan can bind CD44 with three topographically different binding modes that in unison define an interaction fingerprint, thus providing a plausible explanation for the disagreement between the earlier studies. Our results confirm that the known crystallographic mode is the strongest of the three binding...

  14. Effect of Three Calmodulin Antagonists on Subpopulations of CD44 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical ... cancer stem cells. It is not known, however, whether targeting CD44 can alter the fate of cancer stem cells themselves. In this study, the effect of the calmodulin antagonists (N-(10-.

  15. Curcumin induced nanoscale CD44 molecular redistribution and antigen-antibody interaction on HepG2 cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mu [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ruan Yuxia [Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xing Xiaobo; Chen Qian; Peng, Yuan [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai Jiye, E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > In this study, we investigate the changes of CD44 expression and distribution on HepG2 cells after curcumin treatment. > We find curcumin is able to change the morphology and ultrastructure of HepG2 cells. > Curcumin can reduce the expression of CD44 molecules and induce the nanoscale molecular redistribution on cell surface. > The binding force between CD44-modified AFM tip and the HepG2 cell surface decreases after curcumin-treatment. - Abstract: The cell surface glycoprotein CD44 was implicated in the progression, metastasis and apoptosis of certain human tumors. In this study, we used atomic force microscope (AFM) to monitor the effect of curcumin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell surface nanoscale structure. High-resolution imaging revealed that cell morphology and ultrastructure changed a lot after being treated with curcumin. The membrane average roughness increased (10.88 {+-} 4.62 nm to 129.70 {+-} 43.72 nm) and the expression of CD44 decreased (99.79 {+-} 0.16% to 75.14 {+-} 8.37%). Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) imaging showed that CD44 molecules were located on the cell membrane. The florescence intensity in control group was weaker than that in curcumin treated cells. Most of the binding forces between CD44 antibodies and untreated HepG2 cell membrane were around 120-220 pN. After being incubated with curcumin, the major forces focused on 70-150 pN (10 {mu}M curcumin-treated) and 50-120 pN (20 {mu}M curcumin-treated). These results suggested that, as result of nanoscale molecular redistribution, changes of the cell surface were in response to external treatment of curcumin. The combination of AFM and LSCM could be a powerful method to detect the distribution of cell surface molecules and interactions between molecules and their ligands.

  16. CD44 and CD74: The promising candidates for molecular targeted therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Pouyan Amini; Ensani, Fereshteh; Abdirad, Afshin; Valizadeh, Bahareh; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Sum, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering molecular target therapy concept in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), many attempts have been performed to introduce an effective molecular marker during recent years. Several investigations have emphasized on the role of CD44 in various cancers and few studies have mentioned CD24 and CD74. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between CD44, CD24 and CD74 expressions and several clinical or histopathological factors in OSCC patients. Materials and Methods: In our analytical cross-sectional study, forty primary OSCC specimens were immunohistochemically stained for CD44, CD24, and CD74 proteins. Then, the relationship between their expressions and age, sex, lymph node metastasis, and histopathologic grading was statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney nonparametric and t-test. Furthermore, P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: CD44 and CD74 proteins were significantly over-expressed in OSCC patients with high grade (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001) as compared to those with low grade. Furthermore, CD74 immunoreactivity showed significantly higher expression in patients with lower age (P = 0.039). Considering lymph node metastasis, we observed significant overexpression of CD74 in patients with no lymph node involvement (P = 0.033). Conclusion: Our observations support the significant role of membranous CD44 protein in progression of OSCC and also introduce CD74 protein as a probable interfering factor in different aspects of OSCC. PMID:25878685

  17. CD44 and CD74: The promising candidates for molecular targeted therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyan Amini Shakib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering molecular target therapy concept in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, many attempts have been performed to introduce an effective molecular marker during recent years. Several investigations have emphasized on the role of CD44 in various cancers and few studies have mentioned CD24 and CD74. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between CD44, CD24 and CD74 expressions and several clinical or histopathological factors in OSCC patients. Materials and Methods: In our analytical cross-sectional study, forty primary OSCC specimens were immunohistochemically stained for CD44, CD24, and CD74 proteins. Then, the relationship between their expressions and age, sex, lymph node metastasis, and histopathologic grading was statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney nonparametric and t-test. Furthermore, P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: CD44 and CD74 proteins were significantly over-expressed in OSCC patients with high grade (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001 as compared to those with low grade. Furthermore, CD74 immunoreactivity showed significantly higher expression in patients with lower age (P = 0.039. Considering lymph node metastasis, we observed significant overexpression of CD74 in patients with no lymph node involvement (P = 0.033. Conclusion: Our observations support the significant role of membranous CD44 protein in progression of OSCC and also introduce CD74 protein as a probable interfering factor in different aspects of OSCC.

  18. Overexpression of CD44 accompanies acquired tamoxifen resistance in MCF7 cells and augments their sensitivity to the stromal factors, heregulin and hyaluronan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscox, Stephen; Gee, Julia; Baruha, Bedanta; Smith, Chris; Bellerby, Rebecca; Goddard, Lindy; Jordan, Nicola; Poghosyan, Zaruhi; Nicholson, Robert I; Barrett-Lee, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer is a significant problem with relapse being associated with local and/or regional recurrence and frequent distant metastases. Breast cancer cell models reveal that endocrine resistance is accompanied by a gain in aggressive behaviour driven in part through altered growth factor receptor signalling, particularly involving erbB family receptors. Recently we identified that CD44, a transmembrane cell adhesion receptor known to interact with growth factor receptors, is upregulated in tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) MCF7 breast cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to explore the consequences of CD44 upregulation in an MCF7 cell model of acquired tamoxifen resistance, specifically with respect to the hypothesis that CD44 may influence erbB activity to promote an adverse phenotype. CD44 expression in MCF7 and TamR cells was assessed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation studies revealed CD44-erbB associations. TamR cells (± siRNA-mediated CD44 suppression) or MCF7 cells (± transfection with the CD44 gene) were treated with the CD44 ligand, hyaluronon (HA), or heregulin and their in vitro growth (MTT), migration (Boyden chamber and wound healing) and invasion (Matrigel transwell migration) determined. erbB signalling was assessed using Western blotting. The effect of HA on erbB family dimerisation in TamR cells was determined by immunoprecipitation in the presence or absence of CD44 siRNA. TamR cells overexpressed CD44 where it was seen to associate with erbB2 at the cell surface. siRNA-mediated suppression of CD44 in TamR cells significantly attenuated their response to heregulin, inhibiting heregulin-induced cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, TamR cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to HA, with HA treatment resulting in modulation of erbB dimerisation, ligand-independent activation of erbB2 and EGFR and induction of cell migration

  19. Overexpression of CD44 accompanies acquired tamoxifen resistance in MCF7 cells and augments their sensitivity to the stromal factors, heregulin and hyaluronan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiscox Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer is a significant problem with relapse being associated with local and/or regional recurrence and frequent distant metastases. Breast cancer cell models reveal that endocrine resistance is accompanied by a gain in aggressive behaviour driven in part through altered growth factor receptor signalling, particularly involving erbB family receptors. Recently we identified that CD44, a transmembrane cell adhesion receptor known to interact with growth factor receptors, is upregulated in tamoxifen-resistant (TamR MCF7 breast cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to explore the consequences of CD44 upregulation in an MCF7 cell model of acquired tamoxifen resistance, specifically with respect to the hypothesis that CD44 may influence erbB activity to promote an adverse phenotype. Methods CD44 expression in MCF7 and TamR cells was assessed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation studies revealed CD44-erbB associations. TamR cells (± siRNA-mediated CD44 suppression or MCF7 cells (± transfection with the CD44 gene were treated with the CD44 ligand, hyaluronon (HA, or heregulin and their in vitro growth (MTT, migration (Boyden chamber and wound healing and invasion (Matrigel transwell migration determined. erbB signalling was assessed using Western blotting. The effect of HA on erbB family dimerisation in TamR cells was determined by immunoprecipitation in the presence or absence of CD44 siRNA. Results TamR cells overexpressed CD44 where it was seen to associate with erbB2 at the cell surface. siRNA-mediated suppression of CD44 in TamR cells significantly attenuated their response to heregulin, inhibiting heregulin-induced cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, TamR cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to HA, with HA treatment resulting in modulation of erbB dimerisation, ligand-independent activation of erbB2

  20. Suppression of human breast tumors in NOD/SCID mice by CD44 shRNA gene therapy combined with doxorubicin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham PV

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phuc Van Pham1, Ngoc Bich Vu1, Thuy Thanh Duong1, Tam Thanh Nguyen1, Nhung Hai Truong1, Nhan Lu Chinh Phan1, Tue Gia Vuong1, Viet Quoc Pham1, Hoang Minh Nguyen1, Kha The Nguyen1, Nhung Thi Nguyen1, Khue Gia Nguyen1, Lam Tan Khat1, Dong Van Le2, Kiet Dinh Truong1, Ngoc Kim Phan11Laboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, HCM City, 2Military Medical University, Ha Noi, VietnamBackground: Breast cancer stem cells with a CD44+CD24- phenotype are the origin of breast tumors. Strong CD44 expression in this population indicates its important role in maintaining the stem cell phenotype. Previous studies show that CD44 down-regulation causes CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells to differentiate into non-stem cells that are sensitive to antitumor drugs and lose many characteristics of the original cells. In this study, we determined tumor suppression in non-obese severe combined immunodeficiency mice using CD44 shRNA therapy combined with doxorubicin treatment.Methods: Tumor-bearing non-obese severe combined immunodeficiency mice were established by injection of CD44+CD24- cells. To track CD44+CD24- cells, green fluorescence protein was stably transduced using a lentiviral vector prior to injection into mice. The amount of CD44 shRNA lentiviral vector used for transduction was based on CD44 down-regulation by in vitro CD44 shRNA transduction. Mice were treated with direct injection of CD44 shRNA lentiviral vector into tumors followed by doxorubicin administration after 48 hours. The effect was evaluated by changes in the size and weight of tumors compared with that of the control.Results: The combination of CD44 down-regulation and doxorubicin strongly suppressed tumor growth with significant differences in tumor sizes and weights compared with that of CD44 down-regulation or doxorubicin treatment alone. In the combination of CD44 down-regulation and doxorubicin group, the tumor weight was

  1. Two novel functions of hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal2) are formation of the glycocalyx and control of CD44-ERM interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duterme, Cecile; Mertens-Strijthagen, Jeannine; Tammi, Markku; Flamion, Bruno

    2009-11-27

    It has long been predicted that the members of the hyaluronidase enzyme family have important non-enzymatic functions. However, their nature remains a mystery. The metabolism of hyaluronan (HA), their major enzymatic substrate, is also enigmatic. To examine the function of Hyal2, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored hyaluronidase with intrinsically weak enzymatic activity, we have compared stably transfected rat fibroblastic BB16 cell lines with various levels of expression of Hyal2. These cell lines continue to express exclusively the standard form (CD44s) of the main HA receptor, CD44. Hyal2, CD44, and one of its main intracellular partners, ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM), were found to co-immunoprecipitate. Functionally, Hyal2 overexpression was linked to loss of the glycocalyx, the HA-rich pericellular coat. This effect could be mimicked by exposure of BB16 cells either to Streptomyces hyaluronidase, to HA synthesis inhibitors, or to HA oligosaccharides. This led to shedding of CD44, separation of CD44 from ERM, reduction in baseline level of ERM activation, and markedly decreased cell motility (50% reduction in a wound healing assay). The effects of Hyal2 on the pericellular coat and on CD44-ERM interactions were inhibited by treatment with the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 inhibitor ethyl-N-isopropylamiloride. We surmise that Hyal2, through direct interactions with CD44 and possibly some pericellular hyaluronidase activity requiring acidic foci, suppresses the formation or the stability of the glycocalyx, modulates ERM-related cytoskeletal interactions, and diminishes cell motility. These effects may be relevant to the purported in vivo tumor-suppressive activity of Hyal2.

  2. Enrichment of CD44 in basal-type breast cancer correlates with EMT, cancer stem cell gene profile, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu HX

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanxiao Xu,1 Yijun Tian,1 Xun Yuan,1 Yu Liu,2 Hua Wu,1 Qian Liu,1 Gen Sheng Wu,3,4 Kongming Wu1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Geriatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Oncology, 4Department of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as the receptor for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronic acid. CD44 has been reported to play key roles in cell proliferation, motility, and survival, but its role in breast cancer remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis. A total of 23 published Gene Expression Omnibus databases were included to evaluate the association between CD44 mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics or prognosis of the patients with breast cancer. Our analysis revealed that CD44 expression was associated with clinicopathological features, including the histological grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Higher levels of CD44 expression were observed in the basal subtype of breast cancer both at the mRNA and protein levels (odds ratio [OR] =2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72–2.52; OR =2.11, 95% CI: 1.67–2.68. Patients with CD44 overexpression exhibited significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio =1.27; 95% CI: 1.04–1.55. Whole gene profile analysis revealed that CD44 expression was enriched in basal-type breast cancer and correlated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell gene profiles. In summary, our analyses indicated that CD44 potentially might be a prognostic marker for breast cancer and thus can serve as a therapeutic target for basal-type breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, CD44, survival prediction, meta

  3. Effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meiya; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Jin, Bohong; Zhang, Fubin; Zhu, Linyan; Cui, Lining

    2017-12-01

    CD44 is a prognostic indicator of shorter survival time in ovarian cancer. E-cadherin fragmentation promotes the progression of ovarian cancer. However, the effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on ovarian cancer cells have remained elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin on cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin was achieved by transfecting SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells with viruses carrying the CD44 or E-cadherin gene, respectively. Expression of CD44 and E-cadherin was detected by western blot analysis. The proliferation of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was measured by a Cell Counting Kit-8 at 0, 24 and 48 h after viral transfection. The adhesion ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells to the endothelial layer was detected. A Transwell invasion assay was utilized to assess the invasion ability of the cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was confirmed by western blot. Compared with the blank or negative control groups, the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells exhibited an increased cell proliferation rate at 24 and 48 h, whereas overexpression of E-cadherin did not alter the proliferation of these cells. Furthermore, compared with the blank and negative control groups, the cell adhesion and invasion ability in the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was markedly higher. There were no significant differences in adhesion ability between the E-cadherin overexpression group and the blank/negative control group. Of note, overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasive ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. In conclusion, Overexpression of CD44 increased the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, while overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

  4. Triple negative breast tumors in African-American and Hispanic/Latina women are high in CD44+, low in CD24+, and have loss of PTEN.

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    Yanyuan Wu

    Full Text Available African-American women have higher mortality from breast cancer than other ethnic groups. The association between poor survival and differences with tumor phenotypes is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical significance of (1 Stem cell-like markers CD44 and CD24; (2 PI3K/Akt pathway associated targets PTEN, activation of Akt, and FOXO1; and (3 the Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3 in different breast cancer subtypes, and compare the differences between African-American and Hispanic/Latina women who have similar social-economic-status.A total of N=318 African-American and Hispanic/Latina women, with clinically-annotated information within the inclusion criteria were included. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues from these patients were tested for the different markers using immunohistochemistry techniques. Kaplan-Meier survival-curves and Cox-regression analyses were used to assess Relative Risk and Disease-Free-Survival (DFS.The triple-negative-breast-cancer (TNBC receptor-subtype was more prevalent among premenopausal women, and the Hormonal Receptor (HR positive subtype was most common overall. TNBC tumors were more likely to have loss of PTEN, express high Ki67, and have increased CD44+/CD24- expression. TNBC was also associated with higher plasma-IGF-I levels. HR-/HER2+ tumors showed high pAkt, decreased FOXO1, and high CD24+ expression. The loss of PTEN impacted DFS significantly in African Americans, but not in Hispanics/Latinas after adjusted for treatment and other tumor pathological factors. The CD44+/CD24- and CD24+/CD44- phenotypes decreased DFS, but were not independent predictors for DFS. HER2-positive and TNBC type of cancers continued to exhibit significant decrease in DFS after adjusting for the selected biomarkers and treatment.TNBC incidence is high among African-American and Hispanic/Latino women residing in South Los Angeles. Our study also shows for

  5. Lipid raft association restricts CD44-ezrin interaction and promotion of breast cancer cell migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2012-12-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration.

  6. The hyaluronan receptors CD44 and RHAMM (CD168) form complexeswith ERK1,2, which sustain high basal motility in breast cancercells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Sara R.; Fard, Shireen F.; Paiwand, Frouz F.; Tolg,Cornelia; Veiseh, Mandana; Wang, Chao; McCarthy, James B.; Bissell, MinaJ.; Koropatnick, James; Turley, Eva A.

    2007-03-28

    CD44 is an integral hyaluronan receptor that can promote or inhibit motogenic signaling in tumor cells. Rhamm is a non-integral cell surface hyaluronan receptor (CD168) and intracellular protein that promotes cell motility in culture and its expression is strongly upregulated in diseases like arthritis and aggressive cancers. Here we describe an autocrine mechanism utilizing cell surface Rhamm/CD44 interactions to sustain rapid basal motility in invasive breast cancer cell lines. This mechanism requires endogenous hyaluronan synthesis and the formation of Rhamm/CD44/ERK1, 2 complexes. Motile/ invasive MDA-MB-231 and Ras-MCF10A cells produce more endogenous hyaluronan, cell surface CD44 and Rhamm, an oncogenic Rhamm isoform, and exhibit elevated basal activation of ERK1, 2 than less invasive MCF7 and MCF10A breast cancer cells. Furthermore, CD44, Rhamm and ERK1, 2 uniquely co-immunoprecipitate and co-localize in MDA-MB-231 and Ras-MCF10A cells. Rapid motility of the invasive cell lines requires interaction of hyaluronan with cells, activation of ERK1, 2 and the participation of both cell surface CD44 and Rhamm. Combinations of anti-CD44, anti-Rhamm antibodies and a MEK1 inhibitor (PD098059) have less-than-additive blocking effects, suggesting action of all three proteins on a common motogenic signaling pathway. Collectively, these results show that cell surface Rhamm and CD44 act together in a hyaluronan-dependent, autocrine mechanism to coordinate sustained signaling through ERK1, 2 leading to high basal motility of invasive breast cancer cells. Since CD44/Rhamm complexes are not evident in less motile cells, an effect of CD44 on tumor cell motility may depend in part on its ability to partner with additional proteins, in this case cell surface Rhamm.

  7. CCR2 and CD44 promote inflammatory cell recruitment during fatty liver formation in a lithogenic diet fed mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E Egan

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a common disease with a spectrum of presentations. The current study utilized a lithogenic diet model of NAFLD. The diet was fed to mice that are either resistant (AKR or susceptible (BALB/c and C57BL/6 to hepatitis followed by molecular and flow cytometric analysis. Following this, a similar approach was taken in congenic mice with specific mutations in immunological genes. The initial study identified a significant and profound increase in multiple ligands for the chemokine receptor CCR2 and an increase in CD44 expression in susceptible C57BL/6 (B6 but not resistant AKR mice. Ccr2(-/- mice were completely protected from hepatitis and Cd44(-/- mice were partially protected. Despite protection from inflammation, both strains displayed similar histological steatosis scores and significant increases in serum liver enzymes. CD45(+CD44(+ cells bound to hyaluronic acid (HA in diet fed B6 mice but not Cd44(-/- or Ccr2(-/- mice. Ccr2(-/- mice displayed a diminished HA binding phenotype most notably in monocytes, and CD8(+ T-cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that absence of CCR2 completely and CD44 partially reduces hepatic leukocyte recruitment. These data also provide evidence that there are multiple redundant CCR2 ligands produced during hepatic lipid accumulation and describes the induction of a strong HA binding phenotype in response to LD feeding in some subsets of leukocytes from susceptible strains.

  8. Fibroblast invasive migration into fibronectin/fibrin gels requires a previously uncharacterized dermatan sulfate-CD44 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Richard A F; Lin, Fubao; Greiling, Doris

    2004-01-01

    After tissue injury, fibroblast migration from the peri-wound collagenous stroma into the fibrin-laden wound is critical for granulation tissue formation and subsequent healing. Recently we found that fibroblast transmigration from a collagen matrix into a fibrin matrix required the presence...... of fibronectin. Several integrins-alpha 4 beta 1, alpha 5 beta 1, and alpha v beta 3-with known fibronectin binding affinity were necessary for this invasive migration. Here we examined another family of cell surface receptors: the proteoglycans. We found that dermatan sulfate was required for fibroblast...... including heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, and as such can bind fibronectin. We found that CD44H, the non-spliced isoform of CD44, was necessary for fibroblast invasion into fibronectin/fibrin gels. Resting fibroblasts expressed mostly nonglycanated CD44H core protein, which became glycanated...

  9. Coexpression of invasive markers (uPA, CD44) and multiple drug-resistance proteins (MDR1, MRP2) is correlated with epithelial ovarian cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Hao, J; Wang, L; Li, Y

    2009-01-01

    Background: Invasion and metastases of cancer cells and the development of resistance to anticancer therapies are the main causes of treatment failure and mortality in cancer patients. Methods: We evaluated invasive markers of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and CD44 and multiple drug-resistance (MDR) markers of MDR1 and MRP2 in four epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines, primary tumours (n=120) and matched metastatic lesions (n=40) by immunofluoresence labelling. We correlated uPA and CD44 with MDR markers in primary and metastatic cells using confocal microscope. We also investigated the relationship of the expression of uPA, CD44 and MDR1 with various progression parameters. Results: The coexpression of uPA and CD44 with MDR markers was found in primary and metastatic cells. The overexpression of uPA, CD44 and MDR1 was found in most primary and matched metastatic lesions of EOC, and was significantly associated with tumour stage, grade, residual disease status, relapse and presence of ascites (P0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the overexpression of uPA, CD44 and MRD1 is correlated with EOC progression; both uPA and CD44 are related with drug resistance during EOC metastasis and could be useful therapeutically. PMID:19603017

  10. Hyaluronan-induced masking of ErbB2 and CD44-enhanced trastuzumab internalisation in trastuzumab resistant breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pályi-Krekk, Zsuzsanna; Barok, Márk; Isola, Jorma; Tammi, Markku; Szöllosi, János; Nagy, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Although trastuzumab, a recombinant humanised anti-ErbB2 antibody, is widely used in the treatment of breast cancer, neither its mechanism of action, nor the factors leading to resistance are fully understood. We have previously shown that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is pivotal in the in vivo effect of trastuzumab against JIMT-1, a cell line showing in vitro resistance to the antibody, and suggested that masking of the trastuzumab-binding epitope by MUC-4, a cell surface mucin, took place. Here, we further explored the role of masking of ErbB2 in connection with CD44 expression and synthesis of its ligand, hyaluronan. We show that high expression of CD44 observed in JIMT-1 cells correlates with ErbB2 downregulation in vivo, while siRNA-mediated inhibition of CD44 expression leads to decreased rate of trastuzumab internalisation and low cell proliferation in vitro. An inhibitor of hyaluronan synthesis, 4-methylumbelliferon (4-MU) significantly reduced the hyaluronan level of JIMT-1 cells both in vivo and in vitro leading to enhanced binding of trastuzumab to ErbB2 and increased ErbB2 down-regulation. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of trastuzumab on the growth of JIMT-1 xenografts was significantly increased by 4-MU treatment. Our results point to the importance of the CD44-hyaluronan pathway in the escape of tumour cells from receptor-oriented therapy.

  11. Curcumin induced nanoscale CD44 molecular redistribution and antigen-antibody interaction on HepG2 cell surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mu; Ruan Yuxia; Xing Xiaobo; Chen Qian; Peng, Yuan; Cai Jiye

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → In this study, we investigate the changes of CD44 expression and distribution on HepG2 cells after curcumin treatment. → We find curcumin is able to change the morphology and ultrastructure of HepG2 cells. → Curcumin can reduce the expression of CD44 molecules and induce the nanoscale molecular redistribution on cell surface. → The binding force between CD44-modified AFM tip and the HepG2 cell surface decreases after curcumin-treatment. - Abstract: The cell surface glycoprotein CD44 was implicated in the progression, metastasis and apoptosis of certain human tumors. In this study, we used atomic force microscope (AFM) to monitor the effect of curcumin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell surface nanoscale structure. High-resolution imaging revealed that cell morphology and ultrastructure changed a lot after being treated with curcumin. The membrane average roughness increased (10.88 ± 4.62 nm to 129.70 ± 43.72 nm) and the expression of CD44 decreased (99.79 ± 0.16% to 75.14 ± 8.37%). Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) imaging showed that CD44 molecules were located on the cell membrane. The florescence intensity in control group was weaker than that in curcumin treated cells. Most of the binding forces between CD44 antibodies and untreated HepG2 cell membrane were around 120-220 pN. After being incubated with curcumin, the major forces focused on 70-150 pN (10 μM curcumin-treated) and 50-120 pN (20 μM curcumin-treated). These results suggested that, as result of nanoscale molecular redistribution, changes of the cell surface were in response to external treatment of curcumin. The combination of AFM and LSCM could be a powerful method to detect the distribution of cell surface molecules and interactions between molecules and their ligands.

  12. CD44 enhances macrophage phagocytosis and plays a protective role in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Wei, Zigong; Xiao, Pingping; Chen, Yaosheng; Liu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases in many mammalian species. CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the protective role of CD44 during S. zooepidemicus infection. CD44-deficient mice exhibited reduced macrophage accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space and enhanced bacterial outgrowth and dissemination, which resulted in reduced mouse survival. An in vitro analysis revealed that CD44 can directly bind to S. zooepidemicus. Additionally, S. zooepidemicus interacted with macrophage-associated CD44, as reflected by the reduced uptake of S. zooepidemicus by CD44-deficient macrophages. These data suggest that CD44 contributes to effective antibacterial defense during S. zooepidemicus infection, thereby limiting the accompanying injury and death. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD31, CD36, and CD44 antigens in human omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ayse; Akkus, Murat; Nergiz, Yusuf; Yuruker, Sinan

    2004-03-01

    Milky spots in the human omental tissue are known to be consisting of lymphocytes, macrophages and mast cells. Our goal was to evaluate the relationship of lymphoid cells and macrophages with vasculature and stromal components. In this study we examined the biopsy specimens obtained from the adult patients whom were operated for different purposes in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. We used CD31 as an endothelial cell marker, CD36 which is known to react with microvascular endothelium and adipocytes, and CD44 which is a hyaluronic acid receptor using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. We observed that CD31 was mainly reactive with vascular endothelial cells and platelets, CD36 was reactive with microvascular endothelium and adipocytes and CD44 was mainly expressed by the endothelial cells of high endothelial venules, fibroblasts in stromal compartments and by large mononuclear cells. We determined the structural and immunophenotypic features of omental lymphoid tissue components stressing vascular and stromal elements, and we briefly discussed the significance of the expression of these molecules in the determined locations.

  14. The Importance of CD44 as a Stem Cell Biomarker and Therapeutic Target in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeeta Thapa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CD44 is a cell surface HA-binding glycoprotein that is overexpressed to some extent by almost all tumors of epithelial origin and plays an important role in tumor initiation and metastasis. CD44 is a compelling marker for cancer stem cells of many solid malignancies. In addition, interaction of HA and CD44 promotes EGFR-mediated pathways, consequently leading to tumor cell growth, tumor cell migration, and chemotherapy resistance in solid cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that major HA-CD44 signaling pathways involve a specific variant of CD44 isoforms; however, the particular variant almost certainly depends on the type of tumor cell and the stage of the cancer progression. Research to date suggests use of monoclonal antibodies against different CD44 variant isoforms and targeted inhibition of HA/CD44-mediated signaling combined with conventional radio/chemotherapy may be the most favorable therapeutic strategy for future treatments of advanced stage malignancies. Thus, this paper briefly focuses on the association of the major CD44 variant isoforms in cancer progression, the role of HA-CD44 interaction in oncogenic pathways, and strategies to target CD44-overexpressed tumor cells.

  15. Mouse and human HSPC immobilization in liquid culture by CD43 or CD44-antibody coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Dirk; Wang, Weijia; Hopf, Alois; Hilsenbeck, Oliver; Bourgine, Paul E; Rudolf, Fabian; Martin, Ivan; Schroeder, Timm

    2018-02-16

    Keeping track of individual cell identifications is imperative to the study of dynamic single cell behavior over time. Highly motile hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) migrate quickly and do not adhere, and thus must be imaged very frequently to keep cell identifications. Even worse, they are also flushed away during medium exchange. To overcome these limitations, we tested antibody coating for reducing HSPC motility in vitro. Anti-CD43 and -CD44 antibody coating reduced cell motility of mouse and human HSPCs in a concentration dependent manner. This enables 2D colony formation without cell mixing in liquid cultures, massively increases time-lapse imaging throughput, and maintains cell positions also during media exchange. Anti-CD43, but not -CD44 coating reduces mouse HSPC proliferation with increasing concentrations. No relevant effects on cell survival or myeloid and megakaryocyte differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors 1-5 (MPPs) were detected. Human umbilical cord hematopoietic CD34+ cell survival, proliferation and differentiation was not affected by either coating. This approach both, massively simplifies and accelerates continuous analysis of suspension cells, and enables the study of their behavior in dynamic rather than static culture conditions over time. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  16. The Role of CD44 in Disease Pathophysiology And Targeted Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre R. Jordan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cell-surface glycoprotein CD44 is involved in a multitude of important physiological functions including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, hematopoiesis, and lymphocyte activation. The diverse physiological activity of CD44 is manifested in the pathology of a number of diseases including cancer, arthritis, bacterial and viral infections, interstitial lung disease, vascular disease and wound healing. This diversity in biological activity is conferred by both a variety of distinct CD44 isoforms generated through complex alternative splicing, posttranslational modifications (e.g., N- and O-glycosylation, interactions with a number of different ligands and the abundance and spatial distribution of CD44 on the cell surface. The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA is the principle ligand of CD44. This review focuses both CD44-hyaluronan dependent and independent CD44 signaling and the role of CD44-HA interaction in various pathophysiologies. The review also discusses recent advances in novel treatment strategies that exploit the CD44-HA interaction either for direct targeting or for drug delivery.

  17. MET Signaling Mediates Intestinal Crypt-Villus Development, Regeneration, and Adenoma Formation and Is Promoted by Stem Cell CD44 Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Sander P J; Zeilstra, Jurrit; van Andel, Harmen; Mijnals, R Clinton; Zaunbrecher, Joost; Duivenvoorden, Annet A M; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T

    2017-10-01

    Resistance of metastatic human colorectal cancer cells to drugs that block epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling could be caused by aberrant activity of other receptor tyrosine kinases, activating overlapping signaling pathways. One of these receptor tyrosine kinases could be MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We investigated how MET signaling, and its interaction with CD44 (a putative MET coreceptor regulated by Wnt signaling and highly expressed by intestinal stem cells [ISCs] and adenomas) affects intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and adenoma formation in mini-gut organoids and mice. We established organoid cultures from ISCs stimulated with HGF or EGF and assessed intestinal differentiation by immunohistochemistry. Mice with total epithelial disruption of MET (Ah Cre /Met fl/fl /LacZ) or ISC-specific disruption of MET (Lgr5 Creert2 /Met fl/fl /LacZ) and control mice (Ah Cre /Met +/+ /LacZ, Lgr5 Creert2 /Met +/+ /LacZ) were exposed to 10 Gy total body irradiation; intestinal tissues were collected, and homeostasis and regeneration were assessed by immunohistochemistry. We investigated adenoma organoid expansion stimulated by HGF or EGF using adenomas derived from Lgr5 Creert2 /Met fl/fl /Apc fl/fl and Lgr5 Creert2 /Met +/+ /Apc fl/fl mice. The same mice were evaluated for adenoma prevalence and size. We also quantified adenomas in Ah Cre /Met fl/fl /Apc fl/+ mice compared with Ah Cre /Met +/+ /Apc fl/+ control mice. We studied expansion of organoids generated from crypts and adenomas, stimulated by HGF or EGF, that were derived from mice expressing different CD44 splice variants (Cd44 +/+ , Cd44 -/- , Cd44 s/s , or Cd44 v4-10/v4-10 mice). Crypts incubated with EGF or HGF expanded into self-organizing mini-guts with similar levels of efficacy and contained all differentiated cell lineages. MET-deficient mice did not have defects in intestinal homeostasis. Total body irradiation reduced numbers of proliferating crypts in Ah Cre

  18. Development and mechanistic insight into enhanced cytotoxic potential of hyaluronic acid conjugated nanoparticles in CD44 overexpressing cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneja, Ankit; Nayak, Debasis; Srinivas, M; Kumar, Amit; Khare, Vaibhav; Katoch, Archana; Goswami, Anindya; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Sawant, Sanghapal D; Gupta, Prem N

    2017-01-15

    The overexpression of CD44 in cancer cells reroutes number of oncogenic pathways including the central Pi3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway leading to cancer progression and malignancy. Herein, we developed hyaluronic acid-modified poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly (ethylene glycol) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-HA NPs) for targeted delivery of TTQ (thio-tetrazolyl analog of a clinical candidate, IC87114) to CD44 overexpressing cancer cells. The PLGA-PEG co-polymer was synthesized and characterized by NMR and FTIR. The co-polymer based nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method and hyaluronic acid (HA) was conjugated on to the nanoparticle surface via EDC/NHS chemistry. The PLGA-PEG-HA NPs had a desirable particle size (AFM). In vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies demonstrated higher cytotoxicity and enhanced intracellular accumulation of PLGA-PEG-HA NPs compared to PLGA-PEG NPs in high CD44 expressing MiaPaca-2 cells compared to MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. At the molecular level, the PLGA-PEG-HA NPs were found to be inducing premature senescence with increase in senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and senescence specific marker p21 expression through modulation of Pi3K/Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway in MiaPaca-2 cells. These findings collectively indicated that HA-modified nanoparticles might serve as a promising nanocarrier for site-specific drug delivery, and can be explored further to increase the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs via targeting to CD44 over-expressing cancer cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The protein tyrosine kinase Tec regulates a CD44highCD62L- Th17 subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheron, Nicole; Sharif, Omar; Schebesta, Alexandra; Croxford, Andrew; Raberger, Julia; Schmidt, Uwe; Vigl, Benjamin; Bauer, Jan; Bankoti, Rashmi; Lassmann, Hans; Epstein, Michelle M; Knapp, Sylvia; Waisman, Ari; Ellmeier, Wilfried

    2010-11-01

    The generation of Th17 cells has to be tightly controlled during an immune response. In this study, we report an increase in a CD44(high)CD62L(-) Th17 subset in mice deficient for the protein tyrosine kinase Tec. CD44(high)CD62L(-) Tec(-/-) CD4(+) T cells produced enhanced IL-17 upon activation, showed increased expression levels of IL-23R and RORγt, and IL-23-mediated expansion of Tec(-/-) CD4(+) T cells led to an increased production of IL-17. Tec(-/-) mice immunized with heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae displayed increased IL-17 expression levels in the lung postinfection with S. pneumoniae, and this correlated with enhanced pneumococcal clearance and reduced lung inflammation compared with Tec(+/+) mice. Moreover, naive Tec(-/-) OT-II CD4(+) T cells produced higher levels of IL-17 when cultured with OVA peptide-loaded bone marrow-derived dendritic cells that have been previously activated with heat-killed S. pneumoniae. Taken together, our data indicated a critical role for Tec in T cell-intrinsic signaling pathways that regulate the in vivo generation of CD44(high)CD62L(-) effector/memory Th17 populations.

  20. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.

    2017-05-03

    Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  1. Identification of the Molecular Mechanisms Responsible for the Inhibition of Homing of AML Cells Triggered by CD44-Ligation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jifri, Ablah

    2011-08-03

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a cancerous disease that is defined by the inability to produce functional and mature blood cells, as well as the uncontrolled proliferation due to failure to undergo apoptosis of abnormal cells. The most common therapy for Leukemia, chemotherapy, has proven only to be partially efficient since it does not target the leukemic stem cells (LSCs) that have a high self-renewal and repopulation capacity and result in remission of the disease. Therefore targeting LSCs will provide more efficient therapy. One way to achieve this would be to inhibit their homing capability to the bone marrow. It has recently been shown that CD44, an adhesive molecule, plays a crucial role in cell trafficking and lodgement of both normal and leukemic stem cells. More importantly anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies, along with its ability to induce differentiation of leukemic blasts, it inhibits specifically the homing capacity of LSCs to their micro-environmental niches. However, these molecular mechanisms that underlie the inhibition of homing have yet to be determined. To address these questions we conducted in vitro adhesion and blot-rolling assays to analyze the adherence and rolling capacity of these LSCs before and after treatment with anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Since glycosyltransferases play a crucial role in post translational carbohydrate decoration on adhesion molecules, we analyzed the expression (using quantitative PCR) of the different glycosyltransferases expressed in LSC\\'s before and after CD44 ligation (mAb treatment). Furthermore, we analyzed differentiation by flow cytometric analysis of treated and non-treated LSC\\'s. We anticipate that our results will set forth new insights into targeted therapies for AML.

  2. Highly selective CD44-specific gold nanorods for photothermal ablation of tumorigenic subpopulations generated in MCF7 mammospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eugene; Hong, Yoochan; Choi, Jihye; Haam, Seungjoo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Yang, Jaemoon

    2012-11-01

    Heterogeneous stem-like populations within tumor tissues are the primary suspects in causing cancer recurrence and malignancy. It is essential to selectively kill these tumorigenic populations. We created a novel system for photothermally ablating specific cells from three-dimensional mammospheres. A CD44-positive subpopulation, with tumorigenic and self-renewal potential, spontaneously arises in MCF7 breast cancer cell-engineered mammospheres. Using anti-CD44 antibody-linked gold nanorods, which strongly absorb near infrared light and increase local temperature, we effectively targeted and photo-ablated atypical cells. This biomarker-specific photothermal ablation model, using a smart nanoplatform, is a promising new strategy for selectively killing cancer cells, while sparing normal tissues.

  3. Myosin 1g Contributes to CD44 Adhesion Protein and Lipid Rafts Recycling and Controls CD44 Capping and Cell Migration in B Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes López-Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration and adhesion are critical for immune system function and involve many proteins, which must be continuously transported and recycled in the cell. Recycling of adhesion molecules requires the participation of several proteins, including actin, tubulin, and GTPases, and of membrane components such as sphingolipids and cholesterol. However, roles of actin motor proteins in adhesion molecule recycling are poorly understood. In this study, we identified myosin 1g as one of the important motor proteins that drives recycling of the adhesion protein CD44 in B lymphocytes. We demonstrate that the lack of Myo1g decreases the cell-surface levels of CD44 and of the lipid raft surrogate GM1. In cells depleted of Myo1g, the recycling of CD44 was delayed, the delay seems to be caused at the level of formation of recycling complex and entry into recycling endosomes. Moreover, a defective lipid raft recycling in Myo1g-deficient cells had an impact both on the capping of CD44 and on cell migration. Both processes required the transportation of lipid rafts to the cell surface to deliver signaling components. Furthermore, the extramembrane was essential for cell expansion and remodeling of the plasma membrane topology. Therefore, Myo1g is important during the recycling of lipid rafts to the membrane and to the accompanied proteins that regulate plasma membrane plasticity. Thus, Myosin 1g contributes to cell adhesion and cell migration through CD44 recycling in B lymphocytes.

  4. The Role of CD44-Hyaluronic Acid Interaction in Exogenous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Homing to Rat Remnant Kidney

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    Xiao-Hui Bian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of our study was to reveal the role of CD44-Hyaluronic acid (HA in the homing and improving renal function of systemically transplanted MSCs in chronic renal failure. Methods: First, a remnant kidney model was established in rats and the expression of HA was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC and western blotting. Next, chemotaxis assay using flow cytometry, and cell migration assay of MSCs were performed in vitro. Then, MSCs were transplanted into rats, thus, sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into sham group, 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx group, MSC group and MSC/Anti-CD44 group (n = 8 for all groups. Migration of MSCs to the kidney in these rats was assessed by using cell tracking experiments, and tissue damage was evaluated by morphological analysis using Masson's trichrome staining and periodic acid Schiff staining. Results: HA was significantly observed in 5/6 Nx group, but not in sham group. Meanwhile, HA was discovered induced MSCs migration remarkably (p Conclusion: Our findings reveal that CD44-HA has the potential to induce MSCs homing to injured tissue, while its effect on the ability of MSCs, improving tissue function, is not significant.

  5. Targeting Tumor Cells with Anti-CD44 Antibody Triggers Macrophage-Mediated Immune Modulatory Effects in a Cancer Xenograft Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, Daniela; Birzele, Fabian; Voss, Edgar; Nopora, Adam; Bader, Sabine; Friess, Thomas; Goller, Bernhard; Laifenfeld, Daphna; Weigand, Stefan; Runza, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    CD44, a transmembrane receptor reported to be involved in various cellular functions, is overexpressed in several cancer types and supposed to be involved in the initiation, progression and prognosis of these cancers. Since the sequence of events following the blockage of the CD44-HA interaction has not yet been studied in detail, we profiled xenograft tumors by RNA Sequencing to elucidate the mode of action of the anti-CD44 antibody RG7356. Analysis of tumor and host gene-expression profiles led us to the hypothesis that treatment with RG7356 antibody leads to an activation of the immune system. Using cytokine measurements we further show that this activation involves the secretion of chemo-attractants necessary for the recruitment of immune cells (i.e. macrophages) to the tumor site. We finally provide evidence for antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) of the malignant cells by macrophages.

  6. Targeting Tumor Cells with Anti-CD44 Antibody Triggers Macrophage-Mediated Immune Modulatory Effects in a Cancer Xenograft Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Maisel

    Full Text Available CD44, a transmembrane receptor reported to be involved in various cellular functions, is overexpressed in several cancer types and supposed to be involved in the initiation, progression and prognosis of these cancers. Since the sequence of events following the blockage of the CD44-HA interaction has not yet been studied in detail, we profiled xenograft tumors by RNA Sequencing to elucidate the mode of action of the anti-CD44 antibody RG7356. Analysis of tumor and host gene-expression profiles led us to the hypothesis that treatment with RG7356 antibody leads to an activation of the immune system. Using cytokine measurements we further show that this activation involves the secretion of chemo-attractants necessary for the recruitment of immune cells (i.e. macrophages to the tumor site. We finally provide evidence for antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP of the malignant cells by macrophages.

  7. Mineralization Effect of Hyaluronan on Dental Pulp Cells via CD44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Liang; Yeh, Ying-Yi; Lung, Jrhau; Yang, Yu-Chi; Yuan, Kuo

    2016-05-01

    CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in various cellular functions. Recent studies have suggested that CD44 is involved in early mineralization of odontoblasts. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the principal ligand for receptor CD44. Whether and how HA regulated the mineralization process of dental pulp cells were investigated. The effects of high-molecular-weight HA on differentiation and mineral deposition of dental pulp cells were tested by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay and alizarin red S staining. Osteogenesis real-time polymerase chain reaction array, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting were performed to identify downstream molecules involved in the mineralization induction of HA. CD44 was knocked down and examined to confirm whether the mineralization effect of HA was mediated by receptor CD44. Immunohistochemistry was used to understand the localization patterns of CD44 and the identified downstream proteins in vivo. Pulse treatment of HA enhanced ALP activity and mineral deposition in dental pulp cells. Tissue-nonspecific ALP, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), and type XV collagen (Col15A1) were upregulated via the HA-CD44 pathway in vitro. Immunohistochemistry of tooth sections showed that the staining pattern of BMP7 was very similar to that of CD44. Results of this study indicated that high-molecular-weight HA enhanced early mineralization of dental pulp cells mediated via CD44. The process involved important mineralization-associated molecules including tissue-nonspecific ALP, BMP7, and Col15A1. The findings may help develop new strategies in regenerative endodontics. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Truncated glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (tGLI1) mediates mesenchymal glioblastoma via transcriptional activation of CD44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Tadas K; Carpenter, Richard L; Sirkisoon, Sherona R; Zhu, Dongqin; Pasche, Boris; Chan, Michael D; Lesser, Glenn J; Tatter, Stephen B; Watabe, Kounosuke; Debinski, Waldemar; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2018-02-20

    The molecular pathways driving mesenchymal glioblastoma (GBM) are still not well understood. We report here that truncated glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (tGLI1) is a tumor-specific transcription factor that facilitates GBM growth, is enriched in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM and glioma stem cells (GSC), and promotes mesenchymal GSC by upregulating transcription of CD44. In an orthotopic GBM xenograft mouse model, tGLI1-overexpressing tumors grew more aggressively with increased proliferation and angiogenesis compared to control and GLI1-overexpressing xenografts. tGLI1 was highly expressed in GBM clinical specimens but undetectable in normal brains, whereas GLI1 was expressed in both tissues. A tGLI1 activation signature (tGAS) correlated with glioma grade, tumor angiogenesis, and poor overall survival, and GBM with high tGAS were enriched with mesenchymal GBM/GSC gene signatures. Neurospheres contained increased levels of tGLI1, but not GLI1, compared to the monolayer culture; mesenchymal GSC expressed more tGLI1 than proneural GSC. Ectopic tGLI1 expression enhanced the ability of mesenchymal GSC to yield neurospheres in vitro and form tumors in mouse brains. Selective tGLI1 knockdown reduced neurosphere formation of GBM cells. tGLI1 bound to and transactivated the promoter of the CD44 gene, a marker and mediator for mesenchymal GSC, leading to its expression. Collectively, these findings advance our understanding of GBM biology by establishing tGLI1 as a novel transcriptional activator of CD44 and a novel mediator of mesenchymal GBM and GSC. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Prognostic Value of E-cadherin-, CD44-, and MSH2-associated Nomograms in Patients With Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmiao Qu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prognostic value of E-cadherin, CD44, and MSH2 expression for colorectal cancer (CRC and construct nomograms that can predict prognosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the expression of E-cadherin, CD44, and MSH2 in 223 paraffin-embedded stage II and III CRC specimens using immunohistochemistry in the training cohort. Their prognostic values were assessed using Kaplan–Meier curves and univariate and multivariate COX regression models. Moreover, a number of risk factors were used to form nomograms to evaluate survival, and Harrell's concordance index (C-index was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy. Further validation of the nomograms was performed in an independent cohort of 115 cases. RESULTS: Low E-cadherin expression and low CD44 expression were significantly associated with diminished overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS in stage II and III CRC patients and patients with negative MSH2 expression had better clinical outcomes. Moreover, the multivariate COX analysis identified E-cadherin, CD44 and MSH2 expression as independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. Using these three markers and three clinicopathological risk variables, two nomograms were constructed and externally validated for predicting OS and DFS (C-index: training cohort, 0.779 (95% CI 0.722–0.835 and 0.771 (0.720–0.822, respectively; validation cohort, 0.773 (0.709–0.837 and 0.670 (0.594–0.747, respectively. CONCLUSION: The expression levels of E-cadherin, CD44 and MSH2 were independent prognostic factors for stage II and III CRC patients. By incorporating clinicopathological features and these biomarkers, we have established two nomograms that could be used to make individualized predictions for OS and DFS.

  10. Molecular MR Imaging of CD44 in Breast Cancer with Hyaluronan-Based Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    both Gd groups for MR imaging and cytotoxic moieties can be used as a unique biocompatible platform for theranostic applications in breast cancer ...TITLE: Molecular MR Imaging of CD44 in Breast Cancer with Hyaluronan-Based Contrast Agents PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dmitri Artemov, Ph.D...AUG 2009 - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Molecular MR Imaging of CD44 in Breast Cancer with Hyaluronan-Based Contrast Agents 5a. CONTRACT

  11. Soluble CD44 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with acute primary angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shida; Huang, Wenbin; Wang, Jiawei; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Minwen; Gao, Xinbo; Zhang, Xiulan

    2015-06-01

    Acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in acute primary angle closure (APAC) can cause huge damage to the variable cells in the eye; however, the mechanisms that connect the two processes still remain unclear. In this study, we aim to evaluate the levels of soluble CD44 (sCD44) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the aqueous humour of acute primary angle closure patients. This study included 24 eyes of 24 APAC patients (11 eyes with current APAC and 13 eyes with previous APAC) and 15 eyes of 15 cataract subjects. Clinical data were acquired, and aqueous humour was collected. The levels of sCD44 and VEGF in the aqueous humour were determined by ELISA and magnetic bead immunoassay technique. The concentrations of the sCD44 and VEGF in the current APAC were 9.9 ± 8.8 ng/ml and 2440.2 ± 2107.1 ng/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher when compared to the previous APAC group (p = 0.001) and cataract (p APAC and with cataract. Higher IOP was associated with higher concentration of sCD44 (Rho = 0.617, p = 0.001). The concentration of the VEGF in aqueous humour of APAC patients was closely related to the sCD44 levels (Rho = 0.752, p APAC, the level of sCD44 and VEGF increased significantly in the aqueous humour. The damage due to high IOP may therefore be mediated through the release of sCD44. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hyaluronan-CD44 Interactions Decrease the Metastatic Potential of Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    cancer cells in vivo. This study focuses on understanding the mechanisms by which CD44 inhibits breast cancer cell invasion. We have found that the differential interaction between CD44 and soluble or embedded Hyaluronan leads to differential phosphorylation of ERK and Pak. These differentially activated signaling pathways molecularly govern a phenotypic switch between invasiveness or proliferation. Additionally, this interactions also leads to decreased transcription of the metalloprotease MMP9 when on collagen IV gels but not collagen I gels. Together, these mechanisms

  13. Activation of VCAM-1 and Its Associated Molecule CD44 Leads to Increased Malignant Potential of Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available VCAM-1 (CD106, a transmembrane glycoprotein, was first reported to play an important role in leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte transendothelial migration and cell activation by binding to integrin VLA-1 (α4β1. In the present study, we observed that VCAM-1 expression can be induced in many breast cancer epithelial cells by cytokine stimulation in vitro and its up-regulation directly correlated with advanced clinical breast cancer stage. We found that VCAM-1 over-expression in the NMuMG breast epithelial cells controls the epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT program to increase cell motility rates and promote chemoresistance to doxorubicin and cisplatin in vitro. Conversely, in the established MDAMB231 metastatic breast cancer cell line, we confirmed that knockdown of endogenous VCAM-1 expression reduced cell proliferation and inhibited TGFβ1 or IL-6 mediated cell migration, and increased chemosensitivity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that knockdown of endogenous VCAM-1 expression in MDAMB231 cells reduced tumor formation in a SCID xenograft mouse model. Signaling studies showed that VCAM-1 physically associates with CD44 and enhances CD44 and ABCG2 expression. Our findings uncover the possible mechanism of VCAM-1 activation facilitating breast cancer progression, and suggest that targeting VCAM-1 is an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Reactivation from latency displays HIV particle budding at plasma membrane, accompanying CD44 upregulation and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano Kouichi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been accepted that HIV buds from the cell surface in T lymphocytes, whereas in macrophages it buds into intracellular endosomes. Recent studies, on the other hand, suggest that HIV preferentially buds from the cell surface even in monocytic cells. However, most studies are based on observations in acutely infected cells and little is known about HIV budding concomitant with reactivation from latency. Such studies would provide a better understanding of a reservoir for HIV. Results We observed HIV budding in latently infected T lymphocytic and monocytic cell lines following TNF-α stimulation and examined the upregulation of host factors that may be involved in particle production. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that reactivation of latently infected J1.1 cells (latently infected Jurkat cells with HIV-1 and U1 cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1 displayed HIV particle budding predominantly at the plasma membrane, a morphology that is similar to particle budding in acutely infected Jurkat and U937 cells. When mRNA expression levels were quantified by qRT-PCR, we found that particle production from reactivated J1.1 and U1 cells was accompanied by CD44 upregulation. This upregulation was similarly observed when Jurkat and U937 cells were acutely infected with HIV-1 but not when just stimulated with TNF-α, suggesting that CD44 upregulation was linked with HIV production but not with cell stimulation. The molecules in endocytic pathways such as CD63 and HRS were also upregulated when U1 cells were reactivated and U937 cells were acutely infected with HIV-1. Confocal microscopy revealed that these upregulated host molecules were recruited to and accumulated at the sites where mature particles were formed at the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our study indicates that HIV particles are budded at the plasma membrane upon reactivation from latency, a morphology that is similar to particle budding in acute

  15. Dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of SN38 to Her2 and CD44 overexpressed human gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Luo, Huiyan; Cao, Zhong; Chen, Ya; Gao, Jinbiao; Li, Yingqin; Jiang, Qing; Xu, Ruihua; Liu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) and cluster determinant 44 (CD44), is one of the most malignant human tumors which causes a high mortality rate due to rapid tumor growth and metastasis. To develop effective therapeutic treatments, a dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticle (NP) system was designed and constructed to deliver the SN38 agent specifically to human solid gastric tumors bearing excessive Her2 and CD44. The hybrid NPs consist of a particle core made of the biodegradable polymer PLGA and a lipoid shell prepared by conjugating the AHNP peptides and n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to the carboxyl groups of hyaluronic acid (HA). Upon encapsulation of the SN38 agent in the NPs, the AHNP peptides and HA on the NP surface allow preferential delivery of the drug to gastric cancer cells (e.g., HGC27 cells) by targeting Her2 and CD44. Cellular uptake and in vivo biodistribution experiments verified the active targeting and prolonged in vivo circulation properties of the dual-targeting hybrid NPs, leading to enhanced accumulation of the drug in tumors. Furthermore, the anti-proliferation mechanism studies revealed that the inhibition of the growth and invasive activity of HGC27 cells was not only attributed to the enhanced cellular uptake of dual-targeting NPs, but also benefited from the suppression of CD44 and Her2 expression by HA and AHNP moieties. Finally, intravenous administration of the SN38-loaded dual-targeting hybrid NPs induced significant growth inhibition of HGC27 tumor xenografted in nude mice compared with a clinical antitumor agent, Irinotecan (CPT-11), and the other NP formulations. These results demonstrate that the designed dual-targeting hybrid NPs are promising for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery to treat human gastric tumors over-expressing Her2 and CD44.Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor

  16. Nitric oxide inhibits the accumulation of CD4+CD44hiTbet+CD69lo T cells in mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, John E; Torrado, Egidio; Tighe, Michael; Fountain, Jeffrey J; Solache, Alejandra; Strutt, Tara; Swain, Susan; Appelberg, Rui; Cooper, Andrea M

    2012-12-01

    Animals lacking the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene (nos2(-/-)) are less susceptible to Mycobacterium avium strain 25291 and lack nitric oxide-mediated immunomodulation of CD4(+) T cells. Here we show that the absence of nos2 results in increased accumulation of neutrophils and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells within the M. avium containing granuloma. Examination of the T-cell phenotype in M. avium infected mice demonstrated that CD4(+)CD44(hi) effector T cells expressing the Th1 transcriptional regulator T-bet (T-bet(+)) were specifically reduced by the presence of nitric oxide. Importantly, the T-bet(+) effector population could be separated into CD69(hi) and CD69(lo) populations, with the CD69(lo) population only able to accumulate during chronic infection within infected nos2(-/-) mice. Transcriptomic comparison between CD4(+)CD44(hi)CD69(hi) and CD4(+)CD44(hi)CD69(lo) populations revealed that CD4(+)CD44(hi)CD69(lo) cells had higher expression of the integrin itgb1/itga4 (VLA-4, CD49d/CD29). Inhibition of Nos2 activity allowed increased accumulation of the CD4(+) CD44(hi)T-bet(+)CD69(lo) population in WT mice as well as increased expression of VLA-4. These data support the hypothesis that effector T cells in mycobacterial granulomata are not a uniform effector population but exist in distinct subsets with differential susceptibility to the regulatory effects of nitric oxide. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywes, Colette; Wessels, Michael R.

    2001-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as group A Streptococcus, GAS), the agent of streptococcal sore throat and invasive soft-tissue infections, attaches to human pharyngeal or skin epithelial cells through specific recognition of its hyaluronic acid capsular polysaccharide by the hyaluronic-acid-binding protein CD44 (refs 1, 2). Because ligation of CD44 by hyaluronic acid can induce epithelial cell movement on extracellular matrix, we investigated whether molecular mimicry by the GAS hyaluronic acid capsule might induce similar cellular responses. Here we show that CD44-dependent GAS binding to polarized monolayers of human keratinocytes induced marked cytoskeletal rearrangements manifested by membrane ruffling and disruption of intercellular junctions. Transduction of the signal induced by GAS binding to CD44 on the keratinocyte surface involved Rac1 and the cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Studies of bacterial translocation in two models of human skin indicated that cell signalling triggered by interaction of the GAS capsule with CD44 opened intercellular junctions and promoted tissue penetration by GAS through a paracellular route. These results support a model of host cytoskeleton manipulation and tissue invasion by an extracellular bacterial pathogen.

  18. Identification of Stem-Like Cells in Atrial Myxoma by Markers CD44, CD19, and CD45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xianghe; Liu, Danni; Cui, Jian; Zhou, Manqian; Liu, Na

    2016-01-01

    Atrial myxoma is the most frequent tumor arising mainly in atrial septum and its origin remains uncertain. It has been reported that a subpopulation of stem-like cells are present in benign tumors and responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. In this study, we investigated whether stem-like cells could contribute to the atrial cardiac myxoma. Immunohistology data confirmed that a population of cells bearing the surface markers CD19, CD45, and CD44 resided in a mucopolysaccharide-rich matrix of myxoma. Moreover, we isolated myxoma cells with phase-bright culture method and confirmed that myxoma derived cells express robust level of CD19, CD45, and CD44. Furthermore, the pluripotency of this population of cells also was validated by cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells differentiation in vitro. Our results indicate that primary cardiac myxoma may arise from mesenchymal stem cells with the ability to generate tumors with multilineage differentiation. In conclusion, this study for the first time verified that stem-like cells are present in atrial myxoma and this population of cells may have the capacity for myxoma initiation and progression. PMID:28115941

  19. Molecular mechanism for the action of the anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody MEM-85

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škerlová, Jana; Král, Vlastimil; Kachala, M.; Fábry, Milan; Bumba, Ladislav; Svergun, D.I.; Tosner, Z.; Veverka, V.; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 2 (2015), s. 214-223 ISSN 1047-8477 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11851S EU Projects: European Commission 264257 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : CD44 * Epitope mapping * Monoclonal antibody * MEM-85 * SAXS * NMR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.570, year: 2015

  20. A bioengineered murine model using CD24+CD44+ pancreatic cancer stem cells for chemotherapy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Shengqi; Li, Jianshe; Zhang, Zhongtao; Deng, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    In this work we first developed a murine pancreatic tumor model using CD24 + CD44 + pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSC) supported by an electrospun scaffold. Unlike conventional models, the use of CSC and the scaffold, which were biologically and chemically defined, afforded scientists a reliable platform to evaluate novel chemotherapy regimens. CD24 + CD44 + CSC successfully initiated tumorigenesis in vitro on the scaffold without suffering apoptosis, evidencing the lack of cytotoxicity of scaffolding materials. Also, the scaffold contributed to the acceleration of in vivo tumorigenesis and increased the likelihood of tumor formation. Using this model, we set out to explore the effectiveness of irinotecan/gemcitabine (IRIN-GEM), a chemotherapy regimen, for pancreatic cancer. Our study showed that IRIN-GEM induced a tumor regression whereas gemcitabine alone could only arrest the tumor growth. Further study suggested that the superior performance of IRIN-GEM could be attributed to its capacity to demolish the CD24 + CD44 + CSC sub-population by inducing a large-scale apoptosis. The use of highly proliferative yet homogenous CD24 + CD44 + CSC along with a chemically defined scaffold accelerated the tumor formation and significantly reduced the variability associated with conventional murine models. Armed with this new model, we discovered that IRIN-GEM would be a promising chemotherapy candidate for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. (paper)

  1. Molecular mechanism for the action of the anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody MEM-85

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škerlová, Jana; Král, V.; Kachala, M.; Fábry, M.; Bumba, L.; Svergun, D. I.; Tošner, Z.; Veverka, Václav; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 2 (2015), s. 214-223 ISSN 1047-8477 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11205; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : CD44 * epitope mapping * monoclonal antibody * MEM-85 * NMR * SAXS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.570, year: 2015

  2. Molecular mechanisms regulating the hyaluronan binding activity of the adhesion protein CD44

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, R K; Droll, A; Cooper, D L; Dougherty, S T; Dirks, J F; Dougherty, G J

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone designated B6F1.3, that appears to 'activate' the hyaluronan-binding capacity of CD44 upon transfection into the murine fibroblastoid cell line MOP8. Sequence analysis indicates that the putative regulatory molecule

  3. p53 and CD44 as clinical markers of tumour progression in colorectal carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J. W.; Wielenga, V. J.; Pals, S. T.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics have importantly improved our understanding of the development of colorectal cancer. The present review gives an overview of the clinical value of the tumour-suppressor gene, p53, and the CD44 cell adhesion molecule in colorectal cancer and the pitfalls

  4. PCBP-1 regulates alternative splicing of the CD44 gene and inhibits invasion in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Changhui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCBP1 (or alpha CP1 or hnRNP E1, a member of the PCBP family, is widely expressed in many human tissues and involved in regulation of transcription, transportation process, and function of RNA molecules. However, the role of PCBP1 in CD44 variants splicing still remains elusive. Results We found that enforced PCBP1 expression inhibited CD44 variants expression including v3, v5, v6, v8, and v10 in HepG2 cells, and knockdown of endogenous PCBP1 induced these variants splicing. Invasion assay suggested that PCBP1 played a negative role in tumor invasion and re-expression of v6 partly reversed the inhibition effect by PCBP1. A correlation of PCBP1 down-regulation and v6 up-regulation was detected in primary HCC tissues. Conclusions We first characterized PCBP1 as a negative regulator of CD44 variants splicing in HepG2 cells, and loss of PCBP1 in human hepatic tumor contributes to the formation of a metastatic phenotype.

  5. Aggravation of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Cigarette Smoke in Mice Is CD44-Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Kumar

    Full Text Available Although epidemiological studies reveal that cigarette smoke (CS facilitates the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, these studies offer limited information on the mechanisms involved. The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is involved in cell adhesion and acts as a receptor for hyaluronic acid and osteopontin. We aimed to investigate the role of CD44 in a murine model of CS-facilitated allergic airway inflammation.Wild type (WT and CD44 knock-out (KO mice were exposed simultaneously to house dust mite (HDM extract and CS. Inflammatory cells, hyaluronic acid (HA and osteopontin (OPN levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Proinflammatory mediators, goblet cell metaplasia and peribronchial eosinophilia were assessed in lung tissue. T-helper (Th 1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine production was evaluated in mediastinal lymph node cultures.In WT mice, combined HDM/CS exposure increased the number of inflammatory cells and the levels of HA and OPN in BALF and Th2 cytokine production in mediastinal lymph nodes compared to control groups exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS/CS, HDM/Air or PBS/Air. Furthermore, HDM/CS exposure significantly increased goblet cell metaplasia, peribronchial eosinophilia and inflammatory mediators in the lung. CD44 KO mice exposed to HDM/CS had significantly fewer inflammatory cells in BALF, an attenuated Th2 cytokine production, as well as decreased goblet cells and peribronchial eosinophils compared to WT mice. In contrast, the levels of inflammatory mediators were similar or higher than in WT mice.We demonstrate for the first time that the aggravation of pulmonary inflammation upon combined exposure to allergen and an environmental pollutant is CD44-dependent. Data from this murine model of concomitant exposure to CS and HDM might be of importance for smoking allergic asthmatics.

  6. Selective regain of egfr gene copies in CD44+/CD24-/low breast cancer cellular model MDA-MB-468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Antje

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased transcription of oncogenes like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is frequently caused by amplification of the whole gene or at least of regulatory sequences. Aim of this study was to pinpoint mechanistic parameters occurring during egfr copy number gains leading to a stable EGFR overexpression and high sensitivity to extracellular signalling. A deeper understanding of those marker events might improve early diagnosis of cancer in suspect lesions, early detection of cancer progression and the prediction of egfr targeted therapies. Methods The basal-like/stemness type breast cancer cell line subpopulation MDA-MB-468 CD44high/CD24-/low, carrying high egfr amplifications, was chosen as a model system in this study. Subclones of the heterogeneous cell line expressing low and high EGF receptor densities were isolated by cell sorting. Genomic profiling was carried out for these by means of SNP array profiling, qPCR and FISH. Cell cycle analysis was performed using the BrdU quenching technique. Results Low and high EGFR expressing MDA-MB-468 CD44+/CD24-/low subpopulations separated by cell sorting showed intermediate and high copy numbers of egfr, respectively. However, during cell culture an increase solely for egfr gene copy numbers in the intermediate subpopulation occurred. This shift was based on the formation of new cells which regained egfr gene copies. By two parametric cell cycle analysis clonal effects mediated through growth advantage of cells bearing higher egfr gene copy numbers could most likely be excluded for being the driving force. Subsequently, the detection of a fragile site distal to the egfr gene, sustaining uncapped telomere-less chromosomal ends, the ladder-like structure of the intrachromosomal egfr amplification and a broader range of egfr copy numbers support the assumption that dynamic chromosomal rearrangements, like breakage-fusion-bridge-cycles other than proliferation drive the gain

  7. CD44 Deficiency Is Associated with Increased Bacterial Clearance but Enhanced Lung Inflammation During Gram-Negative Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Florquin, Sandrine; de Vos, Alex F.; van't Veer, Cornelis; Queiroz, Karla C. S.; Liang, Jiurong; Jiang, Dianhua; Noble, Paul W.; van der Poll, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequently isolated causative pathogen in respiratory tract infections. CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule that has been implicated in several immunological processes. To determine the role of CD44 during Klebsiella pneumonia, we intranasally infected wild-type and

  8. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Long; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Yu; Guo, Jingwen; Han, Ning; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Wang, Pu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were synthesized for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery using a facile electrostatic attraction strategy. This HA modification ensured stable drug encapsulation in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in an extracellular environment while increasing colloidal stability, biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and controlled cargo release. The cellular uptake experiments of fluorescently labeled mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, with or without HA functionalization, demonstrated that HA-UMCS are able to specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Moreover, the cargo loaded doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) exhibited a dual pH and hyaluronidase-1 responsive release in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VER/DOX/HA-UMCS exhibited a superior therapeutic effect on an in vivo HCT-116 tumor in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, it is expected that HA-UMCS will offer a new method for targeted co-delivery of drugs to tumors overexpressing CD44 receptors.

  9. The Role of Hyaluronan and CD44 in the Pathogenesis of Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Yung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype autoimmune disease that affects multiorgan systems. Lupus nephritis is one of the most severe manifestations of SLE whereby immune-mediated inflammation can lead to permanent damage within the glomerular, tubulo-interstitial, and vascular compartments of the kidney, resulting in acute or chronic renal failure. The mechanisms that regulate host inflammatory responses and tissue injury are incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that hyaluronan and its interaction with its cell surface receptor CD44 plays an important role in mediating pathogenic mechanisms in SLE. This paper discusses the putative mechanisms through which hyaluronan and CD44 contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE, with particular emphasis on lupus nephritis.

  10. Novel Dual Mitochondrial and CD44 Receptor Targeting Nanoparticles for Redox Stimuli-Triggered Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaili; Qi, Mengjiao; Guo, Chunjing; Yu, Yueming; Wang, Bingjie; Fang, Lei; Liu, Mengna; Wang, Zhen; Fan, Xinxin; Chen, Daquan

    2018-02-01

    In this work, novel mitochondrial and CD44 receptor dual-targeting redox-sensitive multifunctional nanoparticles (micelles) based on oligomeric hyaluronic acid (oHA) were proposed. The amphiphilic nanocarrier was prepared by (5-carboxypentyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (TPP), oligomeric hyaluronic acid (oHA), disulfide bond, and curcumin (Cur), named as TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur. The TPP targeted the mitochondria, the antitumor drug Cur served as a hydrophobic core, the CD44 receptor targeting oHA worked as a hydrophilic shell, and the disulfide bond acted as a connecting arm. The chemical structure of TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur was characterized by 1HNMR technology. Cur was loaded into the TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur micelles by self-assembly. Some properties, including the preparation of micelles, morphology, redox sensitivity, and mitochondrial targeting, were studied. The results showed that TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur micelles had a mean diameter of 122.4 ± 23.4 nm, zeta potential - 26.55 ± 4.99 mV. In vitro release study and cellular uptake test showed that TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur micelles had redox sensibility, dual targeting to mitochondrial and CD44 receptor. This work provided a promising smart multifunctional nanocarrier platform to enhance the solubility, decrease the side effects, and improve the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs.

  11. Revealing the mechanisms of protein disorder and N-glycosylation in CD44-hyaluronan binding using molecular simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgun eGuvench

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular N-terminal hyaluronan binding domain (HABD of CD44 is a small globular domain that confers hyaluronan (HA binding functionality to this large transmembrane glycoprotein. When recombinantly expressed by itself, HABD exists as a globular water-soluble protein that retains the capacity to bind HA. This has enabled atomic-resolution structural biology experiments that have revealed the structure of HABD and its binding mode with oligomeric HA. Such experiments have also pointed to an order-to-disorder transition in HABD that is associated with HA binding. However, it had remained unclear how this structural transition was involved in binding since it occurs in a region of HABD distant from the HA-binding site. Furthermore, HABD is known to be N-glycosylated, and such glycosylation can diminish HA binding when the associated N-glycans are capped with sialic acid residues. The intrinsic flexibility of disordered proteins and of N-glycans makes it difficult to apply experimental structural biology approaches to probe the molecular mechanisms of how the order-to-disorder transition and N-glycosylation can modulate HA binding by HABD. We review recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that provide atomic-resolution mechanistic understanding of such modulation to help bridge gaps between existing experimental binding and structural biology data. Findings from these simulations include: Tyr42 may function as a molecular switch that converts the HA binding site from a low affinity to a high affinity state; in the partially-disordered form of HABD, basic amino acids in the C-terminal region can gain sufficient mobility to form direct contacts with bound HA to further stabilize binding; and terminal sialic acids on covalently-attached N-glycans can form charge-paired hydrogen bonding interactions with basic amino acids that could otherwise bind to HA, thereby blocking HA binding to glycosylated CD44 HABD.

  12. Role of the Phosphorylation of mTOR in the Differentiation of AML Cells Triggered with CD44 Antigen

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Manar M

    2013-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological disorder characterized by blockage of differentiation of myeloblasts. To date, the main therapy for AML is chemotherapy. Yet, studies are seeking a better treatment to enhance the survival rate of patients and minimize the relapsing of the disease. Since the major problem in these cells is that they are arrested in cellular differentiation, drugs that could induce their differentiation have proven to be efficient and of major interest for AML therapy. CD44 triggering appeared as a promising target for AML therapy as it has been shown that specific monoclonal antibodies, such as A3D8 and H90, reversed the blockage of differentiation, inhibited the proliferation of all AML subtypes, and in some cases, induced cell apoptosis. Studies conducted in our laboratory have added strength to these antibodies as potential treatment for AML. Indeed, our laboratory found that treating HL60 cells with A3D8 shows a decrease in the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) kinase correlated with the inhibition of proliferation/induction of differentiation of AML cells.The relationship between the induction of differentiation and the inhibition of proliferation and the decrease of mTOR phosphorylation remains to be clarified. To study the importance of the de-phosphorylation of mTOR and the observed effect of CD44 triggering on differentiation and/or proliferation, we sought to prepare phospho-mimic mutants of the mTOR kinase that will code for a constitutively phosphorylated form of mTOR and used two main methods to express this mutant in HL60 cells: lentiviral and simple transfection (cationic-liposomal transfection).

  13. Lipid-Based Nanovectors for Targeting of CD44-Overexpressing Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arpicco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan that exists in living systems, and it is a major component of the extracellular matrix. The hyaluronic acid receptor CD44 is found at low levels on the surface of epithelial, haematopoietic, and neuronal cells and is overexpressed in many cancer cells particularly in tumour initiating cells. HA has been therefore used as ligand attached to HA-lipid-based nanovectors for the active targeting of small or large active molecules for the treatment of cancer. This paper describes the different approaches employed for the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of these potent delivery systems.

  14. Low molecular weight hyaluronan mediated CD44 dependent induction of IL-6 and chemokines in human dermal fibroblasts potentiates innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistejnova, Lucie; Safrankova, Barbora; Nesporova, Kristina; Slavkovsky, Rastislav; Hermannova, Martina; Hosek, Petr; Velebny, Vladimir; Kubala, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Complex regulation of the wound healing process involves multiple interactions among stromal tissue cells, inflammatory cells, and the extracellular matrix. Low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW HA) derived from the degradation of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW HA) is suggested to activate cells involved in wound healing through interaction with HA receptors. In particular, receptor CD44 is suggested to mediate cell response to HA of different MW, being the main cell surface HA receptor in stromal tissue and immune cells. However, the response of dermal fibroblasts, the key players in granulation tissue formation within the wound healing process, to LMW HA and their importance for the activation of immune cells is unclear. In this study we show that LMW HA (4.3kDa) induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and chemokines IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL6 and CCL8 gene expression in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) that was further confirmed by increased levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in cell culture supernatants. Conversely, NHDF treated by HMW HA revealed a tendency to decrease the gene expression of these cytokine and chemokines when compared to untreated control. The blockage of CD44 expression by siRNA resulted in the attenuation of IL-6 and chemokines expression in LMW HA treated NHDF suggesting the involvement of CD44 in LMW HA mediated NHDF activation. The importance of pro-inflammatory mediators produced by LMW HA triggered NHDF was evaluated by significant activation of blood leukocytes exhibited as increased production of IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusively, we demonstrated a pro-inflammatory response of dermal fibroblasts to LMW HA that was transferred to leukocytes indicating the significance of LMW HA in the inflammatory process development during the wound healing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Scimeca; Elena Bonanno; Eleonora Piccirilli; Jacopo Baldi; Alessandro Mauriello; Augusto Orlandi; Virginia Tancredi; Elena Gasbarra; Umberto Tarantino

    2015-01-01

    Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem...

  16. Organotypic culture of normal, dysplastic and squamous cell carcinoma-derived oral cell lines reveals loss of spatial regulation of CD44 and p75 NTR in malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Andrew J; AbdulMajeed, Ahmad A; Upton, Zee; Farah, Camile S

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) often arise from dysplastic lesions. The role of cancer stem cells in tumour initiation is widely accepted, yet the potential existence of pre-cancerous stem cells in dysplastic tissue has received little attention. Cell lines from oral diseases ranging in severity from dysplasia to malignancy provide opportunity to investigate the involvement of stem cells in malignant progression from dysplasia. Stem cells are functionally defined by their ability to generate hierarchical tissue structures in consortium with spatial regulation. Organotypic cultures readily display tissue hierarchy in vitro; hence, in this study, we compared hierarchical expression of stem cell-associated markers in dermis-based organotypic cultures of oral epithelial cells from normal tissue (OKF6-TERT2), mild dysplasia (DOK), severe dysplasia (POE-9n) and OSCC (PE/CA P J15). Expression of CD44, p75(NTR), CD24 and ALDH was studied in monolayers by flow cytometry and in organotypic cultures by immunohistochemistry. Spatial regulation of CD44 and p75(NTR) was evident for organotypic cultures of normal (OKF6-TERT2) and dysplasia (DOK and POE-9n) but was lacking for OSCC (PE/CA PJ15)-derived cells. Spatial regulation of CD24 was not evident. All monolayer cultures exhibited CD44, p75(NTR), CD24 antigens and ALDH activity (ALDEFLUOR(®) assay), with a trend towards loss of population heterogeneity that mirrored disease severity. In monolayer, increased FOXA1 and decreased FOXA2 expression correlated with disease severity, but OCT3/4, Sox2 and NANOG did not. We conclude that dermis-based organotypic cultures give opportunity to investigate the mechanisms that underlie loss of spatial regulation of stem cell markers seen with OSCC-derived cells. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. CD44+/CD24- breast cancer cells exhibit phenotypic reversion in three-dimensional self-assembling peptide RADA16 nanofiber scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kun Mi,1 Zhihua Xing2 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Sichuan Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology, Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds have been shown to be a ­permissive biological material for tissue repair, cell proliferation, differentiation, etc. Recently, a subpopulation (CD44+/CD24- of breast cancer cells has been reported to have stem/progenitor cell properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this subpopulation of cancer cells have different phenotypes in self-assembling COCH3-RADARADARADARADA-CONH2 (RADA16 peptide nanofiber scaffold compared with Matrigel® (BD Biosciences, Two Oak Park, Bedford, MA, USA and collagen I.Methods: CD44 and CD24 expression was determined by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was measured by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assay and DNA content measurement. Immunostaining was used to indicate the morphologies of cells in three-dimensional (3D cultures of different scaffolds and the localization of β-catenin in the colonies. Western blot was used to determine the expression of signaling proteins. In vitro migration assay and inoculation into nude mice were used to evaluate invasion and tumorigenesis in vivo.Results: The breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435S contained a high percentage (>99% of CD44+/CD24- cells, which exhibited phenotypic reversion in 3D RADA16 nanofiber scaffold compared with collagen I and Matrigel. The newly formed reverted acini-like colonies reassembled a basement membrane and reorganized their cytoskeletons. At the same time, cells cultured and embedded in RADA16 peptide scaffold exhibited growth arrest. Also, they exhibited different migration potential, which links their migration ability with their cellular morphology. Consistent with studies in vitro, the in vivo tumor

  18. Hyaluronan Anchored to Activated CD44 on Central Nervous System Vascular Endothelial Cells Promotes Lymphocyte Extravasation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Clayton W.; Foster, Scott C.; Matsumoto, Steven G.; Preston, Marnie A.; Xing, Rubing; Bebo, Bruce F.; Banine, Fatima; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Itakura, Asako; McCarty, Owen J. T.; Sherman, Larry S.

    2012-01-01

    The extravasation of lymphocytes across central nervous system (CNS) vascular endothelium is a key step in inflammatory demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) and its receptor, CD44, have been implicated in this process but their precise roles are unclear. We find that CD44−/− mice have a delayed onset of EAE compared with wild type animals. Using an in vitro lymphocyte rolling assay, we find that fewer slow rolling (<1 μm/s) wild type (WT) activated lymphocytes interact with CD44−/− brain vascular endothelial cells (ECs) than with WT ECs. We also find that CD44−/− ECs fail to anchor HA to their surfaces, and that slow rolling lymphocyte interactions with WT ECs are inhibited when the ECs are treated with a pegylated form of the PH20 hyaluronidase (PEG-PH20). Subcutaneous injection of PEG-PH20 delays the onset of EAE symptoms by ∼1 day and transiently ameliorates symptoms for 2 days following disease onset. These improved symptoms correspond histologically to degradation of HA in the lumen of CNS blood vessels, decreased demyelination, and impaired CD4+ T-cell extravasation. Collectively these data suggest that HA tethered to CD44 on CNS ECs is critical for the extravasation of activated T cells into the CNS providing new insight into the mechanisms promoting inflammatory demyelinating disease. PMID:22865853

  19. Crystallographic characterization of the radixin FERM domain bound to the cytoplasmic tail of adhesion molecule CD44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Tomoyuki; Kitano, Ken; Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Maesaki, Ryoko; Hakoshima, Toshio, E-mail: hakosima@bs.naist.jp [Structural Biology Laboratory, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Keihanna Science City, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    The radixin FERM domain complexed with the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide has been crystallized. A diffraction data set from the complex was collected to 2.1 Å. CD44 is an important adhesion molecule that specifically binds hyaluronic acid and regulates cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Increasing evidence has indicated that CD44 is assembled in a regulated manner into the membrane–cytoskeletal junction, a process that is mediated by ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) proteins. Crystals of a complex between the radixin FERM domain and the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of CD44 have been obtained. The crystal of the radixin FERM domain bound to the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.70, b = 66.18, c = 86.22 Å, and contain one complex in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. An intensity data set was collected to a resolution of 2.1 Å.

  20. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqian; Lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.

  1. Hyaluronic Acid Immobilized Polyacrylamide Nanoparticle Sensors for CD44 Receptor Targeting and pH Measurement in Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Honghao; Benjaminsen, Rikke Vicki; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    by radical polymerization followed by post functionalization with sensor fluorophores and physically absorbed or chemically conjugated HA. Cell uptake studies showed significant uptake of HA-coated nanosensors in HeLa cells and no uptake under the same conditions without the HA targeting ligand. The p......Our ability to design receptor-targeted nanocarriers aimed at drug release after endocytosis is limited by the current knowledge of intracellular nanoparticle (NP) trafficking. It is not clear if NP size, surface chemistry, and/or targeting of cell surface receptors changes the intracellular fate...... the CD44 receptor, which is overexpressed on the surface of a broad variety of cancer cells, we have synthesized an NP pH sensor system that targets CD44. We used a polyacrylamide nanoparticle matrix bearing hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface as a CD44 targeting ligand. The HA-coated NPs were prepared...

  2. Conformational and functional variants of CD44-targeted protein nanoparticles bio-produced in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesarrodona, Mireia; Conchillo-Solé, Oscar; Unzueta, Ugutz; Xu, Zhikun; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Daura, Xavier; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Fernández, Yolanda; Foradada, Laia; Schwartz, Simó Jr; Abasolo, Ibane; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Roldán, Mónica; Villegas, Sandra; Rinas, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Biofabrication is attracting interest as a means to produce nanostructured functional materials because of its operational versatility and full scalability. Materials based on proteins are especially appealing, as the structure and functionality of proteins can be adapted by genetic engineering. Furthermore, strategies and tools for protein production have been developed and refined steadily for more than 30 years. However, protein conformation and therefore activity might be sensitive to production conditions. Here, we have explored whether the downstream strategy influences the structure and biological activities, in vitro and in vivo, of a self-assembling, CD44-targeted protein-only nanoparticle produced in Escherichia coli. This has been performed through the comparative analysis of particles built from soluble protein species or protein versions obtained by in vitro protein extraction from inclusion bodies, through mild, non-denaturing procedures. These methods have been developed recently as a convenient alternative to the use of toxic chaotropic agents for protein resolubilization from protein aggregates. The results indicate that the resulting material shows substantial differences in its physicochemical properties and its biological performance at the systems level, and that its building blocks are sensitive to the particular protein source. (paper)

  3. Biocompatible hyaluronic acid polymer-coated quantum dots for CD44+ cancer cell-targeted imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hening; Sun, Hongfang; Wei, Hui; Xi, Peng; Nie, Shuming; Ren, Qiushi

    2014-10-01

    The cysteamine-modified hyaluronic acid (HA) polymer was employed to coat quantum dots (QDs) through a convenient one-step reverse micelle method, with the final QDs hydrodynamic size of around 22.6 nm. The HA coating renders the QDs with very good stability in PBS for more than 140 days and resistant to large pH range of 2-12. Besides, the HA-coated QDs also show excellent fluorescence stability in BSA-containing cell culture medium. In addition, the cell culture assay indicates no significant cytotoxicity for MD-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and its targeting ability to cancer receptor CD44 has been demonstrated on two breast cancer cell lines. The targeting mechanism was further proved by the HA competition experiment. This work has established a new approach to help solve the stability and toxicity problems of QDs, and moreover render the QDs cancer targeting property. The current results indicate that the HA polymer-coated QDs hold the potential application for both in vitro and in vivo cancer imaging researches.

  4. Triggering of the CD44 antigen on T lymphocytes promotes T cell adhesion through the LFA-1 pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, G.; van Kooyk, Y.; de Graaff, M.; Meyer, C. J.; Figdor, C. G.; Pals, S. T.

    1990-01-01

    The CD44 molecule, a molecule which has been previously known as Hermes, Pgp-1, extracellular matrix receptor III, and In(Lu)-related p80, is currently thought to be involved in several steps of normal immune cell function, including lymphocyte adhesion to high endothelial venules and to the

  5. Hyaluronic acid based self-assembling nanosystems for CD44 target mediated siRNA delivery to solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Shanthi; Iyer, Arun K.; Morrissey, David V.; Amiji, Mansoor M.

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer therapeutics employing RNA interference mechanism holds promising potentials for sequence-specific silencing of target genes. However targeted delivery of siRNAs to tumor tissues and cells and more importantly, their intracellular release at sites of interest still remains a major challenge that needs to be addressed before this technique could become a clinically viable option. In the current study, we have engineered and screened a series of CD44 targeting hyaluronic acid (HA) based self-assembling nanosystems for targeted siRNA delivery. The HA polymer was functionalized with lipids of varying carbon chain lengths/nitrogen content, as well as polyamines for assessing siRNA encapsulation. From the screens, several HA-derivatives were identified that could stably encapsulate/complex siRNAs and form self-assembled nanosystems, as determined by gel retardation assays and dynamic light scattering. Many HA derivatives could transfect siRNAs into cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Interestingly, blocking the CD44 receptors on the cells using free excess soluble HA prior to incubation of cy3-labeled-siRNA loaded HA nano-assemblies resulted in >90% inhibition of the receptor mediated uptake, confirming target specificity. In addition, SSB/PLK1 siRNA encapsulated in HA-PEI/PEG nanosystems demonstrated dose dependent and target specific gene knockdown in both sensitive and resistant A549 lung cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. More importantly, these siRNA encapsulated nanosystems demonstrated tumor selective uptake and target specific gene knock down in vivo in solid tumors as well as in metastatic tumors. The HA based nanosystems thus portend to be promising siRNA delivery vectors for systemic targeting of CD44 overexpressing cancers including tumor initiating (stem-) cells and metastatic lesions. PMID:23410679

  6. Molecular imaging of EGFR and CD44v6 for prediction and response monitoring of HSP90 inhibition in an in vivo squamous cell carcinoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegelberg, Diana; Mortensen, Anja C.; Stenerloew, Bo [Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala (Sweden); Selvaraju, Ram K.; Eriksson, Olof [Uppsala University, Preclinical PET Platform, Uppsala (Sweden); Nestor, Marika [Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala (Sweden); Uppsala University, Unit of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is essential for the activation and stabilization of numerous oncogenic client proteins. AT13387 is a novel HSP90 inhibitor promoting degradation of oncogenic proteins upon binding, and may also act as a radiosensitizer. For optimal treatment there is, however, the need for identification of biomarkers for patient stratification and therapeutic response monitoring, and to find suitable targets for combination treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the response of surface antigens commonly expressed in squamous cell carcinoma to AT13387 treatment, and to find suitable biomarkers for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy in combination with HSP90 inhibition. Cancer cell proliferation and radioimmunoassays were used to evaluate the effect of AT13387 on target antigen expression in vitro. Inhibitor effects were then assessed in vivo in mice-xenografts. Animals were treated with AT13387 (5 x 50 mg/kg), and were imaged with PET using either {sup 18}F-FDG or {sup 124}I-labelled tracers for EGFR and CD44v6, and this was followed by ex-vivo biodistribution analysis and immunohistochemical staining. AT13387 exposure resulted in high cytotoxicity and possible radiosensitization with IC{sub 50} values below 4 nM. Both in vitro and in vivo AT13387 effectively downregulated HSP90 client proteins. PET imaging with {sup 124}I-cetuximab showed a significant decrease of EGFR in AT13387-treated animals compared with untreated animals. In contrast, the squamous cell carcinoma-associated biomarker CD44v6, visualized with {sup 124}I-AbD19384 as well as {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, were not significantly altered by AT13387 treatment. We conclude that AT13387 downregulates HSP90 client proteins, and that molecular imaging of these proteins may be a suitable approach for assessing treatment response. Furthermore, radioimmunotherapy targeting CD44v6 in combination with AT13387 may potentiate the radioimmunotherapy outcome due to radiosensitizing effects of

  7. Maintenance of the stemness in CD44+ HCT-15 and HCT-116 human colon cancer cells requires miR-203 suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy-Yeuan Ju

    2014-01-01

    Taken together, CD44 is a critical molecule for modulating stemness in CSCs. More importantly, we show for the first time that the downregulation of miR-203 by HA/CD44 signaling is the main reason for stemness-maintenance in colon cancer cells.

  8. Promoter- and cell-specific epigenetic regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN by Methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Imke; Wischnewski, Frank; Pantel, Klaus; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs) and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global chromatin changes have been shown to occur in tumours and regions of tumour-associated genes are affected by epigenetic modifications, these may constitute important regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of malignant transformation. In DU145, LNCaP and MCF-7 cells mRNA expression levels of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN were determined by quantitative RT-PCR at the basal status as well as after treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A. Furthermore, genomic DNA was bisulfite-converted and sequenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with the stimulated and unstimulated cells using antibodies for MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 as well as 17 different histone antibodies. Comparison of the different promoters showed that MeCP2 and MBD2a repressed promoter-specifically Cyclin D2 in all cell lines, whereas in MCF-7 cells MeCP2 repressed cell-specifically all methylated promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that all methylated promoters associated with at least one MBD. Treatment of the cells by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) caused dissociation of the MBDs from the promoters. Only MBD1v1 bound and repressed methylation-independently all promoters. Real-time amplification of DNA immunoprecipitated by 17 different antibodies showed a preferential enrichment for methylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3) at the particular promoters. Notably, the silent promoters were associated with unmodified histones which were acetylated following treatment by 5-aza-CdR. This study is one of the first to reveal the histone code and MBD profile

  9. Promoter- and cell-specific epigenetic regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN by Methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzenbach Heidi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global chromatin changes have been shown to occur in tumours and regions of tumour-associated genes are affected by epigenetic modifications, these may constitute important regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of malignant transformation. Methods In DU145, LNCaP and MCF-7 cells mRNA expression levels of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN were determined by quantitative RT-PCR at the basal status as well as after treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A. Furthermore, genomic DNA was bisulfite-converted and sequenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with the stimulated and unstimulated cells using antibodies for MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 as well as 17 different histone antibodies. Results Comparison of the different promoters showed that MeCP2 and MBD2a repressed promoter-specifically Cyclin D2 in all cell lines, whereas in MCF-7 cells MeCP2 repressed cell-specifically all methylated promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that all methylated promoters associated with at least one MBD. Treatment of the cells by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR caused dissociation of the MBDs from the promoters. Only MBD1v1 bound and repressed methylation-independently all promoters. Real-time amplification of DNA immunoprecipitated by 17 different antibodies showed a preferential enrichment for methylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 at the particular promoters. Notably, the silent promoters were associated with unmodified histones which were acetylated following treatment by 5-aza-CdR. Conclusions This study is one

  10. Complete identification of E-selectin ligands on neutrophils reveals distinct functions of PSGL-1, ESL-1, and CD44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Andrés; Peired, Anna J; Wild, Martin; Vestweber, Dietmar; Frenette, Paul S

    2007-04-01

    The selectins and their ligands are required for leukocyte extravasation during inflammation. Several glycoproteins have been suggested to bind to E-selectin in vitro, but the complete identification of its physiological ligands has remained elusive. Here, we showed that E-selectin ligand-1 (ESL-1), P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), and CD44 encompassed all endothelial-selectin ligand activity on neutrophils by using gene- and RNA-targeted loss of function. PSGL-1 played a major role in the initial leukocyte capture, whereas ESL-1 was critical for converting initial tethers into steady slow rolling. CD44 controlled rolling velocity and mediated E-selectin-dependent redistribution of PSGL-1 and L-selectin to a major pole on slowly rolling leukocytes through p38 signaling. These results suggest distinct and dynamic contributions of these three glycoproteins in selectin-mediated neutrophil adhesion and signaling.

  11. Proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartridge promotes in vitro wound healing of fibroblast monolayers via the CD44 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Gen; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takeda, Yoshie [Department of Physiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Sokabe, Masahiro, E-mail: msokabe@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Mechanobiology Institute Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411 (Singapore)

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartridge (SNC-PG) promoted wound healing in fibroblast monolayers. • SNC-PG stimulated both cell proliferation and cell migration. • Interaction between chondroitin sulfate-units and CD44 is responsible for the effect. - Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are involved in various cellular functions including cell growth, adhesion, and differentiation; however, their physiological roles are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the effect of PG purified from salmon nasal cartilage (SNC-PG) on wound closure using tissue-cultured cell monolayers, an in vitro wound-healing assay. The results indicated that SNC-PG significantly promoted wound closure in NIH/3T3 cell monolayers by stimulating both cell proliferation and cell migration. SNC-PG was effective in concentrations from 0.1 to 10 μg/ml, but showed much less effect at higher concentrations (100–1000 μg/ml). The effect of SNC-PG was abolished by chondroitinase ABC, indicating that chondroitin sulfates (CSs), a major component of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in SNC-PG, are crucial for the SNC-PG effect. Furthermore, chondroitin 6-sulfate (C-6-S), a major CS of SNC-PG GAGs, could partially reproduce the SNC-PG effect and partially inhibit the binding of SNC-PG to cells, suggesting that SNC-PG exerts its effect through an interaction between the GAGs in SNC-PG and the cell surface. Neutralization by anti-CD44 antibodies or CD44 knockdown abolished SNC-PG binding to the cells and the SNC-PG effect on wound closure. These results suggest that interactions between CS-rich GAG-chains of SNC-PG and CD44 on the cell surface are responsible for the SNC-PG effect on wound closure.

  12. Integrin αvβ3 and CD44 pathways in metastatic prostate cancer cells support osteoclastogenesis via a Runx2/Smad 5/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand signaling axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Aditi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone loss and pathological fractures are common skeletal complications associated with androgen deprivation therapy and bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. We have previously demonstrated that prostate cancer cells secrete receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL, a protein essential for osteoclast differentiation and activation. However, the mechanism(s by which RANKL is produced remains to be determined. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling RANKL expression in metastatic prostate cancer cells. Results We show here that phosphorylation of Smad 5 by integrin αvβ3 and RUNX2 by CD44 signaling, respectively, regulates RANKL expression in human-derived PC3 prostate cancer cells isolated from bone metastasis. We found that RUNX2 intranuclear targeting is mediated by phosphorylation of Smad 5. Indeed, Smad5 knock-down via RNA interference and inhibition of Smad 5 phosphorylation by an αv inhibitor reduced RUNX2 nuclear localization and RANKL expression. Similarly, knockdown of CD44 or RUNX2 attenuated the expression of RANKL. As a result, conditioned media from these cells failed to support osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tissue microarray sections containing primary prostatic tumor (grade2-4 detected predominant localization of RUNX2 and phosphorylated Smad 5 in the nuclei. Immunoblotting analyses of nuclear lysates from prostate tumor tissue corroborate these observations. Conclusions Collectively, we show that CD44 signaling regulates phosphorylation of RUNX2. Localization of RUNX2 in the nucleus requires phosphorylation of Smad-5 by integrin αvβ3 signaling. Our results suggest possible integration of two different pathways in the expression of RANKL. These observations imply a novel mechanistic insight into the role of these proteins in bone loss associated with bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer.

  13. Co-Expression of Cancer Stem Cell Markers Corresponds to a Pro-Tumorigenic Expression Profile in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoda, Jan; Hermanova, Marketa; Loja, Tomas; Nemec, Pavel; Neradil, Jakub; Karasek, Petr; Veselska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most lethal malignancies. Its dismal prognosis is often attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that have been identified in PDAC using various markers. However, the co-expression of all of these markers has not yet been evaluated. Furthermore, studies that compare the expression levels of CSC markers in PDAC tumor samples and in cell lines derived directly from those tumors are lacking. Here, we analyzed the expression of putative CSC markers—CD24, CD44, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD133, and nestin—by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and quantitative PCR in 3 PDAC-derived cell lines and by immunohistochemistry in 3 corresponding tumor samples. We showed high expression of the examined CSC markers among all of the cell lines and tumor samples, with the exception of CD24 and CD44, which were enriched under in vitro conditions compared with tumor tissues. The proportions of cells positive for the remaining markers were comparable to those detected in the corresponding tumors. Co-expression analysis using flow cytometry revealed that CD24+/CD44+/EpCAM+/CD133+ cells represented a significant population of the cells (range, 43 to 72%) among the cell lines. The highest proportion of CD24+/CD44+/EpCAM+/CD133+ cells was detected in the cell line derived from the tumor of a patient with the shortest survival. Using gene expression profiling, we further identified the specific pro-tumorigenic expression profile of this cell line compared with the profiles of the other two cell lines. Together, CD24+/CD44+/EpCAM+/CD133+ cells are present in PDAC cell lines derived from primary tumors, and their increased proportion corresponds with a pro-tumorigenic gene expression profile. PMID:27414409

  14. Radiation-Induced Reprogramming of Pre-Senescent Mammary Epithelial Cells Enriches Putative CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) Stem Cell Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuefeng; Sishc, Brock J; Nelson, Christopher B; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Bailey, Susan M; Hlatky, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The enrichment of putative CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) breast stem cell populations following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) has been ascribed to their inherent radioresistance and an elevated frequency of symmetric division during repopulation. However, recent studies demonstrating radiation-induced phenotypic reprogramming (the transition of non-CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) cells into the CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) phenotype) as a potential mechanism of CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) cell enrichment have raised the question of whether a higher survival and increased self-renewal of existing CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) cells or induced reprogramming is an additional mode of enrichment. To investigate this question, we combined a cellular automata model with in vitro experimental data using both MCF-10A non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with the goal of identifying the mechanistic basis of CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) stem cell enrichment in the context of radiation-induced cellular senescence. Quantitative modeling revealed that incomplete phenotypic reprogramming of pre-senescent non-stem cells (reprogramming whereby the CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) phenotype is conveyed, along with the short-term proliferation capacity of the original cell) could be an additional mode of enriching the CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) subpopulation. Furthermore, stem cell enrichment in MCF-7 cells occurs both at lower doses and earlier time points, and has longer persistence, than that observed in MCF-10A cells, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity appears to be less regulated in breast cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that reprogramming of pre-senescent non-stem cells may play a significant role in both cancer and non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial populations following exposure to IR, a finding with important implications for both radiation therapy and radiation carcinogenesis.

  15. Design and development of hyaluronan-functionalized polybenzofulvene nanoparticles as CD44 receptor mediated drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, Mariano; Scialabba, Cinzia; Giammona, Gaetano; Paolino, Marco; Razzano, Vincenzo; Grisci, Giorgio; Giuliani, Germano; Makovec, Francesco; Cappelli, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    A tri-component polymer brush (TCPB ), composed of a polybenzofulvene copolymer bearing low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of its cylindrical brush-like backbone and oligo-PEG fractions, was employed in the preparation of 350 nm nanostructured drug delivery systems capable of delivering the anticancer drug doxorubicin. The obtained drug delivery systems were characterized on the basis of drug loading and release, dimensions and zeta potential, morphology and in vitro cell activity, and uptake on three different human cell lines, namely the bronchial epithelial 16HBE, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, and the colon cancer HCT116 cells. Finally, the ability of doxorubicin-loaded TCPB nanoparticles (DOXO-TCPB) to be internalized into cancer cells by CD44 receptor mediated uptake was assessed by means of uptake studies in HCT cells. These data were supported by anti-CD44-FITC staining assay. The proposed TCPB nanostructured drug delivery systems have many potential applications in nanomedicine, including cancer targeted drug delivery.

  16. The Role of the Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein on CD44 Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, Eric

    2001-01-01

    ... of changes seen in breast cancer cells during tumor progression. Thus far, a strong connection between the splicing machinery and these subtle, yet significant, changes in gene expression has yet to be documented...

  17. Estrogen deficiency results in enhanced expression of Smoothened of the Hedgehog signaling in the thymus and affects thymocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Lin; Toda, Katsumi; Saibara, Toshiji; Zhang, Ting; Ono, Masafumi; Iwasaki, Shinji; Maeda, Takashi; Okada, Teruhiko; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Enzan, Hideaki; Shizuta, Yutaka; Onishi, Saburo

    2002-05-01

    Aromatase is an essential enzyme for estrogen synthesis. We investigated the role of estrogen in thymocyte development using aromatase-deficient (ArKO) mice. Like its role as a regulator of bone metabolism through regulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) production, estrogen is involved in the processes of thymocyte development although aromatase mRNA was not detectable in the thymus. Thymic regression and reduced cellularity were evident in ArKO mice. The major difficulties in thymocyte development of ArKO mice were observed during the CD44+ CD25- stage at the cortico-medullary junction and during the CD44- CD25- stage at the subcapsular region where the estrogen receptor was expressed in the stromal cells. The proportion of thymocytes during the CD44+ CD25- stage was reduced. The progression of CD44- CD25+ cells to the CD44- CD25- stage was accelerated in ArKO mice possibly due to insufficient osteoprotegerin production in estrogen-deficiency. However, the expression of Smoothened of the Hedgehog signaling was enhanced in CD4- CD8- double negative cells. This enhancement may result in impaired progression of CD44- CD25- cells to the CD4+ CD8+ double positive stage and impaired proliferation of CD4+ CD8+ double positive cells since Smoothened (Smo) is known to arrest cells as non-proliferating cells. This could be the reason why the proportion of CD3+ TCRbeta(high) cells during the late phase of thymocyte maturation was reduced in ArKO mice. From these observations, we propose that estrogen supports thymocyte development and maturation at many stages through many regulatory pathways including the sonic hedgehog- and the osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-mediated signaling.

  18. Kinetics of T cell receptor β, γ, and δ rearrangements during adult thymic development: T cell receptor rearrangements are present in CD44+CD25+ Pro-T thymocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Myriam; Hockett, Richard D.; Zlotnik, Albert

    1998-01-01

    We performed a comprehensive analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) γ rearrangements in T cell precursors of the mouse adult thymus. Using a sensitive quantitative PCR method, we show that TCRγ rearrangements are present in CD44+CD25+ Pro-T thymocytes much earlier than expected. TCRγ rearrangements increase significantly from the Pro-T to the CD44−CD25+ Pre-T cell transition, and follow different patterns depending on each Vγ gene segment, suggesting that ordered waves of TCRγ rearrangement exist in the adult mouse thymus as has been described in the fetal mouse thymus. Recombinations of TCRγ genes occur concurrently with TCRδ and D-Jβ rearrangements, but before Vβ gene assembly. Productive TCRγ rearrangements do not increase significantly before the Pre-T cell stage and are depleted in CD4+CD8+ double-positive cells from normal mice. In contrast, double-positive thymocytes from TCRδ−/− mice display random proportions of TCRγ rearranged alleles, supporting a role for functional TCRγ/δ rearrangements in the γδ divergence process. PMID:9770518

  19. The JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is required for growth of CD44+CD24– stem cell–like breast cancer cells in human tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Lauren L.C.; Almendro, Vanessa; Marusyk, Andriy; Shipitsin, Michail; Schemme, Janina; Walker, Sarah R.; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga; Kim, Jessica J.; Choudhury, Sibgat A.; Maruyama, Reo; Wu, Zhenhua; Gönen, Mithat; Mulvey, Laura A.; Bessarabova, Marina O.; Huh, Sung Jin; Silver, Serena J.; Kim, So Young; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Hee Eun; Anderson, Karen S.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri; Liu, X. Shirley; Root, David E.; Hahn, William C.; Frank, David A.; Polyak, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity is a major clinical problem because tumor cell subtypes display variable sensitivity to therapeutics and may play different roles in progression. We previously characterized 2 cell populations in human breast tumors with distinct properties: CD44+CD24– cells that have stem cell-like characteristics, and CD44–CD24+ cells that resemble more differentiated breast cancer cells. Here we identified 15 genes required for cell growth or proliferation in CD44+CD24– human breast cancer cells in a large-scale loss-of-function screen and found that inhibition of several of these (IL6, PTGIS, HAS1, CXCL3, and PFKFB3) reduced Stat3 activation. We found that the IL-6/JAK2/Stat3 pathway was preferentially active in CD44+CD24– breast cancer cells compared with other tumor cell types, and inhibition of JAK2 decreased their number and blocked growth of xenografts. Our results highlight the differences between distinct breast cancer cell types and identify targets such as JAK2 and Stat3 that may lead to more specific and effective breast cancer therapies. PMID:21633165

  20. CD44 and TLR4 mediate hyaluronic acid regulation of Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal growth in postnatal and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Terrence E; Santhanam, Srikanth; Foster, Lynne; Ciorba, Matthew; Stenson, William F

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to CD44 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We previously addressed the role of hyaluronic acid in small intestinal and colonic growth in mice. We addressed the role of exogenous hyaluronic acid by giving hyaluronic acid intraperitoneally and the role of endogenous hyaluronic acid by giving PEP-1, a peptide that blocks hyaluronic acid binding to its receptors. Exogenous hyaluronic acid increased epithelial proliferation but had no effect on intestinal length. PEP-1 resulted in a shortened small intestine and colon and diminished epithelial proliferation. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth were mediated by signaling through CD44 or TLR4 by giving exogenous hyaluronic acid or PEP-1 twice a week from 3-8 wk of age to wild-type, CD44(-/-), and TLR4(-/-) mice. These studies demonstrated that signaling through both CD44 and TLR4 were important in mediating the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth in the small intestine and colon. Extending our studies to early postnatal life, we assessed the effects of exogenous hyaluronic acid and PEP-1 on Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation and crypt fission. Administration of PEP-1 to Lgr5(+) reporter mice from postnatal day 7 to day 14 decreased Lgr5(+) cell proliferation and decreased crypt fission. These studies indicate that endogenous hyaluronic acid increases Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal lengthening and that these effects are dependent on signaling through CD44 and TLR4. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Combination of using prodrug-modified cationic liposome nanocomplexes and a potentiating strategy via targeted co-delivery of gemcitabine and docetaxel for CD44-overexpressed triple negative breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang; Wang, Qingjie; Lin, Guimei; Shi, Yanbin; Gu, Zili; Ding, Tingting

    2017-10-15

    In this study, novel prodrug-modified cationic liposome nanocomplexes (Combo NCs) were reported for gemcitabine (GEM) and docetaxel (DTX) co-delivery. This nanoplatform exhibited multiple favorable characteristics, such as a 'green' fabrication with a one-step chemical reaction, appropriate size (∼200nm) and distribution (PDIapoptosis and inhibition of wound healing. Combo NCs were confirmed to exhibit great potency for increasing S phase arrest and remodeling the CDA and dCK balance by decreasing the mRNA expression of CDA down to 0.09-fold and increasing the mRNA expression of dCK by 1.36-fold, remarkably increasing the dCK/CDA ratio to 15.3-fold compared with the blank control. The biodistribution results obtained in vivo revealed an effective accumulation in tumor foci. All of these advantages of Combo NCs contributed to their remarkable anti-tumor efficacy without systemic toxicity as well as their apoptosis-enhancing and anti-proliferative capacities, as determined by TUNEL and Ki67 immunohistochemistry in vivo. Consequently, such a rationally contemplated co-delivery system demonstrated the promising potential of clinical applications for triple-negative breast cancer therapy. The Combo NCs were innovatively applied for co-delivery of hydrophilic GEM and hydrophobic DTX. The ester bond linking and shielding effect of HA-GEM made the carriers achieve synchronous release properties, which was determined in in vitro release study. Due to the HA modification, the vectors own great potency for positive targeting to CD44 overexpressed triple-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis studies confirmed the targeting effect and synergism between two drugs. Interestingly, we found in cell cycle study, drug combinations (free combination or Combo NCs) didn't show a rise in G2M phase, which was significantly higher when treated DTX alone. We further discovered the role of DTX in combinations may involve in modulating GEM associated enzymes

  2. Melanoma cells undergo aggressive coalescence in a 3D Matrigel model that is repressed by anti-CD44.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Wessels

    Full Text Available Using unique computer-assisted 3D reconstruction software, it was previously demonstrated that tumorigenic cell lines derived from breast tumors, when seeded in a 3D Matrigel model, grew as clonal aggregates which, after approximately 100 hours, underwent coalescence mediated by specialized cells, eventually forming a highly structured large spheroid. Non-tumorigenic cells did not undergo coalescence. Because histological sections of melanomas forming in patients suggest that melanoma cells migrate and coalesce to form tumors, we tested whether they also underwent coalescence in a 3D Matrigel model. Melanoma cells exiting fragments of three independent melanomas or from secondary cultures derived from them, and cells from the melanoma line HTB-66, all underwent coalescence mediated by specialized cells in the 3D model. Normal melanocytes did not. However, coalescence of melanoma cells differed from that of breast-derived tumorigenic cell lines in that they 1 coalesced immediately, 2 underwent coalescence as individual cells as well as aggregates, 3 underwent coalescence far faster and 4 ultimately formed long, flat, fenestrated aggregates that were extremely dynamic. A screen of 51 purified monoclonal antibodies (mAbs targeting cell surface-associated molecules revealed that two mAbs, anti-beta 1 integrin/(CD29 and anti-CD44, blocked melanoma cell coalescence. They also blocked coalescence of tumorigenic cells derived from a breast tumor. These results add weight to the commonality of coalescence as a characteristic of tumorigenic cells, as well as the usefulness of the 3D Matrigel model and software for both investigating the mechanisms regulating tumorigenesis and screening for potential anti-tumorigenesis mAbs.

  3. Intranasal administration of vitamin D attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption through endogenous upregulation of osteopontin and activation of CD44/P-gp glycosylation signaling after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhjargal, Budbazar; McBride, Devin W; Manaenko, Anatol; Reis, Cesar; Sakai, Yasushi; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of vitamin D3 (VitD3) on endogenous osteopontin (OPN), a neuroprotective glycoprotein, after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The endovascular perforation SAH model in Sprague-Dawley rats was used to study the effect of intranasal VitD3 (30 ng/kg) before (Pre-SAH + VitD3) and after (Post-SAH + VitD3) subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vitamin D3 (30, 60, 120 ng/kg/day) increased more than one fold endogenous OPN expression in astrocytes and endothelial cells of rat brain. Vitamin D3 significantly decreased brain edema and Evans blue extravasation. In addition, neurobehavioral scores were significantly higher in Pre-SAH + VitD3, but partly higher in Post-SAH + VitD3, group compared with SAH group. These protective effects of vitamin D3 were completely attenuated by intracerebroventricular injection of transcription inhibitor Actinomycin D and significantly inhibited by small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for vitamin D receptor and OPN in Pre-SAH + VitD3 rats. OPN expression was significantly higher in Pre-SAH + VitD3 rats, specifically A and C, but not B, isomers were upregulated in the astrocytes, leading to CD44 splicing, and P-gp glycosylation in brain endothelial cells. The results show that intranasal vitamin D3 attenuates blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption through endogenous upregulation of OPN and subsequent CD44 and P-gp glycosylation signals in brain endothelial cells. Furthermore, this study identifies a novel strategy for the cost-effective management of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  4. Low Cancer Stem Cell Marker Expression and Low Hypoxia Identify Good Prognosis Subgroups in HPV(-) HNSCC after Postoperative Radiochemotherapy: A Multicenter Study of the DKTK-ROG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Annett; Löck, Steffen; Gudziol, Volker; Nowak, Alexander; Lohaus, Fabian; von Neubeck, Cläre; Jütz, Martin; Abdollahi, Amir; Debus, Jürgen; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Sak, Ali; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Avlar, Melanie; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Bayer, Christine; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Welz, Stefan; Zips, Daniel; Buchholz, Frank; Aust, Daniela E; Baretton, Gustavo B; Thames, Howard D; Dubrovska, Anna; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the impact of hypoxia-induced gene expression and cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression on outcome of postoperative cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy (PORT-C) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Expression of the CSC markers CD44, MET, and SLC3A2, and hypoxia gene signatures were analyzed in the resected primary tumors using RT-PCR and nanoString technology in a multicenter retrospective cohort of 195 patients. CD44 protein expression was further analyzed in tissue microarrays. Primary endpoint was locoregional tumor control. Univariate analysis showed that hypoxia-induced gene expression was significantly associated with a high risk of locoregional recurrence using the 15-gene signature (P = 0.010) or the 26-gene signature (P = 0.002). In multivariate analyses, in patients with HPV16 DNA-negative but not with HPV16 DNA-positive tumors the effect of hypoxia-induced genes on locoregional control was apparent (15-gene signature: HR 4.54, P = 0.006; 26-gene signature: HR 10.27, P = 0.024). Furthermore, MET, SLC3A2, CD44, and CD44 protein showed an association with locoregional tumor control in multivariate analyses (MET: HR 3.71, P = 0.016; SLC3A2: HR 8.54, P = 0.037; CD44: HR 3.36, P = 0.054; CD44 protein n/a because of no event in the CD44-negative group) in the HPV16 DNA-negative subgroup. We have shown for the first time that high hypoxia-induced gene expression and high CSC marker expression levels correlate with tumor recurrence after PORT-C in patients with HPV16 DNA-negative HNSCC. After validation in a currently ongoing prospective trial, these parameters may help to further stratify patients for individualized treatment de-escalation or intensification strategies. Clin Cancer Res; 22(11); 2639-49. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Context shapes social judgments of positive emotion suppression and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Casey, James P

    2017-02-01

    It is generally considered socially undesirable to suppress the expression of positive emotion. However, previous research has not considered the role that social context plays in governing appropriate emotion regulation. We investigated a context in which it may be more appropriate to suppress than express positive emotion, hypothesizing that positive emotion expressions would be considered inappropriate when the valence of the expressed emotion (i.e., positive) did not match the valence of the context (i.e., negative). Six experiments (N = 1,621) supported this hypothesis: when there was a positive emotion-context mismatch, participants rated targets who suppressed positive emotion as more appropriate, and evaluated them more positively than targets who expressed positive emotion. This effect occurred even when participants were explicitly made aware that suppressing targets were experiencing mismatched emotion for the context (e.g., feeling positive in a negative context), suggesting that appropriate emotional expression is key to these effects. These studies are among the first to provide empirical evidence that social costs to suppression are not inevitable, but instead are dependent on context. Expressive suppression can be a socially useful emotion regulation strategy in situations that call for it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Functional heterogeneity within the CD44 high human breast cancer stem cell-like compartment reveals a gene signature predictive of distant metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Terp, Mikkel Green; Christensen, Anne G

    2012-01-01

    The CD44(hi) compartment in human breast cancer is enriched in tumor-initiating cells; however the functional heterogeneity within this subpopulation remains poorly defined. We used a triple-negative breast cancer cell line with a known bi-lineage phenotype to isolate and clone CD44(hi) single...... features such as tumor-initiating capacity in vivo, mammosphere formation and resistance to standard chemotherapy. This complements previous findings using oncogene-transformed normal mammary cells showing that only cell clones with a mesenchymal phenotype exhibit cancer stem cell features. Further, we...... performed comparative quantitative proteomic and gene array analyses of these cells and identified potential novel markers of breast cancer cells with tumor-initiating features, such as LSR, RAB25, S100A14 and MUC1, as well as a novel 31-gene signature capable of predicting distant metastasis in cohorts...

  7. Complete identification of E-selectin ligand activity on neutrophils reveals a dynamic interplay and distinct functions of PSGL-1, ESL-1 and CD44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Vestweber, Dietmar; Frenette, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The selectins and their ligands are required for leukocyte extravasation during inflammation. Several glycoproteins have been suggested to bind to E-selectin in vitro but the complete identification of its physiological ligands has remained elusive. Here, we show using gene- and RNA-targeted loss-of-function that E-selectin ligand-1 (ESL-1), PSGL-1 and CD44 encompass all endothelial selectin ligand activity on neutrophils. PSGL-1 plays a major role in the initial leukocyte capture, while ESL-1 is critical to convert initial tethers into steady slow rolling. CD44 controls rolling velocity and mediates E-selectin-dependent redistribution of PSGL-1 and L-selectin to a major pole on slowly rolling leukocytes through p38 signaling. These results suggest distinct and dynamic contributions of these three glycoproteins in selectin-mediated neutrophil adhesion and signaling. PMID:17442598

  8. Spatial distribution of osteopontin, CD44v6 and podoplanin in the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst, and their biological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechik, Khamisah Awang; Siar, Chong Huat

    2018-02-01

    The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) remains the most challenging jaw cyst to treat because of its locally-aggressive behaviour and high recurrence potential. Emerging evidence suggests that osteopontin, its receptors CD44v6 and integrin α v , and podoplanin, have a role in the local invasiveness of this cyst. However the spatial distribution characteristics of these pro-invasive markers in the lining epithelium of OKC, and their association with the clinicopathologic parameters of OKC are largely unexplored. This study sought to address these issues in comparison with dentigerous cysts (DCs) and radicular cysts (RCs) and to evaluate their biological relevance. A sample consisting of 20 OKC cases, 10 DCs and 10 RCs was subjected to immunohistochemical staining for osteopontin, CD44v6 and integrin α v , and podoplanin, and semiquantitative analysis was performed. All factors (except integrin α v ) were detected heterogeneously in the constitutive layers of the lining epithelium in all three cyst types. Key observations were significant upregulation of CD44v6 and podoplanin in OKC compared to DCs and RCs, suggesting that these protein molecules may play crucial roles in promoting local invasiveness in OKC (P<0.05). Osteopontin underexpression and distribution patterns were indistinctive among all three cysts indicating its limited role as pro-invasive factor. Clinical parameters showed no significant correlations with all protein factors investigated. Present findings suggest that an osteopontin low CD44v6 high and podoplanin high immunoprofile most probably represent epithelial signatures of OKC and are markers of local invasiveness in this cyst. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adult Perceptions of Positive and Negative Infant Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzani Dinehart, Laura H.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Acosta, Susan I.; Cassel, Tricia; Ambadar, Zara; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Adults' perceptions provide information about the emotional meaning of infant facial expressions. This study asks whether similar facial movements influence adult perceptions of emotional intensity in both infant positive (smile) and negative (cry face) facial expressions. Ninety-five college students rated a series of naturally occurring and…

  10. Analytical expression for variance of homogeneous-position quantum walk with decoherent position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabestani, Mostafa

    2018-02-01

    We have derived an analytical expression for variance of homogeneous-position decoherent quantum walk with general form of noise on its position, and have shown that, while the quadratic (t^2) term of variance never changes by position decoherency, the linear term ( t) does and always increases the variance. We study the walker with ability to tunnel out to d nearest neighbors as an example and compare our result with former studies. We also show that, although our expression has been derived for asymptotic case, the rapid decay of time-dependent terms causes the expressions to be correct with a good accuracy even after dozens of steps.

  11. Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaitovich, Philipp; Tang, Kun; Franz, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the expression levels of genes transcribed in the brains of humans and chimpanzees have changed less than those of genes transcribed in other tissues [1] . However, when gene expression changes are mapped onto the evolutionary lineage in which they occurred, the brain...... shows more changes than other tissues in the human lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage [1] , [2] and [3] . There are two possible explanations for this: either positive selection drove more gene expression changes to fixation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain, or genes expressed...... in the brain experienced less purifying selection in humans than in chimpanzees, i.e. gene expression in the human brain is functionally less constrained. The first scenario would be supported if genes that changed their expression in the brain in the human lineage showed more selective sweeps than other genes...

  12. Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Fumiaki; Imai, Takashi; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage–repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker. Methods and Materials: The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade <2) and overresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2) for analysis. Results: Of the 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, the rs8193 polymorphism lying in the micro-RNA binding site of 3′-UTR of CD44 was significantly (P=.0270) associated with RT-induced adverse skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene–gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity

  13. Positive facial expressions during retrieval of self-defining memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolphe, Marie Charlotte; Nandrino, Jean Louis; Delelis, Gérald; Ducro, Claire; Lavallee, Audrey; Saloppe, Xavier; Moustafa, Ahmed A; El Haj, Mohamad

    2017-11-14

    In this study, we investigated, for the first time, facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories (i.e., those vivid and emotionally intense memories of enduring concerns or unresolved conflicts). Participants self-rated the emotional valence of their Self-defining memories and autobiographical retrieval was analyzed with a facial analysis software. This software (Facereader) synthesizes the facial expression information (i.e., cheek, lips, muscles, eyebrow muscles) to describe and categorize facial expressions (i.e., neutral, happy, sad, surprised, angry, scared, and disgusted facial expressions). We found that participants showed more emotional than neutral facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories. We also found that participants showed more positive than negative facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories. Interestingly, participants attributed positive valence to the retrieved memories. These findings are the first to demonstrate the consistency between facial expressions and the emotional subjective experience of Self-defining memories. These findings provide valuable physiological information about the emotional experience of the past.

  14. A single molecule assay to probe monovalent and multivalent bonds between hyaluronan and its key leukocyte receptor CD44 under force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Fouzia; Banerji, Suneale; Howarth, Mark; Jackson, David G.; Richter, Ralf P.

    2016-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a category of linear, anionic polysaccharides, are ubiquitous in the extracellular space, and important extrinsic regulators of cell function. Despite the recognized significance of mechanical stimuli in cellular communication, however, only few single molecule methods are currently available to study how monovalent and multivalent GAG·protein bonds respond to directed mechanical forces. Here, we have devised such a method, by combining purpose-designed surfaces that afford immobilization of GAGs and receptors at controlled nanoscale organizations with single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). We apply the method to study the interaction of the GAG polymer hyaluronan (HA) with CD44, its receptor in vascular endothelium. Individual bonds between HA and CD44 are remarkably resistant to rupture under force in comparison to their low binding affinity. Multiple bonds along a single HA chain rupture sequentially and independently under load. We also demonstrate how strong non-covalent bonds, which are versatile for controlled protein and GAG immobilization, can be effectively used as molecular anchors in SMFS. We thus establish a versatile method for analyzing the nanomechanics of GAG·protein interactions at the level of single GAG chains, which provides new molecular-level insight into the role of mechanical forces in the assembly and function of GAG-rich extracellular matrices.

  15. Spo0A positively regulates epr expression by negating the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-07

    Mar 7, 2013 ... is involved in the swarming motility of B. subtilis. Deletion studies of the upstream region of epr promoter revealed that epr is co-repressed by transition state regulators, SinR and ScoC. Our study shows that Spo0A positively regulates epr expression by nullifying the repressive effect of co-repressors, SinR ...

  16. Inhibition of Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance and Metastasis with Antagonists of Hyaluronan-CD44-CD147 Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    hours during which the cancer cells attached but most leucocytes did not. The attached cells were washed and used for FACS analysis as described...from CD45-positive putative leucocytes . The CD45-negative cells were then split into CD133- negative and CD133-positive sub-populations. From past

  17. Novel CD44 receptor targeting multifunctional “nano-eggs” based on double pH-sensitive nanoparticles for co-delivery of curcumin and paclitaxel to cancer cells and cancer stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Daquan, E-mail: cdq1981@126.com [Peking University, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Science Center (China); Wang, Guohua [China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Institute of Chinese Materia Madica (China); Song, Weiguo [Shouguang Fukang Pharmceutial Co., Ltd. (China); Zhang, Qiang, E-mail: zqdodo@bjmu.edu.cn [Peking University, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Science Center (China)

    2015-10-15

    Most anticancer drugs cannot kill cancer stem cells (CSCs) effectively, which lead to the failure of anticancer chemotherapy, such as relapse and metastasis. In this study, we prepared a multifunctional oligosaccharides of hyaluronan (oHA) conjugates, oHA-histidine-menthone 1,2-glycerol ketal (oHM). The oHM conjugates possess pH-sensitive menthone 1,2-glycerol ketal (MGK) as hydrophobic moieties and oHA as the target of CD44 receptor. Anticancer drugs, curcumin(Cur) and paclitaxel(PTX), were loaded into oHM micelles via self-assembly. Then, oHM micelles were mineralized through controlled deposition of inorganic calcium and phosphate ions on the nanoparticular shell via a sequential addition method to fabricate the “nano-eggs.” The formed nano-eggs had a smaller size (120.6 ± 4.5 nm) than oHM micelles (158.6 ± 6.4 nm), indicating that mineralization made the appearance of compact nanoparticles. Interestingly, when the nano-eggs were put into the acidic conditions (pH 6.5), their outer shell(inorganic minerals) will be destroyed with the larger size, while the “nano-eggs” were stable under pH 7.4. For both nano-eggs and oHM micelles, the Cur and PTX were released in a sustained manner depending on the pH of the solution. However, the nano-eggs showed much lower released than the oHM micelles due to the dissolution of the inorganic minerals and pH-sensitive ketal at mildly acidic environments (pH 6.5). In vivo study, the nano-eggs could get to the tumor site more effectively than oHM micelles. CSCs were sorted by a side population assay from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines over-expressing CD44 receptors. Antitumor activity was also evaluated on MDA-MB-231 xenografts in nude mice. The antitumor efficacy indicated that nano-eggs with co-delivery of Cur and PTX produced the strongest antitumor efficacy, and nano-eggs showed strong activity against cancer stem cells. These double pH-sensitive nano-eggs may provide a promising strategy for drug

  18. Age differences in positive feelings and their expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Margund K; Wieck, Cornelia; Kunzmann, Ute

    2017-11-01

    Although various studies point to the importance of positive emotions for health and well-being across the entire life span, current research on age differences in emotional reactivity mainly focuses on negative emotions. Empirical evidence on positive emotions is scarce and mixed. Part of the inconsistencies may be related to study differences in the stimuli used and the emotional response systems considered. Thus, the present study examined different response systems (i.e., subjective feelings, facial and verbal expressions) and used internal stimuli of high personal relevance to all participants. More specifically, we used a modified relived emotion task in which younger (M = 25.64, SD = 4.05) and older (M = 70.06, SD = 3.94) adults first privately relived emotions associated with a recent positive event in their life, and subsequently thought aloud about this event and its accompanying feelings. We additionally explored whether conscientiousness, as a marker of self-regulatory skills, is associated with interindividual and age-related differences in positive emotions. During the relived emotion task, there were no age differences in positive feelings; however, compared with young adults, older adults reported more positive feelings during the think-aloud phase. Contrary to our prediction, however, older adults verbally and nonverbally expressed fewer positive emotions than their younger counterparts. Moreover, conscientiousness was associated with individual and age-related differences in positive feelings, pointing to the potential explanatory role of self-regulatory skills in the experience of positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Facial expression of positive emotions in individuals with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Dapelo, Marcela; Hart, Sharon; Hale, Christiane; Morris, Robin; Lynch, Thomas R.; Tchanturia, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research has associated Eating Disorders with difficulties in socio-emotional functioning and it has been argued that they may serve to maintain the illness. This study aimed to explore facial expressions of positive emotions in individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) compared to healthy controls (HC), through an examination of the Duchenne smile (DS), which has been associated with feelings of enjoyment, amusement and happiness ( Ekman et al., 1990 ). ...

  20. Folate and CD44 receptors dual-targeting hydrophobized hyaluronic acid paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelles for overcoming multidrug resistance and improving tumor distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhua; Sun, Jin; Lian, He; Cao, Wen; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2014-05-01

    The drug efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter is one of the important factors responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR), and then the efficient intracellular drug delivery is an important strategy to overcome MDR of tumor cells. We describe and compare CD44 receptor single-targeting and folate (FA), CD44 receptors dual-targeting hyaluronic acid-octadecyl (HA-C18 ) micellar formulations to overcome MDR of tumor cells and to improve tumor distribution. In comparison with Taxol solution, the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel (PTX) loaded in HA-C18 and FA-HA-C18 micelles against drug-resistant tumor cells was improved significantly because of the increased intracellular delivery by active receptor-mediated endocytosis. Compared with the single-targeting micelles, dual-targeting micelles possessed better MDR-overcoming performance. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated HA-C18 and FA-HA-C18 PTX-loaded micelles possessed much longer circulation and moderately larger AUC than Taxol solution. Above all, the tumor distribution in MCF-7 tumor-bearing mice of PTX encapsulated in HA-C18 and FA-HA-C18 micelles were 2.8 and 4.0 times higher than that of Taxol solution. It was concluded that dual-targeting FA-HA-C18 micelles demonstrate excellent MDR-overcoming ability and improved tumor distribution, and provide a novel effective nanoplatform for anticancer drug delivery in cancer chemotherapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Low-dose all-trans retinoic acid enhances cytotoxicity of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil on CD44(+) cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Mazani, Mohammad; Abbasi, Asadollah; Farassati, Faris; Amani, Mojtaba

    2015-08-01

    Cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum(II)(CDDP)-based combination chemotherapy is frequently used in gastrointestinal cancer. The synergistic mechanism of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination remains unclear. Despite their potent antitumor properties, resistance to CDDP and 5-FU develops frequently in tumors. To clarify this mechanism, we determined the sensitivity to each drug and their combination in two gastrointestinal cancer stem cells (CSCs) subpopulation. Here, we report the identification and separation of CD44(+) cells from human gastric carcinoma (AGS) and human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (KYSE-30) cancer cell lines by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). We allowed the CD44(±) cells to grow 6 days at a subtoxic concentration of ATRA and then treated with different concentration of CDDP and 5-FU for 24h. The cytotoxicity was examined by cell proliferation MTT assay. Additionally, AO/EB staining was used for detection of apoptotic cells. In order to determine whether the growth inhibition was also associated with changes in cell cycle distribution, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Low concentration of ATRA (1μM, 6days) followed by 5-FU and CDDP was found to be more effective than either drugs alone, thus resulting in synergistic cytotoxicity in Kyse-30 and AGSCD44(±) cells. Furthermore, there was an indication that the combination of ATRA with 5FU and CDDP caused an increase in cell cycle arrest in G2/M and G0/G1. We conclude that low concentration of ATRA enhances the cytotoxicity of CDDP and 5FU by facilitating apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in gastrointestinal CSCs and provide a rational basis for the design of novel, well-tolerated CDDP- and 5FU-based chemotherapy in human gastrointestinal carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and evaluation of dual CD44 receptor and folate receptor-targeting double-smart pH-response multifunctional nanocarrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daquan; Song, Xiaoyan; Wang, Kaili; Guo, Chunjing; Yu, Yueming; Fan, Huaying; Zhao, Feng

    2017-12-01

    In this article, in order to enhance the bioavailiability and tumor targeting of curcumin (Cur), the oligosaccharides of hyaluronan conjugates, folic acid-oligosaccharides of hyaluronan-acetal-menthone 1,2-glycerol ketal (FA-oHA-Ace-MGK) carried oHA as a ligand to CD44 receptor, double-pH-sensitive Ace-MGK as hydrophobic moieties, and FA as the target of folate receptor. The structure characteristics of this smart response multifunctional dual-targeting nano-sized carrier was measured by fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Cur, an anticancer drug, was successfully loaded in FA-oHA-Ace-MGK micelles by self-assembly. The measurement results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) presented that the Cur-loaded micelles were spherical in shape with the average size of 166.3 ± 2.12 nm and zeta potential - 30.07 mV. Much more encapsulated Cur could be released at mildly acidic environments than at pH 7.4, from the Cur-FA-oHA-Ace-MGK micelles. Cytotoxicity assay indicated that non-Cur loaded micelles mostly had no cytotoxicity to MCF-7 cells and A549 cells, and Cur-loaded micelles had significantly lower survival rate than Cur suspension in the same concentration, which proved that the drug-loaded micelles can effectively inhibit tumor cell growth. The targeting of CD44 receptors and folate receptors was proved in vitro cellular uptake assay. These results showed the promising potential of FA-oHA-Ace-MGK as an effective nano-sized carrier for anti-tumor drug delivery.

  3. Androgen receptor in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer: Beyond expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Debora; Cinausero, Marika; Iacono, Donatella; Pelizzari, Giacomo; Bonotto, Marta; Vitale, Maria Grazia; Gerratana, Lorenzo; Puglisi, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, new therapeutic approaches have reshaped the overall strategy of breast cancer (BC) treatment and have markedly improved patient survival. This is, in part, due to novel therapies for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC. Unfortunately, many patients present de novo resistance to these therapies or develop an acquired resistance over time. Therefore, research is now focused on discovering new molecular targets to overcome these resistances. Interestingly, preclinical and clinical studies have shown a critical role for the cross-talk between androgen receptor (AR) and ER in luminal-like BC. AR is expressed in >60% of BC and in up to 90% of ERα-positive tumors. Multiple studies suggest that AR is associated with a favorable prognosis. However, AR overexpression and, in particular, the high AR:ER ratio, seem to be involved in resistance to hormonal treatment. In this setting, a group of BCs could benefit from AR-inhibitors; nevertheless, some ER-positive BC patients do not seem to benefit from this strategy. Therefore, it is crucial to identify biomarkers that would enable the selection of patients who might benefit from combination treatment with ER and AR inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Positive Role for PERIOD in Mammalian Circadian Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Akashi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current model of the mammalian circadian clock, PERIOD (PER represses the activity of the circadian transcription factors BMAL1 and CLOCK, either independently or together with CRYPTOCHROME (CRY. Here, we provide evidence that PER has an entirely different function from that reported previously, namely, that PER inhibits CRY-mediated transcriptional repression through interference with CRY recruitment into the BMAL1-CLOCK complex. This indirect positive function of PER is consistent with previous data from genetic analyses using Per-deficient or mutant mice. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that PER plays different roles in different circadian phases: an early phase in which it suppresses CRY activity, and a later phase in which it acts as a transcriptional repressor with CRY. This buffering effect of PER on CRY might help to prolong the period of rhythmic gene expression. Additional studies are required to carefully examine the promoter- and phase-specific roles of PER.

  5. Balance in Positive Emotional Expressivity across School Contexts Relates to Kindergartners' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Berger, Rebecca H.; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Southworth, Jody; Silva, Kassondra M.

    2018-01-01

    Positive emotional expressivity has been associated with increased social competence and decreased maladjustment in childhood. However, a few researchers have found null or even positive associations between positive emotional expressivity and maladjustment, which suggests that there may be nuanced associations of positive expressivity, perhaps as…

  6. Facial expression of positive emotions in individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapelo, Marcela M; Hart, Sharon; Hale, Christiane; Morris, Robin; Lynch, Thomas R; Tchanturia, Kate

    2015-11-30

    A large body of research has associated Eating Disorders with difficulties in socio-emotional functioning and it has been argued that they may serve to maintain the illness. This study aimed to explore facial expressions of positive emotions in individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) compared to healthy controls (HC), through an examination of the Duchenne smile (DS), which has been associated with feelings of enjoyment, amusement and happiness (Ekman et al., 1990). Sixty participants (AN=20; BN=20; HC=20) were videotaped while watching a humorous film clip. The duration and intensity of DS were subsequently analyzed using the facial action coding system (FACS) (Ekman and Friesen, 2003). Participants with AN displayed DS for shorter durations than BN and HC participants, and their DS had lower intensity. In the clinical groups, lower duration and intensity of DS were associated with lower BMI, and use of psychotropic medication. The study is the first to explore DS in people with eating disorders, providing further evidence of difficulties in the socio-emotional domain in people with AN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Independent validation of the prognostic value of cancer stem cell marker expression and hypoxia-induced gene expression for patients with locally advanced HNSCC after postoperative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Linge

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The HPV status, CSC marker expression of CD44 and SLC3A2 as well as hypoxia status are potential prognostic biomarkers for patients with locally advanced HNSCC treated by postoperative radiotherapy.

  8. Differential expression of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers for imaging in male and female breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male breast cancer accounts for 0.5-1% of all breast cancers and is generally diagnosed at higher stage than female breast cancers and therefore might benefit from earlier detection and targeted therapy. Except for HER2 and EGFR, little is known about expression of growth factor receptors in male breast cancer. We therefore investigated expression profiles of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers in male breast cancer and gynecomastia, in comparison with female breast cancer. METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 133 male breast cancer and 32 gynecomastia cases were stained by immunohistochemistry for a panel of membrane-bound targets and compared with data on 266 female breast cancers. RESULTS: Growth factor receptors were variably expressed in 4.5% (MET up to 38.5% (IGF1-R of male breast cancers. Compared to female breast cancer, IGF1-R and carbonic anhydrase 12 (CAXII were more frequently and CD44v6, MET and FGFR2 less frequently expressed in male breast cancer. Expression of EGFR, HER2, CAIX, and GLUT1 was not significantly different between male and female breast cancer. Further, 48.1% of male breast cancers expressed at least one and 18.0% expressed multiple growth factor receptors. Since individual membrane receptors are expressed in only half of male breast cancers, a panel of membrane markers will be required for molecular imaging strategies to reach sensitivity. A potential panel of markers for molecular imaging, consisting of EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, CD44v6, CAXII, GLUT1, and CD44v6 was positive in 77% of male breast cancers, comparable to female breast cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Expression patterns of growth factor receptors and hypoxia membrane proteins in male breast cancer are different from female breast cancer. For molecular imaging strategies, a putative panel consisting of markers for EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, GLUT1, CAXII, CD44v6 was positive in 77% of cases and might be considered for development of

  9. Dimorphous expressions of positive emotion: displays of both care and aggression in response to cute stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Oriana R; Clark, Margaret S; Dyer, Rebecca L; Bargh, John A

    2015-03-01

    Extremely positive experiences, and positive appraisals thereof, produce intense positive emotions that often generate both positive expressions (e.g., smiles) and expressions normatively reserved for negative emotions (e.g., tears). We developed a definition of these dimorphous expressions and tested the proposal that their function is to regulate emotions. We showed that individuals who express emotions in this dimorphous manner do so as a general response across a variety of emotionally provoking situations, which suggests that these expressions are responses to intense positive emotion rather than unique to one particular situation. We used cute stimuli (an elicitor of positive emotion) to demonstrate both the existence of these dimorphous expressions and to provide preliminary evidence of their function as regulators of emotion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Nobuaki; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natumi; Watanabe, Masato; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Okano, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K is involved in bone formation and blood coagulation. Natural vitamin K compounds are composed of the plant form phylloquinone (vitamin K 1 ) and a series of bacterial menaquionones (MK-n; vitamin K 2 ). Menadione (vitamin K 3 ) is an artificial vitamin K compound. MK-4 contains 4-isoprenyl as a side group in the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone common structure and has various bioactivities. UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1 or TERE1) is the menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits proliferation of a tumour cell line. UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, heart, kidneys and pancreas. Several functions of UBIAD1 have been reported; however, regulation of the human UBIAD1 gene has not been elucidated. Here we report cloning and characterisation of the human UBIAD1 promoter. A 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis revealed that the main transcriptional start site was 306 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Deletion and mutation analyses revealed the functional importance of the YY1 consensus motif. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YY1 small interfering RNA decreased endogenous UBIAD1 mRNA expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity. These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. - Highlights: • We cloned the human UBIAD1 promoter. • The functional importance of the YY1 motif was identified in the UBIAD1 promoter. • YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. • Knockdown of YY1 significantly decreased UBIAD1 expression. • YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter

  11. YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funahashi, Nobuaki, E-mail: nfunahashi@ri.ncgm.go.jp [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Department of Metabolic Disorder, Diabetes Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirota, Yoshihisa [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan); Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natumi; Watanabe, Masato [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Suhara, Yoshitomo [Department of Bioscience and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Okano, Toshio [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin K is involved in bone formation and blood coagulation. Natural vitamin K compounds are composed of the plant form phylloquinone (vitamin K{sub 1}) and a series of bacterial menaquionones (MK-n; vitamin K{sub 2}). Menadione (vitamin K{sub 3}) is an artificial vitamin K compound. MK-4 contains 4-isoprenyl as a side group in the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone common structure and has various bioactivities. UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1 or TERE1) is the menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits proliferation of a tumour cell line. UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, heart, kidneys and pancreas. Several functions of UBIAD1 have been reported; however, regulation of the human UBIAD1 gene has not been elucidated. Here we report cloning and characterisation of the human UBIAD1 promoter. A 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis revealed that the main transcriptional start site was 306 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Deletion and mutation analyses revealed the functional importance of the YY1 consensus motif. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YY1 small interfering RNA decreased endogenous UBIAD1 mRNA expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity. These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. - Highlights: • We cloned the human UBIAD1 promoter. • The functional importance of the YY1 motif was identified in the UBIAD1 promoter. • YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. • Knockdown of YY1 significantly decreased UBIAD1 expression. • YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1

  12. Context matters: the benefits and costs of expressing positive emotion among survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, George A; Colak, Deniz M; Keltner, Dacher; Shiota, Michelle N; Papa, Anthony; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K

    2007-11-01

    Positive emotions promote adjustment to aversive life events. However, evolutionary theory and empirical research on trauma disclosure suggest that in the context of stigmatized events, expressing positive emotions might incur social costs. To test this thesis, the authors coded genuine (Duchenne) smiling and laughter and also non-Duchenne smiling from videotapes of late-adolescent and young adult women, approximately half with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), as they described the most distressing event of their lives. Consistent with previous studies, genuine positive emotional expression was generally associated with better social adjustment two years later. However, as anticipated, CSA survivors who expressed positive emotion in the context of describing a past CSA experience had poorer long-term social adjustment, whereas CSA survivors who expressed positive emotion while describing a nonabuse experience had improved social adjustment. These findings suggest that the benefits of positive emotional expression may often be context specific.

  13. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshk@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ojha, A.; Garg, A.D.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Senecha, V.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India)

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  14. Understanding the positive and negative effects of emotional expressions in organizations: EASI does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions have a pervasive impact on organizational behavior. They do not just influence people’s own actions; when expressed, emotions may also exert influence on other organization members who perceive the expressions. Sometimes emotional expressions have ‘symmetrical’ effects, in that positive

  15. What is shared, what is different? Core relational themes and expressive displays of eight positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Belinda; Shiota, Michelle N; Keltner, Dacher; Gonzaga, Gian C; Goetz, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding positive emotions' shared and differentiating features can yield valuable insight into the structure of positive emotion space and identify emotion states, or aspects of emotion states, that are most relevant for particular psychological processes and outcomes. We report two studies that examined core relational themes (Study 1) and expressive displays (Study 2) for eight positive emotion constructs--amusement, awe, contentment, gratitude, interest, joy, love, and pride. Across studies, all eight emotions shared one quality: high positive valence. Distinctive core relational theme and expressive display patterns were found for four emotions--amusement, awe, interest, and pride. Gratitude was associated with a distinct core relational theme but not an expressive display. Joy and love were each associated with a distinct expressive display but their core relational themes also characterised pride and gratitude, respectively. Contentment was associated with a distinct expressive display but not a core relational theme. The implications of this work for the study of positive emotion are discussed.

  16. The relationship of positive and negative expressiveness to the processing of emotion information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Barchard, Kimberly A; Razumnikova, Olga M; Mitrofanova, Larisa G

    2012-06-01

    The tendency to express emotions non-verbally is positively related to perception of emotions in oneself. This study examined its relationship to perception of emotions in others. In 40 healthy adults, EEG theta synchronization was used to indicate emotion processing following presentation of happy, angry, and neutral faces. Both positive and negative expressiveness were associated with higher emotional sensitivity, as shown by cortical responses to facial expressions during the early, unconscious processing stage. At the late, conscious processing stage, positive expressiveness was associated with higher sensitivity to happy faces but lower sensitivity to angry faces. Thus, positive expressiveness predisposes people to allocate fewer attentional resources for conscious perception of angry faces. In contrast, negative expressiveness was consistently associated with higher sensitivity. The effects of positive expressiveness occurred in cortical areas that deal with emotions, but the effects of negative expressiveness occurred in areas engaged in self-referential processes in the context of social relationships. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. COX-2 expression positively correlates with PD-L1 expression in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Gerardo; Fratangelo, Federica; Cerrone, Margherita; Liguori, Giuseppina; Cantile, Monica; Anniciello, Anna Maria; Scala, Stefania; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Trimarco, Chiara; Ianaro, Angela; Cirino, Giuseppe; Caracò, Corrado; Colombino, Maria; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Pepe, Stefano; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Sabbatino, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Giosuè

    2017-02-23

    The resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma have prompted investigators to implement novel clinical trials which combine immunotherapy with different treatment modalities. Moreover is also important to investigate the mechanisms which regulate the dynamic expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells and PD-1 on T cells in order to identify predictive biomarkers of response. COX-2 is currently investigated as a major player of tumor progression in several type of malignancies including melanoma. In the present study we investigated the potential relationship between COX-2 and PD-L1 expression in melanoma. Tumor samples obtained from primary melanoma lesions and not matched lymph node metastases were analyzed for both PD-L1 and COX-2 expression by IHC analysis. Status of BRAF and NRAS mutations was analyzed by sequencing and PCR. Co-localization of PD-L1 and COX-2 expression was analyzed by double fluorescence staining. Lastly the BRAF V600E A375 and NRAS Q61R SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effect of COX-2 inhibition by celecoxib on expression of PD-L1 in vitro. BRAF V600E/V600K and NRAS Q61R/Q61L were detected in 57.8 and 8.9% of the metastatic lesions, and in 65.9 and 6.8% of the primary tumors, respectively. PD-L1 and COX-2 expression were heterogeneously expressed in both primary melanoma lesions and not matched lymph node metastases. A significantly lower number of PD-L1 negative lesions was found in primary tumors as compared to not matched metastatic lesions (P = 0.002). COX-2 expression significantly correlated with PD-L1 expression in both primary (P = 0.001) and not matched metastatic (P = 0.048) lesions. Furthermore, in melanoma tumors, cancer cells expressing a higher levels of COX-2 also co-expressed a higher level of PD-L1. Lastly, inhibition of COX-2 activity by celecoxib down-regulated the expression of PD-L1 in both BRAF V600E A375 and NRAS Q61R SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell lines. COX-2 expression correlates

  18. Menstrual cycle could affect Ki67 expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimoto, Yoshiya; Arakawa, Atsushi; Tanabe, Masahiko; Kuroda, Keiji; Matsuoka, Joe; Igari, Fumie; Himuro, Takanori; Yoshida, Yuko; Tokuda, Emi; Shimizu, Hideo; Hino, Okio; Saito, Mitsue

    2015-10-01

    Ki67 is a potent prognostic marker for determining systemic treatment of patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. However, evaluation of Ki67 expression can be difficult, due mostly to its heterogeneity. The Ki67 expression level, which indicates that a cell is undergoing division (cell cycle), rises when proliferation activity increases. Thus, Ki67 expression might be affected by hormonal stimuli. We hypothesised that Ki67 expression level might change during the menstrual cycle. We examined pairs of biopsy and surgical specimens from individual patients to evaluate this hypothesis. First, the effects of estradiol on Ki67 expression in breast cancer cell lines were examined employing immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Next, differences in Ki67 expression between biopsy and surgical specimens from 131 patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumours were retrospectively examined. In vitro experiments showed Ki67 expression in estrogen receptor-positive cancer cells to be dependent on estradiol stimulation. Ki67 expression was higher in biopsy samples collected in the luteal phase than in those from other phases. When biopsy and surgical samples were obtained at different times during the menstrual cycle in the same individual, there were differences in Ki67 expression between these samples. Those collected in the luteal phase showed higher Ki67 expression than samples obtained during other phases (pKi67 expression varied in the same patients according to menstrual cycle phase. Our results suggest that Ki67 expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer should be carefully assessed bearing in mind the patient's menstrual cycle, since the interpretation of expression could affect treatment decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy…

  20. Positive Selection Underlies Faster-Z Evolution of Gene Expression in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca; Harrison, Peter W; Wright, Alison E; Zimmer, Fabian; Mank, Judith E

    2015-10-01

    The elevated rate of evolution for genes on sex chromosomes compared with autosomes (Fast-X or Fast-Z evolution) can result either from positive selection in the heterogametic sex or from nonadaptive consequences of reduced relative effective population size. Recent work in birds suggests that Fast-Z of coding sequence is primarily due to relaxed purifying selection resulting from reduced relative effective population size. However, gene sequence and gene expression are often subject to distinct evolutionary pressures; therefore, we tested for Fast-Z in gene expression using next-generation RNA-sequencing data from multiple avian species. Similar to studies of Fast-Z in coding sequence, we recover clear signatures of Fast-Z in gene expression; however, in contrast to coding sequence, our data indicate that Fast-Z in expression is due to positive selection acting primarily in females. In the soma, where gene expression is highly correlated between the sexes, we detected Fast-Z in both sexes, although at a higher rate in females, suggesting that many positively selected expression changes in females are also expressed in males. In the gonad, where intersexual correlations in expression are much lower, we detected Fast-Z for female gene expression, but crucially, not males. This suggests that a large amount of expression variation is sex-specific in its effects within the gonad. Taken together, our results indicate that Fast-Z evolution of gene expression is the product of positive selection acting on recessive beneficial alleles in the heterogametic sex. More broadly, our analysis suggests that the adaptive potential of Z chromosome gene expression may be much greater than that of gene sequence, results which have important implications for the role of sex chromosomes in speciation and sexual selection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Expressing and Amplifying Positive Emotions Facilitate Goal Attainment in Workplace Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elena; Tschan, Franziska; Messerli, Laurence; Semmer, Norbert K.

    2013-01-01

    Expressing emotions has social functions; it provides information, affects social interactions, and shapes relationships with others. Expressing positive emotions could be a strategic tool for improving goal attainment during social interactions at work. Such effects have been found in research on social contagion, impression management, and emotion work. However, expressing emotions one does not feel entails the risk of being perceived as inauthentic. This risk may well be worth taking when the emotions felt are negative, as expressing negative emotions usually has negative effects. When experiencing positive emotions, however, expressing them authentically promises benefits, and the advantage of amplifying them is not so obvious. We postulated that expressing, and amplifying, positive emotions would foster goal attainment in social interactions at work, particularly when dealing with superiors. Analyses are based on 494 interactions involving the pursuit of a goal by 113 employes. Multilevel analyses, including polynomial analyses, show that authentic display of positive emotions supported goal attainment throughout. However, amplifying felt positive emotions promoted goal attainment only in interactions with superiors, but not with colleagues. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of hierarchy for detecting, and interpreting, signs of strategic display of positive emotions. PMID:23675358

  2. Expressing and amplifying positive emotions facilitate goal attainment in workplace interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eWong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Expressing emotions has social functions; it provides information, affects social interactions, and shapes relationships with others. Expressing positive emotions could be a strategic tool for improving goal attainment during social interactions at work. Such effects have been found in research on social contagion, impression management, and emotion work. However, expressing emotions one does not feel entails the risk of being perceived as inauthentic. This risk may well be worth taking when the emotions felt are negative, as expressing negative emotions usually has negative effects. When experiencing positive emotions, however, expressing them authentically promises benefits, and the advantage of amplifying them is not so obvious. We postulated that expressing, and amplifying, positive emotions would foster goal attainment in social interactions at work, particularly when dealing with superiors. Analyses are based on 494 interactions involving the pursuit of a goal by 113 employees. Multilevel analyses, including polynomial analyses, show that authentic display of positive emotions supported goal attainment throughout. However, amplifying felt positive emotions promoted goal attainment only in interactions with superiors, but not with colleagues. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of hierarchy for detecting, and interpreting, signs of strategic display of positive emotions.

  3. Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Hillel; Trope, Yaacov; Todorov, Alexander

    2012-11-30

    The distinction between positive and negative emotions is fundamental in emotion models. Intriguingly, neurobiological work suggests shared mechanisms across positive and negative emotions. We tested whether similar overlap occurs in real-life facial expressions. During peak intensities of emotion, positive and negative situations were successfully discriminated from isolated bodies but not faces. Nevertheless, viewers perceived illusory positivity or negativity in the nondiagnostic faces when seen with bodies. To reveal the underlying mechanisms, we created compounds of intense negative faces combined with positive bodies, and vice versa. Perceived affect and mimicry of the faces shifted systematically as a function of their contextual body emotion. These findings challenge standard models of emotion expression and highlight the role of the body in expressing and perceiving emotions.

  4. Response and binding elements for ligand-dependent positive transcription factors integrate positive and negative regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, M.G.; Glass, C.K.; Adler, S.; Crenshaw, E.B. III; He, X.; Lira, S.A.; Elsholtz, H.P.; Mangalam, H.J.; Holloway, J.M.; Nelson, C.; Albert, V.R.; Ingraham, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate, regulated initiation of mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II is dependent on the actions of a variety of positive and negative trans-acting factors that bind cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements. These transcription factors may exert their actions in a tissue-specific manner or function under control of plasma membrane or intracellular ligand-dependent receptors. A major goal in the authors' laboratory has been to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the serial activation of hormone-encoding genes in the pituitary during development and the positive and negative regulation of their transcription. The anterior pituitary gland contains phenotypically distinct cell types, each of which expresses unique trophic hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone. The structurally related prolactin and growth hormone genes are expressed in lactotrophs and somatotrophs, respectively, with their expression virtually limited to the pituitary gland. The reported transient coexpression of these two structurally related neuroendocrine genes raises the possibility that the prolactin and growth hormone genes are developmentally controlled by a common factor(s)

  5. Greater ability to express positive emotion is associated with lower projected cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Adams, Kathryn S; Pressman, Sarah D; Consedine, Nathan S

    2017-12-01

    Positive emotion is associated with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet some mechanisms remain unclear. One potential pathway is via emotional competencies/skills. The present study tests whether the ability to facially express positive emotion is associated with CVD risk scores, while controlling for potential confounds and testing for sex moderation. Eighty-two men and women underwent blood draws before completing self-report assessments and a performance test of expressive skill. Positive expressions were scored for degree of 'happiness' using expression coding software. CVD risk scores were calculated using established algorithms based on biological, demographic, and behavioral risk factors. Linear regressions revealed a main effect for skill, with skill in expressing positive emotion associated with lower CVD risk scores. Analyses also revealed a sex-by-skill interaction whereby links between expressive skill and CVD risk scores were stronger among men. Objective tests of expressive skill have methodological advantages, appear to have links to physical health, and offer a novel avenue for research and intervention.

  6. Expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs in placentas of HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komala Pillay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN is a mannose-binding lectin that initiates interaction between dendritic cells and resting T-lymphocytes. DC-SIGN is highly expressed in placental tissue on dendritic cells and Hofbauer cells, and it is suggested that HIV may become adsorbed to DC-SIGN on Hofbauer cells as part of the mechanism of mother-to-child HIV transmission. A possible mechanism of transfer of the virus from the Hofbauer cells to the fetus is the subsequent adsorption to DC-SIGN-related molecules (DC-SIGNRs, present on immediately adjacent capillary vascular endothelium. However, data on DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression in the placenta are few. Methods. Forty term placentas from HIV-positive mothers and 21 term placentas from HIV-negative mothers underwent immunohistochemistry staining for DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression. Five random sets of 10 villi were assessed, and the average number of positive cells were counted in each case. In addition, where possible, maternal and cord blood viral loads and maternal CD4+ counts were performed in the HIV-positive group only. Results. The median maternal CD4+ count was 377 cells/µl and 27% of participants had undetectable viral loads; the median detectable viral load was 3.72 log. Most (97% of the cord bloods tested in infants from HIV-positive mothers had lower than detectable viral loads. HIV-positive cases had significantly greater expression of both DC-SIGNRs (median values in HIV-positive cases, 14.5 positive cells/10 villi (pc/10villi, compared with 11 pc/10villi in HIV-negative cases, p=0.020 and DC-SIGN (median value in HIV-positive cases, 26.5 pc/10villi, compared with 23 pc/10villi in HIV-negative cases, p=0.037. DC-SIGNR expression was also noted in Hofbauer cells and decidual macrophages in addition to endothelium (reported currently. There was no difference in expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs in patients

  7. Nonlatching positive feedback enables robust bimodality by decoupling expression noise from the mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razooky, Brandon S.; Cao, Youfang; Hansen, Maike M. K.; Perelson, Alan S.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental to biological decision-making is the ability to generate bimodal expression patterns where 2 alternate expression states simultaneously exist. Here, we use a combination of single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling to examine the sources of bimodality in the transcriptional program controlling HIV’s fate decision between active replication and viral latency. We find that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein manipulates the intrinsic toggling of HIV’s promoter, the long terminal repeat (LTR), to generate bimodal ON-OFF expression and that transcriptional positive feedback from Tat shifts and expands the regime of LTR bimodality. This result holds for both minimal synthetic viral circuits and full-length virus. Strikingly, computational analysis indicates that the Tat circuit’s noncooperative “nonlatching” feedback architecture is optimized to slow the promoter’s toggling and generate bimodality by stochastic extinction of Tat. In contrast to the standard Poisson model, theory and experiment show that nonlatching positive feedback substantially dampens the inverse noise-mean relationship to maintain stochastic bimodality despite increasing mean expression levels. Given the rapid evolution of HIV, the presence of a circuit optimized to robustly generate bimodal expression appears consistent with the hypothesis that HIV’s decision between active replication and latency provides a viral fitness advantage. More broadly, the results suggest that positive-feedback circuits may have evolved not only for signal amplification but also for robustly generating bimodality by decoupling expression fluctuations (noise) from mean expression levels. PMID:29045398

  8. Nonlatching positive feedback enables robust bimodality by decoupling expression noise from the mean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razooky, Brandon S. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States). Lab. of Virology and Infectious Disease; Gladstone Institutes (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary; Cao, Youfang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hansen, Maike M. K. [Gladstone Institutes (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, CA (United States); Perelson, Alan S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Simpson, Michael L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary; Weinberger, Leor S. [Gladstone Institutes (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). QB3: California Inst. of Quantitative Biosciences; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    2017-10-18

    Fundamental to biological decision-making is the ability to generate bimodal expression patterns where two alternate expression states simultaneously exist. Here in this study, we use a combination of single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling to examine the sources of bimodality in the transcriptional program controlling HIV’s fate decision between active replication and viral latency. We find that the HIV Tat protein manipulates the intrinsic toggling of HIV’s promoter, the LTR, to generate bimodal ON-OFF expression, and that transcriptional positive feedback from Tat shifts and expands the regime of LTR bimodality. This result holds for both minimal synthetic viral circuits and full-length virus. Strikingly, computational analysis indicates that the Tat circuit’s non-cooperative ‘non-latching’ feedback architecture is optimized to slow the promoter’s toggling and generate bimodality by stochastic extinction of Tat. In contrast to the standard Poisson model, theory and experiment show that non-latching positive feedback substantially dampens the inverse noise-mean relationship to maintain stochastic bimodality despite increasing mean-expression levels. Given the rapid evolution of HIV, the presence of a circuit optimized to robustly generate bimodal expression appears consistent with the hypothesis that HIV’s decision between active replication and latency provides a viral fitness advantage. More broadly, the results suggest that positive-feedback circuits may have evolved not only for signal amplification but also for robustly generating bimodality by decoupling expression fluctuations (noise) from mean expression levels.

  9. Not just a marker: CD34 on human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells dominates vascular selectin binding along with CD44

    KAUST Repository

    Abu Samra, Dina Bashir Kamil

    2017-12-27

    CD34 is routinely used to identify and isolate human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) for use clinically in bone marrow transplantation, but its function on these cells remains elusive. Glycoprotein ligands on HSPCs help guide their migration to specialized microvascular beds in the bone marrow that express vascular selectins (E- and P-selectin). Here, we show that HSPC-enriched fractions from human hematopoietic tissue expressing CD34 (CD34pos) bound selectins, whereas those lacking CD34 (CD34neg) did not. An unbiased proteomics screen identified potential glycoprotein ligands on CD34pos cells revealing CD34 itself as a major vascular selectin ligand. Biochemical and CD34 knockdown analyses highlight a key role for CD34 in the first prerequisite step of cell migration, suggesting that it is not just a marker on these cells. Our results also entice future potential strategies to investigate the glycoforms of CD34 that discriminate normal HSPCs from leukemic cells and to manipulate CD34neg HSPC-enriched bone marrow or cord blood populations as a source of stem cells for clinical use.

  10. Aging and emotional expressions: is there a positivity bias during dynamic emotion recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eDi Domenico

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated whether age-related differences in emotion regulation priorities influence online dynamic emotional facial discrimination. A group of 40 younger and a group of 40 older adults were invited to recognize a positive or negative expression as soon as the expression slowly emerged and subsequently rate it in terms of intensity. Our findings show that older adults recognized happy expressions faster than angry ones, while the direction of emotional expression does not seem to affect younger adults’ performance. Furthermore, older adults rated both negative and positive emotional faces as more intense compared to younger controls. This study detects age-related differences with a dynamic online paradigm and suggests that different regulation strategies may shape emotional face recognition.

  11. Cancer Evolution Is Associated with Pervasive Positive Selection on Globally Expressed Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Sheli L.; Barshir, Ruth; DeGregori, James; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Hershberg, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is an evolutionary process in which cells acquire new transformative, proliferative and metastatic capabilities. A full understanding of cancer requires learning the dynamics of the cancer evolutionary process. We present here a large-scale analysis of the dynamics of this evolutionary process within tumors, with a focus on breast cancer. We show that the cancer evolutionary process differs greatly from organismal (germline) evolution. Organismal evolution is dominated by purifying selection (that removes mutations that are harmful to fitness). In contrast, in the cancer evolutionary process the dominance of purifying selection is much reduced, allowing for a much easier detection of the signals of positive selection (adaptation). We further show that, as a group, genes that are globally expressed across human tissues show a very strong signal of positive selection within tumors. Indeed, known cancer genes are enriched for global expression patterns. Yet, positive selection is prevalent even on globally expressed genes that have not yet been associated with cancer, suggesting that globally expressed genes are enriched for yet undiscovered cancer related functions. We find that the increased positive selection on globally expressed genes within tumors is not due to their expression in the tissue relevant to the cancer. Rather, such increased adaptation is likely due to globally expressed genes being enriched in important housekeeping and essential functions. Thus, our results suggest that tumor adaptation is most often mediated through somatic changes to those genes that are important for the most basic cellular functions. Together, our analysis reveals the uniqueness of the cancer evolutionary process and the particular importance of globally expressed genes in driving cancer initiation and progression. PMID:24603726

  12. Relations Between Dispositional Expressivity and Physiological Changes During Acute Positive and Negative Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmir Gračanin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine the relations between emotional expressivity measured by Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and physiological response in situations where positive and negative affects were induced. On 65 participants four physiological parameters, including finger pulse amplitude, heart rate, skin conductance level and amplitude of skin conductance response were measured. In situations in which negative affect was induced, individuals higher in negative expressivity showed higher skin conductance level, higher amplitude of skin conductance response and higher heart rate compared to individuals low on negative expressivity, whereas finger pulse amplitude did not differ between these two groups. The same results were obtained even when controlling for five factor personality traits and recorded participants’ facial expression. In situation where a positive affect was induced, no differences in sympathetic responses between participants high and low in positive expressivity have been found. The results are explained in the context of Coactivation theory and possible consequences of the results on health outcomes are discussed.

  13. Expression of positive emotions differs in illness and recovery in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapelo, Marcela Marin; Hart, Sharon; Hale, Christiane; Morris, Robin; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-12-30

    People with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) display reduced facial expression of emotions. This study investigated the expression of positive affect in response to a film, examining Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles in 20 women who have recovered from AN (REC), 20 with acute AN and 20 healthy controls (HC). The results indicated that the REC group exhibited Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles with higher duration and intensity than the AN group, comparable to the HC group. The findings warrant longitudinal studies to confirm that reduced expressivity is linked to acute AN, ameliorating after recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  15. Differential expression profile prioritization of positional candidate glaucoma genes: the GLC1C locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Frank W; Scott, Kathleen M; Pawar, Hemant; Samples, John R; Wirtz, Mary K; Richards, Julia E

    2007-01-01

    To develop and apply a model for prioritization of candidate glaucoma genes. This Affymetrix GeneChip (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, Calif) study of gene expression in primary culture human trabecular meshwork cells uses a positional differential expression profile model for prioritization of candidate genes within the GLC1C genetic inclusion interval. Sixteen genes were expressed under all conditions within the GLC1C interval. TMEM22 was the only gene within the interval with differential expression in the same direction under both conditions tested. Two genes, ATP1B3 and COPB2, are of interest in the context of a protein-misfolding model for candidate selection. SLC25A36, PCCB, and FNDC6 are of lesser interest because of moderate expression and changes in expression. Transcription factor ZBTB38 emerges as an interesting candidate gene because of the overall expression level, differential expression, and function. Only 1 gene in the GLC1C interval fits our model for differential expression under multiple glaucoma risk conditions. The use of multiple prioritization models resulted in filtering 7 candidate genes of higher interest out of the 41 known genes in the region. This study identified a small subset of genes that are most likely to harbor mutations that cause glaucoma linked to GLC1C.

  16. Paralemmin-1 is over-expressed in estrogen-receptor positive breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk Casey M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paralemmin-1 is a phosphoprotein lipid-anchored to the cytoplasmic face of membranes where it functions in membrane dynamics, maintenance of cell shape, and process formation. Expression of paralemmin-1 and its major splice variant (Δ exon 8 as well as the extent of posttranslational modifications are tissue- and development-specific. Paralemmin-1 expression in normal breast and breast cancer tissue has not been described previously. Results Paralemmin-1 mRNA and protein expression was evaluated in ten breast cell lines, 26 primary tumors, and 10 reduction mammoplasty (RM tissues using real time RT-PCR. Paralemmin-1 splice variants were assessed in tumor and RM tissues using a series of primers and RT-PCR. Paralemmin-1 protein expression was examined in cell lines using Western Blots and in 31 ductal carcinomas in situ, 65 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, and 40 RM tissues using immunohistochemistry. Paralemmin-1 mRNA levels were higher in breast cancers than in RM tissue and estrogen receptor (ER-positive tumors had higher transcript levels than ER-negative tumors. The Δ exon 8 splice variant was detected more frequently in tumor than in RM tissues. Protein expression was consistent with mRNA results showing higher paralemmin-1 expression in ER-positive tumors. Conclusions The differential expression of paralemmin-1 in a subset of breast cancers suggests the existence of variation in membrane dynamics that may be exploited to improve diagnosis or provide a therapeutic target.

  17. Expression Divergence Is Correlated with Sequence Evolution but Not Positive Selection in Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Yeaman, Sam; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Aitken, Sally N

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary and genomic determinants of sequence evolution in conifers are poorly understood, and previous studies have found only limited evidence for positive selection. Using RNAseq data, we compared gene expression profiles to patterns of divergence and polymorphism in 44 seedlings of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and 39 seedlings of interior spruce (Picea glauca × engelmannii) to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shape their genomes and their plastic responses to abiotic stress. We found that rapidly diverging genes tend to have greater expression divergence, lower expression levels, reduced levels of synonymous site diversity, and longer proteins than slowly diverging genes. Similar patterns were identified for the untranslated regions, but with some exceptions. We found evidence that genes with low expression levels had a larger fraction of nearly neutral sites, suggesting a primary role for negative selection in determining the association between evolutionary rate and expression level. There was limited evidence for differences in the rate of positive selection among genes with divergent versus conserved expression profiles and some evidence supporting relaxed selection in genes diverging in expression between the species. Finally, we identified a small number of genes that showed evidence of site-specific positive selection using divergence data alone. However, estimates of the proportion of sites fixed by positive selection (α) were in the range of other plant species with large effective population sizes suggesting relatively high rates of adaptive divergence among conifers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Expression of POEM, a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is suppressed by TNF-α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukasaki, Masayuki; Yamada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Dai; Aizawa, Ryo; Miyazono, Agasa; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Takami, Masamichi; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Morimura, Naoko; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TNF-α inhibits POEM gene expression. → Inhibition of POEM gene expression is caused by NF-κB activation by TNF-α. → Over-expression of POEM recovers inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-α. -- Abstract: POEM, also known as nephronectin, is an extracellular matrix protein considered to be a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we found that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a key regulator of bone matrix properties and composition that also inhibits terminal osteoblast differentiation, strongly inhibited POEM expression in the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. TNF-α-induced down-regulation of POEM gene expression occurred in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. In addition, expressions of marker genes in differentiated osteoblasts were down-regulated by TNF-α in a manner consistent with our findings for POEM, while over-expression of POEM recovered TNF-α-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that TNF-α inhibits POEM expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway and down-regulation of POEM influences the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-α.

  19. The ventrolateral hypothalamic area and the parvafox nucleus: Role in the expression of (positive) emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo; Celio, Marco R

    2016-06-01

    The lateral hypothalamus has been long suspected of triggering the expression of positive emotions, because stimulations of its tuberal portion provoke bursts of laughter. Electrophysiological studies in various species have indeed confirmed that the lateral hypothalamus contributes to reward mechanisms. However, only the rudiments of the neural circuit underlying the expression of positive emotions are known. The prefrontal cortex, the lateral hypothalamus, and the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) are involved in these circuits; so, too, are the brainstem nuclei that control the laryngeal muscles and subserve mimicry, as well as the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The implicated populations of hypothalamic neurons have not been defined either anatomically or molecularly. One promising candidate is the novel parvafox nucleus, which we recently described, in the murine medial forebrain bundle (mfb), which specifically expresses parvalbumin and Foxb1. With the molecularly defined parvafox nucleus as a centerpiece, the inputs from the prefrontal cortex and the projections to the PAG and brainstem can be studied with precision. By drawing on genetic approaches, it will be possible to manipulate the circuitry selectively with spatial and temporal exactitude and to evaluate the concomitant autonomic changes. These data will serve as a basis for imaging studies in humans using various paradigms to provoke the expression of positive emotions. In conclusion, studies of the hypothalamic parvafox nucleus will reveal whether this entity represents the fulcrum for positive emotions, as is the amygdala for fear and the insula for disgust. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High expression of Mcl-1 in ALK positive and negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, R; Harms, G; Blokzijl, T; Boot, M; Diepstra, A; Kluiver, J; Visser, L; Peh, SC; Lim, M; Kamps, WA; Poppema, S; van den Berg, Anke

    Aim: To gain more insight into the genes involved in the aetiology and pathogenesis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Methods: Serial analysis of gene expression ( SAGE) was undertaken on the CD4+ALK+ ( anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive) ALCL derived cell line Karpas299 and as comparison

  1. Aromatase expression increases the survival and malignancy of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya De Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, local estrogen produced by adipose stromal cells in the breast is believed to support estrogen receptor alpha (ERα positive breast cancer cell survival and growth. This raises the question of how the ERα positive metastatic breast cancer cells survive after they enter blood and lymph circulation, where estrogen level is very low in postmenopausal women. In this study, we show that the aromatase expression increased when ERα positive breast cancer cells were cultured in suspension. Furthermore, treatment with the aromatase substrate, testosterone, inhibited suspension culture-induced apoptosis whereas an aromatase inhibitor attenuated the effect of testosterone suggesting that suspended circulating ERα positive breast cancer cells may up-regulate intracrine estrogen activity for survival. Consistent with this notion, a moderate level of ectopic aromatase expression rendered a non-tumorigenic ERα positive breast cancer cell line not only tumorigenic but also metastatic in female nude mice without exogenous estrogen supplementation. The increased malignant phenotype was confirmed to be due to aromatase expression as the growth of orthotopic tumors regressed with systemic administration of an aromatase inhibitor. Thus, our study provides experimental evidence that aromatase plays an important role in the survival of metastatic ERα breast cancer cells by suppressing anoikis.

  2. Expressive writing and positive writing for participants with mood disorders: an online randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikie, Karen A; Geerligs, Liesbeth; Wilhelm, Kay

    2012-02-01

    Expressive writing--writing about traumatic, stressful or emotional events--often leads to improvements in physical and psychological health in non-clinical and clinical populations. Recent studies have shown that positive writing may also be beneficial. Research has not yet investigated whether either expressive writing or positive writing offers benefits for people with mood disorders. Participants were recruited online and were randomly allocated to expressive writing, positive writing or control writing. The following questionnaires were completed online: Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness (PILL), overall health questions, Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and COPE Inventory (COPE). Participants then wrote for 20 min on 4 occasions, and then completed follow-up questionnaires. Linear mixed models with custom contrasts were conducted to assess differences between groups and over time. All 3 groups showed significant improvements over time on mental health and some physical health outcomes. There were no significant differences between groups and no significant group by time interactions. These results were not moderated by demographic factors, personality subtypes or coping styles. The expressive writing, positive writing and time management control writing groups all reported significantly fewer mental and physical symptoms for at least 4 months post-writing. When expressive and positive writing groups were combined, the resulting `emotional writing group' showed significantly lower scores on the DASS stress subscale than the control writing group at all time-points. Potential reasons are discussed and areas of further study identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Positive emotion-specific changes in the gene expression profile of tickled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Miyo; Hayashi, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sakamoto, Shigeko; Urayama, Osamu; Murakami, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression after tactile stimulation (tickling) accompanied by positive emotion in the adolescent rat brain. We observed a positive emotional response (50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations) after tickling using a modified version of the Panksepp method, and then comprehensively compared gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of the tickled rats and control rats using the microarray technique. After 4 weeks of stimulation, the expression levels of 321 of the 41,012 genes (including transcripts) were changed; 136 genes were up-regulated (>1.5-fold) and 185 were down-regulated (>0.67-fold) in the tickled rat group. Upon ontology analysis, the up-regulated genes were assigned to the following Gene Ontology (GO) terms: feeding behavior, neuropeptide signaling pathway, biogenic amine biosynthesis and catecholamine biosynthesis. Down-regulated genes were not assigned to any GO term categorized as a biological process. In conclusion, repeated tickling stimulation with positive emotion affected neuronal circuitry directly and/or indirectly, and altered the expression of genes related to the regulation of feeding in the adolescent rat hypothalamus.

  4. Relative preservation of the recognition of positive facial expression "happiness" in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tomoharu; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2013-01-01

    Positivity recognition bias has been reported for facial expression as well as memory and visual stimuli in aged individuals, whereas emotional facial recognition in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients is controversial, with possible involvement of confounding factors such as deficits in spatial processing of non-emotional facial features and in verbal processing to express emotions. Thus, we examined whether recognition of positive facial expressions was preserved in AD patients, by adapting a new method that eliminated the influences of these confounding factors. Sensitivity of six basic facial expressions (happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust, and fear) was evaluated in 12 outpatients with mild AD, 17 aged normal controls (ANC), and 25 young normal controls (YNC). To eliminate the factors related to non-emotional facial features, averaged faces were prepared as stimuli. To eliminate the factors related to verbal processing, the participants were required to match the images of stimulus and answer, avoiding the use of verbal labels. In recognition of happiness, there was no difference in sensitivity between YNC and ANC, and between ANC and AD patients. AD patients were less sensitive than ANC in recognition of sadness, surprise, and anger. ANC were less sensitive than YNC in recognition of surprise, anger, and disgust. Within the AD patient group, sensitivity of happiness was significantly higher than those of the other five expressions. In AD patient, recognition of happiness was relatively preserved; recognition of happiness was most sensitive and was preserved against the influences of age and disease.

  5. Role of CD44 in Tumor Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underhill, Charles

    1999-01-01

    ...) that we isolated from cartilage by affinity chromatography. We found that the HAbc was able to block the growth of tumors cells in mice as well as in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryos...

  6. Smile to see the forest: Facially expressed positive emotions broaden cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kareem J.; Waugh, Christian E.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    The broaden hypothesis, part of Fredrickson’s (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory, proposes that positive emotions lead to broadened cognitive states. Here, we present evidence that cognitive broadening can be produced by frequent facial expressions of positive emotion. Additionally, we present a novel method of using facial electromyography (EMG) to discriminate between Duchenne (genuine) and non-Duchenne (non-genuine) smiles. Across experiments, Duchenne smiles occurred more frequently during positive emotion inductions than neutral or negative inductions. Across experiments, Duchenne smiles correlated with self-reports of specific positive emotions. In Experiment 1, high frequencies of Duchenne smiles predicted increased attentional breadth on a global–local visual processing task. In Experiment 2, high frequencies of Duchenne smiles predicted increased attentional flexibility on a covert attentional orienting task. These data underscore the value of using multiple methods to measure emotional experience in studies of emotion and cognition. PMID:23275681

  7. Quantitative Characterization of E-selectin Interaction with Native CD44 and P-selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) Using a Real Time Immunoprecipitation-based Binding Assay

    KAUST Repository

    Abu Samra, Dina Bashir Kamil

    2015-06-29

    Selectins (E-, P-, and L-selectins) interact with glycoprotein ligands to mediate the essential tethering/rolling step in cell transport and delivery that captures migrating cells from the circulating flow. In this work, we developed a real time immunoprecipitation assay on a surface plasmon resonance chip that captures native glycoforms of two well known E-selectin ligands (CD44/hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1) from hematopoietic cell extracts. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of their binding to E-selectin. We show that both ligands bind recombinant monomeric E-selectin transiently with fast on- and fast off-rates, whereas they bind dimeric E-selectin with remarkably slow onand off-rates. This binding requires the sialyl Lewis x sugar moiety to be placed on both O- and N-glycans, and its association, but not dissociation, is sensitive to the salt concentration. Our results suggest a mechanism through which monomeric selectins mediate initial fast on and fast off kinetics to help capture cells out of the circulating shear flow; subsequently, tight binding by dimeric/oligomeric selectins is enabled to significantly slow rolling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Positive regulation of botulinum neurotoxin gene expression by CodY in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Dahlsten, Elias; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2014-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin, produced mainly by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum, is the most poisonous biological substance known. Here, we show that CodY, a global regulator conserved in low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, positively regulates the botulinum neurotoxin gene expression. Inactivation of codY resulted in decreased expression of botA, encoding the neurotoxin, as well as in reduced neurotoxin synthesis. Complementation of the codY mutation in trans rescued neurotoxin synthesis, and overexpression of codY in trans caused elevated neurotoxin production. Recombinant CodY was found to bind to a 30-bp region containing the botA transcription start site, suggesting regulation of the neurotoxin gene transcription through direct interaction. GTP enhanced the binding affinity of CodY to the botA promoter, suggesting that CodY-dependent neurotoxin regulation is associated with nutritional status. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Expression of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Zülow, I

    1997-01-01

    -heart surgery and eight with abdominal surgery were studied. The adhesion molecules CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1_, CD11c/CD18 and CD44 and the activation molecules CD25, CD69, CD71 and MHCII were measured, using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Lymphocytopenia was observed during CPB and for some hours after both...... open-heart and abdominal surgery. The proportion of CD11a/CD18-positive lymphocytes rose from 67.6 +/- 8% to 86.4 +/- 3% after aortic declamping (p ... was associated with increased expression of the adhesion molecule CD11a/CD18 on lymphocytes, while the expression of activation molecules on lymphocytes was unchanged....

  10. Expression of hLAMP-1-Positive Particles During Early Heart Development in the Chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhamid, T H; Conway, M L; Sinning, A R

    2017-10-01

    Heart development requires coordinated activity of various factors, the disturbance of which can lead to congenital heart defects. Heart lectin-associated matrix protein-1 (hLAMP-1) is a matrix protein expressed within Hensen's node at Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 4, in the lateral mesoderm by HH stages 5-6 and enhanced within the left pre-cardiac field at HH stage 7. At HH stages 15-16, hLAMP-1 expression is observed in the atrioventricular canal and the outflow tract. Also, the role of hLAMP-1 in induction of mesenchyme formation in chick heart has been well documented. To further elucidate the role of this molecule in heart development, we examined its expression patterns during HH stages 8-14 in the chick. In this regard, we immunostained sections of the heart during HH stages 8-14 with antibodies specific to hLAMP-1. Our results showed prominent expression of hLAMP-1-positive particles in the extracellular matrix associated with the pre-cardiac mesoderm, the endoderm, ectoderm as well as neuroectoderm at HH stages 8-9. After formation of the linear heart tube at HH stage 10, the expression of hLAMP-1-stained particles disappears in those regions of original contact between the endoderm and heart forming fields due to rupture of the dorsal mesocardium while their expression becomes confined to the arterial and venous poles of the heart tube. This expression pattern is maintained until HH stage 14. This expression pattern suggests that hLAMP-1 may be involved in the formation of the endocardial tube. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Expressed Gene Fusions as Frequent Drivers of Poor Outcomes in Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matissek, Karina J; Onozato, Maristela L; Sun, Sheng; Zheng, Zongli; Schultz, Andrew; Lee, Jesse; Patel, Kristofer; Jerevall, Piiha-Lotta; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; Macleay, Allison; Tavallai, Mehrad; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Barrios, Carlos; Beşe, Nuran; Chan, Arlene; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Debiasi, Marcio; Demirdögen, Elif; Egeli, Ünal; Gökgöz, Sahsuvar; Gomez, Henry; Liedke, Pedro; Tasdelen, Ismet; Tolunay, Sahsine; Werutsky, Gustavo; St Louis, Jessica; Horick, Nora; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Le, Long Phi; Bardia, Aditya; Goss, Paul E; Sgroi, Dennis C; Iafrate, A John; Ellisen, Leif W

    2018-03-01

    We sought to uncover genetic drivers of hormone receptor-positive (HR + ) breast cancer, using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach for detecting expressed gene rearrangements without prior knowledge of the fusion partners. We identified intergenic fusions involving driver genes, including PIK3CA, AKT3, RAF1 , and ESR1 , in 14% (24/173) of unselected patients with advanced HR + breast cancer. FISH confirmed the corresponding chromosomal rearrangements in both primary and metastatic tumors. Expression of novel kinase fusions in nontransformed cells deregulates phosphoprotein signaling, cell proliferation, and survival in three-dimensional culture, whereas expression in HR + breast cancer models modulates estrogen-dependent growth and confers hormonal therapy resistance in vitro and in vivo Strikingly, shorter overall survival was observed in patients with rearrangement-positive versus rearrangement-negative tumors. Correspondingly, fusions were uncommon (fusions as frequent and potentially actionable drivers in HR + breast cancer. Significance: By using a powerful clinical molecular diagnostic assay, we identified expressed intergenic fusions as frequent contributors to treatment resistance and poor survival in advanced HR + breast cancer. The prevalence and biological and prognostic significance of these alterations suggests that their detection may alter clinical management and bring to light new therapeutic opportunities. Cancer Discov; 8(3); 336-53. ©2017 AACR. See related commentary by Natrajan et al., p. 272 See related article by Liu et al., p. 354 This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 253 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Rlm1 mediates positive autoregulatory transcriptional feedback that is essential for Slt2-dependent gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Raúl; Sanz, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Nombela, César; Arroyo, Javier

    2016-04-15

    Activation of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway induces an adaptive transcriptional programme that is largely dependent on the transcription factor Rlm1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Slt2. Upon cell wall stress, the transcription factor Rlm1 is recruited to the promoters of RLM1 and SLT2, and exerts positive-feedback mechanisms on the expression of both genes. Activation of the MAPK Slt2 by cell wall stress is not impaired in strains with individual blockade of any of the two feedback pathways. Abrogation of the autoregulatory feedback mechanism on RLM1 severely affects the transcriptional response elicited by activation of the CWI pathway. In contrast, a positive trans-acting feedback mechanism exerted by Rlm1 on SLT2 also regulates CWI output responses but to a lesser extent. Therefore, a complete CWI transcriptional response requires not only phosphorylation of Rlm1 by Slt2 but also concurrent SLT2- and RLM1-mediated positive-feedback mechanisms; sustained patterns of gene expression are mainly achieved by positive autoregulatory circuits based on the transcriptional activation of Rlm1. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. The dental pulp stem cell niche based on aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, CV; Passos, ST; Campos, TMC; Bernardi, L; Vilas-Bôas, DS; Nör, JE; Telles, PDS; Nascimento, IL

    2015-01-01

    Aim To detect cells expressing the stem cell marker ALDH1 (aldehyde dehydrogenase1) in the pulp of human permanent teeth and to investigate the expression of ALDH1 in isolated dental pulp cells. Methodology Pulp tissue was collected and processed for immunohistochemistry to detect ALDH1, STRO-1 and CD90 positive cells. In addition, cells were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry for ALDH1 activity, and for the cell surface markers CD44, CD73, CD90, STRO-1 and CD45. Cells were also examined for multi-differentiation capacity. Within these cells, an ALDH1+ cell subpopulation was selected and evaluated for multi-differentiation capacity. Results The immunohistochemistry analyses showed that ALDH1, CD90 and STRO-1 positive cells were located mainly in the perivascular areas and nerve fibres of dental pulps. Cells on the fifth passage had high expression for CD44, CD73 and CD90, whereas moderate labeling was observed for STRO-1 and ALDH1 in flow cytometry analysis. On the same passages, cells were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. The ALDH1+ cell subpopulation also demonstrated multi-lineage differentiation ability. Conclusions Dental pulp stem cells reside in the vicinity of blood vessels and nerve fibres, indicating the possible existence of more than one stem cell niche in dental pulps. Furthermore, ALDH1 was expressed by isolated dental pulp cells, which had mesenchymal stem cell characteristics. Thus, it can be suggested that ALDH1 may be used as a DPSC marker. PMID:26198909

  14. Biologic markers in axillary node-negative breast cancer: differential expression in invasive ductal carcinoma versus invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Sahin, Aysegul; Krishnamurthy, Savitry; Yang, Ying; Kau, Shu-Wan; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the differential expression of established histopathologic and biologic markers of proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in a group of axillary node-negative breast cancers. Two hundred twenty patients with axillary node-negative ILC and IDC who underwent surgery at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1978 and 1995 had tissue available for analysis. Of these, 206 (94%) had IDC and 14 (6%) had ILC. Estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, tumor and stromal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, CD44, laminin-5, E-cadherin, and topoisomerase-2 were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. HER2/neu and alpha6beta4 integrin were evaluated by in situ hybridization. The Fisher exact test was used to calculate significant differences between ILC and IDC. Median age was 59 years. Invasive lobular carcinoma was more likely to occur in patients aged > 50 years. Invasive lobular carcinoma tended to be > 2 cm (50% vs. 39%), have a nuclear grade of 1/2 (100% vs. 72%), be estrogen receptor positive (93% vs. 70%), HER2/neu negative (92% vs. 68%), have high CD44 expression (31% vs. 16%), low stromal vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression (36% vs. 47%), no E-cadherin expression (0 vs. 90%), and low laminin-5 expression (15% vs. 25%), compared with IDC. Invasive lobular carcinoma and IDC might be distinct histologic types of breast cancer with different expression of biologic markers. These differences, not all being statistically significant in this small study, might generate hypotheses to develop tailored options for future systemic therapy.

  15. Adult attachment anxiety is associated with enhanced automatic neural response to positive facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kugel, Harald; Stuhrmann, Anja; Grotegerd, Dominik; Redlich, Ronny; Lichev, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Nicole; Ihme, Klas; Suslow, Thomas; Dannlowski, Udo

    2012-09-18

    According to social psychology models of adult attachment, a fundamental dimension of attachment is anxiety. Individuals who are high in attachment anxiety are motivated to achieve intimacy in relationships, but are mistrustful of others and their availability. Behavioral research has shown that anxiously attached persons are vigilant for emotional facial expression, but the neural substrates underlying this perceptual sensitivity remain largely unknown. In the present study functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine automatic brain reactivity to approach-related facial emotions as a function of attachment anxiety in a sample of 109 healthy adults. Pictures of sad and happy faces were presented masked by neutral faces. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) was used to assess attachment style. Attachment anxiety was correlated with depressivity, trait anxiety, and attachment avoidance. Controlling for these variables, attachment-related anxiety was positively related to responses in left inferior, middle, and medial prefrontal areas, globus pallidus, claustrum, and right cerebellum to masked happy facial expression. Attachment anxiety was not found to be associated with brain activation due to masked sad faces. Our findings suggest that anxiously attached adults are automatically more responsive to positive approach-related facial expression in brain areas that are involved in the perception of facial emotion, facial mimicry, or the assessment of affective value and social distance. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Do infants discriminate non-linguistic vocal expressions of positive emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Melanie; Reimchen, Melissa; Sauter, Disa; Morgan, James L

    2017-02-01

    Adults are highly proficient in understanding emotional signals from both facial and vocal cues, including when communicating across cultural boundaries. However, the developmental origin of this ability is poorly understood, and in particular, little is known about the ontogeny of differentiation of signals with the same valence. The studies reported here employed a habituation paradigm to test whether preverbal infants discriminate between non-linguistic vocal expressions of relief and triumph. Infants as young as 6 months who had habituated to relief or triumph showed significant discrimination of relief and triumph tokens at test (i.e. greater recovery to the unhabituated stimulus type), when exposed to tokens from a single individual (Study 1). Infants habituated to expressions from multiple individuals showed less consistent discrimination in that consistent discrimination was only found when infants were habituated to relief tokens (Study 2). Further, infants tested with tokens from individuals from different cultures showed dishabituation only when habituated to relief tokens and only at 10-12 months (Study 3). These findings suggest that discrimination between positive emotional expressions develops early and is modulated by learning. Further, infants' categorical representations of emotional expressions, like those of speech sounds, are influenced by speaker-specific information.

  17. Low expression of a few genes indicates good prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buechler Steven

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many breast cancer patients remain free of distant metastasis even without adjuvant chemotherapy. While standard histopathological tests fail to identify these good prognosis patients with adequate precision, analyses of gene expression patterns in primary tumors have resulted in more successful diagnostic tests. These tests use continuous measurements of the mRNA concentrations of numerous genes to determine a risk of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients with other clinical traits. Methods A survival model is constructed from genes that are both connected with relapse and have expression patterns that define distinct subtypes, suggestive of different cellular states. This in silico study uses publicly available microarray databases generated with Affymetrix GeneChip technology. The genes in our model, as represented by array probes, have distinctive distributions in a patient cohort, consisting of a large normal component of low expression values; and a long right tail of high expression values. The cutoff between low and high expression of a probe is determined from the distribution using the theory of mixture models. The good prognosis group in our model consists of the samples in the low expression component of multiple genes. Results Here, we define a novel test for risk of metastasis in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer patients, using four probes that determine distinct subtypes. The good prognosis group in this test, denoted AP4-, consists of the samples with low expression of each of the four probes. Two probes target MKI67, antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67, one targets CDC6, cell division cycle 6 homolog (S. cerevisiae, and a fourth targets SPAG5, sperm associated antigen 5. The long-term metastasis-free survival probability for samples in AP4- is sufficiently high to render chemotherapy of questionable benefit. Conclusion A breast cancer subtype defined by low

  18. Facial Position and Expression-Based Human-Computer Interface for Persons With Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhen-Peng; Hou, Junhui; Chau, Lap-Pui; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    2016-05-01

    A human-computer interface (namely Facial position and expression Mouse system, FM) for the persons with tetraplegia based on a monocular infrared depth camera is presented in this paper. The nose position along with the mouth status (close/open) is detected by the proposed algorithm to control and navigate the cursor as computer user input. The algorithm is based on an improved Randomized Decision Tree, which is capable of detecting the facial information efficiently and accurately. A more comfortable user experience is achieved by mapping the nose motion to the cursor motion via a nonlinear function. The infrared depth camera enables the system to be independent of illumination and color changes both from the background and on human face, which is a critical advantage over RGB camera-based options. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms existing assistive technologies in terms of quantitative and qualitative assessments.

  19. Don't grin when you win: the social costs of positive emotion expression in performance situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Pedder, David J; Margetts, Elise A

    2014-02-01

    People who express positive emotion usually have better social outcomes than people who do not, and suppressing the expression of emotions can have interpersonal costs. Nevertheless, social convention suggests that there are situations in which people should suppress the expression of positive emotions, such as when trying to appear humble in victory. The present research tested whether there are interpersonal costs to expressing positive emotions when winning. In Experiment 1, inexpressive winners were evaluated more positively and rated as lower in hubristic-but not authentic-pride compared with expressive winners. Experiment 2 confirmed that inexpressive winners were perceived as using expressive suppression to downregulate their positive emotion expression. Experiment 3 replicated the findings of Experiment 1, and also found that people were more interested in forming a friendship with inexpressive winners than expressive winners. The effects were mediated by the perception that the inexpressive winner tried to protect the loser's feelings. This research is the first to identify social costs of expressing positive emotion, and highlights the importance of understanding the situational context when determining optimal emotion regulation strategies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. A model for predicting clinical outcome in patients with human papillomavirus-positive tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertipis, Nikolaos; Hammar, Ulf; Näsman, Anders; Vlastos, Andrea; Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Ährlund-Richter, Andreas; Sivars, Lars; Haeggblom, Linnea; Marklund, Linda; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Chaturvedi, Anil K; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Bottai, Matteo; Dalianis, Tina

    2015-08-01

    To combine clinical and molecular markers into an algorithm for predicting outcome for individual patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA/p16(INK4a) positive tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC). Head-neck cancer treatment has become more intensified, comprising not only surgery and radiotherapy, but also induction/concomitant chemotherapy and targeted therapy. With less treatment, 3-year disease free survival (DFS) is 80% for HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC. An 85-100% 3-year DFS is observed for HPV(+) TSCC and BOTSCC with absence of HLA class I, or CD44 expression, or high CD8(+) tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) counts suggesting that therapy could be tapered for many if patients could be identified individually. Patients treated curatively, with HPV DNA/p16(INK4a) positive tumours examined for HLA class I and II, CD44 and CD8(+)TILs, were included. An L1-regularised logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of the biomarker data, age, stage, diagnosis, smoking and treatment on 3-year risk of death or relapse on a training cohort of 197 patients diagnosed 2000-2007 and validated on a cohort of 118 patients diagnosed 2008-2011. The variables finally included in the model were HLA class I, CD8(+) TILs, age, stage and diagnosis (TSCC or BOTSCC). The model showed acceptable discrimination and calibration. The discriminative ability of the model did not diminish after validation (AUC=0.77). To our knowledge, this is the first model to utilise information from several markers to predict an individual probability of clinical outcome for patients with HPV DNA/p16(INK4a) positive tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. BMP-2 Induced Expression of Alx3 That Is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3 which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophilaaristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp, Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.

  2. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Napoleone, Elisa; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence has suggested that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from the negative expression of shyness during toddlerhood, and whether a negative relation to anxiety exists. Participants were 30-month-old children (N=102; 56 girls) who were asked to mimic animal sounds with a novel person (performance) and then to watch their performance (self-watching). Their expression of pleasure (positive reactions) and distress (negative reactions), as well as their positive and negative expressions of shyness, were coded. Children's temperamental level of shyness, sociability, and anxiety were measured with parent-reported questionnaires. Toddlers produced more positive and negative displays of shyness in the performance task than in the self-watching task. Children's positive expression of shyness was associated with lower parent-reported anxiety and higher sociability. Negative reactions, but not negative shyness, were related to children's higher anxiety levels and lower sociability. Multiple linear regression analyses confirmed a negative predictive role of the positive expression of shyness on anxiety. These results suggest that the positive expression of shyness can regulate early anxiety symptoms and already serves a social function in interpersonal interactions in early childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Effects of Nucleosome Positioning and Chromatin Architecture on Transgene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Colton E.

    Eukaryotes use proteins to carefully package and compact their genomes to fit into the nuclei of their individual cells. Nucleosomes are the primary level of compaction. Nucleosomes are formed when DNA wraps around an octamer of histone proteins and a nucleosome's position can limit access to genetic regulatory elements. Therefore, nucleosomes represent a basic level of gene regulation. DNA and its associated proteins, called chromatin, is usually classified as euchromatin or heterochromatin. Euchromatin is transcriptionally active with loosely packed nucleosomes while heterochromatin is condensed with tightly packed nucleosomes and is transcriptionally silent. In order to become active, heterochromatin must first be remodeled. We have studied the effects of nucleosome positioning on transgene expression in vivo using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. We show that both location and polarity of the DNA sequence can influence transgene expression. We also discuss some considerations for working with CRISPR/Cas9. A major reason for doing in vitro nucleosome reconstitutions is to determine the effects of DNA sequence on nucleosome formation and position. It has previously been implied that nucleosome reconstitutions are stochastic and not very reproducible. We show that nucleosome reconstitutions are highly reproducible under our reaction conditions. Our results also indicate that a minimum depth of 35X sequencing coverage be maintained for maximal gains in Pearson's correlation coefficients. Communicating science with others is an important skill for any researcher. The rising generation of scientists need mentors who can teach them how to be independent thinkers who can carry out scientific experiments and communicate their finding to others. With this goal in mind, we have devised a scaffolding pedagogical method to help transform undergraduates into confident independent thinkers and researchers.

  4. Positive expression of LSD1 and negative expression of E-cadherin correlate with metastasis and poor prognosis of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Ding; Zhongmin, Zhang; Guoqing, Liao; Sheng, Liu; Yi, Zhang; Jing, Wen; Liang, Zeng

    2013-06-01

    The first identified lysine-specific demethylase, LSD1, plays an important role in the metastatic progression of several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate LSD1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin expression in colon cancer specimens and their clinical significance. The expression of LSD1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin in colon cancer specimens was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the relationship between the expression of the respective molecules and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The positive expression rates of LSD1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin in colon cancer specimens were 66.7 % (72/108), 85.2 % (92/108), and 41.7 % (45/108), respectively. LSD1 was significantly more highly expressed in colon cancer specimens classified as high TNM stage lesions and with distant metastasis (P colon cancer specimens classified as high TNM stage lesions and with distant metastasis (P clinical and pathological characteristics (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that LSD1 expression was negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression (r s = -0.318, P = 0.001), but not evidently correlated with N-cadherin expression (r s = 0.182, P = 0.06). Colon cancer specimens with positive LSD1 expression and negative E-cadherin expression were correlated with significantly lower overall survival. LSD1 showed a significantly higher expression, in contrast to the significantly lower expression of E-cadherin, in colon cancer specimens classified as high TNM stage lesions and with distant metastasis. Positive expression of LSD1 and negative expression of E-cadherin may be predictors of a worse colon cancer prognosis.

  5. An exploration of how positive emotions are expressed by older people and nurse assistants in homecare visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Lena; Ellington, Lee; Eide, Hilde

    2017-11-01

    We don´t know how positive emotions are being expressed by patients and health care providers in consultations. The aim of this study is to identify positive emotions expressed by older people and nurse assistants to discuss the function of these in the visits. This paper presents secondary analysis of consultations in the COMHOME project. In this pilot study, six transcribed consultations between nurse assistants and older people in home health care were analysed using a coding system for positive emotions with seven categories capturing both content and emotional intensity of positive affect. We found 114 expressions of positive emotions, 63% from nurse assistants and 37% from patients. Patients mostly expressed gratitude, indicating that patients are grateful for being helped. Nurse assistants mostly expressed Praise or Support, indicating that they gave their patients positive affirmation. The praise and support given by nurse assistants to older people in home health care seemed effective in fostering relationships and maintaining patient resilience. Thus, we claim that emotional talk in communication also should include positive emotions. Teaching health care providers about the importance of expressions of positive emotions should be integrated in communication skills training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A synbio approach for selection of highly expressed gene variants in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Roberto; Rennig, Maja; Hernández-Rollán, Cristina; Daley, Daniel O; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2018-03-08

    The market for recombinant proteins is on the rise, and Gram-positive strains are widely exploited for this purpose. Bacillus subtilis is a profitable host for protein production thanks to its ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, and Lactococcus lactis is an attractive production organism with a long history in food fermentation. We have developed a synbio approach for increasing gene expression in two Gram-positive bacteria. First of all, the gene of interest was coupled to an antibiotic resistance gene to create a growth-based selection system. We then randomised the translation initiation region (TIR) preceding the gene of interest and selected clones that produced high protein titres, as judged by their ability to survive on high concentrations of antibiotic. Using this approach, we were able to significantly increase production of two industrially relevant proteins; sialidase in B. subtilis and tyrosine ammonia lyase in L. lactis. Gram-positive bacteria are widely used to produce industrial enzymes. High titres are necessary to make the production economically feasible. The synbio approach presented here is a simple and inexpensive way to increase protein titres, which can be carried out in any laboratory within a few days. It could also be implemented as a tool for applications beyond TIR libraries, such as screening of synthetic, homologous or domain-shuffled genes.

  7. Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2012-05-01

    Centenarians have been reported to share particular personality traits including low neuroticism and high extraversion and conscientiousness. Since these traits have moderate to high heritability and are associated with various health outcomes, personality appears linked to bio-genetic mechanisms which may contribute to exceptional longevity. Therefore, the present study sought to detect genetically-based personality phenotypes in a genetically homogeneous sample of centenarians through developing and examining psychometric properties of a brief measure of the personality of centenarians, the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS). The results generated two personality characteristics/domains, Positive Attitude Towards Life (PATL: optimism, easygoing, laughter, and introversion/outgoing) and Emotional Expression (EE: expressing emotions openly and not bottling up emotions). These domains demonstrated acceptable concurrent validity with two established personality measures, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Life Orientation Test-Revised. Additionally, centenarians in both groups had lower neuroticism and higher conscientiousness than the US adult population. Findings suggest that the POPS is a psychometrically sound measure of personality in centenarians and capture personality aspects of extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, as well as dispositional optimism which may contribute to successful aging.

  8. Lysozyme transgenic goats' milk positively impacts intestinal cytokine expression and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Brundige, Dottie R; Reh, Wade A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2011-12-01

    In addition to its well-recognized antimicrobial properties, lysozyme can also modulate the inflammatory response. This ability may be particularly important in the gastrointestinal tract where inappropriate inflammatory reactions can damage the intestinal epithelium, leading to significant health problems. The consumption of milk from transgenic goats producing human lysozyme (hLZ) in their milk therefore has the potential to positively impact intestinal health. In order to investigate the effect of hLZ-containing milk on the inflammatory response, young pigs were fed pasteurized milk from hLZ or non-transgenic control goats and quantitative real-time PCR was performed to assess local expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and TGF-β1 in the small intestine. Histological changes were also investigated, specifically looking at villi width, length, crypt depth, and lamina propria thickness along with cell counts for intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells. Significantly higher expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 was seen in the ileum of pigs fed pasteurized milk containing hLZ (P = 0.0478), along with an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes (P = 0.0255), and decrease in lamina propria thickness in the duodenum (P = 0.0001). Based on these results we conclude that consuming pasteurized milk containing hLZ does not induce an inflammatory response and improves the health of the small intestine in pigs.

  9. Construction of Nef-positive doxycycline-dependent HIV-1 variants using bicistronic expression elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, Yme U. van der; Kleibeuker, Wendy; Harwig, Alex; Klaver, Bep; Siteur-van Rijnstra, Esther; Frankin, Esmay; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T., E-mail: a.t.das@amc.uva.nl

    2016-01-15

    Conditionally replicating HIV-1 variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for HIV research. We previously developed a genetically modified HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively when doxycycline (dox) is administered. The nef gene in this HIV-rtTA variant was replaced with the gene encoding the dox-dependent rtTA transcriptional activator. Because loss of Nef expression compromises virus replication in primary cells and precludes studies on Nef function, we tested different approaches to restore Nef production in HIV-rtTA. Strategies that involved translation via an EMCV or synthetic internal ribosome entry site (IRES) failed because these elements were incompatible with efficient virus replication. Fusion protein approaches with the FMDV 2A peptide and human ubiquitin were successful and resulted in genetically-stable Nef-expressing HIV-rtTA strains that replicate more efficiently in primary T-cells and human immune system (HIS) mice than Nef-deficient variants, thus confirming the positive effect of Nef on in vivo virus replication. - Highlights: • Different approaches to encode additional proteins in the HIV-1 genome were tested. • IRES translation elements are incompatible with efficient HIV-1 replication. • Ubiquitin and 2A fusion protein approaches allow efficient HIV-1 replication. • Doxycycline-controlled HIV-1 variants that encode all viral proteins were developed. • Nef stimulates HIV-rtTA replication in primary cells and human immune system mice.

  10. Construction of Nef-positive doxycycline-dependent HIV-1 variants using bicistronic expression elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Yme U. van der; Kleibeuker, Wendy; Harwig, Alex; Klaver, Bep; Siteur-van Rijnstra, Esther; Frankin, Esmay; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2016-01-01

    Conditionally replicating HIV-1 variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for HIV research. We previously developed a genetically modified HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively when doxycycline (dox) is administered. The nef gene in this HIV-rtTA variant was replaced with the gene encoding the dox-dependent rtTA transcriptional activator. Because loss of Nef expression compromises virus replication in primary cells and precludes studies on Nef function, we tested different approaches to restore Nef production in HIV-rtTA. Strategies that involved translation via an EMCV or synthetic internal ribosome entry site (IRES) failed because these elements were incompatible with efficient virus replication. Fusion protein approaches with the FMDV 2A peptide and human ubiquitin were successful and resulted in genetically-stable Nef-expressing HIV-rtTA strains that replicate more efficiently in primary T-cells and human immune system (HIS) mice than Nef-deficient variants, thus confirming the positive effect of Nef on in vivo virus replication. - Highlights: • Different approaches to encode additional proteins in the HIV-1 genome were tested. • IRES translation elements are incompatible with efficient HIV-1 replication. • Ubiquitin and 2A fusion protein approaches allow efficient HIV-1 replication. • Doxycycline-controlled HIV-1 variants that encode all viral proteins were developed. • Nef stimulates HIV-rtTA replication in primary cells and human immune system mice.

  11. Dynamics of gene expression with positive feedback to histone modifications at bivalent domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongsheng; Lei, Jinzhi

    2018-03-01

    Experiments have shown that in embryonic stem cells, the promoters of many lineage-control genes contain “bivalent domains”, within which the nucleosomes possess both active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) marks. Such bivalent modifications play important roles in maintaining pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Here, to investigate gene expression dynamics when there are regulations in bivalent histone modifications and random partition in cell divisions, we study how positive feedback to histone methylation/demethylation controls the transition dynamics of the histone modification patterns along with cell cycles. We constructed a computational model that includes dynamics of histone marks, three-stage chromatin state transitions, transcription and translation, feedbacks from protein product to enzymes to regulate the addition and removal of histone marks, and the inheritance of nucleosome state between cell cycles. The model reveals how dynamics of both nucleosome state transition and gene expression are dependent on the enzyme activities and feedback regulations. Results show that the combination of stochastic histone modification at each cell division and the deterministic feedback regulation work together to adjust the dynamics of chromatin state transition in stem cell regenerations.

  12. Molecular pathways of early CD105-positive erythroid cells as compared with CD34-positive common precursor cells by flow cytometric cell-sorting and gene expression profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machherndl-Spandl, S; Suessner, S; Danzer, M; Proell, J; Gabriel, C; Lauf, J; Sylie, R; Klein, H-U; Béné, M C; Weltermann, A; Bettelheim, P

    2013-01-01

    Special attention has recently been drawn to the molecular network of different genes that are responsible for the development of erythroid cells. The aim of the present study was to establish in detail the immunophenotype of early erythroid cells and to compare the gene expression profile of freshly isolated early erythroid precursors with that of the CD34-positive (CD34 + ) compartment. Multiparameter flow cytometric analyses of human bone marrow mononuclear cell fractions (n=20) defined three distinct early erythroid stages. The gene expression profile of sorted early erythroid cells was analyzed by Affymetrix array technology. For 4524 genes, a differential regulation was found in CD105-positive erythroid cells as compared with the CD34 + progenitor compartment (2362 upregulated genes). A highly significant difference was observed in the expression level of genes involved in transcription, heme synthesis, iron and mitochondrial metabolism and transforming growth factor-β signaling. A comparison with recently published data showed over 1000 genes that as yet have not been reported to be upregulated in the early erythroid lineage. The gene expression level within distinct pathways could be illustrated directly by applying the Ingenuity software program. The results of gene expression analyses can be seen at the Gene Expression Omnibus repository

  13. Steroid induction of therapy-resistant cytokeratin-5-positive cells in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer through a BCL6-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C R; Sato, T; Peck, A R; Girondo, M A; Yang, N; Liu, C; Yanac, A F; Kovatich, A J; Hooke, J A; Shriver, C D; Mitchell, E P; Hyslop, T; Rui, H

    2016-01-01

    Therapy resistance remains a major problem in estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. A subgroup of ERα-positive breast cancer is characterized by mosaic presence of a minor population of ERα-negative cancer cells expressing the basal cytokeratin-5 (CK5). These CK5-positive cells are therapy resistant and have increased tumor-initiating potential. Although a series of reports document induction of the CK5-positive cells by progestins, it is unknown if other 3-ketosteroids share this ability. We now report that glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids effectively expand the CK5-positive cell population. CK5-positive cells induced by 3-ketosteroids lacked ERα and progesterone receptors, expressed stem cell marker, CD44, and displayed increased clonogenicity in soft agar and broad drug-resistance in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of CK5-positive cells by 3-ketosteroids required induction of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 based on suppression of BCL6 by two independent BCL6 small hairpin RNAs or by prolactin. Prolactin also suppressed 3-ketosteroid induction of CK5+ cells in T47D xenografts in vivo. Survival analysis with recursive partitioning in node-negative ERα-positive breast cancer using quantitative CK5 and BCL6 mRNA or protein expression data identified patients at high or low risk for tumor recurrence in two independent patient cohorts. The data provide a mechanism by which common pathophysiological or pharmacologic elevations in glucocorticoids or other 3-ketosteroids may adversely affect patients with mixed ERα+/CK5+ breast cancer. The observations further suggest a cooperative diagnostic utility of CK5 and BCL6 expression levels and justify exploring efficacy of inhibitors of BCL6 and 3-ketosteroid receptors for a subset of ERα-positive breast cancers. PMID:26096934

  14. Nasal Oxytocin Treatment Biases Dogs' Visual Attention and Emotional Response toward Positive Human Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Topál, József; Koskela, Aija; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

    2017-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline) nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression. We found that, depending on the facial expression, the dogs' gaze patterns were affected selectively by oxytocin treatment. After receiving oxytocin, dogs fixated less often on the eye regions of angry faces and revisited (glanced back at) more often the eye regions of smiling (happy) faces than after the placebo treatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin treatment dogs fixated and revisited the eyes of happy faces significantly more often than the eyes of angry faces. The analysis of dogs' pupil diameters during viewing of human facial expressions indicated that oxytocin may also have a modulatory effect on dogs' emotional arousal. While subjects' pupil sizes were significantly larger when viewing angry faces than happy faces in the control (placebo treatment) condition, oxytocin treatment not only eliminated this effect but caused an opposite pupil response. Overall, these findings suggest that nasal oxytocin administration selectively changes the allocation of attention and emotional arousal in domestic dogs. Oxytocin has the potential to decrease vigilance toward threatening social stimuli and increase the salience of positive social stimuli thus making eye gaze of friendly human faces more salient for dogs. Our study provides further

  15. Nasal Oxytocin Treatment Biases Dogs’ Visual Attention and Emotional Response toward Positive Human Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Somppi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression. We found that, depending on the facial expression, the dogs’ gaze patterns were affected selectively by oxytocin treatment. After receiving oxytocin, dogs fixated less often on the eye regions of angry faces and revisited (glanced back at more often the eye regions of smiling (happy faces than after the placebo treatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin treatment dogs fixated and revisited the eyes of happy faces significantly more often than the eyes of angry faces. The analysis of dogs’ pupil diameters during viewing of human facial expressions indicated that oxytocin may also have a modulatory effect on dogs’ emotional arousal. While subjects’ pupil sizes were significantly larger when viewing angry faces than happy faces in the control (placebo treatment condition, oxytocin treatment not only eliminated this effect but caused an opposite pupil response. Overall, these findings suggest that nasal oxytocin administration selectively changes the allocation of attention and emotional arousal in domestic dogs. Oxytocin has the potential to decrease vigilance toward threatening social stimuli and increase the salience of positive social stimuli thus making eye gaze of friendly human faces more salient for dogs. Our

  16. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colonnesi, C.; Napoleone, E.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence suggests that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from

  17. Expression of Slug in S100β-protein-positive cells of postnatal developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Yako, Hideji; Tateno, Kozue; Hasegawa, Rumi; Takigami, Shu; Ohsako, Shunji; Yashiro, Takashi; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Among heterogeneous S100β-protein-positive (S100β-positive) cells, star-like cells with extended cytoplasmic processes, the so-called folliculo-stellate cells, envelop hormone-producing cells or interconnect homophilically in the anterior pituitary. S100β-positive cells are known, from immunohistochemistry, to emerge from postnatal day (P) 10 and to proliferate and migrate in the parenchyma of the anterior pituitary with growth. Recent establishment of S100β-GFP transgenic rats expressing specifically green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the S100β-promoter has allowed us to observe living S100β-positive cells. In the present study, we first confirmed that living S100β-positive cells in tissue cultures of S100β-GFP rat pituitary at P5 were present prior to P10 by means of confocal laser microscopy and that they proliferated and extended their cytoplasmic processes. Second, we examined the expression of the Snail-family zinc-finger transcription factors, Snail and Slug, to investigate the mechanism behind the morphological changes and the proliferation of S100β-positive cells. Interestingly, we detected Slug expression in S100β-positive cells and its increase together with development in the anterior pituitary. To analyze downstream of SLUG in S100β-positive cells, we utilized specific small interfering RNA for Slug mRNAs and observed that the expression of matrix metalloprotease (Mmp) 9, Mmp14 and chemokine Cxcl12 was down-regulated and that morphological changes and proliferation were decreased. Thus, our findings suggest that S100β-positive cells express Slug and that its expression is important for subsequent migration and proliferation.

  18. Carotenoid supplementation positively affects the expression of a non-visual sexual signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain J-M Van Hout

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. After only 3-7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T, we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments.

  19. HPV status, cancer stem cell marker expression, hypoxia gene signatures and tumour volume identify good prognosis subgroups in patients with HNSCC after primary radiochemotherapy: A multicentre retrospective study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linge, Annett; Lohaus, Fabian; Löck, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the tumour volume, HPV status, cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures, as potential markers of radiobiological mechanisms of radioresistance, in a contemporary cohort of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell...... expression on LRC. The tumour hypoxia classification showed a significant impact only for small tumours. In multivariate analyses an independent correlation of tumour volume, SLC3A2 expression, and the 15-gene hypoxia signature with LRC was identified (CD44 protein n/a because of no event in the CD44...

  20. CSR-1 RNAi pathway positively regulates histone expression in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Daphne C; Palani, Santhosh; Sherman, Yekaterina; Grishok, Alla

    2012-10-03

    Endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) have been discovered in many organisms, including mammals. In C. elegans, depletion of germline-enriched endo-siRNAs found in complex with the CSR-1 Argonaute protein causes sterility and defects in chromosome segregation in early embryos. We discovered that knockdown of either csr-1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) ego-1, or the dicer-related helicase drh-3, leads to defects in histone mRNA processing, resulting in severe depletion of core histone proteins. The maturation of replication-dependent histone mRNAs, unlike that of other mRNAs, requires processing of their 3'UTRs through an endonucleolytic cleavage guided by the U7 snRNA, which is lacking in C. elegans. We found that CSR-1-bound antisense endo-siRNAs match histone mRNAs and mRNA precursors. Consistently, we demonstrate that CSR-1 directly binds to histone mRNA in an ego-1-dependent manner using biotinylated 2'-O-methyl RNA oligonucleotides. Moreover, we demonstrate that increasing the dosage of histone genes rescues the lethality associated with depletion of CSR-1 and EGO-1. These results support a positive and direct effect of RNAi on histone gene expression.

  1. Couple relationship distress and observed expression of intimacy during reminiscence about positive relationship events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgarby, Susan M; Halford, W Kim

    2013-12-01

    Satisfied couples report that positive, intimate communication is central to their relationship. We developed the positive reminiscence task, in which couples discuss positive relationship moments to assess communication of positive intimacy. The behavior and heart rate of 28 satisfied and 25 distressed couples were assessed during positive reminiscence and problem solving. As predicted, satisfied couples demonstrated higher rates of positive affect and dyadic intimacy than distressed couples during positive reminiscence, and these positive behaviors occurred at much lower rates during problem solving than positive reminiscence. However, the differences between distressed and satisfied couples were more marked on most assessed behaviors during problem solving rather than positive reminiscence. Two notable exceptions were that dyadic intimacy and sadness differed more between distressed and satisfied couples during positive reminiscence than problem solving. The positive reminiscence task assesses intimate behaviors in a manner likely to be useful in research and practice. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. P-glycoprotein is expressed and causes resistance to chemotherapy in EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimori, Mayumi; Takada, Honami; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Kurata, Morito; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Koyama, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Norio; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Miura, Osamu; Arai, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-T-LPDs) are rare lymphomas with poor prognosis. Although chemotherapeutic strategies such as CHOP have been often selected, they have exhibited only limited efficacy. To clarify the mechanism of chemoresistance, we examined P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. P-gp acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that excretes drugs from the cytoplasm, resulting in low-intracellular drug concentrations and poor sensitivity to chemotherapy. We examined P-gp expression in EBV-positive cells by immunohistochemistry staining in three patients of EBV-T-LPDs and the expression was detected in all patients. We also examined mdr1 mRNA expression by reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) in EBV-positive tumor cells from these patients and additional three patients. The expression was detected in all examined patients. In five EBV-T-LPDs patients, P-gp function was detected by Rhodamine-123 efflux assay in these cells. The efflux was inhibited by treatment with a P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporine A (CsA). We also examined and detected P-gp expression in EBV-positive T-cell lines SNT8 and SNT16 established from EBV-T-LPDs patients, by RT-PCR and western blotting. The function was also detected by Rhodamine-123 efflux in these cell lines. Inhibition and knock down of P-gp by CsA and siRNA, respectively, enhanced etoposide- and doxorubicin-induced cell death in the EBV-positive T-cell lines. Finally, we infected the T-cell line MOLT4 with EBV, and found that mdr1 mRNA expression and Rhodamine 123 efflux were upregulated after infection. These results indicated that enhanced P-gp expression contributed to the chemoresistance of EBV-T-LPDs

  3. High level PHGDH expression in breast is predominantly associated with keratin 5-positive cell lineage independently of malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel; Honma, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    , and that the ratio of expression between these variants was associated with malignancy. Overexpression of Phgdh in CK5-positive cell lineages, and differential protein isoform expression, was additionally found in other tissues and cancer types, suggesting that overexpression of Phgdh is generally associated with CK......We have previously reported the 2D PAGE-based proteomic profiling of a prospective cohort of 78 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients, and the establishment of a cumulative TNBC protein database. Analysis of this database identified a number of proteins as being specifically overexpressed...... epithelial cells is primarily associated with cell lineage, as we found that Phgdh expression was predominant in CK5-positive cells, normal as well as malignant, thus identifying an association of this protein with the basal phenotype. Quantitative IHC analysis of Phgdh expression in normal breast tissue...

  4. Positive HER-2 protein expression in circulating prostate cells and micro-metastasis, resistant to androgen blockage but not diethylstilbestrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P Murray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : HER-2 expression in prostate cancer is associated with a worse prognosis and is suggested to play a role in androgen resistance. We present a study of HER-2 expression in circulating tumor cells and micrometastasis in bone marrow and the effect of androgen blockage or DES in the presence of HER-2 expressing cells. Patients and Methods : A multicenter study of men with prostate cancer, treated with surgery, radiotherapy, or observation, and with or without hormone therapy. Mononuclear cells were separated from blood and bone marrow aspirate by differential centrifugation, touch preps were made from bone marrow biopsy samples. Prostate cells were detected using anti-PSA monoclonal antibody and standard immunocytochemistry. Positive samples were processed using Herceptest® to determine HER-2 expression. After 1 year, patients were re-evaluated and the findings of HER-2 expression and PSA change compared with treatment. Results : Total 199 men participated, and 97 had a second evaluation 1 year later, frequency of HER-2 expression in circulating tumor cells and micrometastasis was 18% and 21%, respectively. There was no significant difference in HER-2 expression in the pretreatment group, after radical surgery or radiotherapy or with biochemical failure. Men with androgen blockade had a significantly higher expression of HER-2 (58% (P =0.001. Of the 97 men with a second evaluation, 56 were in the observation arm, 27 androgen blockade, and 14 DES. Use of androgen blockade or DES significantly reduced serum PSA levels in comparison with observation (P =0.001. However, there was a significant increase in HER-2 expression in patients with androgen blockade (P =0.05 en comparison with observation or DES treatment. No patient with observation or DES became HER-2 positive, en comparison 4/22 patients initially HER-2 negative became HER-2 positive with androgen blockade. Conclusions : The results suggest that HER-2 positive cells are

  5. Erythropoietin receptor expression and its relationship with trastuzumab response and resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Duan, Xuening; Xu, Ling; Ye, Jingming; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Yinhua

    2012-12-01

    Resistance to trastuzumab is a major issue in the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Several potential resistance mechanisms have been investigated, but the results are controversial and no conclusion has been reached. Erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) may function in cell growth, and expressed in various cancer cells. Because the downstream signaling pathways for EPOR and HER2 partially overlapped, we hypothesized that EPOR may play a role in the inhibition effect of trastuzumab and resistance to trastuzumab. Here, we detected the expression of EPOR mRNA and protein in HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines and tissues. EPOR expressed in SKBR3, MDA-MB-453, and UACC-812 cell lines, but not in BT474. Of the 55 HER2-positive cancer tissues, EPOR was positive in 42 samples and highly expressed (H-score ≥ 25) in 24 by immunohistochemistry. The difference between EPOR expression and Ki67 index was significant (P = 0.033), and EPOR expression also positively correlated with higher pathological stage (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.359; P = 0.007). Exogenous EPO antagonized trastuzumab-induced inhibition of cell proliferation in HER2/EPOR dual-positive breast cancer cells. We then exposed SKBR3 cells to trastuzumab for 4 months to obtain trastuzumab-resistant SKBR3 cell line, which demonstrated higher phosphorylated EPOR level, higher EPO expression and more extracellular secretion than non-resistant parental SKBR3 cells. Downregulation EPOR expression using short hairpin RNA resensitized trastuzumab-resistant cells to this drug, and SKBR3 cells with EPOR downregulation demonstrated attenuated trastuzumab resistance after the same resistance induction. EPOR downregulation plus trastuzumab produced a synergetic action in the inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion in SKBR3 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines. Therefore, EPOR expression may be involved in tumor progression and proliferation in HER2-positive breast cancer

  6. Differential expression of the MT-1E gene in estrogen-receptor-positive and -negative human breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, J A; Garrett, S H; Somji, S; Todd, J H; Sens, D A

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine which of the 10 functional metallothionein (MT) genes are expressed in four human breast cancer cell lines and whether expression varies among the cell lines. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology, it was shown that there was no expression of mRNA for the MT-1A, MT-1B, MT-1F, MT-1G, MT-1H, MT-3, and MT-4 genes in any of the four cell lines. All four cell lines were shown to express mRNA for the MT-2A and MT-1X genes. The expression level of mRNA for the MT-2A gene demonstrated modest differences among the cell lines, whereas expression of the MT-1X gene was consistent. In contrast, mRNA for the MT-1E gene was expressed in only two of the four cell lines and expression correlated to the estrogen receptor status of the cell lines. The two estrogen-receptor-positive cell lines showed no mRNA expression for the MT-1E gene. In the two estrogen-receptor-negative cell lines, mRNA expression for the MT-1E gene was elevated with expression levels similar to the housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The cellular content of MT protein was also shown to be elevated in the estrogen-receptor-negative cell lines that express MT-1E mRNA. These results suggest a possible relationship between estrogen receptor status and MT-1E gene expression in human breast cancer.

  7. [Lack of progesterone receptor expression predicts poor prognosis in patients with operable ER-positive invasive breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R M; Chen, C Z; Lin, C Q; Zhang, W; Guo, G L

    2016-09-23

    To investigate the impact of lack of progesterone receptor (PR) expression on the prognosis of patients with operable ER (estrogen receptor)-positive invasive breast cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological features, treatment and survival data of 318 women with ER+ /PR+ and ER+ /PR- invasive breast cancer. Among the 318 patients, there were 219 PR-positive and 99 PR-negative cases. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 92.5%, and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 87.2% in the 318 ER-positive patients. Among them, the 5-year OS rates were significantly different between the PR-positive group (94.6%) and PR-negative group (87.8%, P=0.020), and the 5-year DFS rates were also significantly different from each other (89.8% and 81.6%, respectively, P=0.019). Univariate analysis showed that PR status, tumor size, T stage, axillary lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were prognostic factors for OS (Plack of PR expression, T stage ≥2, and positive axillary lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for poor DFS and OS in ER-positive breast cancer patients (Plack of PR expression was not significant in predicting poor DFS or OS when patients were in stage Ⅰ or with a small tumor (≤2 cm) (P>0.05 for all), and also showed that premenopausal women with PR-negative disease had poorer DFS and OS than PR-positive patients (PLack of PR expression is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with operable ER-positive invasive breast cancer, especially in patients with a large tumor (>2 cm), advanced clinical stage (Stage Ⅱ or Ⅲ) or in premenopausal status.

  8. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha expression is increased in infected positive HPV16 DNA oral squamous cell carcinoma and positively associated with HPV16 E7 oncoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Fede Olga

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence for the role of High Risk (HR Human PapillomaVirus (HPV in the pathogenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. The E6 and E7 oncogenes from HR HPVs are responsible for the deregulation of p53 and pRB proteins involved in cell cycle and apoptotic pathways. In cell lines experiments, the HPV E7 protein seems to be able to enhance Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α activity, normally involved in the response to hypoxia and able to enhance angiogenesis. Results We studied tumor specimens from 62 OSCC; a higher prevalence of tumors in TNM stage II and also in pT2 class between OSCC infected positive HPV16 DNA than non-infected ones was observed. HIF-1α positivity was detected throughout the analysed fields, not associated with areas of necrosis and also observed in cells immediately adjacent to blood vessels. A significant increase in mean values of the HIF-1α labeling indexes was observed for pT1-T2, as well for stage I-II, in the infected positive HPV16 DNA tumors than non-infected ones. HIF-1α and HPV16 E7 labeling indexes showed a significantly positive correlation which suggested a positive association between HPV16 E7 and HIF-1α expression. Conclusions In our specimens HIF-1α immunoreactivity hints for an O2-independent regulatory mechanism in infected positive HPV16 DNA tumors, especially for pT1-T2 and stage I-II tumors, suggesting a very early involvement in the development of HPV-induced OSCC. HIF-1α and HPV16 E7 labeling indexes suggest also a positive association between the two proteins in infected positive HPV16 DNA OSCC.

  9. A short synthetic MAR positively affects transgene expression in rice and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van der A.H.M.; Welter, M.E.; Woosley, A.T.; Pareddy, D.R.; Pavelko, S.E.; Skokut, M.; Ainley, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix Attachment Regions (MARs) are DNA elements that are thought to influence gene expression by anchoring active chromatin domains to the nuclear matrix. When flanking a construct in transgenic plants, MARs could be useful for enhancing transgene expression. Naturally occurring MARs have a number

  10. Major aging-associated RNA expressions change at two distinct age-positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghe, M.; Snoeck, M.; Emmerich, M.; Back, T.; Goeman, J.J.; Raz, V.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide expression profiles are altered during biological aging and can describe molecular regulation of tissue degeneration. Age-regulated mRNA expression trends from cross-sectional studies could describe how aging progresses. We developed a novel statistical methodology to

  11. Automated seamless DNA co-transformation cloning with direct expression vectors applying positive or negative insert selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular DNA cloning is crucial to many experiments and with the trend to higher throughput of modern approaches automated techniques are urgently required. We have established an automated, fast and flexible low-cost expression cloning approach requiring only vector and insert amplification by PCR and co-transformation of the products. Results Our vectors apply positive selection for the insert or negative selection against empty vector molecules and drive strong expression of target proteins in E.coli cells. Variable tags are available both in N-terminal or C-terminal position. A newly developed β-lactamase (ΔW290 selection cassette contains a segment inside the β-lactamase open reading frame encoding a stretch of hydrophilic amino acids that result in a T7 promoter when back-translated. This position of the promoter permits positive selection and attenuated expression of fusion proteins with C-terminal tags. We have tested eight vectors by inserting six target sequences of variable length, provenience and function. The target proteins were cloned, expressed and detected using an automated Tecan Freedom Evo II liquid handling work station. Only two colonies had to be picked to score with 85% correct inserts while 80% of those were positive in expression tests. Conclusions Our results establish co-transformation and positive/negative selection cloning in conjunction with the provided vectors and selection cassettes as an automatable alternative to commercialized high-throughput cloning systems like Gateway® or ligase-independent cloning (LIC .

  12. [Correlation between the methylation status of Runx3 gene and positive expression of estrogen receptor in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhantao; Gao, Shan; Wu, Xia; Liu, Hui

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between hypermethylation of Runx3 gene promoter and estrogen receptor (ER) and the implications of Runx3 gene promoter hypermethylation in ER positive breast cancer. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression of Runx3 gene in breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and SKBR3) and normal breast epithelium cell line (MCF10A). Immunohistochemical SP method was used to detect the expression of ER and Runx3 proteins in 113 tissue samples of breast cancer. Moreover, methylation specific PCR was used to detect RUN3 promoter methylation in cell lines MCF7, SKBR3, MCF10A and 113 tissue samples of breast cancer. Of the 3 cell lines, Runx3 protein and mRNA were detectable in MCF10A, but were absent in MCF7 and SKBR3. MCF7 had a high methylation status at Runx3 promoter, in contrast, MCF10A and SKBR3 showed unmethylated RUN3 promoter. Among the 113 cases of breast cancer, 68 cases were ER positive and 45 were negative. The positive rates of Runx3 protein expression in ER positive and negative tumors were 26.5% (18/68) and 66.7% (30/45), respectively (P<0.05). Runx3 promoter hypermethylation was seen in 82.4% (56/68) of ER positive breast cancer cases and 22.2% (10/45) of ER negative ones (P<0.05). Among 68 cases of ER positive cases, Runx3 promoter hypermethylation was positively correlated with the clinical tumor stage (OR=5.84, P<0.05). Runx3 gene promoter hypermethylation is present mainly in the ER positive breast cancers. Testing of Runx3 promoter methylation may provide additional reference for clinical stage and prognosis of breast cancer patients, especially in those with ER positive tumors.

  13. CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individuals on cART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojdeman, Fie Juhl; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans Jakob

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immune defect virus (HIV) persists in a latent state in quiescent CD4+ T cells preventing eradication of HIV. CD52 is a surface molecule modulated by HIV. We aimed at examining factors related to CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individuals and the impact...... of initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 HIV-positive individuals and 10 uninfected age and gender matched controls were examined by flow cytometry for CD38 and CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells. Stimulation assays were performed on 8...... healthy blood donors to determine a cut-off for CD52 expression. RESULTS: All examined CD4+ T cells expressed CD52. However, both CD4+ T cells with higher (CD52++) and with lower CD52 expression (CD52dim) were found in HIV-positive individuals compared to uninfected controls. Two % CD52dim cells defined...

  14. Tissue Specific Expression of Cre in Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine Active Transporter-Positive Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyi; Brown, Andrew; Fisher, Dan; Wu, Yumei; Warren, Joe; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The rat is a preferred model system over the mouse for neurological studies, and cell type-specific Cre expression in the rat enables precise ablation of gene function in neurons of interest, which is especially valuable for neurodegenerative disease modeling and optogenetics. Yet, few such Cre rats are available. Here we report the characterization of two Cre rats, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre and dopamine active transporter (DAT or Slc6a3)-Cre, by using a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as well as a fluorescent reporter for Cre activity. We detected Cre expression in expected neurons in both Cre lines. Interestingly, we also found that in Th-Cre rats, but not DAT-Cre rats, Cre is expressed in female germ cells, allowing germline excision of the floxed allele and hence the generation of whole-body knockout rats. In summary, our data demonstrate that targeted integration of Cre cassette lead to faithful recapitulation of expression pattern of the endogenous promoter, and mRNA FISH, in addition to IHC, is an effective method for the analysis of the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns in the rat brain, alleviating the dependence on high quality antibodies that are often not available against rat proteins. The Th-Cre and the DAT-Cre rat lines express Cre in selective subsets of dopaminergic neurons and should be particularly useful for researches on Parkinson's disease.

  15. Emotional Expressions of Old Faces Are Perceived as More Positive and Less Negative than Young Faces in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah C Hass

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young and old faces of which emotional expressions were gradually morphed into one of two categories - neutral vs. happy and neutral vs. angry. The results indicated that old faces were more frequently perceived as having a happy expression at the lower emotional intensity levels, and less frequently perceived as having an angry expression at the higher emotional intensity levels than younger faces in young adults. Critically, the perceptual decision threshold at which old faces were judged as happy was lower than for young faces, and higher for angry old faces compared to young faces. These findings suggest that the age of the face influences how its emotional expression is interpreted in social interactions.

  16. Expression of contactin associated protein-like 2 in a subset of hepatic progenitor cell compartment identified by gene expression profiling in hepatitis B virus-positive cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huafeng; Gao, Yabo; Jin, Xiaolong; Xiao, Jiacheng

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic progenitor cells (HPC), a cell compartment capable of differentiating into hepatocytic and biliary lineages, may give rise to the formation of intermediate hepatobiliary cells (IHBC) or ductular reactions (DR). The aim of this study was to analyse the gene expression profiles of DR in cirrhosis and further investigate novel proteins expressed by HPC and their intermediate progeny. DR in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive cirrhotic liver tissues adjacent to hepatocellular carcinoma and interlobular bile ducts (ILBDs) in normal liver tissues were isolated by laser capture microdissection and then subjected to microarray analysis. Differential gene expression patterns were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry on serial sections. HPC and their intermediate progeny were recognized by immunostaining with hepatocytic and biliary markers [HepPar1, cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)]. A total of 88 genes showed upregulation in DR compared with ILBDs. Gene ontology analyses revealed that these upregulated genes were mostly associated with cell adhesion, immune response and the metabolic process. Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) was first confirmed to be a novel protein expressed in a subpopulation of DR that was positive for CK7, NCAM or EpCAM. In addition, immunoreactivity for CNTNAP2 was also noted in a subset of isolated CK7-positive HPC as well as some ductular IHBC positive for CK19 and HepPar1 in DR. CNTNAP2 is specifically associated with the emergence of ductular populations and may be identified as a novel protein for defining a subset of HPC and their intermediate progeny in cirrhosis.

  17. c-Fos downregulation positively regulates EphA5 expression in a congenital hypothyroidism rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Honghua; Zheng, Yuqin; Cai, Fuying; Ma, Yanyan; Yang, Jingyue; Wu, Youjia

    2018-04-01

    The EphA5 receptor is well established as an axon guidance molecule during neural system development and plays an important role in dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis. Our previous study has showed that EphA5 is decreased in the developing brain of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and the EphA5 promoter methylation modification participates in its decrease. c-Fos, a well-kown transcription factor, has been considered in association with brain development. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the EphA5 promoter region contained five putative c-fos binding sites. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to assess the direct binding of c-fos to the EphA5 promoter. Furthermore, dual-luciferase assays showed that these three c-fos protein binding sites were positive regulatory elements for EphA5 expression in PC12 cells. Moreover, We verified c-fos positively regulation for EphA5 expression in CH model. Q-PCR and Western blot showed that c-fos overexpression could upregulate EphA5 expression in hippocampal neurons of rats with CH. Our results suggest that c-fos positively regulates EphA5 expression in CH rat model.

  18. The Y-located gonadoblastoma gene TSPY amplifies its own expression through a positive feedback loop in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, Tatsuo; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris, E-mail: Chris.Lau@UCSF.edu

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Y-encoded proto-oncoprotein TSPY amplifies its expression level via a positive feedback loop. • TSPY binds to the chromatin/DNA at exon 1 of TSPY gene. • TSPY enhances the gene expression in a TSPY exon 1 sequence dependent manner. • The conserved SET/NAP-domain is essential for TSPY transactivation. • Insights on probable mechanisms on TSPY exacerbation on cancer development in men. - Abstract: The testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) is a repetitive gene located on the gonadoblastoma region of the Y chromosome, and has been considered to be the putative gene for this oncogenic locus on the male-only chromosome. It is expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes in normal human testis, but abundantly in gonadoblastoma, testicular germ cell tumors and a variety of somatic cancers, including melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer. Various studies suggest that TSPY accelerates cell proliferation and growth, and promotes tumorigenesis. In this report, we show that TSPY could bind directly to the chromatin/DNA at exon 1 of its own gene, and greatly enhance the transcriptional activities of the endogenous gene in the LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Domain mapping analyses of TSPY have localized the critical and sufficient domain to the SET/NAP-domain. These results suggest that TSPY could efficiently amplify its expression and oncogenic functions through a positive feedback loop, and contribute to the overall tumorigenic processes when it is expressed in various human cancers.

  19. Gene expression profiling in lymph node-positive and lymph node-negative colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Roh, Mee-Sook; Kim, Jae-Seok; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Hong-Jo; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Hwang, Tae-Ho

    2004-02-01

    To identify the genes involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer, we analyzed the gene-expression profiles of colorectal cancer cells from 12 tumors with corresponding noncancerous colonic epithelia using a cDNA microarray representing 4,08 genes. We classified both samples and genes by using a two-way clustering analysis and identified genes that were differentially expressed in the cancerous and noncancerous tissues. Genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified by means of the supervised learning technique. Differentially expressed genes (77 up-regulated and 45 down-regulated genes) were identified in more than 75 percent of the tumors. The functional categories of these genes belonged to signal transduction (19 percent), metabolism (17 percent), cell structure/motility (14 percent), cell cycle (13 percent), and gene protein expression (13 percent). The gene expression pattern of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results from randomly selected genes shows a pattern similar to that of cDNA microarray. Moreover, the gene expression patterns observed were similar to those reported previously, suggesting rare racial differences. Sixty genes possibly associated with lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer were selected on the basis of clinicopathological data obtained by performing signal-to-noise calculations. "Leave-one-out" cross-validation testing correctly classified 10 of 12 patients (83.3 percent) as having colorectal cancer with lymph node metastasis vs. those without metastasis. These results provide not only a new molecular basis for understanding the biologic properties of colorectal cancer, including lymph node metastasis, but also provide a resource for future development of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for colorectal cancer.

  20. Human Asymptomatic Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP13/14 (UL47) Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD44high CD62Llow CD8+ TEM Cells and Protect Humanized HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice against Ocular Herpesvirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A; Garg, Sumit; Syed, Sabrina A; Furness, Julie N; Vahed, Hawa; Pham, Tiffany; Yu, Howard T; Nesburn, Anthony B; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2017-01-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is widespread among humans. The HSV-1 virion protein 13/14 (VP13/14), also known as UL47, is a tegument antigen targeted by CD8 + T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether VP13/14-specific CD8 + T cells play a role in the natural protection seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (individuals who have never had a clinical herpetic disease) has not been elucidated. Using predictive computer-assisted algorithms, we identified 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8 + T-cell epitopes from the 693-amino-acid sequence of the VP13/14 protein. Three out of 10 epitopes exhibited a high to moderate affinity of binding to soluble HLA-A*02:01 molecules. The phenotype and function of CD8 + T cells specific for each epitope were compared in HLA-A*02:01-positive ASYMP individuals and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (individuals who have frequent clinical herpetic diseases) using determination of a combination of tetramer frequency and the levels of granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2 production and CD107 a/b cytotoxic degranulation. High frequencies of multifunctional CD8 + T cells directed against three epitopes, VP13/14 from amino acids 286 to 294 (VP13/14 286-294 ), VP13/14 from amino acids 504 to 512 (VP13/14 504-512 ), and VP13/14 from amino acids 544 to 552 (VP13/14 544-552 ), were detected in ASYMP individuals, while only low frequencies were detected in SYMP individuals. The three epitopes also predominantly recalled more CD45RA low CD44 high CCR7 low CD62L low CD8 + effector memory T cells (T EM cells) in ASYMP individuals than SYMP individuals. Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three CD8 + T EM -cell epitopes from ASYMP individuals induced robust and polyfunctional HSV-specific CD8 + T EM cells associated with strong protective immunity against ocular herpesvirus infection and disease. Our findings outline the phenotypic

  1. Human Asymptomatic Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP13/14 (UL47) Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD44high CD62Llow CD8+ TEM Cells and Protect Humanized HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice against Ocular Herpesvirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Garg, Sumit; Syed, Sabrina A.; Furness, Julie N.; Vahed, Hawa; Pham, Tiffany; Yu, Howard T.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is widespread among humans. The HSV-1 virion protein 13/14 (VP13/14), also known as UL47, is a tegument antigen targeted by CD8+ T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether VP13/14-specific CD8+ T cells play a role in the natural protection seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (individuals who have never had a clinical herpetic disease) has not been elucidated. Using predictive computer-assisted algorithms, we identified 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes from the 693-amino-acid sequence of the VP13/14 protein. Three out of 10 epitopes exhibited a high to moderate affinity of binding to soluble HLA-A*02:01 molecules. The phenotype and function of CD8+ T cells specific for each epitope were compared in HLA-A*02:01-positive ASYMP individuals and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (individuals who have frequent clinical herpetic diseases) using determination of a combination of tetramer frequency and the levels of granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2 production and CD107a/b cytotoxic degranulation. High frequencies of multifunctional CD8+ T cells directed against three epitopes, VP13/14 from amino acids 286 to 294 (VP13/14286–294), VP13/14 from amino acids 504 to 512 (VP13/14504–512), and VP13/14 from amino acids 544 to 552 (VP13/14544–552), were detected in ASYMP individuals, while only low frequencies were detected in SYMP individuals. The three epitopes also predominantly recalled more CD45RAlow CD44high CCR7low CD62Llow CD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM cells) in ASYMP individuals than SYMP individuals. Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three CD8+ TEM-cell epitopes from ASYMP individuals induced robust and polyfunctional HSV-specific CD8+ TEM cells associated with strong protective immunity against ocular herpesvirus infection and disease. Our findings outline the phenotypic and

  2. Expression of Oct-4 in oncogenic miR-155-positive oral squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunohistochemistry and immunostaining experiments were performed to identify markers for OSCC. Results: The qRT-PCR data confirmed the presence of oncogenic miR-155 in the OSCC samples. The immunohistochemical and immunostaining results confirmed the expression of Oct-4, an important target for the early ...

  3. MHC class I expression by developmental tumors: teratocarcinoma stem cells are TCA positive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stern, P. L.; Morris, A.; McMain, A.; Risk, J.; Beresford, N.; Kenny, T.; Hole, N.; Strachan, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Wilson, L.

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of antigens recognized by several alloantisera and monoclonal antibodies to class I and class I-like MHC gene products on four developmental tumor cell lines derived from teratocarcinoma and choriocarcinoma. The analysis by cytotoxicity, immunoprecipitation, and

  4. A synbio approach for selection of highly expressed gene variants in Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferro, Roberto; Rennig, Maja; Hernández Rollán, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The market for recombinant proteins is on the rise, and Gram-positive strains are widely exploited for this purpose. Bacillus subtilis is a profitable host for protein production thanks to its ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, and Lactococcus lactis is an attractive production organism....... subtilis and tyrosine ammonia lyase in L. lactis. Gram-positive bacteria are widely used to produce industrial enzymes. High titres are necessary to make the production economically feasible. The synbio approach presented here is a simple and inexpensive way to increase protein titres, which can be carried...

  5. Anticitrullinated Protein Antibodies Induce Inflammatory Gene Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood Cells from CCP-positive Patients with RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertel, Smadar; Karmon, Gidi; Szarka, Eszter; Shovman, Ora; Houri-Levi, Esther; Mozes, Edna; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Amital, Howard

    2018-03-01

    Anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have major diagnostic significance in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACPA are directed against different citrullinated antigens, including filaggrin, fibrinogen, vimentin, and collagen. The presence of ACPA is associated with joint damage and extraarticular manifestations, suggesting that ACPA may have a significant role in the pathogenesis of RA. To verify the effect of ACPA on RA-immune cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)-positive patients with RA and healthy controls were cocultured in vitro with ACPA. ACPA-positive stained cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and the effect of ACPA on mRNA expression levels was evaluated by real-time PCR. We tested whether the stimulatory effects induced by ACPA could be inhibited by the addition of a new multiepitope citrullinated peptide (Cit-ME). We found that ACPA bind specifically to PBMC from CCP-positive patients with RA through the Fab portion. ACPA induce upregulation of pathogenic cytokine expression (4- to 13-fold increase) in PBMC derived from CCP-positive patients with RA. Moreover, ACPA upregulated IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression levels by 10- and 6-fold, respectively, compared to control IgG. Cit-ME, a genuine ligand of ACPA, inhibited the ACPA-induced upregulation of IL-1β and IL-6 by 30%. ACPA bind to a limited percentage of PBMC and upregulate inflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that ACPA is involved in RA pathogenesis. Targeting ACPA to decrease their pathogenic effects might provide a novel direction in developing therapeutic strategies for RA.

  6. Perlecan expression influences the keratin 15-positive cell population fate in the epidermis of aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Morgan; Michopoulou, Anna; André-Frei, Valérie; Boulesteix, Sophie; Guicher, Christine; Dayan, Guila; Whitelock, John; Damour, Odile; Rousselle, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    The epidermis is continuously renewed by stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Basal keratinocytes append the dermal-epidermal junction, a cell surface-associated, extracellular matrix that provides structural support and influences their behaviour. It consists of laminins, type IV collagen, nidogens, and perlecan, which are necessary for tissue organization and structural integrity. Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan known to be involved in keratinocyte survival and differentiation. Aging affects the dermal epidermal junction resulting in decreased contact with keratinocytes, thus impacting epidermal renewal and homeostasis. We found that perlecan expression decreased during chronological skin aging. Our in vitro studies revealed reduced perlecan transcript levels in aged keratinocytes. The production of in vitro skin models revealed that aged keratinocytes formed a thin and poorly organized epidermis. Supplementing these models with purified perlecan reversed the phenomenon allowing restoration of a well-differentiated multi-layered epithelium. Perlecan down-regulation in cultured keratinocytes caused depletion of the cell population that expressed keratin 15. This phenomenon depended on the perlecan heparan sulphate moieties, which suggested the involvement of a growth factor. Finally, we found defects in keratin 15 expression in the epidermis of aging skin. This study highlighted a new role for perlecan in maintaining the self-renewal capacity of basal keratinocytes.

  7. Koenimbin, a natural dietary compound of Murraya koenigii (L Spreng: inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and targeting of derived MCF7 breast cancer stem cells (CD44+/CD24-/low: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadipour F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Ahmadipour,1 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin,1 Syam Mohan,2 Aditya Arya,1 Mohammadjavad Paydar,3 Chung Yeng Looi,3 Yeap Swee Keong,4 Ebrahimi Nigjeh Siyamak,4 Somayeh Fani,1 Maryam Firoozi,5 Chung Lip Yong,1 Mohamed Aspollah Sukari,6 Behnam Kamalidehghan1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Research Center, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 5Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Background: Inhibition of breast cancer stem cells has been shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention. The aims of this work were to evaluate the efficacy of koenimbin, isolated from Murraya koenigii (L Spreng, in the inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and to target MCF7 breast cancer stem cells through apoptosis in vitro. Methods: Koenimbin-induced cell viability was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release were observed using high-content screening. Cell cycle arrest was examined using flow cytometry, while human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were used to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis. Protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl2, and heat shock protein 70 were confirmed using Western blotting. Caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 levels were measured, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activity was assessed using a high-content screening assay. Aldefluor™ and mammosphere formation assays were used to evaluate the effect of koenimbin on MCF7

  8. The Effects of Nucleosome Positioning and Chromatin Architecture on Transgene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Colton E.

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotes use proteins to carefully package and compact their genomes to fit into the nuclei of their individual cells. Nucleosomes are the primary level of compaction. Nucleosomes are formed when DNA wraps around an octamer of histone proteins and a nucleosome's position can limit access to genetic regulatory elements. Therefore, nucleosomes…

  9. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression (Sexual Minority Students): School Nurse Practice. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…

  10. Expression profiles of key phenylpropanoid genes during Vanilla planifolia pod development reveal a positive correlation between PAL gene expression and vanillin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock-Bastide, Isabelle; Palama, Tony Lionel; Bory, Séverine; Lécolier, Aurélie; Noirot, Michel; Joët, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In Vanilla planifolia pods, development of flavor precursors is dependent on the phenylpropanoid pathway. The distinctive vanilla aroma is produced by numerous phenolic compounds of which vanillin is the most important. Because of the economic importance of vanilla, vanillin biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied but agreement has not yet been reached on the processes leading to its accumulation. In order to explore the transcriptional control exerted on these pathways, five key phenylpropanoid genes expressed during pod development were identified and their mRNA accumulation profiles were evaluated during pod development and maturation using quantitative real-time PCR. As a prerequisite for expression analysis using qRT-PCR, five potential reference genes were tested, and two genes encoding Actin and EF1 were shown to be the most stable reference genes for accurate normalization during pod development. For the first time, genes encoding a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (VpPAL1) and a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (VpC4H1) were identified in vanilla pods and studied during maturation. Among phenylpropanoid genes, differential regulation was observed from 3 to 8 months after pollination. VpPAL1 was gradually up-regulated, reaching the maximum expression level at maturity. In contrast, genes encoding 4HBS, C4H, OMT2 and OMT3 did not show significant increase in expression levels after the fourth month post-pollination. Expression profiling of these key phenylpropanoid genes is also discussed in light of accumulation patterns for key phenolic compounds. Interestingly, VpPAL1 gene expression was shown to be positively correlated to maturation and vanillin accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Methylation of the claudin 1 promoter is associated with loss of expression in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francescopaolo Di Cello

    Full Text Available Downregulation of the tight junction protein claudin 1 is a frequent event in breast cancer and is associated with recurrence, metastasis, and reduced survival, suggesting a tumor suppressor role for this protein. Tumor suppressor genes are often epigenetically silenced in cancer. Downregulation of claudin 1 via DNA promoter methylation may thus be an important determinant in breast cancer development and progression. To investigate if silencing of claudin 1 has an epigenetic etiology in breast cancer we compared gene expression and methylation data from 217 breast cancer samples and 40 matched normal samples available through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Moreover, we analyzed claudin 1 expression and methylation in 26 breast cancer cell lines. We found that methylation of the claudin 1 promoter CpG island is relatively frequent in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer and is associated with low claudin 1 expression. In contrast, the claudin 1 promoter was not methylated in most of the ER-breast cancers samples and some of these tumors overexpress claudin 1. In addition, we observed that the demethylating agents, azacitidine and decitabine can upregulate claudin 1 expression in breast cancer cell lines that have a methylated claudin 1 promoter. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA promoter methylation is causally associated with downregulation of claudin 1 in a subgroup of breast cancer that includes mostly ER+ tumors, and suggest that epigenetic therapy to restore claudin 1 expression might represent a viable therapeutic strategy in this subtype of breast cancer.

  12. Characterization of human adipose-derived stem cells and expression of chondrogenic genes during induction of cartilage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Adila A; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Sathappan, Somasumdaram; Chua, Kien-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the changes in chondrogenic gene expression that are involved in the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to chondrogenic cells is important prior to using this approach for cartilage repair. The aims of the study were to characterize human adipose-derived stem cells and to examine chondrogenic gene expression after one, two, and three weeks of induction. Human adipose-derived stem cells at passage 4 were evaluated by flow cytometry to examine the expression of surface markers. These adipose-derived stem cells were tested for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the expression levels of chondrogenic genes after chondrogenic induction. Human adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen and successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The human adipose-derived stem cells aggregated and formed a dense matrix after chondrogenic induction. The expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, collagen type XI, COMP, and ELASTIN) was significantly higher after the first week of induction. However, a significantly elevated expression of collagen type X was observed after three weeks of chondrogenic induction. Human adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture to passage 4 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells was most prominent after one week of chondrogenic induction.

  13. Expression of Death Receptor 4 Is Positively Regulated by MEK/ERK/AP-1 Signaling and Suppressed upon MEK Inhibition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weilong; Oh, You-Take; Deng, Jiusheng; Yue, Ping; Deng, Liang; Huang, Henry; Zhou, Wei; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor 4 (DR4) is a cell surface receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and triggers apoptosis upon ligation with TRAIL or aggregation. MEK/ERK signaling is a well known and the best-studied effector pathway downstream of Ras and Raf. This study focuses on determining the impact of pharmacological MEK inhibition on DR4 expression and elucidating the underlying mechanism. We found that several MEK inhibitors including MEK162, AZD6244, and PD0325901 effectively decreased DR4 protein levels including cell surface DR4 in different cancer cell lines. Accordingly, pre-treatment of TRAIL-sensitive cancer cell lines with a MEK inhibitor desensitized them to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that MEK inhibition negatively regulates DR4 expression and cell response to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. MEK inhibitors did not alter DR4 protein stability, rather decreased its mRNA levels, suggesting a transcriptional regulation. In contrast, enforced activation of MEK/ERK signaling by expressing ectopic B-Raf (V600E) or constitutively activated MEK1 (MEK1-CA) or MEK2 (MEK2-CA) activated ERK and increased DR4 expression; these effects were inhibited when a MEK inhibitor was present. Promoter analysis through deletion and mutation identified the AP-1 binding site as an essential response element for enhancing DR4 transactivation by MEK1-CA. Furthermore, inhibition of AP-1 by c-Jun knockdown abrogated the ability of MEK1-CA to increase DR4 promoter activity and DR4 expression. These results suggest an essential role of AP-1 in mediating MEK/ERK activation-induced DR4 expression. Our findings together highlight a previously undiscovered mechanism that positively regulates DR4 expression through activation of the MEK/ERK/AP-1 signaling pathway. PMID:27576686

  14. Wnt1 Positively Regulates CD36 Expression via TCF4 and PPAR-γ in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scavenger receptors including CD36 control the phagocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and play an important role in macrophage physiology, but the underlying molecular mechanism by which CD36 is regulated in macrophages or during macrophage differentiation from monocytes remains to be determined. Methods: Here, we investigated the relationship between Wnt1 and CD36 during macrophage differentiation. CD36 was suppressed following knockdown of Wnt1 by siRNA, while it was increased by ectopic overexpression of Wnt1 in macrophages. Using a β-catenin inhibitor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ siRNA, and transcription factor 4 (TCF4 siRNA, we demonstrated that Wnt1 regulates the expression of CD36 through TCF4 and PPAR-γ. Co-immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence experiments showed that β-catenin interacted with PPAR-γ and that PPAR-γ and TCF4 colocalized in the nucleus. Furthermore, Pax3 regulated Wnt1 via binding to the first binding site in the Wnt1 promoter. Results: Our study demonstrated that during macrophage differentiation from monocytes, Wnt1 promotes CD36 expression via activation of PPAR-γ and TCF4. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Wnt1 plays an important role in macrophage physiology via activation of the canonical Wnt pathway.

  15. A rare CD5-positive subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma – clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features in Polish patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Woźnialis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL in the Polish population and to describe its morphologic and clinical characteristics. The study included 36 patients with CD5-positive DLBCL, diagnosed and treated in the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute and Oncology Centre, Warsaw, Poland and the Medical University of Warsaw, Poland in the years 2002-2013. The control group consisted of 28 patients with CD5-negative DLBCL. CD5-positive DLBCL accounted for 6.26% of all DLBCL cases diagnosed in the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute and Oncology Centre in the years 2008-2012. The incidence is comparable to other European countries, lower than noted in Japan and higher than in the US. Patients with CD5-positive DLBCL, in comparison to the CD5-negative group, were characterized by: (1 older age (≥ 60 vs. younger and worse general status (ECOG ≥ 2 vs. < 2, (2 lower frequency of complete remission (CR, (3 higher expression of unfavorable prognostic factors (BCL2, FOXP1, CD44 and MMP-9, and (4 lower expression of favorable prognostic factors (CD30, cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and TIMP-2.

  16. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Preinvasive Tubal Lesions of Ovarian Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Ouellet, V; Rahimi, K; Barres, V; Meunier, L; De Ladurantaye, M; Provencher, D; Mes-Masson, A M

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the ovarian serous carcinogenic process with tubal origin, we investigated the expression of stem cell markers in premalignant tubal lesions (serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC). We found an increased stem cell marker density in the normal fallopian tube followed by a high CD117 and a low ALDH and CD44 expression in STICs raising the question of the role of the stem cell markers in the serous carcinogenic process.

  17. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Preinvasive Tubal Lesions of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the ovarian serous carcinogenic process with tubal origin, we investigated the expression of stem cell markers in premalignant tubal lesions (serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC. We found an increased stem cell marker density in the normal fallopian tube followed by a high CD117 and a low ALDH and CD44 expression in STICs raising the question of the role of the stem cell markers in the serous carcinogenic process.

  18. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  19. Characteristic expression of HTLV-1 basic zipper factor (HBZ transcripts in HTLV-1 provirus-positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Yasuaki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. Although there have been many studies on the oncogenesis of the viral protein Tax, the precise oncogenic mechanism remains to be elucidated. Recently, a new viral factor, HTLV-1 basic Zip factor (HBZ, encoded from the minus strand mRNA was discovered and the current models of Tax-centered ATL cell pathogenesis are in conflict with this discovery. HBZs consisting of non-spliced and spliced isoforms (HBZ-SI are thought to be implicated in viral replication and T-cell proliferation but there is little evidence on the HBZ expression profile on a large scale. Results To investigate the role of HBZ-SI in HTLV-1 provirus-positive cells, the HBZ-SI and Tax mRNA loads in samples with a mixture of infected and non-infected cells were measured and then adjusted by dividing by the HTLV-I proviral load. We show here that the HBZ-SI mRNA level is 4-fold higher than non-spliced HBZ and is expressed by almost all cells harboring HTLV-1 provirus with variable intensity. The proviral-adjusted HBZ-SI and Tax quantification revealed a characteristic imbalanced expression feature of high HBZ and low Tax expression levels in primary ATL cells or high HBZ and very high Tax levels in HTLV-1-related cell lines (cell lines compared with a standard expression profile of low HBZ and low Tax in infected cells. Interestingly, according to the mutual Tax and HBZ expression status, HTLV-1-related cell lines were subcategorized into two groups, an ATL cell type with high HBZ and low Tax levels and another type with high Tax and either high or low HBZ, which was closely related to its cell origin. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate the mutual expression profile of HBZ and Tax in provirus-positive cells, revealing that there are quantitative and relative characteristic features among infected cells, primary ATL cells, and cell lines.

  20. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are expressed in Trpm5 positive taste receptor cells (TRCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qian

    Full Text Available Nicotine evokes chorda tympani (CT taste nerve responses and an aversive behavior in Trpm5 knockout (KO mice. The agonists and antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs modulate neural and behavioral responses to nicotine in wildtype (WT mice, Trpm5 KO mice and rats. This indicates that nicotine evokes bitter taste by activating a Trpm5-dependent pathway and a Trpm5-independent but nAChR-dependent pathway. Rat CT responses to ethanol are also partially inhibited by nAChR blockers, mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine. This indicates that a component of the bitter taste of ethanol is also nAChR-dependent. However, at present the expression and localization of nAChR subunits has not been investigated in detail in taste receptor cells (TRCs. To this end, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and q-RT-PCR techniques were utilized to localize nAChR subunits in fungiform and circumvallate TRCs in WT mice, Trpm5-GFP transgenic mice, nAChR KO mice, and rats. The expression of mRNAs for α7, β2 and β4 nAChR subunits was observed in a subset of rat and WT mouse circumvallate and fungiform TRCs. Specific α3, α4, α7, β2, and β4 antibodies localized to a subset of WT mouse circumvallate and fungiform TRCs. In Trpm5-GFP mice α3, α4, α7, and β4 antibody binding was observed in a subset of Trpm5-positive circumvallate TRCs. Giving nicotine (100 μg/ml in drinking water to WT mice for 3 weeks differentially increased the expression of α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2 and β4 mRNAs in circumvallate TRCs to varying degrees. Giving ethanol (5% in drinking water to WT mice induced an increase in the expression of α5 and β4 mRNAs in circumvallate TRCs with a significant decrease in the expression of α3, α6 and β2 mRNAs. We conclude that nAChR subunits are expressed in Trpm5-positive TRCs and their expression levels are differentially altered by chronic oral exposure to nicotine and ethanol.

  1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in Trpm5 positive taste receptor cells (TRCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jie; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Grider, John R; Damaj, M Imad; Lyall, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    Nicotine evokes chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses and an aversive behavior in Trpm5 knockout (KO) mice. The agonists and antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate neural and behavioral responses to nicotine in wildtype (WT) mice, Trpm5 KO mice and rats. This indicates that nicotine evokes bitter taste by activating a Trpm5-dependent pathway and a Trpm5-independent but nAChR-dependent pathway. Rat CT responses to ethanol are also partially inhibited by nAChR blockers, mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine. This indicates that a component of the bitter taste of ethanol is also nAChR-dependent. However, at present the expression and localization of nAChR subunits has not been investigated in detail in taste receptor cells (TRCs). To this end, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and q-RT-PCR techniques were utilized to localize nAChR subunits in fungiform and circumvallate TRCs in WT mice, Trpm5-GFP transgenic mice, nAChR KO mice, and rats. The expression of mRNAs for α7, β2 and β4 nAChR subunits was observed in a subset of rat and WT mouse circumvallate and fungiform TRCs. Specific α3, α4, α7, β2, and β4 antibodies localized to a subset of WT mouse circumvallate and fungiform TRCs. In Trpm5-GFP mice α3, α4, α7, and β4 antibody binding was observed in a subset of Trpm5-positive circumvallate TRCs. Giving nicotine (100 μg/ml) in drinking water to WT mice for 3 weeks differentially increased the expression of α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2 and β4 mRNAs in circumvallate TRCs to varying degrees. Giving ethanol (5%) in drinking water to WT mice induced an increase in the expression of α5 and β4 mRNAs in circumvallate TRCs with a significant decrease in the expression of α3, α6 and β2 mRNAs. We conclude that nAChR subunits are expressed in Trpm5-positive TRCs and their expression levels are differentially altered by chronic oral exposure to nicotine and ethanol.

  2. Differential impact of IL-10 expression on survival and relapse between HPV16-positive and -negative oral squamous cell carcinomas.

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    Chun-Yi Chuang

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a risk factor in a subset of oropharyngeal cancer; however, the contribution of HPV in the malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC is not fully understood in Taiwanese. Herein, 61 patients with no risk factors and 117 patients with one or more risk factors were enrolled in this study. HPV16/18 infection rate in non-smokers, non-drinkers and non-betel quid chewers was higher than their counterparts. The development of HPV-infected cancer has been shown to be associated with interleukin-10 (IL-10 expression. To this end, IL-10 mRNA expression in OSCC tumors was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Data showed that HPV-positive patients had higher IL-10 mRNA levels than in HPV-negative patients. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis indicated that the prognostic significance of IL-10 mRNA on overall survival and relapse free survival was only observed in HPV-positive OSCC, but not in HPV-negative OSCC. Mechanistically, the elevation of IL-10 by E6 was responsible for increased colony formation and migration capability in OSCC cells. Therefore, we suggest that IL-10 induced by E6 promotes cell growth and migration capability and consequent poor survival and relapse in HPV-positive OSCC.

  3. Expression of Castor LPAT2 Enhances Ricinoleic Acid Content at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lesquerella Seed

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    Chen, Grace Q.; van Erp, Harrie; Martin-Moreno, Jose; Johnson, Kumiko; Morales, Eva; Browse, John; Eastmond, Peter J.; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh

    2016-01-01

    Lesquerella is a potential industrial oilseed crop that makes hydroxy fatty acid (HFA). Unlike castor its seeds are not poisonous but accumulate lesquerolic acid mostly at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triacylglycerol (TAG), whereas castor contains ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) at all three positions. To investigate whether lesquerella can be engineered to accumulate HFAs in the sn-2 position, multiple transgenic lines were made that express castor lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 2 (RcLPAT2) in the seed. RcLPAT2 increased 18:1OH at the sn-2 position of TAGs from 2% to 14%–17%, which resulted in an increase of tri-HFA-TAGs from 5% to 13%–14%. Our result is the first example of using a LPAT to increase ricinoleic acid at the sn-2 position of seed TAG. This work provides insights to the mechanism of HFA-containing TAG assembly in lesquerella and directs future research to optimize this plant for HFA production. PMID:27058535

  4. Expression of Castor LPAT2 Enhances Ricinoleic Acid Content at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lesquerella Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Q. Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lesquerella is a potential industrial oilseed crop that makes hydroxy fatty acid (HFA. Unlike castor its seeds are not poisonous but accumulate lesquerolic acid mostly at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triacylglycerol (TAG, whereas castor contains ricinoleic acid (18:1OH at all three positions. To investigate whether lesquerella can be engineered to accumulate HFAs in the sn-2 position, multiple transgenic lines were made that express castor lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 2 (RcLPAT2 in the seed. RcLPAT2 increased 18:1OH at the sn-2 position of TAGs from 2% to 14%–17%, which resulted in an increase of tri-HFA-TAGs from 5% to 13%–14%. Our result is the first example of using a LPAT to increase ricinoleic acid at the sn-2 position of seed TAG. This work provides insights to the mechanism of HFA-containing TAG assembly in lesquerella and directs future research to optimize this plant for HFA production.

  5. The GATA1-HS2 enhancer allows persistent and position-independent expression of a β-globin transgene.

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    Annarita Miccio

    Full Text Available Gene therapy of genetic diseases requires persistent and position-independent expression of a therapeutic transgene. Transcriptional enhancers binding chromatin-remodeling and modifying complexes may play a role in shielding transgenes from repressive chromatin effects. We tested the activity of the HS2 enhancer of the GATA1 gene in protecting the expression of a β-globin minigene delivered by a lentiviral vector in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Gene expression from proviruses carrying GATA1-HS2 in both LTRs was persistent and resistant to silencing at most integration sites in the in vivo progeny of human hematopoietic progenitors and murine long-term repopulating stem cells. The GATA1-HS2-modified vector allowed correction of murine β-thalassemia at low copy number without inducing clonal selection of erythroblastic progenitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies showed that GATA1 and the CBP acetyltransferase bind to GATA1-HS2, significantly increasing CBP-specific histone acetylations at the LTRs and β-globin promoter. Recruitment of CBP by the LTRs thus establishes an open chromatin domain encompassing the entire provirus, and increases the therapeutic efficacy of β-globin gene transfer by reducing expression variegation and epigenetic silencing.

  6. Flow immunocytochemistry of marker expression in cells from body cavity fluids.

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    Krishan, Awtar; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Hamelik, Ronald; Sharma, Deepti; Reis, Isildinha; Nadji, Mehrdad

    2010-02-01

    Diagnostic cytology based on the examination of cells from body cavity fluids misses approximately 50% of patients with a proven malignancy. In an earlier study, we used immunohistochemical detection of epithelial membrane antigen expression with flow cytometric detection of DNA aneuploidy to reduce the number of false negatives. In the present study, we have combined DNA flow cytometry with flow cytometric detection of marker expression to analyze cells from body cavity fluids. Seventy-nine specimens of ascites and pleural fluids were analyzed by diagnostic cytology, DNA flow cytometry, and for the expression of the following markers: Ber-EP4, progesterone (PR), MUC4, and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). DNA index of equal to or greater than 1.2 was seen in 33/79 (41.7%) of the samples. Statistical analysis of 79 samples in which data from cytology, DNA aneuploidy, and expression of at least one of the markers was available showed that by combining data from positive marker expression with that of aneuploidy, the sensitivity was increased from 58.5 to 100%. In contrast, out of the 38 samples designated as non-malignant by diagnostic cytology, nine had aneuploid DNA content and 16 of the diploid samples had a positive marker expression. Specificity was reduced from 74.7 to 31.6% due to the presence of aneuploidy and marker expression in these samples. ALDH1(pos)/CD44(pos)/CD24(neg) expression has been reported to be associated with human breast tumor stem cells. Some of our samples had cells with this phenotype. Flow cytometry offers the advantage of rapid multiparametric analysis of DNA aneuploidy and marker expression in cells from body cavity fluids based on the analysis of a large number of cells without observer bias. By further developing the use of specific markers and aneuploidy, it may be possible to refine flow cytometric analysis for rapid detection of malignant cells in body cavity fluids.

  7. Chitinase expression in Listeria monocytogenes is positively regulated by the Agr system.

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    Dafni Katerina Paspaliari

    Full Text Available The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes encodes two chitinases, ChiA and ChiB, which allow the bacterium to hydrolyze chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature. Intriguingly, despite the absence of chitin in human and mammalian hosts, both of the chitinases have been deemed important for infection, through a mechanism that, at least in the case of ChiA, involves modulation of host immune responses. In this study, we show that the expression of the two chitinases is subject to regulation by the listerial agr system, a homologue of the agr quorum-sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus, that has so far been implicated in virulence and biofilm formation. We demonstrate that in addition to these roles, the listerial agr system is required for efficient chitin hydrolysis, as deletion of agrD, encoding the putative precursor of the agr autoinducer, dramatically decreased chitinolytic activity on agar plates. Agr was specifically induced in response to chitin addition in stationary phase and agrD was found to regulate the amount of chiA, but not chiB, transcripts. Although the transcript levels of chiB did not depend on agrD, the extracellular protein levels of both chitinases were reduced in the ΔagrD mutant. The regulatory effect of agr on chiA is potentially mediated through the small RNA LhrA, which we show here to be negatively regulated by agr. LhrA is in turn known to repress chiA translation by binding to the chiA transcript and interfering with ribosome recruitment. Our results highlight a previously unrecognized role of the agr system and suggest that autoinducer-based regulation of chitinolytic systems may be more commonplace than previously thought.

  8. Effect of the developmental stage and tissue position on the expression and glycosylation of recombinant glycoprotein GA733-FcK in transgenic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chae-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Jin; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Ko, Kisung

    2015-01-01

    The influence of developmental stage and position (top, middle, and base) of leaves and stem tissues on the expression and glycosylation pattern of a recombinant therapeutic protein -GA733-FcK- was observed in transgenic seedlings during a 16-week growth period. RNA expression gradually increased with age in the middle and basal leaves and decreased in top leaves after 14 weeks. The protein expression level at all leaf positions increased until 14 weeks and slightly decreased at 16 weeks; it ...

  9. Selection and characterization of a promoter for expression of single-copy recombinant genes in Gram-positive bacteria

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    Manganelli Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past ten years there has been a growing interest in engineering Gram-positive bacteria for biotechnological applications, including vaccine delivery and production of recombinant proteins. Usually, bacteria are manipulated using plasmid expression vectors. The major limitation of this approach is due to the fact that recombinant plasmids are often lost from the bacterial culture upon removal of antibiotic selection. We have developed a genetic system based on suicide vectors on conjugative transposons allowing stable integration of recombinant DNA into the chromosome of transformable and non-transformable Gram-positive bacteria. Results The aim of this work was to select a strong chromosomal promoter from Streptococcus gordonii to improve this genetic system making it suitable for expression of single-copy recombinant genes. To achieve this task, a promoterless gene encoding a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat, was randomly integrated into the S. gordonii chromosome and transformants were selected for chloramphenicol resistance. Three out of eighteen chloramphenicol resistant transformants selected exhibited 100% stability of the phenotype and only one of them, GP215, carried the cat gene integrated as a single copy. A DNA fragment of 600 base pairs exhibiting promoter activity was isolated from GP215 and sequenced. The 5' end of its corresponding mRNA was determined by primer extention analysis and the putative -10 and a -35 regions were identified. To study the possibility of using this promoter (PP for single copy heterologous gene expression, we created transcriptional fusions of PP with genes encoding surface recombinant proteins in a vector capable of integrating into the conjugative transposon Tn916. Surface recombinant proteins whose expression was controlled by the PP promoter were detected in Tn916-containing strains of S. gordonii and Bacillus subtilis after single copy chromosomal integration of the

  10. Expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxA positive regulatory gene (regA) in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamood, A N; Iglewski, B H

    1990-01-01

    The regA gene is a positive regulatory gene that regulates toxin A production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the transcriptional level. The product of the regA gene was examined in Escherichia coli with the expression vector pT7-7. A 1.3-kilobase AvaI-HindIII fragment containing the regA gene was cloned into the pT7-7 vector. A recombinant plasmid (pAH1) encoded a 29-kilodalton protein. The molecular weight of this protein correlated closely with the predicted molecular weight of the RegA prote...

  11. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

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    Li, Luchuan; Lv, Bin; Chen, Bo [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Guan, Ming [Department of General Surgery, Qihe People' s Hospital, Qihe, Shandong 251100 (China); Sun, Yongfeng [Department of General Surgery, Licheng District People' s Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250115 (China); Li, Haipeng [Department of General Surgery, Caoxian People' s Hospital, Caoxian, Shandong 274400 (China); Zhang, Binbin; Ding, Changyuan; He, Shan [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Zeng, Qingdong, E-mail: qingdz0201@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China)

    2015-07-10

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na{sup +}/I{sup −} symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells.

  12. 17β-estradiol induces stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkaid, Anissa; Duguay, Sabrina R.; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Surette, Marc E.

    2015-01-01

    To sustain cell growth, cancer cells exhibit an altered metabolism characterized by increased lipogenesis. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) catalyzes the production of monounsaturated fatty acids that are essential for membrane biogenesis, and is required for cell proliferation in many cancer cell types. Although estrogen is required for the proliferation of many estrogen-sensitive breast carcinoma cells, it is also a repressor of SCD-1 expression in liver and adipose. The current study addresses this apparent paradox by investigating the impact of estrogen on SCD-1 expression in estrogen receptor-α-positive breast carcinoma cell lines. MCF-7 and T47D mammary carcinomas cells and immortalized MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells were hormone-starved then treated or not with 17β-estradiol. SCD-1 activity was assessed by measuring cellular monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid (MUFA/SFA) ratios, and SCD-1 expression was measured by qPCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses. The role of SCD-1 in cell proliferation was measured following treatment with the SCD-1 inhibitor A959372 and following SCD-1 silencing using siRNA. The involvement of IGF-1R on SCD-1 expression was measured using the IGF-1R antagonist AG1024. The expression of SREBP-1c, a transcription factor that regulates SCD-1, was measured by qPCR, and by immunoblot analyses. 17β-estradiol significantly induced cell proliferation and SCD-1 activity in MCF-7 and T47D cells but not MCF-10A cells. Accordingly, 17β-estradiol significantly increased SCD-1 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 and T47D cells compared to untreated cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 4-OH tamoxifen or siRNA silencing of estrogen receptor-α largely prevented 17β-estradiol-induced SCD-1 expression. 17β-estradiol increased SREBP-1c expression and induced the mature active 60 kDa form of SREBP-1. The selective SCD-1 inhibitor or siRNA silencing of SCD-1 blocked the 17β-estradiol-induced cell proliferation and increase in

  13. A positive correlation between expression of beta 1-integrin cell adhesion molecules and fertilizing ability of human spermatozoa in vitro.

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    Klentzeris, L D; Fishel, S; McDermott, H; Dowell, K; Hall, J; Green, S

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate firstly whether beta 1-integrin cell adhesion molecules are expressed by human spermatozoa, and secondly whether there is any relationship between the expression of beta 1-integrin cell adhesion molecules and the fertilizing ability of human spermatozoa in vitro. A total of 50 semen samples were examined. The samples were obtained from the male partners of couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) for either unexplained, tubal or male factor infertility. A panel of six monoclonal antibodies against beta 1-integrin cell adhesion molecules and immunohistochemical techniques were used to identify the presence of these molecules on the spermatozoa. The percentage of spermatozoa showing strong immunolabelling with each monoclonal antibody was assessed in each sample. The relationship between these results and the aetiology of infertility and incidence of fertilization was examined. beta 1-Integrins, and primarily the ones with alpha 4-, alpha 5- and alpha 6-chains, were expressed by human spermatozoa. Compared with semen samples from unexplained or male factor infertility patients, samples from tubal infertility patients had a significantly higher (P fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. The positive correlation between the presence of certain beta 1-integrin cell adhesion molecules and the fertilizing ability of human spermatozoa suggests that integrins may be putative determinants in egg-sperm recognition and interaction.

  14. 17β-estradiol-induced ACSL4 protein expression promotes an invasive phenotype in estrogen receptor positive mammary carcinoma cells.

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    Belkaid, Anissa; Ouellette, Rodney J; Surette, Marc E

    2017-04-01

    Long chain acyl-CoA synthase-4 (ACSL4) expression has been associated with an aggressive phenotype in breast carcinoma cells, whereas its role in ERα-positive breast cancer has not been studied. ACSL4 prefers 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) substrates, and along with other ACSLs has been associated with cellular uptake of exogenous fatty acids. 17β-estradiol induces proliferation and invasive capacities in ERα+ve breast carcinoma that is associated with modifications of cellular lipid metabolism. In this study, treatment of steroid-starved ERα-positive MCF-7 and T47D mammary carcinoma cells with 17β-estradiol resulted in increased cellular uptake of the PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), important building blocks for cellular membranes, and increased ACSL4 protein levels. There was no change in the expression of the ACSL1, ACSL3 and ACSL6 protein isotypes. Increased ACSL4 protein expression was not accompanied by changes in ACSL4 mRNA expression, but was associated with a significant increase in the protein half-life compared to untreated cells. ERα silencing reversed the impact of 17β-estradiol on ACSL4 protein levels and half-life. Silencing of ACSL4 eliminated the 17β-estradiol-induced increase in AA and EPA uptake, as well as the 17β-estradiol-induced cell migration, proliferation and invasion capacities. ASCL4 silencing also prevented the 17β-estradiol induced increases in p-Akt and p-GSK3β, and decrease in E-cadherin expression, important events in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ACSL4 is a target of 17β-estradiol-stimulated ERα and is required for the cellular uptake of exogenous PUFA and the manifestation of a more malignant phenotype in ERα+ve breast carcinoma cells. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Lopinavir up-regulates expression of the antiviral protein ribonuclease L in human papillomavirus-positive cervical carcinoma cells.

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    Batman, Gavin; Oliver, Anthony W; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Richard, Christina; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that the HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir has selective toxicity against human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cervical carcinoma cells via an unknown mechanism. SiHa cervical carcinoma cells were stably transfected with the proteasome sensor vector pZsProSensor-1 to confirm lopinavir inhibits the proteasome in these cells. The Panorama Xpress profiler 725 antibody array was then used to analyse specific changes in protein expression in lopinavir-treated versus control untreated SiHa cells followed by PCR and western blotting. Colorimetric growth assays of lopinavir-treated E6/E7 immortalised versus control human keratinocytes were performed. Targeted small interfering RNA gene silencing followed by growth assay comparison of lopinavir-treated/untreated SiHa cells was also used. Lopinavir induced an increase in the fluorescence of pZsProSensor-1 transfected SiHa cells, indicative of proteasomal inhibition. Ribonuclease L (RNASEL) protein was shown to be up-regulated in lopinavir-treated SiHa cells, which was confirmed by PCR and western blot. Targeted silencing of RNASEL reduced the sensitivity of SiHa cells to lopinavir. Selective toxicity against E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes versus control cells was also seen with lopinavir and was associated with up-regulated RNASEL expression. These data are consistent with the toxicity of lopinavir against HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells being related to its ability to block viral proteasome activation and induce an up-regulation of the antiviral protein RNASEL. This is supported by the drug's selective toxicity and up-regulation of RNASEL in E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes combined with the increased resistance to lopinavir observed in SiHa cells following silencing of RNASEL gene expression.

  16. Increased expression of virulence attributes in oral Candida albicans isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Arati; Gaikwad, Shraddha; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Risbud, Arun

    2012-02-01

    Oral candidiasis caused by Candida albicans is recognized as one of the most frequent opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The overall severity and chronicity of oral candidiasis has been attributed exclusively to the HIV-induced immune deficiency of the affected individuals but not to the virulence factors of the pathogen, i.e. C. albicans. However, genotypic and phenotypic studies have suggested that HIV infection might be associated with preferential selection of C. albicans strains with altered virulence determinants, leading to colonization with Candida populations that are better able to cause disease in these immunologically compromised hosts. If this process of selection is indeed related to pathogenicity, it may be possible to measure alterations in different virulence factors produced by C. albicans in HIV-infected patients. To evaluate this hypothesis, the present work was undertaken to determine simultaneously the expression of five virulence factors in oral C. albicans isolates colonizing and infecting HIV-positive and -negative individuals. The significance of genotypes in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis was also elucidated. Oral swabs were collected from 335 consecutive individuals (210 HIV-positive and 125 HIV-negative). Virulence factors and genotypes were determined for all the C. albicans strains isolated. The results showed significantly increased expression of proteinase, phospholipase and haemolytic activities, as well as a greater ability to adhere, in isolates from HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative individuals (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in virulence factor expression in isolates colonizing or infecting HIV-positive individuals were seen. Genotype A was the predominant type (71.3 %); however, a relationship could not be established between the genotypes and the virulence factors, or with clinical infection. These data support the concept of preferential C. albicans

  17. Salivary expression of soluble HER2 in breast cancer patients with positive and negative HER2 status

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    Laidi F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatna Laidi,1 Amal Bouziane,2 Amina Lakhdar,3 Samira Khabouze,3 Brahim Rhrab,3 Fatima Zaoui1 1Oral Biomechanics and Biotechnology Research Unit, Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Biostatistical, Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary concentration of the soluble fragment of the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor protein and its status in mammary tissues. Methods: This case-control study was done in 27 breast cancer patients with no visible metastatic disease treated at the gynecology service, Maternity Souissi Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Two groups were selected, ie, patients with positive and negative HER2 status in mammary tissue. The salivary HER2 protein concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The salivary HER2 concentration was compared between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: No statistically significant difference in salivary HER2 protein expression was found between the case and control groups. There was also no significant difference in clinical characteristics according to positive and negative HER2 status (P>0.05, except for the progesterone hormone receptor which was statistically significant in both the case and control groups (P=0.047. Conclusion: According to our data, salivary expression of the HER2 receptor may not be a reliable alternative to tissue assessment. Keywords: breast cancer, HER2, saliva, diagnosis

  18. The role of coupled positive feedback in the expression of the SPI1 type three secretion system in Salmonella.

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    Supreet Saini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common food-borne pathogen that induces inflammatory diarrhea and invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type three secretion system (T3SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1. The genes encoding the SPI1 T3SS are tightly regulated by a network of interacting transcriptional regulators involving three coupled positive feedback loops. While the core architecture of the SPI1 gene circuit has been determined, the relative roles of these interacting regulators and associated feedback loops are still unknown. To determine the function of this circuit, we measured gene expression dynamics at both population and single-cell resolution in a number of SPI1 regulatory mutants. Using these data, we constructed a mathematical model of the SPI1 gene circuit. Analysis of the model predicted that the circuit serves two functions. The first is to place a threshold on SPI1 activation, ensuring that the genes encoding the T3SS are expressed only in response to the appropriate combination of environmental and cellular cues. The second is to amplify SPI1 gene expression. To experimentally test these predictions, we rewired the SPI1 genetic circuit by changing its regulatory architecture. This enabled us to directly test our predictions regarding the function of the circuit by varying the strength and dynamics of the activating signal. Collectively, our experimental and computational results enable us to deconstruct this complex circuit and determine the role of its individual components in regulating SPI1 gene expression dynamics.

  19. Pilot trial of an expressive writing intervention with HIV-positive methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Adam W; Nation, Austin; Gómez, Walter; Sundberg, Jeffrey; Dilworth, Samantha E; Johnson, Mallory O; Moskowitz, Judith T; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2015-06-01

    Among men who have sex with men (MSM), the co-occurrence of trauma and stimulant use has negative implications for HIV/AIDS prevention. HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM were recruited to pilot test a 7-session, multicomponent resilient affective processing (RAP) intervention that included expressive writing exercises targeting HIV-related traumatic stress. An open-phase pilot with 10 participants provided support for feasibility of intervention delivery such that 99% of the RAP sessions were completed in a 1-month period. Subsequently, 23 additional participants were enrolled in a pilot randomized controlled trial of the RAP intervention (n = 12) versus an attention-control condition that included writing exercises about neutral topics (n = 11). Acceptability was evidenced by participants randomized to RAP expressing significantly more negative emotions in their writing and reporting greater likelihood of recommending expressive writing exercises to a friend living with HIV. Over the 3-month follow-up period, attention-control participants reported significant decreases in HIV-related traumatic stress while RAP intervention participants reported no significant changes. Compared to attention-control participants, those in the RAP intervention reported significant reductions in the frequency of methamphetamine use immediately following the 1-month RAP intervention period. Thematic analyses of RAP expressive writing exercises revealed that multiple negative life events characterized by social stigma or loss contribute to the complex nature of HIV-related traumatic stress. Findings support the feasibility and acceptability of an exposure-based intervention targeting HIV-related traumatic stress. However, more intensive intervention approaches that simultaneously target trauma and stimulant use will likely be needed to optimize HIV/AIDS prevention efforts with this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Correction: The role of coupled positive feedback in the expression of the SPI1 type three secretion system in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Saini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common food-borne pathogen that induces inflammatory diarrhea and invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type three secretion system (T3SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1. The genes encoding the SPI1 T3SS are tightly regulated by a network of interacting transcriptional regulators involving three coupled positive feedback loops. While the core architecture of the SPI1 gene circuit has been determined, the relative roles of these interacting regulators and associated feedback loops are still unknown. To determine the function of this circuit, we measured gene expression dynamics at both population and single-cell resolution in a number of SPI1 regulatory mutants. Using these data, we constructed a mathematical model of the SPI1 gene circuit. Analysis of the model predicted that the circuit serves two functions. The first is to place a threshold on SPI1 activation, ensuring that the genes encoding the T3SS are expressed only in response to the appropriate combination of environmental and cellular cues. The second is to amplify SPI1 gene expression. To experimentally test these predictions, we rewired the SPI1 genetic circuit by changing its regulatory architecture. This enabled us to directly test our predictions regarding the function of the circuit by varying the strength and dynamics of the activating signal. Collectively, our experimental and computational results enable us to deconstruct this complex circuit and determine the role of its individual components in regulating SPI1 gene expression dynamics.

  1. B cell differentiation in EBV-positive Burkitt Lymphoma is impaired at post-transcriptional level by miRNA altered expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, E; Onnis, A; Cocco, M

    2009-01-01

    investigated the expression of specific miRNAs predicted to be involved in B cell differentiation and we found that hsa-miR-127 is differentially expressed between EBV-positive and EBV-negative BLs. In particular, it was strongly up-regulated only in EBV-positive BL samples, whereas EBV-negative cases showed...... levels of expression similar to normal controls, including microdissected GC cells.In addition, we found evidence that hsa-miR-127 is involved in B cell differentiation process through post transcriptional regulation of BLIMP1 and XBP1. The over-expression of this miRNA may thus represent a key event...

  2. POSITIVE EXPRESSIVE SPEECH ACTS COMPLIMENTING AND SELF - COMPLI MENTING IN THE NOVEL CIOCOII VECHI Ș I NOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana - Florentina FLUERAȘU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing some specific aspects regarding the functioning of compliment and self - compliment - speec h acts belonging to the category of positively perceived expressives - in a literary text, Nicolae Filimon‟s novel “ Ciocoii vechi şi noi ” 1 . The purpose of the paper is to highlight the role of these subtypes of speech acts in contouring a human typology cha racterized by a specific relational system. The following parameters are taken into account: the environment in which the speech acts are produced, the target addressees, the object of the speech acts (concrete or abstract, moral or physical features of th e addressee and the value ( inherently positive or attributed by the speaker of the elements that mark the illocutionary force as positive. In the novel under consideration, there is a dichotomy between the characters with high moral qualities and the par venus – a social type definitory for the Phanariot times. Author‟s intention is to emphasize the victory of good and healthy moral principles.

  3. Smad3 contributes to positioning of proliferating cells in colonic crypts by inducing EphB receptor protein expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Clinical Cell Biology (F5), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Sato, Toru [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Katsuno, Tatsuro, E-mail: katsuno@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Nakagawa, Tomoo; Noguchi, Yoshiko [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Tokumasa, Atsuko; Yokote, Kotaro [Department of Clinical Cell Biology (F5), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Saito, Yasushi [Department of Clinical Cell Biology (F5), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Smad3{sup -/-} mice showed an increased number of proliferating epithelial cells in colonic crypts. {yields} Proliferating epithelial cells showed activated Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway. {yields} Smad3{sup -/-} mice also showed intermingling of proliferating cells with differentiated cells. {yields} Loss of EphB receptor expression was observed in the colonic crypts of Smad3{sup -/-} mice. {yields} Loss of EphB receptor expression is likely responsible for cell intermingling. -- Abstract: Deficiency of Smad3, an intracellular mediator of TGF-{beta}, was shown to significantly accelerate re-epithelialization of the colonic mucosa. This study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which Smad3 controls colonic epithelial cell proliferation and crypt formation. Smad3{sup ex8/ex8} C57BL/6 mice were used in this study and wild-type littermates served as controls. The number of proliferating cells in the isolated colonic epithelium of Smad3{sup -/-} mice was significantly increased compared to that in wild-type littermates. Protein levels of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 were significantly decreased, while that of c-Myc was increased in the isolated colonic epithelium from Smad3{sup -/-} mice. In the colonic tissue of wild-type mice, cell proliferation was restricted to the bottom of the crypts in accordance with nuclear {beta}-catenin staining, whereas proliferating cells were located throughout the crypts in Smad3{sup -/-} mice in accordance with nuclear {beta}-catenin staining, suggesting that Smad3 is essential for locating proliferating cells at the bottom of the colonic crypts. Notably, in Smad3{sup -/-} mice, there was loss of EphB2 and EphB3 receptor protein expression, critical regulators of proliferating cell positioning, while EphB receptor protein expression was confirmed at the bottom of the colonic crypts in wild-type mice. These observations indicated that disturbance of the EphB/ephrin B system brings

  4. Subtilisin QK-2: secretory expression in Lactococcus lactis and surface display onto gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ruifeng; Zhou, Kangping; Han, Zhenwei; Wang, Yefu

    2016-05-12

    Purified from the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis QK02 culture broth, Subtilisin QK-2 is a type of effective thrombolytic reagent that has great exploitable potential. However, the unbearable flavor that occurs with fermentation and the complicated methods that are required to obtain pure products limit the application of this enzyme. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-based delivery vehicles are promising as cheap and safe options for medicinal compounds. The secretory expression and surface display using LAB may popularize Subtilisin QK-2 more easily and conveniently with minimal adverse effects. Subtilisin QK-2 was expressed successfully in two forms using lactic acid bacteria. For the secretory expression in Lactococcus lactis, Subtilisin QK-2 was efficiently secreted into the culture using the promoter P nisA and signal peptide SPUsp. The expression levels were not different in L. lactis NZ9000 and NZ3900 without the effect of different selection markers. However, leaky expression was only detected in L. lactis NZ3900. The biological activity of this secreted Subtilisin QK-2 was enhanced by modulating the pH of medium to slightly alkaline during induction and by codon optimization of either the entire gene sequence (qk') or only the propeptide gene sequence (qkpro'). For surface display onto gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles, n LysM repeats from the C-terminal region of the major autolysin AcmA of L. lactis were fused to either the C-terminus (n = 1, 3, 5) or the N-terminus (n = 1) of the Subtilisin QK-2. These fusion proteins were secreted into the culture medium, and the QK-3LysM was able to bind to the surface of various LAB GEM particles without a loss of fibrinolytic activity. Furthermore, the binding capacity significantly increased with a higher concentration of QK-3LysM. Compared to the free-form Subtilisin QK-2, the QK-3LysM displayed on the surface of GEM particles was more stable in the simulated gastric juice. Combined with the safety and

  5. Receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) positively regulates CD36 expression and reactive oxygen species production in human monocytes in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthis, A; Hatzitolios, A; Fidani, S; Befani, C; Giannakoulas, G; Koliakos, G

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) engagement of a monocyte surface receptor (RAGE) induces atherosclerosis. AGEs also act as CD36 ligands. We studied reactive oxygen species (ROS) and CD36 expression after siRNA inhibition of RAGE expression in human monocytes. We isolated monocytes from: a) 10 type 2 diabetics, and b) 5 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. CD36 expression and ROS production were evaluated before and after RAGE knockdown. After incubation of monocytes with AGE + bovine serum albumin (BSA), CD36 expression and intracellular ROS increased significantly in all groups. In RAGE-knockdown monocytes, AGE-induced CD36 expression and ROS generation were also significantly inhibited. Blocking RAGE expression using siRNA in human monocytes led to a significant inhibition of CD36 expression and ROS production, suggesting a positive interaction between RAGE, CD36 expression and ROS generation in monocytes.

  6. Regulatory RNAs in Bacillus subtilis: a Gram-Positive Perspective on Bacterial RNA-Mediated Regulation of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Nicolas, Pierre; Denham, Emma L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacteria can employ widely diverse RNA molecules to regulate their gene expression. Such molecules include trans-acting small regulatory RNAs, antisense RNAs, and a variety of transcriptional attenuation mechanisms in the 5′ untranslated region. Thus far, most regulatory RNA research has focused on Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Hence, there is uncertainty about whether the resulting insights can be extrapolated directly to other bacteria, such as the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. A recent study identified 1,583 putative regulatory RNAs in B. subtilis, whose expression was assessed across 104 conditions. Here, we review the current understanding of RNA-based regulation in B. subtilis, and we categorize the newly identified putative regulatory RNAs on the basis of their conservation in other bacilli and the stability of their predicted secondary structures. Our present evaluation of the publicly available data indicates that RNA-mediated gene regulation in B. subtilis mostly involves elements at the 5′ ends of mRNA molecules. These can include 5′ secondary structure elements and metabolite-, tRNA-, or protein-binding sites. Importantly, sense-independent segments are identified as the most conserved and structured potential regulatory RNAs in B. subtilis. Altogether, the present survey provides many leads for the identification of new regulatory RNA functions in B. subtilis. PMID:27784798

  7. Combined prokaryotic-eukaryotic delivery and expression of therapeutic factors through a primed autocatalytic positive-feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yu, Bin; Cai, Chun-Hui; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Smith, David Keith; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-28

    Progress in bacterial therapy for cancer and infectious diseases is hampered by the absence of safe and efficient vectors. Sustained delivery and high gene expression levels are critical for the therapeutic efficacy. Here we developed a Salmonella typhimrium strain to maintain and safely deliver a plasmid vector to target tissues. This vector is designed to allow dual transcription of therapeutic factors, such as cytotoxic proteins, short hairpin RNAs or combinations, in the nucleus or cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, with this expression sustained by an autocatalytic positive-feedback loop. Mechanisms to prime the system and maintain the plasmid in the bacterium are also provided. Synergistic effects of attenuated Salmonella and our inter-kingdom system allow the precise expression of Diphtheria toxin A chain (DTA) gene in tumor microenvironment and eradicate large established tumors in immunocompetent animals. In the experiments reported here, 26% of mice (n=5/19) with aggressive tumors were cured and the others all survived until the end of the experiment. We also demonstrated that ST4 packaged with shRNA-encoding plasmids has sustained knockdown effects in nude mice bearing human MDA-MB-231 xenografts. Three weeks after injection of 5×10(6) ST4/pIKT-shPlk, PLK1 transcript levels in tumors were 62.5±18.6% lower than the vector control group (P=0.015). The presence of PLK1 5' RACE-PCR cleavage products confirmed a sustained RNAi-mediated mechanism of action. This innovative technology provides an effective and versatile vehicle for efficient inter-kingdom gene delivery that can be applied to cancer therapy and other purposes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. ATR controls cellular adaptation to hypoxia through positive regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallone, F; Britton, S; Nieto, L; Salles, B; Muller, C

    2013-09-12

    Tumor cells adaptation to severe oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) plays a major role in tumor progression. The transcription factor HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1), whose α-subunit is stabilized under hypoxic conditions is a key component of this process. Recent studies showed that two members of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) family, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase), regulate the hypoxic-dependent accumulation of HIF-1. These proteins initiate cellular stress responses when DNA damage occurs. In addition, it has been demonstrated that extreme hypoxia induces a replicative stress resulting in regions of single-stranded DNA at stalled replication forks and the activation of ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein), another member of the PIKKs family. Here, we show that even less severe hypoxia (0.1% O2) also induces activation of ATR through replicative stress. Importantly, in using either transiently silenced ATR cells, cells expressing an inactive form of ATR or cells exposed to an ATR inhibitor (CGK733), we demonstrate that hypoxic ATR activation positively regulates the key transcription factor HIF-1 independently of the checkpoint kinase Chk1. We show that ATR kinase activity regulates HIF-1α at the translational level and we find that the elements necessary for the regulation of HIF-1α translation are located within the coding region of HIF-1α mRNA. Finally, by using three independent cellular models, we clearly show that the loss of ATR expression and/or kinase activity results in the decrease of HIF-1 DNA binding under hypoxia and consequently affects protein expression levels of two HIF-1 target genes, GLUT-1 and CAIX. Taken together, our data show a new function for ATR in cellular adaptation to hypoxia through regulation of HIF-1α translation. Our work offers new prospect for cancer therapy using ATR inhibitors with the potential to decrease cellular adaptation in hypoxic

  9. Spin in RCTs of anxiety medication with a positive primary outcome : A comparison of concerns expressed by the US FDA and in the published literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Lian; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Turner, Erick H; de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the presence of spin in papers on positive randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antidepressant medication for anxiety disorders by comparing concerns expressed in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviews with those expressed in the published paper.

  10. Enhanced antitumor activity of cabazitaxel targeting CD44+ receptor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coated, cabazitaxelloaded solid lipid nanoparticles (HA-CZ-SLNs) for the treatment of breast cancer. Methods: HA-CZ-SLNs were prepared by a homogenization method. Nanoparticles were designed for prolonged circulation and slow release ...

  11. Atomistic fingerprint of hyaluronan-CD44 binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vuorio, J.; Vattulainen, I.; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2017), č. článku e1005663. ISSN 1553-734X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular simulations * protein interaction * N-glycosylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.542, year: 2016 http:// journals .plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005663

  12. Enhanced antitumor activity of cabazitaxel targeting CD44+ receptor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coated, cabazitaxel- loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (HA-CZ-SLNs) for the treatment of breast cancer. Methods: HA-CZ-SLNs were prepared by a homogenization method. Nanoparticles were designed for prolonged circulation and slow ...

  13. Social Anxiety and Positive Emotions: A Prospective Examination of a Self-Regulatory Model with Tendencies to Suppress or Express Emotions as a Moderating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Breen, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine social anxiety as a predictor of positive emotions using a short-term prospective design. We examined whether the effects of social anxiety on positive emotions are moderated by tendencies to openly express or suppress emotions. Over the course of a 3-month interval, people with excessive social…

  14. Children's Expressions of Positive Emotion Are Sustained by Smiling, Touching, and Playing with Parents and Siblings: A Naturalistic Observational Study of Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L.; Sperling, Jacqueline B.

    2016-01-01

    Research on family socialization of positive emotion has primarily focused on the infant and toddler stages of development, and relied on observations of parent-child interactions in highly structured laboratory environments. Little is known about how children's spontaneous expressions of positive emotion are maintained in the uncontrolled…

  15. Positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with survival rates of NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yujin; Wang, Liancong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Yuezhen; Lai, Xiaojing; Li, Jianqiang

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive importance of p53, c-erbB2 and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP) expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins in 152 tumor samples from resected primary NSCLCs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of proteins, survival and clinicopathological characteristics was investigated in 152 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. The positive rates of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression were 53.9 (82/152), 44.1 (67/152) and 43.4% (66/152), respectively. Overall survival rates of patients were markedly correlated with the overexpression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins. One, 2- and 3-year survival rates of patients exhibiting a positive expression of these proteins were 72.6, 54.8 and 32.2%, respectively. These rates were lower compared with those of patients with a negative expression of these proteins (92.1, 78.5 and 63.4%) (P=0.02, 0.01 or 0.00, respectively). Results of Cox's regression analysis showed that c-erbB2 expression and cell differentiation were independent prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC. These findings suggest that the positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with the survival rates of NSCLC patients. Detection of positive p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression may be a useful predictive indicator of prognosis. Positive c-erbB2 expression is an independent prognostic factor, with a potential to be used as a predictive indicator of chemotherapy efficacy in NSCLC patients.

  16. Differential MHC class II component expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells: implication for immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehbe, Ingeborg; Höhn, Hanni; Pilch, Henryk; Neukirch, Claudia; Freitag, Kirsten; Maeurer, Markus J

    2005-12-10

    Effective eradication of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tumors may require CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune responses. Ectopic expression of MHC class II surface molecules has been described in the context of cervical cancer, but coexpression with other components of the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway has not been addressed. We have evaluated the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway in malignant squamous epithelium of HPV+ cervical cancer lesions by in situ costaining HLA-DR with CLIP or DMA/DMB. Cervical cancer cells exhibit 3 MHC class II phenotypes: (i) DR+/CLIP+ or DM+; (ii) DR+/CLIP- or DM-; and (iii) DR-/CLIP+ or DM+. The identical profile has been identified in HPV+ ME180 cells, which serve as a target for HLA-DR4-restricted and HPV68, E7-specific CD4+ T cells. IFN-gamma pretreatment of ME180 cells, associated with differential trafficking of MHC class II molecules, is necessary for effective T-cell recognition. Although proinflammatory cytokines may facilitate MHC class II-restricted antigen recognition in tumor cells, different phenotypes of the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway may be associated with evasion from CD4+-mediated cellular immune responses. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  17. Blood pressure regulation by CD4+ lymphocytes expressing choline acetyltransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Peder S.; Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Sobbi, Roozbeh; Cox, Maureen A.; Ahmed, Mohamed N.; Oswald, Michaela; Szekeres, Ferenc; Hanes, William M.; Introini, Andrea; Liu, Shu Fang; Holodick, Nichol E.; Rothstein, Thomas L.; L?vdahl, Cecilia; Chavan, Sangeeta S.; Yang, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure regulation is known to be maintained by a neuro-endocrine circuit, but whether immune cells contribute to blood pressure homeostasis has not been defined. We previously described that CD4+ T lymphocytes that express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which catalyzes the synthesis of the vasorelaxant acetylcholine, relay neural signals 1 . Here we show that these CD4+ CD44high CD62Llow T helper cells by gene expression are a distinct T cell population defined by ChAT (CD4 TChAT)....

  18. HGF Expressing Stem Cells in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Originate from the Bone Marrow and Are Antifibrotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiq Gazdhar

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis may result from abnormal alveolar wound repair after injury. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF improves alveolar epithelial wound repair in the lung. Stem cells were shown to play a major role in lung injury, repair and fibrosis. We studied the presence, origin and antifibrotic properties of HGF-expressing stem cells in usual interstitial pneumonia.Immunohistochemistry was performed in lung tissue sections and primary alveolar epithelial cells obtained from patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, n = 7. Bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSC from adult male rats were transfected with HGF, instilled intratracheally into bleomycin injured rat lungs and analyzed 7 and 14 days later.In UIP, HGF was expressed in specific cells mainly located in fibrotic areas close to the hyperplastic alveolar epithelium. HGF-positive cells showed strong co-staining for the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, CD29, CD105 and CD90, indicating stem cell origin. HGF-positive cells also co-stained for CXCR4 (HGF+/CXCR4+ indicating that they originate from the bone marrow. The stem cell characteristics were confirmed in HGF secreting cells isolated from UIP lung biopsies. In vivo experiments showed that HGF-expressing BMSC attenuated bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis in the rat, indicating a beneficial role of bone marrow derived, HGF secreting stem cells in lung fibrosis.HGF-positive stem cells are present in human fibrotic lung tissue (UIP and originate from the bone marrow. Since HGF-transfected BMSC reduce bleomycin induced lung fibrosis in the bleomycin lung injury and fibrosis model, we assume that HGF-expressing, bone-marrow derived stem cells in UIP have antifibrotic properties.

  19. Effect of herceptin combined with second-line therapy paclitaxel + S-1 on malignant degree and angiogenesis in patients with HER-2-positive gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Fan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of herceptin combined with second-line therapy paclitaxel + S-1 on the malignant degree and angiogenesis in patients with HER-2-positive gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 90 patients with HER-2-positive gastric cancer were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=45, control group received paclitaxel + S-1 chemotherapy, observation group received herceptin combined with paclitaxel + S-1 chemotherapy, and differences in the content of tumor markers and angiogenesis indexes in serum as well as mRNA expression levels of apoptosis and invasion genes in tumor biopsy specimens were compared between two groups of patients after 4 cycles of treatment. Results: CA19-9, CEA, CA242, CA724 and AFP content in serum of observation group were lower than those of control group; VEGF, bFGF, Ang-2 and IGF-Ⅱ content in serum were lower than those of control group while PEDF and ES content were higher than those of control group; apoptosis genes Norrin and p-Bad mRNA expression levels were lower than those of control group while Bad and Caspase-3 mRNA expression levels were higher than those of control group; invasion genes Eaf2 and E-cadherin mRNA expression levels were higher than those of control group while eIF4E, CD44, UHRF1 and Vav3 mRNA expression levels were lower than those of control group. Conclusions: Herceptin combined with second-line therapy paclitaxel + S-1 can effectively inhibit the disease progression in patients with HER-2-positive gastric cancer, and is advantageous in reducing the malignant degree of tumor and prolonging patients’ survival time.

  20. Epigenetic control of the basal-like gene expression profile via Interleukin-6 in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrugno Valentina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal-like carcinoma are aggressive breast cancers that frequently carry p53 inactivating mutations, lack estrogen receptor-α (ERα and express the cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44. These tumors also over-express Interleukin 6 (IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that stimulates the growth of breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. Results Here we show that p53 deficiency in breast cancer cells induces a loss of methylation at IL-6 proximal promoter region, which is maintained by an IL-6 autocrine loop. IL-6 also elicits the loss of methylation at the CD133 promoter region 1 and of CD44 proximal promoter, enhancing CD133 and CD44 gene transcription. In parallel, IL-6 induces the methylation of estrogen receptor (ERα promoter and the loss of ERα mRNA expression. Finally, IL-6 induces the methylation of IL-6 distal promoter and of CD133 promoter region 2, which harbour putative repressor regions. Conclusion We conclude that IL-6, whose methylation-dependent autocrine loop is triggered by the inactivation of p53, induces an epigenetic reprogramming that drives breast carcinoma cells towards a basal-like/stem cell-like gene expression profile.

  1. Talk radio as the soundtrack of our lives: Participatory HIV/AIDS communication, public self-expression and Positive Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Mariekie

    2015-01-01

    article explores a wider range of participatory principles and the potential workings of these in an internally initiated communication initiative aimed at addressing the epidemic. More specifically, this article investigates ways in which radio listeners experience the reality broadcast genre--the talk radio show, Positive Talk--as participatory communication. Positive Talk is not an externally initiated project, as it is not part of a pre-planned, goal-oriented project that is owned and controlled outside the target community. In contrast, it has been initiated by Criselda Kananda, an individual not linked to any of the existing initiatives outside the community. She started the show to earn a living. She became a well-known person, is fairly knowledgeable in the field and was granted this opportunity as she is HIV-positive. In order to investigate how radio listeners use the show to engage in HIV/AIDS communication, 20 in-depth interviews were held with avid listeners of the show. The respondents indicated that they appreciate ordinary people phoning in. When expressing their opinions about the show, they found Kananda's life story credible, believed her public and private life to be congruent, valued Kananda's personality and respectful manner and could identify with the views expressed. In the article, it is argued that these ideas are largely in line with the principles of participatory communication tied to democracy, the participatory turn, the ordinary, validation of identity and respectful dialogue. Although the findings of this qualitative study cannot be generalised to the whole listening population of the show, they indicate that it is worth investigating the value of communication initiatives that emerge spontaneously from communities (instead of those strategically engineered from outside the general population) as a future direction of HIV/AIDS communication in the country.

  2. Self-Expression on Social Media: Do Tweets Present Accurate and Positive Portraits of Impulsivity, Self-Esteem, and Attachment Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehek, Edward; Human, Lauren J

    2017-01-01

    Self-expression values are at an all-time high, and people are increasingly relying upon social media platforms to express themselves positively and accurately. We examined whether self-expression on the social media platform Twitter elicits positive and accurate social perceptions. Eleven perceivers rated 128 individuals (targets; total dyadic impressions = 1,408) on their impulsivity, self-esteem, and attachment style, based solely on the information provided in targets' 10 most recent tweets. Targets were on average perceived normatively and with distinctive self-other agreement, indicating both positive and accurate social perceptions. There were also individual differences in how positively and accurately targets were perceived, which exploratory analyses indicated may be partially driven by differential word usage, such as the use of positive emotion words and self- versus other-focus. This study demonstrates that self-expression on social media can elicit both positive and accurate perceptions and begins to shed light on how to curate such perceptions.

  3. A positive circuit of VEGF increases Glut-1 expression by increasing HIF-1α gene expression in human retinal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Kyung

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) with vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF 165 ) increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), VEGF, and glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1) mRNA expression and Glut-1 protein localization to the membrane. In contrast, treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium cells with VEGF 165 did not induce HIF-1α, VEGF, and Glut-1 gene expression. Microvascular endothelial cells are surrounded by astrocytic end feet in the retina. Astrocyte-derived A-kinase anchor protein 12 overexpression during hypoxia downregulated VEGF secretion, and this conditioned medium reduced VEGF and Glut-1 expression in HRMECs, suggesting that communications between astrocytes and endothelial cells may be the determinants of the blood vessel network. In HRMECs, HIF-1α small interfering RNA transfection blocked the VEGF 165 -mediated increase in VEGF and Glut-1 gene expression. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with inhibitor GF109203X or with a small interfering RNA targeting PKCζ attenuated the VEGF 165 -induced Glut-1 protein expression and VEGF and Glut-1 mRNA expression. In addition, results of an immunoprecipitation assay imply an interaction between VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and PKCζ in HRMECs. Therefore, VEGF secretion by hypoxic astrocytes may upregulate HIF-1α gene expression, inducing VEGF and Glut-1 expression via the VEGFR2-PKCζ axis in HRMECs.

  4. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  5. Correlation of LMP10 expression and clinical outcome in Human Papillomavirus (HPV positive and HPV-Negative tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Tertipis

    Full Text Available To examine LMP10 expression and its possible impact on clinical outcome in human papillomavirus (HPV positive and HPV-negative tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC.Outcome is better in HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC compared to matching HPV-negative tumours, with roughly 80% vs. 40% 5-year disease free survival (DFS with less aggressive treatment than today's chemoradiotherapy. Since current treatment often results in harmful side effects, less intensive therapy, with sustained patient survival would be an attractive alternative. However, other markers together with HPV status are necessary to select patients and for this purpose LMP10 expression is investigated here in parallel to HPV status and clinical outcome.From 385 patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 at the Karolinska University Hospital, 278 formalin fixed paraffin embedded TSCC and BOTSCC biopsies, with known HPV DNA status, were tested for LMP10 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (fraction of positive cells and staining intensity. The data was then correlated to clinical outcome.An absent/low compared to a moderate/high LMP10 nuclear fraction of positive cells was correlated to a better 3-year DFS in the HPV-positive group of patients (log-rank p = 0.005, but not in the HPV-negative group. In the HPV-negative group of patients, in contrast to the HPV-positive group, moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic fraction and weak/moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic intensity correlated to a better 3-year DFS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001 and 3-year overall survival (p = 0.001 and 0.009.LMP10 nuclear expression in the HPV-positive group and LMP10 cytoplasmic expression in the HPV-negative group of patients correlated to better clinical outcome.

  6. Correlation of LMP10 expression and clinical outcome in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) positive and HPV-Negative tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertipis, Nikolaos; Haeggblom, Linnea; Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Näsman, Anders; Vlastos, Andrea; Dalianis, Tina; Ramqvist, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    To examine LMP10 expression and its possible impact on clinical outcome in human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and HPV-negative tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC). Outcome is better in HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC compared to matching HPV-negative tumours, with roughly 80% vs. 40% 5-year disease free survival (DFS) with less aggressive treatment than today's chemoradiotherapy. Since current treatment often results in harmful side effects, less intensive therapy, with sustained patient survival would be an attractive alternative. However, other markers together with HPV status are necessary to select patients and for this purpose LMP10 expression is investigated here in parallel to HPV status and clinical outcome. From 385 patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 at the Karolinska University Hospital, 278 formalin fixed paraffin embedded TSCC and BOTSCC biopsies, with known HPV DNA status, were tested for LMP10 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (fraction of positive cells and staining intensity). The data was then correlated to clinical outcome. An absent/low compared to a moderate/high LMP10 nuclear fraction of positive cells was correlated to a better 3-year DFS in the HPV-positive group of patients (log-rank p = 0.005), but not in the HPV-negative group. In the HPV-negative group of patients, in contrast to the HPV-positive group, moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic fraction and weak/moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic intensity correlated to a better 3-year DFS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001) and 3-year overall survival (p = 0.001 and 0.009). LMP10 nuclear expression in the HPV-positive group and LMP10 cytoplasmic expression in the HPV-negative group of patients correlated to better clinical outcome.

  7. Bcl-2 over-expression fails to prevent age-related loss of calretinin positive neurons in the mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Mingbo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive performance declines with increasing age. Possible cellular mechanisms underlying this age-related functional decline remain incompletely understood. Early studies attributed this functional decline to age-related neuronal loss. Subsequent studies using unbiased stereological techniques found little or no neuronal loss during aging. However, studies using specific cellular markers found age-related loss of specific neuronal types. To test whether there is age-related loss of specific neuronal populations in the hippocampus, and subsequently, whether over-expression of the B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2 in these neurons could delay possible age-related neuronal loss, we examined calretinin (CR positive neurons in the mouse dentate gyrus during aging. Result In normal mice, there was an age-related loss of CR positive cells in the dentate gyrus. At the same region, there was no significant decrease of total numbers of neurons, which suggested that age-related loss of CR positive cells was due to the decrease of CR expression in these cells instead of cell death. In the transgenic mouse line over-expressing Bcl-2 in neurons, there was an age-related loss of CR positive cells. Interestingly, there was also an age-related neuronal loss in this transgenic mouse line. Conclusion These data suggest an age-related loss of CR positive neurons but not total neuronal loss in normal mice and this age-related neuronal change is not prevented by Bcl-2 over-expression.

  8. Expression of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis induced a positive result on ¹⁸F-FDG PET: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Shigeaki; Shimada, Yutaka; Sekine, Shinichi; Shibuya, Kazuto; Yoshioka, Isaku; Matsui, Koshi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Toru; Nagata, Takuya; Uotani, Hideyuki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Although several reports have revealed that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) is useful for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions in the gallbladder, the positive results of (18)F-FDG PET are not specific for malignancy because (18)F-FDG is also accumulated in inflammatory lesions. It is known that the most important pathway for (18)F-FDG to enter the cell body is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) through GLUT-3. We herein present a case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET. In this case, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 were both positively expressed in inflammatory cells at the gallbladder wall of XGC and this is the first report to reveal GLUT expression in XGC. This report reveals that surgeons should carefully consider the appropriate treatment of gallbladder tumor, even with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET.

  9. Characterization of progenitor cells derived from torn human rotator cuff tendons by gene expression patterns of chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagura, Issei; Kokubu, Takeshi; Mifune, Yutaka; Inui, Atsuyuki; Takase, Fumiaki; Ueda, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2016-03-31

    It is important to regenerate the tendon-to-bone interface after rotator cuff repair to prevent re-tears. The cells from torn human rotator cuff were targeted, and their capacity for multilineage differentiation was investigated. The edges of the rotator cuff were harvested during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from nine patients, minced into pieces, and cultured on dishes. Adherent cells were cultured, phenotypically characterized. Then expandability, differentiation potential and gene expression were analyzed. Flow cytometry revealed that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)-related markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166 were positive. However, CD14, CD34, and CD45 were negative. On RT-PCR analyses, the cells showed osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential after 3 weeks of culture under the respective differentiation conditions. In addition, SOX9, type II collagen, and type X collagen expression patterns during chondrogenesis were similar to those of endochondral ossification at the enthesis. The cells derived from torn human rotator cuff are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with the ability to undergo multilineage differentiation, suggesting that MSCs form this tissue could be regenerative capacity for potential self-repair.

  10. The kinesin motor protein Kif7 is required for T-cell development and normal MHC expression on thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ching-In; Barbarulo, Alessandro; Solanki, Anisha; Saldaña, José Ignacio; Crompton, Tessa

    2017-04-11

    Kif7 is a ciliary kinesin motor protein that regulates mammalian Hedgehog pathway activation through influencing structure of the primary cilium. Here we show that Kif7 is required for normal T-cell development, despite the fact that T-cells lack primary cilia. Analysis of Kif7-deficient thymus showed that Kif7-deficiency increases the early CD44+CD25+CD4-CD8- thymocyte progenitor population but reduces differentiation to CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) cell. At the transition from DP to mature T-cell, Kif7-deficiency selectively delayed maturation to the CD8 lineage. Expression of CD5, which correlates with TCR signal strength, was reduced on DP and mature CD4 and CD8 cells, as a result of thymocyte-intrinsic Kif7-deficiency, and Kif7-deficient T-cells from radiation chimeras activated less efficiently when stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 in vitro. Kif7-deficient thymocytes showed higher expression of the Hedgehog target gene Ptch1 than WT, but were less sensitive to treatment with recombinant Shh, and Kif7-deficient T-cell development was refractory to neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins, indicating that Kif7-deficient thymocytes were unable to interpret changes in the Hedgehog signal. In addition, Kif7-deficiency reduced cell-surface MHCII expression on thymic epithelial cells.

  11. High E6 Gene Expression Predicts for Distant Metastasis and Poor Survival in Patients With HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Khwaja, Shariq S.; Baker, Callie; Haynes, Wesley; Spencer, Christopher R.; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Adkins, Douglas R. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Nussenbaum, Brian [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chernock, Rebecca D. [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Lewis, James S. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Wang, Xiaowei, E-mail: xwang@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)–positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) have a favorable prognosis. As a result, de-escalation clinical trials are under way. However, approximately 10% of patients will experience distant recurrence even with standard-of-care treatment. Here, we sought to identify novel biomarkers to better risk-stratify HPV-positive patients with OPSCC. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on HPV-positive OPSCC primary tumor specimens from patients with and without distant metastasis (DM). Results: RNA-seq analysis of 39 HPV-positive OPSCC specimens revealed that patients with DM had 2-fold higher E6 gene expression levels than did patients without DM (P=.029). This observation was confirmed in a validation cohort comprising 93 patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. The mean normalized E6 expression level in the 17 recurring primary specimens was 13 ± 2 compared with 8 ± 1 in the remaining 76 nonrecurring primaries (P=.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis established an E6 expression level of 7.3 as a cutoff for worse recurrence-free survival (RFS). Patients from this cohort with high E6 gene expression (E6-high) (n=51, 55%) had more cancer-related deaths (23% vs 2%, P<.001) and DM (26% vs 5%, P<.001) than did patients with low E6 gene expression (E6-low) (n=42, 45%). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that E6-high had worse RFS (95% vs 69%, P=.004) and cancer-specific survival (97% vs 79%, P=.007). E6-high maintained statistical significance in multivariate regression models balancing surgery, chemotherapy, nodal stage, and smoking status. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that tumors with high E6 expression were associated with P53, epidermal growth factor receptor, activating transcription factor-2, and transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways. Conclusion: High E6 gene expression

  12. Regulation and gene expression profiling of NKG2D positive human cytomegalovirus-primed CD4+ T-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Folkersen, Lasse; Skov, Søren

    2012-01-01

    we used genome-wide analysis of individual genes and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to investigate the gene expression profile of NKG2D(+) CD4(+) T-cells, generated from HCMV-primed CD4(+) T-cells. We show that the HCMV-primed NKG2D(+) CD4(+) T-cells possess a higher differentiated phenotype...... than the NKG2D(-) CD4(+) T-cells, both at the gene expression profile and cytokine profile. The ability to express NKG2D at the cell surface was primarily determined by the activation or differentiation status of the CD4(+) T-cells and not by the antigen presenting cells. We observed a correlation...... CD4(+) T-cells. These findings provide novel information about the gene expression profile of HCMV-primed NKG2D(+) CD4(+) T-cells, as well as the mechanisms regulating NKG2D cell surface expression....

  13. Inhibition of BMP signaling in P-Cadherin positive hair progenitor cells leads to trichofolliculoma-like hair follicle neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lixin; Liu, Yijie; McGuire, Tammy L; Bonaguidi, Michael A; Kessler, John A

    2011-12-14

    Skin stem cells contribute to all three major lineages of epidermal appendages, i.e., the epidermis, the hair follicle, and the sebaceous gland. In hair follicles, highly proliferative committed progenitor cells, called matrix cells, are located at the base of the follicle in the hair bulb. The differentiation of these early progenitor cells leads to specification of a central hair shaft surrounded by an inner root sheath (IRS) and a companion layer. Multiple signaling molecules, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been implicated in this process. To further probe the contribution of BMP signaling to hair follicle development and maintenance we employed a transgenic mouse that expresses the BMP inhibitor, Noggin, to disrupt BMP signaling specifically in subset of hair follicle progenitors under the control of neuron specific enolase (Nse) promoter. We then studied the skin tumor phenotypes of the transgenic mice through histology, immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Double transgenic mice expressing BMP as well as noggin under control of the Nse promoter were used to rescue the skin tumor phenotypes. We found that the transgene is expressed specifically in a subpopulation of P-cadherin positive progenitor cells in Nse-Noggin mice. Blocking BMP signaling in this cell population led to benign hair follicle-derived neoplasias resembling human trichofolliculomas, associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin expression and dynamic regulation of CD44. These observations further define a critical role for BMP signaling in maintaining the homeostasis of hair follicles, and suggest that dysregulation of BMP signaling in hair follicle progenitors may contribute to human trichofolliculoma.

  14. Low Ki67/high ATM protein expression in malignant tumors predicts favorable prognosis in a retrospective study of early stage hormone receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaolan; Li, Haocheng; Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Dean, Michelle; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Riabowol, Karl; Magliocco, Anthony M; Morris, Don; Watson, Peter H; Enwere, Emeka K; Bebb, Gwyn; Paterson, Alexander

    2016-12-27

    This study was designed to investigate the combined influence of ATM and Ki67 on clinical outcome in early stage hormone receptor positive breast cancer (ES-HPBC), particularly in patients with smaller tumors (breast tumors were used to construct a tissue microarray. Samples from 297 patients were suitable for final statistical analysis. We detected ATM and Ki67 proteins using fluorescence and brightfield immunohistochemistry respectively, and quantified their expression with digital image analysis. Data on expression levels were subsequently correlated with clinical outcome. Remarkably, ATM expression was useful to stratify the low Ki67 group into subgroups with better or poorer prognosis. Specifically, in the low Ki67 subgroup defined as having smaller tumors and no positive nodes, patients with high ATM expression showed better outcome than those with low ATM, with estimated survival rates of 96% and 89% respectively at 15 years follow up (p = 0.04). Similarly, low-Ki67 patients with smaller tumors, 1-3 positive nodes and high ATM also had significantly better outcomes than their low ATM counterparts, with estimated survival rates of 88% and 46% respectively (p = 0.03) at 15 years follow up. Multivariable analysis indicated that the combination of high ATM and low Ki67 is prognostic of improved survival, independent of tumor size, grade, and lymph node status (p = 0.02). These data suggest that the prognostic value of Ki67 can be improved by analyzing ATM expression in ES-HPBC.

  15. Oligonucleotide-mediated gene editing is underestimated in cells expressing mutated green fluorescent protein and is positively associated with target protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disterer, Petra; Papaioannou, Ioannis; Evans, Vanessa C; Simons, J Paul; Owen, James S

    2012-02-01

    Single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssODNs) can introduce small, specific sequence alterations into genomes. Potential applications include creating disease-associated mutations in cell lines or animals, functional studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms and, ultimately, clinical therapy by correcting genetic point mutations. Here, we report feasibility studies into realizing this potential by targeting a reporter gene, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP). Three mammalian cell lines, CHO, HEK293T and HepG2, expressing multiple copies of mEGFP were transfected with a 27-mer ssODN capable of restoring fluorescence. Successful cell correction was quantified by flow cytometry. Gene editing in each isogenic cell line, as measured by percentage of green cells, correlated tightly with target protein levels, and thus gene expression. In the total population, 2.5% of CHO-mEGFP cells were successfully edited, although, remarkably, in the highest decile producing mEGFP protein, over 20% of the cells had restored green fluorescence. Gene-edited clones initially selected for green fluorescence lost EGFP expression during cell passaging, which partly reflected G2-phase cycle arrest and perhaps eventual cell death. The major cause, however, was epigenetic down-regulation; incubation with sodium butyrate or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reactivated fluorescent EGFP expression and hence established that the repaired genotype was stable. Our data establish that ssODN-mediated gene editing is underestimated in cultured mammalian cells expressing nonfluorescent mutated EGFP, because of variable expression of this mEGFP target gene in the cell population. This conclusion was endorsed by studies in HEK293T-mEGFP and HepG2-mEGFP cells. We infer that oligonucleotide-directed editing of endogenous genes is feasible, particularly for those that are transcriptionally active. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Effects of a Positive Mindset Trigger Word Pre-Performance Routine on the Expressive Performance of Junior High Age Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhead, Paul; Skidmore, Jon B.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Mills, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a positive mindset trigger word intervention on the expressive performance of individual junior high singers were tested in this study. Participants (N = 155) were assigned randomly to a control group or an experimental group. Members of the experimental group participated in a 40-min intervention while members of the control group…

  17. Weakener of white (Wow), a gene that modifies the expression of the white eye color locus and that suppresses position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchler, J A; Bhadra, U; Rabinow, L; Linsk, R; Nguyen-Huynh, A T

    1994-08-01

    A locus is described in Drosophila melanogaster that modifies the expression of the white eye color gene. This trans-acting modifier reduces the expression of the white gene in the eye, but elevates the expression in other adult tissues. Because of the eye phenotype in which the expression of white is lessened but not eliminated, the newly described locus is called the Weakener of white (Wow). Northern analysis reveals that Wow can exert an inverse or direct modifying effect depending upon the developmental stage. Two related genes, brown and scarlet, that are coordinately expressed with white, are also affected by Wow. In addition, Wow modulates the steady state RNA level of the retrotransposon, copia. When tested with a white promoter-Alcohol dehydrogenase reporter. Wow confers the modifying effect to the reporter, suggesting a requirement of the white regulatory sequences for mediating the response. In addition to being a dosage sensitive regulator of white, brown, scarlet and copia, Wow acts as a suppressor of position effect variegation. There are many dosage sensitive suppressors of position effect variegation and many dosage-sensitive modifiers of gene expression. The Wow mutations provide evidence for an overlap between the two types of modifiers.

  18. Regulation of NOX-1 expression in beta cells: a positive feedback loop involving the Src-kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J R; Taylor-Fishwick, D A

    2013-04-30

    NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) is upregulated in beta cells in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity blocked stimulated NOX-1 expression (pNOX-1 expression in beta cells followed modulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS); pro-oxidants increased NOX-1 (pNOX-1 (pNOX-1 expression (pNOX-1 preserved beta cell function and survival. Collectively, these data indicate that expression of NOX-1 in beta cells is regulated in a feed-forward loop mediated by ROS and Src-kinase. Uncoupling of this feed-forward activation could provide new approaches to preserve and protect beta cells in diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Gene Duplication, Positive Selection, and Shifts in Gene Expression on the Evolution of the Venom Gland Transcriptome in Widow Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Robert A; Clarke, Thomas H; Gadgil, Rujuta; Fitzpatrick, Ryan; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Ayoub, Nadia A; Garb, Jessica E

    2016-01-05

    Gene duplication and positive selection can be important determinants of the evolution of venom, a protein-rich secretion used in prey capture and defense. In a typical model of venom evolution, gene duplicates switch to venom gland expression and change function under the action of positive selection, which together with further duplication produces large gene families encoding diverse toxins. Although these processes have been demonstrated for individual toxin families, high-throughput multitissue sequencing of closely related venomous species can provide insights into evolutionary dynamics at the scale of the entire venom gland transcriptome. By assembling and analyzing multitissue transcriptomes from the Western black widow spider and two closely related species with distinct venom toxicity phenotypes, we do not find that gene duplication and duplicate retention is greater in gene families with venom gland biased expression in comparison with broadly expressed families. Positive selection has acted on some venom toxin families, but does not appear to be in excess for families with venom gland biased expression. Moreover, we find 309 distinct gene families that have single transcripts with venom gland biased expression, suggesting that the switching of genes to venom gland expression in numerous unrelated gene families has been a dominant mode of evolution. We also find ample variation in protein sequences of venom gland-specific transcripts, lineage-specific family sizes, and ortholog expression among species. This variation might contribute to the variable venom toxicity of these species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Positive- and negative-acting regulatory elements contribute to the tissue-specific expression of INNER NO OUTER, a YABBY-type transcription factor gene in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Marissa K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The INNER NO OUTER (INO gene, which encodes a YABBY-type transcription factor, specifies and promotes the growth of the outer integument of the ovule in Arabidopsis. INO expression is limited to the abaxial cell layer of the developing outer integument of the ovule and is regulated by multiple regions of the INO promoter, including POS9, a positive element that when present in quadruplicate can produce low-level expression in the normal INO pattern. Results Significant redundancy in activity between different regions of the INO promoter is demonstrated. For specific regulatory elements, multimerization or the addition of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S general enhancer was able to activate expression of reporter gene constructs that were otherwise incapable of expression on their own. A new promoter element, POS6, is defined and is shown to include sufficient positive regulatory information to reproduce the endogenous pattern of expression in ovules, but other promoter regions are necessary to fully suppress expression outside of ovules. The full-length INO promoter, but not any of the INO promoter deletions tested, is able to act as an enhancer-blocking insulator to prevent the ectopic activation of expression by the 35S enhancer. Sequence conservation between the promoter regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa aligns closely with the functional definition of the POS6 and POS9 regions, and with a defined INO minimal promoter. The B. oleracea INO promoter is sufficient to promote a similar pattern and level of reporter gene expression in Arabidopsis to that observed for the Arabidopsis promoter. Conclusions At least two independent regions of the INO promoter contain sufficient regulatory information to direct the specific pattern but not the level of INO gene expression. These regulatory regions act in a partially redundant manner to promote the expression in a specific pattern in the ovule and

  1. HPV status, cancer stem cell marker expression, hypoxia gene signatures and tumour volume identify good prognosis subgroups in patients with HNSCC after primary radiochemotherapy: A multicentre retrospective study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Annett; Lohaus, Fabian; Löck, Steffen; Nowak, Alexander; Gudziol, Volker; Valentini, Chiara; von Neubeck, Cläre; Jütz, Martin; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Sak, Ali; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Abdollahi, Amir; Debus, Jürgen; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; Buchholz, Frank; Aust, Daniela E; Baretton, Gustavo B; Thames, Howard D; Dubrovska, Anna; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the impact of the tumour volume, HPV status, cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures, as potential markers of radiobiological mechanisms of radioresistance, in a contemporary cohort of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received primary radiochemotherapy (RCTx). For 158 patients with locally advanced HNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx or hypopharynx who were treated at six DKTK partner sites, the impact of tumour volume, HPV DNA, p16 overexpression, p53 expression, CSC marker expression and hypoxia-associated gene signatures on outcome of primary RCTx was retrospectively analyzed. The primary endpoint of this study was loco-regional control (LRC). Univariate Cox regression revealed a significant impact of tumour volume, p16 overexpression, and SLC3A2 and CD44 protein expression on LRC. The tumour hypoxia classification showed a significant impact only for small tumours. In multivariate analyses an independent correlation of tumour volume, SLC3A2 expression, and the 15-gene hypoxia signature with LRC was identified (CD44 protein n/a because of no event in the CD44-negative group). Logistic modelling showed that inclusion of CD44 protein expression and p16 overexpression significantly improved the performance to predict LRC at 2years compared to the model with tumour volume alone. Tumour volume, HPV status, CSC marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures are potential prognostic biomarkers for patients with locally advanced HNSCC, who were treated by primary RCTx. The study also supports that the individual tumour volumes should generally be included in biomarker studies and that panels of biomarkers are superior to individual parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation and gene expression profiling of NKG2D positive human cytomegalovirus-primed CD4+ T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Jensen

    Full Text Available NKG2D is a stimulatory receptor expressed by natural killer (NK cells, CD8(+ T-cells, and γδ T-cells. NKG2D expression is normally absent from CD4(+ T-cells, however recently a subset of NKG2D(+ CD4(+ T-cells has been found, which is specific for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. This particular subset of HCMV-specific NKG2D(+ CD4(+ T-cells possesses effector-like functions, thus resembling the subsets of NKG2D(+ CD4(+ T-cells found in other chronic inflammations. However, the precise mechanism leading to NKG2D expression on HCMV-specific CD4(+ T-cells is currently not known. In this study we used genome-wide analysis of individual genes and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA to investigate the gene expression profile of NKG2D(+ CD4(+ T-cells, generated from HCMV-primed CD4(+ T-cells. We show that the HCMV-primed NKG2D(+ CD4(+ T-cells possess a higher differentiated phenotype than the NKG2D(- CD4(+ T-cells, both at the gene expression profile and cytokine profile. The ability to express NKG2D at the cell surface was primarily determined by the activation or differentiation status of the CD4(+ T-cells and not by the antigen presenting cells. We observed a correlation between CD94 and NKG2D expression in the CD4(+ T-cells following HCMV stimulation. However, knock-down of CD94 did not affect NKG2D cell surface expression or signaling. In addition, we show that NKG2D is recycled at the cell surface of activated CD4(+ T-cells, whereas it is produced de novo in resting CD4(+ T-cells. These findings provide novel information about the gene expression profile of HCMV-primed NKG2D(+ CD4(+ T-cells, as well as the mechanisms regulating NKG2D cell surface expression.

  3. Conditional constitutive expression system of a drug protein in vivo by positive feedback loop using an inducer-independent artificial transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Bin; Lim, Ho-Dong; You, Sung-Hwan; Cheong, Dae-Eun; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2018-01-22

    Bacterial-mediated drug delivery is a potential and promising strategy for the specific treatment of cancer with therapeutic molecules, especially with genetically encoded proteins. These proteins must be tightly regulated due to cytotoxicity and thus are usually expressed under the control of the P BAD and TetA/TetR promoters in vivo. Since protein expression from these systems is triggered by exogenous inducer, periodic intravenous injection of inducer is necessary. However, these treatments can result in non-homogenous and/or inefficient expression of therapeutic proteins in vivo due to impeded diffusion and dilution of the inducer further from the injection site. To overcome these hurdles, we designed a conditional constitutive expression system equipped with the artificial transcription factor, AraC C , which has two operator-binding domains and simultaneously binds to the I 1 and I 2 operators of the P BAD promoter for gene expression in an arabinose-independent manner. Using this construct and the wild type protein AraC under the control of the P BAD promoter, we constructed a self-positive feedback system to constitutively express the therapeutic protein when the induction of AraC was triggered once using arabinose. This expression system could be useful in various cancer treatment strategies using bacteria to deliver genetically encoded drugs in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C positively modulates protein biomarkers and gene expressions in Saccharomyces cerevisae exposed to arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Durba; De, Arnab; Dutta, Suman; Biswas, Raktim; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2011-07-01

    This study examines if homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C (Ars Alb 30C) can elicit ameliorative responses in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exposed to arsenate. The yeast S. cerevisiae 699 was cultured in a standard yeast extract peptone dextrose broth medium. It was exposed to the final concentration of 0.15 mmol/L arsenate for two intervals, 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cell viability was determined along with the assessment of several toxicity biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total thiol (GSH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, expressions of relevant stress transcription activators like Yap-1 and Msn 2, and mRNA expression of yeast caspase-1 (Yca-1) were also measured. Treatment of arsenate increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage, ROS accumulation and expressions of Yap-1, Msn 2 and Yca-1 and decreased GSH, G6PDH, CAT and SOD. Ars Alb 30C administration decreased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage, ROS formation and Msn 2 and Yca-1 expressions and increased cell viability, GSH, G6PDH, CAT and SOD significantly (P<0.05), except for a slight increase in Yap-1 expression. Ars Alb 30C triggers ameliorative responses in S. cerevisiae exposed to arsenate.

  5. Characterization of human adipose-derived stem cells and expression of chondrogenic genes during induction of cartilage differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adila A Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Understanding the changes in chondrogenic gene expression that are involved in the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to chondrogenic cells is important prior to using this approach for cartilage repair. The aims of the study were to characterize human adipose-derived stem cells and to examine chondrogenic gene expression after one, two, and three weeks of induction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells at passage 4 were evaluated by flow cytometry to examine the expression of surface markers. These adipose-derived stem cells were tested for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the expression levels of chondrogenic genes after chondrogenic induction. RESULTS: Human adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen and successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The human adipose-derived stem cells aggregated and formed a dense matrix after chondrogenic induction. The expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, collagen type XI, COMP, and ELASTIN was significantly higher after the first week of induction. However, a significantly elevated expression of collagen type X was observed after three weeks of chondrogenic induction. CONCLUSION: Human adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture to passage 4 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenesis in human adiposederived stem cells was most prominent after one week of chondrogenic induction.

  6. High RAD51 mRNA expression characterize estrogen receptor-positive/progesteron receptor-negative breast cancer and is associated with patient's outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, Raffaela; Copetti, Massimiliano; Perrone, Giuseppe; Pazienza, Valerio; Muscarella, Lucia Anna; Balsamo, Teresa; Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana; Ripoli, Maria; Rinaldi, Monica; Valori, Vanna Maria; Latiano, Tiziana Pia; Maiello, Evaristo; Stanziale, Pietro; Carella, Massimo; Mangia, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Fabio; Bisceglia, Michele; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Altomare, Vittorio; Murgo, Roberto; Fazio, Vito Michele; Parrella, Paola

    2011-08-01

    Mutations in DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) repair genes are involved in the pathogenesis of hereditary mammary tumors, it is, however, still unclear whether defects in this pathway may play a role in sporadic breast cancer. In this study, we initially determined mRNA expression of 15 DSB related genes by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction in paired normal tissue and cancer specimen from 20 breast cancer cases to classify them into homogeneous clusters. G22P1/ku70, ATR and RAD51 genes were differentially expressed in the three branches recognized by clustering analysis. In particular, a breast cancer subgroup characterized by high RAD51 mRNA levels and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/progesteron receptor (PR)-negative phenotype was identified. This result was confirmed by the analysis of G22P1/ku70, ATR and RAD51 mRNA levels on paired normal and tumor specimens from an extended breast cancer cohort (n = 75). RAD51 mRNA levels were inversely associated with PR status (p = 0.02) and the highest levels were, indeed, detected in ER-positive/PR-negative tumors (p = 0.03). RAD51 immunostaining of a tissue microarray confirmed the inverse relationship between high RAD51 expression and negative PR status (p = 0.002), as well as, the association with ER-positive/PR-negative phenotype (p = 0.003). Interestingly, the analysis of microarray expression data from 295 breast cancers indicate that RAD51 increased mRNA expression is associated with higher risk of tumor relapse, distant metastases and worst overall survival (p = 0.015, p = 0.009 and p = 0.013 respectively). Our results suggest that RAD51 expression determination could contribute to a better molecular classification of mammary tumors and may represent a novel tool for evaluating postoperative adjuvant therapy for breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  7. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

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    Zhou, Heng [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Pathology and Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Sun, Xiaoping, E-mail: xsun6@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.

  8. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. Result...

  9. Co-expression of SNAIL and TWIST determines prognosis in estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, Johanna G. H.; de Kruijf, Esther M.; Putter, Hein; Faratian, Dana; Munro, Alison; Campbell, Fiona; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Bartlett, John M. S.

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of metastases. One of the hallmarks of EMT is loss of E-cadherin and gain of N-cadherin expression, which are regulated by transcription factors, such as SNAIL, SLUG, and TWIST. We examined the prognostic value of

  10. Seqinspector: position-based navigation through the ChIP-seq data landscape to identify gene expression regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Ficek, Joanna; Tomski, Andrzej; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2016-02-12

    The regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells is a complex process that involves epigenetic modifications and the interaction of DNA with multiple transcription factors. This process can be studied with unprecedented sensitivity using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and next-generation DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq). Available ChIP-seq data can be further utilized to interpret new gene expression profiling experiments. Here, we describe seqinspector, a tool that accepts any set of genomic coordinates from ChIP-seq or RNA-seq studies to identify shared transcriptional regulators. The presented web resource includes a large collection of publicly available ChIP-seq and RNA-seq experiments (>1300 tracks) performed on transcription factors, histone modifications, RNA polymerases, enhancers and insulators in humans and mice. Over-representation is calculated based on the coverage computed directly from indexed files storing ChIP-seq data (bigwig). Therefore, seqinspector is not limited to pre-computed sets of gene promoters. The tool can be used to identify common gene expression regulators for sets of co-expressed transcripts (including miRNAs, lncRNAs or any novel unannotated RNAs) or for sets of ChIP-seq peaks to identify putative protein-protein interactions or transcriptional co-factors. The tool is available at http://seqinspector.cremag.org.

  11. Analysis of gene expression and chemoresistance of CD133+ cancer stem cells in glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lizhi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a small population of cancer stem cells in adult and pediatric brain tumors has been identified. Some evidence has suggested that CD133 is a marker for a subset of leukemia and glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Especially, CD133 positive cells isolated from human glioblastoma may initiate tumors and represent novel targets for therapeutics. The gene expression and the drug resistance property of CD133 positive cancer stem cells, ho