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Sample records for cd3eap influence treatment

  1. Polymorphisms in the genes ERCC2, XRCC3 and CD3EAP influence treatment outcome in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette; Gimsing, Peter; Klausen, Tobias W

    2007-01-01

    ) of polymorphism in the DNA repair genes ERCC1, ERCC2 and XRCC3, and in the apoptotic genes PPP1R13L and CD3EAP in 348 patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation. Carriers of the variant C-allele of ERCC2 K751Q, the variant T-allele of XRCC3 T241M and the variant A...... the outcome for patients treated with autologous stem cell transplantation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-1...

  2. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette Juul; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor ¿B (NF-¿B). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated with inte......The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor ¿B (NF-¿B). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated...... with interferon-a (INF-a) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NF¿B1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... alleles of several polymorphisms in a sub-region of 19q13.3 spanning the regions RAI-intron1-1 to RAI intron1-3 and the region exon1 to exon3-6 in CD3EAP were associated with prolonged time-to-treatment failure (TTF; p¿=¿0.003) and overall survival (OS; p¿=¿0.02). Haplotype analyses revealed that none...

  3. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB (NF–κB). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated with inte......The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB (NF–κB). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated...... with interferon-α (INF-α) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NFКB1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... alleles of several polymorphisms in a sub-region of 19q13.3 spanning the regions RAI-intron1-1 to RAI intron1-3 and the region exon1 to exon3–6 in CD3EAP were associated with prolonged time-to-treatment failure (TTF; p = 0.003) and overall survival (OS; p = 0.02). Haplotype analyses revealed that none...

  4. Genetic Polymorphisms in XRCC1, CD3EAP, PPP1R13L, XPB, XPC, and XPF and the Risk of Chronic Benzene Poisoning in a Chinese Occupational Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xue

    Full Text Available Individual variations in the capacity of DNA repair machinery to relieve benzene-induced DNA damage may be the key to developing chronic benzene poisoning (CBP, an increasingly prevalent occupational disease in China. ERCC1 (Excision repair cross complementation group 1 is located on chromosome 19q13.2-3 and participates in the crucial steps of Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER; moreover, we determined that one of its polymorphisms, ERCC1 rs11615, is a biomarker for CBP susceptibility in our previous report. Our aim is to further explore the deeper association between some genetic variations related to ERCC1 polymorphisms and CBP risk.Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing 1, CD3EAP (CD3e molecule, epsilon associated protein, PPP1R13L (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like, XPB (Xeroderma pigmentosum group B, XPC (Xeroderma pigmentosum group C and XPF (Xeroderma pigmentosum group F were genotyped by the Snapshot and TaqMan-MGB® probe techniques, in a study involving 102 CBP patients and 204 controls. The potential interactions between these SNPs and lifestyle factors, such as smoking and drinking, were assessed using a stratified analysis.An XRCC1 allele, rs25487, was related to a higher risk of CBP (P<0.001 even after stratifying for potential confounders. Carriers of the TT genotype of XRCC1 rs1799782 who were alcohol drinkers (OR = 8.000; 95% CI: 1.316-48.645; P = 0.022, male (OR = 9.333; 95% CI: 1.593-54.672; P = 0.019, and had an exposure of ≤12 years (OR = 2.612; 95% CI: 1.048-6.510; P = 0.035 had an increased risk of CBP. However, the T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 (P<0.05 and the GA allele in CD3EAP rs967591 (OR = 0.162; 95% CI: 0039~0.666; P = 0.037 decreased the risk of CBP in men. The haplotype analysis of XRCC1 indicated that XRCC1 rs25487A, rs25489G and rs1799782T (OR = 15.469; 95% CI: 5.536-43.225; P<0.001 were associated with a high risk of CBP.The findings showed that

  5. A polymorphism in NFKB1 is associated with improved effect of interferon-alpha maintenance treatment of patients with multiple myeloma after high-dose treatment with stem cell support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J; Klausen, Tobias W; Gimsing, Peter

    2009-01-01

    and Methods: In a retrospective study of 296 patients with multiple myelom undergoing high-dose therapy between 1994 and 2004, 146 patients were treated with interferon- as maintenance therapy. We tested the polymorphisms IL1B T-31C, IL6 G-174C, NFKB1-94ins/delATTG, CD3EAP G-21A and PPP1R13L IVS1 A4364G...... homozygous for the wild type G allele of IL6 G-174C who survived longer (p= 0.0074) than variant allele carriers. There was no association between the polymorphisms IL1B T-31C, CD3EAP G-21A and PPP1R13L IVS1 A4364G and treatment outcome for interferon-. Conclusions: Patients who are homozygous carriers...

  6. Side effects as influencers of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Zafar

    2008-01-01

    Research relative to the efficacy of a therapeutic agent commands a clinician's greatest interest, but treatment decisions are made based on optimizing efficacy and tolerability/safety considerations. Second-generation atypical antipsychotic drugs are a study in the importance of taking a careful look at the full benefit-risk profile of each drug. The disorders that atypical antipsychotics are approved to treat--schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder--are associated with an increased rate of certain medical comorbidities compared to the general population. Between-drug differences in efficacy are relatively modest for the atypicals, or between atypicals and conventionals, while differences in safety and tolerability are larger and more clinically relevant. The current article will provide a brief summary of safety-related issues that influence treatment outcome and choice of drug.

  7. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing occurrence of major pests ON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protected against pests and seed corn should be treated with appropriately insecticides. Choosing better technological solutions and choosing and appropriate insecticide seed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pest attack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aim of this research was to obtain based upon result information on the impact of treatment on quality of maize seed as well as the means to improve the conditions of storage and preservation of semen quality. Investigation and checking if insecticide treated seed adverse phytotoxic effect on plant growth and development in field conditions. The results indicate a significant effect of insecticide seed treatments on germination energy and non standard germination. A very significant influence of treated seed storage was also found on quality seeds. Looking at the impact of the treated hybrid on germination vigor and standard germination, a very significant hybrid impact was found out. The highest quality of the seed semen during the study was noticed with the seed of hybrid “H2”, followed by hybrid “H1”, while the hybrids “H3” and “H4” possessed less. The research shows that hybrids “H2” and “H1” are more suitable for seed treatment with insecticides than “H3” and “H4” hybrids. The field observations and research results obtained indicate a very significant impact of the treated seed on the above ground parts of plants, above ground mass, stem thickness and a very significant impact on plant spacing. The positive effect of treatment with “T1” and “T3” insecticides is visible in all conducted field researches. Plants treated with common fungicides and insecticides “T1” and “T3” had a greater height of the above ground plant parts, a larger mass of the above ground stems, greater stem thickness and better plant density treatments, compared to

  8. [Influence of the psyche on cosmetic treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfel, L

    2015-01-01

    The wish for an attractive appearance is evident in many people. Aesthetic, cosmetic and surgical treatment is willingly made use of in order to fit into the current beauty ideal. A considerable portion of people who decide to follow this path show signs of psychological problems. One has to recognize and evaluate these for the planning or, if necessary, refusal of further treatment. In this article, the most common psychological problems in the cosmetic and aesthetic field of work are presented. A guideline for handling these patients is explained. Thus, a productive and relaxed cooperation will be possible which enables psychological and physical satisfaction for the medical team and the patients.

  9. Influence of hydrogen treatment on SCR catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    stream, i.e. by in situ treatment of the Pt-catalyst by reductive H2-gas. However, the introduction of H2 gas in the gas stream could also affect other units in the tail pipe gas cleaning system. Of special interest in this study is the effect of hydrogen gas on the performance of the selective catalytic...... reduction (SCR) process, i.e. the catalytic removal of NOx from the flue gas. A series of experiments was conducted to reveal the impact on the NO SCR activity of a industrial DeNOX catalyst (3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2) by treatment of H2. Standard conditions were treatment of the SCR catalyst for 60 min with three...... different concentrations of H2 (0-2%) in a 8% O2/N2 mixture, where the SCR activity was measured before and after the hydrogen treatment. The results show that the activity of the SCR catalyst is only negligible affected during exposure to the H2/O2 gas and in all cases it returned reversibly to the initial...

  10. Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) as determined by 16S rDNA fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)

  11. Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on ... with regard to the optimal retention of the crude protein and fat levels of the dried dagaa. ... are accessible to most of the households involved in dried fish processing.

  12. Treatment of timber products with gaseous borate esters, Part 1: factors influencing the treatment process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, P

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors which influence the treatment of timber products with vapour phase preservatives such as borate esters are considered. Gas flow rate through the substrate was found to be a significant factor limiting both preservative penetration...

  13. Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm characteristics of plaintain. P-N T Johnson. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjs.v39i1.15851 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  14. Influence of treatment with inhalable heroin on pulmonary function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buster, M. C. A.; van den Brink, W.; van Brussel, G. H. A.; van Ree, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to asses the influence of inhalable heroin on pulmonary function in chronic heroin-dependent patients treated with inhalable heroin. Among 32 patients (all cigarette smokers), a spirometric test was conducted at baseline and after an average period of 10 months of treatment with

  15. Crucial factors influencing public acceptance of fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah. McCaffrey

    2009-01-01

    An important component of the wildland fire problem in the United States is the growing number of people living in high fire hazard areas. How people in these areas contribute to fire risk--or potentially decrease it--will be shaped by their attitudes and beliefs toward different fuel treatment approaches. Understanding the issues and concerns that influence public...

  16. Time influence in chemical treatment of Brazilian raw materials type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argolo, F.; Dias, C.; Machado, A.; Volzone, C.; Ortiga, J.; Valenzuela Diaz, F.

    2012-01-01

    Clays are part of raw materials in different industries. The mineralogical composition and purity greatly influence the application thereof. Chemical treatments applied, such as acid attack, modify their properties and thus their possible uses. Taking in to account that, clay minerals, may differ by more or less resistance to chemical attacks, two types of clay were studied with different mineralogical composition to assess the degree of resistance to chemical attack treatment such as acid. Acid treatments that were applied, differ mainly in the contact time between the solid and the liquid. The solids were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical analysis and infrared analysis

  17. Factors influencing the cost of prosthetic joint infection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, T N; Cheng, A C; Lorenzo, Y P; Kong, D C M; Buising, K L; Choong, P F M

    2013-11-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is associated with significant costs to the healthcare system. Current literature examines the cost of specific treatment modalities without assessing other cost drivers for PJI. To examine the overall cost of the treatment of PJI and to identify factors associated with management costs. The costs of treatment of prosthetic joint infections were examined in 139 patients across 10 hospitals over a 3-year period (January 2006 to December 2008). Cost calculations included hospitalization costs, surgical costs, hospital-in-the-home costs and antibiotic therapy costs. Negative binomial regression analysis was performed to model factors associated with total cost. The median cost of treating prosthetic joint infection per patient was Australian $34,800 (interquartile range: 20,305, 56,929). The following factors were associated with increased treatment costs: septic revision arthroplasty (67% increase in treatment cost; P = 0.02), hypotension at presentation (70% increase; P = 0.03), polymicrobial infections (41% increase; P = 0.009), surgical treatment with one-stage exchange (100% increase; P = 0.002) or resection arthroplasty (48% increase; P = 0.001) were independently associated with increased treatment costs. Culture-negative prosthetic joint infections were associated with decreased costs (29% decrease in treatment cost; P = 0.047). Treatment failure was associated with 156% increase in treatment costs. This study identifies clinically important factors influencing treatment costs that may be of relevance to policy-makers, particularly in the setting of hospital reimbursement and guiding future research into cost-effective preventive strategies. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  19. Psychosocial influencers and mediators of treatment adherence in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Soo; Park, Ji Suk; Seo, Wha Sook

    2013-09-01

    This article is a report of the development and testing of the hypothetical model that illustrates relationships between treatment adherence and its psychosocial influencing factors and to elucidate the direct and indirect (mediating) effects of factors on treatment adherence. Poor adherence has been consistently reported in haemodialysis patients. Much research has showed various influencing factors of adherence, but these studies have failed to identify consistent influencing factors. This study was performed using a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. The study subjects were 150 end-stage renal failure patients on haemodialysis at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Data were collected over 10 months (June 2010-April 2011). The hypothetical model provided a good fit with data. Haemodialysis-related knowledge, perceived barrier to adherence, self-efficacy on adherence, and healthcare provider support had significant effects on adherence. Self-efficacy was found to mediate barrier-adherence and family support-adherence relationships. Self-efficacy in combination with barrier, family support, and healthcare provider support was found to mediate the depression-adherence relationship. Strategies aimed at the development of successful adherence interventions should focus on reducing perceived barriers and enhancing self-efficacy and knowledge. It can be suggested that efforts to improve the healthcare provider-patient relationship would enhance adherence. In depressive patients, strategies that promote self-efficacy and the support of family or healthcare providers could diminish the negative impact of depression on adherence. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Risk factors influencing the treatment outcome in diabetic macular oedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Amod

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A multivariate analysis was done on 96 eyes to evaluate the effect of various risk factors on the final visual outcome after laser photocoagulation for clinically significant macular oedema (CSME in diabetic retinopathy. Advanced age of the patient, large size of CSME and poor baseline visual acuity were found to be significantly associated with poorer outcome (p<0.05. The association of nephropathy and hypertension with poorer visual outcome was of boderline significance (p = 0.054 and 0.07, respectively. Wavelength of the laser (argon or krypton used for treatment did not significantly influence the outcome.

  1. [Influence of different surface treatments on porcelain surface topography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yinxia; Zhu, Xianchun; Sen, Yan; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xian; Shi, Xueming

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of different surface treatments on porcelain surface topography. Metal ceramic prostheses in 6 groups were treated according to the different surface treatment methods, and the surface topography was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). Group A was the control one (untreated), group B was etched by 9.6% hydrofluoric acid(HF), group C was deglazed by grinding and then etched by 9.6% HF, group D was treated with Nd: YAG laser irradiation(0.75 W) and HF etching, group E was treated with Nd: YAG laser irradiation (1.05 W) and HF etching, and group F was treated with laser irradiation (1.45 W) and HF etching. Surface topography was different in different groups. A lot of inerratic cracks with the shapes of rhombuses and grid, and crater with a shape of circle were observed on the ceramic surface after treatment with energy parameters of 1.05 W Nd: YAG laser irradiation and 9.6% HF etching (group E). Surface topography showed a lot of concaves on the inner wall of the cracks, and the concaves with diameter of 1-5 microm could be observed on the inner wall of the holes, which had a diameter of 20 microm under SEM. The use of Nd: YAG laser irradiation with the energy parameters of 1.05 W and the HF with a concentration of 9.6% can evenly coarsen the porcelain surface, that is an effective surface treatment method.

  2. Influence of heat treatment on corrosive resistance of concrete steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldan, A.; Suliga, I.; Kusinski, J.; Jazowy, R.

    1998-01-01

    The reinforcing bars are essential elements of ferro-concrete structures. During the building structure service the reinforcing bars should co-operate with surrounding concrete. Any bonding defects as well as corrosion induced strength reduction may result in construction failure. The reinforcing steel working environment is determined by concrete chemical and phase composition and surrounding environmental properties. The aggressive corrosive activity of the letter implies necessity of effective ways development to protect elements against corrosion. The effect of heat treatment, increased Si content in steel on corrosion resistance of reinforcing steel in concrete was studied in the current work. Corrosion tests and metallographic examinations proved a positive influence of hardening and Si enrichment on corrosion resistance of reinforcing bars in ferro-concrete structures. (author)

  3. Influence of Reaction Conditions on Lignin Hydrothermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdocia, Xabier; Prado, Raquel; Corcuera, M. Ángeles; Labidi, Jalel, E-mail: jalel.labidi@ehu.es [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country, San Seabastian (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Organosolv lignin, obtained from olive tree pruning under optimized conditions, was subjected to a hydrothermal depolymerization process catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. The depolymerization of lignin was carried out at 300°C using different reaction times (20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 min) in order to study the influence of this parameter on lignin depolymerization. The resulting products (oil and residual lignin) were measured and analyzed by different techniques (GC/MS, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, and pyrolysis–GC/MS) in order to determine their nature and composition. Coke was also formed, at a lower quantity, uncompetitive repolymerization reactions during the lignin hydrothermal treatment. The maximum oil yield and concentration of monomeric phenolic compounds was obtained after 80 min of reaction time. The highest reaction time studied (100 min) had the worst results with the lowest oil yield and highest coke production.

  4. Ecological System Influences in the Treatment of Pediatric Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre E Logan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Family, school and the peer network each shape the chronic pain experience of the individual child, and each of these contexts also represents a domain of functioning often impaired by chronic pain. The goal of the present article is to summarize what is known about these bidirectional influences between children with pain and the social systems that surround them. Case reports that illustrate these complex, transactional forces and their ultimate impact on the child’s pain-related functioning are included. A case involving siblings participating in an intensive interdisciplinary program for functional restoration and pain rehabilitation highlights how parents change through this treatment approach and how this change is vital to the child’s outcomes. Another case involving a child undergoing intensive interdisciplinary treatment illustrates how school avoidance can be treated in the context of pain rehabilitation, resulting in successful return to the regular school environment. Finally, an acceptance and commitment therapy-focused group intervention for children with sickle cell disease and their parents demonstrates the benefits of peer contact as an element of the therapeutic intervention.

  5. Influence of softening sequencing on electrocoagulation treatment of produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilirad, Nasim; Carlson, Ken; Omur Ozbek, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has been used to remove solids and some metals from both water and wastewater sources for decades. Additionally, chemical softening is commonly employed in water treatment systems to remove hardness. This paper assesses the combination and sequence of softening and EC methods to treat hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water from shale oil and gas operations. EC is one of the available technologies to treat produced water for reuse in frac fluids, eliminating not only the need to transport more water but also the costs of providing fresh water. In this paper, the influence of chemical softening on EC was studied. In the softening process, pH was raised to 9.5 and 10.2 before and after EC, respectively. Softening, when practiced before EC was more effective for removing turbidity with samples from wells older than one month (99% versus 88%). However, neither method was successful in treating samples collected from early flowback (1-day and 2-day samples), likely due to the high concentration of organic matter. For total organic carbon, hardness, Ba, Sr, and B removal, application of softening before EC appeared to be the most efficient approach, likely due to the formation of solids before the coagulation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, M.G.; Jayakumar, P.; King, J.D.; Guitton, T.G.; Doornberg, J.N.; Ring, D.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information.

  7. Pharmacogenetics Influence Treatment Efficacy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devidsen, M.L.; Dalhoff, K.; Schmiegelow, K.

    2008-01-01

    in treatment resistance and toxic side effects. As most childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment protocols include up to 13 different chemotherapeutic agents, the impact of individual SNPs has been difficult to evaluate. So far Focus has mainly been on the widely used glucocorticosteroids, methotrexate...

  8. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  9. Influence of Plasma Treatments on the Frictional Performance of Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuizen, D.J.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    The frictional performance of several rubbers after pulsed-DC plasma treatments has been examined. In all cases, the treated rubbers showed better performance than the corresponding untreated ones. Stronger treatments, in terms of longer process time and/or higher substrate bias voltage, led to

  10. The influence of cephalometrics on orthodontic treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.G.; Habets, L.L.M.H.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Zentner, A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Since its introduction, cephalometrics, i.e. cephalometric radiography and analysis, has been used for orthodontic treatment planning. However, the effectiveness of this diagnostic method remains questionable. A randomized crossover study was designed to assess the infl uence of

  11. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  12. Factors that influence treatment delay in patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcos-Pedrinaci, Irene; Fernández-López, Alberto; Téllez, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Rueda A, Antonio; Suarez-Varela, María Manuela Morales; Briones, Eduardo; Baré, Marisa; Escobar, Antonio; Sarasqueta, Cristina; de Larrea, Nerea Fernández; Aguirre, Urko; Quintana, José María; Redondo, Maximino

    2017-01-01

    A prospective study was performed of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC), distinguishing between colonic and rectal location, to determine the factors that may provoke a delay in the first treatment (DFT) provided. 2749 patients diagnosed with CRC were studied. The study population was recruited between June 2010 and December 2012. DFT is defined as time elapsed between diagnosis and first treatment exceeding 30 days. Excessive treatment delay was recorded in 65.5% of the cases, and was more prevalent among rectal cancer patients. Independent predictor variables of DFT in colon cancer patients were a low level of education, small tumour, ex-smoker, asymptomatic at diagnosis and following the application of screening. Among rectal cancer patients, the corresponding factors were primary school education and being asymptomatic. We conclude that treatment delay in CRC patients is affected not only by clinicopathological factors, but also by sociocultural ones. Greater attention should be paid by the healthcare provider to social groups with less formal education, in order to optimise treatment attention. PMID:27888636

  13. Communication and patient participation influencing patient recall of treatment discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Claude; Glaser, Emma; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse

    2017-08-01

    Patient recall of treatment information is a key variable towards chronic disease (CD) management. It is unclear what communication and patient participation characteristics predict recall. To assess what aspects of doctor-patient communication predict patient recall of medication information. To describe lifestyle treatment recall, in CD primary care patients. Observational study within a RCT. Community-based primary care (PC) practices. Family physicians (n=18): practicing >5 years, with a CD patient caseload. Patients (n=159): >40 years old, English speaking, computer literate, off-target hypertension, type II diabetes and/or dyslipidaemia. Patient characteristics: age, education, number of CDs. Information characteristics: length of encounter, medication status, medication class. Communication variables: socio-emotional utterances, physician dominance and communication control scores and PACE (ask, check and express) utterances, measured by RIAS. Number of medication themes, dialogue and initiative measured by MEDICODE. Recall of CD, lifestyle treatment and medication information. Frequency of lifestyle discussions varied by topic. Patients recalled 43% (alcohol), 52% (diet) to 70% (exercise) of discussions. Two and a half of six possible medication themes were broached per medication discussion. Less than one was recalled. Discussing more themes, greater dialogue and patient initiative were significant predictors of improved medication information recall. Critical treatment information is infrequently exchanged. Active patient engagement and explicit conversations about medications are associated with improved treatment information recall in off-target CD patients followed in PC. Providers cannot take for granted that long-term off-target CD patients recall information. They need to encourage patient participation to improve recall of treatment information. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fenbendazole treatment may influence lipopolysaccharide effects in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Randy L; Choi, Dong-Young; Kincer, Jeanie F; Cass, Wayne A; Bing, Guoying; Gash, Don M

    2007-10-01

    In evaluating discrepant results between experiments in our laboratory, we collected data that challenge the notion that anthelminthic drugs like FBZ do not alter inflammatory responses. We found that FBZ significantly modulates inflammation in F344 rats intrastriatally injected with LPS. FBZ treatment of LPS-injected rats significantly increased weight loss, microglial activation, and dopamine loss; in addition, FBZ attenuated the LPS-induced loss of astrocytes. Therefore, FBZ treatment altered the effects of LPS injection. Caution should be used in interpreting data collected from rats treated with LPS and FBZ.

  15. Influence of heat treatment temperature on bonding and oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of heat treatment temperature on the morphology, composition, chemical bonds, oxidation resistance and compressive strength of diamond particles coated with TiO2 films were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray ...

  16. Influence of heat treatment temperature on bonding and oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Diamond; TiO2 film; heat treatment temperature; anti-oxidation; mechanical properties. 1. Introduction. Due to its ..... figure 4a, which was due to the change of chemical envi- ronment of ... graphite, diamond, diamond-like carbon and carbon.10.

  17. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  18. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  19. Influence of argon plasma treatment on polyethersulphone surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-09

    Jan 9, 2013 ... waste water treatment from heavy and toxic metals, low-level nuclear waste management and separation of Zr from ... solid surface permits a rapid and qualitative evaluation of the SFE of the polymer. The water contact angle ...

  20. The influence of antiretroviral treatment on willingness to test: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous quantitative studies suggest a mutually reinforcing relationship between HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART). HCT is the entry into ART, and access to ART appears to increase HIV-testing uptake in settings with historically low uptake. Adopting a qualitative approach, this study ...

  1. Influence of menopause on dietary treatment of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, B.; Seidell, J; Terning, K; Björntorp, P

    Obese women (n = 104) were treated with an energy reduced diet (1100 kcal d-1) in a strictly standardized outpatient regime. Body composition, regional adipose tissue distribution, regional fat cell sizes and metabolic variables were followed before treatment, after 5% weight loss and at the stage

  2. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  3. Quantum mechanical treatment of the shell-of-influence model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matta, M L [Regional Engineering Coll., Kurukshetra (India). Dept. of Physics; Sukheeja, B D [Thapa Engineering Coll., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics; Narchal, M L [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1975-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment ignoring nuclear exchange interactions has been used to compute steady dynamic nuclear polarization in dilute paramagnetic crystals. The calculation assumes dipolar interaction of a paramagnetic ion with a large number of nuclear spins. The results are in rough agreement with the phenomenological model proposed by T.J. Schmugge and C.D. Jeffries (1965).

  4. The influence of crisis resolution treatment on employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blæhr, Emely; Vagner Madsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Nanna Limskov Stærk

    2017-01-01

    are at increased risk of leaving the labor market, which is a central aspect of everyday life. Thus, a primary outcome of interest is whether CRT enables higher employment compared with traditional hospitalization. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of CRT compared with hospitalization...... in relation to attempted or committed suicides, admissions, readmissions and employment. This study utilized register-based psychiatric data. The CRT intervention, which was carried out in a psychiatric center (N = 374), was matched to traditional hospitalization treatment in a corresponding area (N = 9460......). The outcomes (suicide attempts, suicides, admissions and readmissions) were replicated by applying propensity score matching (PSM) to evaluate the general treatment effect of CRT. The effectiveness of CRT on employment was estimated by applying PSM combined with a difference-in-difference estimator to account...

  5. Influence of periodontal treatment on subgingival and salivary microbiotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Grande, Maria Anastasia; Sembler-Møller, Maria Lynn

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare subgingival and salivary microbiotas before and after periodontal treatment to learn if any changes of the subgingival microbiota were reflected in saliva. We tested the hypothesis that salivary levels of specific periopathogens...... correlate with corresponding subgingival levels before and after periodontal treatment. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with generalized chronic periodontitis completed the study. Stimulated saliva samples and subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline and 2, 6 and 12 weeks after non......-surgical periodontal therapy. Subgingival and salivary microbiotas were processed by means of the Human Oral Microbe Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique, and characterized based on relative abundance. Spearman signed rank test was used to test correlation of periopathogens in subgingival and saliva samples...

  6. Localized paediatric orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: Influence of imaging on treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, B.J.; McHugh, K.; McDowell, H.P.; Anslow, P.; Mitchell, C.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary malignant orbital tumour in children and has a good prognosis. The purpose of this paper was to review the imaging and consequent treatment of patients with localized orbital rhabdomyosarcoma from around the U.K. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were identified through the U.K. Chilren's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) database. Investigations and therapy were dictated by the Malignant Mesenchymal Tumour '89 (MMT89) protocol. Imaging and radiological reports of 16 patients from 12 centres were reviewed. The number of patients receiving radiotherapy, timing of radiotherapy, and adherence to treatment protocols were assessed. RESULTS: Local radiologists' reports and imaging techniques varied between sequential examinations and centres. The imaging was adequate for management. No reports quoted measurements of the tumours. Treatment protocols were not always followed rigidly with regard to a residual mass at day 80 post-diagnosis. However, the protocol was not explicit for all outcomes. Fifteen out of 16 patients eventually received radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: There is no standardization of imaging between centres. The presence or absence of a post-therapeutic residue should be stated in the radiology report. Further investigation is needed to differentiate between fibrosis and recurrent tumour. Radiotherapy for residual mass at day 80 is probably more important than standardizing radiological technique. Burns B.J. et al. (2001)

  7. Adherence to cancer treatment guidelines: influence of general and cancer-specific guideline characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Jong, J.D. de; Spronk, I.; Ho, V.K.; Brink, M.; Korevaar, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Guideline adherence remains a challenge in clinical practice, despite guidelines’ ascribed potential to improve patient outcomes. We studied the level of adherence to recommendations from Dutch national cancer treatment guidelines, and the influence of general and

  8. Evaluation of the Influence of Salt Treatment on the Structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Influence of Salt Treatment on the Structure of Pyrolyzed ... Studies to characterize the activated carbon were conducted at ambient conditions. ... as iodine number and porosity; and minimum values for parameters like pH and ...

  9. Influence of surface treatment on the oxidation behavior of zirconium and zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, I.; Ramanathan, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of fluoride concentration in surface treatment solutions on the oxidation behavior of Zr and Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range 350-760 0 C have been studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis. Two solutions containing different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid have been used for surface treatments, following which surface roughness measurements were also carried out. The influence of fluoride ion concentration on oxidation behavior has been found to be significant at higher temperatures. (Author) [pt

  10. Dosimetric influence of hip prosthesis during radiotherapeutic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschwind, R.; Buffard, E.; Masset, H.; Makovicka, L.; David, C.; David, C.; Buffard, E.

    2008-01-01

    As the population become aged, many patients with hip prosthesis are treated for a pelvic cancer. The recommended ballistic must avoid to pass in the prosthesis, but sometimes it is inevitable. So it is essential to quantify with accuracy the dose modifications linked to the presence of metallic implant. The aim of this study is to analyze by Monte Carlo method these modifications in simple and complex models (anthropomorphic phantom) which take into account the geometry and the composition of the prosthesis and its coatings. Then, this methodology was used to study the behaviour of a treatment planning system in theses extreme conditions. (authors)

  11. Influence of salinity on fungal communities in a submerged fixed bed bioreactor for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés-Lorenzo, C.; González-Martínez, A.; Smidt, H.; González-López, J.; Rodelas, B.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is known to influence the performance of biological wastewater treatment plants. While its impact on bacterial communities has been thoroughly studied, its influence on fungal communities has been largely overlooked. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the effect of saline

  12. The influence of adjunctive treatment and metacognitive deficits in schizophrenia on the experience of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; Renard, S. B.; van Donkersgoed, R. J. M.; van der Gaag, M.; Wunderink, Alexander; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Lysaker, P. H.

    Enhancing work function is now widely considered a core element of comprehensive schizophrenia treatment. While research efforts have illuminated factors that influence how well patients perform at work, less is known about the factors influencing the subjective experience of work. It is not known

  13. The influence of adjunctive treatment and metacognitive deficits in schizophrenia on the experience of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.; Renard, S.B.; van Donkersgoed, R.J.M.; van der Gaag, M.; Wunderink, L.; Pijnenborg, G.H.M.; Lysaker, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing work function is now widely considered a core element of comprehensive schizophrenia treatment. While research efforts have illuminated factors that influence how well patients perform at work, less is known about the factors influencing the subjective experience of work. It is not known

  14. [Factors that influence treatment adherence in chronic disease patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldaner, Cláudia Regina; Beuter, Margrid; Brondani, Cecília Maria; Budó, Maria de Lourdes Denardin; Pauletto, Macilene Regina

    2008-12-01

    The following bibliographical research wanted to identify the main factors that influence adherence to treatment in chronic disease. The study focused on patients undergoing hemodialysis, as well as on the support nurses require for the promotion of health education among individuals with low treatment adherence. The identification of bibliographical sources was conducted at Health Virtual Library and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) data bases. Some printed magazines were also used. The results indicated nine factors influencing treatment adherence or non-adherence: team trust, support nets, educational level; accepting disease, treatment side effects, lack of access to medicines, long-term treatment, complex therapeutic approach, and lack of symptoms. It is advisable that nurses take into account these factors when dealing with chronic-disease patients that present low treatment adherence, getting family and multidisciplinary team support seeking treatment adherence.

  15. Influence of the physical environment on treatment effect in exercise therapy for knee or hip pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Louise Fleng

    treatment outcomes in other health-care settings, such as rehabilitation and exercise therapy settings. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of the physical environment as a contributor to context effects in the treatment response from exercise therapy as treatment for muskuloskeletal pain......Context effects are defined as the effects of a given treatment, not directly caused by the treatment itself, but, rather, caused by the context in which the treatment is delivered. The patient-practitioner relationship is a known context factor, but it is hard to standardize across health-care...... settings. The physical environment is easier to standardize and may act as a context factor and influence treatment outcomes. Studies from hospital environments have shown that the physical environment influences health outcomes, patients, and clinicians. It is unknown if the physical environment affects...

  16. The influence of hyperthyroidism on implant restoration treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information about bone implant restoration treatment on edentulous patient with hyperthyroidism. This clinical report is presenting the making of dental bone implant restoration on patient with hyperthyroidism history. A 60 years old male patient with hyperthyroidism came to Prosthodontic Clinic Faculty of Dentistry University of Indonesia to improve his ailing denture. After comprehensive evaluation we treated the patient with Implant-Tissue-Supported Overdenture (4 Implants for rehabilitating upper edentulous jaw, and 2 Implant-Tooth-Supported Fixed Partial Denturesfor rehabilitating Kennedy class II lower edentulous jaw respectively. Short term clinical and radiographic evaluation based on Buser’s criteria showed positive result. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:191-5Keywords: Hyperthyroidsm, implant restoration

  17. Influence of hydrophobicity on the chemical treatments of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Krishna Bahadur; Khadka, Ishwor Bahadur; Kim, Eun Hye; Ahn, Sung Joon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Ahn, Joung Real

    2018-01-01

    The defect-free transfer of graphene grown by using chemical vapor deposition is essential for its applications to electronic devices. For the reduction of inevitable chemical residues, such as polar molecules and ionized impurities resulting from the transfer process, a hydrophobic polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) film was coated on a SiO2/Si wafer. The hydrophobic PDMS film resulted in fewer defects in graphene in comparison to a bare SiO2/Si wafer, as measured with Raman spectroscopy. We also studied the influence of the hydrophobic PDMS film on the chemical doping of graphene. Here, nitric acid (HNO3) was used to make p-type graphene. When graphene was transferred onto a SiO2/Si wafer coated with the hydrophobic PDMS film, fewer defects, compared to those in graphene transferred onto a bare SiO2/Si wafer, were created in grapheme by HNO3 as measured with Raman spectroscopy. The experiments suggest that when graphene is transferred onto a hydrophobic film, the number of defects created by chemical molecules can be reduced.

  18. Influence of thermal treatments on radiocarbon dating of groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Iuliana Madalina; Sava, Tiberiu Bogdan; Pacesila, Doru Gheorghe; Gaza, Oana; Simion, Corina Anca; Stefan, Bianca Maria; Sava, Gabriela Odilia; Ghita, Dan Gabriel; Mosu, Vasile

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water provides information about the formation of oceanic circulation of the water volumes, the hydrogeological systems, and also valuable information can be gained about the aquifer storage and the degree of containment relative to the surface waters. Radiocarbon dating refers to the determination of small quantities of the naturally occurring carbon 14 in the water, which can be integrated in the groundwater mass through the gaseous CO2, carbonaceous deposits dissolved by water and organic remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the temperature and pressure over the amount of each isotope of carbon during the sample preparation stage. The first step was to evaporate several underground water samples at 65°C under different conditions until the carbonates were obtained, then the CO2 was extracted with orto-phosphoric acid and transformed to graphite. The second step was to obtain graphite from an untreated water sample. Finally, the samples were measured with the 1MV Cockcroft-Walton Tandetron Accelerator by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

  19. HIV-1 resistance testing influences treatment decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sobhie Diaz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigates how the use of HIV-1 resistance tests influences physician decision-making. METHODS: Ten experienced reference physicians from the Brazilian Network for Drug Resistance each received ten patients' case histories. The selected patients had experienced at least two virological failures. First, reference physicians were asked to empirically select a new regimen for each patient. Second, after genotype report (ViroSeq 2.6 was provided, and physicians were again asked to select a new regimen considering this additional information. Finally, they were asked to select a regimen after receiving a virtual phenotype result (vircoTYPE 3.9.00. RESULTS: In 79% of the cases, physicians changed their empirical choice of regimen after receiving the genotype report, resulting in an increase in the mean number of active drugs from 1.8 to 2.2 (p = 0.0003, while the average number of drugs/regimen remained at 4.0. After receipt of the virtual phenotype report, additional changes were made in 75% of the patient cases, resulting in an increase in the number of active drugs to 2.8 (p < 0.0001, while the average number of drugs/regimen remained at 4.0. After receipt of the genotype report, 48% of the changes were in NRTIs, 29% were in NNRTIs and 60% were in PIs; after consideration of the virtual phenotype, 61%, 10% and 49% of the changes, respectively, were in these categories of drugs. Fourteen percent of the physicians rated the genotype report as "extremely useful", whereas 34% rated the subsequent virtual phenotype report as "extremely useful" (p = 0.0003. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance testing has a significant impact on physicians' choices of antiretroviral salvage therapies, and it promotes the selection of more active drugs

  20. Effects of Chemical Treatments on Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E. S.; Strom, M.; Dexter, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms are known to have an effect on galvanic corrosion of alloys in seawater systems. In the Delaware Bay, biofilm formation on surface of cathodes has been shown to cause galvanic corrosion to occur up to 100 times more rapidly. Given the impacts that corrosion can have on structures, it is important to study how we can affect corrosion rates. One way of doing this is the application of chemical treatments to biofilms on metal samples. To investigate this, natural marine biofilms were grown on alloy 6XN stainless steel samples, and various chemical treatments were applied to discover their effects on open circuit potentials and corrosion currents. Another objective of this study was to determine if there was a threshold molecular weight above which molecules were unable to penetrate the biofilm. It was discovered that chemicals with molecular weights as high as 741.6 g/mol were able to penetrate at least some parts of the heterogeneous biofilm and reach the metal surface. No upper threshold value was found in this study. It was found that the reducing agents sodium L-ascorbate and NADH as well as the chelate ferizene caused a drop in open circuit potential of biofilmed 6XN samples. Also, glutaraldahyde, which is used as a fixative for bacteria, shifted the open circuit potential of biofilm samples in the noble direction but had no effect on the corrosion current. Sodium L- ascorbate was found to reach the metal surface, but in concentrations lower than those present in the bulk fluid. It was not determined in this study whether this was due to physical or chemical processes within the biofilm. A synergistic effect was observed when applying a mixture of ferizene and glutaraldahyde. It is thought that this was due to the death of the bacteria as well as the disruption of iron cycling in the biofilm. Finally, it was observed that NADH caused a reduction in current at potentials associated with iron reduction, leading us to believe that the iron was being reduced

  1. Influence of parental presence on the child’s perception of, and behaviour, during dental treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, I.C.J.; Krikken, J.B.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyse the influence of the presence of the parent in the dental operatory on their child's behaviour during dental treatment. METHODS: This study was a randomised controlled trial performed in a secondary paediatric dental care clinic. The child's perception of the dental treatment and its

  2. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Michiel G. J. S.; Jayakumar, Prakash; King, John D.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Doornberg, Job N.; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information. Secondarily, we

  3. Influence of thermal treatment on OSL regeneration in potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majgier, Renata; Biernacka, Magdalena; Mandowski, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of pure analytical potassium chloride (KCl) prepared in two different forms (crystals and pellets) was studied. The occurrence of regeneration effect (self-renewal of the OSL signal) in the material was examined. The experiments using the variable delay OSL (VD-OSL) method were carried out. Performed measurements allowed to determine time scale of the phenomenon, as well as quantitative changes of regeneration depending on thermal treatment before and after irradiation. Significant increase of the OSL regeneration was noticeable for pellets after the application of the annealing before irradiation, while for crystals a substantial decrease of regeneration was observed. Preheating applied after irradiation caused that self-renewal of OSL signal was drastically reduced or completely suppressed depending on the form of KCl samples. - Highlights: • Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of potassium chloride (KCl) was studied. • The measurements were performed using the variable delay OSL method (VD-OSL). • It was found that regeneration of OSL intensity in KCl could be as high as 2000%. • Annealing caused reduction of OSL renewal for crystals and its increase for pellets. • Preheating after irradiation removed or significantly reduced the OSL regeneration.

  4. Influence of chemical treatment of clay to obtain polypropylene nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Jeferson L.S.; Marques, Maria F.V.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial clay was chemically treated to prepare a Ziegler-Natta catalyst containing MgCl 2 and clay for the synthesis of polypropylene nanocomposites by in situ polymerization. The performance of this catalyst and materials obtained in propylene polymerization was compared with a reference catalyst (without clay) and with another, whose composition presents the same clay but without prior chemical treatment. Techniques like differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and melt flow index (MFI) measurements were performed. There was a marked reduction in catalytic activity of clay catalysts in comparison with the reference one, and a slight reduction in melting temperature of the polymers produced from first ones. The melt flow index of polymers obtained with treated clay were notably higher than those synthesized with the untreated clay, so the treated clay caused treated the production of PP's with lower molar mass. The clays showed an increase of spacing and irregular stacking of the lamellas, especially if chemically treated. (author)

  5. Influence of crude oil treatment to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, F.F.; Rzayev, P.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Environmental menace is linking with the unprecedented man-caused explosion and perspective global warming at the result of atmosphere pollution. If similar tendency is continued radical changing's will not happen in future which catastrophically reflects in ecology, climate of the planet, finally in the population health of the Earth. However, unfortunately one-sidedly economy increasing are chiefly directed to the oil-gas sector and from year to year amount increasing of means of transport causes man's impact to the environment. Further increasing of these processes obviously can lead to the dangerous ecological situation. In the economical and efficiency increasing process country population depend directly on the level of energy consumption. Application of nature-conservative measures and technology, promotional efficiency increasing of energy usage, its total usage decreasing, simultaneous reducing of hazardous substance lead to the considerable but cardinal results. That's why taking into consideration above mentioned circumstance, conclusion one is oil and gas saving, reducing of hazardous substance, we can greatly economize by the gradual way of natural energy replacement into renewable energy. In this connection, special interest for Azerbaijan creates high-grade potential solar radiation usage problem in several fields of national economy, especially in oil sector of the country. There is a real background for effective usage of high-grade potential solar radiation in Azerbaijan oil industry. As the process of primary crude oil treatment in the condition of oil fields for its further transportation to Oil Refining Plant the temperature is to be near 50-60 degrees to be very readily reached to various solar radiation engineering systems. On the base on the above mentioned for realizing this process we built and developed high-grade temperature solar plant with parabolic trough concentrator. Economy till 40% of national fuels (mazut, gas

  6. Analysis of influence of different pressure and different depth of pvd on soft foundation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, XueKui

    2018-02-01

    According to the depth of plastic vertical drainage (pvd), the arrangement mode and the loading mode to analyze the influence of Vacuum preloading near the existing road. An arrangement mode of vacuum preloading to reduce the impact was put forward. The combination of different depth of pvd and loading modes are used to analyze the effect of vacuum preloading treatment and its influence range. The calculations show that the deformation and the influence distance are smaller by using the 40kPa vacuum loading and 41kPa surcharge load preloading. Reducing the depth of the pvd and vacuum combined surcharge preloading can weaken the influence to the existing highway.

  7. Factors influencing non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Jepara, central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondags, Angelique; Himawan, Ari Budi; Metsemakers, Job Fm; Kristina, Tri Nur

    2014-07-01

    One of the most serious problems for tuberculosis (TB) control is non-adherence to TB treatment. We studied the factors influencing non-adherence to TB treatment in Indonesia to inform TB treatment adherence strategies. We con- ducted semi-structured interviews with non-adherent patients and key informants in Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia. Three major themes were found in reasons for non-adherence to TB treatment: 1) knowledge about TB, 2) knowledge about TB treatment and 3) choosing and changing a health care treatment facility. Respondents had an inadequate knowledge about TB and its treatment. Feeling healthy and having financial problems were the most common reasons for TB treatment non-adherence. Respondents sought treatment from many different health care providers, and often changed the treatment facility location. TB treatment adherence might improve by providing better education about the disease and its treatment to those undergoing treatment. Providing information about where to receive treatment and that treatment is free could also improve compliance.

  8. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Monteiro Bichara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To improve orthodontic treatment efficiency, orthodontists must know which variables could interfere with orthodontic treatment time. Objective: To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients’ records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments, to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2. Results: Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345 and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596 are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients.

  9. Nordic veterinarians' threshold for medical treatment of dairy cows, influence on disease recording and medicine use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espetvedt, Mari N.; Rintakoski, Simo; Wolff, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    these thresholds may increase the understanding of prudent use of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic veterinarians, on a between country-level, vary in their intention to start medical treatment of a dairy cow with mild clinical mastitis, on the same day as making......National databases for dairy cows in the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have been found to capture varying proportions of disease events on farm. A variation in the thresholds of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment may be a reason for this. Studying...... countries the specific attitude belief of highest influence was that starting treatment the same day as diagnosing a case of mild clinical mastitis gives the best result, compared to delaying treatment. The varying intentions of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment are likely to influence centrally...

  10. The Influence of Treatment Motivation on Outcomes of Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the influence of treatment motivation on posttreatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents imposed as a penal sanction. Propensity score matching was used to match a control group of juveniles receiving treatment as usual ( n = 108 of total N = 354) to a treatment group of juveniles receiving Tools4U, a social skills training with a parental component ( N = 115). Treatment motivation was examined as a moderator and predictor of treatment effects on impulsivity, social perspective-taking, social problem-solving, lack of critical reasoning, developmental task-related skills, and parenting skills. Treatment effects were mostly consistent across juveniles with different levels of treatment motivation. Only one moderating effect was found on active tackling (i.e., actively addressing problems), and predictive effects were found on seeking social support, cognitive empathy, hostile intent attribution, and self-centeredness. Implications for further research are discussed.

  11. The Influence of Treatment Motivation on Outcomes of Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of treatment motivation on posttreatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents imposed as a penal sanction. Propensity score matching was used to match a control group of juveniles receiving treatment as usual (n = 108 of total N = 354) to a treatment group of juveniles receiving Tools4U, a social skills training with a parental component (N = 115). Treatment motivation was examined as a moderator and predictor of treatment effects on impulsivity, social perspective-taking, social problem-solving, lack of critical reasoning, developmental task-related skills, and parenting skills. Treatment effects were mostly consistent across juveniles with different levels of treatment motivation. Only one moderating effect was found on active tackling (i.e., actively addressing problems), and predictive effects were found on seeking social support, cognitive empathy, hostile intent attribution, and self-centeredness. Implications for further research are discussed. PMID:27225504

  12. Substance abuse treatment response in a Latino sample: the influence of family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Maier, Candice A; Priest, Jacob B

    2015-02-01

    Latino Americans report underutilization of treatment and poor treatment response for substance use and abuse compared to other racial/ethnic groups; thus, it is important to assess factors that contribute to these disparities. The current study objective was to assess the influence of family conflict on substance abuse treatment response in a sample of Latino Americans using two different yet complementary analyses. First, ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the association between overall family conflict and pre- and post-treatment substance use. Second, repeated measures latent class analysis was used to identify groups based on family member conflict and timing of conflict during treatment. Findings indicated that family conflict contributed unique variance to concurrent substance use; however pre-treatment family conflict was not related to post-treatment outcomes. Results also identified three distinct family conflict groups: no/low conflict, pre-treatment conflict, and post-treatment conflict who differed in pre- and post-treatment substance use. Post hoc investigation revealed that those who experienced pre-treatment conflict but low post-treatment conflict showed the greatest decrease in substance use. Findings highlight the importance of considering family conflict during all stages of treatment for Latino American substance users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pregnancy after definitive treatment for Graves' disease--does treatment choice influence outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Marianne S; Tu'akoi, Kelson; Meyer-Rochow, Goswin Y; Tamatea, Jade A U; Conaglen, John V

    2014-08-01

    Women requiring thyroid hormone replacement after definitive therapy (surgery or radioiodine) for Graves' disease who later conceive require an early increase in levothyroxine dose and monitoring of thyroid hormone levels throughout pregnancy. In addition, as TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) can cross the placenta and affect the fetus, measurement of these antibodies during pregnancy is recommended. To review the management of pregnancies following definitive treatment for Graves' disease in order to assess the rates of maternal hypothyroidism and TRAb measurement. Retrospective chart review of women who had undergone definitive treatment for Graves' disease at a tertiary hospital and subsequently had one or more pregnancies. A total of 29 women were identified, each of whom had at least one pregnancy since receiving definitive treatment for Graves' disease: there were a total of 49 pregnancies (22 in the surgical group and 27 in the radioiodine group). Both groups had high rates of hypothyroidism documented during pregnancy (47 and 50%, respectively). The surgical group was more likely to be euthyroid around the time of conception. Less than half of the women were referred to an endocrinologist or had TRAb measured during pregnancy. Neonatal thyroid function was measured in one-third of live births. One case of neonatal thyrotoxicosis was identified. Adherence to the current American Thyroid Association guidelines is poor. Further education of both patients and clinicians is important to ensure that treatment of women during pregnancy after definitive treatment follows the currently available guidelines. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Influence of planning time and treatment complexity on radiation therapy errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Zeng, Jing; Carlson, Joshua; Spady, Phil; Jordan, Loucille; Kane, Gabrielle; Ford, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Radiation treatment planning is a complex process with potential for error. We hypothesized that shorter time from simulation to treatment would result in rushed work and higher incidence of errors. We examined treatment planning factors predictive for near-miss events. Treatments delivered from March 2012 through October 2014 were analyzed. Near-miss events were prospectively recorded and coded for severity on a 0 to 4 scale; only grade 3-4 (potentially severe/critical) events were studied in this report. For 4 treatment types (3-dimensional conformal, intensity modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT], neutron), logistic regression was performed to test influence of treatment planning time and clinical variables on near-miss events. There were 2257 treatment courses during the study period, with 322 grade 3-4 near-miss events. SBRT treatments had more frequent events than the other 3 treatment types (18% vs 11%, P = .04). For the 3-dimensional conformal group (1354 treatments), univariate analysis showed several factors predictive of near-miss events: longer time from simulation to first treatment (P = .01), treatment of primary site versus metastasis (P < .001), longer treatment course (P < .001), and pediatric versus adult patient (P = .002). However, on multivariate regression only pediatric versus adult patient remained predictive of events (P = 0.02). For the intensity modulated radiation therapy, SBRT, and neutron groups, time between simulation and first treatment was not found to be predictive of near-miss events on univariate or multivariate regression. When controlling for treatment technique and other clinical factors, there was no relationship between time spent in radiation treatment planning and near-miss events. SBRT and pediatric treatments were more error-prone, indicating that clinical and technical complexity of treatments should be taken into account when targeting safety interventions. Copyright © 2015 American

  15. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Michiel G J S; Jayakumar, Prakash; King, John D; Guitton, Thierry G; Doornberg, Job N; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information. Secondarily, we addressed (1) factors associated with a recommendation for operative treatment, (2) factors associated with recommendation for arthroplasty, (3) concordance with the recommendations of the treating surgeons, and (4) factors affecting the inter-rater reliability of treatment recommendations. A total of 238 surgeons of the Science of Variation Group rated 40 radiographs of patients with proximal humerus fractures. Participants were randomized to receive information about the patient and mechanism of injury. The response variables included the choice of treatment (operative vs nonoperative) and the percentage of matches with the actual treatment. Participants who received patient information recommended operative treatment less than those who received no information. The patient information that had the greatest influence on treatment recommendations included age (55%) and fracture mechanism (32%). The only other factor associated with a recommendation for operative treatment was region of practice. There was no significant difference between participants who were and were not provided with information regarding agreement with the actual treatment (operative vs nonoperative) provided by the treating surgeon. Patient information-older age in particular-is associated with a higher likelihood of recommending nonoperative treatment than radiographs alone. Clinical information did not improve agreement of the Science of Variation Group with the actual treatment or the generally poor interobserver agreement on treatment recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Xiao-yun; XIE De-fang

    2018-01-01

    At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pestici...

  17. Influence of Pre-trimethylindium flow treatment on blue light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bing; Zhao, Jun Liang; Dai, Hai Tao; Wang, Shu Guo; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chu, Fu-Chuan; Huang, Chou-Hsiung; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pre-trimethylindium (TMIn) flow treatment prior to quantum well growth on blue light emitting diode properties were investigated. High-resolution X-ray diffraction indicated that Pre-TMIn flow treatment did not change the composition of indium in quantum wells, but influenced electrical and optical properties of blue light emitting diode. Electroluminescence exhibited redshift with increasing TMIn treatment time. Though, the forward voltage became a little larger with longer Pre-TMIn treatment time due to the slight phase separation and indium aggregation, the efficiency droop of the device was improved effectively. - Highlights: • Pre-trimethylindium treatment can lead to longer wavelength. • External quantum efficiency can be improved effectively. • Electrical properties are not decreased using Pre-trimethylindium treatment

  18. Influence of Pre-trimethylindium flow treatment on blue light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bing; Zhao, Jun Liang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dai, Hai Tao, E-mail: htdai@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Shu Guo [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lin, Ray-Ming, E-mail: rmlin@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronic Engineering and Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chu, Fu-Chuan; Huang, Chou-Hsiung [Graduate Institute of Electronic Engineering and Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Yu, Sheng-Fu [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Sun, Xiao Wei, E-mail: xwsun@sustc.edu.cn [South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-31

    The effects of Pre-trimethylindium (TMIn) flow treatment prior to quantum well growth on blue light emitting diode properties were investigated. High-resolution X-ray diffraction indicated that Pre-TMIn flow treatment did not change the composition of indium in quantum wells, but influenced electrical and optical properties of blue light emitting diode. Electroluminescence exhibited redshift with increasing TMIn treatment time. Though, the forward voltage became a little larger with longer Pre-TMIn treatment time due to the slight phase separation and indium aggregation, the efficiency droop of the device was improved effectively. - Highlights: • Pre-trimethylindium treatment can lead to longer wavelength. • External quantum efficiency can be improved effectively. • Electrical properties are not decreased using Pre-trimethylindium treatment.

  19. Influence of post-casting treatments on sulphonated polyetheretherketone composite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, Alessandra; Gatto, Irene; Passalacqua, Enza [CNR-ITAE, Institute for Advanced Energy Technologies ' ' N. Giordano' ' Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse, 5 - Messina (Italy); Ohira, Akihiro; Wu, Libin [FC-CUBIC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Cutting-Edge Research Center) AIST Tokyo Waterfront, 2-41-6, Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Since the post-casting treatments influence the water entrapped in polymeric matrix and consequently its proton conductivity, an evaluation of annealing at 200 C and acid treatments was conducted on previously developed composite s-PEEK (1.55 mequiv. g{sup -1}) membranes, containing a commercial aminopropyl-functionalised silica. DSC, WAXS, SEM-EDX and laser microscope measurements carried out on membranes swollen at different temperatures highlighted different membrane properties depending on post-casting treatments. It was found that composite membranes have different structural and morphological characteristics than pristine polymer membranes. The silica distribution was modified when different treatments are used. The state of water changed when silica was inserted into the membranes. Actually, contrary to the pristine membranes the presence of freezable water was revealed at temperature lower than 80 C. The proton conductivity was also affected by the presence and the amount of water trapped into the membranes and was particularly influenced by the post-casting treatments. The silica introduction reduced the swelling effect and improved the robustness of the membranes even if a higher water content in the freezable state was observed. Acid treatment leads to significant improvement in membrane properties, but the present work shows that annealing before acid treatment can affect the membrane morphology more strongly than other treatments resulting in a much better fuel cell performance. (author)

  20. Factors influencing cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Rona; Alexander, Susan; Hatcher, Deborah; Mackey, Sandra; Shahid, Shaouli; Holden, Lynda; Kwok, Cannas

    2016-02-01

    We aim to systematically review studies that identify factors influencing cancer treatment decision-making among indigenous peoples. Following the outline suggested by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, a rigorous systematic review and meta-synthesis were conducted of factors that influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous peoples. A total of 733 articles were retrieved from eight databases and a manual search. After screening the titles and abstracts, the full text of 26 articles were critically appraised, resulting in five articles that met inclusion criteria for the review. Because the five articles to be reviewed were qualitative studies, the Critical Appraisal Skills Program toolkit was used to evaluate the methodological quality. A thematic synthesis was employed to identify common themes across the studies. Multiple socio-economic and cultural factors were identified that all had the potential to influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous people. These factors were distilled into four themes: spiritual beliefs, cultural influences, communication and existing healthcare systems and structures. Although existing research identified multiple factors influencing decision-making, this review identified that quality studies in this domain are scarce. There is scope for further investigation, both into decision-making factors and into the subsequent design of culturally appropriate programmes and services that meet the needs of indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Level of Alexithymia in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Does Not Influence Outcomes after Inpatient Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  2. The level of alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  3. Influence of heat treatment and veneering on the storage modulus and surface of zirconia ceramic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siavikis, G.; Behr, M.; van der Zel, J.M.; Feilzer, A.J.; Rosentritt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Glass-ceramic veneered zirconia is used for the application as fixed partial dentures. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the heat treatment during veneering, the application of glass-ceramic for veneering or long term storage has an influence on the storage modulus of

  4. EVALUATION OF A TWO-STAGE PASSIVE TREATMENT APPROACH FOR MINING INFLUENCE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-stage passive treatment approach was assessed at bench-scale using two Colorado Mining Influenced Waters (MIWs). The first-stage was a limestone drain with the purpose of removing iron and aluminum and mitigating the potential effects of mineral acidity. The second stage w...

  5. Toxin production in food as influenced by pH, thermal treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxin production in food as influenced by pH, thermal treatment and chemical ... carrot, spinach, pepper, tomato, onion and cooked food samples (rice, yam, beans, ... on the growth rate and toxin elaboration of E. coli, K. aerogenes, C. freundii, ...

  6. INFLUENCE OF PERSONALITY ON THE OUTCOME OF TREATMENT IN DEPRESSION : SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Tyrer, Peter; Johnson, Tony; Mulder, Roger; Kool, Simone; Dekker, Jack; Schoevers, Robert

    There continues to be debate about the influence of personality disorder on the outcome of depressive disorders and is relative interactions with treatment. To determine whether personality disorder, both generically and in terms of individual clusters, leads to a worse outcome in patients with

  7. The level of Alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Hein A.; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  8. Influence of the chemical composition, heat and surface treatment in the biofouling of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarro, M. I.; Aleman, O.; Moreno, D. A.; Roso, M.; Ranninger, C.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the biofouling processes in the kinds of stainless steels used normally in industry (UNS S30400, UNS S30403 and UNS S31600), with different surface treatments after grinding and polishing. The study was developed using two microscopy techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used to evaluate the microorganisms distribution in the materials, and Epi fluorescence Microscopy was used to evaluate the viability of cells in the biofilm. The results revealed the influence of the material, heat treatment, surface treatment and roughness in the biofouling processes in the stainless steel assays. (Author) 33 refs

  9. Influence of heat treatment on physicochemical and rheological characteristics of natural yogurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Célia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of heat treatment on physicochemical and rheological characteristics of natural yogurts, as well as the influence of lyophilization process on natural yogurts after reconstitution. In the first experiment, three yogurt treatments were processed, as follows: Treatment 1, yogurt produced with raw refrigerated milk; Treatment 2, yogurt produced with refrigerated pasteurized milk; and Treatment 3, yogurt produced with UHT (ultra-high temperature milk, in addition to analyses of fat, protein, moisture, titratable acidity, and pH. The shelf life of yogurts at 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 days of storage, as well as pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity, viable lactic bacteria, and total coliforms were also assessed. In the second experiment, yogurts were submitted to lyophilization process, performed by scanning electron microscopy analysis and subsequently in those reconstituted, in addition to being assessed the physicochemical, rheological, and viable lactic bacteria characteristics. The results found in the first experiment showed that heat treatment was positive for viscosity, syneresis, and lactic bacteria, being viable until the 15th day of storage only for yogurts submitted to heat treatment. In the second experiment, lyophilization preserved the physicochemical characteristics of yogurts, but the number of initial lactic bacteria was different, also negatively affecting yogurt viscosity.

  10. [Eating Disorder Treatment in Iceland - Treatment adherence, psychiatric co-morbidities and factors influencing drop-out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Gudrun Mist; Palsson, Sigurdur Pall; Thorsteinsdottir, Gudlaug

    2015-05-01

    Treatment adherence in patients with eating disorders (ED) in Iceland is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate treatment drop-out and explore factors that influence premature termination of treatment in a specialized ED treatment unit, at the University Hospital of Iceland, during the period of September 1, 2008 - May 1, 2012. The study is retrospective and naturalistic. Hospital records of referred patients were examined. Those meeting the ICD 10 criteria of anorexia nervosa (AN) (F50.0, F50.1), bulimia nervosa (BN) (F50.2, F50.3) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (F50.9) were included. The total sample was 260 and 182 patients met inclusion criteria. No-shows were 7%. Drop-out was defined as premature termination of treatment without formal discharge. The sample consisted of 176 women and 6 men, mean age 26.3 years. BN was diagnosed in 52.7% of patients, EDNOS in 36.8% AN in 10.4%. 74.7% had one or more co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis. Anxiety- and/or depression were diagnosed in 72.5%, Attention hyperactivity deficiency disorder in 15.4% and personality disorders in 8.2%. Lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) was 30.8%. Drop-out from treatment occurred in 54.4% of cases (with approximately 1/3 returning to treatment), 27.5% finished treatment and 18.1% were still in treatment at the end of the follow up period. Treatment adherence was significantly higher in patients who had a university degree, in those who had themselves taken the initiative to seek ED treatment and in those with higher anxiety scores at assessment. AN patients did better than other ED patients while patients with SUDs showed a tendency for higher drop-out (p=0.079). The drop-out rates were similar to what has been reported from other western countries. Follow-up time was longer and AN patient did better than expected. Higher education, initiative in seeking treatment and higher anxiety scores on questionnaires were protective.

  11. CRIO-INFLUENCE IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF BENIGN TUMOURS OF FOOT BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Dianov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The material of investigation was the results of treatment of 131 patients with foot bones tumours. The largest number of patients referred, to age interval from 11 to 30 years (69,6%. More than half of cases were osteochondromas (54%, then solitary bone cyst (14,5% and chondromas (13%. Other nosologic forms were met significantly seldom. Two groups of patients were examined: the main group (with crio-influence - 44 patients and group of comparison (without crio-influence - 87 patients. The plot of operation was in flat, border-line, intrafocusal or segmental resection of damaged section, crio-instillation or contact curio-processing of bone and auto- or allopathic of respected defect. The results of treatment were estimated in a year after operation. After usage of curio-surgical method there were observed positive results in 41 patients, satisfactory - in 2 and unsatisfactory - in 1. The results of treatment with traditional method were positive in 79 cases, satisfactory - in 2, unsatisfactory - in 6. The worked-out method of curio-surgical treatment of foot bone tumours includes resection of pathological focus, itraoperative crio-influence on bone tissue and bone plastic transplantation of resected, defect. The analysis of criosurgical operations of foot gave the foundation to consider such interventions significant and perspective in treatment of patients with tumours and tumour similar damages of foot bone.

  12. Factors influencing parental decision making about stimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rana; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Aslani, Parisa

    2013-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pediatric psychological condition commonly treated with stimulant medications. Negative media reports and stigmatizing societal attitudes surrounding the use of these medications make it difficult for parents of affected children to accept stimulant treatment, despite it being first line therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence parental decision making regarding stimulant treatment for ADHD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies: 1) that employed qualitative methodology, 2) that highlighted treatment decision(s) about stimulant medication, 3) in which the decision(s) were made by the parent of a child with an official ADHD diagnosis, and 4) that examined the factors affecting the decision(s) made. Individual factors influencing parental treatment decision making, and the major themes encompassing these factors, were identified and followed by a thematic analysis. Eleven studies reporting on the experiences of 335 parents of children with ADHD were included. Four major themes encompassing influences on parents' decisions were derived from the thematic analysis performed: confronting the diagnosis, external influences, apprehension regarding therapy, and experience with the healthcare system. The findings of this systematic review reveal that there are multiple factors that influence parents' decisions about stimulant therapy. This information can assist clinicians in enhancing information delivery to parents of children with ADHD, and help reduce parental ambivalence surrounding stimulant medication use. Future work needs to address parental concerns about stimulants, and increase their involvement in shared decision making with clinicians to empower them to make the most appropriate treatment decision for their child.

  13. Examination of the influence of heat treatment on the properties of Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuksanovic, D.; Rakocevic, S. [Faculty of Metallurgy, Podgorica (RS); Markovic, S. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (RS); Petrovic, T. [Institute ' Kirilo Savic' , Belgrade (RS); Kovacevic, K. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (RS); Tripkovic, S. [H.K. Petar Drapsin, Mladenovac (RS)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper the influence of heat treatment on the structural and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys was investigated. Silicon content in the examined alloys was in the range 11 to 14%, the contents of the other alloying elements were in the standard range but all alloys were modified with strontium. The regime of the applied heat treatment was quenching (520 C/6h - cooling in water) + aging (205oC/7h - air cooling). The examinations were carried out at room temperature as well as at 250 C and 300 C. The obtained results showed a positive influence of the applied heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the examined alloys. The improvement of the mechanical properties can be considered as a consequence of a redistribution and change of morphology of the phases present in the structure of the alloys. (orig.)

  14. Influence of timer end-effects on Gamma knife (Type B) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Sadaaki; Ito, Teruo; Toyoda, Tatsuya; Wakamatsu, Osamu; Machida, Toru

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the influence of timer end-effects retrospectively in cases treated with Gamma knife (Type B) in the first year and in the fifth year after installation. Objects were 113 cases from April 1997 to December 1997 and 230 cases between January 2001 and December 2001. The influence of timer end-effects was calculated in the following formula: influence of timer end-effects=Σ (timer end-effects/shot time)/(number of lesions x number of shots). Ten factors such as the output at the center of polystyrene sphere phantom, the number of lesions, the number of shots, the delivered maximum absorbed dose, total irradiation time and the frequency in the use of each collimator helmet were examined as factors of the influence. The average values of timer end-effects were 4.7±0.27, 4.3±0.27, 3.6±0.24 and 3.5±0.29%/min. for 18, 14, 8 and 4 mm collimator helmets, respectively and depended on field size. We believe that the unit '%/min.' must be accepted instead of '%'. Gamma knife treatment is stereotactic radiosurgery and 40-50 Gy is irradiated within several hours with about ten shots. So the influence of timer end-effects was calculated 0.82±0.80% in 1997 and 0.51±0.41% in 2001 on average. These data suggest that there was little influence on the treatment. These figures were average values per lesion, so the influence may be more complicated in each part of lesions. The difference between the influence of timer end-effects in 1997 and 2001 was considered to be caused by the elongation of shot time according to Cobalt-60 decay, the reduction of the number of shots by frequent use of 14 mm collimator helmet, and the restriction of the number of treated lesions. (author)

  15. Restorative treatment thresholds: factors influencing the treatment thresholds and modalities of general dentists in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Mai E; Alomari, Qasem D; Ngo, Hien; Doméjean, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the thresholds at which general dentists in Kuwait would restore approximal and occlusal carious lesions and examined the demographic characteristics of the dentists in relation to their decision making. The study population consisted of a random sample of 185 general dentists practicing in the Ministry of Health of Kuwait. A survey questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire presented different stages and locations of carious lesions; the participants were asked to identify the stage at which a restoration is required under different conditions, the preparation technique, and their choice of restorative material. For approximal carious lesions, 74 (40%) of the participants reported that they would restoratively intervene when the carious lesion reached the outer third of the dentin. A total of 91 (49.2%) reported the use of traditional class II restorations. For occlusal carious lesions, 128 (69.2%) said they would intervene when lesions reached the middle third of the dentin. 146 (78.9%) said they would remove the carious tissue only in their preparation. For both approximal and occlusal lesions, the participants preferred resin composite as the material for restoration. The respondents tended to delay restorative intervention until dentinal penetration of the caries. Resin restorative materials were used in conservatively prepared cavities. Participants chose a conservative approach for occlusal lesions but still believed in a traditional approach when it concerned approximal lesions. Experience, university dental education, and participation in continuous education courses were most significantly related to restorative treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Treatment decision-making by men with localized prostate cancer: the influence of personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna L; Ellis, William J; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Schwien, Christina; Mullen, Kristin H; Yang, Claire

    2003-01-01

    For many men with localized prostate cancer, there is no definite answer or unequivocal choice regarding treatment modality. This high-stakes treatment decision is made in the context of great uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to systematically document meaningful and relevant aspects of treatment decision-making reported by men with localized prostate cancer. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 44 men who were within 6 months of a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer. Using content analysis and grounded theory analytic techniques, major aspects and processes of men's treatment decision making are identified and described. The participants reported their experiences beginning with influential personal history factors, followed by detailed descriptions of information gathering and the important influence of expected treatment outcomes and other individuals' cancer histories and/or shared opinions. Twenty of the 44 (45%) participants relied heavily on the influence of another's opinion or history to finalize a decision, yet only 10 of the 44 (22.7%) reported this individual to be their physician. A common process, "making the best choice for me" was explicated. Clinicians assume that men are making rational treatment decisions based on reliable information, yet this study documents a different reality. Patient education about medical therapies and the patients' own medical factors is not enough. A clinic visit dialogue that brings personal factors to the conversation along with medical factors can guide a man to making his "best choice" for localized prostate cancer.

  17. [Influence of interleukin-1 beta gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Zhijun; Xu, Zhi; Pu, Mengjia; Geng, Leiyu

    2015-12-01

    To explore the influence of interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment. Two hundred and four patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have received treatment with single antidepressant drugs and were followed up for 8 weeks. Hamilton depression scale-17 (HAMD-17) was used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms and therapeutic effect. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item Short Form (CTQ-SF). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the IL1B gene was determined using a SNaPshot method. Correlation of rs16944 gene polymorphism with response to treatment was analyzed using Unphased 3.0.13 software. The main and interactive effects of SNP and childhood maltreatment on the antidepressant treatment were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis. No significant difference of gender, age, year of education, family history, episode time, and antidepressant agents was detected between the remitters and non-remitters. Association analysis has found that the SNP rs16944 in the IL1B AA genotype carriers antidepressant response was poorer (χ2=3.931, P=0.047). No significant difference was detected in the CTQ scores between the two groups. Genetic and environmental interaction analysis has demonstrated a significant correlation between rs16944 AA genotype and childhood maltreatment and poorer response to antidepressant treatment. The SNP rs16944 in the IL1B gene and its interaction with childhood maltreatment may influence the effect of antidepressant treatment for patients with MDD.

  18. Cultural influences on the physician-patient encounter: The case of shared treatment decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Cathy; Gafni, Amiram; Whelan, Tim; O'Brien, Mary Ann

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we discuss the influence of culture on the process of treatment decision-making, and in particular, shared treatment decision-making in the physician-patient encounter. We explore two key issues: (1) the meaning of culture and the ways that it can affect treatment decision-making; (2) cultural issues and assumptions underlying the development and use of treatment decision aids. This is a conceptual paper. Based on our knowledge and reading of the key literature in the treatment decision-making field, we looked for written examples where cultural influences were taken into account when discussing the physician-patient encounter and when designing instruments (decision aids) to help patients participate in making decisions. Our assessment of the situation is that to date, and with some recent exceptions, research in the above areas has not been culturally sensitive. We suggest that more research attention should be focused on exploring potential cultural variations in the meaning of and preferences for shared decision-making as well as on the applicability across cultural groups of decision aids developed to facilitate patient participation in treatment decision-making with physicians. Both patients and physicians need to be aware of the cultural assumptions underlying the development and use of decision aids and assess their cultural sensitivity to the needs and preferences of patients in diverse cultural groups.

  19. Influence of ethylene glycol pretreatment on effectiveness of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of polyethylene fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Ying; Li Ranxing; Cai Fang; Fu Kun; Peng Shujing; Jiang Qiuran; Yao Lan; Qiu Yiping

    2010-01-01

    For atmospheric pressure plasma treatments, the results of plasma treatments may be influenced by liquids adsorbed into the substrate. This paper studies the influence of ethylene glycol (EG) pretreatment on the effectiveness of atmospheric plasma jet (APPJ) treatment of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers with 0.31% and 0.42% weight gain after soaked in EG/water solution with concentration of 0.15 and 0.3 mol/l for 24 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the surface of fibers pretreated with EG/water solution does not have observable difference from that of the control group. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the oxygen concentration on the surface of EG-pretreated fibers is increased less than the plasma directly treated fibers. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of plasma directly treated fibers to epoxy is increased almost 3 times compared with the control group while that of EG-pretreated fibers to epoxy does not change except for the fibers pretreated with lower EG concentration and longer plasma treatment time. EG pretreatment reduces the water contact angle of UHMWPE fibers. In conclusion, EG pretreatment can hamper the effect of plasma treatment of UHMWPE fibers and therefore longer plasma treatment duration is required for fibers pretreated with EG.

  20. Influence of quality of life, self-perception, and self-esteem on orthodontic treatment need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Patrícia R; Meneghim, Marcelo de C; Ambrosano, Glaucia M B; Filho, Mario Vedovello; Vedovello, Silvia A S

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between normative and perceived orthodontic treatment need associated with quality of life, self-esteem, and self-perception. The sample included 248 schoolchildren aged 12 years. The normative aspect of orthodontic treatment was assessed by the Dental Health Component and the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The subjects were further evaluated for their oral health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and self-perception of oral esthetics. The Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need was considered as the response variable, and generalized linear models estimated by the GENMOD procedure (release 9.3, 2010; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Model 1 was estimated with only the intercept, providing the basis for evaluating the reduction in variance in the other models studied; then the variables were tested sequentially, considering P ≤0.05 as the criterion for remaining in the model. In the model, self-perception and self-esteem were statistically significant in relation to the perceived need for treatment. The normative need was significantly associated with the outcome variable and was not influenced by independent variables. The normative need for orthodontics treatment was not overestimated by the perceived need, and the perceived need was not influenced by sex and the impact on quality of life. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of High Temperature Treatment on Mechanical Behavior of a Coarse-grained Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, G.; Peng, J.; Jiang, M.

    2017-12-01

    High temperature has a significant influence on the physical and mechanical behavior of rocks. With increasing geotechnical engineering structures concerning with high temperature problems such as boreholes for oil or gas production, underground caverns for storage of radioactive waste, and deep wells for injection of carbon dioxides, etc., it is important to study the influence of temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of rocks. This paper experimentally investigates the triaxial compressive properties of a coarse-grained marble after exposure to different high temperatures. The rock specimens were first heated to a predetermined temperature (200, 400, and 600 oC) and then cooled down to room temperature. Triaxial compression tests on these heat-treated specimens subjected to different confining pressures (i.e., 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 MPa) were then conducted. Triaxial compression tests on rock specimens with no heat treatment were also conducted for comparison. The results show that the high temperature treatment has a significant influence on the microstructure, porosity, P-wave velocity, stress-strain relation, strength and deformation parameters, and failure mode of the tested rock. As the treatment temperature gradually increases, the porosity slightly increases and the P-wave velocity dramatically decreases. Microscopic observation on thin sections reveals that many micro-cracks will be generated inside the rock specimen after high temperature treatment. The rock strength and Young's modulus show a decreasing trend with increase of the treatment temperature. The ductility of the rock is generally enhanced as the treatment temperature increases. In general, the high temperature treatment weakens the performance of the tested rock. Finally, a degradation parameter is defined and a strength degradation model is proposed to characterize the strength behavior of heat-treated rocks. The results in this study provide useful data for

  2. Genetic influence on methadone treatment outcomes in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaan Z

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zainab Samaan,1–4 Monica Bawor,3,4 Brittany B Dennis,2,3 Carolyn Plater,5 Michael Varenbut,5 Jeffrey Daiter,5 Andrew Worster,5,6 David C Marsh,5,7 Charlie Tan,8 Dipika Desai,3 Lehana Thabane,2,9,10 Guillaume Pare11 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, 4MiNDS Neuroscience Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 5Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; 6Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 7Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 8Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 9Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, 10System Linked Research Unit, 11Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Introduction: Treatment of opioid addiction with methadone is effective; however, it is known to produce interindividual variability. This may be influenced in part by genetic variants, which can increase the initial risk of developing opioid addiction as well as explain differences in response to treatment. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale genetic analysis to identify genes that predict methadone treatment outcomes in this population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of patients admitted to a methadone maintenance treatment program for opioid addiction. We obtained demographic and clinical characteristics in addition to blood and urine samples, for the assessment of treatment outcomes. Results: The recruitment process yielded 252 patients, representing a 20% recruitment rate. We conducted genetic testing based on a 99.6% rate of provision of DNA samples. The average retention in treatment was 3.4 years, and >50% of the participants reported psychiatric and

  3. Factors that influence the urodynamic results of botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurogenic hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martín, P; Vírseda-Chamorro, M; Salinas Casado, J; Gómez-Rodríguez, A; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2015-05-01

    To determine the urodynamic efficacy and factors that influence the urodynamic results of treatment of neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity with intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). A retrospective study was conducted with a cohort of 70 patients composed of 40 men and 30 women with stable SCI (mean age, 39 ± 13.3 years) who underwent an intradetrusor injection of 300 IUs of BTX-A. A urodynamic study was conducted prior to the injection and 6 ± 4.3 months after the treatment. New urodynamic studies were subsequently performed up to an interval of 16 ± 12.2 months. The BTX-A significantly increased (p bladder capacity, the bladder volume of the first involuntary contraction of the detrusor and the postvoid residue. We observed a decrease that tended towards statistical significance (p bladder accommodation nor the urethral resistance index (bladder outlet obstruction index) varied significantly. The increase in vesical capacity was maintained in 50% of the sample for more than 32 months. Age, sex, anticholinergic treatment and lesion age showed no influence in terms of the increase in bladder capacity. The indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) was the only statistically significant negative factor. The urodynamic effect of BTX-A is maintained for a considerable time interval. The IUC negatively influences the result of the treatment. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of organic solvent treatment on elasticoluminescent property of europium-doped strontium aluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujio, Yuki; Xu, Chao-Nan; Terasaki, Nao; Ueno, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    The influence of an organic solvent treatment on elasticoluminescent (ELS) characteristics of mechanoluminescent (ML) sensor using the composite film consisting of an ELS material and epoxy resin was investigated. We used strontium aluminate doped with a small amount of europium (SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu, SAOE) as an ELS material in this study. After evaluating the ELS characteristics of the fabricated ML sensors using SAOE treated with/without various organic solvents, SAOE treated with methanol and ethanol showed lower ELS intensities than that of untreated SAOE. In contrast, the ELS response curves against strain for the ML sensors using SAOE treated with acetone and toluene, overlapped with that of untreated SAOE. From the characterization of SAOE treated with alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol, we can hypothesize that poor ELS characteristics is due to the degradation of the SAOE grain surfaces by the hydrolyze reaction of SAOE with hydroxyl group of alcohol. Thus, on the basis of the obtained results, we can conclude that the selection of organic solvent used in the preparation of SAOE film is of considerable importance in the development of ML sensor with a highly-reliable ELS characteristic. -- Highlights: • Influence of organic solution treatment on the sensing characteristics of a mechanoluminescent (ML) sensor using SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu has been investigated. • An alcohol treatment of SAOE powder has considerable effect on its ML characteristic. • There is almost no influence of acetone and toluene treatments on ML characteristics

  5. Social influences on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, J M; Hilkens, A; Zoche-Golob, V; Krömker, V; Buddiger, M; Jansen, J; Lam, T J G M

    2015-04-01

    Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis treatment is frequently repeated after the initial per-label treatment, thereby extending treatment duration. The aim of this study was to explore the social factors influencing farmers' decision-making on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis. In total, 38 dairy farmers in the Netherlands (n=17) and Germany (n=21) were interviewed in a qualitative semi-structured way. Extended treatment was defined as any treatment longer than that given in label directions. Of the 38 farmers, 30 reported routine and 7 occasional extended antibiotic treatment. The interviewed farmers were sensitive toward social norms of other farmers and recognition for good stockmanship. Extended treatment is perceived as part of the social norm of "being a good farmer." The participants' perception was that mastitis is not treated "thoroughly" if clinical symptoms were still visible at the time of cessation of treatment, because it may persist or recur. As a result, treatment was frequently extended by repeating the initial label treatment. Farmers, specifically the more "cow-oriented" farmers, expressed insecurity on how to treat mastitis effectively. This insecurity made them more sensitive to comply with other farmers' injunctive ("what ought to be") and descriptive ("what is done") norms and the perceived veterinarians' informational norm that extended treatment is better, resulting in an approved social norm. Social approval reduces the insecurity of being perceived as a poor farmer; thus, extended treatment is emotionally rewarded. This social reward apparently outweighs the higher costs of more waste milk and more antibiotic usage. Perceived positive reference groups with whom the

  6. The influence of waste treatment, conditioning and packaging on design for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufton, E.P.S.; Whipp, H.G.; Putte, D.V.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a repository for low and intermediate level waste will always have a number of targets; safety, capacity, cost and ease of operation being prominent. Achieving the targets requires a total design of the waste management system, which ranges from treatment of the raw waste form at the source of arising to design for post-closure performance of the repository. In working on repository designs and their safety assessments, the authors have found that different waste forms have significant influences on the repository and this paper is concerned with those influences. 1 ref

  7. Influence of socioeconomic status on childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Sitaresmi, Mei N; Gundy, Chad M; Sutaryo; Veerman, Anjo J P

    2006-12-01

    A major reason for poor survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in developing countries is treatment refusal or abandonment. This can be associated with parental socioeconomic status and attitudes of health care providers. Our study examined the influence of 2 socioeconomic status determinants, parental income and education, on treatment in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 164 patients who received a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia between 1997 and 2002 were abstracted retrospectively. Data on treatment results and parental financial and educational background were collected. Open interviews were conducted with parents and health care providers. Of all patients, 35% refused or abandoned treatment, 23% experienced treatment-related death, 22% had progressive or relapsed leukemia, and 20% had an overall event-free survival. Treatment results differed significantly between patients with different socioeconomic status; 47% of poor and 2% of prosperous patients refused or abandoned treatment. Although poor and prosperous patients used the same protocol, the provided treatment differed. Poor patients received less individualized attention from oncologists and less structured parental education. Strong social hierarchical structures hindered communication with doctors, resulting in a lack of parental understanding of the necessity to continue treatment. Most poor patients could not afford treatment. Access to donated chemotherapy also was inadequate. Treatment refusal or abandonment frequently resulted. There was no follow-up system to detect and contact dropouts. Health care providers were not fully aware that their own attitude and communication skills were important for ensuring compliance of patients and parents. Children's survival of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in developing countries could improve if problems that are associated with parental financial and educational background and medical teams' attitudes to treatment and

  8. Model averaging in the presence of structural uncertainty about treatment effects: influence on treatment decision and expected value of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Malcolm J; Welton, Nicky J; Briggs, Andrew H; Ades, A E

    2011-01-01

    Standard approaches to estimation of Markov models with data from randomized controlled trials tend either to make a judgment about which transition(s) treatments act on, or they assume that treatment has a separate effect on every transition. An alternative is to fit a series of models that assume that treatment acts on specific transitions. Investigators can then choose among alternative models using goodness-of-fit statistics. However, structural uncertainty about any chosen parameterization will remain and this may have implications for the resulting decision and the need for further research. We describe a Bayesian approach to model estimation, and model selection. Structural uncertainty about which parameterization to use is accounted for using model averaging and we developed a formula for calculating the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) in averaged models. Marginal posterior distributions are generated for each of the cost-effectiveness parameters using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation in WinBUGS, or Monte-Carlo simulation in Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA). We illustrate the approach with an example of treatments for asthma using aggregate-level data from a connected network of four treatments compared in three pair-wise randomized controlled trials. The standard errors of incremental net benefit using structured models is reduced by up to eight- or ninefold compared to the unstructured models, and the expected loss attaching to decision uncertainty by factors of several hundreds. Model averaging had considerable influence on the EVPI. Alternative structural assumptions can alter the treatment decision and have an overwhelming effect on model uncertainty and expected value of information. Structural uncertainty can be accounted for by model averaging, and the EVPI can be calculated for averaged models. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Topical treatment of psoriasis: questionnaire results on topical therapy accessibility and influence of body surface area on usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iversen, L.; Lange, M.M. De; Bissonette, R.; Carvalho, A.V.E.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Kirby, B.; Kleyn, C.E.; Lynde, C.W.; Walt, J.M. van der; Wu, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis is first-line treatment and exhibits varying degrees of success across patient groups. Key factors influencing treatment success are physician topical treatment choice (high efficacy, low adverse events) and strict patient adherence.

  10. The Influence of Frontal Lobe Tumors and Surgical Treatment on Advanced Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shengyu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Brain cognitive functions affect patient quality of life. The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in advanced cognitive functions, including executive function, meta-cognition, decision-making, memory, emotion, and language. Therefore, frontal tumors can lead to serious cognitive impairments. Currently, neurosurgical treatment is the primary method to treat brain tumors; however, the effects of the surgical treatments are difficult to predict or control. The treatment may both resolve the effects of the tumor to improve cognitive function or cause permanent disabilities resulting from damage to healthy functional brain tissue. Previous studies have focused on the influence of frontal lesions and surgical treatments on patient cognitive function. Here, we review cognitive impairment caused by frontal lobe brain tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Research of refraction status in 354 amblyopia children and influence factors for its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the refraction status in 354 amblyopia children and to investigate the related influence factors for the treatment effect. METHODS:Three hundred and fifty-four children diagnosed as ametropia amblyopia from January 2010 to June 2015 in our hospital were selected. The children were divided into groups according to the children's age, refraction types of amblyopia and degree of amblyopia. The clinical treatment effect of different groups was compared. RESULTS:The cure rate for amblyopia children in different groups was significantly different(PPPCONCLUSION:The treatment effect of ametropia amblyopia is correlated with the children's age, types of amblyopia and degree of amblyopia. It has a poor treatment effect for the older children with severe myopia and amblyopia.

  12. The Influence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boritz, Tali; Barnhart, Ryan; McMain, Shelley F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were 180 individuals diagnosed with BPD enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that compared the clinical and cost effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and general psychiatric management (GPM). Multilevel linear models and generalized linear models were used to compare clinical outcomes of BPD patients with and without PTSD. BPD patients with comorbid PTSD reported significantly higher levels of global psychological distress at baseline and end of treatment compared to their non-PTSD counterparts. Both groups evidenced comparable rates of change on suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), global psychological distress, and BPD symptoms over the course of treatment and post-treatment follow-up. DBT and GPM were effective for BPD patients with and without PTSD across a broad range of outcomes.

  13. Influence of vegetation and gravel mesh on the tertiary treatment of wastewater from a cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlyssides, Apostolos G; Mai, Sofia T H; Barampouti, Elli Maria P; Loukakis, Haralampos N

    2009-07-01

    To estimate the influence of gravel mesh (fine and coarse) and vegetation (Phragmites and Arundo) on the efficiency of a reed bed, a pilot plant was included after the wastewater treatment plant of a cosmetic industry treatment system according to a 22 factorial experimental design. The maximum biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorous (TP) reduction was observed in the reactor, where Phragmites and fine gravel were used. In the reactor with Phragmites and coarse gravel, the maximum total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total suspended solids (TSS) reduction was observed. The maximum total solids reduction was measured in the reed bed, which was filled with Arundo and coarse gravel. Conclusively, the treatment of a cosmetic industry's wastewater by reed beds as a tertiary treatment method is quite effective.

  14. Influence of Thermal Homogenization Treatment on Structure and Impact Toughness of H13 ESR Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dang-shen; ZHOU Jian; CHEN Zai-zhi; ZHANG Zhong-kan; CHEN Qi-an; LI De-hui

    2009-01-01

    The as-cast microstrueture of H13 ESR ingot and the influence of high temperature diffusion treatment on the structure and impact toughness have been investigated. The results show that the dendrite arm spacing gradually becomes wide from the surface to the center of ingot, and the large primary carbide particles always exist in interdendritic segregation areas; by means of high temperature diffusion treatment of ingot prior to hot forging, the banded segregation is nearly eliminated, the annealed structure is more uniform and the isotropic properties have been improved remarkably.

  15. Influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants: A literature study. Pt. 9. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, L.; Schuettler, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Sterilization of medical aid articles (e.g. catheters, one-way syringes) with ionizing radiation is a successful practice in many countries. During recent years, the results from numerous experiments of radiosterillization of pharmaceuticals and adjuvants have likewise been published. Experience has shown that radiation treatment, in many cases, is leading to transformations of the irradiated substances. In the present part IX of the bibliographic study on the influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants the results of experiments on ca. 80 substances from 36 different sources have been evaluated. In all parts of the study results of about 560 experiments on 360 substances from 176 different sources are present. (orig.)

  16. The influence of different irradiation sources on the treatment of nitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Miguel [Universidad de Los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Timokhin, Vitaliy [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3a Naukova Street, 79053 Lviv (Ukraine); Michl, Florian; Contreras, Sandra; Gimenez, Jaime; Esplugas, Santiago [Department d' Enginyeria Quimica i Metallurgia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-11-15

    This work describes the influence of light on the treatment of nitrobenzene (NB) in aqueous solutions. Three different experimental devices were used to perform a detailed study: a photoreactor with four low-pressure mercury lamps ({lambda}=253.7nm), a tubular photoreactor with a polychromatic Xe lamp (290<{lambda}<1200nm), and finally a solar reactor (sunlight). TOC analyses were performed in order to monitor and compare the extent of these processes, each of them being performed with one of the three different sources of light. The influence of Fe(II), Fe(III), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and light on the mineralization of NB in aqueous solutions was also studied. The successful use of sunlight as a source of energy and its effectiveness regarding Fenton processes as well as direct photolysis in the treatment of NB are presented.

  17. Influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals. A study of the relevant literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Boess, C.

    2002-01-01

    The present communication provides a quick overview of the behaviour of individual substances when treated with ionizing radiation while making reference to the respective original literature. The choosen form of an encyclopaedia enables the user to find information at a glance. It is based on parts I - XII of our review of literature on the influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceutical products and adjuvants/excipients we started in 1978. (orig.)

  18. Influence of different pre-treatment routes on the anaerobic digestion of a filamentous algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Poulsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    biomass blending (20% compared to use of a mechanical size reduction method alone. The methane yields from Rhizoclonium biomass were however observed to be considerably lower than those of other algae species from......The anaerobic digestion of outdoor cultivated Rhizoclonium biomass was investigated in this study. The influence of applying mechanical and biological pre-treatment methods prior to the biomass digestion on the overall methane yields was examined. The results show that the application of a combined...

  19. Drug trajectories among youth undergoing treatment: the influence of psychological problems and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Natacha; Bertrand, Karine; Beaudoin, Isabelle; Ledoux, Cinthia; Gendron, Annie; Arseneault, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has documented associations of addiction with delinquency and psychological problems. However, few studies have evaluated their influence on adolescent's drug use trajectories. The current study aims to examine the influence of these factors on the recovery trajectories of 199 youths aged 15.6 years on average admitted to inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment centers, followed up three and six months later. Results indicate that youth who show higher severity of drug abuse exhibit greater improvement than youth with a lower severity of drug abuse at the onset of treatment. Although psychological problems were associated with baseline drug use, they did not influence drug use trajectory over time. Only delinquency influenced the recovery trajectories of these youth. Results suggest that a high level of delinquency can have a significant effect on the drug recovery process of adolescents and that interventions should attempt to reduce both drug use and delinquency. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of patient's motivation on reported pain during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio José da Silva Campos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients usually experience pain during orthodontic treatment. This fact can affect cooperation and the development of treatment. Reporting pain during treatment seems to be influenced by emotional aspects such as the patient's motivation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between patient's motivation and the intensity of reported pain during two stages of treatment. METHODS: Twenty males (11-37 years old answered a questionnaire divided into five categories regarding their motivation towards treatment. The subjects were studied for 14 days (7 days with bonded brackets and 7 days with the initial arch inserted and the intensity of pain was evaluated on a daily basis. All the issues, including the intensity of pain, were measured through the visual analog scale (VAS. RESULTS: The VAS-associated questionnaire proved to have good temporal reliability and reasonable internal consistency, being that the "perceived severity" domain had the greatest, although not significant (p = 0.196 correlation with pain intensity. Only the question asking the patients if they thought that their teeth were too uneven showed a positive correlation with pain intensity (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: The results seem to indicate that the five categories related to treatment motivation cannot be used to predict discomfort during treatment. In addition, patients who think their teeth are too uneven may experience more severe pain due to greater force application after insertion of the initial arch.

  1. Influence of health-insurance access and hospital retention policies on childhood cancer treatment in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Njuguna, F; van de Ven, P M; Olbara, G; Kemps, L J P A; Musimbi, J; Strother, R M; Aluoch, L M; Skiles, J; Buziba, N G; Sitaresmi, M N; Vreeman, R C; Kaspers, G J L

    2014-05-01

    Kenyan national policies for public hospitals dictate that patients are retained on hospital wards until their hospital bills are paid, but this payment process differs for patients with or without access to National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) at diagnosis. Whether these differences impact treatment outcomes has not been described. Our study explores whether childhood cancer treatment outcomes in Kenya are influenced by health-insurance status and hospital retention policies. This study combined retrospective review of medical records with an illustrative case report. We identified children diagnosed with malignancies at a large Kenyan academic hospital between 2007 and 2009, their treatment outcomes, and health-insurance status at diagnosis. Between 2007 and 2009, 222 children were diagnosed with malignancies. Among 180 patients with documented treatment outcome, 54% abandoned treatment, 22% had treatment-related death, 4% progressive/relapsed disease, and 19% event-free survival. Health-insurance status at diagnosis was recorded in 148 children: 23% had NHIF and 77% had no NHIF. For children whose families had NHIF compared with those who did not, the relative risk for treatment abandonment relative to event-free survival was significantly smaller (relative-risk ratio = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.81, P = 0.016). The case report illustrates difficulties that Kenyan families might face when their child is diagnosed with cancer, has no NHIF, and is retained in hospital. Children with NHIF at diagnosis had significantly lower chance of abandoning treatment and higher chance of survival. Childhood cancer treatment outcomes could be improved by interventions that prevent treatment abandonment and improve access to NHIF. Hospital retention of patients over unpaid medical bills must stop. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The influence of older age on breast cancer treatment decisions and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; McCormick, Beryl; Yahalom, Joachim; Borgen, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Information concerning the differences between older and younger women with breast cancer, treated with standard therapy, is lacking from many prospective series. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that influence treatment decisions and determine if women age 65 and older are treated differently than younger women. The outcomes of older women would then be compared to younger women to determine if treatment differences influence outcome. Methods and Materials: The records of 558 women with early invasive breast cancer who were treated with breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Four hundred thirty-two women under the age of 65 (range: 24-64) and 126 women age 65 and older (range: 65-85) were assessed for treatment differences including breast reexcision, extent of axillary dissection, extent of breast and nodal irradiation, and the use of chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Differences in the treatment of the two groups were determined and the end points of local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were compared. Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Results: The two treatment groups had identical pathologic TNM staging with the exception that 21% of the older age group and 5% of the younger age group did not undergo axillary dissection. Women age 65 and older were less likely to have a reexcision, extensive axillary dissection, chemotherapy, or nodal irradiation. They were more likely to receive hormonal therapy. Reexcision in older women was positively influenced by a family history of breast cancer and negatively influenced by a history of previous malignancy. None of the patients who were treated without an axillary dissection suffered a regional recurrence. Although local control was better in older patients, there were no differences in disease-free or overall survival for the two groups. Discussion: The findings of this study reveal that older patients have significant treatment

  3. Service providers' perception of affective influences on decision-making about treatments for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cary A

    2004-01-07

    Service providers working with people who have complex health problems like chronic pain are considered at particular risk from the heavy emotional content of these interactions (frustration, guilt, hostility). For the good of service users and in the interests of healthcare workers' own health it is important for them to employ reflective practice acknowledging these issues. Service providers are inculcated to negate the affective domain of their practice despite the growing awareness that wellbeing can no longer be envisioned as a linear (cause and effect) process divorced from socio-cultural influences and attendant values and beliefs. The aim of this report is to examine to what degree service users (SU) and service providers (SP) believe their decisions about treatment importance are influenced by self-image and emotion. These results are extrapolated from a larger study based on a postal questionnaire that went to members of the Pain Society (UK Chapter of IASP) and service users belonging to chronic pain support groups in the North-West of England. The question of interest in this report asked participants to identify their level of agreement with statements about how four themes influence their decision-making about whether a treatment is important. The themes (coherence, purposiveness, self-image and affect) arise from Chapman's model of consciousness and pain. Only 20.5% of service providers rated the influence of self-image (what someone like me would think) as 3 (mostly) or 4 (completely). Service provider rating for the influence of affect (how this treatment makes me feel) were similarly low with only 19.4% of respondents selecting a rating of 3 or 4. In marked contrast, 73.3% of the service users selected self-image and 92.9% selected affect as a strong influence. Service providers felt that affect and self-image had little influence on their decision-making. However, there is growing evidence in the literature to suggest that it is not possible, nor

  4. Heat treatment temperature influence on ASTM A890 GR 6A super duplex stainless steel microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are ferrous alloys with up to 26% chromium, 8% nickel, 5% molybdenum and 0.3% nitrogen, which are largely used in applications in media containing ions from the halogen family, mainly the chloride ion (Cl - ). The emergence of this material aimed at substituting Copper-Nickel alloys (Cupro-Nickel) that despite presenting good corrosion resistance, has mechanical properties quite inferior to steel properties. The metallurgy of duplex and super duplex stainless steel is complex due to high sensitiveness to sigma phase precipitation that becomes apparent, due to the temperatures they are exposed on cooling from solidification as well as from heat treatment processes. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of heat treating temperatures on the microstructure and hardness of ASTM A890/A890M Gr 6A super duplex stainless steel type. Microstructure control is of extreme importance for castings, as the chemical composition and cooling during solidification inevitably provide conditions for precipitation of sigma phase. Higher hardness in these materials is directly associated to high sigma phase concentration in the microstructure, precipitated in the ferrite/austenite interface. While heat treatment temperature during solution treatment increases, the sigma phase content in the microstructure decreases and consequently, the material hardness diminishes. When the sigma phase was completely dissolved by the heat treatment, the material hardness was influenced only due to ferrite and austenite contents in the microstructure

  5. Influence of different surface treatments on the fracture toughness of a commercial ZTA dental ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Teixeira da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate how mechanical surface treatments performed for removal of excess of molten glass, influence the fracture toughness of a dental zirconia toughened alumina (In-Ceram® Zirconia. Infiltrated ZTA disks were submitted to three different surface treatments (grinding, sandblasting and grinding + sandblasting + annealing. Fracture toughness was accessed through indentation strength test (IS. X ray diffraction was used to investigate the metastability of tetragonal zirconia particles under all treatments proposed. Kruskall-Wallis non-parametrical test and Weibull statistics were used to analyze the results. Grinding (group 1 introduced defects which decreased the fracture toughness and reliability, presenting the lowest K IC. On the other hand, grinding followed by sandblasting and annealing (group 3 presented the highest K IC. Sandblasting (group 2 presented the highest reliability but lower K IC compared to group 3.

  6. Influence of the surface treatment of tire rubber residues added in mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Marques

    Full Text Available In this work it was evaluated the influence tire rubber addition in mortars in order to replace part of the sand (12% by volume. It was also intended to verify if the tire rubber treatment with NaOH saturated aqueous solution causes interference on the mechanical properties of the mixture. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, and flow test were made in specimens of 5cmx10cm and the tests were carried out to 7, 28, 56, 90, and 180 days. The results show reduction on mechanical properties values after addition of tire rubber and decrease of the workability. It was also observed that the tire rubber treatment does not cause any alteration on the results compared to the rubber without treatment.

  7. Influence of dielectric barrier discharge treatment on mechanical and dyeing properties of wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul, NAVIK; Sameera, SHAFI; Md Miskatul, ALAM; Md Amjad, FAROOQ; Lina, LIN; Yingjie, CAI

    2018-06-01

    Physical and chemical properties of wool surface significantly affect the absorbency, rate of dye bath exhaustion and fixation of the industrial dyes. Hence, surface modification is a necessary operation prior to coloration process in wool wet processing industries. Plasma treatment is an effective alternative for physiochemical modification of wool surface. However, optimum processing parameters to get the expected modification are still under investigation, hence this technology is still under development in the wool wet processing industries. Therefore, in this paper, treatment parameters with the help of simple dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor and air as a plasma gas, which could be a promising combination for treatment of wool substrate at industrial scale were schematically studied, and their influence on the water absorbency, mechanical, and dyeing properties of twill woven wool fabric samples are reported. It is expected that the results will assist to the wool coloration industries to improve the dyeing processes.

  8. Influence of the shot-peening treatment on the CRF gearing behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinie, D.; Lemaire, E.; Randrianarivo, L.; Dorier, C.

    1998-01-01

    Surface damage are observed in service on CRF case-hardened cases. Such damage is like surface fatigue which appears in the form of frosting and can come to a micro-spalling or even a spalling damage. Survey and studies realised on gears affected by such damage, led EDF and the manufacturer to search for appropriated solutions since 1985 (optimisation of the gear bottom profile, care of the grinding and the thermochemical processing, use of oils with higher viscosity). Simulations on a running wheel device can reproduce the meshing conditions on simplified specimen. The aim is to study the influence of residual stresses following a severe grinding and shot peening treatments. An empiric selection was realised among different shot peening treatments. Endurance tests are realised on case-hardened gears with or without shot-peening treatments. Compared with standard grinded gears, it appears that the shot-peening selected increases up to 40% the gear lifetime till extended spalling. (authors)

  9. Influence of chemical treatment on dimensional stability of narrow-leaved ash - part one: Tangential swelling

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    Popović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional change in wood occurs with the change in hygroscopic moisture content, as a consequence of available hydroxyl groups in wood constituents, allowing for the hydrogen bonding with water molecules. Various pretreatments of wood material are being frequently applied in the wood processing industry. One of the main effects of such processes is the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, which is the main carrier of the free hydroxyl groups in wood material. Hence, the influence of water treatment and the acetic acid treatment on dimensional stability of narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. ssp. Pannonica Soó & Simon were examined in this paper. Duration of treatments was 1h, 2h, 3h and 4h for both solvents. In addition the acetic acid was separately used in concentrations of 3% and 6%. Dimensional stability of the control (referent and treated sample groups were tested on oven dried samples which were consequently submerged in the distilled water during 32 days. The increase of dimensional stability of narrow-leaved ash was achieved with all of the three treatments (one treatment with water and the two with acetic acid solutions. Simultaneously, it was noticed that the results of water uptake and tangential swelling were not significantly affected by the duration (length of the treatments. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP-031041

  10. Influencing factors on microbubble ozonation treatment of acid red 3R wastewater

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    Yurong YA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbubble ozonation was used to treat acid red 3R wastewater in order to investigate the influencing factors on its performance. The effects of ozone dose, initial acid red 3R concentration and activated carbon on the performance of microbubble ozonation treatment of acid red 3R wastewater are investigated. The decolorization rate, TOC removal rate, pH variation and ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble ozonation treatment are compared under different treatment conditions. The results indicate that when increasing ozone dose or decreasing initial acid red 3R concentration, both decolorization rate and TOC removal rate of acid red 3R wastewater increase, but ozone utilization efficiency decreases. The coal-based activated carbon shows strong catalytic activity for microbubble ozonation, which could enhance the decolorization rate and TOC removal rate of acid red 3R wastewater. The better performance of microbubble ozonation treatment is achieved when the ozone dose is 48.3 mg/min and the initial acid red 3R mass concentration is 100 mg/L. Under these conditions, the decolorization efficiency reaches to 100% after treatment for 30 min, the TOC removal efficiency reaches to 78.0% after treatment for 120 min, the reaction rate constant of TOC removal is 0.015 min-1 and the ozone utilization efficiency is higher than 99%. With addition of the coal-based activated carbon of 5 g/L, the decolorization efficiency reaches to 100% after treatment for 15 min, the TOC removal efficiency reaches to 91.2% after treatment for 120 min and the reaction rate constant of TOC removal increases to 0037 min-1.The accumulation and following degradation of intermediate products of small molecule organic acid happens during treatment process, and as a result, the solution pH decreases initially and then increases. Therefore, the optimization of influencing factors for microbubble ozonation could increase both contaminant removal

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients' treatment decisions

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    Jorgensen ML

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive guideline-recommended adjuvant chemotherapy. Previous research has indicated that patient refusal of treatment is a contributing factor. This study aimed to identify potential barriers to adjuvant chemotherapy use in older patients by examining the associations between patient age, factors influencing chemotherapy treatment decisions, and preferences for information and decision-making involvement.Patients and methods: Sixty-eight patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer in Sydney, Australia, within the previous 24 months completed a self-administered survey.Results: Fear of dying, health status, age, quality of life, and understanding treatment procedures and effects were significantly more important to older patients (aged ≥65 years than younger patients in deciding whether to accept chemotherapy (all P < 0.05. Reducing the risk of cancer returning and physician trust were important factors for all patients. Practical barriers such as traveling for treatment and cost were rated lowest. Older patients preferred less information and involvement in treatment decision making than younger patients. However, 60% of the older group wanted detailed information about chemotherapy, and 83% wanted some involvement in decision making. Those preferring less information and involvement still rated many factors as important in their decision making, including understanding treatment procedures and effects.Conclusion: A range of factors appears to influence

  12. Early glottic cancer: the influence of primary treatment on voice preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnicar, Hotimir; Smid, Lojze; Zakotnik, Branko

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis was performed to assess the influence of primary surgical or irradiation treatment on local control, survival, and final preservation of larynx in comparable groups of patients with T1N0 and T2N0 glottic cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred sixty-three previously untreated patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis (187T1 and 76T2) were treated with primary radiotherapy (159T1 and 60T2) or primary surgery (28T1 and 16T2) between January 1976 and December 1990, at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Conventional one daily fraction of 2 Gy to doses of 60-74 Gy (median: 65 Gy) were used in 98% of primarily irradiated patients through out the observed period. To enable better comparison between the two treatment groups, primarily irradiated patients were retrospectively stratified by the criteria of suitability for primary voice-sparing operation. Several host, tumor, and treatment parameters were analyzed. Results: Only the stage of the disease significantly influenced both 10-year recurrence-free and disease-specific survival regardless primary treatment modality (p = 0.0002). In all primary irradiated patients local control was significantly better for those with overall treatment time of less than 48 days (p = 0.007). In patients suitable for voice-sparing operation, local control of primarily operated patients was similar to that of patients primarily irradiated with shorter overall treatment time, which was 93 and 88% for T1 and 67 and 64% for T2 tumors, respectively. Ultimate local control in primary surgery and radiotherapy group was 96 and 96% for T1 and 89 and 88% for T2 tumors, respectively. Equal larynx preservation of 100% in T1 and 90% in T2 patients was achieved in finally cured primarily operated patients and those patients primarily irradiated with a shorter overall treatment time. If treatment time was longer than 48 days, significantly worse final larynx preservation of 84% in T1 and 75% in

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF PRE-HEAT TREATMENT ON WHITE CAST IRONS PLASTICITY

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    T. M. Myronova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of heat treatment modes of white cast irons for structure changes in their eutectic constituent, namely in disturbing the monolithic structure of ledeburite colonies cementite structure and eutectic net continuity. Also the mentioned heat treatment modes are targeted to the eutectic net shift for the most suitable position from the point of plastic deforming. Methodology. The hypoeutectic white cast irons with 2.92…3.35 % carbon content and additionally alloyed by 3.18 % vanadium have been used as the research materials. The mentioned alloys have been pre-heat treated and hot twist tested. Findings. The research results showed that the carbide net breaking by plastic deforming leads to cast irons mechanical properties increasing but has difficulties in implementation due to the white cast irons low plasticity. The influence of different pre-heat treatment modes on structure and plasticity of white hypoeutectic cast irons have been investigated. They include the isotherm soaking under the different temperatures as well as multiply soakings and thermo-cycling. The influence of eutectic level, as well as pre heat treatment modes on different composition white cast irons hot plasticity have been investigated. Originality. It was determined that the heat treatment, which leads to double α→γ recrystallization under 860 – 950 °С and reperlitization under 720-680 °С results in significant increase of plasticity, as well as in un-alloyed and alloyed by vanadium white cast irons. It takes place due to carbide matrix phase separation in ledeburite colonies by new phase boundaries forming especially due to carbide transformations under vanadium alloying. Practical value. The implementation of pre-heat treatment with phase recrystallization resulted in hypoeutectic white cast irons plasticity increasing. The obtained level of cast iron plasticity corresponds to the one of carbide class steels, which ensures the successful

  14. Hospital of Diagnosis Influences the Probability of Receiving Curative Treatment for Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Margreet; Koëter, Marijn; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Lemmens, Valery E P P; Siersema, Peter D; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Verhoeven, Rob H A; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this article was to study the influence of hospital of diagnosis on the probability of receiving curative treatment and its impact on survival among patients with esophageal cancer (EC). Although EC surgery is centralized in the Netherlands, the disease is often diagnosed in hospitals that do not perform this procedure. Patients with potentially curable esophageal or gastroesophageal junction tumors diagnosed between 2005 and 2013 who were potentially curable (cT1-3,X, any N, M0,X) were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to examine the probability to undergo curative treatment (resection with or without neoadjuvant treatment, definitive chemoradiotherapy, or local tumor excision) according to hospital of diagnosis. Effects of variation in probability of undergoing curative treatment among these hospitals on survival were investigated by Cox regression. All 13,017 patients with potentially curable EC, diagnosed in 91 hospitals, were included. The proportion of patients receiving curative treatment ranged from 37% to 83% and from 45% to 86% in the periods 2005-2009 and 2010-2013, respectively, depending on hospital of diagnosis. After adjustment for patient- and hospital-related characteristics these proportions ranged from 41% to 77% and from 50% to 82%, respectively (both P < 0.001). Multivariable survival analyses showed that patients diagnosed in hospitals with a low probability of undergoing curative treatment had a worse overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.20; hazard ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.24). The variation in probability of undergoing potentially curative treatment for EC between hospitals of diagnosis and its impact on survival indicates that treatment decision making in EC may be improved.

  15. The influence of ART on the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Alys; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro; Henderson, Harold; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Martin, David H; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-09-15

    Among women who are human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+), both prevalent and persistent infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are common. TV has been shown to increase vaginal shedding of HIV, which may influence HIV sexual and perinatal transmission, making prevention important. In 1 cohort of HIV+ women in Kenya, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, mostly nevirapine based, was associated with lower cure rates of TV for single-dose therapy. Our goal was to repeat this study in a US-based cohort of HIV+/TV+ women and compare outcomes to those with multidose therapy. A secondary data analysis was performed on a multicentered cohort of HIV+/TV+ women who were randomized to single-dose (2 grams) or 7-day (500 mg twice daily) multidose metronidazole (MTZ) treatment. Test of cure visit, via culture, occurred 6-12 days after treatment completion. Information was collected on sex partner treatment and sexual exposures. Persistent TV infection rates were compared for women on ART at baseline vs not on ART. Of the 226 women included, those on ART had more treatment failures than women not on ART (24/146 [16.4%] vs 5/80 [6.3%]; P = .03). When stratified by treatment arm, more treatment failures were seen in the single-dose arm (17/73 [23.3%] vs 3/39 [7.7%]; P = .05) than in the multidose arm (7/73 [9.6%] vs 2/41 [4.8%]; P = .39). ART usage was associated with a higher TV persistent infection rate among those receiving the single-dose treatment, but not the multidose, providing more evidence that multidose should be the preferred treatment for HIV+ women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Influence of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on surface properties of PBO fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruiyun; Pan Xianlin; Jiang Muwen; Peng Shujing; Qiu Yiping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PBO fibers were treated with atmospheric pressure plasmas. ► When 1% of oxygen was added to the plasma, IFSS increased 130%. ► Increased moisture regain could enhance plasma treatment effect on improving IFSS with long treatment time. - Abstract: In order to improve the interfacial adhesion property between PBO fiber and epoxy, the surface modification effects of PBO fiber treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in different time, atmosphere and moisture regain (MR) were investigated. The fiber surface morphology, functional groups, surface wettability for control and plasma treated samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements, respectively. Meanwhile, the fiber interfacial shear strength (IFSS), representing adhesion property in epoxy, was tested using micro-bond pull-out test, and single fiber tensile strength was also tested to evaluate the mechanical performance loss of fibers caused by plasma treatment. The results indicated that the fiber surface was etched during the plasma treatments, the fiber surface wettability and the IFSS between fiber and epoxy had much improvement due to the increasing of surface energy after plasma treatment, the contact angle decreased with the treatment time increasing, and the IFSS was improved by about 130%. The processing atmosphere could influence IFSS significantly, and moisture regains (MR) of fibers also played a positive role on improving IFSS but not so markedly. XPS analysis showed that the oxygen content on fiber surface increased after treatment, and C=O, O-C=O groups were introduced on fiber surface. On the other hand, the observed loss of fiber tensile strength caused by plasma treatment was not so remarkable to affect the overall performance of composite materials.

  17. Phytochemicals That Influence Gut Microbiota as Prophylactics and for the Treatment of Obesity and Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota (GM plays several crucial roles in host physiology and influences several relevant functions. In more than one respect, it can be said that you “feed your microbiota and are fed by it.” GM diversity is affected by diet and influences metabolic and immune functions of the host’s physiology. Consequently, an imbalance of GM, or dysbiosis, may be the cause or at least may lead to the progression of various pathologies such as infectious diseases, gastrointestinal cancers, inflammatory bowel disease, and even obesity and diabetes. Therefore, GM is an appropriate target for nutritional interventions to improve health. For this reason, phytochemicals that can influence GM have recently been studied as adjuvants for the treatment of obesity and inflammatory diseases. Phytochemicals include prebiotics and probiotics, as well as several chemical compounds such as polyphenols and derivatives, carotenoids, and thiosulfates. The largest group of these comprises polyphenols, which can be subclassified into four main groups: flavonoids (including eight subgroups, phenolic acids (such as curcumin, stilbenoids (such as resveratrol, and lignans. Consequently, in this review, we will present, organize, and discuss the most recent evidence indicating a relationship between the effects of different phytochemicals on GM that affect obesity and/or inflammation, focusing on the effect of approximately 40 different phytochemical compounds that have been chemically identified and that constitute some natural reservoir, such as potential prophylactics, as candidates for the treatment of obesity and inflammatory diseases.

  18. Influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics: implications for the dissemination of innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly; Quanbeck, Andrew; Maus, Adam; Gustafson, David H; Dearing, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics may speed the diffusion of innovations. The purpose of this study was to describe influence networks in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Washington and test two expectations, using social network analysis: (1) Social network measures can identify influential clinics; and (2) Within a network, some weakly connected clinics access out-of-network sources of innovative evidence-based practices and can spread these innovations through the network. A survey of 201 clinics in a parent study on quality improvement provided the data. Network measures and sociograms were obtained from adjacency matrixes created by UCINet. We used regression analysis to determine whether network status relates to clinics' adopting innovations. Findings suggest that influential clinics can be identified and that loosely linked clinics were likely to join the study sooner than more influential clinics but were not more likely to have improved outcomes than other organizations. Findings identify the structure of influence networks for SUD treatment organizations and have mixed results on how those structures impacted diffusion of the intervention under study. Further study is necessary to test whether use of knowledge of the network structure will have an effect on the pace and breadth of dissemination of innovations.

  19. [Treatment of obesity in a hospital endocrinology clinic. Influence of parental body mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueras Santos, L; Díaz Moro, A; Iglesias Blázquez, C; Rodríguez Fernández, C; Quiroga González, R; de Paz Fernández, J A; Rodríguez Fernández, L M

    2015-11-01

    Parental obesity is a risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to determine if parental obesity influences the adherence and success of obesity treatment in a hospital paediatric endocrinology clinic. An analytical, prospective, longitudinal study was conducted on obese children aged 4-14. An initial body mass index (BMI), and again at 6 months after receiving health, hygiene and dietary recommendations. Success was considered as a decrease of 0.5 in the BMI Z-score, and adherence to attending the 6-month review. Parental BMI was determined to identify overweight. The χ(2) test was used for qualitative variables and the T-Student test for quantitative (significance, p3). More than half (59%) of the children had one or both parents obese (41 fathers and 37 mothers were obese). Treatment was not adhered to by 25 children. Adherence was worse if both parents were obese OR 3.65 (1.3 to 10.5) (P<=.01) and adherence was better if the mother was not obese, although the father was (P=.01). The treatment had significant success in 40 patients. If the mother was the only obese one in the family, the possibility of treatment failure was greater OR 5.6 (1.4 to 22.4) (P<.01) CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of children with severe obesity have obese parents. The mother has an important influence on adherence and response to treatment for the severely obese child. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of heat treatment on the machinability and corrosion behavior of AZ91 Mg alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Chowdary V

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, AZ91 Mg alloy was heat treated at 410 °C for 6, 12 and 24 h to investigate the influence of heat treatment on machinability and corrosion behavior. The effect of soaking time on the amount and distribution of Mg17Al12 (β – phase was analyzed under the optical microscope. Microhardness measurements demonstrated the increased hardness with increased heat treatment soaking time, which can be attributed to the solid solution strengthening. The influence of super saturated α-grains on reducing the cutting force (Fz with respect to increased cutting speed was observed as prominent. The corrosion behavior of the heat treated specimens was studied by conducting electrochemical tests. Surprisingly, corrosion rate of heat treated samples was observed as increased compared with the base material. From the results, it is evident that the machinability of AZ91 Mg alloy can be improved by producing super saturated α-grains through heat treatment but at the cost of losing corrosion resistance. Keywords: AZ91 Mg alloy, Solid solution, Turning, Corrosion, Machinability

  1. Treatment Availability Influences Physicians' Portrayal of Robotic Surgery During Clinical Appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Karen A; Fagerlin, Angela; Wei, John T; Williamson, Lillie D; Ubel, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    In order to empower patients as decision makers, physicians must educate them about their treatment options in a factual, nonbiased manner. We propose that site-specific availability of treatment options may be a novel source of bias, whereby physicians describe treatments more positively when they are available. We performed a content analysis of physicians' descriptions of robotic prostatectomy within 252 appointments at four Veterans Affairs medical centers where robotic surgery was either available or unavailable. We coded how physicians portrayed robotic versus open prostatectomy across specific clinical categories and in the appointment overall. We found that physicians were more likely to describe robotic prostatectomy as superior when it was available [F(1, 42) = 8.65, p = .005]. We also provide initial qualitative evidence that physicians may be shaping their descriptions of robotic prostatectomy in an effort to manage patients' emotions and demand for the robotic technology. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide empirical evidence that treatment availability influences how physicians describe the advantages and disadvantages of treatment alternatives to patients during clinical encounters, which has important practical implications for patient empowerment and patient satisfaction.

  2. Influence of preventive dental treatment on mutans streptococci counts in patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Buzati Meca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium fluoride and sodium iodine on mutans streptococci counts in saliva of irradiated patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five patients were separated into three experimental groups and received chlorhexidine (0.12%, sodium fluoride (0.5% or sodium iodine (2%, which were used daily during radiotherapy and for 6 months after the conclusion of the treatment. In addition, a fourth group, composed by 15 additional oncologic patients, who did not receive the mouthwash or initial dental treatment, constituted the control group. Clinical evaluations were performed in the first visit to dental clinic, after initial dental treatment, immediately before radiotherapy, after radiotherapy and 30, 60, 90 days and 6 months after the conclusion of radiotherapy. After clinical examinations, samples of saliva were inoculated on SB20 selective agar and incubated under anaerobiosis, at 37ºC for 48 h. Total mutans streptococci counts were also evaluated by using real-time PCR, through TaqMan system, with specific primers and probes for S. mutans and S. sobrinus. RESULTS: All preventive protocols were able to reduce significantly mutans streptococci counts, but chlorhexidine gluconate was the most effective, and induced a significant amelioration of radiotherapy side effects, such as mucositis and candidosis. CONCLUSION: These results highlights the importance of the initial dental treatment for patients who will be subjected to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment.

  3. Evaluation of endometriosis-associated pain and influence of conventional treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bernadete Trovó de Marqui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease characterized by sustained painful symptoms that are responsible for a decline in the quality of life of sufferers. Conventional treatment includes surgical and pharmacological therapy aiming at reducing painful symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate pain levels in women with endometriosis, focusing on the influence of conventional treatment in controlling this variable. To do so, a literature search was conducted in the Medline/Pubmed databases, with 119 scientific articles found. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 were selected for reading and elaboration of this review. Thus, 9 studies evaluated the contribution of surgery, 17 the use of drugs to reduce pain levels in patients with endometriosis and one assessed surgical and medical treatment. The main results of these searches are presented and discussed in this revision. Surgery and the use of drugs provided reduced pain scores in patients with endometriosis but nevertheless exhibit disadvantages, such as risk of recurrence and side effects, respectively. Treatment of endometriosis is, therefore, a challenge for gynecologists and patients, as they must select the best therapeutic approach for this disease. However, improved quality of life in these patients has been obtained with the use of conventional treatment.

  4. Evaluating the influence of setup uncertainties on treatment planning for focal liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, J.M.; Brock, K.K.; Lam, K.L.; Dawson, L.A.; McShan, D.L.; Ten Haken, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: A mechanism has been developed to evaluate the influence of systematic and random setup variations on dose during treatment planning. The information available for studying these factors shifts from population-based models towards patient-specific data as treatment progresses and setup measurements for an individual patient become available. This study evaluates the influence of population as well as patient-specific setup distributions on treatment plans for focal liver tumors. Materials and Methods: 8 patients with focal liver tumors were treated on a protocol that involved online setup measurement and adjustment, as well as ventilatory immobilization. Summary statistics from these treatments yielded individual and population distributions of position at initial setup for each fraction as well as after setup adjustment. A convolution model for evaluation of the influence of random setup variation on calculated dose distributions has been previously described and investigated for application to focal liver radiotherapy by our department. Individual patient doses based on initial setup positions were calculated by applying the measured systematic offset to the initial treatment plan, and then convolving the calculated dose distribution with an anisotropic probability distribution function representing the individual patient's random variations. A separate calculation with no offset and convolution using population averaged random variations was performed. Individual beam apertures were then adjusted to provide plans that ensured proper dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) following convolution with population distributions prior to and following setup adjustment. Results: Input distributions comprised 262 position measurements. Individual patient setup distributions for the course of treatment had systematic offsets ranging from (σ) 1.1 to 4.1 mm (LR), -2.0 to 1.4 mm (AP), and 5.6 to 1.7 mm (IS). Individual random setup variations ranged from 2.5 to 5

  5. [Influence of three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns treatment in Anhui province on treatment effects of burn children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z G; Zhou, X L; Kong, W C; Li, X Z; Song, J H; Fang, L S; Hu, D L; Cai, C; Tang, Y Z; Yu, Y X; Wang, C H; Xu, Q L

    2018-03-20

    Objective: To explore the influence of three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns in Anhui province on treatment effects of burn children. Methods: The data of medical records of pediatric burn children transferred from Lu'an People's Hospital and Fuyang People's Hospital to the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2014 to December 2015 and January 2016 to September 2017 (before and after establishing three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns treatment) were analyzed: percentage of transferred burn children to hospitalized burn children in corresponding period, gender, age, burn degree, treatment method, treatment result, occurrence and treatment result of shock, and operative and non-operative treatment time and cost. Rehabilitation result of burn children transferred back to local hospitals in 2016 and 2017. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: (1) Percentage of burn children transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 was 34.3% (291/848) of the total number of hospitalized burn children in the same period of time, which was close to 30.4% (210/691) of burn children transferred from January 2016 to September 2017 ( χ (2)=2.672, P >0.05). (2) Gender, age, burn degree, and treatment method of burn children transferred from the two periods of time were close ( χ (2)=3.382, Z =-1.917, -1.911, χ (2)=3.133, P >0.05). (3) Cure rates of children with mild, moderate, and severe burns transferred from January 2016 to September 2017 were significantly higher than those of burn children transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 ( χ (2)=11.777, 6.948, 4.310, P burns transferred from the two periods of time were close ( χ (2)=1.181, P >0.05). (4) Children with mild and moderate burns transferred from the two periods of time were with no shock. The incidence of shock of children with severe burns transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 was 6

  6. Can the response to Omalizumab be influenced by treatment duration? A real-life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Bruno; Scalese, Marco; Latorre, Manuela; Novelli, Federica; Scichilone, Nicola; Milanese, Manlio; Olivieri, Carmela; Perrella, Antonio; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

    2017-06-01

    It is unknown whether Omalizumab effectiveness changes over the course of time. Our retrospective real-life study tried to analyze whether Omalizumab response may be influenced by treatment duration. 340 severe asthmatics treated with Omalizumab for different periods of time were recruited. They were subdivided into 4 groups according to the Omalizumab treatment length: 60 months. Omalizumab treatment results (FEV 1 , exacerbations, ACT, SABA use, asthma control levels, medications used e and ICS doses) were compared. ACT, exacerbations, GINA control levels, ICS doses and SABA use were similar in all groups with different Omalizumab treatment durations. Using a linear regression model, corrected for all confounding variables, a higher significant positive increase in FEV 1 % in subjects treated for 12-24 (β = 9.49; p = 0.034) or 24-60 months (β = 8.56; p = 0.043) was found when compared with subjects treated for a shorter period. Treatment duration was positively associated with a step down of the other associated therapies (OR: 1.013; p = 0.019). This association was more relevant (OR: 4.167; p = 0.005) when we considered Omalizumab treatment duration >60 months compared to the shorter therapy. In particular, the percentage of subjects that were taking Montelukast, LABAs and oral corticosteroids was lower in the group treated with Omalizumab for a longer period of time. In real-life, the positive Omalizumab response remained stable for over 60 months. Long term Omalizumab treatment may lead to a discontinuation of some associated medications and to a slowing down of FEV 1 decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of corticosterone treatment on nestling begging in Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderbrock, Emily K; Small, Thomas W; Schoech, Stephan J

    2018-04-01

    Altricial young are dependent on adults for protection and food, and they display nutritional need by begging to elicit feeding from parents. Begging at high levels can be energetically expensive and attract predators; thus, an individual must balance its nutritional needs with these potential costs. Further, because a parent is limited in the amount of food it can provide, begging can contribute to both parent-offspring conflict and sibling-sibling competition. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to begging behavior. One intrinsic factor of interest is corticosterone (CORT), a metabolic hormone hypothesized to play a role in regulating a nestling's begging behavior. We investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to CORT influences nestling begging behavior in an altricial species, the Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens). We treated one nestling per treatment nest with a twice-daily dose of exogenous hormone via a CORT-injected waxworm, whereas a second individual received a vehicle-injected waxworm. We monitored individual nestling and adult behavior at all nests with the use of high-definition video cameras on several days during treatment. We found no difference in begging rate between CORT fed and vehicle fed nestlings within a treatment nest. Further, to determine whether CORT treatment had indirect effects on the entire brood, we monitored additional nests, in which nestlings were not manipulated. When treatment and controls were compared, overall begging rates of nestlings in treatment nests were greater than those in control nests. This result suggests that CORT treatment of an individual altered its behavior, as well as that of its siblings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  9. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  10. The formation of neodymium conversion coating and the influence of post-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Xiufang [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong St., Harbin 150001 (China); Jin Guo, E-mail: jg97721@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong St., Harbin 150001 (China); Yang Yuyun; Liu Erbao; Lin Lili; Zhong Jinggao [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong St., Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-01-15

    In this paper, neodymium-based conversion coating is used as a substitute for toxic chromate conversion coating on AZ91D magnesium alloys. Its formation and growth were observed via SEM, EDS, XPS, electrochemical tests and weighting experiment. The influence of post-treatment on neodymium conversion coating was measured by FTIR and electrochemical experiments in terms of morphology, component, surface functional group and corrosion resistance. The dissolution of matrix and the deposition of neodymium/magnesium oxides compete with each other in initial time. Then the deposition of neodymium oxides dominates the process. Compact coating is obtained after 20 min immersion and it is mainly made of neodymium oxides and a small amount of magnesium oxides/hydroxides. The coating post-treated is rich in OH{sup -} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3+}. The post-treatment can improve the corrosion resistance of the neodymium conversion coating effectually examined by EIS.

  11. The formation of neodymium conversion coating and the influence of post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiufang; Jin Guo; Yang Yuyun; Liu Erbao; Lin Lili; Zhong Jinggao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, neodymium-based conversion coating is used as a substitute for toxic chromate conversion coating on AZ91D magnesium alloys. Its formation and growth were observed via SEM, EDS, XPS, electrochemical tests and weighting experiment. The influence of post-treatment on neodymium conversion coating was measured by FTIR and electrochemical experiments in terms of morphology, component, surface functional group and corrosion resistance. The dissolution of matrix and the deposition of neodymium/magnesium oxides compete with each other in initial time. Then the deposition of neodymium oxides dominates the process. Compact coating is obtained after 20 min immersion and it is mainly made of neodymium oxides and a small amount of magnesium oxides/hydroxides. The coating post-treated is rich in OH - and PO 4 3+ . The post-treatment can improve the corrosion resistance of the neodymium conversion coating effectually examined by EIS.

  12. Variables influencing radiation exposure during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Review of 298 treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, H.B.; Naeslund, E.B.R.; Riehle, R.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective review of 298 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatments was undertaken to determine the factors which influence radiation exposure during ESWL. Fluoroscopy time averaged 160 seconds (3-509), and the average number of spot films taken per patient was 26 (5-68). The average stone burden was 19.3 mm (3-64). Average calculated skin surface radiation exposure was 17.8 R per treatment. Radiation exposure increased with increasing stone burden and patient weight. Stones treated in the ureter resulted in a higher average patient radiation exposure than for renal stones (19 R vs 16 R), even though the average size of these ureteral stones (11.3 mm) was significantly less than the mean. However, type of anesthetic (general or regional) used was not a significant factor. Operator training, experience, and familiarity with radiation physics should significantly decrease the amount of imaging time and consequent patient radiation exposure during ESWL

  13. Influence of heat treatment on the wear life of hydraulic fracturing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chao; Liu, Yonghong; Wang, Hanxiang; Qin, Jie; Shen, Yang; Zhang, Shihong [China University of Petroleum, Qingdao (China)

    2017-02-15

    Wear phenomenon has caused severe damage or failure of fracturing tools in oil and gas industry. In this paper, influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties and wear resistance of fracturing tool made of lamellar graphite grey cast iron were investigated. The surface composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and metallographic microscope. Sliding wear tests were performed to study the tribological behavior. Tests results showed that wear rates of treated specimens decreased by 33 %. Besides, worn morphology and wear debris were analyzed using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive Xray spectra (EDS). Wear failure mechanisms of specimens were identified. Furthermore, on-site experiment results indicated that wear loss of treated samples decreased by 37.5 %. The wear life of hydraulic fracturing tools can be improved obviously by the heat treatment.

  14. Influence of heat treatment on the wear life of hydraulic fracturing tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chao; Liu, Yonghong; Wang, Hanxiang; Qin, Jie; Shen, Yang; Zhang, Shihong

    2017-01-01

    Wear phenomenon has caused severe damage or failure of fracturing tools in oil and gas industry. In this paper, influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties and wear resistance of fracturing tool made of lamellar graphite grey cast iron were investigated. The surface composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and metallographic microscope. Sliding wear tests were performed to study the tribological behavior. Tests results showed that wear rates of treated specimens decreased by 33 %. Besides, worn morphology and wear debris were analyzed using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive Xray spectra (EDS). Wear failure mechanisms of specimens were identified. Furthermore, on-site experiment results indicated that wear loss of treated samples decreased by 37.5 %. The wear life of hydraulic fracturing tools can be improved obviously by the heat treatment

  15. Variables influencing radiation exposure during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Review of 298 treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, H.B.; Naeslund, E.B.R.; Riehle, R.A. Jr.

    1987-12-01

    Retrospective review of 298 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatments was undertaken to determine the factors which influence radiation exposure during ESWL. Fluoroscopy time averaged 160 seconds (3-509), and the average number of spot films taken per patient was 26 (5-68). The average stone burden was 19.3 mm (3-64). Average calculated skin surface radiation exposure was 17.8 R per treatment. Radiation exposure increased with increasing stone burden and patient weight. Stones treated in the ureter resulted in a higher average patient radiation exposure than for renal stones (19 R vs 16 R), even though the average size of these ureteral stones (11.3 mm) was significantly less than the mean. However, type of anesthetic (general or regional) used was not a significant factor. Operator training, experience, and familiarity with radiation physics should significantly decrease the amount of imaging time and consequent patient radiation exposure during ESWL.

  16. Influence of silane films in the zinc coating post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Marlla Vallerius da; Menezes, Tiago Lemos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Muller, Iduvirges Lourdes; Oliveira, Claudia Trindade; Bonino, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The sol-gel process based on silanes precursors appeared in recent years as a strong alternative for post-treatment to provide an optimization of the protective efficacy of zinc. Moreover, this process has been used to replace chemical chromating conversion based on hexavalent chromium. The silane films are hybrid compounds that provide characteristics of both polymeric materials, such as flexibility and functional compatibility, and ceramic materials, such as high strength and durability. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of silane films obtained by dip-coating, on the characteristics of electrodeposited zinc coatings. The xerogel films showed a homogeneous surface and a better performance on the corrosion resistance than zinc coating without post-treatment, what can be confirmed by the electrochemical impedance results. These tests showed that application of the silane film promotes the occurrence of one more time constant compared to pure zinc system, hindering the corrosion process. (author)

  17. Willingness of patients with ankylosing spondylitis to pay for inpatient treatment is influenced by the treatment environment and expectations of improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, A.; Severens, J. L.; van Tubergen, A.; Landewé, R.; Bonsel, G.; van der Heijde, D.; van der Linden, Sj

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the willingness to pay (WTP) for treatment in a spa resort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis ( AS) and to assess if the experience of a spa influences the WTP. Methods: 120 patients participating in a randomised trial comparing 3 weeks' treatment in a spa resort in Austria

  18. Citalopram for the Treatment of Agitation in Alzheimer Dementia: Genetic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Matthew E; Vaidya, Vijay; Drye, Lea T; Devanand, Davangere P; Mintzer, Jacobo E; Pollock, Bruce G; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Rosenberg, Paul B; Schneider, Lon S; Shade, David M; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Avramopoulos, Dimitri

    2016-03-01

    To assess potential genetic influences on citalopram treatment efficacy for agitation in individuals with Alzheimer dementia (AD). Six functional genetic variants were studied in the following genes: serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A-T102C), serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C-Cys23Ser), serotonin transporter (5HTT-LPR), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF-Val66Met), apolipoprotein E (ε2, ε3, ε4 variants), and cytochrome P450 (CYP2C19). Treatment response by genotype was measured by (1) the agitation domain of the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, (2) the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change scale (mADCS-CGIC), (3) the agitation domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and (4) the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. We utilized data from the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) database. CitAD was a 9-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial showing significant improvement in agitation and caregiver distress in patients treated with citalopram. Proportional odds logistic regression and mixed effects models were used to examine the above-mentioned outcome measures. Significant interactions were noted on the NPI agitation domain for HTR2A (likelihood ratio [LR] = 6.19, df = 2, P = .04) and the mADCS-CGIC for HTR2C (LR = 4.33, df = 2, P = .02) over 9 weeks. Treatment outcomes in CitAD showed modest, although statistically significant, influence of genetic variation at HTR2A and HTR2C loci. Future studies should continue to examine the interaction of known genetic variants with antidepressant treatment in patients with AD having agitation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Advance of study on the influence of different drugs on the efficacy of 131I treatment for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Tan Jian

    2011-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. 131 I treatment is one main treatment method for Graves' disease, and being used on an increasing scale in China recently. During the peritherapeutic period, however, the application of other drugs may affect the efficacy of 131 I treatment. In this review, the advances of study were summarized on the influence of different drugs on the efficacy of 131 I treatment in recent years. (authors)

  20. Willingness of patients with ankylosing spondylitis to pay for inpatient treatment is influenced by the treatment environment and expectations of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, A; Severens, J L; van Tubergen, A; Landewé, R; Bonsel, G; van der Heijde, D; van der Linden, Sj

    2005-11-01

    To assess the willingness to pay (WTP) for treatment in a spa resort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to assess if the experience of a spa influences the WTP. 120 patients participating in a randomised trial comparing 3 weeks' treatment in a spa resort in Austria or in the Netherlands with a control group completed a WTP questionnaire before and after spa treatment. Patients indicated on a payment card the maximal co-payment they wanted to contribute for three scenarios that included (a) two levels of improvement in pain and stiffness and (b) two treatment environments: a rehabilitation hospital and a spa resort. At baseline, patients wanted to contribute more for the same improvement after treatment in a spa resort compared with a rehabilitation hospital (ppay more when expected effects were higher (pexpected improvement. Experiencing treatment in a spa resort does not influence the co-payment.

  1. Study on influence of piperine treatment on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedada, Satish Kumar; Boga, Praveen Kumar; Kotakonda, Harish Kaushik

    2017-02-01

    1. Diclofenac sodium (DIC) is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug and its administration in humans receiving long-term therapy with herbal drugs containing piperine (PIP) may occur, which leads to drug-phytochemical interactions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of PIP treatment on the pharmacokinetics of DIC in healthy volunteers. 2. The open-label, two period, sequential study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers. PIP 20 mg was administered once daily for 10 days during treatment phase. A single dose of DIC 100 mg was administered during control and after treatment phases under fasting conditions. The blood samples were collected after DIC dosing at predetermined time intervals and analyzed by HPLC. 3. Treatment with PIP significantly enhanced maximum plasma concentration (C max ) (2.24-3.68 μg/mL, p pharmacokinetics of DIC might be attributed to PIP mediated inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme, which indicates the clinically significant interaction present between DIC and PIP. Therefore, the combination therapy of DIC along with PIP may represent a novel approach to reduce dosage and result in reduced incidence of gastrointestinal side effects seen with DIC alone at higher doses.

  2. Maprotiline treatment differentially influences cardiac β-adrenoreceptors expression under normal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Spasojevic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cardiac function were observed in antidepressants treated patients and published in several clinical reports. These detected changes could be either a consequence of the treatment or of depression itself, which has already been proved to be a risk factor in heart diseases. In order to determine a possible influence of chronic treatment with norepinephrinergic reuptake inhibitor, maprotiline, on the heart, we investigated gene expression of cardiac β-adrenoceptors both in controls and in animals with signs of depression. The rats were divided into two groups, unstressed controls and those exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. The groups were further divided into two subgroups, one receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (sterile water and another one maprotiline (10 mg/kg for four weeks. Tissue samples were collected after the last application. Gene expression of cardiac β1- and β2-adrenoceptor was determined using Real-time RT-PCR analysis. Our results show that in control animals expression of both adrenoreceptors was decreased in the right atria after 4 weeks of maprotiline application. Contrary, the same treatment led to a significant increase in expression of cardiac β1-adrenoceptor in the stressed rats, with no change in the characteristics of β2-adrenoceptor. Our findings might reflect the that molecular mechanisms are underlying factors involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases linked with antidepressant treatment.

  3. Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdobnov, Anton Yu; Tuchin, Valery V; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2017-01-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is employed to study the skin physiology, drug permeation and skin disease monitoring. In order to increase the depth of investigations, the effect of optical clearing was observed on porcine ear skin ex vivo . The optical clearing agents (OCAs) glycerol and iohexol (Omnipaque ™ ) were applied to the porcine ear skin and investigated by CRM after 30 and 60 min of treatment. The extent of optical clearing by utilizing concentrations of 70% glycerol and 100% Omnipaque ™ was evaluated. The intensity of the skin-related Raman peaks significantly increased starting from the depth 160 µ m for Omnipaque ™ and 40 µ m for glycerol ( p   ⩽  0.05) after 60 min of treatment. The OCAs’ influence on the collagen hydration in the deep-located dermis was investigated. Both OCAs induce skin dehydration, but the effect of glycerol treatment (30 min and 60 min) is stronger. The obtained results demonstrate that with increasing the treatment time, both glycerol and Omnipaque ™ solutions improve the optical clearing of porcine skin making the deep-located dermal regions able for investigations. At the used concentrations and time intervals, glycerol is more effective than Omnipaque ™ . However, Omnipaque ™ is more promising than glycerol for future in vivo applications as it is an already approved pharmaceutic substance without any known impact on the skin structure. (paper)

  4. Research on the influence that communication in psychiatric encounters has on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform mental health professionals about the empirical literature on medical and psychiatric encounters and the influence of communicative behaviors on specific encounter outputs and treatment outcomes. A comprehensive review of the health communications literature from 1950 to 2001, using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, was conducted to identify relevant articles on the communication skills of psychiatrists and other physicians. These searches were augmented by personal correspondence with experts on changes in practice patterns in psychiatry and on medical and psychiatric communications research. A review of references within each article and information from the experts identified other relevant articles. Selection was then narrowed to include reports of studies that used structured written instruments that captured relevant physician and patient perceptions of the physician-patient relationship, content analysis of audio- or videotapes of communication in medical or psychiatric encounters, or interaction analysis systems used to categorize audio- or videotaped communicative behaviors in medical or psychiatric encounters. Twenty-five articles in medicine and 34 articles in psychiatry were selected. Medical communication researchers have observed associations between physicians' communicative skills and patients' satisfaction, patients' adherence to treatment recommendations, treatment outputs, and patients' willingness to file malpractice claims. The research has also shown that primary care physicians can be more responsive to patients' concerns without lengthening visits. In psychiatry, the literature can be organized into four discrete categories of research: negotiated treatment and the customer approach, therapeutic alliance, Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis of patients' speech, and content analysis of psychiatric interviews.

  5. Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdobnov, Anton Yu; Tuchin, Valery V.; Lademann, Juergen; E Darvin, Maxim

    2017-07-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is employed to study the skin physiology, drug permeation and skin disease monitoring. In order to increase the depth of investigations, the effect of optical clearing was observed on porcine ear skin ex vivo. The optical clearing agents (OCAs) glycerol and iohexol (Omnipaque™) were applied to the porcine ear skin and investigated by CRM after 30 and 60 min of treatment. The extent of optical clearing by utilizing concentrations of 70% glycerol and 100% Omnipaque™ was evaluated. The intensity of the skin-related Raman peaks significantly increased starting from the depth 160 µm for Omnipaque™ and 40 µm for glycerol (p  ⩽  0.05) after 60 min of treatment. The OCAs’ influence on the collagen hydration in the deep-located dermis was investigated. Both OCAs induce skin dehydration, but the effect of glycerol treatment (30 min and 60 min) is stronger. The obtained results demonstrate that with increasing the treatment time, both glycerol and Omnipaque™ solutions improve the optical clearing of porcine skin making the deep-located dermal regions able for investigations. At the used concentrations and time intervals, glycerol is more effective than Omnipaque™. However, Omnipaque™ is more promising than glycerol for future in vivo applications as it is an already approved pharmaceutic substance without any known impact on the skin structure.

  6. Influence of Vegetation on Long-term Phosphorus Sequestration in Subtropical Treatment Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhomia, R K; Reddy, K R

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable operation of a treatment wetland depends on its continued treatment of influent water to achieve desired outflow water quality targets. Water treatment or nutrient reduction is attained by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. We studied one of the world's largest treatment wetlands established to revive the Florida Everglades from impacts of excessive phosphorus (P) inputs. Phosphorus retained in the treatment wetlands is sequestered within the accumulated material via biotic and abiotic pathways that are influenced by the existing wetland vegetation. Recently accreted soils (RAS) provide a major sink for stored P, and long-term P removal efficiency of treatment wetlands is governed by the stability of accreted P because more stable P pools are less susceptible to mobilization and loss. We quantified reactive P (extracted with acid and alkali) and nonreactive P (not extracted with acid and alkali) pools in wetland soils by using an operationally defined P fractionation scheme and assessed the effect of emergent vs. submerged vegetation communities on stability of sequestered P. Reactive P comprised 63 to 79% of total P in wetland soils without a clear difference between two vegetation groups. The quantities of reactive P forms (inorganic vs. organic P) were significantly different between two vegetation types. A higher proportion of reactive P was stored as organic P in flocculent detrital organic matter (floc) and RAS under emergent vegetation (46-47% total P) in comparison with submerged vegetation (21-34% total P). The dominant P removal pathway in the submerged vegetation system was associated with calcium whereas plant uptake and peat burial appeared to be the main pathway in the emergent vegetation system. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Influence of psychiatric diagnosis on treatment uptake and interferon side effects in patients with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Yuan J; Shadbolt, Bruce; Teoh, Narci; Blunn, Anne; To, Caroline; Rodriguez-Morales, Ilys; Chitturi, Shivakumar; Kaye, Graham; Rodrigo, Kalyana; Farrell, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Pegylated-interferon-α/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) treatment can cure hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but has frequent neuropsychiatric side-effects. Patients with pre-existing psychiatric illness may not be offered therapy. We established prevalence of self-reported psychiatric comorbidity among HCV-infected patients in a hospital-liver clinic, and determined the impact of such diagnoses on uptake and tolerance to PEG-IFN/RBV. All HCV cases referred for assessment in Australian Capital Territory/surrounding regions April 2004-March 2012 were entered into a clinical database. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses of variables correlating with uptake of antiviral therapy and frequency of treatment-related side-effects. Of 773 referred patients, 235 (30%) described pre-existing psychiatric illness. Among these, 26% received antiviral therapy, compared with 30% of 538 without psychiatric comorbidity. History of depression (usually validated by liaison psychiatry) was associated with higher incidence of treatment-related neuropsychiatric side-effects (odds ratio 2.79 [1.35-5.70], P schizophrenia: three (11%) received antiviral therapy, compared with 30% admitting depression and 20% with bipolar affective disorder (all assessed by psychiatrist). In most schizophrenia cases, the reason for not offering antiviral treatment was psychological illness, yet none of five treated (these three plus two others in a psychiatric rehabilitation facility) experienced worsening psychiatric symptoms. A history of depression is common with hepatitis C but does not affect initiation of antiviral treatment, despite substantially increased risk of psychiatric side-effects. In contrast, pre-existing schizophrenia appears to influence treatment decisions, despite little evidence that PEG-IFN/RBV exacerbates the psychiatric condition, and well-supervised antiviral therapy can have good outcomes.

  8. CYP2D6 polymorphisms and their influence on risperidone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangpetch A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apichaya Puangpetch,1 Natchaya Vanwong,1 Nopphadol Nuntamool,2 Yaowaluck Hongkaew,1 Monpat Chamnanphon,1 Chonlaphat Sukasem1 1Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, 2Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Cytochrome P450 enzyme especially CYP2D6 plays a major role in biotransformation. The interindividual variations of treatment response and toxicity are influenced by the polymorphisms of this enzyme. This review emphasizes the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in risperidone treatment in terms of basic knowledge, pharmacogenetics, effectiveness, adverse events, and clinical practice. Although the previous studies showed different results, the effective responses in risperidone treatment depend on the CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Several studies suggested that CYP2D6 polymorphisms were associated with plasma concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and active moiety but did not impact on clinical outcomes. In addition, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer showed more serious adverse events such as weight gain and prolactin than other predicted phenotype groups. The knowledge of pharmacogenomics of CYP2D6 in risperidone treatment is increasing, and it can be used for the development of personalized medication in term of genetic-based dose recommendation. Moreover, the effects of many factors in risperidone treatment are still being investigated. Both the CYP2D6 genotyping and therapeutic drug monitoring are the important steps to complement the genetic-based risperidone treatment. Keywords: CYP2D6, risperidone, polymorphisms, adverse drug reaction, pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics

  9. Heat treatment of a direct composite resin: influence on flexural strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lumi Miyazaki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of a direct composite, for indirect application, that received heat treatment, with or without investment. One indirect composite was used for comparison. For determination of the heat treatment temperature, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were performed, considering the initial weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature (Tg. Then, after photoactivation (600 mW/cm² - 40 s, the specimens (10 x 2 x 2 mm were heat-treated following these conditions: 170ºC for 5, 10 or 15 min, embedded or not embedded in investment. Flexural strength was assessed as a means to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment periods and investment embedding on mechanical properties. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05. TGA showed an initial weight loss temperature of 180ºC and DSC showed a Tg value of 157°C. Heat treatment was conducted in an oven (Flli Manfredi, Italy, after 37°C storage for 48 h. Flexural strength was evaluated after 120 h at 37°C storage. The results showed that different periods and investment embedding presented similar statistical values. Nevertheless, the direct composite resin with treatments presented higher values (178.7 MPa compared to the indirect composite resin (146.0 MPa and the same direct composite submitted to photoactivation only (151.7 MPa. Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the heat treatment increased the flexural strength of the direct composite studied, leading to higher mechanical strength compared to the indirect composite.

  10. Influence of Alkali Treatment on Anodized Titanium Alloys in Wollastonite Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kazek-Kęsik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of titanium alloys is an effective method to improve their biocompatibility and tailor the material to the desired profile of implant functionality. In this work, technologically-advanced titanium alloys—Ti-15Mo, Ti-13Nb-13Zr and Ti-6Al-7Nb—were anodized in suspensions, followed by treatment in alkali solutions, with wollastonite deposition from the powder phase suspended in solution. The anodized samples were immersed in NaOH or KOH solution with various concentrations with a different set of temperatures and exposure times. Based on their morphologies (observed by scanning electron microscope, the selected samples were investigated by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Titaniate compounds were formed on the previously anodized titanium surfaces. The surface wettability significantly decreased, mainly on the modified Ti-15Mo alloy surface. Titanium alloy compounds had an influence on the results of the titanium alloys’ surface modification, which caused the surfaces to exhibit differential physical properties. In this paper, we present the influence of the anodization procedure on alkali treatment effects and the properties of obtained hybrid coatings.

  11. Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Strength of Three Aluminum Alloys Used in Light Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig C. Menzemer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint influence of welding and artificial aging on mechanical properties were investigated for extrusions of aluminum alloy 6063, 6061, and 6005A. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on the aluminum alloys 6063-T4, 6061-T4, and 6005A-T1 in both the as-received (AR and as-welded (AW conditions. Tensile tests were also conducted on the AR and AW alloys, subsequent to artificial aging. The welding process used was gas metal arc (GMAW with spray transfer using 120–220 A of current at 22 V. The artificial aging used was a precipitation heat treatment for 6 h at 182 °C (360 °F. Tensile tests revealed the welded aluminum alloys to have lower strength, both for yield and ultimate tensile strength, when compared to the as-received un-welded counterpart. The beneficial influence of post weld heat treatment (PWHT on strength and ductility is presented and discussed in terms of current design provisions for welded aluminum light pole structures.

  12. Influence of personality on the outcome of treatment in depression: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Tyrer, Peter; Johnson, Tony; Mulder, Roger; Kool, Simone; Dekker, Jack; Schoevers, Robert

    2014-08-01

    There continues to be debate about the influence of personality disorder on the outcome of depressive disorders and is relative interactions with treatment. To determine whether personality disorder, both generically and in terms of individual clusters, leads to a worse outcome in patients with depressive disorders and whether this is influenced by type of treatment, a systematic electronic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1966, 1982, and 1882, respectively, until February 2007 was undertaken. The keyword terms depression, mental illness, and personality disorder were used. All references were reviewed and personal correspondence was undertaken. Only English language papers were considered. Any English language paper studying a depressed adult population was considered for inclusion. Studies needed to clearly define depression and personality disorder using peer-reviewed instruments or International Classification of Disease/Diagnostic Statistical Manual criteria. Outcome assessment at greater than 3 weeks was necessary. Final inclusion papers were agreed on by consensus by at least two reviewers. All data were extracted using predetermined criteria for depression by at least two reviewers in parallel. Disagreement was settled by consensus. Complex data extraction was confirmed within the study group. Data were synthesized using log odds ratios in the Cochrane RevMan 5 program. The finding of comorbid personality disorder and depression was associated with a more than double the odds of a poor outcome for depression compared with those with no personality disorder (OR 2.16, CI 1.83-2.56). This effect was not ameliorated by the treatment modality used for the depressive disorder. This finding led to the conclusion that personality disorder has a negative impact on the outcome of depression. This finding is important in considering prognosis in depressive disorders.

  13. Factors influencing patient satisfaction with dental appearance and treatments they desire to improve aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Nurhidayati

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed factors influencing patients' satisfaction with their dental appearance and the treatments they desired to improve dental aesthetics. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed out among 235 adult patients who visited the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia dental clinic. A structured, interviewer-guided questionnaire was used to identify patient satisfaction with their general dental appearance, cosmetic elements and desired treatments. Results The 235 patients consisted of 70 males (29.8% and 165 females (70.2%, of mean age 31.5 years (SD 13.0. Of these patients, 124 (52.8% were not satisfied with their general dental appearance. In addition, 132 patients (56.2% were not happy with the color of their teeth, 76 (32.3%, regarded their teeth were poorly aligned, 62 (26.4%, as crowded and 56 (23.4% protruded. Dissatisfaction with tooth color was significantly higher in female than in male patients (odds ratio [OR] of 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-3.50. Tooth whitening was the treatment most desired by patients (48.1%. Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that patient dissatisfaction with general dental appearance was significantly associated with female gender (OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.18-4.03, unhappiness with tooth color (OR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.74-5.34 and the opinion that their teeth protruded (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.44-5.91. Conclusions Most patients in this study were not satisfied with their dental appearance with a greater percentage of females expressing dissatisfaction than males. An age was not associated with satisfaction. Unhappiness with tooth color and feelings of having protruding teeth also had a significant negative influence on patient satisfaction with general dental appearance.

  14. Corticosteroid Treatment Influences TA-Proteinuria and Renal Survival in IgA Nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sarcina

    Full Text Available The clinical course of IgA nephropathy (IgAN and its outcome are extremely variable. Proteinuria at baseline has been considered one of the most important risk factors. More recently, mean proteinuria of follow-up (time-average proteinuria: TAp was described as a stronger marker of renal survival, suggesting to consider it as a marker of disease activity and response to treatment. We evaluated predictors of renal survival in IgAN patients with different degrees of renal dysfunction and histological lesions, focusing on the role of the therapy in influencing TAp. We performed a retrospective analysis of three prospective, randomized, clinical trials enrolling 325 IgAN patients from 1989 to 2005. Patients were divided into 5 categories according to TAp. The primary endpoint of the 100% increase of serum creatinine occurred in 54 patients (16.6% and renal survival was much better in groups having lower TAp. The median follow up was 66.6 months (range 12 to 144. The primary endpoint of the 100% increase of serum creatinine occurred in 54 patients (16,6% and renal survival was much better in groups having lower TA proteinuria. At univariate analysis plasma creatinine and 24h proteinuria, systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure during follow-up and treatment with either steroid (CS or steroid plus azathioprine (CS+A were the main factors associated with lower TAp and renal survival. At multivariate analysis, female gender, treatment with S or S+A, lower baseline proteinuria and SBP during follow-up remained as the only variables independently influencing TAp. In conclusion, TA-proteinuria is confirmed as one of the best outcome indicators, also in patients with a severe renal insufficiency. A 6-month course of corticosteroids seems the most effective therapy to reduce TAp.

  15. Analysis of the influence of chemical treatment to the strength and surface roughness of FDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, R. H.; Cheong, K. M.; Azizan, N.

    2017-06-01

    The applications of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology have a greater functionality and wider range of application beyond an intention of prototyping. AM is the process of joining materials to form objects from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) models via layer upon layer process. One of AM technologies is the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), which use an extrusion method to create a part. FDM has been applied in many manufacturing applications includes an end-used parts. However, FDM tends to have bad surface quality due to staircase effect and post treatment is required. This chemical treatment is one of a way to improve the surface roughness of FDM fabricated parts. This method is one of economical and faster method. In order to enhance the surface finish of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) FDM parts by performing chemical treatment in an acetone solution as acetone has very low toxicity, high diffusion and low cost chemical solution. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the influence of chemical treatment to the FDM used part in terms of surface roughness as well as the strength. In this project, ten specimens of standard ASTM D638 dogbone specimens have been fabricated using MOJO 3D printer. Five specimens from the dogbone were tested for surface roughness and tensile testing while another five were immersed in the chemical solution before the same testing. Based on results, the surface roughness of chemically treated dogbone has dramatically improved, compared to untreated dogbone with 97.2% of improvement. However, in term of strength, the tensile strength of dogbone is reduced 42.58% due to the rearrange of material properties and chemical effects to the joining of the filaments. In conclusion, chemical treatment is an economical and sustainable approach to enhance the surface quality of AM parts.

  16. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prysiazhnyi, Vadym; Slavicek, Pavel; Klima, Milos; Mikmekova, Eliska

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed to show the influence of initial chemical pretreatment prior to subsequent plasma activation of aluminum surfaces. The results of our study showed that the state of the topmost surface layer (i.e. the surface morphology and chemical groups) of plasma modified aluminum significantly depends on the chemical precleaning. Commonly used chemicals (isopropanol, trichlorethane, solution of NaOH in deionized water) were used as precleaning agents. The plasma treatments were done using a radio frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma pencil developed at Masaryk University, which operates in Ar, Ar/O 2 gas mixtures. The effectiveness of the plasma treatment was estimated by the wettability measurements, showing high wettability improvement already after 0.3 s treatment. The effects of surface cleaning (hydrocarbon removal), surface oxidation and activation (generation of OH groups) were estimated using infrared spectroscopy. The changes in the surface morphology were measured using scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements in the near-to-surface region with temperature calculations showed that plasma itself depends on the sample precleaning procedure. (paper)

  17. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadym, Prysiazhnyi; Pavel, Slavicek; Eliska, Mikmekova; Milos, Klima

    2016-04-01

    This paper is aimed to show the influence of initial chemical pretreatment prior to subsequent plasma activation of aluminum surfaces. The results of our study showed that the state of the topmost surface layer (i.e. the surface morphology and chemical groups) of plasma modified aluminum significantly depends on the chemical precleaning. Commonly used chemicals (isopropanol, trichlorethane, solution of NaOH in deionized water) were used as precleaning agents. The plasma treatments were done using a radio frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma pencil developed at Masaryk University, which operates in Ar, Ar/O2 gas mixtures. The effectiveness of the plasma treatment was estimated by the wettability measurements, showing high wettability improvement already after 0.3 s treatment. The effects of surface cleaning (hydrocarbon removal), surface oxidation and activation (generation of OH groups) were estimated using infrared spectroscopy. The changes in the surface morphology were measured using scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements in the near-to-surface region with temperature calculations showed that plasma itself depends on the sample precleaning procedure.

  18. Influence of gamma ray treatment on in vitro regenerated plants of Atropa Belladonna L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Onisei, T.; Amariei, D.

    1994-01-01

    Regenerated plants were obtained through callus organogenesis after gamma ray treatment with 1 to 9 Krad doses. Vigorous shoots were regenerated on MS (1962) medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine. Shoot growth was inhibited with increasing irradiation doses. At 2 Krad dose root Primordia were observed after 18 days while 32 days were necessary to produce roots at 7-9 Krad. As compared to the control, the survival percent during acclimatization was 80 to 85% at 2-3 Krad, 65-70% at 4-6 Krad and 60-62% at 7-9 Krad. Approximately 330 plants were transferred to field conditions. Morphological and biochemical parameters were measured and the data were statistically processed. Plant height was negatively influenced by higher doses of irradiation. A chlorophyll deficient plant arose from the 6 Krad treatment which showed a different pattern of isoperoxidase and isoesterase as compared to the control. A yellow-flower mutant was obtained from the 3 Krad treatment and is assumed to be Atropa belladonna var. Flava Pater. (author)

  19. Investigation into the Influence of Physician for Treatment Based on Syndrome Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The characteristics of treatment based on syndrome differentiation (TBSD cause great challenges to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinical methods. Objectives. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of physician to personalized medicine in the process of TBSD. Methods. We performed a randomized, triple-blind trial involving patients of primary insomnia treated by 3 physicians individually and independently. The patients (n=30 were randomly assigned to receive treatments by the 3 physicians for every visit. However, they always received the treatment, respectively, prescribed by the physician at the first visit. The primary outcome was evaluated, respectively, by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the TCM symptoms measuring scale. The clinical practices of the physicians were recorded at every visit including diagnostic information, syndrome differentiation, treating principles, and prescriptions. Results. All patients in the 3 groups (30 patients showed significant improvements (>66% according to the PSQI and TCM symptoms measuring scale. Conclusion. The results indicate that although with comparable effectiveness, there exist significant differences in syndrome differentiation, the treating principles, and the prescriptions of the approaches used by the 3 physicians. This means that the physician should be considered as an important factor for individualized medicine and the related TCM clinical research.

  20. Influence of comorbidity on the effect of adjuvant treatment and age in patients with early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, L H; Dalton, S O; Jensen, M-B

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of comorbidity at breast cancer diagnosis increases with age and is likely to influence the likelihood of receiving treatment according to guidelines. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of breast cancer treatment on mortality, taking age at diagnosis and comorbidity...

  1. Reducing Sex under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol for Patients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Song, Yong S.; Coyer, Susan; Pelta, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Aims In a previous report, the effectiveness of the Real Men Are Safe (REMAS) intervention in reducing the number of unprotected sexual occasions among male drug abuse treatment patients was demonstrated. A secondary aim of REMAS was to reduce the frequency with which men engage in sex under the influence (SUI) of drugs or alcohol. Design Men in methadone maintenance (n=173) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (n=104) completed assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-months post intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either REMAS (five sessions containing information, motivational exercises and skills training, including one session specifically targeting reducing SUI), or HIV education (HIV-Ed; one session containing HIV prevention information). SUI during the most recent sexual event served as the primary outcome in a repeated measures logistic regression model. Findings Men assigned to the REMAS condition reporting SUI at the most recent sexual event decreased from 36.8% at baseline to 25.7% at 3 months compared to a increase from 36.9% to 38.3% in the HIV-Ed condition (tintervention=−2.16, p=.032). No difference between the treatment groups was evident at 6-month follow-up. At each assessment time point, sex with a casual partner versus a regular partner, and being in methadone maintenance versus psychosocial outpatient treatment, were associated with engaging in SUI. Conclusions Overall a motivational and skills training HIV prevention intervention designed for men was associated with greater reduction in SUI than standard HIV education at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:20078464

  2. The influence of immunosuppressive treatment on the progression of Graves' disease after radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurca, T.; Pirnat, E.; Hojker, S.; Avcin, J.

    1994-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy (RIT) for Graves' disease could produce a rise in autoimmune activity expressed as elevation of antibody against TSH receptors (TSI). In our retrospective study the influence of different immunosuppressive therapy on autoimmune activity was studied. Patients, treated with radioiodine or surgery for the first time, between January 1989 and March 1992 were included in the study, divided in the 5 groups (patients after thyroidectomy, and patients after RIT divided into groups according to treatment with different combinations of corticosteroids and cyclosporine A). Patients were examined and TT 4 , TT 3 TSH and TSI were collected before and 3, 6 and 9 months after treatment. There was no differences between groups before and according to the thyroid status the patients of all groups received antithyroid drugs or substitution therapy after the RIT or surgery. Immunosuppressive therapy was indicated because of Graves' ophthalmopathy. After surgery, the progressive fall of TSI and no relapses of the disease were stated. After first 3 months the situation was very similar in group of patients treated with cyclosporine A after RIT, later after the cessation of treatment, there were a slight elevation of TSI. In all other groups of patients after RIT there was a constant positive trend of TSI and the significant correlation was found between TSI before and after treatment. We conclude, that autoimmune response after RIT is a consequence of activity of T cells and therefore cyclosporine A could be taken in mind when we want to prevent it. Corticosteroids on the other hand had no such an effect. (author)

  3. Influence of post-treatment strategies on the properties of activated chars from broiler manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabel M; Boykin, Debbie L; Thomas Klasson, K; Uchimiya, Minori

    2014-01-01

    There are a myriad of carbonaceous precursors that can be used advantageously to produce activated carbons or chars, due to their low cost, availability and intrinsic properties. Because of the nature of the raw material, production of granular activated chars from broiler manure results in a significant ash fraction. This study was conducted to determine the influence of several pre- and post-treatment strategies in various physicochemical and adsorptive properties of the resulting activated chars. Pelletized samples of broiler litter and cake were pyrolyzed at 700 °C for 1h followed by a 45 min steam activation at 800 °C at different water flow rates from 1 to 5 mL min(-1). For each activation strategy, samples were either water-rinsed or acid-washed and rinsed or used as is (no acid wash/rinse). Activated char's physicochemical and adsorptive properties towards copper ions were selectively affected by both pre- and post-treatments. Percent ash reduction after either rinsing or acid washing ranged from 1.1 to 15.1% but washed activated chars were still alkaline with pH ranging from 8.4 to 9.1. Acid washing or water rinsing had no significant effect in the ability of the activated char to adsorb copper ions, however it significantly affected surface area, pH, ash content and carbon content. Instead, manure type (litter versus cake) and the activation water flow rate were determining factors in copper ion adsorption which ranged from 38 mg g(-1) to 104 mg g(-1) of activated char. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between copper uptake and concentration of certain elements in the activated char such as phosphorous, sulfur, calcium and sodium. Rinsing could suffice as a post treatment strategy for ash reduction since no significant differences in the carbon properties were observed between rinsed and acid wash treatments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Factors Influencing Anxiety in Infertile Women Undergoing IVF/ICSI Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hassanzadeh Bashtian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Infertility can lead to a diminished sense of well-being and is associated with a high frequency of psychosomatic and somatic disorders. Generally, infertile women are more affected by infertility than men. This study aimed to determine factors influencing anxiety among infertile women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 infertile women who were candidate for IVF/ICSI referred to Milad IVF Center, Mashhad, Iran, from September 2015 to July 2016. Prior to the treatment, the participants completed the demographic characteristics questionnaire and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI to assess the level of anxiety. Additionally, a self-structured questionnaire containing the infertility-associated data including the duration and cause of infertility as well as history and the duration of treatment, was completed by the respondents. The subjects were selected through purposive sampling technique. Data analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher exact test, regression tests, as well as Spearman’s correlation coefficient in SPSS software, version 16.   Results: The results obtained from BAI showed that 38.4% of the subjects had moderate anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the level of anxiety and age (P=0.001, the cause of infertility (P=0.007, and the duration of treatment (P=0.001. Conclusion: As the level of anxiety was higher in infertile women with younger age, female factor infertility and longer duration of treatment, it is recommended to consider this population more vulnerable and to provide them supportive counseling to be able to overcome their anxiety.

  5. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The dynamics of histamine level in patients with chronic urticaria under the influence of different methods of treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dytyatkovska Ye.M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the efficiency of different methods of chronic urticaria treatment. All patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment scteme. The paper shows the dynamics of histamine level in blood plasma, intestine disbiosis in patients with chronic urticaria under the influence of different treatment complexes. It was proved that there exists the correlation between the serum histamine level and method of treatment. Intro¬ducing bionorm into the treatment allows to decrease histamine level and correspondingly to significantly improve clinical effect and patients’ life quality.

  7. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Morphologies of Copper Nanoparticles Based Films by a Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of heat treatment on the morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides by a spin coating method. The experiments show that heat treatment can modify the sizes and morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides. We suggest that through changing the parameters of heat treatment process may be helpful to vary the scattering and absorbing intensity of copper nanoparticles when used in energy harvesting/conversion and optical devices.

  8. A semi-classical treatment of dissipative processes based on Feynman's influence functional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehring, K.; Smilansky, U.

    1980-01-01

    We develop a semi-classical treatment of dissipative processes based on Feynman's influence functional method. Applying it to deep inelastic collisions of heavy ions we study inclusive transition probabilities corresponding to a situation when only a set of collective variables is specified in the initial and final states. We show that the inclusive probabilities as well as the final energy distributions can be expressed in terms of properly defined classical paths and their corresponding stability fields. We present a uniform approximation for the study of quantal interference and focussing phenomena and discuss the conditions under which they are to be expected. For the dissipation mechanism we study three approximations - the harmonic model for the internal system, the weak coupling (diabatic) and the adiabatic coupling. We show that these three limits can be treated in the same manner. We finally compare the present formalism with other methodes as were introduced for the description of dissipation in deep inelastic collisions. (orig.)

  9. Influence of hydrothermal carbonization and treatment by microwave on morphology of carbonaceous materials obtained from lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, I.B.; Barin, G.B.; Barreto, L.S.; Santos, M.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of biomass into carbon materials with special morphologies via hydrothermal carbonization presents itself as a potential route for the use of renewable precursors in obtaining carbonaceous structures. In the present study the influence of the hydrothermal carbonization (250 ° C / 4 h) followed by microwave treatment (1-2-4 hours at 25 and 40 mL) in morphology and structure of lignin. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The plaque morphology of lignin was preserved during the hydrothermal process. However, when treated by microwave can be observed partial dissolution of lignin leading to the formation of microspheres on the surface. XRD presence of an amorphous halo 2θ = 23 ° attributed to the (002) network of the amorphous carbon was observed. (author)

  10. Multidetector CT angiography influences the choice of treatment for blunt carotid artery injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, Andrei M; Civil, Ian

    2014-08-06

    A 43-year-old woman presented with a 2 h history of left neck pain after striking her neck against a marble bench while playing with her son. The patient was screened for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) and a left carotid bruit was identified. Subsequently, she underwent multidetector CT angiography (MCTA) of the aortic arch and neck vessels, which demonstrated a flow-limiting dissection of the left common carotid artery (CCA). The patient was started on heparin infusion and underwent an emergency operation. At surgery, a circumferential intimal dissection was excised and the arteriotomy defect closed with an autologous venous patch. This case emphasises the importance of adequately examining patients with direct injury to the neck, screening relevant patients for BCVI and investigating them with MCTA that influences the choice of a treatment option. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Variability of skin autofluorescence measurement over 6 and 12 weeks and the influence of benfotiamine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirban, Alin; Pop, Alexandra; Fischer, Annelie; Heckermann, Sascha; Tschoepe, Diethelm

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of skin autofluorescence (SAF) allow for a simple and noninvasive quantification of tissue advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), a marker linked to the risk of diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability of SAF over 6 and 12 weeks and to test whether benfotiamine, a thiamine prodrug suggested to reduce AGEs formation under hyperglycemic conditions, is able to attenuate SAF when administered over 6 weeks. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study, 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) received 900 mg/day benfotiamine or placebo for 6 weeks (washout period of 6 weeks between). At the beginning and at the end of each treatment period, SAF was assessed in the fasting state, as well as 2, 4, and 6 h following a mixed test meal. The respective intra-individual and inter-individual variability of fasting SAF was 6.9% and 24.5% within 6 weeks and 10.9% and 23.1% within 12 weeks. The respective variability calculated for triplicate comparisons was 9.9% and 27.7%. A short-term therapy with benfotiamine did not influence SAF significantly, nor did we find a significant postprandial SAF increase. In patients with T2DM, repeated, timely spaced SAF measurements have an intra-subject variability of below 11%. Using these data, sample sizes were calculated for interventional studies aiming at reducing SAF. Benfotiamine treatment for 6 weeks did not significantly influence SAF; for this, a longer-term therapy is probably needed.

  12. Unsteady influence of Self Recirculation Casing Treatment (SRCT) on high pressure ratio centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingyang, Yang; Ricardo, Martines-botas; Kangyao, Deng; Yangjun, Zhang; Xinqian, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced order model proves flow flucturations in impeller to be downstream disturbance propagation. • Fluctuations depression is attributed by the effect of energy bypass via rear slot of SRCT. • Flow distortion in diffuser results in disturbance with swing flow direction due to unbalanced forces. - Abstract: Self-Recirculation-Casing-Treatment (SRCT) is a widely employed method to enhance aerodynamic stability of a centrifugal compressor. This paper investigated unsteady effects of SRCT on the flow in a transonic centrifugal compressor via numerical method validated by experimental test. Firstly the static pressure distribution in the compressor without SRCT is measured for information of boundary conditions as well as validation. Then a 1-D unsteady model of a single passage is built and validated based on the experimental results. Next, the 1-D model of a passage with SRCT is built to investigate the unsteady influence of the SRCT on the flow in the passage. Finally 3-D unsteady CFD is employed to investigate the detailed influence of SRCT on the flow field in impeller passages. Results show that the topology of the passage with SRCT can remarkably damp the distortion propagating from downstream, hence depress the magnitude of the inlet flow distortion. Furthermore, the width of the rear slot in SRCT is the key factor for the damping effect. The 3-D simulation results further show that the fluctuations of the re-circulated flow rate via the front slot is depressed by the SRCT which is attributed to the damping effect of its configuration.

  13. Influence of statin treatment on coronary atherosclerosis visualised using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hans [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Klinikum Brandenburg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology, and Pulmonology, Brandenburg an der Havel (Germany); Frieler, Katja [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Medical Statistics, Berlin (Germany); Potsdam Institut fuer Klimaforschung, Potsdam (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Medical Statistics, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Coronary angiography using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows non-invasive assessment of non-calcified, calcified and mixed plaques. Progression of coronary plaques may be influenced by statins. Sixty-three consecutive patients underwent MDCT as a follow-up to their original CT angiography in a retrospective longitudinal study. MDCT was performed by using a voxel size of 0.5 x 0.35 x 0.35 mm{sup 3} at two time points 25 {+-} 3 months apart. Non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaque components were analysed by using volumetric measurement. The influence of statin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and risk factors was assessed by using a linear random intercept model for plaque growth. The volumes of non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaques significantly (P < 0.001) increased from baseline (medians/interquartile ranges = 21/15-39, 7/3-20 and 36/16-69 mm{sup 3}) to follow-up (29/17-44, 13/6-29 and 41/20-75 mm{sup 3}). Statins significantly slowed the growth of non-calcified plaques (statin coefficient {beta} = -0.0036, P = 0.01) but did not significantly affect the growth rate of mixed or calcified plaques. The effect of statin treatment on non-calcified plaques remained significant after adjusting for LDL levels and cardiac risk factors. Quantification using MDCT shows that progression of non-calcified coronary plaques may be slowed by statins. (orig.)

  14. Influence of statin treatment on coronary atherosclerosis visualised using multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Hans; Frieler, Katja; Schlattmann, Peter; Hamm, Bernd; Dewey, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Coronary angiography using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows non-invasive assessment of non-calcified, calcified and mixed plaques. Progression of coronary plaques may be influenced by statins. Sixty-three consecutive patients underwent MDCT as a follow-up to their original CT angiography in a retrospective longitudinal study. MDCT was performed by using a voxel size of 0.5 x 0.35 x 0.35 mm 3 at two time points 25 ± 3 months apart. Non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaque components were analysed by using volumetric measurement. The influence of statin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and risk factors was assessed by using a linear random intercept model for plaque growth. The volumes of non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaques significantly (P 3 ) to follow-up (29/17-44, 13/6-29 and 41/20-75 mm 3 ). Statins significantly slowed the growth of non-calcified plaques (statin coefficient β = -0.0036, P = 0.01) but did not significantly affect the growth rate of mixed or calcified plaques. The effect of statin treatment on non-calcified plaques remained significant after adjusting for LDL levels and cardiac risk factors. Quantification using MDCT shows that progression of non-calcified coronary plaques may be slowed by statins. (orig.)

  15. Influence of pre-measurement thermal treatment on OSL of synthetic quartz measured at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, Y.D.; Gandhi, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Much effort has been made to study the influence of pre-measurement thermal treatment and ionizing radiation on quartz specimens owing to its use in a large number of applications. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) being a structured and sensitive phenomenon promises to correlate the responsible color center and luminescence emission. OSL studies on quartz with such conditions can reveal many significant results. The aim of the present investigation is to understand the effect of annealing temperature on OSL characteristics of synthetic quartz recorded at room temperature. At identical annealing duration and β-dose, the shape of OSL decay curve remains non-exponential; when specimens annealed at lower temperature (∼400 deg. C). The shape of decay curve changes to exponential in nature along with rise in OSL intensity when the specimen was given higher temperature of annealing (>400 deg. C). The effects of such protocol on pattern of OSL sensitivity as well as area under the OSL decay curve are also presented here. The presence of shallow traps, when OSL decay curve was recorded at room temperature seems to be responsible for the changes in OSL pattern. The influence of shallow traps is attributed to non-exponential decay of OSL recorded at room temperature

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and gender influence treatment seeking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Pozzi, Elena; Giacosa, Chiara; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increases the risk of adult physical and mental health disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and influences adult brain structure and function. ACE could influence the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood, and treatment seeking behaviors. We assessed the severity of ACE in a sample of 31 healthy controls and 66 patients with OCD who were consecutively referred for hospitalization and were either drug-naïve or drug-treated. In addition, we explored the possible clinical relevance of ACE with two additional analyses: (a) a discriminant function analysis with sex and ACE as factors, and (b) a logistic regression with use of medication as dependent variable and ACE as factor. Despite comparable age, years at school, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and severity of illness (Y-BOCS), adult drug-naïve patients reported lower exposure to ACE and later contacts with mental health professionals than drug-treated. This effect was particularly evident in female patients compared to males. The interaction of gender with factors linked with the early familial environment biased access to psychiatric care and use of medication, independent of OCD-associated factors such as severity of symptoms or duration of illness. The need for medications of patients could be higher in families where OCD symptomatology is associated with ACE. © 2014.

  17. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  18. Influence of the Culinary Treatment on the Quality of Lactarius deliciosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoń, Krystyna; Jaworska, Grażyna; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Maciejaszek, Ireneusz

    2013-06-17

    The influence of culinary treatment on the nutritional value and quality of Lactarius deliciosus was established. Mushrooms: unblanched (I), blanched (II), and unblanched with onion and spices (III), were fried in oil for 10 min. Fried mushrooms were assessed before storage as well as after 48 h in storage at 20 °C, and after 48 and 96 h in storage at 4 °C. Frying increased the dry weight, protein, fat, ash, total carbohydrate, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content, as well as the caloric value of the mushrooms. In addition, frying decreased the antioxidant activity, color parameters ( a *, h *), and texture. The most significant changes due to culinary treatment and storage were observed in type II product. Microbiological analysis of the samples after a 48 h storage period at 20 °C revealed the total viable count over 10⁶ and contamination with lactic acid bacteria. Fried mushrooms stored at 4 °C for 96 h were free from microorganisms.

  19. Cytokine Polymorphisms, Their Influence and Levels in Brazilian Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis during Antituberculosis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Peresi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines play an essential role during active tuberculosis disease and cytokine genes have been described in association with altered cytokine levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if IFNG, IL12B, TNF, IL17A, IL10, and TGFB1 gene polymorphisms influence the immune response of Brazilian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB at different time points of antituberculosis treatment (T1, T2, and T3. Our results showed the following associations: IFNG +874 T allele and IFNG +2109 A allele with higher IFN-γ levels; IL12B +1188 C allele with higher IL-12 levels; TNF −308 A allele with higher TNF-α plasma levels in controls and mRNA levels in PTB patients at T1; IL17A A allele at rs7747909 with higher IL-17 levels; IL10 −819 T allele with higher IL-10 levels; and TGFB1 +29 CC genotype higher TGF-β plasma levels in PTB patients at T2. The present study suggests that IFNG +874T/A, IFNG +2109A/G, IL12B +1188A/C, IL10 −819C/T, and TGFB1 +21C/T are associated with differential cytokine levels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of acquired cellular immunity to tuberculosis and in the outcome of the active disease while on antituberculosis treatment.

  20. Influence of MAO Treatment on the Galvanic Corrosion Between Aluminum Alloy and 316L Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanhang; Gu, Yanhong; Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Xiangdong; Che, Juntie

    2017-12-01

    To slow down the galvanic corrosion of aluminum alloy and 316L stainless steel in subsea water, a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating was prepared on the surface of the Al alloy, and no treatment was performed on the surface of the 316L. The surface morphology of MAO-coated Al alloy was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after corrosion. A micro-hardness tester was used to measure the micro-hardness. Corrosion behaviors were evaluated by open-circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrode impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests in a 3.5 g/L NaCl solution. The results of PDP testing show that the corrosion potential of the MAO-coated galvanic pair was more positive than that of the uncoated galvanic pair and that the corrosion current density was smaller than that of the uncoated galvanic pair. EIS results show that the impedance of the galvanic pair increased after MAO coating. SEM images show that the corrosion damage of the uncoated Al alloy was more severe than that of the MAO-coated one, and the post-corrosion images of the surface of the 316L connected with MAO-coated Al alloy were more compact than those of the 316L connected with uncoated Al alloy. A physical model was developed to discuss the influence of MAO treatment on the galvanic corrosion process and corrosion mechanism.

  1. Pyrimethanil degradation by photo-Fenton process: Influence of iron and irradiance level on treatment cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Reina, A; Miralles-Cuevas, S; Casas López, J L; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2017-12-15

    This study evaluates the combined effect of photo-catalyst concentration and irradiance level on photo-Fenton efficiency when this treatment is applied to industrial wastewater decontamination. Three levels of irradiance (18, 32 and 46W/m 2 ) and three iron concentrations (8, 20 and 32mg/L) were selected and their influence over the process studied using a raceway pond reactor placed inside a solar box. For 8mg/L, it was found that there was a lack of catalyst to make use of all the available photons. For 20mg/L, the treatment always improved with irradiance indicating that the process was photo-limited. For 32mg/L, the excess of iron caused an excess of radicals production which proved to be counter-productive for the overall process efficiency. The economic assessment showed that acquisition and maintenance costs represent the lowest relative values. The highest cost was found to be the cost of the reagents consumed. Both sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide are negligible in terms of costs. Iron cost percentages were also very low and never higher than 10.5% while the highest cost was always that of hydrogen peroxide, representing at least 85% of the reagent costs. Thus, the total costs were between 0.76 and 1.39€/m 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Decisional strategy determines whether frame influences treatment preferences for medical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Erin L; Lynch, Elizabeth B; Edelstein, Barry A

    2011-06-01

    Decision makers are influenced by the frame of information such that preferences vary depending on whether survival or mortality data are presented. Research is inconsistent as to whether and how age impacts framing effects. This paper presents two studies that used qualitative analyses of think-aloud protocols to understand how the type of information used in the decision making process varies by frame and age. In Study 1, 40 older adults, age 65 to 89, and 40 younger adults, age 18 to 24, responded to a hypothetical lung cancer scenario in a within-subject design. Participants received both a survival and mortality frame. Qualitative analyses revealed that two main decisional strategies were used by all participants: one strategy reflected a data-driven decisional process, whereas the other reflected an experience-driven process. Age predicted decisional strategy, with older adults less likely to use a data-driven strategy. Frame interacted with strategy to predict treatment choice; only those using a data-driven strategy demonstrated framing effects. In Study 2, 61 older adults, age 65 to 98, and 63 younger adults, age 18 to 30, responded to the same scenarios as in Study 1 in a between-subject design. The results of Study 1 were replicated, with age significantly predicting decisional strategy and frame interacting with strategy to predict treatment choice. Findings suggest that framing effects may be more related to decisional strategy than to age. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Austempering Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon High Silicon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaksha, P. A.; Ravishankar, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation, the influence of austempering heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of medium carbon high silicon steel was evaluated. The test specimens were machined from the as-received steel and were first austenitised at 900 °C for 45 minutes, followed by austempering heat treatment in salt bath at various temperatures 300 °C, 350 °C and 400 °C for a fixed duration of two hours, after that those specimens were air-cooled to room temperature. The characterization studies were carried out using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffractometer (XRD) and then correlated to the hardness and tensile properties. Results indicate that, the specimens austempered at lower temperature i.e. at 300 °C, which offered high hardness, tensile strength and lower ductility (1857 MPa and 13.3 %) due to the presence of acicular bainite i.e. lower bainite and also some martensite in the microstructure. At 350 °C, reduction in the tensile strength and hardness was observed, but comparatively higher ductility, which was favored by the presence of bainite laths i.e. upper bainitic structure along with higher retained austenite content. Finally at 400 °C, reduction in both ductility and tensile strength was observed, which is due to the precipitation of carbides between the banite laths, however good strain hardening response was observed at austempering temperatures of 350 °C and 400 °C.

  4. Religion and HIV in Tanzania: influence of religious beliefs on HIV stigma, disclosure, and treatment attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostermann Jan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.

  5. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmad Zauzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipitation, and calcination process. The optimum result from this study was the surface area of aluminium dross increases from 10.1 m2/g up to 80.0 m2/g at 40°C, 1% NaOH, and 15-minute reaction time. Thus, aluminium dross has a potential to be converted into other useful material such as catalyst and absorbent. The benefit of this research is that the hazardous industrial waste can be turned into wealth to be used in other applications such as in catalytic activities and absorber in waste water treatment. Further investigation on the physicochemical of aluminium dross with different acid or alkali should be conducted to get deeper understanding on the aluminium dross as a catalyst-type material.

  6. Influence of the Culinary Treatment on the Quality of Lactarius deliciosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoń, Krystyna; Jaworska, Grażyna; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Maciejaszek, Ireneusz

    2013-01-01

    The influence of culinary treatment on the nutritional value and quality of Lactarius deliciosus was established. Mushrooms: unblanched (I), blanched (II), and unblanched with onion and spices (III), were fried in oil for 10 min. Fried mushrooms were assessed before storage as well as after 48 h in storage at 20 °C, and after 48 and 96 h in storage at 4 °C. Frying increased the dry weight, protein, fat, ash, total carbohydrate, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content, as well as the caloric value of the mushrooms. In addition, frying decreased the antioxidant activity, color parameters (a*, h*), and texture. The most significant changes due to culinary treatment and storage were observed in type II product. Microbiological analysis of the samples after a 48 h storage period at 20 °C revealed the total viable count over 106 and contamination with lactic acid bacteria. Fried mushrooms stored at 4 °C for 96 h were free from microorganisms. PMID:28239112

  7. Influence of hummocks and emergent vegetation on hydraulic performance in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Steffanie H.; Daniels, Joan S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Wass, Roland D.; Stiles, Eric A.; Barber, Larry B.

    2010-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments were conducted biannually at the start and end of the vegetation growing season in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland located near Phoenix, AZ. Tracer experiments were conducted prior to and following reconfiguration and replanting of a 1.2 ha treatment wetland from its original design of alternating shallow and deep zones to incorporate hummocks (shallow planting beds situated perpendicular to flow). Tracer test data were analyzed using analysis of moments and the one‐dimensional transport with inflow and storage numerical model to evaluate the effects of the seasonal vegetation growth cycle and hummocks on solute transport. Following reconfiguration, vegetation coverage was relatively small, and minor changes in spatial distribution influenced wetland hydraulics. During start‐up conditions, the wetland underwent an acclimation period characterized by small vegetation coverage and large transport cross‐sectional areas. At the start of the growing season, new growth of emergent vegetation enhanced hydraulic performance. At the end of the growing season, senescing vegetation created short‐circuiting. Wetland hydrodynamics were associated with high volumetric efficiencies and velocity heterogeneities. The hummock design resulted in breakthrough curves characterized by multiple secondary tracer peaks indicative of varied flow paths created by bottom topography.

  8. Influence of heat treatment on field emission characteristics of boron nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiqing; Gu Guangrui; Li Yingai; He Zhi; Feng Wei; Liu Lihua; Zhao Chunhong; Zhao Yongnian

    2005-01-01

    Boron nitride (BN) nanometer thin films are synthesized on Si (1 0 0) substrates by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Then the film surfaces are treated in the case of the base pressure below 5 x 10 -4 Pa and the temperature of 800 and 1000 deg. C, respectively. And the films are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and field emission characteristics at different annealing temperature. The results show that the surface heat treatment makes no apparent influence on the surface morphology of the BN films. The transformations of the sample emission characteristics have to do with the surface negative electron affinity (NEA) of the films possibly. The threshold electric fields are lower for BN samples without heat-treating than the treated films, which possibly ascribed to the surface negative electron affinity effect. A threshold field of 8 V/μm and the emission current of 80 μA are obtained. The surface NEA is still presence at the heat treatment temperature of 800 deg. C and disappeared at temperature of 1000 deg. C

  9. Influence of surface treatment on the crevice corrosion of super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, H.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to try and discover if changes i surface condition, derived through various methods could influence the resistance to crevice corrosion of super duplex stainless teel (SDS). Such data could then be employed to elucidate the main factors controlling crevice corrosion. Through the manipulation of these parameters it was envisaged that the crevice corrosion temperature of this material may be further advanced and to increase its application within harsher industrial environments. For this reason a series of crevice tests were performed on SDSS heat exchanger tubing both in the as received condition and after various surface treatments. Such modification was carried out by; shot blasting, passivation, pickling and combinations of annealing, shot blasting, pickling and passivation. Results have indicated that the main factor controlling the resistance to crevice corrosion is the level of Cr depletion within a few microns of the steel surface. Although various treatments such as shot blasting and pickling reduce Cr depletion by removal of surface material, the nature of the surface finish itself was not found to affect the corrosion resistance. An increase in Cr content from 20 to 25% within 2 microns of the surface of the tubing was able to increase the crevice corrosion temperature by 20 sub deg. C. (author)

  10. The influence of antibiotic treatment of bitches in oestrus on their attractiveness to males during mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziecioł, M; Nizański, W; Stańczyk, E; Kozdrowski, R; Najder-Kozdrowska, L; Twardoń, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the antibiotic treatment, including the mode of drugs administration, on bitches' attractiveness to the stud dogs during mating. Moreover, we tried to estimate the possibility of aversive effect of the drug vehicle on the male behavior. In experiment I, four bitches in oestrus without antibiotic treatment (group A), four bitches treated with intravaginal antibiotic (group B) and four bitches treated with intramuscular antibiotic (group C) were presented to four stud dogs. In experiment II, bitches in oestrus (n = 5) were presented to the males (n = 2) before and after the application to the females' vulva the antibiotic carrier--Miglyol 840 (Sasol, Germany). In both experiments the presence of the typical sexual behavior of the males (sniffing, licking the vulva and anal region, mating attempts) was evaluated. In experiment III the reaction of the males to the samples containing oestrual discharge from the bitches untreated and treated with antibiotics was evaluated. In the last part of study the aversion reaction to the samples containing antibiotic and the antibiotic carrier was evaluated. The results of experiments showed that females treated with the antibiotics were less attractive to males than untreated females, regardless of the method of administration. We did not observe adverse effect of the antibiotic carrier but samples from the bitches treated with antibiotics were significantly less attractive to the males. We concluded that the reason for reduced attractiveness of the bitches in oestrus after antibiotic treatment was the changes in semiochemical signal emitted by treated females as a consequence of elimination of the vaginal bacterial flora, which seems to be involved in creation of the typical, recognizable by the stud dogs, oestrual signal but also by the possible covering effect of used drugs.

  11. Age at the time of sulfonylurea initiation influences treatment outcomes in KCNJ11-related neonatal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Brian W; Carmody, David; Tadie, Elizabeth C; Pastore, Ashley N; Dickens, Jazzmyne T; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Naylor, Rochelle N; Philipson, Louis H; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with heterozygous activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene encoding a subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) can usually be treated with oral sulfonylurea (SU) pills in lieu of insulin injections. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that younger age at the time of initiation of SU therapy is correlated with lower required doses of SU therapy, shorter transition time and decreased likelihood of requiring additional diabetes medications. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data on 58 individuals with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutations identified through the University of Chicago Monogenic Diabetes Registry ( http://monogenicdiabetes.uchicago.edu/registry ). We assessed the influence of age at initiation of SU therapy on treatment outcomes. HbA1c fell from an average of 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) before transition to 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) after SU therapy (p < 0.001). Age of initiation of SU correlated with the dose (mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of SU required at follow-up (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Similar associations were observed across mutation subtypes. Ten participants required additional glucose-lowering medications and all had initiated SU at age 13 years or older. No serious adverse events were reported. Earlier age at initiation of SU treatment is associated with improved response to SU therapy. Declining sensitivity to SU may be due to loss of beta cell mass over time in those treated with insulin. Our data support the need for early genetic diagnosis and appropriate personalised treatment in all cases of neonatal diabetes.

  12. Influence of drinking water treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite/chlorate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Disinfection is the last treatment stage of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) and is carried out to maintain a residual concentration of disinfectant in the water distribution system. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used chemical employed for this purpose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of several treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and on chlorite and chlorate formation in the final oxidation/disinfection stage. A number of tests was performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected from the DWTP of Cremona (Italy). The following processes were studied: oxidation with potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite, coagulation/flocculation with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, filtration and adsorption onto activated carbon. The results showed that the chlorine dioxide demand is high if sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate are employed in pre-oxidation. On the other hand, chlorine dioxide leads to the highest production of chlorite and chlorate. The coagulation/flocculation process after pre-oxidation shows that chlorine dioxide demand decreases if potassium permanganate is employed as an oxidant, both with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate. Therefore, the combination of these processes leads to a lower production of chlorite and chlorate. Aluminum sulfate is preferable in terms of the chlorine dioxide demand reduction and minimization of the chlorite and chlorate formation. Activated carbon is the most effective solution as it reduced the chlorine dioxide consumption by about 50% and the DBP formation by about 20-40%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of maternal gestational treatment with mycobacterial antigens on postnatal immunity in an experimental murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jubayer Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the immune system could be primed as early as during the fetal life and this might have an impact on postnatal vaccination. Therefore, we addressed in murine models whether gestational treatment with mycobacterial antigens could induce better immune responses in the postnatal life. METHODS/FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were treated subcutaneously (s.c. at the second week of gestation with antigen (Ag85A or heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA in the absence of adjuvant. Following birth, offspring mice were immunized intranasally (i.n. with the same antigens formulated with the adjuvant cholera toxin (CT at week 1 and week 4. One week after the last immunization, we assessed antigen-specific recall interferon gamma (IFN-gamma responses by in vitro restimulation of lung-derived lymphocytes. Protection against infection was assessed by challenge with high dose Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG given i.n. We found that recall IFN-gamma responses were higher in the offspring born to the treated mother compared to the untreated-mother. More importantly, we observed that the offspring born to the treated mother controlled infection better than the offspring born to the untreated mother. Since the gestational treatment was done in absence of adjuvant, essentially there was no antibody production observed in the pregnant mice and therefore no influence of maternal antibodies was expected. We hypothesized that the effect of maternal treatment with antigen on the offspring occurred due to antigen transportation through placenta. To trace the antigens, we conjugated fluorescent nanocrystals with Ag85A (Qdot-ITK-Ag85A. After inoculation in the pregnant mice, Qdot-ITK-Ag85A conjugates were detected in the liver, spleen of pregnant females and in all the fetuses and placentas examined. CONCLUSION: The fetal immune system could be primed in utero by mycobacterial antigens transported through the placenta.

  14. Plasma temperature during methylene blue/light treatment influences virus inactivation capacity and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravemann, U; Handke, W; Sumian, C; Alvarez, I; Reichenberg, S; Müller, T H; Seltsam, A

    2018-02-27

    Photodynamic treatment using methylene blue (MB) and visible light is in routine use for pathogen inactivation of human plasma in different countries. Ambient and product temperature conditions for human plasma during production may vary between production sites. The influence of different temperature conditions on virus inactivation capacity and plasma quality of the THERAFLEX MB-Plasma procedure was investigated in this study. Plasma units equilibrated to 5 ± 2°C, room temperature (22 ± 2°C) or 30 ± 2°C were treated with MB/light and comparatively assessed for the inactivation capacity for three different viruses, concentrations of MB and its photoproducts, activity of various plasma coagulation factors and clotting time. Reduced solubility of the MB pill was observed at 5 ± 2°C. Photocatalytic degradation of MB increased with increasing temperature, and the greatest formation of photoproducts (mainly azure B) occurred at 30 ± 2°C. Inactivation of suid herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and vesicular stomatitis virus was significantly lower at 5 ± 2°C than at higher temperatures. MB/light treatment affected clotting times and the activity of almost all investigated plasma proteins. Factor VIII (-17·7 ± 8·3%, 22 ± 2°C) and fibrinogen (-14·4 ± 16·4%, 22 ± 2°C) showed the highest decreases in activity. Increasing plasma temperatures resulted in greater changes in clotting time and higher losses of plasma coagulation factor activity. Temperature conditions for THERAFLEX MB-Plasma treatment must be carefully controlled to assure uniform quality of pathogen-reduced plasma in routine production. Inactivation of cooled plasma is not recommended. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Influence of initial thermomechanical treatment on high temperature properties of laves phase strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talik, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design 17 wt%Cr Laves phase strengthened HiperFer (High performance Ferrite) steels and evaluate their properties. This class of steel is supposed to be used in Advanced Ultra Super Critical power plants. Such cycles exhibit higher efficiency and are environmentally friendly, but improved materials with high resistance to reside/steam oxidation and sufficient creep strength are required. The work focused on the characterization of creep properties of 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si heat resistant steel. Small batches of steels with nominal compositions of 17Cr3W0.5Nb0.25Si and 17Cr3W0.9Nb0.25Si were used to analyze the influence of chemical composition on the precipitation behaviour in comparison to 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si steel. Creep strength of HiperFer steels is ensured by ne dispersion of thermodynamically stable Laves phase particles, while maintaining high corrosion resistance by a relatively high chromium content. Design of HiperFer steels was accomplished by thermodynamic modeling (Thermocalc) with the main tasks of elimination of the unwelcome brittle (Fe,Cr)-σ phase and maximization of the content of the strengthening C14 Fe_2Nb type Laves phase particles. Long term annealing experiments of all HiperFer steels were performed at 650 C in order to evaluate the role of chemical composition and initial thermo-mechanical treatment state on precipitation behaviour. Laves phase particles formed quickly after few hours and the size of precipitates did not change significantly within 1,000 hours. The observed development of Laves phase particles was compared with thermodynamical calculations (TC-Prisma). The creep properties of 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si steel in different initial thermo-mechanical treatment states were tested at 650 C. The influence of different cold rolling procedures, and heat treatments was investigated. Increased cold rolling deformation had a positive effect resulting not only from work hardening, but from the acceleration of Laves

  16. The influence of location of local anesthesia and complexity/duration of restorative treatment on children's behavior during dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, Esti; Wated, Alham; Shapira, Joseph; Ram, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the region of local anesthetic injection and the complexity and duration of restorative treatment were associated with children's behavior during and immediately after dental treatment. This study examined 90 children, divided into two age groups (2-3.5 years old and >3.5-5.5 years old), who underwent dental treatment while lightly sedated. The region of local anesthesia (maxillary infiltration or mandibular block), complexity and duration of treatment, and behavior during and after treatment were assessed. Children's behavior during and after dental treatment, within and between age groups, was not found to be associated with the region of local anesthesia or complexity of treatment. For both age groups, more children exhibited negative behaviors during treatment when procedures exceeded 30 minutes. For younger children, more negative behaviors were also observed after longer vs shorter procedures. Treatment duration, not the region of local anesthesia or complexity of treatment, was associated with children's behavior during and after dental procedures.

  17. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Nepal: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasti, Sharada P; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Freeman, Jennifer V; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifesaver for individual patients treated for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral drugs is essential for HIV infection management. This study aimed to understand the factors influencing adherence amongst ART-prescribed patients and care providers in Nepal. A cross-sectional mixed-methods study surveying 330 ART-prescribed patients and 34 in-depth interviews with three different types of stakeholders: patients, care providers, and key people at policy level. Adherence was assessed through survey self-reporting and during the interviews. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with adherence, supplemented with a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. A total of 282 (85.5%) respondents reported complete adherence, i.e. no missed doses in the four-weeks prior to interview. Major factors influencing adherence were: non-disclosure of HIV status (OR = 17.99, p = 0.014); alcohol use (OR = 12.89, p = 1 hour (OR = 2.84, p = 0.035). Similarly, lack of knowledge and negative perception towards ART medications also significantly affected non-adherence. Transport costs (for repeat prescription), followed by pills running out, not wanting others to notice, side-effects, and being busy were the most common reasons for non-adherence. The interviews also revealed religious or ritual obstacles, stigma and discrimination, ART-associated costs, transport problems, lack of support, and side-effects as contributing to non-adherence. Improving adherence requires a supportive environment; accessible treatment; clear instructions about regimens; and regimens tailored to individual patients' lifestyles. Healthcare workers should address some of the practical and cultural issues around ART medicine whilst policy-makers should develop appropriate social policy to promote adherence among ART

  18. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Nepal: a mixed-methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada P Wasti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART is a lifesaver for individual patients treated for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral drugs is essential for HIV infection management. This study aimed to understand the factors influencing adherence amongst ART-prescribed patients and care providers in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed-methods study surveying 330 ART-prescribed patients and 34 in-depth interviews with three different types of stakeholders: patients, care providers, and key people at policy level. Adherence was assessed through survey self-reporting and during the interviews. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with adherence, supplemented with a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. RESULTS: A total of 282 (85.5% respondents reported complete adherence, i.e. no missed doses in the four-weeks prior to interview. Major factors influencing adherence were: non-disclosure of HIV status (OR = 17.99, p = 0.014; alcohol use (OR = 12.89, p = 1 hour (OR = 2.84, p = 0.035. Similarly, lack of knowledge and negative perception towards ART medications also significantly affected non-adherence. Transport costs (for repeat prescription, followed by pills running out, not wanting others to notice, side-effects, and being busy were the most common reasons for non-adherence. The interviews also revealed religious or ritual obstacles, stigma and discrimination, ART-associated costs, transport problems, lack of support, and side-effects as contributing to non-adherence. CONCLUSION: Improving adherence requires a supportive environment; accessible treatment; clear instructions about regimens; and regimens tailored to individual patients' lifestyles. Healthcare workers should address some of the practical and cultural issues around ART medicine whilst policy-makers should develop

  19. Influence of sex on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and treatment outcomes

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    Aryal S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shambhu Aryal,1 Enrique Diaz-Guzman,2 David M Mannino3 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, 3Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, one of the most common chronic diseases and a leading cause of death, has historically been considered a disease of men. However, there has been a rapid increase in the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of COPD in women over the last two decades. This has largely been attributed to historical increases in tobacco consumption among women. But the influence of sex on COPD is complex and involves several other factors, including differential susceptibility to the effects of tobacco, anatomic, hormonal, and behavioral differences, and differential response to therapy. Interestingly, nonsmokers with COPD are more likely to be women. In addition, women with COPD are more likely to have a chronic bronchitis phenotype, suffer from less cardiovascular comorbidity, have more concomitant depression and osteoporosis, and have a better outcome with acute exacerbations. Women historically have had lower mortality with COPD, but this is changing as well. There are also differences in how men and women respond to different therapies. Despite the changing face of COPD, care providers continue to harbor a sex bias, leading to underdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis of COPD in women. In this review, we present the current knowledge on the influence of sex on COPD risk factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes, and how this knowledge may be applied to improve clinical practices and advance research. Keywords: chronic obstructive lung disease, sex, smoking, comorbidity, sex bias

  20. The influence of economic incentives on treatment patterns in a third-party funded dental service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, N

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the response of dental practitioners to administration and remuneration adjustments to the Dental Treatment Services Scheme (DTSS) in the Republic of Ireland. DESIGN: Following the introduction of a series of administration and fee adjustments by a third party payments system in December 1999 the pattern of extractions and restorations are examined to determine whether the adjustments had influenced provider behaviour, in particular whether a substitution effect from extractions to restorations would result from a relative fee increase of 62% for amalgam fillings. DATA AND METHODS: Data on patient and provider characteristics from June 1996 to April 2005, collected by the Health Service Executive (HSE) National Shared Services Primary Care Reimbursement Service to facilitate remuneration to dentists providing services in the DTSS, was used in this analysis. A graphical analysis of the data revealed a structural break in the time-series and an apparent substitution to amalgam fillings following the introduction of the fee increases. To test the statistical significance of this break, the ratio of amalgams to restorations was regressed on the trend, growth and level dummy variables, using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression. The diagnostics of the model were assessed using the Jarque-Bera normality test and the LM to test for serial correlation. RESULTS: The initial results showed no evidence of a structural break. However on further investigation, when a pulse dummy was included to account for the immediate impact of the fee adjustment the results suggest a unit root process with a structural break in December 1999. This implies that the amalgam fee increase of December 1999 influenced the behaviour patterns of providers. CONCLUSIONS: System changes can be used to change the emphasis from a scheme that was principally exodontia\\/emergency based to a scheme that is more conservative and based on restoration\\/prevention.

  1. Genomic Influence in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases with a Sterol-Based Treatment

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    Ismael San Mauro Martín

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Raised serum cholesterol concentration is a well-established risk factor in cardiovascular disease. In addition, genetic load may have an indirect influence on cardiovascular risk. Plant-based sterol-supplemented foods are recommended to help reduce the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The objective was to analyse the influence of different polymorphisms in hypercholesterolemia patients following a dietary treatment with plant sterols. A randomised double-blind cross-over controlled clinical trial was carried out in 45 people (25 women. Commercial milk, containing 2.24 g of sterols, was ingested daily during a 3-week period, and then the same amount of skim milk, without sterols, was consumed daily during the 3-week placebo phase. Both phases were separated by a washout period of 2 weeks. At the beginning and end of each phase, blood draws were performed. Genes LIPC C-514T and APOA5 C56G are Ser19Trp carriers and greatly benefit from sterol intake in the diet. LIPC C-514T TT homozygous carriers had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c levels than CC homozygote and CT heterozygote carriers after the ingestion of plant sterols (p = 0.001. These two genes also showed statistically significant changes in total cholesterol levels (p = 0.025; p = 0.005, and no significant changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels (p = 0.032; p = 0.003, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed for other genes. Further studies are needed to establish which genotype combinations would be the most protective against hypercholesterolemia.

  2. Factors Influencing Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment in Nepal: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasti, Sharada P.; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Freeman, Jennifer V.; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifesaver for individual patients treated for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral drugs is essential for HIV infection management. This study aimed to understand the factors influencing adherence amongst ART-prescribed patients and care providers in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional mixed-methods study surveying 330 ART-prescribed patients and 34 in-depth interviews with three different types of stakeholders: patients, care providers, and key people at policy level. Adherence was assessed through survey self-reporting and during the interviews. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with adherence, supplemented with a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. Results A total of 282 (85.5%) respondents reported complete adherence, i.e. no missed doses in the four-weeks prior to interview. Major factors influencing adherence were: non-disclosure of HIV status (OR = 17.99, p =  0.014); alcohol use (OR = 12.89, p = 1 hour (OR = 2.84, p = 0.035). Similarly, lack of knowledge and negative perception towards ART medications also significantly affected non-adherence. Transport costs (for repeat prescription), followed by pills running out, not wanting others to notice, side-effects, and being busy were the most common reasons for non-adherence. The interviews also revealed religious or ritual obstacles, stigma and discrimination, ART-associated costs, transport problems, lack of support, and side-effects as contributing to non-adherence. Conclusion Improving adherence requires a supportive environment; accessible treatment; clear instructions about regimens; and regimens tailored to individual patients’ lifestyles. Healthcare workers should address some of the practical and cultural issues around ART medicine whilst policy-makers should develop appropriate social

  3. Factors influencing the choice of going to a dental quack practice for orthodontic treatment among the citizen of Bandung

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    Akhyar Dyni Zakyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Braces is the treatment of choice for malocclusion. However, in recent years malocclusion no longer serves as the reason behind the orthodontic treatment. Many people use it for the fashion purposes and some of them got it from a dental quack. The purpose of this study was to understand factors that influenced citizen of Bandung to go to dental quack practice for orthodontics treatment. Methods: Cross-sectional study with purposive sampling technique consisting of 30 samples. Inclusion criteria were subject wearing metal braces from dental quack, live within area of Bandung, and willing to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria was subjects that refused to participate in the study. Results: The study showed that 73% of the subjects use the treatment for aligning teeth over getting along with the trend or the perception of beauty from using colorful bracket rubber. 63% chose a dental quack because of the suggestions from friends who had done it before them. Low income combined with the need for orthodontics treatment and inadequate information about dental braces influencing subjects choice to go to a dental quack. The study showed that socioeconomic environment highly influenced the decision to wear braces from a dental quack. Conclusion: The low price factor was the main reason for dental quack braces highly demanded. Common people need to be educated to get proper treatment for malocclusion and to go for improper provider of dental treatment.

  4. The influence of attention biases and adult attachment style on treatment outcome for adults with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrow, Yulisha; Peters, Lorna

    2017-08-01

    Attention biases figure prominently in CBT models of social anxiety and are thought to maintain symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Studies have shown that individual differences in pre-treatment attention biases predict cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) outcome. However, these findings have been inconsistent as to whether vigilance towards threat predicts better or poorer treatment outcome. Adult attachment style is an individual characteristic that may influence the relationship between attention bias and SAD. This study investigates the relationship between attention biases and CBT treatment outcome for SAD. Furthermore, we examined the influence of adult attachment style on this relationship. Participants with a primary diagnosis of SAD completed a passive viewing (measuring vigilance towards threat) and a novel difficulty to disengage (measuring difficulty to disengage attention) eye-tracking task prior to attending 12 CBT group sessions targeting SAD. Symptom severity was measured at pre- and post-treatment. Regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 50 participants. Greater vigilance for threat than avoidance of threat at pre-treatment predicted poorer treatment outcomes. Greater difficulty disengaging from happy faces, compared to neutral faces, predicted poorer treatment outcomes. Attachment style did not moderate these relationships. The associations between attention biases and specific components of CBT treatment were not examined. The novel findings regarding difficulty to disengage attention require replication. The findings have implications for the theoretical models of SAD and for the treatment of SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on haloperidol treatment in patients with alcohol addiction

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    Zastrozhin MS

    2017-12-01

    population is very poor, and it has no high influence on the safety of haloperidol treatment; therefore, there are no reasons to take this polymorphism into account in patients with alcohol addiction who receive haloperidol. Keywords: haloperidol, CYP3A5*, CYP3A, cortisol, alcohol use disorder

  6. Influence of temperature of the short-period heat treatment on mechanical properties of the NiTi alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Čapek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, known as nitinol, possesses unique properties such as superelasticity, pseudoplasticity, shape memory, while maintaining good corrosion resistance and sufficient biocompatibility. Therefore it is used for production of various devices including surgery implants. Heat treatment of nickel-rich NiTi alloys can result in precipitation of nickel-rich phases, which strongly influence tensile and fatigue behaviour of the material.In this work we have studied influence of short-period heat treatment on tensile behaviour and fatigue life of the NiTi (50.9 at. % Ni wire intended for fabrication of surgery stents.

  7. Influence of water-repellent treatment on the properties lime and lime pozzolan mortars

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    Fortes Revilla, C.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence that water-repellent products can have on physical and micro-structural properties of lime mortars, and lime plus pozzolan mortars has been studied. Three water repellent products have been used. Mixes of the previously mentioned three water repellents plus a biocide product were also applied. Treatments make the total porosity and saturation coefficient of both mortars to decrease, while colorimetric coordinates bear little alteration. All treatments with water repellent products provided mortars with a hydrophobic property index close to 100%. Durability of such mortars has been also studied: salt crystallization test, frost-thaw and dry-wet cycles, as well as ultraviolet radiation test were carried out. Relationship between mortars behavior and their porosity and saturation coefficient were found.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la influencia de la aplicación de productos hidrofugantes a morteros de cal y morteros de cal y puzolana sobre sus propiedades físicas y microestructurales. Se han estudiado tres productos hidrofugantes. También han sido estudiados dichos productos junto con un biocida. La porosidad total y el coeficiente de saturación de ambos tipos de morteros se ve reducido por el efecto de los tratamientos mientras que las coordenadas colorimétricas se ven poco alteradas. Todos los tratamientos confieren un índice de hidrofobicidad a los morteros próximo al 100%. Asimismo, también se ha estudiado la durabilidad de dichos morteros frente a la cristalización de sales, hielo-deshielo, los ciclos de humedad-sequedad y radiaciones ultravioleta. Se relaciona el comportamiento de los morteros con su porosidad y el coeficiente de saturación.

  8. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition statu...

  9. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and ...

  10. Study of the influence of mechanical - thermal treatments on the creep behavior of a niobium stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.L.; Ferreira, P.I.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of microstructural parameters controlled by mechanical-thermal treatment |1| on the creep behavior of DIN-Werkstoff-Nr. 1.4981 stainless steel (material candidate for use as cladding of fast breeder reactor (fuel elements), is studied. The effects of the solution treatment, predeformation, predeformation puls aging and cycles of predeformation-ageing on the creep results obtained at 990 K, for apllied stresses in the range 70 MPc - 310 MPa, are discussed. (Author) [pt

  11. Influence of hydraulic retention time on UASB post-treatment with UF membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Peláez, M L; Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A

    2011-01-01

    A pilot UASB reactor coupled with an external ultrafiltration (UF) membrane was operated under three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) for domestic wastewater treatment. The aim was to assess the HRT influence on system performance and fouling. The highest concentrations of COD, total solids, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in UASB effluent and permeate were found when the UASB reactor was operated under the lowest HRT studied (4 hours); although the fulfillment of Mexican Standard for wastewater reclamation was not compromised. This fact could be attributed to the higher shear stress forces inside the UASB reactor when it was operated at low HRT, which promoted the release of biopolymeric substances in its effluent. Besides, the fouling propensity in the UASB effluent was worsened with HRT reduction, by increasing the fouling rate and the specific cake resistance. Based on these results, it is recommended to avoid operating the UASB reactor at low HRTs (less than 4 hours) in order to control SMP and EPS fouling potential. The results presented also suggest that HRT reduction has a detrimental effect on performance and fouling.

  12. Normalizing treatment influence on the forged steel SAE 8620 fracture properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Vida Gomes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In a PWR nuclear power plant, the reactor pressure vessel (RPV contains the fuel assemblies and reactor vessels internals and keeps the coolant at high temperature and high pressure during normal operation. The RPV integrity must be assured all along its useful life to protect the general public against a significant radiation liberation damage. One of the critical issues relative to the VPR structural integrity refers to the pressurized thermal shock (PTS accident evaluation. To better understand the effects of this kind of event, a PTS experiment has been planned using an RPV prototype. The RPV material fracture behavior characterization in the ductile-brittle transition region represents one of the most important aspects of the structural assessment process of RPV's under PTS. This work presents the results of fracture toughness tests carried out to characterize the RPV prototype material behavior. The test data includes Charpy energy curves, T0 reference temperatures for definition of master curves, and fracture surfaces observed in electronic microscope. The results are given for the vessel steel in the "as received" and normalized conditions. This way, the influence of the normalizing treatment on the fracture properties of the steel could be evaluated.

  13. Physician personal characteristics influencing long-term treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases

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    Strokova E.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of a doctor personality, affecting long-term therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and methods: To determine the type of temperament, the presence and intensity of the syndrome of emotional burnout and capacity for empathy therapists and cardiologists were asked to fill in a number of questionnaires. Each doctor had a group of patients contacting by telephone for a year after the discharge from the hospital. During the telephone contact, the patients were asked about the continuation of their therapy recommended in the hospital, the regularity of therapy, the frequency of absence, and the assessment of a physician by the patients. Results: 35 questionnaires were suitable for interpretation. Through one year after the discharge from the hospital it was able to contact with 147 patients, 18.4% (27 of patients completely stopped the treatment by recommended drugs. Positive assessment of physicians was associated with the continuation of the therapy by recommended drugs and regularity of drug taking (p=0,03. Patients assessed physicians positively more often in cases of low level of emotional state, high level of depersonalization (cynicism and the reduction of personal accomplishment (feeling of professional inefficiency in a doctor. Conclusion: Assessment of physicians by patients is reliably and significantly influenced by continuation of long-term therapy and regularity of drug taking.

  14. Influence of Heat Treatments on the Corrosion Resistance of Medium -Carbon Steel using Sulfuric Spring Water

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    Ikhlas Basheer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion is one of the important problems that may be occur to the parts of machinery and equipment after manufactured and when used as a result of exposure to corrosive media. Plain-carbon steel is considered as one of the most common minerals used in industrial applications. Some of heat treatments can have direct effect on the corrosion rate of steel by building up galvanic corrosion cells between its microscopic phases. Therefore, to adopt one of kinds of the plain-carbon steel and the most commonly used in industry to be study subject, that is medium carbon steel and took samples of this steel has been treated thermally in three methods which the normalising, annealing, and hardening .The corrosive media used in the research is Sulfuric Spring, it contains many chemical compounds to show its influence on the corrosion of steel. The weight loss method is used to determine corrosion rate and to compare between the results obtained, show that the greatest corrosion resistance of the annealed steel and the corrosion resistance of the hardened steel is the lowest while the corrosion  resistance of the normalised steel is in-between them.         Calcium carbonate was formed on the metal surface which acts as an isolating layer which decrease corrosion rate with time

  15. Chronic Pain Treatment: The Influence of Tricyclic Antidepressants on Serotonin Release and Uptake in Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilonka Ferjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of serotonin (5-HT in chronic pain mechanisms is established. 5-HT inhibits central painful stimuli, but recent data suggests that 5-HT could also enhance pain stimulus from the periphery, where mast cells play an important role. We aimed in our study to clarify the influence of selected tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs on mast cell function: secretion, uptake, and reuptake of 5-HT, that could interfere with 5-HT levels and in this way contribute to the generation of pain. As an experimental model, we used isolated rat peritoneal mast cells and incubated them with selected TCAs (clomipramine, amitriptyline, doxepin, and imipramine under different experimental conditions. 5-HT release, uptake, and reuptake were determined spectrofluorometrically. We showed that TCAs were able to inhibit 5-HT secretion from mast cells, as well as uptake of exogenous 5-HT and reuptake of secreted 5-HT back into mast cells. The effects of TCAs were concentration dependent; higher concentrations of TCAs inhibited the secretion of 5-HT induced by compound 48/80, whereas lower concentrations of TCAs inhibited 5-HT uptake. The most effective TCA was halogenated clomipramine. As TCAs are well introduced in chronic pain treatment, the insight into mechanisms of action is important for an understanding of their effect in various pain conditions.

  16. The influence of overall treatment time on renal injury after multifraction irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.V.; Stewart, F.A.; Soranson, J.A.; Denekamp, J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of overall treatment time on the radiation response of the mouse kidney was studied in an experiment in which 16 fractions were administered either evenly distributed over 20, 40 or 80 days, or as a split course (8 F/3 days; 74 days rest; 8 F/3 days). Urine output and an isotope assay of glomerular filtration were used to test the mice sequentially. The data were used both to obtain dose-response curves and also to determine the latent period before a chosen level of injury was expressed functionally. When the radiation was given as a split course, at the rate of 2 fractions per day, with a large gap of 10.5 weeks between courses, there was no additional sparing compared with 16 fractions over 20 days. This indicates that any sparing that might have resulted from slow repair or stimulated repopulation in the gap has been counterbalanced by having less time for repair of sublethal injury when intervals of 6-12 h are used instead of 24-48 h. Clearly no great increase in the tolerance dose for mouse kidney resulted from the split course. (Auth.)

  17. The influence of extractions caries cause on the development of malocclusion and need for orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, B; Terp, S

    1982-01-01

    The influence of premature extraction of deciduous teeth, and extraction of permanent teeth due to caries on the frequency of malocclusions was analysed. The patient group comprised 915 children aged 8-16 from a province of Northern Italy. 204 children had experienced premature loss of deciduous teeth and 442 had had permanent teeth extracted, due to caries. The permanent teeth most frequently extracted were the first molars. It was obvious that extraction caries cause had detrimental effect on the development of occlusion resulting in an increased frequency of malocclusions. The frequency of single malocclusion traits was compared between the groups of children with and without loss of teeth. The malocclusion traits most frequently observed in children who had experienced extraction, were dentitional anomalies due to malaligned teeth. Only minor changes in the occlusal anomalies could be observed. There was, however, a pronounced increase in the need for minor as well as major orthodontic treatment. On the basis of these findings it could be concluded that extraction of teeth due to caries should be avoided if the aim of dental service on a population basis is to ensure a well functioning dentition for the maximum number of people.

  18. The Influence of AHI1 Variants on the Diagnosis and Treatment Outcome in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Porcelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the AHI1 gene could be associated with schizophrenia (SCZ and whether they could predict the clinical outcomes in SCZ patients treated with antipsychotics. Four hundred twenty-six (426 in-patients with SCZ and 345 controls were genotyped for four AHI1 SNPs (rs11154801, rs7750586, rs9647635 and rs9321501. Baseline and clinical measures for SCZ patients were assessed through the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Allelic and genotypic frequencies in SCZ subjects were compared with those of controls using the χ2 statistics. The repeated-measure ANOVA was used for the assessment of treatment outcomes measured by PANSS changes. The case-control analysis did not show any difference in the genotypic distribution of the SNPs, while in the allelic analysis, a weak association was found between the rs9647635 A allele and SCZ. Furthermore, in the haplotype analysis, three haplotypes resulted in being associated with SCZ. On the other hand, two SNPs (rs7750586 and rs9647635 were associated with clinical improvement of negative symptoms in the allelic analysis, although in the genotypic analysis, only trends of association were found for the same SNPs. Our findings suggest a possible influence of AHI1 variants on SCZ susceptibility and antipsychotic response, particularly concerning negative symptomatology. Subsequent well-designed studies would be mandatory to confirm our results due to the methodological shortcomings of the present study.

  19. The Influence of AHI1 Variants on the Diagnosis and Treatment Outcome in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Stefano; Pae, Chi-Un; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Masand, Prakash S.; Balzarro, Beatrice; Alberti, Siegfried; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the AHI1 gene could be associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and whether they could predict the clinical outcomes in SCZ patients treated with antipsychotics. Four hundred twenty-six (426) in-patients with SCZ and 345 controls were genotyped for four AHI1 SNPs (rs11154801, rs7750586, rs9647635 and rs9321501). Baseline and clinical measures for SCZ patients were assessed through the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Allelic and genotypic frequencies in SCZ subjects were compared with those of controls using the χ2 statistics. The repeated-measure ANOVA was used for the assessment of treatment outcomes measured by PANSS changes. The case-control analysis did not show any difference in the genotypic distribution of the SNPs, while in the allelic analysis, a weak association was found between the rs9647635 A allele and SCZ. Furthermore, in the haplotype analysis, three haplotypes resulted in being associated with SCZ. On the other hand, two SNPs (rs7750586 and rs9647635) were associated with clinical improvement of negative symptoms in the allelic analysis, although in the genotypic analysis, only trends of association were found for the same SNPs. Our findings suggest a possible influence of AHI1 variants on SCZ susceptibility and antipsychotic response, particularly concerning negative symptomatology. Subsequent well-designed studies would be mandatory to confirm our results due to the methodological shortcomings of the present study. PMID:25622261

  20. Bond strength of three luting agents to zirconia ceramic - influence of surface treatment and thermocycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Attia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments, 3 luting agents and thermocycling on microtensile bond strength (µTBS to zirconia ceramic. Material and METHODS: A total of 18 blocks (5x5x4 mm were fabricated from zirconia ceramic (ICE Zirkonia and duplicated into composite blocks (Alphadent. Ceramic blocks were divided into 3 groups (n=6 according to the following surface treatments: airborne-particle abrasion (AA, silica-coating, (SC (CoJet and silica coating followed by silane application (SCSI (ESPE Sil. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (n=2 according to the 3 luting agents used. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC, Ketac Cem Plus, self-adhesive resin cement (UN, RelyX Unicem and adhesive resin cement (ML, MultiLink Automix were used for bonding composite and zirconia blocks. Each bonding assembly was cut into microbars (10 mm long and 1±0.1 mm². Seven specimens of each subgroup were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 1 week. The other 7 specimens were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 30 days then thermocycled (TC for 7,500 cycles. µTBS values were recorded for each specimen using a universal testing machine. Statistical analyses were performed using a 3-way ANOVA model followed by serial 1-way ANOVAs. Comparison of means was performed with Tukey's HSD test at (α=0.05. RESULTS: µTBS ranged from 16.8 to 31.8 MPa after 1 week and from 7.3 to 16.4 MPa after 30 days of storage in water and thermocycling. Artificial aging significantly decreased µTBS (p<0.05. Considering surface treatment, SCSI significantly increased µTBS (p<0.05 compared to SC and AA. Resin cements (UN and ML demonstrated significantly higher µTBS (p<0.05 compared to RMGIC cement. CONCLUSIONS: Silica coating followed by silane application together with adhesive resin cements significantly increased µTBS, while thermocycling significantly decreased µTBS.

  1. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation Among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P; Bernstein, Steven L; Williams, Jill M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Participants (N = 116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall, narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of .76, 95% CI [0.66, 0.85]) and ever making a quit

  2. The influence of dose distribution on treatment outcome in the SCOPE 1 oesophageal cancer trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, Rhys; Spezi, Emiliano; Gwynne, Sarah; Dutton, Peter; Hurt, Chris; Staffurth, John; Crosby, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to assess plan quality using a conformity index (CI) and analyse its influence on patient outcome. The second aim was to identify whether clinical and technological factors including planning treatment volume (PTV) volume and treatment delivery method could be related to the CI value. By extending the original concept of the mean distance to conformity (MDC) index, the OverMDC and UnderMDC of the 95 % isodose line (50Gy prescribed dose) to the PTV was calculated for 97 patients from the UK SCOPE 1 trial (ISCRT47718479). Data preparation was carried out in CERR, with Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis undertaken in EUCLID and further tests in Microsoft Excel and IBM’s SPSS. A statistically significant breakpoint in the overall survival data, independent of cetuximab, was found with OverMDC (4.4 mm, p < 0.05). This was not the case with UnderMDC. There was a statistically significant difference in PTV volume either side of the OverMDC breakpoint (Mann Whitney p < 0.001) and in OverMDC value dependent on the treatment delivery method (mean IMRT = 2.1 mm, mean 3D-CRT = 4.1 mm Mann Whitney p < 0.001). Re-planning the worst performing patients according to OverMDC from 3D-CRT to VMAT resulted in a mean reduction in OverMDC of 2.8 mm (1.6–4.0 mm). OverMDC was not significant in multivariate analysis that included age, sex, staging, tumour type, and position. Although not significant when included in multivariate analysis, we have shown in univariate analysis that a patient’s OverMDC is correlated with overall survival. OverMDC is strongly related to IMRT and to a lesser extent with PTV volume. We recommend that VMAT planning should be used for oesophageal planning when available and that attention should be paid to the conformity of the 95 % to the PTV

  3. Influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration on the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Alex; Marco, Francesc; Martínez, José A; Pisos, Elena; Almela, Manel; Dimova, Veselka P; Alamo, Dolores; Ortega, Mar; Lopez, Josefina; Mensa, Josep

    2008-01-15

    Vancomycin treatment failure in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is not uncommon, even when MRSA is susceptible to vancomycin. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration has any influence on the mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia. A total of 414 episodes of MRSA bacteremia were prospectively followed-up from 1991 through 2005. MIC of vancomycin for the first isolate was determined by E-test. Clinical variables recorded were age, comorbidity, prior administration of vancomycin, use of corticosteroids, prognosis of underlying disease, source of bacteremia, the need for mechanical ventilation, shock, and mortality. A "treatment group" variable was created and defined as follows: (1) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 1 microg/mL (38 episodes), (2) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 1.5 microg/mL (90 episodes), (3) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL (40 episodes), and (4) receipt of inappropriate empirical therapy (246 episodes). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Episodes caused by strains with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL were independently associated with a lower risk of shock (odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.75). Multivariate analysis selected receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL (OR, 6.39; 95% CI, 1.68-24.3), receipt of inappropriate empirical therapy (OR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.20-10.9), increasing age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04), use of corticosteroids (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.04-3.29), an ultimately (OR, 10.2; 95% CI, 2.85-36.8) or rapidly (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.06-3.10) fatal underlying disease, high-risk (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.89-6.88) and intermediate-risk (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.17-4.04) sources of bacteremia, and shock (OR, 7.38; 95% CI, 4.11-13.3) as the best predictors of

  4. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Methods Participants (N=116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Results Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and, 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of .76, 95% CI[0.66, 0

  5. Influence of He/O2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on subsequent wet desizing of polyacrylate on PET fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuming; Lin Jun; Qiu Yiping

    2012-01-01

    The influence of He/O 2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment on subsequent wet desizing of polyacrylate on PET fabrics was studied in the present paper. Weight loss results indicated that the weight loss increased with an increase of plasma treatment time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an increased surface roughness after the plasma treatment. SEM also showed that the fiber surfaces were as clean as unsized fibers after 35 s treatment followed by NaHCO 3 desizing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that oxygen-based functional groups increased for the plasma treated polyacrylate sized fabrics. The percent desizing ratio (PDR) results showed that more than 99% PDR was achieved after 65 s plasma treatment followed by a 5 min NaHCO 3 desizing. Compared to conventional wet desizing, indicating that plasma treatment could significantly reduce desizing time.

  6. Influence of aramid fiber moisture regain during atmospheric plasma treatment on aging of treatment effects on surface wettability and bonding strength to epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yu; Wang Chunxia; Qiu Yiping

    2007-01-01

    One of the main differences between a low-pressure plasma treatment and an atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is that in atmosphere, the substrate material may absorb significant amount of water which may potentially influence the plasma treatment effects. This paper investigates how the moisture absorbed by aramid fibers during the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment influences the aging behavior of the modified surfaces. Kevlar 49 fibers with different moisture regains (MR) (0.5, 3.5 and 5.5%, respectively) are treated with atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with helium as the carrier gas and oxygen as the treatment gas. Surface wettability and chemical compositions, and interfacial shear strengths (IFSS) to epoxy for the aramid fibers in all groups are determined using water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and micro-bond pull out tests, respectively. Immediately after the plasma treatment, the treated fibers have substantially lower water contact angles, higher surface oxygen and nitrogen contents, and larger IFSS to epoxy than those of the control group. At the end of 30 day aging period, the fibers treated with 5.5% moisture regain had a lower water contact angle and more polar groups on the fiber surface, leading to 75% improvement of IFSS over the control fibers, while those for the 0.5 and 3.5% moisture regain groups were only 30%

  7. Influence of food matrix on inactivation of Bacillus cereus by combinations of nisin, pulsed electric field treatment, and carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, I E; Mastwujk, H C; Slump, R A; Popa, M E; Smid, E J

    2001-07-01

    Carvacrol was used as a third preservative factor to enhance further the synergy between nisin and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment against vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus. When applied simultaneously with nisin (0.04 microg/ml), carvacrol (0.5 mM) enhanced the synergy found between nisin and PEF treatment (16.7 kV/cm, 30 pulses) in potassium-N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer. The influence of food ingredients on bactericidal activity was tested using skimmed milk that was diluted to 20% with sterile demineralized water. The efficacy of PEF treatment was not affected by the presence of proteins, and results found in HEPES buffer correlated well with results in milk (20%). Nisin showed less activity against B. cereus in milk. Carvacrol was not able to enhance the synergy between nisin and PEF treatment in milk, unless used in high concentrations (1.2 mM). This concentration in itself did not influence the viable count. Carvacrol did act synergistically with PEF treatment in milk, however not in HEPES buffer. This synergy was not influenced by proteins in milk, as 5% milk still allows synergy between carvacrol and PEF treatment to the same extent as 20% milk.

  8. The influence of IVF/ICSI treatment on human embryonic growth trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eindhoven, S C; van Uitert, E M; Laven, J S E; Willemsen, S P; Koning, A H J; Eilers, P H C; Exalto, N; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2014-12-01

    groups (βIVF/ICSI = 6 g; P = 0.36 and βIVF/ICSI = 80 g; P = 0.24, respectively). Variations in embryonic growth trajectories of spontaneously conceived pregnancies with reliable pregnancy dating may partially be a result of less precise pregnancy dating and differences in endometrium receptivity compared with IVF/ICSI pregnancies. The absence of a significant difference in embryonic and fetal growth trajectories suggests safety of IVF/ICSI treatment with regard to early embryonic growth. However, further research is warranted to ascertain the influence of IVF/ICSI treatments in a larger study population, and to estimate the impact of the underlying causes of the subfertility and other periconceptional exposures on human embryonic and fetal growth trajectories. This study was supported by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre. No competing interests are declared. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The influence of patients' preference/attitude towards psychotherapy and antidepressant medication on the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradveisi, Latif; Huibers, Marcus; Renner, Fritz; Arntz, Arnoud

    2014-03-01

    Preferences and attitudes patients hold towards treatment are important, as these can influence treatment outcome. In depression research, the influence of patients' preference/attitudes on outcome and dropout has mainly been studied for antidepressant medication, and less for psychological treatments. We investigated the effects of patients' preference and attitudes towards psychological treatment and antidepressant medication on treatment outcome and dropout, and tested specificity of effects. Data are based on a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of behavioural activation (BA) vs antidepressant medication (ADM) for major depression (MDD) in Iran. Patients with MDD (N = 100) were randomized to BA (N = 50) or ADM (N = 50). Patients' preference/attitudes towards psychotherapy and ADM were assessed at baseline and associated with dropout and treatment outcome using logistic regression and multilevel analysis. High scores on psychotherapy preference/attitude and low scores on ADM preference/attitude predicted dropout from ADM, while no association between dropout and preference/attitude was found in BA. Psychotherapy preference/attitude moderated the differential effect of BA and ADM on one outcome measure, but the association disappeared after one year. Because in Iran most patients have only access to ADM, offering a psychological treatment for depression could attract especially those patients that prefer this newly available treatment. Patients' preferences and attitudes towards depression treatments influence dropout from ADM, and moderate the short-term difference in effectiveness between BA and ADM. The fact that dropout from BA was not affected by preference/attitude speaks for its acceptability among patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of field experiments: Influence of treatment response relative to standard deviation and blocking factor characteristics on efficient blocking strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection of experimental design can markedly influence efficiency of field research. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to compare the ability of different field experimental designs to distinguish defined treatment differences, and the paper concludes with a section on practical use of the in...

  11. Mechanism of the immobilization of surfactants on polymeric surfaces by means of an argon plasma treatment: Influence of UV radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Spaay, B.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of the immobilization of the surfactant sodium 10-undecenoate (C11(:)) on poly(ethylene) (PE) by means of an argon plasma treatment has been investigated. In particular, the influence of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by the argon plasma on the immobilization was

  12. [Gender-specific influences on incidence, screening, treatment, and outcome of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Meyer, F

    2013-08-01

    This overview comments on potential gender-specific differences in incidence, anatomic site, screening, treatment, and outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). For the literature review, the Medline database (PubMed) was searched under the key words "colorectal carcinoma AND gender" and "gender differences AND colorectal cancer". Publications of the last 9 years (2005-2013) were firstly retrieved. CRC is more commonly observed in men than in women, with the higher tumour risk for men being limited to the distal colon and rectum. Risk factors for the development of CRC include overweight and obesity, this relationship is more pronounced for men than for women. The extent to which gender is a prognostic factor for patient survival is controversial. A better survival of women compared to men is found especially in the younger age groups, from which can be derived a protective effect of oestrogens on the development of CRC. As for the frequency with which men and women undergo a screening of CRC, sometimes higher screening rates have been reported for men than women, however, the socio-economic status of persons invited to participate has much more influence on screening attendance than gender. An analysis of surgical procedures indicates that it is more difficult to perform the low anterior resection of the rectum in men than women, with the result that men managed by less experienced surgeons are more likely to receive abdominoperineal excision. Furthermore, the risk of anastomotic leakage is higher in men than women. The essential gender difference, however, is the longer life expectancy of women compared to men which has been not always clearly (risk adjusted) elaborated in the studies available so far. This difference alone can already explain at a high rate the poorer prognosis of right-sided colon cancers compared to left-sided cancers. Comparable levels of CRC risk are reached in women as compared to men at a higher age. This may influence the

  13. Acute interventional diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal arterial hemorrhage: its clinical value and influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongli; Cui Shitao; Zhang Jiaxing; Ru Fuming; Xu Jiahua; Xu Jichong

    2009-01-01

    drunk after the treatment. Angiography showed that the original bleeding arteries remained occluded. Gastro-duodenal artery infusion with embolization was carried out in one patient, but the patient died of massive hemorrhage due to esophago-fundal varices caused by arterial portal hypertension which was resulted from the formation of the arteriovenous fistula between hepatic artery and portal vein. Conclusions: Emergent arterial angiography and interventional therapy is an effective measure to promptly find out the bleeding site and to control the hemorrhage. The diagnostic accuracy, the revealing rate of bleeding and the therapeutic effect are influenced by multiple factors. (authors)

  14. The influence of clinician emotion on decisions in child and adolescent eating disorder treatment: a survey of self and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance Robinson, Adele; Kosmerly, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorder clinicians from various disciplines participated in one of two surveys: the "self" group (n = 143) completed a survey assessing the negative influence of emotions on their own clinical decisions, while the "other" group (n = 145) completed a parallel version of the survey that assessed their perceptions of the negative influence of emotion in their colleagues. Both groups endorsed this phenomenon to some degree, although differences in reporting were noted between groups. The perceived negative influence of emotion with regards to specific treatment decisions fell within three categories: decisions regarding food and weight, decisions regarding the involvement of the family in treatment, and decisions related to autonomy and control. Decisions regarding the involvement of the family were perceived to be the most emotionally charged, in particular the involvement of a critical or dismissive parent.

  15. Influence of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaojang; Chen Longhua; Wang Quanshi; Wu Fubing

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in influencing salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: A total of 33 NPC patients with histologic persistence at nasopharynx 1 to 6 weeks after a full course of radiotherapy underwent both computed tomography (CT) and FDG-PET/CT simulation at the same treatment position. The salvage treatment decisions, with regard to the decision to offer salvage treatment and the definition of gross tumor volume (GTV), were made before knowledge of the FDG-PET findings. Subsequently the salvage treatment decisions were made again based on the FDG-PET findings and compared with the pre-FDG-PET decisions. Results: All 33 patients were referred for salvage treatment in the pre-FDG-PET decision. After knowledge of the FDG-PET results, the decision to offer salvage treatment was withdrawn in 4 of 33 patients (12.1%), as no abnormal uptake of FDG was found at nasopharynx. Spontaneous remission was observed in repeat biopsies and no local recurrence was found in these 4 cases. For the remaining 29 patients, GTV based on FDG-PET was smaller than GTV based on CT in 24 (82.8%) cases and was greater in 5 (17.2%) cases, respectively. The target volume had to be significantly modified in 9 of 29 patients (31%), as GTV based on FDG-PET images failed to be enclosed by the treated volume in the salvage treatment plan performed based on GTV based on CT simulation images. Conclusion: Use of FDG-PET was found to influence the salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent NPC by identifying patients who were not likely to benefit from additional treatment and by improving accuracy of GTV definition in salvage treatment planning

  16. Factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need and culture-related differences among Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Ting, Li; Tang, Yin; Huang, Xue-Lian; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yang-Xi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this survey was to compare Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants in Chengdu, China, with respect to: (1) attitudes towards dental appearance, (2) subjective orthodontic treatment need, and (3) the main factors influencing orthodontic treatment need. A total of 522 subjects, including 227 foreign inhabitants and 295 Chinese natives in Chengdu participated in the survey. A simple random sampling method was adopted and a face-to-face interview was conducted at some public sites using a questionnaire. Data was entered by two persons synchronously using Epidata 3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze these data. 89.0% of foreign inhabitants were satisfied with their teeth compared to only 46.8% of Chinese natives. Females were more dissatisfied with their teeth than males. Chinese natives put improving appearance as the top priority (55.9%) for seeking orthodontic treatment; however, in foreign inhabitants, the main reason for seeking treatment was to improve masticatory function (44.1%), followed by "to be pretty" (35.2%). The importance of well-aligned teeth and self-perception of psychosocial impact of malocclusion were the same two main factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need (P different (P differences in orthodontic treatment motives between the two target groups. (3) There were differences in subjective orthodontic treatment needs between foreign inhabitants and Chinese natives. However, the prominent influential factors were almost the same. There may be benefit to understanding subjective orthodontic needs of different races.

  17. Gender influences short-term growth hormone treatment response in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sävendahl, Lars; Blankenstein, Oliver; Oliver, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment.......Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment....

  18. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...

  19. Influence of mechanical and thermal treatments on raw materials containing pyrophyllite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Soto, P. J.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work results obtained in a study on the influence of thermal, mechanical by dry grinding, and their combination, in raw materials containing pyrophyllite, are discussed. First of all, it is studied the influence of thermal treatment concerning the development and evolution of crystalline phases (mullite and cristobalite from dehydroxylated pyrophyllite. On the basis of these results, it is analyzed what happens in a natural raw mixture of pyrophyllite with kaolinite and mica (sericite submitted to thermal treatments. The raw pyrophyllite materials are altered under laboratory conditions using mechanical treatments by dry grinding. It is noted that the increase of surface area and particle size reduction is produced by grinding, but other effects are produced on the structure and properties of the solid submitted to grinding. In general, grinding leads to a progressive destruction of the original crystal structure of the present layered silicates, but it is preferentially produced along the “c” axis. In other words, mechanochemical reactions are induced by dry grinding due to the increase of reactivity of the system. Between these reactions, it is enhanced the reagglomeration process that occurs above a determinate limit of grinding time. The grinding treatment can be combined with a subsequent thermal treatment that enhances the increase of reactivity, producing the formation of crystalline phases (mullite and cristobalite at lower temperatures that in unground samples with energy saving. The results are compared taking into account the crystal structures of both kaolinite and pyrophyllite, the thermal transformation of kaolinite to mullite, and the process of grinding kaolinite because this layer silicate is present in the raw materials containing pyrophyllite.

    En el presente trabajo se exponen y discuten resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la influencia de tratamientos térmicos, tratamientos mecánicos por molienda

  20. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  1. Influence of Culture in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder and Its Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Humberto; Salin-Pascual, Rafael; Cabrera, Brenda; Lanzagorta, Nuria

    2017-12-01

    The aspects of cultural identity and its impact on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been un-derstudied. There are different opinions, ranging from the idea that culture does not affect the symptoms of this condition to the idea that cultures with high religiosity may have more severity of OCD. Also, the concept of OCD has considerably var-ied across history and cultures, from being considered an issue related to lack of control of blasphemous ideas, and a part of anxious issues, to the description of complex neurobiological systems in its causation. The aim of this review was to address OCD as a well-characterized disorder with a proposed neurobiological ba-sis which may or may not have variations depending on cultural diversity. The question that was asked in this review is whether or not there are cultural differences in the manifestations of the OCD symptomatology and which factors of cultural diversity have a major influence on such manifestations along with the differences among some cultures regarding OCD is-sues, where the difference among countries has also been highlighted. A review of the literature was conducted that includes the following words: obsessive-compulsive disorder, cul-ture, cultural identity and religion in a period of 10 years. Cultural variations do not seem to differ from symptomatic clusters of OCD, which may be indicating that a se-ries of adaptive behaviors is evolutionarily evolving to be constantly altered, perhaps by well-determined pathophysiological mechanisms. Some aspects that have been related to some dimensions of OCD symptomatology are religion and religiosity, affecting the content of obsessions and the severity of manifestations. Properly evaluating the education background, access to health services, food, and the genetic structure of populations, using investigational instruments sensitive to these cultural elements, will increase our understanding of the importance of culture on OCD and its treatment.

  2. Investigation of Sulfate concentration influence on Anaerobic Lagoon performance: Birjand Wastewater Treatment plant: A Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the present study the influence of the different sulfate concentration on the anaerobic lagoon stabilization was investigated. Materials and Methods: The present study is an experimental research carried out on anaerobic stabilization pond pilot for 7 months in Birjand wastewater treatment plant. After making sure of a steady state sulfate with different concentrations of 200, 300 and 400 mg/L were injected into the pilot. Then parameters including pH, organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, BOD5, COD and nitrate were measured. All of the experiments were carried out according to the methods presented in the book "Standard Method" for the examination of water and wastewater (2005. Results: It was found that by increasing sulfate concentration from 200 to 300 mg/L all of parameters  except BOD5 (10% reduction had no significant changes., but by increasing the sulfate concentration from 200 to 400 mg/L the removal efficiency of the parameters such as BOD5, COD, Organic nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate and sulfate reduced to 11, 8, 12, 26, 6 and 10 percent, respectively. PH in the first stage was alkaline and then changed to acidic. Conclusion: Anaerobic stabilization ponds have different capacities for removal of organic compounds at different sulfate concentrations; so that; in sulfate concentration of 200 mg/L, the proper operation was seen and in concentration of 300 mg/L, sulfate-reducing bacteria get dominant and therefore odor is produced..  Alternatively, by increasing the concentration of sulphate to 400 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen increased 2.5 times (150% in the effluent.

  3. Influence of Baseline Psychological Health on Muscle Pain During Atorvastatin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Amanda L; Taylor, Beth A; Pescatello, Linda S; Dornelas, Ellen A; White, Charles Michael; Thompson, Paul D

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase reductase inhibitors (statins) are generally well tolerated, with statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) the most common side effect (~10%) seen in statin users. However, studies and clinical observations indicate that many of the self-reported SAMS appear to be nonspecific (ie, potentially not attributable to statins). Mental health and well-being influence self-perception of pain, so we sought to assess the effect of baseline well-being and depression on the development of muscle pain with 6 months of atorvastatin 80 mg/d (ATORVA) or placebo in healthy, statin-naive adults. The Psychological General Well-being Index (n = 83) and Beck Depression Inventory (n = 55) questionnaires were administered at baseline in participants (aged 59.5 ± 1.2 years) from the effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance (STOMP) trial (NCT00609063). Muscle pain (Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire [SF-MPQ]), pain that interferes with daily life (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), and pain severity (BPI) were then measured before, throughout, and after treatment. At baseline, there were no differences in well-being (Psychological General Well-being Index), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), or pain measures (SF-MPQ and BPI) (P values ≥ .05) between the placebo and ATORVA groups. Baseline well-being correlated negatively with baseline BPI pain severity (r = -0.290, P = .008). Baseline depression correlated with baseline pain (SF-MPQ; r = 0.314, P = .020). Baseline well-being and depression did not predict the change in pain severity or interference after 6 months among the total sample or between groups (P values ≥ .05). Baseline well-being and depression were not significant predictors of pain after 6 months of ATORVA (P values ≥ .05). Thus, they do not appear to increase the risk of SAMS in otherwise healthy adults.

  4. Lhermitte's sign: Incidence and treatment variables influencing risk after irradiation of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fein, D.A.; Marcus, R.B. Jr.; Parsons, J.T.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Million, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Lhermitte's sign is a relatively infrequent sequela of irradiation of the cervical spinal cord. In this study, the authors sought to determine whether various treatment parameters influenced the likelihood of developing Lhermitte's sign. Between October 1964 and December 1987, 2901 patients with malignancies of the upper respiratory tract were treated at the University of Florida. The dose of radiation to the cervical spinal cord was calculated for those patients who had a minimum 1-year follow-up. A total of 1112 patients who received a minimum of 3000 cGy to at least 2 cm of cervical spinal cord were included in this analysis. Forty patients (3.6%) developed Lhermitte's sign. The mean time to development of Lhermitte's sign after irradiation was 3 months, and the mean duration of symptoms was 6 months. No patient with Lhermitte's sign developed transverse myelitis. Several variables were examined in a univariate analysis, including total dose to the cervical spinal cord, length of cervical spinal cord irradiated, dose per fraction, continuous-course compared with split-course radiotherapy, and once-daily compared with twice-daily irradiation. Only two variables proved to be significant. Six (8%) of 75 patients who received > 5000 cGy to the cervical spinal cord developed Lhermitte's sign compared with 34 (3.3%) of 1037 patients who received < 5000 cGy (p = .04). For patients treated with once-daily fractionation, 28 (3.4%) of 821 patients who received < 200 cGy per fraction developed Lhermitte's sign compared with 6 (10%) of 58 patients who received ≥ 200 cGy (p = .02). An increased risk of developing Lhermitte's sign was demonstrated for patients who received either ≥ 200 cGy per fraction (one fraction per day) or ≥ 5000 cGy total dose to the cervical spinal cord. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. Ariab acidic min-influenced water: a waste to waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, M. R.; Abd El Aziz, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Six samples of acidic mine-influenced water (AMIW) from Ariab area, Red Sea Hills, northeastern part of Sudan, were analyzed for some waste water parameters. The investigation showed that, the pH ranged between 1.30 to 1.88, sulphate content between 40200 to 235300 mg/1, total iron 9879 to 103969 mg/1, copper, 280.0 to 1112.5 mg/1, zinc, 1825 to 3345 mg/1, manganese, 210.0 to 570.0 mg /1 in addition to high contents of cobalt and cadmium which are known for their negative impact on the environment. Khartoum Refinery Sour Water (KRSW) sample was analyzed for some pollutants, the analysis showed that it is alkaline industrial waste having a pH of 10.10, alkalinity of 26381 mg/1 as CaC 3 /1, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of 29400 mg/1 as O 2 . It was found to be relatively free of heavy and environmentally hazardous elements such as Fe, Co, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Mg. A waste to waste treatment was carried to Ariab AMIW with KRSW, satisfactory results were obtained in reduction of the parameters studied in the treated effluent. The pH of AMIW was raised to about 8.50, and the element contents of Fe, Co, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb were either completely removed or reduced to levels that meet the allowed limits of the industrial effluent disposal threshold. Sulphate content, however, decreased due to dilution, but still above the specified limits of the effluent disposal. (Author)

  6. Influence of cryogenic treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength AISI D2 tool steel =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Nanesa, Hadi

    Cryogenic treatment, known as treating materials at sub-zero temperatures, has been added to conventional heat treatment cycle of high alloyed steels where martensitic transformation is incomplete after quenching to room temperature. Incomplete martensitic transformation occurs due to the effect of high content of alloying elements on pushing down martensite start and finish temperatures to very low values, specifically, on tool steels. In spite of obtaining significant improvements in mechanical and wear properties after cryogenic treatment, there is no cohesive picture about what exactly modifies the microstructure of tool steels during cryogenic treatment and therefore divergent opinions on the influence of process parameters are still reported. For example, the suggested time length for cryogenic treatment starts from few seconds to several days indicating the lack of understanding about micromechanisms responsible for microstructural evolution while holding at cryogenic temperatures. In this regard, the main objective of this project is to develop a better understanding on the fundamental micromechanisms operating during cryogenic treatment. To attain this objective, the following milestones are pursued. - To study the conventional cryogenic treatment and finding challenges. - To identify and characterize the optimum starting microstructure before cryogenic treatment. - To determine the important processing parameters those control the evolution of microstructure and hardness. - To investigate the interaction between carbide precipitation and martensitic transformation in the AISI D2 steel. - To propose an optimal cryogenic treatment for AISI D2 steel.

  7. Topical treatment of psoriasis: questionnaire results on topical therapy accessibility and influence of body surface area on usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, L; Lange, M M; Bissonette, R; Carvalho, A V E; van de Kerkhof, P C; Kirby, B; Kleyn, C E; Lynde, C W; van der Walt, J M; Wu, J J

    2017-07-01

    Topical treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis is first-line treatment and exhibits varying degrees of success across patient groups. Key factors influencing treatment success are physician topical treatment choice (high efficacy, low adverse events) and strict patient adherence. Currently, no formalized, international consensus guidelines exist to direct optimal topical treatment, although many countries have national guidelines. To describe and analyse cross-regional variations in the use and access of psoriasis topical therapies. The study was conducted as an observational cross-sectional study. A survey was distributed to dermatologists from the International Psoriasis Council (IPC) to assess topical therapy accessibility in 26 countries and to understand how body surface area (BSA) categories guide clinical decisions on topical use. Variation in the availability of tars, topical retinoids, dithranol and balneotherapy was reported. The vast majority of respondents (100% and 88.4%) used topical therapy as first-line monotherapy in situations with BSA 10%, the number of respondents who prescribe topical therapy decreased considerably. In addition, combination therapy of a topical drug and a systemic drug was frequently reported when BSA measured >10%. This physician survey provides new evidence on topical access and the influence of disease severity on topical usage in an effort to improve treatment strategies on a global level. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of bainitic cast steel used for frogs in railway crossovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tasak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of sample cast assigned as a material used for frogs in railway crossover. Materials used in railway industry for frogs (manganese cast steel and forged pearlitic steel do not fulfil strict conditions of exploitation of railway. One of the solutions is using cast steel with bainitic or bainite-martensite microstructure, what allows to gain high resistance properties (Rm = 1400 MPa, Rp0,2 = 900 MPa, hardness to 400 HBW. The cooling rates of rail type UIC60 shows that it is possible to reach the bainitic microstructure in cast of frog. The microstructure of lower banite should have an advantageous influence on cracking resistance. In order to set the parameters of heat treatment, the critical temperatures were determined by dilatometric methods determined. This heat treatment consisted of normalizing that prepared it to the farther process of resistance welding. Moreover, the CCT diagram of proposed bainitic cast steel was prepared. The exams were done that can be used to evaluate the influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of the sample cast.

  9. [Papaver bracteatum, influence of cold treatment and cloning on Thebaine content of the capsules.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastart-Malsot, M; Paris, M

    1982-05-01

    A high heterogeneity of thébaïne yields is revealed in capsules of plants obtained from seeds cultivated in a phytotron. Clonage methods could be used to perform culture. Heterogeneity of plants hides influence of low temperature on thebaïne production. With clone this influence appears to be slight but appreciable.

  10. The Influence of Nb-O Dilute Hard Solutions Heat Treatment on Behaviour in Microdeformation Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivantsov, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    It were seen out the researches of oxygen admixture regulating influence on origin and development of microplastic deformation (residual deformations ε=2·10 -7 ...10 -4 ) in high purity of niobium. The microplastic deformation parameters of niobium in dependence on temperature of preliminary processing are definite. The oxygen admixture influence mechanism on stage nature of microflow and deformation hardening of niobium was discussed

  11. Pharmaceutical grey water footprint: Accounting, influence of wastewater treatment plants and implications of the reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Fernández-López, Carmen

    2018-05-15

    Emerging pollutants, including pharmaceutical compounds, are producing water pollution problems around the world. Some pharmaceutical pollutants, which mainly reach ecosystems within wastewater discharges, are persistent in the water cycle and can also reach the food chain. This work addresses this issue, accounting the grey component of the water footprint (GWF P ) for four of the most common pharmaceutical compounds (carbamazepine (CBZ), diclofenac (DCF), ketoprofen (KTP) and naproxen (NPX)). In addition, the GWF C for the main conventional pollutants is also accounted (nitrate, phosphates and organic matter). The case study is the Murcia Region of southeastern Spain, where wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) purify 99.1% of the wastewater discharges and there is an important direct reuse of the treated wastewater in irrigation. Thus, the influence of WWTPs and reuse on the GWF is analysed. The results reveal that GWF P , only taking into account pharmaceutical pollutants, has a value of 301 m 3 inhabitant -1 year -1 ; considering only conventional pollutants (GWF C ), this value increases to 4718 m 3 inhabitant -1 year -1 . So, the difference between these values is such that in other areas with consumption habits similar to those of the Murcia Region, and without wastewater purification, conventional pollutants may well establish the value of the GWF. On average, the WWTPs reduce the GWF C by 90% and the GWF P by 26%. These different reductions of the pollutant concentrations in the treated effluents show that the GWF is not only due to conventional pollutants, and other contaminants can became critical, such as the pharmaceutical pollutants. The reuse further reduces the value of the GWF for the Murcia Region, by around 43.6%. However, the reuse of treated wastewater is controversial, considering the pharmaceutical contaminants and their possible consequences in the food chain. In these cases, the GWF of pharmaceutical pollutants can be used to provide a

  12. The influence of new scientific information on the treatment of elderly patients in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesová, H; Holik, J; Bogrova, I

    2001-01-01

    It has been proven that with an increasing number of diseases elderly patients are treated by an increasing number of drugs despite the fact that treatment of elderly persons should be as simple as possible. Simpler dosage of (fewer?) drugs may contribute to a good cooperation on the part of patients, as well as to a lower incidence of undesirable effects and drug interactions. Sticking to established medication schemes is another feature observed in practice, which interferes with the introduction of novelties. The aim of this study was to investigate the actual situation of medication of elderly patients treated by general practitioners in this country. Between 1996 and 1998, a random group of 1481 patients aged older than 75 was studied in cooperation with general practitioners. A detailed history was obtained and physical examination was performed, signs of depression were assessed, Barthel's test of everyday activities, and IADL (activities of daily living) and MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination) tests were applied. A unified "Protocol on Examination" was used in which three questions were concerned with medication--the kinds of drugs taken by the patient, their names and dosage, and whether any hypnotics were taken. The five most frequently prescribed groups include vasodilators (62% patients), cardiotonics (39%), analgetics (41%) and Ca-antagonists (25%). The dynamics of the prescription were remarkable--a significant decrease of the use of analgetics and cardiotonics was observed in comparison with a significant increase in the use of ACE inhibitors. The number of drugs administered is as follows: while only 1.3% patients took no drugs, 1.6% patients took more than 13 drugs. 61% patients rank among the categories taking 4-5 or 6-8 kinds of drugs. On the whole, general practitioners tend to prescribe medicaments in doses one tablet per day. The results suggest that, even nowadays, elderly patients are treated with a rather high number of medicaments. In

  13. Influence of Solution Heat Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties of ZnAl22Cu3 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of solution heat treatment at 385°C over 10 h with cooling in water on the structure, hardness and strength of the ZnAl22Cu3 eutectoid alloy is presented in the paper. The eutectoid ZnAl22Cu3 alloy is characterized by a dendritic structure. Dendrites are composed of a supersaturated solid solution of Al in Zn. In the interdendritic spaces a eutectoid mixture is present, with an absence of the ε (CuZn4 phase. Solution heat treatment of the ZnAl22Cu3 alloy causes the occurrence of precipitates rich in Zn and Cu, possibly ε phase. Solution heat treatment at 385°C initially causes a significant decrease of the alloy hardness, although longer solution heat treatment causes a significant increase of the hardness as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  14. Influence of biological aerosol from wastewater treatment plants on workers and the local residents health – literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Michalak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosol forms microbes, their toxins and fragments of microorganisms suspended as small droplets or solid particles. The group particularly exposed are workers of sewage treatment plants and local residents. Literature reports stress the role of the fecal bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and yeasts, which create a real risk of air pollution near the waste water treatment plants Emission of pathogenic microbes prevails in the neighbourhood of of sedimentation tanks, sludge drying beds. Research shows that the extent of bioaerosol influence reaches the distance of 3 km away from any waster water treatment plant.. The most frequent symptoms reported by workers from waste water treatment plants and local residents are respiratory disorders. There are also gastrointestinal and skin problems and general disorders, that can be explained by exposure to endotoxins in bioaerosol.

  15. Social networks and their influence on drinking behaviors: differences related to cognitive impairment in clients receiving alcoholism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Jennifer F; Bates, Marsha E; Cisler, Ron A

    2007-09-01

    Mechanisms of behavioral change that support positive addiction treatment outcomes in individuals with co-occurring alcohol-use disorders and cognitive impairment remain largely unknown. This article combines person- and variable-centered approaches to examine the interrelated influence of cognitive impairment and social support on stability of and changes in drinking behaviors of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) outpatients and aftercare clients (N = 1,726) during the first year after their entry into treatment. Latent class analysis identified homogeneous groups of clients based on the nature and extent of social support for abstinence or drinking at treatment entry. Cognitive impairment and drinking outcomes were compared across latent classes, and the interaction between impairment and social support on drinking outcomes was examined using mixture probit regression. Three independent social support classes (frequent positive, limited positive, and negative) were identified. In the outpatient sample, the frequent positive support class had greater cognitive impairment at treatment entry versus other classes, and extent of impairment significantly predicted improved drinking outcomes in this class. In the aftercare sample, the frequent positive and negative support classes had heightened impairment, yet cognitive impairment significantly predicted relatively poorer drinking outcomes in the negative support class only. Cognitive impairment may increase the influence of the social network on the drinking outcomes of persons receiving treatment for alcohol-use disorders, but more research is needed to understand client characteristics that determine whether this influence is more likely to be manifest as increased salience of helping agents or of hindering agents in the social network.

  16. Influence of religion and supernatural beliefs on clinical manifestation and treatment practices in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Aneja, Jitender; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2016-08-01

    Religious and supernatural beliefs influence help seeking and treatment practices in bipolar disorder, but these are rarely explored by clinicians. This study aimed to understand religiousness, magico-religious beliefs, prevalence of religious and supernatural psychopathology and treatment practices among patients with bipolar disorder in euthymic state. A total of 185 patients of bipolar disorder currently in remission were assessed cross-sectionally for their clinical profile, current clinical status on the Hamilton Depression Rating Sscale (HDRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). A semi structured instrument for magico-religious beliefs, aetiological models, treatment seeking and treatment practices was administered. More than a third of patients (37.8%) had psychopathology with either religious or supernatural content or both in their lifetime. Almost half (45.4%) the patients believed in a supernatural/religious aetiology for their illness. Among the specific causes, planetary influences (13.5%) and God's will (30.8%) were the most common supernatural and religious cause, respectively. Almost half (44.3%) of patients had first treatment contact with religious/supernatural treatment providers. More than 90% of patients reported belief in God, yet about 70% reported that their doctors did not ask them sufficient questions to understand their religiosity. Magico-religious beliefs are common in bipolar disorder and a large number of patients attribute these as aetiological factors for their illness. Consequently they tend to seek treatment from traditional practitioners prior to approaching medical practitioners and may continue treatment with them alongside medical management.

  17. Preliminary study concerning the influence of combined heat and radiation treatment on the quality of some horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerak, D.Is.; Bruurs, M.F.J.

    1973-01-01

    In collaboration with a canning factory a number of horticultural products were preserved by means of the combined irradiation and heating treatment. The aim was to study the influence of the parameters irradiation and heat on quality and microbiological spoilage. The products were exposed to gamma-rays with doses varying from 0 to 1 Mrad. The heat treatment varied from 5 to 40 minutes at 98 to 121 0 C; time and temperature depended on the type of product. The sterilization value (F value) was measured by means of the method of Esty and Meyer for products with pH>5. The canned products were stored afterwards at 20-55 0 C. The organoleptic test showed that the colour and texture of most products were improved by the combined treatment, provided the irradiation dose did not exceed 0.25 Mrad. Strawberries in syrup discoloured at 0.1 Mrad. For a number of products the improved colour was partially lost during storage. Flavour and taste were not generally influenced unfavourably at doses up to 0.3 Mrad (exception: strawberries). The treatment sequence did not affect distinctly the quality or microbiological spoilage. The sterilization time (F value) of the combined treatment was determined by the shortest heating period required for the tenderness of the product. (F.J.)

  18. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and Treatment needs. The overall caries prevalence was 87%. Mean caries experience differed significantly among women in various trimesters, it was found to be 3.59 and 3.00 in 1st and 2nd trimester subjects respectively while it was greatest (4.13) among those in 3rd trimester. One surface filling was the most predominant treatment need. Age and occupation of husband explained a variance of 6.8% and 4.2% for decayed and filled components respectively while the only predictor for missing teeth and DMFT that explained a variance of 9.6% and 5.7% respectively was trimester of pregnancy. Dental caries experience and the need for one surface restoration increased with age. Trimester of pregnancy was a significant predictor for missing teeth and DMFT, while decayed teeth and filled teeth were influenced by age and socio-economic level respectively. Key words:Dental caries, treatment needs, pregnant, age, trimester.

  19. The Structure Characteristics and Air Permeability of PA and PES Plain and Plated Knits Influenced of Antimicrobial Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne MICKEVIČIENĖ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile materials are usually exposed to thermal, physical and mechanical effects during treatment processes. These influence the changes of material dimensions. Designing knitted products it is important to predict direction and rate of dimensions change, because this can affect physical properties such as air permeability of knits. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of antimicrobial treatment conditions on the structure characteristics, thickness and air permeability of plain and plaited knits. The investigations were carried out with two groups of plain and plated single jersey knits. The face yarns of these groups were cotton, bamboo viscose yarn and polyester (Dacron® thread. 10 tex × 2 textured polyamide (PA and 20 tex textured polyester (PES threads were used as the base threads in plated knits. Knitted samples were treated with antimicrobial material Isys AG and organic-inorganic binder Isys MTX (CHT, Germany. It was established that blank and antimicrobial treated knits changed structure parameters, thickness and air permeability. The changes of structure parameters, thickness and air permeability were more associated with conditions of treatment (temperature, treatment in solution, mechanical action rather than with antimicrobial and sol-gel substances used in treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.3196

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 33: The Influence of a Modeled Treatment Couch on Dose Distributions During IMRT and RapidArc Treatment Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldosary, Ghada; Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Moftah, Belal; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT

  1. Poster — Thur Eve — 33: The Influence of a Modeled Treatment Couch on Dose Distributions During IMRT and RapidArc Treatment Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldosary, Ghada [Medical Physics Unit, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Moftah, Belal [Biomedical Physics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Devic, Slobodan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT.

  2. Influence of homogenization treatment on physicochemical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis rate of pure cellulose fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, N; Vanderghem, C; Danthine, S; Blecker, C; Paquot, M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of different homogenization treatments on the physicochemical properties and the hydrolysis rate of a pure bleached cellulose. Results obtained show that homogenization treatments improve the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of the cellulose fibers by 25 to 100 %, depending of the homogenization treatment applied. Characterization of the samples showed also that homogenization had an impact on some physicochemical properties of the cellulose. For moderate treatment intensities (pressure below 500 b and degree of homogenization below 25), an increase of water retention values (WRV) that correlated to the increase of the hydrolysis rate was highlighted. Result also showed that the overall crystallinity of the cellulose properties appeared not to be impacted by the homogenization treatment. For higher treatment intensities, homogenized cellulose samples developed a stable tridimentional network that contributes to decrease cellulase mobility and slowdown the hydrolysis process.

  3. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Hsu, Julia [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

  4. Computer modelling system of the chemical composition and treatment parameters influence on mechanical properties of structural steels

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; R. Honysz

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents Neuro-Lab. It is an authorship programme, which use algorithms of artificial intelligence for structural steels mechanical properties estimation.Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of chemical composition, parameters of heat and mechanical treatment and elements of geometrical shape and size this programme has the ability to calculate the mechanical properties of examined steel and introduce them as raw numeric data or in graphic as influence charts. Possibl...

  5. INFLUENCE OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND TOUGHNESS OF BÖHLER M333 ISOPLAST STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Perko, J.; Redl, C.; Leitner, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the through hardenability and the influence of the heat treatment parameters (austenitizingtemperature, cooling parameter ? and tempering temperature) on the microstructure and the achievabletoughness level of Böhler M333 ISOPLAST are investigated. The results are compared to the standardizedtool steel grade DIN 1.2083. The investigations showed that the cooling parameter ? has a strong influenceon the impact toughness of M333 ISOPLAST plastic mould steel. The toughness is reduce...

  6. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with external beam radiation: influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, L.; Voet, H. van der; Nijs, R. de; Horenblas, S.; Hart, A.A.M.; Bartelink, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and eventually quantify a possible influence of tumor proliferation during the external radiation course on local control in muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption has retrospectively been analyzed in a series of 379 patients with nonmetastasized, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. All patients received external beam radiotherapy at the Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1990. Total dose varied between 50 and 75 Gy with a mean of 60.5 Gy and a median of 60.4 Gy. Overall treatment time varied between 20 and 270 days with a mean of 49 days and a median of 41 days. Number of fractions varied between 17 and 36 with a mean of 27 and a median of 26. Two hundred and forty-four patients had a continuous radiation course, whereas 135 had an intended split course or an unintended treatment interruption. Median follow-up was 22 months for all patients and 82 months for the 30 patients still alive at last follow-up. A stepwise procedure using proportional hazard regression has been used to identify prognostic treatment factors with respect to local recurrence as sole first recurrence. Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients experienced a local recurrence and 120 of these occurred before regional or distant metastases. The actuarial local control rate was 40.3% at 5 years and 32.3% at 10 years. In a multivariate analysis total dose showed a significant association with local control (p 0.0039), however in a markedly nonlinear way. In fact only those patients treated with a dose below 57.5 Gy had a significant higher bladder relapse rate, whereas no difference in relapse rate was found among patients treated with doses above 57.5 Gy. This remained the case even after adjustment for overall treatment time and all significant tumor and patient characteristics. The Normalized Tumor Dose (NTD) (α/β = 10) and NTD (

  7. Preoperative physical therapy treatment did not influence postoperative pain and disability outcomes in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Valencia,1 Rogelio A Coronado,2 Corey B Simon,3,4 Thomas W Wright,5 Michael W Moser,5 Kevin W Farmer,5 Steven Z George3,6,7 1Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 3Department of Physical Therapy, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 4Department of Community Dentistry and Behavioral Science, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville,FL, 5Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 7Brooks–PHHP Research Collaboration, Jacksonville, FL, USA Background: There is limited literature investigating preoperative physical therapy (pre-op PT treatment on pain intensity and disability after musculoskeletal surgery. The purposes of the present cohort study were to describe patient characteristics for those who had and did not have pre-op PT treatment and determine whether pre-op PT influenced the length of postoperative physical therapy (post-op PT treatment (number of sessions and 3-month and 6-month postsurgical outcomes, such as pain intensity and disability. Patients and methods: A total of 124 patients (mean age =43 years, 81 males with shoulder pain were observed before and after shoulder arthroscopic surgery. Demographic data, medical history, and validated self-report questionnaires were collected preoperatively and at 3 months and 6 months after surgery. Analysis of variance models were performed to identify differences across measures for patients who had pre-op PT treatment and those who did not and to examine outcome differences at 3 months and 6 months. Alpha was set at the 0.05 level for statistical significance. Results: Males had less participation in pre-op PT than females (P=0.01. In

  8. The influence of treatment attendance on subsequent aggression among severely mentally ill substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yue; Bradizza, Clara M; Maisto, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationships between severe mental illness, substance use, and aggression are of longstanding importance with implications for community treatment programs, treatment research and public policy. Through the analysis of longitudinal data collected from 278 patients over a 6-month period following admission to an outpatient dual diagnosis treatment program, this study examined the association between dual diagnosis treatment attendance and subsequent aggression among individuals diagnosed with both a severe mental illness and a substance use disorder. We also tested substance use and psychiatric symptoms as mediators of this treatment-aggression relationship. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that dual diagnosis treatment was associated with lower levels of subsequent aggression. Mediational analyses indicated that greater treatment involvement was associated with reduced substance use, which was associated with lower levels of aggression; thus, substance use was found to mediate the relationship between dual diagnosis treatment and aggression. Surprisingly, severity of psychiatric symptoms did not predict later aggression. These findings suggest that targeting substance use reduction in treatment may have the additional benefit of reducing the risk of later aggression among dual diagnosis patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of heat-treatment on lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Fanyan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hou, Zhaohui, E-mail: zhqh96@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); He, Binhong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Ge, Chongyong; Cao, Jianguo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Kuang, Yafei, E-mail: yafeik@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Mesoporous carbons possess unique nanosheet-like pore walls which can be changed by heat treatment. ► Lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons could be influenced by the nanosheet-like walls. ► Mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties LIBs. -- Abstract: Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with nanosheet-like walls have been prepared as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries by a simple one-step infiltrating method under the action of capillary flow. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the surface topography, pore/phase structure and anode performances of as-prepared materials has been investigated. The results reveal that melted liquid-crystal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be anchored on liquid/silica interfaces by molecule engineering. After carbonization, the nanosheets are formed as the pore walls of MCs and are perpendicular to the long axis of pores. The anode properties demonstrate that C-1200 displays higher reversible capacitance than those treated in higher temperature. The rate performances of C-1200 and C-1800 are similar and more excellent than that of C-2400. These improved lithium ion anode properties could be attributed to the nanosheet-like walls of MCs which can be influenced by the heat treatment temperature.

  10. Efficiency of physicochemical and biological treatments of vinasse and their influence on indigenous microbiota for disposal into the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Cassia Roberta; Mesquita, Vanessa Alvarenga; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-11-01

    Molasses-based distilleries are one of the most polluting industries generating large volumes of high strength wastewater called vinasse. Different processes covering anaerobic, aerobic as well as physicochemical methods have been employed to treat this effluent. This study evaluated the microbial communities present in the vinasse during different stages of its treatment by traditional and molecular methods. The analysis of the efficiency of each treatment was performed by physicochemical parameters and toxicity analysis. The treatment of vinasse was performed in the following steps: high flow fermentation; filtration; chemical flakes; low-flow fermentation; filtration; and neutralization. The physicochemical analysis in different stages of the vinasse treatment demonstrated that phases of treatment influenced the performance of the evaluated parameters. Among the 37 parameters, 9 were within the limits established by the Commission for Environmental Policy of Minas Gerais, Brazil (COPAM), especially BOD (96.7% of pollution reduction), suspended solids (99.9%), pH, copper (88%), iron (92.9%), and manganese (88%). Some parameters, even after treatment, did not fit the maximum allowed by legislation. The microbial population decreased reaching 3 log CFU/ml present in the steps of the flakes chemical and disinfection treatment of vinasse. Lactobacillus brevis and Pichia kudriavzevii were present in all stages of the treatments, showing that these microorganisms were resistant and demonstrated that they might be important in the treatment of vinasse. The vinasse showed a significant reduction of pollution load after the disinfection treatment however still should not be discarded into water bodies because the high values of tannins and sediment solids, but suggest the use of the effluent in the cooling coil during the distillation process of the beverage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research of influence of ultrasound treatment in various liquid media on the surface microflora of semifinished meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent microbial spoilage, meat and meat products could be treatedusing different types of processing. However, these methods do not ensures sterilization and can cause decrease of nutrition and biological value of food product. In this regardstudying of the innovative methods, that guaranteeing consumers safe and minimally-processed foods, is particularly relevant. The addition of lactic acid bacteria and ultrasound (US treatment have great potential in this direction.Thesurfacemicroflorainvestigations of semifinished meat products were carried out in order to state the positive influence on their microbiological stability by US treatment in different types of medium. Experiments included the study of antagonistic activity of bacteria strains of the genus Lactobacillus acidophilus(L. acidophilus in relation to typical microflora representatives of chilled meat semi-finished products. Basing on these experiments the strain 7m13 of L. acidophilus with the highest inhibitory activity was chosen. The lowest inhibitory activity was found for strain 5e. The parameters of ultrasonic treatment was established as follows: installed capacity of the treatment 350 Wt with the exposure time 2 minutes, avoiding undesired denaturation changes of muscle proteins. The handling of check samples included the following variants: control (without treatment; sample 1 – treatment in distilled water; sample 2 – treatment in milk whey; sample 3 – treatment in fermented milk whey. As the result of experiments it was found, that the strain 7m13 of L.acidophilus showed the highest antagonistic activity against used test cultures of bacteria. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the surface microflora of the check samples is not constant; coccal forms are less sensitive for ultrasound treatment in comparison with bacilli and yeast cells. The minimal surface microbial population was shown using the combination of fermented milk whey and

  12. Initiation and adherence to TB treatment in a Pakistani community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tuberculosis (TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. Aims: To investigate knowledge about TB, perceptions of (access to TB treatment, and adherence to treatment among a Pakistani population. Setting and Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 participants were selected nonrandomly, 100 were TB patient and 75 were non-TB patient in proportion to the total number of participants in each ward of hospital. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of attitudes and perceptions toward TB, adherence to TB treatment, health seeking behavior, and TB treatment types done by frequency counts and percentages. Regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to test whether differences in age, gender, and education level led to different knowledge scores and different attitudes and preferences toward TB, adherence to TB treatment, health seeking behavior, and TB treatment types. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0. Result: TB knowledge can be considered fairly well among this community. Respondents′ perceptions suggest that stigma may influence TB patients′ decision in health seeking behavior and adherence to TB treatment. A full 95% of those interviewed believe people with TB tend to hide their TB status out of fear of what others may say. Conclusion: Most of the subjects were unaware of TB that seems to be due to their illiteracy and those who knew had got the knowledge from media, but the majority of the patients who were on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS were found to be satisfied.

  13. Does Patient Race/Ethnicity Influence Physician Decision-Making for Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Disruptive Behavior Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Sarina

    2015-06-01

    Race/ethnic disparities in utilization of children's mental health care have been well documented and are particularly concerning given the long-term risks of untreated mental health problems (Institute of Medicine, 2003; Kessler et al. Am J Psychiatry 152:10026-1032, 1995). Research investigating the higher rates of unmet need among race/ethnic minority youths has focused primarily on policy, fiscal, and individual child or family factors that can influence service access and use. Alternatively, this study examines provider behavior as a potential influence on race/ethnic disparities in mental health care. The goal of the study was to examine whether patient (family) race/ethnicity influences physician diagnostic and treatment decision-making for childhood disruptive behavior problems. The study utilized an internet-based video vignette with corresponding survey of 371 randomly selected physicians from across the USA representing specialties likely to treat these patients (pediatricians, family physicians, general and child psychiatrists). Participants viewed a video vignette in which only race/ethnicity of the mother randomly varied (non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and African American) and then responded to questions about diagnosis and recommended treatments. Physicians assigned diagnoses such as oppositional defiant disorder (48 %) and attention deficit disorder (63 %) to the child, but there were no differences in diagnosis based on race/ethnicity. The majority of respondents recommended psychosocial treatment (98 %) and/or psychoactive medication treatment (60 %), but there were no significant differences based on race/ethnicity. Thus, in this study using mock patient stimuli and controlling for other factors, such as insurance coverage, we did not find major differences in physician diagnostic or treatment decision-making based on patient race/ethnicity.

  14. Investigation of the potential influence of production treatment chemicals on produced water toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, E.R.; Gala, W.R.; Henry, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Production treatment chemicals represent a diverse collection of chemical classes, added at various points from the wellhead to the final flotation cell, to prevent operational upsets and enhance the separation of oil from water. Information in the literature indicates that while many treatment chemicals are thought to partition into oil and not into the produced water, there are cases where a sufficiently water soluble treatment chemical is added at high enough concentrations to suggest that the treatment chemical may add to the aquatic toxicity of the produced water. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential effect of production treatment chemicals on the toxicity of produced waters using the US EPA Seven-day Mysidopsis bahia Survival, Growth and Fecundity Test. Samples of produced water were collected and tested for toxicity from three platforms under normal operating conditions, followed by repeated sampling and testing after a 72-hour period in which treatment chemical usage was discontinued, to the degree possible. Significant reductions in produced water toxicity were observed for two of the three platforms tested following either cessation of treatment chemical usage, or by comparing the toxicity of samples collected upstream and downstream of the point of treatment chemical addition

  15. The influence of antineoplastic treatment on the weight of survivors of childhood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ferrari Carneiro Teixeira

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Early identification of groups using accurate anthropometric assessments, interventional treatment, and/or preventative measures and counseling is essential to minimize the adverse effects of treatment. Physical activity and healthy eating to promote weight loss in the whole population should be encouraged.

  16. Influence of cover crop treatments on the performance of a vineyard in a humid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo-Córdoba, E.; Bouzas-Cid, Y.; Orriols-Fernández, I.; Díaz-Losada, E.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.

    2015-07-01

    Vineyards are usually managed by tilling the inter-rows to avoid competition from other plants for soil water and nutrients. However, in humid and sub-humid climates, such as that of NW Spain, cover crops may be an advantage for controlling vine vegetative growth and improving berry composition, while reducing management costs. The current study was conducted over three consecutive growing seasons (2012-2014) to assess the effects of establishing three permanent cover crop treatments on water relations, vine physiology, yield and berry composition of a vineyard of the red cultivar ‘Mencía’ (Vitis vinifera L.) located in Leiro, Ourense. Treatments consisted of four different soil management systems: ST, soil tillage; NV, native vegetation; ER, English ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.); and SC, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). Midday stem water potential was more negative in the native vegetation treatment, causing significant reductions in leaf stomatal conductance on certain dates. Total vine leaf area and pruning weight was reduced in the cover crop treatments in the last year of the experiment. Yield was unaffected by the presence of a cover crop. No significant differences among treatments were observed for berry composition; however, wines were positively affected by the SC treatment (higher tannin content and colour intensity and lower malic acid concentration when compared with ST). Wines from the cover crop treatments were preferred by taste panelists. These results indicate that in humid climates cover crop treatments can be useful for reducing vine vegetative growth without compromising yield and berry quality. (Author)

  17. Treatment Integrity Enhancement via Performance Feedback Conceptualized as an Exercise in Social Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchul, William P.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary is in response to the article "Effects of Verbal and Written Performance Feedback on Treatment Adherence" (Kaufman, Codding, Markus, Tryon, & Kyse, this issue). The overall recommendation to those who study treatment integrity using performance feedback methods is to incorporate theories and research on social…

  18. Influence of microbial community diversity and function on pollutant removal in ecological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaohui; Huo, Yang; Liao, Kailingli; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-10-01

    Traditional wastewater treatments based on activated sludge often encounter the problems of bulking and foaming, as well as malodor. To solve these problems, new treatment technologies have emerged in recent decades, including the ecological wastewater treatment process, which introduces selected local plants into the treatment system. With a focus on the underlying mechanisms of the ecological treatment process, we explored the microbial community biomass, composition, and function in the treatment system to understand the microbial growth in this system and its role in pollutant removal. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ecological treatment significantly decreased influent bacterial quantity, with around 80% removal. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the ecological treatment also altered the bacterial community structure of the wastewater, leading to a significant change in Comamonadaceae in the effluent. In the internal ecological system, because most of microbes aggregate in the plant rhizosphere and the sludge under plant roots, we selected two plant species (Nerium oleander and Arundo donax) to study the characteristics of rhizosphere and sludge microbes. Metagenomic results showed that the microbial community composition and function differed between the two species, and the microbial communities of A. donax were more sensitive to seasonal effects. Combined with their greater biomass and abundance of metabolic genes, microbes associated with N. oleander showed a greater contribution to pollutant removal. Further, the biodegradation pathways of some micropollutants, e.g., atrazine, were estimated.

  19. Influence of heat treatment on magnesium alloys meant to automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, G.; Moldovan, P.; Bojin, D.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the heat treatment realized on magnesium alloys, from AZ80 and ZK60 class. These alloys are destined to replace the conventional ferrous and aluminum alloys in automotive industry. It was realized the heat treatment, T5 - artificially aging, and it were

  20. The influence of deep cryogenic treatment on the properties of high-vanadium alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haizhi [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Tong, Weiping, E-mail: wptong@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Cui, Junjun [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chen, Liqing [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zuo, Liang [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-04-26

    Deep cryogenic treatment can improve the mechanical properties of many metallic materials, but there are few reports of the effect of deep cryogenic treatment on high-vanadium alloy steel. The main objective of this work is to investigate the effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the microstructure, hardness, impact toughness and abrasive wear resistance of high-vanadium alloy steel. The results show that large amounts of small secondary carbide precipitation after deep cryogenic treatment and microcracks were detected and occurred preferentially at carbide/matrix interfaces; except for the hardness, the mechanical properties increased compared to those of the conventional treatment sample. By increasing the deep cryogenic processing time and cycle number, impact toughness and abrasive wear resistance can be further improved, the carbide contents continuously increase, and the hardness decreases.

  1. The TRIO Framework: Conceptual insights into family caregiver involvement and influence throughout cancer treatment decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidsaar-Powell, Rebekah; Butow, Phyllis; Charles, Cathy; Gafni, Amiram; Entwistle, Vikki; Epstein, Ronald; Juraskova, Ilona

    2017-11-01

    Family caregivers are regularly involved in cancer consultations and treatment decision-making (DM). Yet there is limited conceptual description of caregiver influence/involvement in DM. To address this, an empirically-grounded conceptual framework of triadic DM (TRIO Framework) and corresponding graphical aid (TRIO Triangle) were developed. Jabareen's model for conceptual framework development informed multiple phases of development/validation, incorporation of empirical research and theory, and iterative revisions by an expert advisory group. Findings coalesced into six empirically-grounded conceptual insights: i) Caregiver influence over a decision is variable amongst different groups; ii) Caregiver influence is variable within the one triad over time; iii) Caregivers are involved in various ways in the wider DM process; iv) DM is not only amongst three, but can occur among wider social networks; v) Many factors may affect the form and extent of caregiver involvement in DM; vi) Caregiver influence over, and involvement in, DM is linked to their everyday involvement in illness care/management. The TRIO Framework/Triangle may serve as a useful guide for future empirical, ethical and/or theoretical work. This Framework can deepen clinicians's and researcher's understanding of the diverse and varying scope of caregiver involvement and influence in DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xmwang991011@163.com [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Huang, Cui [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Gou, Guoqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2016-09-05

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  3. Influence of Chitosan Treatment on Surrogate Serum Markers of Cholesterol Metabolism in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Lütjohann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan treatment results in significantly lower serum low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentrations. To assess the working mechanisms of chitosan, we measured serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol, sitosterol, cholestanol, synthesis (lathosterol, lanosterol, desmosterol, and degradation to bile acids (7α-hydroxy-cholesterol, 27-hydroxy-cholesterol, corrected for cholesterol concentration (R_sterols. Over 12 weeks, 116 obese subjects (Body Mass Index, BMI 31.7, range 28.1–38.9 kg/m2 were studied under chitosan (n = 61 and placebo treatments (n = 55. The participants were briefly educated regarding improvement of nutrition quality and energy expenditure. Daily chitosan intake was 3200 mg. Serum LDL cholesterol concentration decreased significantly more (p = 0.0252 under chitosan (−8.67 ± 18.18 mg/dL, 5.6% than under placebo treatment (−1.00 ± 24.22 mg/dL, 0.9%. This reduction was not associated with the expected greater decreases in markers of cholesterol absorption under chitosan treatment. Also, increases in markers of cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis under chitosan treatment were not any greater than under placebo treatment. In conclusion, a significant selective reduction of serum LDL cholesterol under chitosan treatment is neither associated with a reduction of serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption, nor with increases of markers for cholesterol and bile acid synthesis.

  4. Treatment decision-making strategies and influences in patients with localized prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Pow-Sang, Julio; Seigne, John; Heysek, Randy; Helal, Mohamed; Shade, Kristin; Cantor, Alan; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2005-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with localized prostate carcinoma need to interpret complicated medical information to make an informed treatment selection from among treatments that have comparable efficacy but differing side effects. The authors reported initial results for treatment decision-making strategies among men receiving definitive treatment for localized prostate carcinoma. One hundred nineteen men treated with radical prostatectomy (44%) or brachytherapy (56%) consented to participate. Guided by a cognitive-affective theoretic framework, the authors assessed differences in decision-making strategies, and treatment and disease-relevant beliefs and affects, in addition to demographic and clinical variables. Approximately half of patients reported difficulty (49%) and distress (45%) while making treatment decisions, but no regrets (74%) regarding the treatment choice they made. Patients who underwent prostatectomy were younger, were more likely to be employed, had worse tumor grade, and had a shorter time since diagnosis (P Decision-making aids or other interventions to reduce decisional difficulty and emotional distress during decision making were indicated.

  5. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie; Huang, Cui; Gou, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  6. Surface Observation and Pore Size Analyses of Polypropylene/Low-Melting Point Polyester Filter Materials: Influences of Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes making filter materials with polypropylene (PP and low-melting point (LPET fibers. The influences of temperatures and times of heat treatment on the morphology of thermal bonding points and average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. The test results indicate that the morphology of thermal bonding points is highly correlated with the average pore size. When the temperature of heat treatment is increased, the fibers are joined first with the thermal bonding points, and then with the large thermal bonding areas, thereby decreasing the average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. A heat treatment of 110 °C for 60 seconds can decrease the pore size from 39.6 μm to 12.0 μm.

  7. Quantification of the influence of the choice of the algorithm and planning system on the calculation of a treatment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moral, F. del; Ramos, A.; Salgado, M.; Andrade, B; Munoz, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this work an analysis of the influence of the choice of the algorithm or planning system, on the calculus of the same treatment plan is introduced. For this purpose specific software has been developed for comparing plans of a series of IMRT cases of prostate and head and neck cancer calculated using the convolution, superposition and fast superposition algorithms implemented in the XiO 4.40 planning system (CMS). It has also been used for the comparison of the same treatment plan for lung pathology calculated in XiO with the mentioned algorithms, and calculated in the Plan 4.1 planning system (Brainlab) using its pencil beam algorithm. Differences in dose among the treatment plans have been quantified using a set of metrics. The recommendation for the dosimetrist of a careful choice of the algorithm has been numerically confirmed. (Author).

  8. Influence of Heat Treatment on Abrasive Wear Resistance of Silumin Matrix Composite Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors attempted at examining the effect of heat treatment on abrasive wear resistance of metal composite castings. Metal matrix composites were made by infiltrating preforms created from unordered short fibers (graphite or silumin with liquid aluminium alloy AlSi12(b. Thus prepared composites were subject to solution heat treatment at a temperature of 520°C for four hours, then aging at a temperature of 220°C for four hours. Abrasion resistance of the material was tested before and after thermal treatment.

  9. Maternal care and paternal protection influence response to psychotherapy treatment for adult depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Jeanette M; Carter, Janet D; Luty, Suzanne E; Mulder, Roger T; Frampton, Christopher M; Joyce, Peter R

    2013-07-01

    Adverse childhood experiences of neglect, overprotection and abuse, well-recognized risk factors for the development of adult psychopathology, were examined as predictors of response to psychotherapy treatment for adults with depression. Outpatients in a randomized clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) completed the parental bonding instrument (PBI) at baseline to establish levels of care and protection. Childhood abuse was asked about using clinical interviews. The PBI variables were examined in tertiles while the abuse variables were categorized as "none," "some," and "severe." Associations between these childhood adversities and treatment response were examined in those who completed the trial. Of 177 outpatients with depression who were randomized, 159 completed an adequate trial of therapy. Within these 159 patients, 57% were categorized as responders to treatment. The mean percentage improvement on the MADRS was 57.7% (±31.4). Across both treatments, patients reporting intermediate levels of maternal care had the best response to treatment. Also across both treatments, the interaction effects of maternal care and paternal protection by treatment were statistically significant. Examining the two therapies independently, maternal care and paternal protection were associated with a differential response to IPT but not CBT. Reports of abuse, whether physical, emotional or sexual, did not impact treatment response. This study examined patients who completed treatment, which may have attenuated the findings. Two categories of childhood adversity were measured although a range of other adverse childhood experiences exist. The results were from exploratory analyses and require replication. Maternal care, demonstrating a robust main effect across treatments, appears to be the childhood variable most strongly associated with response to psychotherapy in this sample. In addition, maternal care and paternal protection

  10. Understanding the Influence of Socioeconomic Environment on Paediatric Antiretroviral Treatment Coverage: Towards Closing Treatment Gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyinka, Daniel A; Evans, Meirion R; Ozigbu, Chamberline E; van Woerden, Hugo; Adeyinka, Esther F; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Aimakhu, Chris; Odoh, Deborah; Chamla, Dick

    2017-03-01

    Many sub-Saharan African countries have massively scaled-up their antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, but many national programmes still show large gaps in paediatric ART coverage making it challenging to reduce AIDS-related deaths among HIV-infected children. We sought to identify enablers of paediatric ART coverage in Africa by examining the relationship between paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic parameters measured at the population level so as to accelerate reaching the 90-90-90 targets. Ecological analyses of paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic indicators were performed. The data were obtained from the United Nations agencies and Forum for a new World Governance reports for the 21 Global Plan priority countries in Africa with highest burden of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Spearman's correlation and median regression were utilized to explore possible enablers of paediatric ART coverage. Factors associated with paediatric ART coverage included adult literacy (r=0.6, p=0.004), effective governance (r=0.6, p=0.003), virology testing by 2 months of age (r=0.9, p=0.001), density of healthcare workers per 10,000 population (r=0.6, p=0.007), and government expenditure on health (r=0.5, p=0.046). The paediatric ART coverage had a significant inverse relationship with the national mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate (r=-0.9, pgender inequality index (r=-0.6, p=0.006). Paediatric ART coverage had no relationship with poverty and HIV stigma indices. Low paediatric ART coverage continues to hamper progress towards eliminating AIDS-related deaths in HIV-infected children. Achieving this requires full commitment to a broad range of socioeconomic development goals. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  11. On the conjoint influence of heat treatment and lithium content on microstructure and mechanical properties of A380 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, Mostafa; Azarbarmas, Mortaza; Emamy, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • T4 heat treatment and the addition of Li modify the microstructure of alloy. • Heat treatment improves the tensile properties of non-modified and modified alloys. • Fracture surfaces of modified specimens had more ductile dimples than base alloys. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of a T4 heat treatment on the microstructure and tensile properties of an A380 aluminum alloy with and without lithium (Li) additions have been investigated. Microstructural examination was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy, image analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis methods. The results showed that when the T4 heat treatment was applied, spheroidized eutectic Si particles and fragmented β-phase particles were formed. The influence of the heat treatment on the aspect ratio and average length of Si and β phases in a non-modified alloy was more noticeable than in the Li-modified. Significant improvements in tensile properties were also observed in heat-treated samples. Additionally, a fractographical analysis showed that the fracture surfaces of the Li-modified specimens with and without heat treatment had more ductile dimple and fewer brittle cleavage surfaces

  12. Influences on the start, selection and duration of treatment with antibiotics in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneman, Nick; Campitelli, Michael A; Giannakeas, Vasily; Morris, Andrew M; Bell, Chaim M; Maxwell, Colleen J; Jeffs, Lianne; Austin, Peter C; Bronskill, Susan E

    2017-06-26

    Understanding the extent to which current antibiotic prescribing behaviour is influenced by clinicians' historical patterns of practice will help target interventions to optimize antibiotic use in long-term care. Our objective was to evaluate whether clinicians' historical prescribing behaviours influence the start, prolongation and class selection for treatment with antibiotics in residents of long-term care facilities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all physicians who prescribed to residents in long-term care facilities in Ontario between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2014. We examined variability in antibiotic prescribing among physicians for 3 measures: start of treatment with antibiotics, use of prolonged durations exceeding 7 days and selection of fluoroquinolones. Funnel plots with control limits were used to determine the extent of variation and characterize physicians as extreme low, low, average, high and extreme high prescribers for each tendency. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess whether a clinician's prescribing tendency in the previous year predicted current prescribing patterns, after accounting for residents' demographics, comorbidity, functional status and indwelling devices. Among 1695 long-term care physicians, who prescribed for 93 132 residents, there was wide variability in the start of antibiotic treatment (median 45% of patients, interquartile range [IQR] 32%-55%), use of prolonged treatment durations (median 30% of antibiotic prescriptions, IQR 19%-46%) and selection of fluoroquinolones (median 27% of antibiotic prescriptions, IQR 18%-37%). Prescribing tendencies for antibiotics by physicians in 2014 correlated strongly with tendencies in the previous year. After controlling for individual resident characteristics, prior prescribing tendency was a significant predictor of current practice. Physicians prescribing antibiotics exhibited individual, measurable and historical tendencies toward start of antibiotic treatment

  13. Influence of medical treatment, smoking and disease activity on pregnancy outcomes in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian Lodberg

    2014-01-01

    of low birth weight. Mean birth weight in children of smokers in medical treatment was significantly reduced by 274 g compared with children of non-smokers who received medical treatment.In children of women without medical treatment, this difference was 126 g between smokers and non-smokers. Women...... in medical treatment did not have an increased risk of preterm delivery (POR 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18–2.79), congenital malformations (POR 0.60; 0.10–3.76) or cesarean section (POR 1.40; 0.63–3.08). Conclusion. In CD, smoking was negatively associated with child birth weight. This association...

  14. Influence of oxygen treatment on transport properties of PbTe:In polycrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashevsky, Z.; Shufer, E.; Kasiyan, V.; Flitsiyan, E.; Chernyak, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the oxygen treatment of 1 μm thick n-type PbTe:In films was studied. Two main processes induced during the thermal treatment in oxygen atmosphere were identified. The inversion of the type of electrical conductivity in PbTe:In films from n- to p-type was observed after the thermal treatment in oxygen (T a =400 deg. C). This effect is related to indium segregation at the film surface. The photoconductivity demonstrated in PbTe:In films after oxygen treatment is due to oxygen diffusion along the grain boundaries and the creation of potential relief, which separates electron-hole pairs at the boundaries under light illumination.

  15. Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Pola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself.

  16. Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola, Annalisa; Montesano, Lorenzo; Tocci, Marialaura; La Vecchia, Giovina Marina

    2017-03-03

    Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself.

  17. Toxin production in food as influenced by pH, thermal treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... toxigenic properties and thirteen of the sixteen were positive for toxin production ... treatment and chemical preservatives on the growth rate and toxin ..... Clostridium botulinum in cooked pureed vegetables at Refrigerated.

  18. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Purified Magnesium and AZ31 Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifeh, Sohrab; Burleigh, T. David

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are ideal for biodegradable implants due to their biocompatibility and their low-stress shielding. However, they can corrode too rapidly in the biological environment. The objective of this research was to develop heat treatments to slow the corrosion of high purified magnesium and AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid at 37{\\deg}C. Heat treatments were performed at different temperatures and times. Hydrogen evolution, weight loss, PDP, and EIS methods were used to measu...

  19. The influence of alkali treatment on banana fibre’s mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Mejía Osorio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the effect of alkali treatment on the mechanical properties of banana fibre (Musa Paradisiaca. Fibres were extracted from the pseudostem by a defibring machine; they were mercerised and modified by 5% NaOH (w/v alkali treatment. Morphological characterisation showed that treated fibres’ surface was rougher than that of untreated fibres. Mechanical characterisation indicated that Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength and strain became decreased by increasing both treated and untreated fibres’ diameter.

  20. Influence of the order of introduction of a set of objectives in IMRT treatment schedules prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravilla Limorte, M.; Gomez Martin, C.; Alonso Iracheta, L.; Bejar Navarro, M. J.; Capuz Suarez, A. B.; Comenares Fernandez, R.; Moris Pablos, R.; Rot Sanjuan, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze to what extent could influence the order in which you enter the target calculation algorithm of planning. For this, assesses the implications-both-dosimetric calculation as derived from the implementation of 3 IMRT optimization methods, which only differ in regard to the order of introduction of a fixed set of objectives.

  1. Crack resistance of pvd coatings : Influence of surface treatment prior to deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    The crack resistance of three different PVD coatings, TiN, Ti(C,N), and a multilayer system of alternating TiN and TiAlN, have been investigated. The three coating systems were deposited onto substrates with a different surface roughness to study the influence of this pretreatment on the crack

  2. Influence of diabetes mellitus on the endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, L.J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Buth, J.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of diabetes mellitus on outcome after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. METHODS: Of 6017 patients enrolled in the EUROSTAR registry after undergoing endovascular AAA repair between May 1994 and December 2003, 731 (12%) had diabetes mellitus

  3. EPA ORD's Role In Mine-Influenced Water-Treatment: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the different technologies that the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has tested on bench, field and pilot studies on mine-influenced water. Each of these technologies has been dem...

  4. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 7 ) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD 7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  5. Influence of fibre treatments on mechanical properties of short Sansevieria cylindrica/polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, V.S.; Ravindran, D.; Manikandan, V.; Narayanasamy, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibre treatments were performed to improve interfacial bond between SCF and matrix. ► Mechanical properties of treated SCFP composites are greater than USCFP composites. ► PSCFP composites show maximum mechanical properties among treated SCFP composites. ► SEM analysis revealed that the wetting of PSCFs by the polyester resin was good. ► KMnO 4 treatment is ideal treatment for SCFs to get optimum mechanical properties. -- Abstract: In the present study, to improve the interfacial bond between Sansevieria cylindrica fibres (SCFs) and polyester matrix, chemical surface treatments have been performed on the fibres. Treatments including alkali, benzoyl peroxide, potassium permanganate and stearic acid were carried out to modify the fibre surface. Raw and each type of treated SCF samples were utilised separately for fabricating the composites. The mechanical properties of composites prepared from the chemically treated SCFs are found to be much better than those of the untreated ones. Potassium-permanganate-treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (PSCFP) composites showed optimum mechanical properties among the treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (SCFP) composites. The surface morphologies of fracture surfaces of composites were recorded using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal that interfacial bonding between potassium-permanganate-treated SCF (PSCF) and polyester matrix has significantly improved, suggesting that better dispersion of PSCF into the matrix has occurred upon potassium permanganate treatment of SCF.

  6. Influences of Thermo-Vacuum Treatment on Colors and Chemical Compositions of Alder Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With high temperature-heat treatment, the dimensional stability and durability of wood is improved and wood color is darkened as well. In this paper, alder birch wood (Betula alnoides was treated by the Thermo-Vacuum Treatment (TVT. The changes of wood color parameters and the chemical composition were determined by the CIE1976 L*a*b* method and the chemical analysis method, respectively. The results were revealed as follows: (1 A lower value of lightness, L*, and a higher value of total color difference, △E*, were obtained at the higher heat-treatment temperatures and longer treatment time. (2 The higher the heat-treatment temperatures and the longer the heat-treatment times were, the lower the contents of hemicellulose and cellulose were and the higher the content of lignin was. Moreover, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis demonstrated that the characteristic absorption peaks of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin diminished. The acetylation reaction of hemicellulose and the degradation reaction of groups of lignin side chain occurred during TVT. (3 TVT degraded the chemical composition of cell walls, which resulted in further changes of the wood color. A significant correlation existed between the differences of color indices and the differences of the chemical composition after TVT.

  7. Factors influencing adherence to referral advice following pre-referral treatment with artesunate suppositories in children in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simba, Daudi O; Warsame, Marian; Kimbute, Omari; Kakoko, Deodatus; Petzold, Max; Tomson, Goran; Premji, Zul; Gomes, Melba

    2009-07-01

    WHO recommends artemisinin suppository formulations as pre-referral treatment for children who are unable to take oral medication and cannot rapidly reach a facility for parenteral treatment. We investigated factors influencing caretakers' adherence to referral advice following pre-referral treatment of their children with rectal artesunate suppositories. The study was nested within an intervention study that involved pre-referral treatment of all children who came to a community dispenser for treatment because they were unable to take oral medications because of repeated vomiting, lethargy, convulsions or altered consciousness. All patients who did not comply with referral advice were stratified by actions taken post-referral: taking their children to a drug shop, a traditional healer, or not seeking further treatment, and added to a random selection of patients who complied with referral advice. Caretakers of the children were interviewed about their socio-economic status (SES), knowledge about malaria, referral advice given and actions they took following pre-referral treatment. Interview data for 587 caretakers were matched with symptoms of the children, the time of treatment, arrival at a health facility or other actions taken post-pre-referral treatment. The majority (93.5%) of caretakers reported being given referral advice by the community drug dispenser. The odds of adherence with this advice were three times greater for children with altered consciousness and/or convulsions than for children with other symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 3.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.32-5.17, P < 0.001]. When questioned, caretakers who remembered when (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.48-3.23, P < 0.001) and why (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.07-2.95, P = 0.026) they were advised to proceed to health facility - were more likely to follow referral advice. Cost did not influence adherence except within a catchment area of facilities that charged for services. In these areas, costs deterred adherence by

  8. Factors influencing the success of radio-iodine dose in the treatment of Graves disease: one year outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoun, T.; Sfar, R.; Regaieg, H.; Toumi, A.; Zanzouri, H.; Nouira, M.; Ben Fredj, M.; Ayachi, N.; Chatti, K.; Guezguez, M.; Essabbah, H.; Sakly, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: radioiodine ( 131 I) is increasingly used as the definitive treatment of Graves disease (GD). Many factors influence the curative effects of the 131 I, thus there are some difficulties to define the optimal dose of 131 I for the treatment of GD. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the factors influencing the success rate in patients having GD and treated with radioiodine dose modulated by thyroid mass. Materials and methods: this is a prospective study of 86 patients (aged 43 ± 11, 58 women and 28 men) treated for Graves disease by radioiodine during the year 2011 in Nuclear Medicine department CHU Sahloul, Sousse. Radioiodine dose are modulated by thyroid mass: 370 MBq, 444 MBq and 555 MBq respectively for mass strictly less than 30 g, between 30 g and 40 g and greater than to 40 g. Some patients received more than 555 MBq for other causes to reach hypothyroidism precociously. The thyroid function outcome (hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism/hypothyroidism) was verified 6 months and 1 year after 131 I treatment. Patient gender, age, ophthalmopathy, thyroid size, antithyroid drugs used prior to 131 I treatment and anti-TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (ATPO) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (ATG) plasma concentrations before 131 I treatment were studied as potential interference factors for 131 I treatment success. Results: Thirty patients received 370 MBq, 29 received 444 MBq, 14 received 555 MBq and 13 more than 555 MBq. Outcome after treatment was determined in a total of 66 patients at 6 months and 63 at one year. Post-therapy follow-up revealed that treatment failed in 29% of the patients at 6 months and in 20% of patients at one year. No correlation was noted between the outcome of treatment and age, sex, ophthalmopathy, antithyroid drugs taking and ATG titer. A significant correlation was noted between the disease outcome at one year and TRAb titer: High TRAb levels are associated

  9. Influence of the current density on the electrochemical treatment of concentrated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions on diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcionilio, Suzana M L de Oliveira; Alves, Gisele M; E Silva, Rachel B Góes; Marques, Pablo J Lima; Maia, Poliana D; Neto, Brenno A D; Linares, José J

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the current density treatment of a concentrated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMImCl) solution on an electrochemical reactor with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) and the BMImCl concentration demonstrate the capability of BDD in oxidizing ionic liquids (ILs) and further mineralizing (to CO2 and NO3 (-)) more rapidly at higher current densities in spite of the reduced current efficiency of the process. Moreover, the presence of Cl(-) led to the formation of oxychlorinated anions (mostly ClO3 (-) and ClO4 (-)) and, in combination with the ammonia generated in the cathode from the nitrate reduction, chloramines, more intensely at higher current density. Finally, the analysis of the intermediates formed revealed no apparent influence of the current density on the BMImCl degradation mechanism. The current density presents therefore a complex influence on the IL treatment process that is discussed throughout this paper.

  10. Dyslipidemia awareness, treatment, control and influence factors among adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Yu, Ya-qin; Li, Yong; Kou, Chang-gui; Li, Bo; Tao, Yu-chun; Zhen, Qing; Wang, Chang; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Huang, Xu-feng; Han, Mei; Liu, Ya-wen

    2014-08-03

    In China, even though the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults increased yearly and dyslipidemia being an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among the Chinese population, however, the awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia are at low levels, and only limited studies on the influence factors associated with the awareness, treatment and control dyslipidemia in China have been carried out. The analysis was based on a representative sample of 7138 adult subjects aged 18~79 years recruited from a cross-sectional study of chronic disease and risk factors among adults in the Jilin province in 2012. Chi-square test was used to compare the rates of dyslipidemia awareness, treatment and control between different characteristics of participants. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed separately for each group to explore the associations between participants' characteristics and dyslipidemia awareness, treatment and control. Among participants with dyslipidemia, 11.6% were aware of the diagnosis, 8.4% were receiving treatment, and 34.8% had dyslipidemia controlled. Increase in age and BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 were by far the strongest risk factors associated with better awareness and treatment of dyslipidemia. Retirees were more likely to be aware of their dyslipidemia condition (OR=1.255; 95% CI: 1.046, 1.506) and to be receiving treatment (OR=1.367; 95% CI: 1.114, 1.676) than manual workers. A family history of dyslipidemia increased the likelihood of awareness (OR=3.620; 95% CI: 2.816, 4.653) and treatment (OR=3.298; 95% CI: 2.488, 4.371) of dyslipidemia. Alcohol drinking and physical activity were associated with a lower level of awareness and treatment.Cigarette smokers (OR=0.501; 95% CI: 0.349, 0.719) and those with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (OR=0.480; 95% CI: 0.326, 0.706) who received treatment were also associated with poor dyslipidemia control. Our study highlights low levels of awareness, poor treatment and control of dyslipidemia among

  11. Dyslipidemia awareness, treatment, control and influence factors among adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In China, even though the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults increased yearly and dyslipidemia being an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among the Chinese population, however, the awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia are at low levels, and only limited studies on the influence factors associated with the awareness, treatment and control dyslipidemia in China have been carried out. Methods The analysis was based on a representative sample of 7138 adult subjects aged 18 ~ 79 years recruited from a cross-sectional study of chronic disease and risk factors among adults in the Jilin province in 2012. Chi-square test was used to compare the rates of dyslipidemia awareness, treatment and control between different characteristics of participants. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed separately for each group to explore the associations between participants’ characteristics and dyslipidemia awareness, treatment and control. Results Among participants with dyslipidemia, 11.6% were aware of the diagnosis, 8.4% were receiving treatment, and 34.8% had dyslipidemia controlled. Increase in age and BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 were by far the strongest risk factors associated with better awareness and treatment of dyslipidemia. Retirees were more likely to be aware of their dyslipidemia condition (OR = 1.255; 95% CI: 1.046, 1.506) and to be receiving treatment (OR = 1.367; 95% CI: 1.114, 1.676) than manual workers. A family history of dyslipidemia increased the likelihood of awareness (OR = 3.620; 95% CI: 2.816, 4.653) and treatment (OR = 3.298; 95% CI: 2.488, 4.371) of dyslipidemia. Alcohol drinking and physical activity were associated with a lower level of awareness and treatment. Cigarette smokers (OR = 0.501; 95% CI: 0.349, 0.719) and those with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (OR = 0.480; 95% CI: 0.326, 0.706) who received treatment were also associated with poor dyslipidemia control. Conclusion Our

  12. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  13. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  14. The Influence of Heat Treatment and Quencing Media at Bronze 80% Cu–20% Sn toward Fatique Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Istri Agung Sri Komaladewi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of the Balinese gamelan product rest on molding process which then continued with forging process, adjustment,and finally the finishing process. But still often to make the failure from this material like. The material become brokebecause heavy thing with the user processing (playing gambelan with continuity in the long time. The broke that happenfrom the heavy thing by the continuety that is called fatigue. At this examination the things that will be up is how much theheat treatment influence and the cooler thing with the fatigue life through the Reversed Bending process. By to variated theheat treatment and cooler thing to Bronze mixture 80%Cu and 20%Sn. This examination to aim at knowing the heattreatment influence and cooler thing at the composition of Bronze 80%Cu and 20%Sn about the fatigue life.The makingprocess of this things made by copper solution and the white Tin with the composition are 80%Cu and 20%Sn by variatedheat treatment and cooler media. The produce of this solution will print with the Reversed Bending speciment. Then thespeciment gift the heat treatment about 6500 C, 7000 C till 7500 C, and then the speciment keep cold by the water, oil and theair. The thing will be analize from the breach counture, Macro Structure and Micro Structure.The examination produceshowing the growing up at the fatigue life in the Bronze mixture 80%Cu - 20%Sn, From the heat treatment 6500 C, 7000 Cand 7500 C and become the drop age fatigue with the water cooler media with the age fatigue abaut 36621 cycle, and thefatigue by oil about 44975 cycle and the air cooler age fatigue about 55191 cycle. The inspection makro structure thebreach face colouring litle bit dark and the inspection mikro structure, the metal structure lool more bright.

  15. Thermal stresses in hexagonal materials - heat treatment influence on their mechanical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, D.; Freour, S.; Guillen, R.; Royer, J.; Francois, M.

    2004-01-01

    Internal stresses due to anisotropic thermal and plastic properties were investigated in rolled zirconium and titanium. The thermal stresses induced by a cooling process were predicted using a self-consistent model and compared with experimental results obtained by X-ray diffraction. The study of the elastoplastic response during uniaxial loading was performed along the rolling and the transverse direction of the sheet, considering the influence of the texture and the thermal stresses on the mechanical behaviour. An approach in order to determine the thermal behaviour of phases embedded in two-phase materials is also presented. For zirconium, the residual stresses due to thermal anisotropy are rather important (equivalent to 35% of the yield stress) and consequently they play an important role on the elastoplastic transition contrary to titanium. The study of two-phase material shows the influence and the interaction of the second phase on the thermal behaviour in the studied phase

  16. The influence of surface treatment on mass transfer between air and building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    for the experiments: gypsum board and calcium silicate. The wallpaper and paint were used as finishing materials. Impact of the following parameters for changes of RH was studied: coating, temperature and air movement. The measurements showed that acryl paint (diffusion open) can significantly decrease mass uptake......The processes of mass transfer between air and building structure and in the material influence not only the conditions within the material but also inside the connected air spaces. The material which absorbs and desorbs water vapour can be used to moderate the amplitude of indoor relative humidity...... and therefore to participate in the improvement of the indoor air quality and energy saving. Many parameters influence water vapour exchange between indoor air and building material. The aim of this work is to present the change of mass transfer under different climatic and material conditions. The measurements...

  17. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminova, Anna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Shelemin, Artem [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Effect of atmospheric pressure DBD plasma on PET foils was investigated. • DBD treatment causes increase in surface density of O-containing functional groups. • DBD plasma causes increase of wettability, roughness and complex modulus of PET. • DBD treatment positively influences cells growth on PET. • Enhancement of cell growth on treated PET depends on the cell type. - Abstract: In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  18. The Influence of Familial Predisposition to Cardiovascular Complications upon Childhood Obesity Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise A; Bøjsøe, Christine; Kloppenborg, Julie T

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to investigate whether a familial predisposition to obesity related cardiovascular complications was associated with the degree of obesity at baseline and/or changes in the degree of obesity during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. METHODS: The study...... included 1421 obese children (634 boys) with a median age of 11.5 years (range 3.1-17.9 years), enrolled in treatment for 0.04 to 5.90 years (median 1.3 years) at the Children's Obesity Clinic, Denmark. At baseline, weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS......) calculated, and self-reported information on familial predisposition to obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), thromboembolic events, and dyslipidaemia were obtained. A familial predisposition included events in biological parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, and aunts. The treatment...

  19. The influence of comorbid personality disorder and neuroticism on treatment outcome in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    setting were consecutively sampled from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The patients participated in an extensive interview including the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders and a detailed...... of antidepressant treatment, and (2) 2 trials of antidepressant treatment. Further personality traits were assessed by means of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. RESULTS: Among a total of 301 patients with a single depressive episode, 31.9% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for at least 1 personality disorder......BACKGROUND: It has never been investigated whether comorbid personality disorder or neuroticism predicts a poor treatment outcome in first episode depression. METHODS: Medically treated patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital...

  20. Influence of thermomechanical treatment on microstructure and properties of electroslag remelted Cu–Cr–Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermajani, M.; Raygan, Sh.; Hanayi, K.; Ghaffari, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of ESR process on microstructure of Cu–Cr–Zr alloy was investigated. • The hardness, strength and electrical conductivity are sensitive to thermomechanical treatment. • The microstructure of the alloy can be optimized for obtaining the best combination of mechanical and electrical properties. - Abstract: Effect of thermomechanical treatment (TMT) on aging behavior of electroslag remelted Cu–Cr–Zr alloy was investigated. The relationship between microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties was clarified using hardness, tensile and electrical conductivity testing methods and optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The results showed that an appropriate processing and aging treatment may improve the properties of the alloy due to the formation of fine, dispersive and coherent precipitates within the matrix. Indeed, the optimum condition for electrical conductivity and mechanical properties was obtained after cold working of 40% followed by aging at 500 °C for 150 min

  1. Influence of O2 plasma treatment on NiO x layer in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Yoshihiko; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Kazaoui, Said; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Yoshida, Yuji

    2018-04-01

    We fabricated perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with an inverted p-i-n planar structure using a NiO x film as a hole-transporting layer. Since the surface of the NiO x film fabricated by sputtering is hydrophobic, O2 plasma treatment under various conditions was performed to improve its wettability. Water contact angles after the treatment under both normal and weak conditions on the NiO x film reached approximately 15°. After the treatment, the valence band level of the NiO x film was deeper by about 0.15 eV. The maximum efficiency of the NiO x -based device under the optimized O2 plasma condition reached 12.3%.

  2. Influence of plasma treatment of carbon blacks on electrochemical activity of Pt/carbon blacks catalysts for DMFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok; Cho, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jae-Rock; Park, Soo-Jin

    In this work, in order to improve the dispersion of platinum catalysts deposited on carbon materials, the effects of surface plasma treatment of carbon blacks (CBs) were investigated. The surface characteristics of the CBs were determined by fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Boehm's titration method. The electrochemical properties of the plasma-treated CBs-supported Pt (Pt/CBs) catalysts were analyzed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) experiments. From the results of FT-IR and acid-base values, N 2-plasma treatment of the CBs at 300 W intensity led to a formation of a free radical on the CBs. The peak intensity increased with increase of the treatment time, due to the formation of new basic functional groups (such as C-N, C dbnd N, -NH 3 +, -NH, and dbnd NH) by the free radical on the CBs. Accordingly, the basic values were enhanced by the basic functional groups. However, after a specific reaction time, N 2-plasma treatment could hardly influence on change of the surface functional groups of CBs, due to the disappearance of free radical. Consequently, it was found that optimal treatment time was 30 s for the best electro activity of Pt/CBs catalysts and the N 2-plasma treated Pt/CBs possessed the better electrochemical properties than the pristine Pt/CBs.

  3. Factors influencing the treatment outcome for patients with T2N0 glottic carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Ichiro; Kanehira, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Masao; Aoki, Manabu; Takagi, Sayako; Shirahama, Jun; Honda, Chikara

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic factors affecting local outcomes for patients with T2N0 glottic carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy. A total of 48 patients with T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy between 1992 and 2005 were studied. Cumulative probability of overall survival, cause-specific survival, local control and larynx-preserving were calculated according the Kaplan-Meier method, and the prognostic significance of patient's age, number of subsites involved, impaired cord mobility, anterior commisure involved, total dose and overall treatment time were analyzed using the log-rank test in univariate analysis and Cox regression in multivariate analysis. Follow-up ranged from 13 to 141 months (median, 62 months). Five-year survivals were: overall, 95.3%; cause-specific, 97.9% and five years rates were local control, 61.4%; larynx-preserving, 76.4%. Multivariate analyses of the six parameters showed that overall treatment time significantly influenced the probability of local control, and impaired mobility and overall treatment time affected the probability of larynx-preserving. Our study showed that longer overall treatment time significantly worsened the percentage of local control and larynx-preserving for patients with T2N0 glottic carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy. Therefore, we suggest treating, the patients in a shorter treatment course. (author)

  4. The influence of the heat treatment on delta ferrite transformation in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mateša

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Shielded metal arc (SMAW welded specimens using austenitic consumable materials with different amount of delta-ferrite are annealed in range 650-750 °C through 2-10 hours. Factorial plan 33 with influenced factors regression analyze of measured delta-ferrite values is used. The transformation i.e. decomposition of delta ferrite during annealing was analyzed regarding on weld cracking resistance using metallographic examination and WRC-1992 diagram.

  5. The Statistic Test on Influence of Surface Treatment to Fatigue Lifetime with Limited Data

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartono, Agus

    2009-01-01

    Justifications on the influences of two or more parameters on fatigue strength are some times problematic due to the scatter nature of the fatigue data. Statistic test can facilitate the evaluation, whether the changes in material characteristics as a result of specific parameters of interest is significant. The statistic tests were applied to fatigue data of AISI 1045 steel specimens. The specimens are consisted of as received specimen, shot peened specimen with 15 and 16 Almen intensity as ...

  6. Influence of preliminary radiation-oxidizing treatment on the corrosion resistance of zirconium in conditions of action of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A. A.; Aliyev, A. G.; Agayev, T. N.; Velibekova, G. Z.

    2004-01-01

    Today mainly water-cooled nuclear reactors predominate in atomic energetics. For safe work of nuclear reactors detection of accumulation process of explosives, formed during radiation and temperature influence on heat-carriers in contact with materials of nuclear reactors in normal and emergency regimes of work is of great importance. The main sources of molecular hydrogen formation in normal and emergency regimes are the processes of liquid and vaporous water in vapo metallic reaction [1-5]. At the result of these processes molecular hydrogen concentration in heat-carrier composition always exceeds theoretically expected concentration. One of the main ways to solve the problem of water-cooled reactors safety is detection of possibilities to raise material resistance of fuel elements and heat carrier to joint action of ionizing radiation and temperature. The second way is inhibition of radiation-catalytic activity of construction materials' surface during the process of water decomposition. It's been established, that one of the ways to raise resistance of zirconium materials to the influence of ionizing radiation is formation of thin oxide film on the surface of metals. In the given work the influence of preliminary oxidizing treatment of zirconium surface on its radiation-catalytic activity during the process of water decomposition. With this aim zirconium is exposed to preliminary influence of gamma-quantum in contact with hydrogen peroxide at different meanings of absorbed radiation dose

  7. Influence of treatments on prognosis for vulvar lichen sclerosus: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodrick, Brooks; Belkin, Zoe R; Goldstein, Andrew T

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory dermatosis with a predilection for the anogential skin. Vulvar LS can be a debilitating disease, causing pruritus and pain, and it carries the potential for atrophy, scarring, and significant functional impairment. Recently, many advances have been made regarding the etiology and natural history of the disease process; however, much debate still exists regarding the most advantageous medical and surgical management of this disorder. In an effort to provide a comprehensive review on current vulvar LS literature, the following three controversies will be discussed: (1) optimal disease treatment, (2) theories behind LS's oncogenicity and treatments for minimizing malignancy, and (3) the value of surgical treatment for LS. Ultra-potent topical corticosteroids (TCSs) are the first-line treatment for vulvar LS, while topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) remain second-line agents for patients for whom TCS treatment resulted in incomplete resolution of symptoms or adverse events. Due to the relapsing nature of the disease, long-term maintenance therapy is often required. In addition, recent advances have contributed to the understanding of the association between LS and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). While the exact mechanism responsible for LS-associated SCC is not known, immune dysregulation and inflammation may play an important role; therefore, successful treatment of LS should be directed towards alleviation of symptoms and reversal of the underlying histopathologic changes. Patients with LS-associated malignancy, as well as patients who need correction of functionally restrictive, scarring processes, can successfully undergo surgical intervention with tissue conservation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.

  9. Influence of Biofield Energy Treatment on Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Aniline Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Gopal; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Trivedi, Dahryn; Branton, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated samples we...

  10. Influence of Biofield Energy Treatment on Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Aniline Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi , Mahendra Kumar; Branton , Alice; Trivedi , Dahryn; Nayak , Gopal; Saikia , Gunin; Jana , Snehasis

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment...

  11. Influence of Biofield Energy Treatment on Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Aniline Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra, Trivedi; Alice, Branton; Dahryn, Trivedi; Gopal, Nayak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi's biofield energy treatment. The treated samples we...

  12. Influence of ageing treatment on microstructure, mechanical and bio-corrosion properties of Mg-Dy alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Huang, Yuanding; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit, Regine; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Hort, Norbert

    2012-09-01

    Mg-Dy alloys have shown to be promising for medical applications. In order to investigate the influence of ageing treatment on their mechanical and corrosion properties, three Mg-xDy alloys (x=10, 15, 20 wt%) were prepared. Their microstructure, mechanical and corrosion behavior were investigated. The results indicate that ageing at 250 °C has little influence on the mechanical and corrosion properties. In contrast, ageing at 200 °C significantly increases the yield strength, and reduces the ductility. After ageing at 200 °C, the corrosion rate of Mg-20Dy alloy increases largely in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution, but remains unchanged in cell culture medium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of flow on the synergistic effect of an inhibitive mixture used for water treatment in cooling circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Nathalie; Pebere, Nadine; Moran, Francis; Tribollet, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    This work concerned an extensive study of the mechanism of inhibition of a carbon steel in a 200 mg l -1 NaCl solution by a non-toxic multicomponent inhibitor used for water treatment in cooling circuits. The inhibitive formulation was composed of 50 mg l -1 fatty amines associated with 200 mg l -1 phosphonocarboxylic acid salts. The influence of flow and immersion time was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with a rotating disc electrode. The results were dependent on the experimental protocol used. Equivalent circuits were used to fit the experimental data. The properties of the protective layer were dependent on the electrode rotation rate and on the immersion time. This behaviour was related to the influence of flow on the anodic kinetics. (authors)

  14. Influence of atmospheric pressure low-temperature plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between zirconia and resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuki; Okawa, Takahisa; Fukumoto, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Akiko; Tatsuta, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Takamasa; Tanaka, Junko; Tanaka, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia exhibits excellent strength and high biocompatibility in technological applications and it is has therefore been investigated for clinical applications and research. Before setting prostheses, a crown prosthesis inner surface is sandblasted with alumina to remove contaminants and form small cavities. This alumina sandblasting causes stress-induced phase transition of zirconia. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma has been applied in the dental industry, particularly for adhesives, as a surface treatment to activate the surface energy and remove contaminants. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between zirconia and adhesive resin cement. The surface treatment method was classified into three groups: untreated (Cont group), alumina sandblast treatment (Sb group), and atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment (Ps group). Adhesive resin cement was applied to stainless steel and bonded to zirconia. Shear adhesion tests were performed after complete hardening of the cement. Multiple comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni method. X-ray diffractometry was used to examine the change in zirconia crystal structure. Statistically significant differences were noted between the control and Sb groups and between the control and Ps groups. In contrast, no statistically significant differences were noted for the Ps and Sb bond strength. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment did not affect the zirconia crystal structure. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment improves the bonding strength of adhesive resin cement as effectively as alumina sandblasting, and does not alter the zirconia crystal structure. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. African American Families on Autism Diagnosis and Treatment: The Influence of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…

  16. Influence of adalimumab treatment on anastomotic strength, degree of inflammation, and collagen formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Andersen, Kristian; Hansen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    Adalimumab is a TNF-α inhibitor, which has gained wide use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. The potential detrimental effect of TNF-α inhibitors on postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single...

  17. Influence of chemical treatment on the tensile properties of kenaf fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. El-Shekeil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of polymeric Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (pMDI chemical treatment on kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU/KF was examined using two different procedures. The first consisted of treating the fibers with 4% pMDI, and the second involved 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI. The composites were characterized according to their tensile properties, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The treatment of the composite with 4% pMDI did not significantly affect its tensile properties, but the treatment with 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI significantly increased the tensile properties of the composite (i.e., 30 and 42% increases in the tensile strength and modulus, respectively. FTIR also showed that treatment with 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI led to the strongest H-bonding. Additionally, the surface morphology of specimens after tensile fracture confirmed that the composite treated with 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI had the best adhesion and wettability.

  18. Influence of source batch Sk dispersion on dosimetry for prostate cancer treatment with permanent implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez-Cumplido, Eduardo; Perez-Calatayud, J; Casares-Magaz, O

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In clinical practice, specific air kerma strength (SK) value is used in treatment planning system (TPS) permanent brachytherapy implant calculations with (125)I and (103)Pd sources; in fact, commercial TPS provide only one SK input value for all implanted sources and the certified shipment...

  19. Residue age and tree attractiveness influence efficacy of insecticide treatments against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on treatments of insecticides to prevent beetles from boring into trees emitting stress-induced ethanol. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is warranted to gauge the duration that trees ...

  20. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prysiazhnyi, V.; Slavíček, P.; Mikmeková, Eliška; Klíma, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2016), s. 430-437 ISSN 1009-0630 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : atmospheric pressure plasma * plasma jet * aluminium * surface treatment * surface processing * chemical precleaning Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2016

  1. The influence of temperature, light, salinity and seed pre-treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment of seeds in hot water, sulphuric acid or calcium sulphate had only minor effect on germination rate. The results are consistent with S. sesban being an opportunistic tropical wetland species capable of establishing itself in a wide range ...

  2. Social influences on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J M; Hilkens, A; Zoche-Golob, V; Krömker, V; Buddiger, M; Jansen, J; Lam, T J G M

    Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis treatment

  3. Influence of treatment with radioiodine and propylthiouracil on thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, K.; Nistrup Madsen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (TSAb) were measured in fifty-four patients with Graves' disease before treatment with either radioiodine (seventeen patients) or propylthiouracil (PTU) (thirty-seven patients) and followed during treatment. After radioiodine TSAb increased to levels exceeding pretreatment values, and became detectable in three of six originally TSAb negative patients. In most patients TSAb decreased during treatment with PTU, and became undetectable after a mean of 12 months in patients above 40 years, and after a mean of 6 months in patients below 40 years. In order to eliminate the presumed causative agent in Graves' disease, antithyroid treatment should be at least 18 months in patients above 40 years, and at least 12 months in patients below 40 years of age. In twenty-nine patients TSAb were measured at cessation of 2 years antithyroid drug therapy. Ten patients were TSAb positive and all except one relapsed. Five of nineteen TSAb negative patients relapsed. Although TSAb positivity predicts relapse, it is not an ideal index of prognosis after antithyroid therapy. (author)

  4. Musical Auditory Stimulation Influences Heart Rate Autonomic Responses to Endodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Drumond Ramos Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the acute effect of musical auditory stimulation on heart rate autonomic regulation during endodontic treatment. The study included 50 subjects from either gender between 18 and 40 years old, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis of the upper front teeth and endodontic treatment indication. HRV was recorded 10 minutes before (T1, during (T2, and immediately (T3 and T4 after endodontic treatment. The volunteers were randomly divided into two equal groups: exposed to music (during T2, T3, and T4 or not. We found no difference regarding salivary cortisol and anxiety score. In the group with musical stimulation heart rate decreased in T3 compared to T1 and mean RR interval increased in T2 and T3 compared to T1. SDNN and TINN indices decreased in T3 compared to T4, the RMSSD and SD1 increased in T4 compared to T1, the SD2 increased compared to T3, and LF (low frequency band increased in T4 compared to T1 and T3. In the control group, only RMSSD and SD1 increased in T3 compared to T1. Musical auditory stimulation enhanced heart rate autonomic modulation during endodontic treatment.

  5. Influence of the curve density relative electron in dosimetry clinic in treatments stereo tactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Casado Villalon, F. J.; Parra Osorio, V.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Garcia Pareja, S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the difference between clinical dosimetry in the treatments with radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy fractional obtained from the relative Electron density curve (Schneider 1996) tabulated and provided with the scanner's radiation therapy. (Author)

  6. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V.; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  7. Do different methods of modeling statin treatment effectiveness influence the optimal decision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.H. van Kempen (Bob); B.S. Ferket (Bart); A. Hofman (Albert); S. Spronk (Sandra); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. Modeling studies that evaluate statin treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) use different methods to model the effect of statins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using different modeling methods on the optimal decision found in such

  8. The Influence of Post Bleaching Treatments in Stain Absorption and Microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Horieh; Darvishzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of post bleaching treatments to prevent restaining and the change of enamel surface microhardness after dental bleaching in vitro. Sixty intact human incisor teeth were stained in tea solution and randomly assigned into four groups (n=15). Then samples were bleached for two weeks (8 hours daily) by 15% carbamide peroxide. Tooth color was determined both with a spectrophotometer and visually before bleaching (T1) and immediately after bleaching (T2). Next, it was applied in group 1 fluoride (Naf 2%) gel for 2 minutes, and in group 2 a fractional CO2 laser (10 mJ, 200 Hz, 10 s), and in group 3, nanohydroxyapatite gel for 2 minutes. The bleached teeth in group 4 remained untreated (control group). Then teeth placed in tea solution again. Color examinations were repeated after various post bleaching treatments (T3) and restaining with tea (T4) and color change values recorded. The microhardness was measured at the enamel surface of samples. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey HSD test and Dunnett T3 (α = 0.05). Directly after bleaching (ΔE T3-T2), the treatment with nanohydroxyapatite showed significantly the least color lapse in colorimetric evaluation. In experimental groups, the color change between T3 and T4 stages (ΔE T4-T3) was significantly lower than control group (P bleaching treatments are suggested for prevention of stain absorption and increasing the hardening of bleached enamel.

  9. Examining the Influence of Treatment Integrity: Accuracy of Daily Report Card Intervention Implementation and Student Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujnovic, Rebecca Kate

    2010-01-01

    Given the deficits associated with ADHD and the significant prevalence, it is important to explore evidence based treatments for ADHD in the classroom and the efficacy with which the classroom teachers implement such interventions. The current investigation is a secondary analysis to investigate the integrity of a Daily Report Card (DRC)…

  10. Can treatment with statins have a negative influence on the tolerance of mandibular advancement devices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mónica; Macias-Escalada, Emilio; Cobo, Juan; Fernández Mondragón, Maria Pilar; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Martínez-Martínez, Marian; de Carlos, Felix

    2016-12-01

    Statins are considered the most effective drugs used in the treatment of dyslipidemias. Some of their adverse effects are related to muscle problems. Myalgias produced by statins appear more often during exercise. Mandibular advancement devices (MAD) force the propulsory and elevatory musculature of the mandible to exercise by making the jaw move forward. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of muscular side effects (referred, spontaneous, or under palpation pain, myofascial pain, mandibular rigidity and fatigue, tension and sensitivity of the masticatory muscles) in a group of patients with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea being treated with MAD. This was a prospective study, involving consecutively 104 patients with a diagnosis of OSAS, and who had begun treatment with a custom made oral device. Muscular side effects were collected by anamnesis (verbal request and questionnaires), psychological status and clinical assessment (manual muscle palpation in the masticatory and cervical muscle groups), before and during MAD treatment. Of the total sample, 22.1 % presented muscular side effects with the oral device. However, in patients taking statins, this percentage was 57.1 %, as opposed to 16.7 % of the non-statins patients (p statin patients (odds ratio 6.67, p = 0.002). Treatment with statins can give rise to the appearance of undesirable side effects among patients being treated with oral devices.

  11. Are pre-treatment psychological characteristics influenced by pre-surgical orthodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, S J; Gilthorpe, M S; Hunt, N P

    2001-12-01

    A number of investigations have looked at psychological changes occurring in association with orthognathic treatment. However, most of these studies have used a pre-surgery questionnaire as the baseline measurement. There is little data relating to the true baseline, i.e. that prior to any active treatment. Until this aspect is investigated, it is not possible to assume that pre-surgery is an acceptable baseline. This questionnaire based study aimed to assess changes in six psychological outcome measures between T1 (prior to any active treatment) and T2 (following pre-surgical orthodontics/prior to surgery). The outcome variables were: state anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image, and facial body image. Sixty-two patients (39 females and 23 males) completed both questionnaires. The results showed that intervention, in the form of orthodontic treatment, had a minimal effect on the chosen psychometric outcome variables. There was a significant reduction in satisfaction with body image amongst patients who initially reported mild to moderate dental/facial problems, whilst a moderate increase in satisfaction occurred in those patients reporting severe conditions initially. Also of note were significant increases in state anxiety amongst older patients whilst trait anxiety showed greater increases in females than males.

  12. Influence of long-term treatment with glyceryl trinitrate on remote ischemic conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerslev, Marie; Mørk, Sivagowry Rasalingam; Pryds, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) protects against sustained myocardial ischemia. Due to overlapping mechanisms this protection may be altered by glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), which is commonly used in the treatment of patients with chronic ischemic heart disease. We investigated whether long-term ...

  13. Investigation on the influence of pre-treatments on drying behaviour of broccoli by MRI experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows the monitoring of internal moisture content of food products during drying non-destructively. In an experimental set-up with continuous and controlled hot air supply, the internal moisture distribution of broccoli with different pre-treatments are

  14. Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouyaté Bocar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly influence treatment and choice of provider. Local concepts of illness need to be considered when developing specific malaria control programmes.

  15. The main factors influencing canine demodicosis treatment outcome and determination of optimal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenović, Milica; Pezo, Lato; Vasić, Nebojša; Ćirić, Rodoljub; Stefanović, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The main idea of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of canine demodicosis conventional treatments using mathematical analyses. All available papers published between 1980 and 2014 were used in this study. One hundred six clinical trials enrolling 3414 cases of generalized demodicosis in dogs are studied. Dogs entered in the analysis were only the ones in which the disease occurred naturally, excluding the studies in which transplantation of Demodex canis mites was done from other animals. In conventional acaricide treatments, sorted according to active substances (moxidectin, amitraz, doramectin, ivermectin, and milbemycin oxime), the way of application (spot-on, dips, orally, or subcutaneous), concentration, and interval of application were used as input parameters in mathematical modeling. Data of interest were the treatment outcome, the number of dogs that went into remission, the number of animals not responding to treatment microscopically, the average duration of therapy, the follow-up period, the number of patients with disease recurrence, the number of adverse effects, and the number of animals with side effects. Dogs lost to follow-up or when the treatment was discontinued, due to various reasons not in connection with the therapy protocol, were not considered. Statistical and mathematical analyses were applied for prediction of the drugs' effectiveness. Developed mathematical models showed satisfactorily r (2), higher than 0.87. Good evidence for recommending the use of milbemycin oxime PO (0.5 mg/kg, daily) and moxidectin spot-on (Advocate®, Bayer) weekly is found. A bit less effective therapies were based on ivermectin PO (0.5 mg/kg, daily), moxidectin PO (0.35 mg/kg, daily), and amitraz dips (0.05 % solution, weekly), respectively. It is important to keep in mind that Advocate® is recommended by the manufacturer for use in milder cases.

  16. Influence of acute treatment with sibutramine on the sympathetic neurotransmission of the young rat vas deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Bruno Palmieri; da Silva, Edilson Dantas; Jurkiewicz, Aron; Jurkiewicz, Neide Hyppolito

    2014-09-05

    The effects of acute treatment with sibutramine on the peripheral sympathetic neurotransmission in vas deferens of young rats were still not evaluated. Therefore, we carried out this study in order to verify the effects of acute sibutramine treatment on the neuronal- and exogenous agonist-induced contractions of the young rat vas deferens. Young 45-day-old male Wistar rats were pretreated with sibutramine 6 mg/kg and after 4h the vas deferens was used for experiment. The acute treatment with sibutramine was able to increase the potency (pD2) of noradrenaline and phenylephrine. Moreover, the efficacy (Emax) of noradrenaline was increased while the efficacy of serotonin and nicotine were decreased. The maximum effect induced by a single concentration of tyramine was diminished in the vas deferens from treated group. Moreover, the leftward shift of the noradrenaline curves promoted by uptake blockers (cocaine and corticosterone) and β-adrenoceptor antagonist (propranolol) was reduced in the vas deferens of treated group. The initial phasic and secondary tonic components of the neuronal-evoked contractions of vas deferens from treated group at the frequencies of 2 Hz were decreased. Moreover, only the initial phasic component at 5 Hz was diminished by the acute treatment with sibutramine. In conclusion, we showed that the acute treatment with sibutramine in young rats was able to affect the peripheral sympathetic nervous system by inhibition of noradrenaline uptake and reduction of the neuronal content of this neurotransmitter, leading to an enhancement of vas deferens sensitivity to noradrenaline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. INFLUENCE ОF MODIFIER THERMAL TREATMENT ОN CHARACTERISTICS ОF COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivashko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results that reveal influence of modifiers characterized by different nature and composition and subjected to heat treatment on operational characteristics of single and binary compositions. Interaction between dispersed clay particles and dependence of  coating properties on  their mass content in oligomeric and polymeric matrices have been justified in the paper. The paper contains data that prove an increase of coating hardness by 15–20 %. The coating composition includes thermally-treated dispersed clay particles.

  18. Evaluation of the influence of different heat-treatment methods on fatty acids content particulary trans isomers in french fries

    OpenAIRE

    Mojska, H.; Malecka, K.; Gielecinska, I.; Sitek, A.; Pawlicka, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment methods on trans fatty acids content in French fries. French fries were heat-treated by using a deep fryer, a frying pan, an oven and a microwave. The fatty acids content was analyzed by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography using MS detector (GC/MS). The highest increase in fat was determined in French fries prepared in deep fryer in comparison to raw French fries, whereas the lowest by using oven and micro...

  19. Factors which influence on force of boxers` and footballers` shots on the stage of base pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitenko S.A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available On the stage of base pre-treatment factors which influence on force of shots the hands of boxers and feet of footballers as a criterion of competition activity efficiency are certain. Connections are certain between force of shots by hands and feet. The objective test of the specialized sense determination of boxers` and footballers` shots is offered. It is recommended to develop maximal and explosive force of all parts of sportsman body at implementation preparatory exercises with the further transfer of physical qualities on implementation of the special exercises.

  20. Does Gender Influence Colour Choice in the Treatment of Visual Stress?

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Miriam L.; Evans, Bruce J. W.; Evans, Josephine C.; Suttle, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud Visual Stress (VS) is a condition in which words appear blurred, in motion, or otherwise distorted when reading. Some people diagnosed with VS find that viewing black text on white paper through coloured overlays or precision tinted lenses (PTLs) reduces symptoms attributed to VS. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the choice of colour of overlays or PTLs is influenced by a patient’s gender.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud Records of all patients attending a VS assessment in tw...

  1. Influence of single and combination treatments of physical and chemical mutagen on chlorophyll mutations in Finger Millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Binod; Mahto, Jaylal; Haider, Z.A.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma rays, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and their combined treatments influenced differently in producing chlorophyll mutations. A good number of chlorophyll mutants with varied frequencies were recorded in M 2 generation. The frequency of chlorophyll mutants was higher at lower doses of gamma rays, EMS and their combination treatments. The most frequently observed mutant was Albino type. The other chlorophyll mutants isolated were Xantha, Viridis, Striata and Tigrina. The frequency of tigrina and striata was lowest in variety A-404 and Hr-374, respectively. The efficiency and effectiveness was high at the lower doses of mutagens in both the varieties. EMS (0.2%) was more effective than the corresponding lower dose of gamma rays for both the varieties. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Influence of surface treatment of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal with hot isostatic pressing on cyclic fatigue strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Toshihiko; Homma, Shinya; Sekine, Hideshi; Sasaki, Hodaka; Yajima, Yasutomo; Yoshinari, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Hot isostatic pressing processed yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (HIP Y-TZP) has the potential for application to implants due to its high mechanical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of surface treatment of HIP Y-TZP on cyclic fatigue strength. HIP Y-TZP specimens were subjected to different surface treatments. Biaxial flexural strength was determined by both static and cyclic fatigue testing. In the cyclic fatigue test, the load was applied at a frequency of 10 Hz for 10(6) cycles in distilled water at 37°C. The surface morphology, roughness, and crystal phase of the surfaces were also evaluated. The cyclic fatigue strength (888 MPa) of HIP Y-TZP with sandblasting and acid-etching was more than twice that of Y-TZP as specified in ISO 13356 for surgical implants (320 MPa), indicating the clinical potential of this material.

  3. The influence of a aging thermal treatment on the mechanical properties of 6061 T6 and 6063 T5 aluminums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohorquez, A.C.; Sierra C, M; Lemus, J

    2010-01-01

    Because of its light weight and its good mechanical properties, aluminum alloys have been used traditionally in the production of structural airplane components and car parts. Aluminum alloys with magnesium-silicon (Al-Mg-Si), 6XXX series, respond acceptably to the aging thermal treatment; because the magnesium and silicon permit precipitation hardening, which significantly changes the mechanical properties of this alloy. Two aluminums were selected for this study: 6061 T6 and 6063 T5, which were thermally treated at 120 o C, 150 o C and 180 o C for 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours with later quenching in water. An experimental design established the number of test specimens needed to analyze the phenomena. Later, tension tests were developed to verify the property changes undergone during the thermal treatment. The results are presented in performance graphs that show the influence of time and temperature on the mechanical properties of the chosen aluminums

  4. "Who can you tell?" Features of Arab culture that influence conceptualization and treatment of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L; Alyan, Hala

    2013-01-01

    The literature on child sexual abuse reflects growing recognition of the manner in which culture impacts the conceptualization, experience, and treatment of such cases. Despite heightened visibility of Arab Americans within the United States, population due to recent media attention, little empirical research exists on the occurrence of child sexual abuse within this population. Arab culture is often characterized by an emphasis on collectivism and familial obligations, and such features may prove to either facilitate or impede assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse, depending on how they are manifested. In terms of reporting child sexual abuse, cultural values pertaining to shame and honor as well as the stigma attached to mental health problems may influence the response to abuse. As such, enhancing the cultural competence of the therapist is key to facilitating effective cultural practice. Empirical research is required to investigate and substantiate these concepts as they relate to child sexual abuse in Arab-American populations.

  5. Influence of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation pre-treatment on rheological characteristics of wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T T H; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation as physico-chemical pre-treatment processes on the change of rheology of wastewater sludge was investigated in this study. Pre-treated and raw sludges displayed non-Newtonian rheological behaviour with shear thinning as well as thixotropic properties for total solids ranging from 10 g/L to 40 g/L. The rheological models, namely, Bingham plastic, Casson law, NCA/CMA Casson, IPC Paste, and power law were also studied to characterize flow of raw and pre-treated sludges. Among all rheological models, the power law was more prominent in describing the rheology of the sludges. Pre-treatment processes resulted in a decrease in pseudoplasticity of sludge due to the decrease in consistency index K varying from 42.4 to 1188, 25.6 to 620.4 and 52.5 to 317.9; and increase in flow behaviour index n changing from 0.5 to 0.35, 0.62 to 0.55 and 0.63 to 0.58, for RS, UlS and FS, respectively at solids concentration 10-40 g/L. The correlation between improvement of biodegradability and dewaterability, decrease in viscosity, and change in particle size as a function of sludge pre-treatment process was also investigated. Fenton oxidation facilitated sludge filterability resulting in capillary suction time values which were approximately 50% of the raw sludges, whereas ultrasonication with high input energy deteriorated the filterability. Biodegradability was also enhanced by the pre-treatment processes and the maximum value was obtained (64%, 77% and 73% for raw, ultrasonicated and Fenton oxidized sludges, respectively) at total solids concentration of 25 g/L. Hence, pre-treatment of wastewater sludge modified the rheological properties so that: (1) the flowability of sludge was improved for transport through the treatment train (via pipes and pumps); (2) the dewaterability of wastewater sludge was enhanced for eventual disposal and; (3) the assimilation of nutrients by microorganisms for further value-addition was increased.

  6. The influence of ceramic surface treatments on the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to IPS Empress 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panah, Faride Gerami; Rezai, Sosan Mir Mohammad; Ahmadian, Leila

    2008-07-01

    An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in the development of new ceramic systems, but fracture of veneering ceramics still remains the primary cause of failure. Porcelain repair frequently involves replacement with composite resin, but the bond strength between composite resin and all-ceramic coping materials has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different ceramic surface treatments on the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to IPS Empress 2 coping material. Sixteen 7 x 7 x 1 mm(3) lithia disilicate-based core ceramic plates were fabricated using the lost wax technique. The plates were divided into eight groups, and eight different surface treatments were performed: (1) no treatment (NT); (2) airborne-particle abrasion with 50-mum alumina particles (Al); (3) acid etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid for 1 min (HF); (4) silane coating (S); (5) AlHF; (6) AlS; (7) HFS; and (8) AlHFS. Then, ten composite resin cylinders (0.8-mm diameter x 0.5-mm height) were light-polymerized onto the ceramic plates in each group. Each specimen was subjected to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. The fracture sites were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the location of failure during debonding and to examine the surface treatment effects. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison (Dunnet T3) tests were used for statistical analysis of data. The mean micro-shear bond strength values (SD) in MPa were--NT: 4.10 (3.06), Al: 7.56 (4.11), HF: 14.04 (2.60), S: 14.58 (2.14), AlHF: 15.56 (3.36), AlS: 23.02 (4.17), HFS: 24.7 (4.43), AlHFS: 26.0 (3.71). ANOVA indicated the influence of surface treatment was significant (p Empress 2 was significantly different depending on the surface treatment method. Among the investigated methods, silane coating after airborne-particle abrasion and etching was the most effective surface treatment

  7. Yield of Potato as Influenced by Crop Sanitation and Reduced Fungicidal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop sanitation and reduced sprays of "Ridomil plus®" (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide on the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in two field experiments in 1993 in Dschang, Cameroon. In the first experiment, sanitation (five weekly removals of blighted leaves and two fungicidal treatments were initiated from first symptoms. In the second experiment, both fungicidal sprays were made at varying rates. Marketable yields increased by 50 % in sanitation-treated plots, by 94 % in plots sprayed with Ridomil plus (2.24 kg a. i./ha, or by 55 % in those exposed to both control methods. The fungicide equivalence of the sanitation treatment was two sprays of Ridomil plus at 0.76 kg a. i./ha. These results suggest that proper removal of diseased leaves or reduced fungicidal protection may be an effective late blight control method in potato farming.

  8. Influence of isothermal thermomechanical treatment on structure and properties of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.A.; Kaletin, A.Yu.; Schastlivthev, V.M.; Kaletina, Yu.V.

    1997-01-01

    A study is made into the structure and mechanical properties of steel 35KhGSA and 37KhN3A after isothermal hardening resulting in bainitic structure formation as well as after low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTTMT) combining the plastic deformation at the temperature of bainitic transformation and subsequent isothermal hardening. It is shown that LTTMT permits and essential enhancement of strength properties in steel 35KhGSA, high plasticity and impact strength being reserved. This is associated with bainitic structure refinement. In steel 37KhN3A the process of carbide formation takes place along with bainitic transformation, and LTTMT results in lesser strengthening. LTTMT is fount to not practically affect the tendency of structural steels to bainitic brittleness. This treatment promotes some shift of brittleness manifestation to lower temperatures

  9. Influence of turning Treatments on Al6061 by Offline Inspection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annigeri, Ulhas K.; Sandeep, K. L. G.; Prasanna Chaitanya, M.; Sairam Varma, G.; Datta, B. Arun

    2018-02-01

    Aluminium is mostly extracted from bauxite and is frequently being utilised in the manufacture of sea, land and air vehicles. Since, it has the merit of resistance to corrosion it is frequently being used in sea vehicles. Another outstanding merit of aluminium is its weight which is very less compared to other ferrous materials. In our study, we have selected Al6061 as the material and based on full factorial design the surface roughness has been observed with three base parameters speed, feed and depth of cut. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the surface roughness and also the dominant factor affecting the turning process has been determined. The plots such as main effects, interaction and Pareto chart have been analysed to give an effective conclusion to the process followed in the study. The purpose of these experiments to compare the effect of process treatments in all possible pairs to select the best treatment to the process has been done satisfactorily.

  10. Morphological, biochemical and genetic influence of mutagen treatments on medicinal plant tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onisei, T.; Toth, E.; Tesio, B.; Floria, F.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma rays and/or alkylant agents have been applied on callus tissue, young regenerants and cell suspension in order to establish their effect on morphogenesis, regeneration ability and biosynthetic potential. Growth dynamics, morpho-anatomic variables, secondary metabolite production, cell cytogenetics, enzyme specific activities, isoperoxidase and isoesterase patterns were analyzed in relation to the morphogenetic response of Atropa belladonna, Datura innoxia, Lavandula angustifolia, Chamomilla recutita, Digitalis lanata and Vinca minor tissue cultures. The effects of gamma-ray doses varied from one species to another; 10 to 20 Gy were generally able to stimulate growth and plant regeneration (via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis), while 10 to 50 Gy enhanced secondary metabolite biosynthesis both in callus and cell suspension culture. Semnificative increase of secondary metabolite production was obtained when treatments with EMS (0.1-0.2%) have been applied to young regenerants. Many differences in biological features and biochemical behaviour were registered 20 days and one year, respectively, after treatment. (author)

  11. Influence of deep cryogenic treatment on structure and wear resistance of materials of hydraulic breaker chisels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolobov, V. I.; BinhLe, Thanh

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that shallow cryogenic treatment at -75°C (SCT) of the materials of hydraulic breaker chisels - P20, 1080 and D2 steels leads to a decrease (44 ÷ 82%) in the amount of retained austenite and an increase (26 ÷ 99%) in the amount of carbides in the structure of hardened steel, which is accompanied by an increase in its hardness (1.4 ÷ 2.1%) and abrasive wear resistance (10 ÷ 31%) with a simultaneous decrease in impact toughness (19 ÷ 24%). Deep cryogenic treatment at -196°C (DCT) and subsequent low-temperature tempering of D2 steel leads to a significant increase in its wear resistance (98%) and impact toughness (32%).

  12. Diazepam reduces excitability of amygdala and further influences auditory cortex following sodium salicylate treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Liu, Junxiu; Ma, Furong; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-12-01

    Diazepam can reduce the excitability of lateral amygdala and eventually suppress the excitability of the auditory cortex in rats following salicylate treatment, indicating the regulating effect of lateral amygdala to the auditory cortex in the tinnitus procedure. To study the spontaneous firing rates (SFR) of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala regulated by diazepam in the tinnitus rat model induced by sodium salicylate. This study first created a tinnitus rat modal induced by sodium salicylate, and recorded SFR of both auditory cortex and lateral amygdala. Then diazepam was intraperitoneally injected and the SFR changes of lateral amygdala recorded. Finally, diazepam was microinjected on lateral amygdala and the SFR changes of the auditory cortex recorded. Both SFRs of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala increased after salicylate treatment. SFR of lateral amygdala decreased after intraperitoneal injection of diazepam. Microinjecting diazepam to lateral amygdala decreased SFR of the auditory cortex ipsilaterally and contralaterally.

  13. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the peak pressure in the process of dust-cleaning. The pressure of filter bag was increased as the dust layers were thickened. The higher temperature in filtration rose the peak pressure of filter bag, but decreased the rate of rising.

  14. Influence of pulsed electron beam treatment on microstructure and properties of TA15 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yukui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The hardness changes were determined by nanoindention method. ► The surface modification by pulsed electron beam treatment was investigated. ► The mechanism was analyzed based on XRD and TEM investigations. ► The modification effects were focused at the surface layer hardness. - Abstract: The surface of TA15 titanium alloy was modified by pulsed electron beam and the hardness distribution along the treated surface layer was investigated by nanoindent technology. The grade characteristics were therefore analyzed by studying the distribution of hardness along surface layer of specimens. Moreover, the microstructure was investigated by OM, XRD and TEM techniques. Furthermore, the correlation of hardness to microstructure was analyzed. The results show that the grade fine grain microstructure is formed in the upper surface layer and the temperature grade or heat effect caused by pulsed electron beam treatment is the main reason to form grade fine grain microstructure in the surface layer.

  15. The influence of heat treatments on several types of base-metal removable partial denture alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, H F; Asgar, K; Rowe, A P; Nasjleti, C E

    1979-04-01

    Four removable partial denture alloys, Vitallium (Co-Cr alloy), Dentillium P.D. (Fe-Cr alloy), Durallium L.G. (Co-Cr-Ni alloy), and Ticonium 100 (Ni-Cr alloy), were evaluated in the as-cast condition and after heat treatment for 15 minutes at 1,300 degrees, 1,600 degrees, 1,900 degrees, and 2,200 degrees F followed by quenching in water. The following properties were determined and compared for each alloy at each heat treatment condition: the yield strengths at 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.2% offsets, the ultimate tensile strength, the percent elongation, the modulus of elasticity, and the Knoop microhardness. The results were statistically analyzed. Photomicrographs were examined for each alloy and test condition. The following conclusions were made: 1. The "highest values" were exhibited by the as-cast alloy. 2. Heat treatment of the partial denture alloys tested resulted in reductions in strength, while the elongations varied. This study demonstrates that, in practice, one should avoid (a) prolonged "heat-soaking" while soldering and (b) grinding or polishing of the casting until the alloy is "red hot". 3. Durallium L.G. was the least affected by the various heat treatment conditions. 4. Conventional reporting of the yield strength at 0.2% offset, the ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation are not adequate to completely describe and compare the mechanical behavior of alloys. The reporting of the yield strength at 0.01% offset, in addition to the other reported properties, will provide a more complete description of the behavior of the dental alloys.

  16. NDMA formation during drinking water treatment: A multivariate analysis of factors influencing formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey-Roback, Shannon L; Sugar, Catherine A; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, Irwin H Mel

    2016-05-15

    The formation of the carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during drinking water treatment has raised concerns in the drinking water industry. Many bench-scale laboratory tests and pilot plant studies have been completed to try to determine which factors during water treatment increase or decrease the amount of NDMA formed in drinking water. This study used data from over 20 drinking water treatment plants in the United States and Canada to determine which factors are most highly correlated with the NDMA concentration in delivered water using a mixed effects model with a random intercept. This type of analysis has not been used previously with trihalomethane (THM) models due to the fact that those studies did not sample such a large number and range of plants as was done in this NDMA study. Ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) in the plant influent and pre-chlorination time used at the plant were highly correlated in all models with NDMA concentration in finished water as well as the percentage change between NDMA formation potential in the plant influent and actual formation in the finished water. Specifically, an increase in UV254 absorbance in a model was associated with an increase in NDMA and an increase in pre-chlorination time in a model was associated with a decrease in NDMA. Other water quality parameters including sucralose concentration in the plant influent, polyDADMAC polymer dose, pH, and chlorine-to-ammonia weight ratio used in the plant were also correlated with NDMA concentration in the distribution system. Lastly, NDMA precursor loading was correlated with the use of polyDADMAC (where precursors were added) and the use of ozone and granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment (where precursors were removed). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of domestic and industrial treatment of food on Cs 137 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.C.; Monte, L.

    1988-01-01

    The environmental contamination due to the Chernobyl accident offers a large amount of data concerning the radioactive contamination of human food-chain. Using those data a research is being carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some radionuclides in food subjected to technological or domestic treatment. In this paper the authors discuss the consequences on the content of Cs-137 a) of domestic cooking of alimentary ''pasta'', b) of wheat milling, c) of milk coagulation to produce cheese

  18. Extended antibiotic treatment of persistent bovine mastitis during lactation : Efficacy, economics and social influences

    OpenAIRE

    Swinkels, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder caused by bacteria that invade the udder through the teat canal, causing either persistent intramammary infections, or short, transient infections. Mastitis is the most costly disease on a dairy farm because it directly affects the production of milk, the primary source of income for the dairy farmer. Mastitis can be visible (clinical mastitis) or invisible (subclinical mastitis). A large proportion of farmers repeats antibiotic treatment after initial...

  19. [The Influence of Runoff Pollution to DOM Features in an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Ji, Fang-ying; Lai, Ming-sheng; Xu, Xuan; Zhou, Wei-wei; Mao, Bo-lin; Yang, Ming-jia

    2015-03-01

    Combined with wastewater treatment process, the sewage in sunny and rainy day was collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was used to investigate the characteristic fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), fluorescence index (ƒ450/500) and fluorescence intensity ratio γ (A, C) of fulvic acid in ultraviolet and visible region were used to analyze the impact of rain runoff pollution on sewage DOM. According to the experimental data, the DOM fluorescence fingerprints of this wastewater treatment plant were quite different from typical municipal sewage, and the main component was tryptophan with low excitation wavelength (Peak S), then the tryptophan with long wavelength excitation (Peak T) followed. A2/O process had an approximative degradation of the protein-like both in sunny day and rainy day, but had a better degradation of fulvic-like, DOC and COD in rainy day than that in sunny day. Morever, the fluorescence peaks got red-shifted after the biological treatment. The differences of DOM fluorescence fingerprint between sunny and rainy day were significant, the fluorescence center of UV fulvic (Peak A) in rainy day getting blue-shifted obviously, shifting from 240 - 248/390 - 440 to 240 - 250/370 - 400 nm. Although the DOM types in sunny and rainy day were the same, the source of fulvic got more complex by runoff and the component ratio of DOM also changed. Compared with the sunny day, the proportion of Peak S in DOM dereased by 10%, and the proportion of Peak A increased by 7% in rainy day.

  20. Factors influencing treatment decision-making for maintaining or extracting compromised teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Hua, Bich Hue; McGrath, Colman P J; Lo, Edward C M; Lang, Niklaus P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate treatment decision-making with respect to maintaining periodontally compromised teeth among dentists with or without postgraduate qualifications in implant dentistry. A series of patient scenarios with varying degrees of periodontal disease levels was presented to dental practitioners. Practitioners' decision-making outcome was determined, and intention to retain the compromised teeth was analyzed in bivariate and regression analyses (accounting for postgraduate implant training, gender, years in dental practice, and implant placement experience). This study involved 30 dental practitioners with postgraduate implant qualifications (GDPP), 33 dental practitioners without postgraduate implant qualifications (GDP), and 27 practitioners undergoing training for postgraduate implant qualifications (GDPT). Variations in treatment decision-making were evident between the three groups. Differences in treatment approaches to retaining compromised teeth were apparent. Furthermore, variations in rehabilitation of extracted scenarios existed in terms of use of implant and number of implants need for rehabilitation. Accounting for dentist and practice factors in regression analyses, GDPP/GDPT were three times as likely to retain periodontally compromised upper molar, with or without pain, compared to GDP (without pain OR 3.10, 95%CI 1.04, 10.62 P = 0.04; with pain OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.09, 8.14 P = 0.03). Variations in treatment decision-making with respect to retaining periodontally compromised teeth exist between dental practitioners with and those without postgraduate training in implant dentistry. Furthermore differences in management approaches in how they would retain the teeth or rehabilitate the dental arch were apparent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in\\ud Asian developing countries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Baxter, Susan; Kirkpatrick, P.; Vijay Singh, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature of factors affecting adherence to Antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Asian developing countries.\\ud Methods Database searches in Medline ⁄ Ovid, Cochrane library, CINAHL, Scopus and PsychINFO for studies published between 1996 and December 2010. The reference lists of included papers were also checked, with citation searching on key papers.\\ud Results A total of 437 studies were identified, and 18 articles met the inclusion criteria and were ex...

  2. Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Helena Vieira Portella Brunharo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10, where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill micro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. RESULTS: Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27±2.78; burs 9.26±3.01; stone 7.95±3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04±3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82±1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54±2.87, and without treatment 2.75±1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83, burs (0.98 and stone drilling (0.46. CONCLUSION: The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

  3. Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunharo, Ione Helena Vieira Portella; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; de Miranda, Mauro Sayão; Artese, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10), where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill micro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane) was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27 ± 2.78; burs 9.26 ± 3.01; stone 7.95 ± 3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04 ± 3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82 ± 1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54 ± 2.87, and without treatment 2.75 ± 1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83), burs (0.98) and stone drilling (0.46). The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

  4. Factors influencing treatment results of definitive radiotherapy following transurethral surgery for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tatsuyuki; Kanehira Chihiro

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prognostic factors influencing the outcome of bladder cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy following transurethral tumor resection (TURBT). From March 1977 through August 1991, 83 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer were treated with TURBT (as thoroughly as possible) and definitive radiotherapy (median total dose: 64 Gy, median fractional dose: 2 Gy). Cystectomy was performed when possible for the residual or recurrent invasive cancer following radiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 76 months. The overall survival (OS) and bladder-preserving survival (BPS) rates at 5 years were 38% and 28%, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that depth of invasion (T2 vs T3), tumor diameter (<3 cm vs. ≥3 cm), and visible (R1) or not visible (R0) residual tumor after TURBT influenced both OS and BPS. In multivariate analysis, absence of visible residual tumor after TURBT was the only significant prognostic factor related to OS (p<0.001) and BPS (p=0.002). Five-year OS and BPS were 54% and 43% in T2-3R0 and 14% and 7% in T2-3R1, respectively. Absence of visible residual tumor after TURBT was significantly associated with better overall survival and bladder-preserving survival for muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy following TURBT. (author)

  5. The influence of antineoplastic treatment on the weight of survivors of childhood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ferrari Carneiro Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: Obesity is a late effect in survivors of childhood cancer and correlates with chronic complications. Survivors of leukemia, brain tumors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are more likely to develop obesity resulting from treatment modalities such as radiotherapy and glucocorticoids. This paper analyzes and integrates the current data available to health professionals in order to clarify strategies that can be used to treat and prevent obesity in childhood cancer survivors. Sources: This is a literature review from on scientifically reliable electronic databases. We selected articles published in the last five years and earlier articles of great scientific importance. Data synthesis: The mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity in cancer survivors are not completely understood, but it is believed that damage to the hypothalamus and endocrine disorders such as insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and hormone deficiency may be involved. The body composition of this group includes a predominance of adipose tissue, especially in those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant and total body irradiation. The use of body mass index in these patients may lead to an underestimation of individuals' risk for metabolic complications. Conclusion: Early identification of groups using accurate anthropometric assessments, interventional treatment, and/or preventative measures and counseling is essential to minimize the adverse effects of treatment. Physical activity and healthy eating to promote adequacy of weight in the whole population should be encouraged.

  6. Affluence and Private Health Insurance Influence Treatment and Survival in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Comber

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate inequalities in survival for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of patient, social and process-of-care factors.All cases of NHL diagnosed in Ireland in 2004-2008 were included. Variables describing patient, cancer, stage and process of care were included in a discrete-time model of survival using Structural Equation Modelling software.Emergency admissions were more common in patients with co-morbid conditions or with more aggressive cancers, and less frequent for patients from more affluent areas. Aggressive morphology, female sex, emergency admission, increasing age, comorbidity, treatment in a high caseload hospital and late stage were associated with increased hazard of mortality. Private patients had a reduced hazard of mortality, mediated by systemic therapy, admission to high caseload hospitals and fewer emergency admissions.The higher rate of emergency presentation, and consequent poorer survival, of uninsured patients, suggests they face barriers to early presentation. Social, educational and cultural factors may also discourage disadvantaged patients from consulting with early symptoms of NHL. Non-insured patients, who present later and have more emergency admissions would benefit from better access to diagnostic services. Older patients remain disadvantaged by sub-optimal treatment, treatment in non-specialist centres and emergency admission.

  7. Heat treatment of transparent Yb:YAG and YAG ceramics and its influence on laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kana; Mochida, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Tokita, Shigeki; Kawanaka, Junji; Maruyama, Momoko; Sugiyama, Akira; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2018-05-01

    Composite transparent ceramic materials are promising for improving the performance of high-average-power lasers. A combination of room-temperature bonding via surface treatment by a fast atom beam and diffusion bonding via heating, which effectively controls the ion diffusion distance near the interface, makes the laser materials suitable for a variety of oscillator/amplifier. During the heat treatment of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics, the Si ions in the solid solution of the sintering aid incorporated within the grains were seen to segregate at the grain boundary, resulting in an increase of scattering sites. The number density and size of the scattering sites strongly depended on the post-heating temperature rather than the heating time. Specifically, heating at 1300 °C did not affect the transmittance of the YAG ceramic, whereas both the size and number of scattering sites substantially increased with a heat treatment at 1400 °C. The laser oscillation experiment using cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG ceramics exhibited heating temperature dependence of the slope efficiency owing to the increasing scattering loss.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF CROSS-TRAINING DUE TO SPA TREATMENT IN CURRING FUNCTIONAL NEUROTIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stefanović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern civilization moves to endless automation and mechanization. This fact, in one hand, has positive effect on increase of life standard, but also carries its own risks and threats of mankind. Axelberg, famous academician, makes an interesting remark that only a hundred years ago man did 96 % of his work by himself, while today most manufacturing processes are 100% automated. Stress, lack of physical activity and bad food regime are canses of organic damages of cardiopulmonary system. Latest research, conducted in many countries, shows that for proper functioning of every organism the minimum of moving is necessary.Term neurosis was introduced in medical literature by Scottish doctor W. Cullen in 1777. By that term were considered different clinical appearances which are believed neurotic todey, but also the phenomena today considered as psychosomatic disorders of character and behavior. Pavlov’s reflexive theory is basic in treatment of some types of neurossis’ during spa treatments in Nerečinska Banja. It usually starts at the beginning of May and ends in October, but sometimes if weather is nice, it can last until the middle of November. The treatment cure last tventy-one day, doesn’t include medicaments, but only spa water, baths and massage.

  9. Influence of pH-control in phosphoric acid treatment of zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, H., E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University (Japan); Chemel, M. [Ecole de Biologie Industrielle, CERGY Cedex (France)

    2017-04-15

    Zinc oxide is often used as a white pigment for cosmetics; however, it shows photocatalytic activity that causes decomposition of sebum on the skin when exposed to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, zinc oxide was reacted with phosphoric acid at various pH values to synthesize a novel white pigment for cosmetics. The chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activities, colors, and smoothness of these pigments were studied. The obtained materials exhibited X-ray diffraction peaks relating to zinc oxide and phosphate after phosphoric acid treatment. The ratio of zinc phosphate to zinc oxide was estimated from inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy results. Samples treated at pH 4-7 yielded small particles with sub-micrometer sizes. The photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide became lower after phosphoric acid treatment. Samples treated at pH 4-7 showed the same reflectance as zinc oxide in both the ultraviolet and visible ranges. Adjustment of the pH was found to be important in the phosphoric acid treatment of zinc oxide. (author)

  10. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcelo Faria da; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maia; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in) and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in) from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40), while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40). Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p wire. Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  11. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Faria da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40, while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40. Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the tested groups with the same size and brand of wire. Conclusions: Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  12. Influence of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Zeng, Jishan; Wang, Shaoan; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Qian; Chen, Pixiu; Zhou, Shujuan; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various surface treatments after different storage time and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to the feldspathic porcelain surfaces. 128 disc-shaped porcelain specimens were randomly assigned to the following surface treatments: 9.6% HFA, 9.6% HFA combined with silane, 50 μ aluminum trioxide sandblasting followed by silane and application of silane after 37% phosphoric acid. Metal or ceramic brackets were bonded onto each treated porcelain facet with light cured resin. The samples were stored in 37 °C water 1 day or 7 days, thermocycled 500 times from 5 to 55 °C. The shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min), and statistically analyzed. The bond failure sites were classified according to ARI system. The surface of the glazed, sandblasted, hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid etched porcelain were examined with SEM. All groups achieved reasonable bond strengths to withstand the application of orthodontic forces. Water storage for 7 days caused lower shear bond strength than that of 1 day. But there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean shear bond strength provided by ceramic bracket with mechanical retention had no statistical difference with that of metal bracket. Therefore, the optimal treatment for orthodontic brackets bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid combined with silane.

  13. Influence of Chemical Treatments Sequence on Morphology and Crystallinity of Sorghum Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismojo Ismojo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC derived from natural fibre is continuously gaining interest to produce an environmentally-friendly material, due to economic and ecological reasons. In consequence, sorghum is one of the most-cultivated crops that usually remain the waste as by product of bioethanol production. Indeed, it will be a promising area to utilize sorghum waste to produce MFC for enhancing polymer performance, especially in terms of crystallinity. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a sequence of chemical modification was applied to sorghum fibres, i.e. alkalization using 4% sodium hydroxide followed by bleaching using 1.7% sodium chlorite plus acetic acid as a buffer. The treatment was purposed to unbundle the lignocellulose networks into microfibrils cellulose with less amorphous part and lower hydrophilic properties. Evaluation of the chemical treatments effect on internal microstructure, crystallinity index and chemical composition of sorghum fibre was measured via Field-Emission Scanning Electron microscope (FE-SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transformation Infra-Red (FTIR Spectroscopy. The experiments show that treatments led to a removal of binding materials, such as amorphous parts hemicellulose and lignin, from the sorghum fibres, resulting MFC of sorghum fibres and enhanced crystallinity index from 41.12 % to 75.73%.

  14. Additive manufacturing of Co-Cr-Mo alloy: Influence of heat treatment on microstructure, tribological and electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar Mallik Mantrala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-Cr-Mo alloy samples, fabricated using Laser Engineered Net Shaping – a laser based additive manufacturing technology, have been subjected heat treatment to study its influence on microstructure, wear and corrosion properties. Following L9 Orthogonal array of Taguchi method, the samples were solutionized at 1200oC for 30, 45 and 60 min followed by water quenching. Ageing treatment was done at 815oC and 830oC for 2, 4 and 6 h. Heat treated samples were evaluated for their microstructure, hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The results revealed that highest hardness of 512 ± 58 Hv and wear rate of 0.90 ± 0.14 × 10-4 mm3/N.m can be achieved with appropriate post-fabrication heat treatment. ANOVA and grey relational analysis on the experimental data revealed that the samples subjected to solution treatment for 60 min, without ageing, exhibit best combination of hardness, wear and corrosion resistance.

  15. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  16. Influence of Microstructure and Composition Changes on Mechanical Characteristics of Aluminium Alloy After Heating and Cooling Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit; Nuraini, E; Martoyo

    1998-01-01

    Influences of microstructure and chemical composition changes on mechanical characteristics of AIMg2 which were heated at 85-500 0 C and cooled with sands, water or air have been studied. Microstructure observation was carried out using optical microscope, while chemical composition determination by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). AIMg2 which has been heated at the relatively low temperature i. e, 200 0 C during 6 hours and cooled using sands showed a small change microstructure, but those will be clearly observed on the treatment at 300 0 C. The microstructure change is in agreement with the change of mechanical characteristic, I. e., the decreasing of tensile strength and hardness and increasing of elongation. After the temperature of treatment is higher than 300 0 C, the decreasing of the tensile strength was relatively constant, while the hardness increased. The microstructure of AIMg2 resulted from the heat treatment at temperature of 500 0 C was different with that of 300 0 C. Heat treatment at 500 0 C following by cooling in the sands, water or air respectively gave similar microstructure. Those also caused the change of alloying element content which was in agreement with decreasing of mechanical characteristics

  17. Influence of heat treatment on hole transfer dynamics in core-shell quantum dot/organic hole conductor hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingye; Zheng, Youjin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Bing

    2017-08-01

    The influence of heat treatment on hole transfer (HT) processes from the CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to 4,4‧,4″-Tris(carbazol-9-yl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) in QD/TCTA hybrid films has been researched with time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL dynamic results demonstrated a heat-treatment-temperature-dependent HT process from the core-shell CdSe QDs to TCTA. The HT rates and efficiencies can be effectively increased due to reduced distance between core-shell CdSe QDs and TCTA after heat treatment. The CdS shell exhibited a more obvious effect on HT from the core-shell CdSe QDs to TCTA than on electron transfer to TiO2, due to higher barrier for holes to tunnel through CdS shell and larger effective mass of holes in CdS than electrons. These results indicate that heat treatment would be an effective means to further optimize solid-state QD sensitized solar cells and rational design of CdS shell is significant.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT ON TAPIOCA WASTEWATER PRE-CHLORINATION TOWARD EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Mulyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to study about influence of calcium hypochlorite dosage adjustment on tapioca wastewater chlorination toward efficiency of activated sludge treatment especially at MLVSS profile and percentage of COD removal. This research mainly divided into pre-chlorination and activated sludge treatment. Pre-chlorination taken place for 60 minutes at pH 8. The variation of calcium hypochlorite dosages which used are 58, 59, and 60 mg/L. Pre-chlorination effluent with no free chlorine residual then becomes activated sludge treatment influent. Sampling has done each aeration time interval 0, 2, 4, and 6 hour for analysis of COD and MLVSS content. Research result generally shows that addition of aeration time for each variation of calcium hypochlorite dosage will increase MLVSS and decrease COD content. Smallest value of COD effluent could achieved in the activated sludge treatment with calcium hipochlorite dosage 60 mg/L addition at influent during 4 hours aeration time. Addition of 58 mg/l calcium hypochlorite results highest MLVSS and percentage of COD removal.

  19. Patients’ perception regarding the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Davina da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains an important disease which mainly affects the majority of vulnerable individuals in society, who are subjected to poor living conditions and difficulties to access the services of public health. Under these circumstances, the present study aims to understand patients’ perception in relation to the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Methods A qualitative descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in one large municipality at the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. The study subjects, who were residents of the study site, covered all tuberculosis cases diagnosed between March and June 2015. The sample was defined by the criteria of response saturation. All interviews were audio recorded, and data analysis was developed through the hermeneutic dialectic method and the theory of Generative Route Sense. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of São Paulo (USP. Results A total of 13 individuals were interviewed and the responses were identified into two analytical categories: the difficulties they had and the enabling factors they could mention during their tuberculosis treatment. Patients brought up social exclusion as an obstacle to treatment adherence, which, along with stigmatization, weakened their link with family members and health professionals. Moreover, economic precariousness was a major hindrance to the maintenance of a proper diet and transportation access to health centers. However, social support and directly observed treatment helped to break down barriers of prejudice and to promote individual and family empowerment. Finally, patients also reported that their will to live and faith gave them the strength to continue with the treatment. Conclusions According to patients in this study, social support and the strengthening of links with family members and health professionals may reduce

  20. Improving domestic wastewater treatment efficiency with constructed wetland microbial fuel cells: Influence of anode material and external resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Clara; Puigagut, Jaume

    2018-08-01

    For the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the operation of constructed wetlands as microbial fuel cells (CW-MFCs) for both the improvement of wastewater treatment efficiency and the production of energy. However, there is still scarce information on design and operation aspects to maximize CW-MFCs efficiency, especially for the treatment of real domestic wastewater. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of treatment efficiency improvement carried out by membrane-less MFCs simulating a core of a shallow un-planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. The influence of the external resistance (50, 220, 402, 604 and 1000Ω) and the anode material (graphite and gravel) on treatment efficiency improvement were addressed. To this purpose, 6 lab-scale membrane-less MFCs were set-up and loaded in batch mode with domestic wastewater for 13weeks. Results showed that 220Ω was the best operation condition for maximising MFCs treatment efficiency, regardless the anode material employed. Gravel-based anode MFCs operated at closed circuit showed ca. 18%, 15%, 31% and 25% lower effluent concentration than unconnected MFCs to the COD, TOC, PO 4 -3 and NH 4 + -N, respectively. Main conclusion of the present work is that constructed wetlands operated as MFCs is a promising strategy to improve domestic wastewater treatment efficiency. However, further studies at pilot scale under more realistic conditions (such as planted systems operated under continuous mode) shall be performed to confirm the findings here reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of bacterial vaginosis on the response to Trichomonas vaginalis treatment among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatski, Megan; Martin, David H; Levison, Judy; Mena, Leandro; Clark, Rebecca A; Murphy, Mary; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Kissinger, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is common in HIV+ women, and host factors may play a role in TV treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) on the response to TV treatment among HIV+ women. A secondary analysis was conducted of a clinical trial which randomised HIV+/TV+ women to metronidazole (MTZ) treatment: 2 g (single-dose) versus 7 day 500 mg twice daily (multidose). BV was classified using Nugent scores from baseline Gram stains. Women were recultured for TV at test-of-cure (TOC) and again at 3 months if TV-negative at TOC. Repeat TV infection rates were compared for women with a baseline TV/BV coinfection versus baseline TV infection only, and stratified by treatment arm. Among 244 HIV+/TV+ women (mean age=40.3, ±9.5; 92.2% African-American), the rate of BV was 66.8%. Women with BV were more likely to report douching and ≥1 recent sex partners. HIV+ women with baseline TV/BV coinfection were more likely to be TV-positive at TOC than women with baseline TV infection only (RR 2.42 (95% CI 0.96 to 6.07; p=0.05)). When stratified by treatment arm, the association was only found in the single-dose arm (p=0.02) and not in the multidose arm (p=0.92). This interaction did not persist at 3 months. For HIV+/TV+ women, the rate of BV was high, and BV was associated with early failure of the MTZ single-dose treatment for TV. Biological explanations require further investigation.

  2. Influence on proliferation and adhesion of human gingival fibroblasts from different titanium surface decontamination treatments: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Wang, Tong; Pu, Yinfei; Tang, Zhihui; Meng, Huanxin

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of different decontamination treatments on microstructure of titanium (Ti) surface as well as proliferation and adhesion of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Ti discs with machined (M) and sand blasted, acid etched (SAE) surfaces were treated with five different decontamination treatments: (1) stainless steel curette (SSC), ultrasonic system with (2) straight carbon fiber tip (UCF) or (3) metal tip (UM), (4) rotating Ti brush (RTB), and (5) Er:YAG laser (30 mJ/pulse at 30 Hz). Surface roughness was analyzed under optical interferometry. HGFs were cultured on each disc. Proliferation and adhesive strength were analyzed. qRT-PCR and ELISA were performed to detect the RNA and protein expression of FAK, ITGB1, COL1A1, and FN1 respectively from different Ti surfaces. Surface roughness increased on M surface. Proliferation, adhesive strength and gene expression were higher on M surface than SAE surface. Decontamination treatments affected surface parameters significantly (P < 0.001), making M surface less smooth while SAE surface became less rough. SSC, UCF, UM and RTB decreased proliferation on M surfaces significantly (P < 0.05). UCF, RTB and laser increased proliferation on SAE surface significantly (P < 0.05). UM decreased adhesive strength on M surface significantly and laser increased adhesive strength on SAE surface significantly (P < 0.05). Gene expression increased with time and was altered by decontamination treatments significantly (P < 0.001). Decontamination treatments influence surface roughness and cell behavior of HGFs. Laser might be an optimal decontamination treatment which has the least negative effect on M surface and the most positive effect on SAE surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Patients' perception regarding the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rosiane Davina; de Luna, Fernanda Darliane Tavares; de Araújo, Aguinaldo José; Camêlo, Edwirde Luiz Silva; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Hino, Paula; Lacerda, Sheylla Nadjane Batista; Fook, Sayonara Maria Lia; de Figueiredo, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro

    2017-09-19

    Tuberculosis remains an important disease which mainly affects the majority of vulnerable individuals in society, who are subjected to poor living conditions and difficulties to access the services of public health. Under these circumstances, the present study aims to understand patients' perception in relation to the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment. A qualitative descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in one large municipality at the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. The study subjects, who were residents of the study site, covered all tuberculosis cases diagnosed between March and June 2015. The sample was defined by the criteria of response saturation. All interviews were audio recorded, and data analysis was developed through the hermeneutic dialectic method and the theory of Generative Route Sense. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of São Paulo (USP). A total of 13 individuals were interviewed and the responses were identified into two analytical categories: the difficulties they had and the enabling factors they could mention during their tuberculosis treatment. Patients brought up social exclusion as an obstacle to treatment adherence, which, along with stigmatization, weakened their link with family members and health professionals. Moreover, economic precariousness was a major hindrance to the maintenance of a proper diet and transportation access to health centers. However, social support and directly observed treatment helped to break down barriers of prejudice and to promote individual and family empowerment. Finally, patients also reported that their will to live and faith gave them the strength to continue with the treatment. According to patients in this study, social support and the strengthening of links with family members and health professionals may reduce social exclusion and other difficulties they face, thus encouraging them

  4. The Influence of Surface Treatment by Hydrogenation on the Biocompatibility of Different Hydroxyapatite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcevskis, E; Dindune, A; Dekhtyar, Y; Polyaka, N; Veljovic, D; Sammons, R L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of hydrogenation on the biocompatibility of different hydroxyapatite (HAP) materials was tested. Materials consisted of pure HAP, HAP substituted with manganese (Mn +2 ) and with magnesium (Mg +2 ) - all axially pressed and conventionally sintered for 2 h at 1200 deg. C; pure HAP isostatic pressed and sintered by a microwave technique for 15 min at temperature of 1200 deg. C. Biocompatibility was compared by enumeration of the number of osteoblast-like cells to the materials before and after hydrogenation. Obtained results show that the osteoblastic cells demonstrated a higher ability to attach to HAP if its surface was negatively charged. Hydrogenation altered the surface potential; HAP substituted with manganese - HAP(Mn) and with magnesium - HAP(Mg) demonstrated the highest ability to engineer the charge.

  5. Influence of surface treatments on corrosion resistance of stainless steels. Residual stresses in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, J. Philippe

    1968-05-01

    In a first part, this research thesis proposes presentation of the definition of a surface condition: chemical characteristics such as passivity and contamination, physical characteristics (obtained through micrographic methods, X ray diffusion, magnetic methods), and micro-geometrical characteristics. The author notably discusses the measurement of characteristics either by appropriate conventional methods or by an original method in the case of passivity. In a second part, the author reports the study of the influence of surface condition on different types of corrosion of stainless steels in chemical environments (corrosion in sulphuric acid, intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking in magnesium chloride, pitting corrosion) and of high temperature oxidation (corrosion in pressurized water, oxidation in dry vapour or in carbon dioxide)

  6. Influence of duplex treatment on the structure and surface properties of steel 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorenkova, N.V.; Alontseva, D.L.; Pogrebnyak, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of influence of powder coverings on the Ni base on the microstructure, phase content and steel properties. The coverings were deposited by the plasma-detonation method with electron beam. By the results of mechanical tests the microhardness after deposition increases in 5 times. In the same time the microhardness dispersion increases from the deposited side. This evidences about phase heterogeneity of the covering. By the X-ray structural-phase analysis it is shown, that deposited layer is multi-phase: there are in the large amounts Fe and compounds both Ni 2 Si, FeCr. It is suggested, that such multi-phase content is resulting of corrosion resistivity of the examined alloys

  7. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics and the corresponding resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants: effluents' influence to downstream water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Jiao, Yanan; Baig, Shams Ali; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the occurrence of 8 antibiotics [3 tetracyclines (TCs), 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim (TMP)], 12 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 types of bacteria [no antibiotics, anti-TC, anti-sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and anti-double], and intI1 in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were assessed and their influences in downstream lake were investigated. Both WWTPs' effluent demonstrated some similarities, but the abundance and removal rate varied significantly. Results revealed that biological treatment mainly removed antibiotics and ARGs, whereas physical techniques were found to eliminate antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs) abundance (about 1 log for each one). UV disinfection did not significantly enhance the removal efficiency, and the release of the abundantly available target contaminants from the excess sludge may pose threats to human and the environment. Different antibiotics showed diverse influences on the downstream lake, and the concentrations of sulfamethazine (SM2) and SMX were observed to increase enormously. The total ARG abundance ascended about 0.1 log and some ARGs (e.g., tetC, intI1, tetA) increased due to the high input of the effluent. In addition, the abundance of ARB variation in the lake also changed, but the abundance of four types of bacteria remained stable in the downstream sampling sites.

  8. The significance of motivation in periodontal treatment: the influence of adult patients' motivation on the clinical periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruba, Z; Pac, A; Olszewska-Czyż, I; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M

    2014-09-01

    Motivation plays an important role in the treatment process of chronic diseases, as treatment requires behavioural change and lifelong adherence to medical recommendations. Periodontitis is a good example of such health condition as to maintain good periodontal health patients have to adhere to a strict oral hygiene regimen. To examine whether the motivation of patients suffering from chronic periodontitis influences their clinical periodontal condition. Cross sectional study. Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Dental University Clinic, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland. 199 adult periodontal patients, aged 20-78 years. Questionnaire concerning patients' medical and dental history, modified Zychlińscy motivation assessment questionnaire, clinical periodontal examination. The extent of motivation. Periodontal status evaluated with the use of periodontal indices (API, BOP, CPITN). The mean motivation score was 57.4. The mean API and BOP values were 55.7% and 46.4%, respectively. For most of the patients the recorded CPITN value was 3. Correlations were observed between motivation and both API and BOP, and between API and BOP. Periodontal patients with greater motivation having better oral health (lower API and BOP) suggests an influence on the quality of their self-management of the disease (i.e. adherence to their oral hygiene regimen).

  9. Genipin Cross-Linked Chitosan-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Hydrogels: Influence of Composition and Postsynthesis Treatment on pH Responsive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyelumndu Jennifer Nwosu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that influence the pH responsive behaviour of biocompatible cross-linked hydrogel networks is essential when aiming to synthesise a mechanically stable and yet stimuli responsive material suitable for various applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering. In this study the behaviour of intelligent chitosan-polyvinylpyrrolidone-genipin cross-linked hydrogels is examined as a function of their composition and postsynthesis treatment. Hydrogels are synthesised with varying amounts of each component (chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and genipin and their response in a pH 2 buffer is measured optically. The influence of postsynthesis treatment on stability and smart characteristics is assessed using selected hydrogel samples synthesised at 30, 40, and 50°C. After synthesis, samples are exposed to either continuous freezing or three freeze-thaw cycles resulting in increased mechanical stability for all samples. Further morphological and mechanical characterisations have aided the understanding of how postsynthesis continual freezing or freeze-thaw manipulation affects network attributes.

  10. Influence of postharvest hot water treatment on nutritional and functional properties of kumquat (Fortunella japonica Lour. Swingle Cv. Ovale) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Minello, Elisabeth V; Melis, Marinella; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-01-23

    The present study investigated the influence of a hot water dip (HWD) for 2 min at 50 degrees C, a standard and effective treatment for postharvest decay control of citrus fruit, on the nutritional and health-related properties of kumquats. The results show that most of the parameters examined, including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, maturity index, glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, beta-carotene, zeaxantin, rhoifolin, and antioxidant activity, were not significantly affected by treatment. The levels of beta-cryptoxanthin, narirutin, and total flavonoids increased after HWD, whereas lutein and total phenols decreased. The concentration of the essential oil and the relative percentage of the individual components of the essential oil were not affected by HWD except for the minor compound p-menta-1,5-dien-1-ol, which increased after HWD. After storage, lower levels of glucose, total sugars, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein were recorded in HWD fruit. A decrease in antioxidant activity and increases in alpha-tocopherol and total vitamin E were found both in control and HWD fruit. The influence of HWD at 50 degrees C for 2 min on individual nutraceuticals and health-related properties was thus generally low and may depend on storage conditions.

  11. Influence of the post-weld surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel 1.4062

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, P.; Müller, C.; Baumann, O.; Modersohn, W.; Halle, T.

    2017-03-01

    The duplex stainless steel 1.4062 (X2CrNiN22-2) is used as alternative material to austenitic stainless steels in the construction industry. The corrosion resistance of welded seams is influenced by the base material, the weld filler material, the welding process and also by the final surface treatment. The scale layer next to the weld seam can be removed by grinding, pickling, electro-polished or blasting depending on the application and the requested corrosion resistance. Blasted surfaces are often used in industrial practice due to the easier and cheaper manufacturing process compared to pickled or electro-polished surfaces. Furthermore blasting with corundum-grain is more effective than blasting with glass-beads which also lower the process costs. In recent years, stainless steel surfaces showed an unusually high susceptibility to pitting corrosion after grinding with corundum. For this reason, it is now also questioned critically whether the corrosion resistance is influenced by the applied blasting agent. This question was specifically investigated by comparing grinded, pickled, corundum-grain- and glass-bead-blasted welding seams. Results of the SEM analyses of the blasting agents and the blasted surfaces will be presented and correlated with the different performed corrosion tests (potential measurement, KorroPad-test and pitting potential) on welding seams with different surface treatments.

  12. Does Gender Influence Colour Choice in the Treatment of Visual Stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam L Conway

    Full Text Available Visual Stress (VS is a condition in which words appear blurred, in motion, or otherwise distorted when reading. Some people diagnosed with VS find that viewing black text on white paper through coloured overlays or precision tinted lenses (PTLs reduces symptoms attributed to VS. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the choice of colour of overlays or PTLs is influenced by a patient's gender.Records of all patients attending a VS assessment in two optometry practices between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who reported a significant and consistent reduction in symptoms with either overlay and or PTL were included in the analysis. Overlays and PTLs were categorized as stereotypical male, female or neutral colours based on gender preferences as described in the literature. Chi-square analysis was carried out to determine whether gender (across all ages or within age groups was associated with overlay or PTL colour choice.279 patients (133 males and 146 females, mean age 17 years consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with an overlay and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant association between the colour of overlay chosen and male or female gender (Chi-square 0.788, p = 0.674. 244 patients (120 males and 124 females, mean age 24.5 years consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with PTLs and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant association between stereotypical male/female/neutral colours of PTLs chosen and male/female gender (Chi-square 6.46, p = 0.040. More males preferred stereotypical male colour PTLs including blue and green while more females preferred stereotypical female colour PTLs including pink and purple.For some VS patients, the choice of PTL colour is influenced not only by the alleviation of symptoms but also by other non-visual factors such as gender.

  13. Does Gender Influence Colour Choice in the Treatment of Visual Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Miriam L; Evans, Bruce J W; Evans, Josephine C; Suttle, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Visual Stress (VS) is a condition in which words appear blurred, in motion, or otherwise distorted when reading. Some people diagnosed with VS find that viewing black text on white paper through coloured overlays or precision tinted lenses (PTLs) reduces symptoms attributed to VS. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the choice of colour of overlays or PTLs is influenced by a patient's gender. Records of all patients attending a VS assessment in two optometry practices between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who reported a significant and consistent reduction in symptoms with either overlay and or PTL were included in the analysis. Overlays and PTLs were categorized as stereotypical male, female or neutral colours based on gender preferences as described in the literature. Chi-square analysis was carried out to determine whether gender (across all ages or within age groups) was associated with overlay or PTL colour choice. 279 patients (133 males and 146 females, mean age 17 years) consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with an overlay and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant association between the colour of overlay chosen and male or female gender (Chi-square 0.788, p = 0.674). 244 patients (120 males and 124 females, mean age 24.5 years) consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with PTLs and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant association between stereotypical male/female/neutral colours of PTLs chosen and male/female gender (Chi-square 6.46, p = 0.040). More males preferred stereotypical male colour PTLs including blue and green while more females preferred stereotypical female colour PTLs including pink and purple. For some VS patients, the choice of PTL colour is influenced not only by the alleviation of symptoms but also by other non-visual factors such as gender.

  14. Mucosal Perforation During Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy Has No Influence on Final Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Renato; Spadotto, Lorenzo; Capovilla, Giovanni; Voltarel, Guerrino; Pesenti, Elisa; Longo, Cristina; Cavallin, Francesco; Nicoletti, Loredana; Ruol, Alberto; Valmasoni, Michele; Merigliano, Stefano; Costantini, Mario

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to examine the final outcome in patients experiencing accidental mucosal perforation during laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Dor fundoplication (LHD) and (b) to evaluate whether perforation episodes might influence the way in which surgeons subsequently approached the LHD procedure. We studied all consecutive patients that underwent LHD between 1992 and 2015. Patients were divided into two main groups: those who experienced an intraoperative mucosal perforation (group P) and those whose LHD was uneventful (group NP). Two additional groups were compared: group A, which consisted of patients operated by a given surgeon immediately before a perforation episode occurred, and group B, which included those operated immediately afterwards. Eight hundred seventy-five patients underwent LHD; a mucosal perforation was detected in 25 patients (2.9 %), which was found unrelated to patients' symptom's score and age, radiological stage, manometric pattern, or the surgeon's experience. The median postoperative symptom score was similar for the two groups as the failure rate: 92 failures in group NP (10.8 %) and 4 in group P (16 %) (p = 0.34); moreover, symptoms recurred in 2 patients of group A (10 %) and 3 patients of group B (15 %) (p = 0.9). Accidental perforation during LHD is infrequent and impossible to predict on the grounds of preoperative therapy or the surgeon's personal experience. Despite a longer surgical procedure and hospital stay, the outcome of LHD is much the same as for patients undergoing uneventful myotomy. A recent mucosal perforation does not influence the surgeon's subsequent performance.

  15. TO DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE FOR VARIATIONS IN LASER TREATMENT MODES ON TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CUTTING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to higher durability and reliability of a cutting tool for cutting gastronomic products while using laser processing that leads to resistance increase of material operating surfaces against impact forces. Influence of laser fusion with additional doping on structure, microhardness, wear resistance for adhesive coatings of Fe–B–Cr–Si system has been studied in the paper. In order to solve a problem for selection of optimal qualitative and subsequently quantitative composition of a multi-component coating a mathematical modeling method using Scheffe’s simplex lattices has been used in the paper. Similar tendency for measuring micro-structure of all adhesive coatings fused by laser beams has been established in the paper. Increase in beam speed has caused the following microstructure changes: cast equilibrium, dendrite, supersaturated boride, carbide and boride. Response surface models have been found and they provide the possibility to assess influence quantity of laser processing parameters on microhardness of adhesive coatings obtained by laser doping and intensity of their wear under various conditions for all investigated compositions.It has been ascertained that there is no strict correlation between hardness and intensity of coating wear after laser doping used for adhesive coatings. This testifies to the fact that hardening has taken place not only due to an increase of carbide-boride phase, but also due to matrix hardening.In addition, a regression model for coating composition effect on tribological characteristics of the adhesive coatings has revealed that an optimal composition of a multicomponent coating ensuring maximum wear resistance of coatings constitutes B4C is 2/3 and 1/3 TaB. It has been determined that hardening of the adhesive coating after laser doping while using multicomponent coating occurs not only due to increase of carbide-boridnoy phase, but also due to matrix hardening.

  16. The Influence of Methotrexate Treatment on Male Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome After Paternal Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosen, Anne; Kelsen, Jens; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Bellaguarda, Emanuelle; Hanauer, Stephen B

    2017-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease incidence peaks during the reproductive years. Methotrexate (MTX) is frequently used for inflammatory bowel disease, but its use during pregnancy is contraindicated in women because of teratogenic effects. The aim of this review is to investigate the influence of MTX on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes after paternal MTX exposure. A systematic literature search was performed by applying 2 focus areas, "methotrexate" and "male fertility or pregnancy outcome." Terms and keywords were used both as MeSH terms and free-text searches. Pertinent articles were searched for additional relevant references. In animal studies, MTX induces aberrations in sperm DNA that have not been identified in humans. The effects of MTX on human sperm quality have only been described in case reports. A transient adverse effect on sperm quality with low-dose MTX has been reported, but several other cases have not found harmful effects of MTX. MTX has not been measured in human sperm ejaculates; yet, the risk of a direct toxic effect on the fetus through MTX-contaminated seminal plasma seems negligible. Until now, 284 pregnancies with paternal MTX exposure have been reported. The outcomes were 248 live births and a total of 13 malformations, with no overt indication of MTX embryopathy. This review reveals the lack of studies on the safety of MTX with regard to male reproduction. It is not clear whether MTX transiently influences male fertility and sperm DNA integrity, and more studies are needed. Comparative cohort studies found no increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Influence of Etching Protocol and Silane Treatment with a Universal Adhesive on Lithium Disilicate Bond Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavacharla, V K; Lawson, N C; Ramp, L C; Burgess, J O

    2015-01-01

    To measure the effects of hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching and silane prior to the application of a universal adhesive on the bond strength between lithium disilicate and a resin. Sixty blocks of lithium disilicate (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were sectioned into coupons and polished. Specimens were divided into six groups (n=10) based on surface pretreatments, as follows: 1) no treatment (control); 2) 5% HF etch for 20 seconds (5HF); 3) 9.5% HF etch for 60 seconds (9.5HF); 4) silane with no HF (S); 5) 5% HF for 20 seconds + silane (5HFS); and 6) 9.5% HF for 60 seconds + silane (9.5HFS). All etching was followed by rinsing, and all silane was applied in one coat for 20 seconds and then dried. The universal adhesive (Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE) was applied onto the pretreated ceramic surface, air thinned, and light cured for 10 seconds. A 1.5-mm-diameter plastic tube filled with Z100 composite (3M ESPE) was applied over the bonded ceramic surface and light cured for 20 seconds on all four sides. The specimens were thermocycled for 10,000 cycles (5°C-50°C/15 s dwell time). Specimens were loaded until failure using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The peak failure load was used to calculate the shear bond strength. Scanning electron microscopy images were taken of representative e.max specimens from each group. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined that there were significant differences between HF etching, silane treatment, and the interaction between HF and silane treatment (puniversal adhesive.

  18. Influence of Ebola on tuberculosis case finding and treatment outcomes in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, C. L.; Ade, S.; Bhat, P.; Harries, A. D; Wilkinson, E.; Cooper, C. T.

    2017-01-01

    Setting: National Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme, Liberia. Objectives: To assess TB case finding, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated interventions and treatment outcomes, before (January 2013–March 2014), during (April 2014–June 2015) and after (July–December 2015) the Ebola virus disease outbreak. Design: A cross-sectional study and retrospective cohort analysis of outcomes. Results: The mean quarterly numbers of individuals with presumptive TB and the proportion diagnosed as smear-positive were: pre-Ebola (n = 7032, 12%), Ebola (n = 6147, 10%) and post-Ebola (n = 6795, 8%). For all forms of TB, stratified by category and age group, there was a non-significant decrease in the number of cases from the pre-Ebola to the Ebola and post-Ebola periods. There were significant decreases in numbers of cases with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) from the pre-Ebola period (n = 855), to the Ebola (n = 640, P < 0.001) and post-Ebola (n = 568, P < 0.001) periods. The proportions of patients tested for HIV, found to be HIV-positive and started on antiretroviral therapy decreased as follows: pre-Ebola (respectively 72%, 15% and 34%), Ebola (69%, 14% and 30%) and post-Ebola (68%, 12% and 26%). Treatment success rates among TB patients were: 80% pre-Ebola, 69% Ebola (P < 0.001) and 73% post-Ebola (P < 0.001). Loss to follow-up was the main contributing adverse outcome. Conclusion: The principal negative effects of Ebola were the significant decreases in diagnoses of smear-positive PTB, the declines in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy uptake and poor treatment success. Ways to prevent these adverse effects from recurring in the event of another Ebola outbreak need to be found. PMID:28744441

  19. Does a family history of RA influence the clinical presentation and treatment response in RA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisell, Thomas; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Askling, Johan

    2016-06-01

    To assess whether family history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), among the strongest risk factors for developing RA, also carries information on the clinical presentation and treatment response. The prospective Swedish Rheumatology register was linked to family history of RA, defined as diagnosed RA in any first-degree relative, ascertained through the Swedish Multi-Generation and Patient registers. Clinical presentation was examined among patients with early RA 2000-2011 (symptom onset clinical characteristics, drug survival, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response and change in disease activity at 3 and 6 months was estimated using linear and generalised logistic regression models. Correlation in relatives' response measures was also assessed. Patients with early RA with family history of RA were more often rheumatoid factor positive, but with no other clinically meaningful differences in their clinical presentation. Family history of RA did not predict response to MTX or TNFi, with the possible exception of no versus good EULAR response to TNFi at 6 months (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7). Having a relative who discontinued TNFi within a year increased the odds of doing the same (OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 7.5), although we found no significant familial correlations in change in disease activity measures. Family history of RA did not modify the clinical presentation of RA or predict response to standard treatment with MTX or TNFi. Treatment response, particularly drug survival, may itself be familial. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Influence of Ebola on tuberculosis case finding and treatment outcomes in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwloh, P K; Cambell, C L; Ade, S; Bhat, P; Harries, A D; Wilkinson, E; Cooper, C T

    2017-06-21

    Setting: National Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme, Liberia. Objectives: To assess TB case finding, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated interventions and treatment outcomes, before (January 2013-March 2014), during (April 2014-June 2015) and after (July-December 2015) the Ebola virus disease outbreak. Design: A cross-sectional study and retrospective cohort analysis of outcomes. Results: The mean quarterly numbers of individuals with presumptive TB and the proportion diagnosed as smear-positive were: pre-Ebola ( n = 7032, 12%), Ebola ( n = 6147, 10%) and post-Ebola ( n = 6795, 8%). For all forms of TB, stratified by category and age group, there was a non-significant decrease in the number of cases from the pre-Ebola to the Ebola and post-Ebola periods. There were significant decreases in numbers of cases with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) from the pre-Ebola period ( n = 855), to the Ebola ( n = 640, P < 0.001) and post-Ebola ( n = 568, P < 0.001) periods. The proportions of patients tested for HIV, found to be HIV-positive and started on antiretroviral therapy decreased as follows: pre-Ebola (respectively 72%, 15% and 34%), Ebola (69%, 14% and 30%) and post-Ebola (68%, 12% and 26%). Treatment success rates among TB patients were: 80% pre-Ebola, 69% Ebola ( P < 0.001) and 73% post-Ebola ( P < 0.001). Loss to follow-up was the main contributing adverse outcome. Conclusion: The principal negative effects of Ebola were the significant decreases in diagnoses of smear-positive PTB, the declines in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy uptake and poor treatment success. Ways to prevent these adverse effects from recurring in the event of another Ebola outbreak need to be found.

  1. Systematic review: Do patient expectations influence treatment outcomes in total knee and total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haanstra Tsjitske M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This systematic review aims to summarise all the available evidence related to the association between pre-operative patient expectations (outcome expectations, process expectations and self efficacy expectations and 5 different treatment outcomes (overall improvement, pain, function, stiffness and satisfaction in patients with total knee or total hip arthroplasty at three different follow-op periods (>6 weeks; >6 weeks- ≤6 months; >6 months. Methods English and Dutch language articles were identified through PubMed, EMBASE.com, PsycINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library from inception to September 2012. Articles assessing the association between pre-operative patient expectations and treatment outcomes for TKA/THA in either adjusted or unadjusted analysis were included. Two reviewers, working independently, determined eligibility, rated methodological quality and extracted data on study design, population, expectation measurements, outcome measurements and strength of the associations. Methodological quality was rated by the same reviewers on a 19 item scale. The scores on the quality assessment were taken into account when drawing final conclusions. Results The search strategy generated 2252 unique references, 18 articles met inclusion criteria. Scores on the methodological quality assessment ranged between 6% and 79%. Great variety was seen in definitions and measurement methods of expectations. No significant associations were found between patient expectations and overall improvement, satisfaction and stiffness. Both significant positive and non-significant associations were found for the association between expectations and pain and function. Conclusions There was no consistency in the association between patients’ pre-operative expectations and treatment outcomes for TKA and THA indentified in this systematic review. There exists a need for a sound theoretical framework underlying the construct of

  2. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beline, Thamara; Garcia, Camila S.; Ogawa, Erika S.; Marques, Isabella S.V.; Matos, Adaias O.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sandblasted with Al 2 O 3 , and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (R p ) (P < .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P < .006), corrosion current density (I corr ) and corrosion rate (P < .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased R p and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced R p (P < .008) and increased I corr and corrosion rate (P < .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P < .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi. - Highlights: • Acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. • Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi. • Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride can be safely used.

  3. Influence of thermal treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a HC cast refractory steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatica, D; Garin, J; Mannheim, R

    2008-01-01

    The effect of thermal treatments at 750 ( o C) on the microstructure and hardness of a HC cast refractory steel was studied. Samples were extracted from blocks obtained from the melting of this steel, which were heated to 750 ( o C) for 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours and cooled in water. The microstructural analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction, optic and scanning electron microscopy. The phases in each of the samples were quantified using X-ray diffraction, by the direct comparison method, using the DIFRACC-AT, PROFILE FITTING, LATTICE and LAZY-PULVERIX programs. Ferrite was also measured with a magnetic inductor. The phases that were present were ferrite, austenite and Cr 23 C 6 chrome carbides, with a small percentage of molybdenum carbides, slag and non metallic inclusions. As a result of the thermal treatment, the ferrite increased, the austenite decreased and the chrome carbides increased, although their presence varied during the first hours of treatment, displaying a sustained increase only after the 24 hours of heating. Brittle phases, like the sigma phase, did not occur, corroborated by other authors who have noted that for this phase to form there must be preexisting Cr 7 C 3 chrome carbide, as well as Cr 23 C 6 . Temperature impact tests were held in order to determine the temperature of ductile-brittle transition. Unnotched test pieces were submitted to impact trials in a temperature range of 20 to 200 ( o C). This steel does not have a clear transition temperature, but ranges from 50 ( o C) to 80 ( o C )

  4. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Garcia, Camila S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Ogawa, Erika S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Matos, Adaias O. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 W Harrison, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); and others

    2016-02-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) (P < .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P < .006), corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) and corrosion rate (P < .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased R{sub p} and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced R{sub p} (P < .008) and increased I{sub corr} and corrosion rate (P < .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P < .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi. - Highlights: • Acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. • Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi. • Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride can be safely used.

  5. Blood coagulation in lead poisoning and the influence of specific treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levantovskaya, O M; Lyubcenko, P N; Dayhin, I S; Sorkina, N S

    1974-07-01

    Results of blood coagulation studies in 104 workers with long-term exposure in a storage-battery plant. Over-all coagulation activity is unchanged in cases of mild lead poisoning, but long-term exposure gives rise to increased fibrinogen levels, activated fibrinolysis, and reduced serum accelerator globulin and prothrombin activities. 13 workers were given D-penicillamine (oral doses of 450 mg daily). All coagulation indices had become normal after 10 days' treatment. The changes observed are thought to be due to protein synthesis disturbances in the liver and to inhibition of enzymes by lead which combines with their sulfhydryl and disulfide groups. (CIS Abstr. Vol. 2)

  6. Decreasing of the detection limit for gamma-ray Spectrometry with the influence of sample treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, M.; Sadighzadeh, A.; Asgharizadeh, F.; Sardari, D.; Tavassoli, A.; Arbabi, A.; Hochaghani, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In this study the ash method has been applied for environmental sample treatment in order to decrease of the detection limit in gamma-ray spectrometry for low level radioactivity measurements. Detection limit in gamma ray spectrometry is the smallest expectation value of the net counting rate that can be detected on given probabilities. The environmental test samples have been changed into ash using a suitable oven. The heating were made under controlled temperature to avoid the escape of some radionuclides such as radiocaesium. The ash samples were measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry system. (author)

  7. Influence of hydrogen peroxide treatment on Au/n-ZnO contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.D.; Gu, Q.L.; Ling, C.C.; Djurisic, A.B. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (China); Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Reuther, H. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Au/n-ZnO contact behavior was investigated as a function of hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of the ZnO sample by current-voltage (IV) measurement. The change from non-rectifying to rectifying performance upon etching was discussed in connection with sample characterization by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was concluded that the gain of the rectifying property was properly associated with the formation of a defective interfacial region at the Au/n-ZnO contact. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Chemical constituent influence on ionizing radiation treatment of a wood–plastic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Andrew; Smith, Jennifer; Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    A dose range of 0–200 kGy was used to irradiate polyethylene-based wood plastic composite (WPC) specimens. An evaluation of mechanical properties in bending resulted in an increase in ultimate strength, but little effect to stiffness. The bending test results were compared to previous testing in order to examine reproducibility. Hardness tests were also conducted, revealing an increase at a dose range of 0–250 kGy. - Highlights: • Feasibility of electron beam treatment of a wood plastic composite. • No significant impact on modulus of elasticity. • Increase in ultimate strength and hardness.

  9. Quantifying the influence of the epidermal optical properties on laser treatment parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available . The formation of highly reactive singlet oxygen in the cells leads to cell death through apoptosis or necrosis9,11,12. Due to the short lifetime of the singlet oxygen in biological systems only molecules close to the PS are affected. The half...-lifetime of singlet oxygen is less than 40 ns, and the radius of the action of singlet oxygen is in the order of 20 nm13. PDT is a localised treatment, having less of an adverse effect on the healthy cells not irradiated by the light source. PDT has been approved...

  10. Influence of dissolved organic matter concentration and composition on the removal efficiency of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothawala, Dolly N; Köhler, Stephan J; Östlund, Anna; Wiberg, Karin; Ahrens, Lutz

    2017-09-15

    Drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) are constantly adapting to a host of emerging threats including the removal of micro-pollutants like perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), while concurrently considering how background levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences their removal efficiency. Two adsorbents, namely anion exchange (AE) and granulated active carbon (GAC) have shown particular promise for PFAS removal, yet the influence of background levels of DOM remains poorly explored. Here we considered how the removal efficiency of 13 PFASs are influenced by two contrasting types of DOM at four concentrations, using both AE (Purolite A-600 ® ) and GAC (Filtrasorb 400 ® ). We placed emphasis on the pre-equilibrium conditions to gain better mechanistic insight into the dynamics between DOM, PFASs and adsorbents. We found AE to be very effective at removing both PFASs and DOM, while largely remaining resistant to even high levels of background DOM (8 mg carbon L -1 ) and surprisingly found that smaller PFASs were removed slightly more efficiently than longer chained counterparts, In contrast, PFAS removal efficiency with GAC was highly variable with PFAS chain length, often improving in the presence of DOM, but with variable response based on the type of DOM and PFAS chain length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of surface treatments on micropore structure and hydrogen adsorption behavior of nanoporous carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Joo; Park, Soo-Jin

    2007-07-15

    The scope of this work was to control the pore sizes of porous carbons by various surface treatments and to investigate the relation between pore structures and hydrogen adsorption capacity. The effects of various surface treatments (i.e., gas-phase ozone, anodic oxidation, fluorination, and oxygen plasma) on the micropore structures of porous carbons were investigated by N(2)/77 K isothermal adsorption. The hydrogen adsorption capacity was measured by H(2) isothermal adsorption at 77 K. In the result, the specific surface area and micropore volume of all of the treated samples were slightly decreased due to the micropore filling or pore collapsing behaviors. It was also found that in F(2)-treated carbons the center of the pore size distribution was shifted to left side, meaning that the average size of the micropores decreased. The F(2)- and plasma-treated samples showed higher hydrogen storage capacities than did the other samples, the F(2)-treated one being the best, indicating that the micropore size of the porous carbons played a key role in the hydrogen adsorption at 77 K.

  12. Influence of UV Treatment on the Food Safety Status of a Model Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Deepikaa Elumalai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Few microbial studies in aquaponics, a growing trend in food production, have been conducted to determine food safety status. The aim of this study was to determine the food safety status and the effectiveness of ultraviolet treatment (15 W, luminous flux of 900 lm as a food safety intervention in reducing the microbial loads of the water system in a model aquaponic unit growing lettuce, basil, and barramundi (Australian Sea Bass. Sweet basil, bibb lettuce, water samples, and fish swabs were collected throughout the 118-day production period, and microbial analysis was conducted in triplicate for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and the prevalence of aerobic plate counts (APC, coliforms, and fecal coliforms in these systems. Absence of foodborne pathogens was confirmed using ELISA technology and enumeration through petrifilms (coliform/E. coli. A significant increase was observed in aerobic plate counts over the trial period (1 to 3 log10 CFU·mL−1 in the presence and absence of UV (p > 0.05. Ultraviolet treatment did not significantly reduce the APC or coliform counts when compared to the control system samples. Future work should focus on improving the unit design, the evaluation of bio-solid filtration, and other food safety interventions.

  13. Peroxiredoxin Expression of Human Osteosarcoma Cells Is Influenced by Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümbel, Denis; Gelbrich, Nadine; Napp, Matthias; Daeschlein, Georg; Kramer, Axel; Sckell, Axel; Burchardt, Martin; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Stope, Matthias B

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the potential involvement of redox-specific signalling pathways in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP)-induced apoptosis on human osteosarcoma cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with CAP with or without antioxidative agents and seeded in cell culture plates. Cell proliferation was determined by counting viable cells. Carrier gas-treated cells served as control. Peroxiredoxin (PRX) 1-3 expression and secretion were assessed. CAP treatment exhibited strongly attenuated proliferation rates. This effect was significantly attenuated by the addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). CAP-treated cells exhibited an increase of PRX 1 and 2 10 sec after treatment. The ratio of oxidized to reduced PRX1 and PRX2 was significantly altered with increasing cellular concentration of the oxidized dimer. Antioxidant supplementation with NAC increases proliferation of CAP-treated osteosarcoma cells, implicating an involvement of redox signalling. Activation of PRX1 and -2 indicate CAP affects redox homeostasis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Characteristics of Major Oyster Allergen Cra g 1 (Tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Li, Guoming; Gu, Ruizeng; Cai, Muyi; Lu, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Shellfish, including oysters, often cause allergic reactions in adults. Thermal treatment is one of the most common technologies to deal with seafood, which may affect biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of heating on conformation and potential allergenicity of oyster-derived tropomyosin (Cra g 1). SDS-PAGE showed that there was an apparent band at 35KD of raw tropomyosin after purification and more significant polymers appeared in heated protein. Interestingly, the obviously changes in the intensity of CD signal and ANS-binding fluorescence were observed especially in the case of roasted form, which was associated with an increase in antibody reactivity. The degree of IgE binding of this treatment was demonstrated in the order roasted>boiled > raw. Furthermore, sequence alignment and amino acid composition revealed that Cra g 1 shared relatively high homology to tropomyosins from other shellfish and was abundant in lysine that was apt to be modified by reducing sugars during heating. Heated Cra g 1 produces higher IgE reactivity than raw one, owing to denaturation and formation of polymers. These findings will benefit more diagnosis and management of potential allergenicity due to shellfish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Does aetiology of neonatal encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy influence the outcome of treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, Sarah; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve; Nelson, Karin B

    2015-04-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy, a clinical syndrome affecting term-born and late preterm newborn infants, increases the risk of perinatal death and long-term neurological morbidity, especially cerebral palsy. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, a treatment designed for hypoxic or ischaemic injury, associated mortality and morbidity rates have decreased. Unfortunately, only about one in eight neonates (95% confidence interval) who meet eligibility criteria for therapeutic cooling apparently benefit from the treatment. Studies of infants in representative populations indicate that neonatal encephalopathy is a potential result of a variety of antecedents and that asphyxial complications at birth account for only a small percentage of neonatal encephalopathy. In contrast, clinical case series suggest that a large proportion of neonatal encephalopathy is hypoxic or ischaemic, and trials of therapeutic hypothermia are specifically designed to include only infants exposed to hypoxia or ischaemia. This review addresses the differences, definitional and methodological, between infants studied and investigations undertaken, in population studies compared with cooling trials. It raises the question if there may be subgroups of infants with a clinical diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in whom the pathobiology of neonatal neurological depression is not fundamentally hypoxic or ischaemic and, therefore, for whom cooling may not be beneficial. In addition, it suggests approaches to future trials of cooling plus adjuvant therapy that may contribute to further improvement of care for these vulnerable neonates. © The Authors. Journal compilation © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Influence of Heat Treatment on Biocorrosion and Hemocompatibility of Biodegradable Mg-35Zn-3Ca Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hui Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mg-35Zn-3Ca (wt.% alloy containing nontoxic and biocompatible Zn and Ca as alloying elements was prepared and subjected to heat treatment and artificial aging for different duration of time to reduce its rate of degradation. Solution heat treatment was performed at 310°C while artificial aging was performed at 170°C for 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 h and they were designated as AT0, AT1, AT2, AT3, and AT4, respectively. The finest and most homogenous reticulum was observed on the surface of the AT2 group. The result of immersion test in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS showed that the corrosion rate of the AT2 group was 2.32 mg/(cm2 day, which was significantly lower as compared to other groups P<0.05. The hemolysis value was ≤5% in all groups, indicating no toxicity during short-term blood reaction.

  17. Factors influencing dropout rate of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David Teye; Zankawah, Mumuni Mukaila; Adu-Gyamfi, Addae Boateng

    2016-10-10

    The burden of malaria in terms of morbidity and mortality is huge is Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pregnant women. Among the measures to curb down this burden include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and effective case management. These strategies were adopted by Ghana and implemented since 2003; however, there is still high dropout rate in IPT coverage. This study sought to investigate factors contributing to high dropout rate between IPT1 and IPT3 in the Tamale Metropolis, one of the health facilities with the highest IPT dropout rates in Ghana. Survey, in-depth interviews and short ethnographic techniques were conducted among pregnant women, antenatal care (ANC) health workers and heads of health facilities to investigate factors which account for dropout rate of intermittent treatment of malaria. Shortage of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), inadequate supply of portable water for administration of SP, unavailability of IPT during outreach services, lack of knowledge by ANC staff about the dropout rate in their area of jurisdiction and poor attitude of some health workers were identified as barriers to achieving high IPT3 coverage. Late ANC visit, provider and logistical barriers account for the women's missed opportunities to prevent malaria in pregnancy through IPT. Addressing the above barriers will contribute to saving lives and ensuring progress towards the goal of combating malaria as well as reducing maternal, neonatal and child mortalities.

  18. Influence of surface modification adopting thermal treatments on dispersion of detonation nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangyang; Yu Zhiming; Zhu Yongwei; Wang Baichun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the dispersion of detonation nanodiamonds (ND) in aqueous and non-aqueous media, a series of thermal treatments have been conducted in air ambient to modify ND surface. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were introduced to observe the primary size of ND. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) methodology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were adopted to analyze the structure, bonds at surfaces of the treated ND. Malvern instrument Zetasizer3000HS was used for measuring the surface electric potential and the size distribution of ND. As thermal treatments can cause graphitization and oxidization of functional groups at the surface, ND treated at high temperature is correspondingly more negatively charged in an aqueous medium, and the increased absolute value of zeta potential ensures the electrostatic stability of ND particles. Specially, after being treated at a temperature more than 850K, ND can be well dispersed in various media

  19. Factors influencing incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in conformal and standard radiation treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Epstein, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients treated with conformal technique are combined with and compared to 162 consecutive patients treated with standard techniques. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using the retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Univariate analysis compares differences in the incidence of RTOG-EORTC grade two acute morbidity by technique, T stage, age, irradiated volume, and dose. Multivariate logistic regression includes these same variables. Results: In nearly all categories, the conformal treatment group experienced significantly fewer acute grade 2 complications than the standard treatment group. Only volume (prostate ± whole pelvis) and technique (conformal vs. standard) were significantly related to incidence of morbidity on multivariate analysis. When dose is treated as a continuous variable (rather than being dichotomized into two levels), a trend is observed on multivariate analysis, but it does not reach significant levels. The incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients 65 years or older is significantly reduced by use of the conformal technique. Conclusion: The conformal technique is associated with fewer grade 2 acute toxicities for all patients. This

  20. Exploring factors influencing health-seeking decisions and retention in childhood cancer treatment programmes: perspectives of parents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lorna Awo; McGill, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Developing countries such as Ghana have very poor childhood cancer survival rates. There is a need to determine reasons for late presentation and treatment abandonment which are major causes of poor survival. Understanding these issues could inform effective strategies for childhood cancer control in resource-constrained settings. To explore factors influencing parental decision-making for children with cancer in Ghana with regard to health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions for childhood cancer control. This exploratory qualitative study was conducted based on an interpretative epistemology using a social constructionist approach. Purposive sampling of parents attending the Paediatric Oncology Unit, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana was undertaken. Twelve semi-structured moderate interviews and two small focus group discussions with a total of seven participants were undertaken. Data analysis was through thematic content analysis. Five major themes emerged. Knowledge and perceptions revealed a total lack of appropriate knowledge prior to diagnosis. Health-seeking behaviour was determined by interplay of individual and environmental factors. Orthodox medical treatment was largely perceived favourably. The impact of cancer on parents and children included psychological, physical and socioeconomic effects. Financial, spiritual and psychosocial support helped in coping. Parents recommended public education and health financing to address the major barriers. Broad social determinants and experiences influence parental decision making for children with cancer. This implies Health Promotion strategies with multi-sectorial involvement will be required for effective implementation of the National Strategy for Cancer Control. Funded by authors.

  1. Influence of a metaphylactic treatment with Baycox(®) Bovis on the reproductive performances of Fresian heifers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Nisoli, Lucio; Diaferia, Manuela; Falcini, Roberto; Ficola, Emanuele; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili

    2013-06-01

    A blind, randomised, controlled, multicentric field trial was conducted to assess the influence of a metaphylactic treatment with an oral solution of toltrazuril on some reproductive parameters of Italian Fresian heifers during the first 18-20 months of life. For this goal 40 calves were selected from two dairy farms and randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: MTol, treated with toltrazuril and NegC, left untreated. The calves were clinically and coprologically examined over the entire study period. The body condition scores, the body weights and the age at the first service were recorded and compared between the two groups, in addition to some other reproductive parameters including number of pregnancies, average service per pregnancy, conception rate, conception rate at first service and post first service conception rate. The analysis of the results showed that the metaphylactic treatment with toltrazuril influenced positively the average age of the first service (MTol 461.4 days versus NegC 485.45 days), the overall conception rate (MTol 95 % versus NegC 85 %), the success at first (MTol 60 % versus NegC 45 %) and second (MTol 75 % versus NegC 45 %) services and, consequently, the mean number of services to be carried out for each animal (MTol 1.4 ± 0.6 versus NegC 1.6 ± 0.79). Furthermore, the results confirmed that toltrazuril treatment, applied in accordance with the epidemiological aspects of each farm, is highly efficacious in persistent reduction of oocyst excretions with particular reference to Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria bovis, considered to be mainly responsible for clinical coccidiosis.

  2. Micronutrients evaluation and its influence on secondary metabolism of Bidens pilosa and Salvia officinalis, plants applied in diabetes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo Daniel Moreno Reis

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects the carbohydrates, lipids and proteins metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose excretion by urine. It is estimated that the number of cases of this disease will increase in the coming years, worrying the public health system of the most affected countries. Besides the use of allopathic medicine, complementary treatments such as the use of medicinal plants can contribute to improving the patients quality of life. Among the herbs used, both in Brazil and in other countries, are Bidens pilosa and Salvia officinalis. The mechanisms responsible for antidiabetic activity of the plants, are usually associated with secondary metabolites, however, the influence of micronutrient content should not be discarded. Studies have shown that there is a correlation between the concentration of these elements and the presence and development of the disease. The objective of this work was to study the elements Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn concentration in Bidens pilosa (beggarticks) and Salvia officinalis (sage) cultivated with normal treatment (commercial substrate) and, with the addition of these elements, to verify their influence in the production of secondary metabolites that can act as hypoglycemic agents. The elemental determination and quantification were performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. For the secondary metabolites analysis Liquid Chromatography High Performance technique was used. The results indicated that B. pilosa and S. officinalis may be used as sources of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn. It was observed that B. pilosa absorbed a larger amount of Fe in the treatment group, and S. officinalis was able to accumulate Zn its in leaves whether treated or not. Considering the secondary metabolism compounds, the results indicated that its production by plants was apparently not altered by the addition of the nutrient solution. (author)

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TB treatment initiation and adherence in a South African community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. The Eastern Cape is known as a province with high TB incidence, prevalence and with one of the worst cure rates of South Africa. Its inhabitants can be considered lay experts when it comes to TB. Therefore, we investigated knowledge, perceptions of (access to TB treatment and adherence to treatment among an Eastern Cape population. Methods An area-stratified sampling design was applied. A total of 1020 households were selected randomly in proportion to the total number of households in each neighbourhood. Results TB knowledge can be considered fairly good among this community. Respondents' perceptions suggest that stigma may influence TB patients' decision in health seeking behavior and adherence to TB treatment. A full 95% of those interviewed believe people with TB tend to hide their TB status out of fear of what others may say. Regression analyses revealed that in this population young and old, men and women and the lower and higher educated share the same attitudes and perceptions. Our findings are therefore likely to reflect the actual situation of TB patients in this population. Conclusions The lay experts' perceptions suggests that stigma appears to effect case holding and case finding. Future interventions should be directed at improving attitudes and perceptions to potentially reduce stigma. This requires a patient-centered approach to empower TB patients and active involvement in the development and implementation of stigma reduction programs.

  5. Influence of Heat Treatments on Electrical Properties and Microstructure of 10 % Mass Fraction of Sucrose YBCO Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalida Salleh; Fariesha, F.; Azhan, H.; Yusainee, S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different heat treatments on the superconducting properties of 10 % mass fraction of sucrose structure YBCO superconductor was investigated. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipment were used to determine the phase of superconductor and structural studies respectively at 10 % mass fraction of sucrose. The samples were prepared via solid state (SSM) and co-precipitation (CPM) reaction methods and underwent sintering and heat treatment process at 900, 930 and 960 degree Celsius respectively with mixing of C 12 H 22 O 11 sucrose during pelletization. The T C,on decreases with respect to higher heat treatment temperature. The suppression of both T C,on and T C,off indicates the destruction of superconductivity trends. The best T C,off were achieved in pure SSM and CPM samples sintered at 950 degree Celsius for 5 hours with T C,off 86 K and 91 K respectively. Comparing with pure YBCO, the 10 % mass fraction of sucrose YBCO exhibited higher critical current, I C by two times. It indicates the effect of high surface area in porous structure. The XRD results confirmed that all the samples remain in single phase, which indicates no effect of sucrose in the porous structures sample and maintaining in orthorhombic structure. Higher heat treatment at 960 degree Celsius resulted in destruction on its superconductivity behavior due to the partial melt phase on its microstructure, especially in CPM. This is due to the smaller grain size of samples which trapped more heat and causing partial melting to occur rapidly. It can be deduced that, annealing temperatures at 900 and 930 degree Celsius are the best optimum heat treatments for CPM and SSM porous superconductor, respectively. (author)

  6. Efficacy and safety of insulin pump treatment in adult T1DM patients--influence of age and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Małgorzata; Matejko, Bartłomiej; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Kozek, Elżbieta; Małecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) via personal insulin pump is a valuable therapeutic tool in T1DM patients. However, adherence to recommended CSII-related behaviours may be of concern to young adults with intensive, variable daily activities (students, young professionals). The aim of this observational study was to estimate treatment outcomes in young adult patients with T1DM, and compare them with older individuals. Overall, 140 adults with T1DM on CSII were examined, divided into 2 subgroups: 77 patients younger than 26 years of age (mean 20.6 years) and 63 older subjects (mean 39.0). We compared the glycaemic control in both groups of T1DM subjects and analyzed treatment attitudes to identify potentially modifiable behaviours influencing the efficacy of the treatment. The younger individuals were characterized by significantly worse treatment outcomes, compared to the older ones: the mean HbA1c levels were 7.6 ± 1.3% and 6.9±1.3% (p=0.00001), while the mean glucose levels based on glucometer downloads were 161±33.6 mg/dL and 136±21.8 mg/dL (p=0.00001), respectively. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was lower in younger individuals (5.3±2.1 vs. 7.0±2.8 daily, p=0.0005, respectively); they were also less frequently used advanced pump functions, e.g. the bolus calculator (48% vs. 67% users, p=0.0014, respectively). The efficacy of CSII treatment observed in young T1DM adults was worse than in older patients. The reason for this phenomenon remains unclear, it may be due simply to age-dependend behaviours, to social environment, or both.

  7. Influence of oxidation treatment on ballistic electron surface-emitting display of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wentao; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Wenjiang; Duan, Xiaotao

    2012-01-01

    Two groups of porous silicon (PS) samples are treated by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images show that PS samples are segmented into two layers. Oxidized film layer is formed on the top surface of PS samples treated by RTO while at the bottom of PS samples treated by ECO. Both ECO and RTO treatment can make emission current density, diode current density, and emission efficiency of PS increase with the bias voltage increasing. The emission current density and the field emission enhancement factor β of PS sample treated by RTO are larger than that treated by ECO. The Fowler–Nordheim curves of RTO and ECO samples are linear which indicates that high electric field exists on the oxidized layer and field emission occurs whether PS is treated by RTO or ECO.

  8. Influence of heat treatment on corrosion behaviour of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr-Sc alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Y.P.; Liu, X.Y.; He, Y.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Pan, Q.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, W.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Civil Engineering, Hunan City University, Yiyang 413000 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Corrosion behaviour of different tempers (namely NA, UA, PA and OA) of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr-Sc alloy was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Over aged (OA) can decrease the susceptibility to exfoliation due to the discontinuous distribution of the {eta} precipitates at the grain boundaries, cause a negative shift of the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}), and lead to the prolonging of the time of the appearance of two time constants in impedance diagrams. In addition, Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr-Sc alloy with over aged treatment has an enhanced resistance to exfoliation corrosion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

  10. Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

  11. Influence of TiO{sub 2} Surface Properties on Water Pollution Treatment and Photocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Min [Southwest Univ. of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China)

    2013-03-15

    The titania surface showed different characteristics depending on the charge of the dye molecules. Compared with the MB molecules, the negatively charged MO molecules strongly adsorbed on the titania surface. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics of the dye molecules by the photocatalytic activity also deepened with the charge of the dye molecules. The relation between the UV irradiation time and the molar ratio of the decomposed dye molecules followed the Avrami equation. According to the results of the analysis by using the Avrami equation, the MO molecules were decomposed on the titania particle surface. In contrast, the MB molecules were decomposed in the aqueous solution. The difference in kinetics was related to the interaction of the dye molecules and the titania surface. These preferential adsorption and decomposition characteristics will improve its applications in water pollution treatment.

  12. Influence of surface treatment on the biocompatibility of aluminum substrates promising for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiradzhiyska, D. D., E-mail: denica.kiradjiiska@gmail.com; Mantcheva, R. D., E-mail: r-manch@abv.bg [Medical University - Plovdiv, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Chemical Science15A Vassil Aprilov blvd., 4002 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Feodorova, Y. N.; Draganov, M. M. [Medical University - Plovdiv, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Biology, 15A Vassil Aprilov blvd., 4002 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Girginov, Ch. A. [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy -Sofia, Department of Chemical Science, Subdepartment of Physical Chemistry, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd. 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Viraneva, A. P.; Yovcheva, T. A. [University of Plovdiv “Paisiy Hilendarski”, Faculty of Physics, Department of Experimental Physic, 24 Tsar Assen str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2016-03-25

    Materials for medical implants should have suitable mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. They should not stimulate allergic and immunologic reactions and should not cause cancer. The use of aluminum as a construction material in implantology is continuously expanding. There are various methods for surface treatment to improve its biocompatibility. In this study aluminum samples anodized in 15% H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} or treated with positive or negative corona discharge were investigated. PDL-cell line of immortalized cells, precursors of periodontal ligament and RAW 264.7 cell line from mouse macrophages are used for the bioassays. The results show that 10 and 20 μm thick oxide film provides better development of the PLD cells, compared to untreated aluminum. Metal surfaces with 10 μm thick oxide film show the best properties in terms of cells vitality, proliferation and growth. Polymer treated but uncharged samples show good results.

  13. Influence of composition, heat treatment and neutron irradiation on the electrical conductivity of copper alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of three different types of copper alloys, viz. CuNiBe, CuCrZr and Cu-Al(2)O(3) as well as of pure copper are reported. The alloys have undergone different pre-irradiation heat treatments and have been fission-neutron irradiated up to 0.3 dpa. In some cases post......-irradiation annealing has been carried out. The results are discussed with reference to equivalent Transmission Electron Microscopy results on the microstructure of the materials. The CuNiBe has the lowest conductivity (less than or equal to 55% of that of pure Cu), and Cu-Al(2)O(3) the highest (75-90% of pure Cu). (C...

  14. Influence of composition, heat treatment and neutron irradiation on the electrical conductivity of copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldrup, M.; Singh, B. N.

    1998-10-01

    The electrical conductivity of three different types of copper alloys, viz. CuNiBe, CuCrZr and Cu-Al 2O 3 as well as of pure copper are reported. The alloys have undergone different pre-irradiation heat treatments and have been fission-neutron irradiated up to 0.3 dpa. In some cases post-irradiation annealing has been carried out. The results are discussed with reference to equivalent Transmission Electron Microscopy results on the microstructure of the materials. The CuNiBe has the lowest conductivity (⩽55% of that of pure Cu), and Cu-Al 2O 3 the highest (75-90% of pure Cu).

  15. Influence of ultraviolet irradiation treatment on porcelain bond strength of titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, Tomonari; Ohno, Akinori; Hori, Norio; Hoshi, Noriyuki; Maruo, Katsuichiro; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Seimiya, Kazuhide; Toyoda, Minoru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko

    2018-01-26

    To determine the effect of titanium (Ti) surface modification by ultraviolet irradiation (UVI) on the bond strength between Ti and porcelain. Grade 2 Ti plates were allotted to five groups: sandblasted (SA), 15 min UVI (UV), SA+5 min UVI (SA+UV5), SA+10 min UVI (SA+UV10), and SA+15 min UVI (SA+UV15). After surface treatment, porcelain was added. A precious metal (MC) was used for comparison with Ti. The effects of 24-h storage at room temperature versus thermal cycling only at 5 and 55°C in water were evaluated. Subsequently, the tensile strength of each sample was tested. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test. In both the room temperature and thermal cycling groups, the MC and SA+15 min UVI samples showed significantly greater bond strengths than the other samples (pbond strength between porcelain and the Ti surface.

  16. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Biological Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina Liana; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Voicu, Georgeta; Vasile, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Predoi, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and morphological properties of silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with a silver concentration x Ag = 0.5 before and after being thermal treated at 600 and 1000 °C. The results obtained by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the structure of the samples changes gradually, from hydroxyapatite (AgHAp_40) to a predominant β-TCP structure (AgHAp_1000), achieved when the thermal treatment temperature is 1000 °C. In the AgHAp_600 sample, the presence of two phases, HAp and β-TCP, was highlighted. Also, scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the shape and dimension of the nanoparticles begin to change when the temperature increases. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was evaluated against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans strains.

  17. Influence of drying treatments on antioxidant capacity of forage legume leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Saw Yei; Jamharee, Fazrina; Prasad, K Nagendra; Azlan, Azrina; Maliki, Nurzillah

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant capacities of four common forage legume leaves namely, Arachis pintoi (Pintoi), Calapogonium mucunoides (Calapo), Centrosema pubescens (Centro), and Stylosanthes guanensis (Stylo). Two different drying methods (oven-drying and freeze-drying) were employed and antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assays. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Freeze-dried extract showed the highest antioxidant activities by DPPH (EC50 values 1.17-2.13 mg/ml), FRAP (147.08-246.42 μM of Fe(2+)/g), and β-carotene bleaching (57.11-78.60%) compared to oven drying. Hence, freeze drying treatment could be considered useful in retention of antioxidant activity and phenolic content.

  18. Influence of hydrofluoric acid treatment on electroless deposition of Au clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachela G. Milazzo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs deposited on a (100 silicon wafer by simple immersion in a solution containing a metal salt and hydrofluoric acid (HF is altered by HF treatment both before and after deposition. The gold clusters are characterized by the presence of flat regions and quasispherical particles consistent with the layer-by-layer or island growth modes, respectively. The cleaning procedure, including HF immersion prior to deposition, affects the predominantly occurring gold structures. Flat regions, which are of a few tens of nanometers long, are present after immersion for 10 s. The three-dimensional (3D clusters are formed after a cleaning procedure of 4 min, which results in a large amount of spherical particles with a diameter of ≈15 nm and in a small percentage of residual square layers of a few nanometers in length. The samples were also treated with HF after the deposition and we found out a general thickening of flat regions, as revealed by TEM and AFM analysis. This result is in contrast to the coalescence observed in similar experiments performed with Ag. It is suggested that the HF dissolves the silicon oxide layer formed on top of the thin flat clusters and promotes the partial atomic rearrangement of the layered gold atoms, driven by a reduction of the surface energy. The X-ray diffraction investigation indicated changes in the crystalline orientation of the flat regions, which partially lose their initially heteroepitaxial relationship with the substrate. A postdeposition HF treatment for almost 70 s has nearly the same effect of long duration, high temperature annealing. The process presented herein could be beneficial to change the spectral response of nanoparticle arrays and to improve the conversion efficiency of hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  19. Influence of heat treatment on the microstructure, texture and formability of 2024 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, Charles K.S., E-mail: cloo8000@uni.sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Weiss, Matthias [Centre for Materials and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, VIC 3217 (Australia); Xia, Junhai [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sha, Gang; Ringer, Simon P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ranzi, Gianluca [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2012-08-30

    We have investigated the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, texture and formability of high-strength aluminium Al2024 sheets of gauge thicknesses 1.27 mm and 2.03 mm. Both optical and electron microscopy were employed to characterise the microstructure. Tensile tests performed at 0 Degree-Sign , 45 Degree-Sign and 90 Degree-Sign to the rolling direction were used as an indication of the anisotropic behaviour of the sheets. The formability of the sheets was assessed by performing stretch forming tests over a hemispherical punch. Comparison of microstructure and material properties indicated an effect of precipitation hardening on the overall anisotropy of the investigated materials. We report an improvement in the total elongation under uniaxial tension with a loss in strength for 2.5 h and 2 days ageing while the ageing treatment for 1 week (peak hardness) resulted in increased strength with a decline in total elongation. The 1.27 mm thick sheet showed better drawability and least tendency to earing than the thicker sheet. The drawability was the highest at 45 Degree-Sign to the rolling direction for the as-received material and those that had been aged for 2.5 h and 2 days. Forming limit diagrams derived from the stretch forming tests showed that the 2 days aged sample had the highest plane strain limit making it the most appropriate condition considering that the plane strain is usually the most critical forming strain in stamping applications. In addition, the 2 days aged sample had its plane strain shifted towards the biaxial stretching area which is likely to have a positive effect on some sheet forming applications. Finally, a formability index was calculated and compared against the hardness plot.

  20. Impairment of wound healing after operative treatment of mandibular fractures, and the influence of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snäll, Johanna; Kormi, Eeva; Lindqvist, Christian; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Mesimäki, Karri; Törnwall, Jyrki; Thorén, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to clarify the incidence of impaired wound healing after open reduction and ostheosynthesis of mandibular fractures, and to find out whether the use of dexamethasone during the operation increased the risk. Patients were drawn from a larger group of healthy adult dentate patients who had participated in a single-blind, randomised study, the aim of which was to clarify the benefits of operative dexamethasone after treatment of facial fractures. The present analysis comprised 41 patients who had had open reduction and fixation of mandibular fractures with titanium miniplates and monocortical screws through one or 2 intraoral approaches. The outcome variable was impaired healing of the wound. The primary predictive variable was the perioperative use of dexamethasone; other potential predictive variables were age, sex, smoking habit, type of fracture, delay in treatment, and duration of operation. Wound healing was impaired in 13/41 patients (32%) (13/53 of all fractures). The incidence among patients who were given dexamethasone and those who were not did not differ significantly. Only age over 25 was significantly associated with delayed healing (p=0.02). The use of dexamethasone 30 mg perioperatively did not significantly increase the risk of impaired wound healing in healthy patients with clinically uninfected mandibular fractures fixed with titanium miniplates through an intraoral approach. Older age is a significant predictor of impaired healing, which emphasises the importance of thorough anti-infective care in these patients during and after the operation. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of thermal treatment on color, enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of innovative pastelike parsley products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andrea; Brinkmann, Maike; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-03-28

    Conventional spice powders are often characterized by low sensory quality and high microbial loads. Furthermore, genuine enzymes are only inhibited but not entirely inactivated upon drying, so that they may regain their activity upon rehydration of dried foods. To overcome these problems, initial heating was applied in the present study as the first process step for the production of innovative pastelike parsley products. For this purpose, fresh parsley was blanched (80, 90, and 100 °C for 1-10 min) and subsequently comminuted to form a paste. Alternatively, mincing was carried out prior to heat treatment. Regardless of temperature, the color of the latter product did not show any change after heating for 1 min. With progressing exposure time the green color turned to olive hues due to marked pheophytin formation. Inactivation of genuine peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was achieved at all temperature-time regimes applied. In contrast, the parsley products obtained after immediate water-blanching were characterized by brighter green colors and enhanced pigment retention. With the exception of the variants water-blanched at 80 °C, POD and PPO were completely inactivated at any of the thermal treatments. Furthermore, in water-blanched samples, antioxidant capacities as determined by the TEAC and FRAP assays were even enhanced compared to unheated parsley, whereas a decrease of phenolic contents could not be prevented. Consequently, the innovative process presented in this study allows the production of novel herb and spice products characterized by improved sensory quality as compared to conventional spice products.

  2. Influence of septic system wastewater treatment on titanium dioxide nanoparticle subsurface transport mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Travis; Marcus, Ian M; Walker, Sharon L

    2018-06-04

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are commonly incorporated into food and consumer applications to enhance a specific product aspect (i.e., optical properties). Life cycle analyses revealed ENMs can be released from products during usage and reach wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) accounting for a large fraction. As such, food grade (FG) TiO 2 , a more common form of TiO 2 in wastewater, was used in this study. Nanomaterials in WWTPs have been well characterized, although the problematic septic system has been neglected. Elution and bioaccumulation of TiO 2 ENMs from WTTPs in downriver sediments and microorganisms has been observed; however, little is known about mechanisms governing the elution of FG TiO 2 from the septic drainage system. This study characterized the transport behavior and mechanisms of FG TiO 2 particles in porous media conditions after septic waste treatment. FG and industrial grade (IG) TiO 2 (more commonly studied) were introduced to septic tank effluent and low-ionic strength electrolyte solutions prior to column transport experiments. Results indicate that FG TiO 2 aggregate size (200-400 nm) remained consistent across solutions. Additionally, elution of FG and IG TiO 2 was greatest in septic effluent at the higher nanoparticle concentration (100 ppm). FG TiO 2 was well retained at the low (2 ppm) concentration in septic effluent, suggesting that particles that escape the septic system may still be retained in drainage field before reaching the groundwater system, although eluted particles are highly stabilized. Findings provide valuable insight into the significance of the solution environment at mediating differences observed between uniquely engineered nanomaterials. Graphical abstract.

  3. Thermal treatment influence on the preparation of BPSCCO superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torsoni, Guilherme Botega; Carvalho, Claudio Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, with the evolution of technology, superconducting thin films application in microelectronics is essential for production of some equipment with reduced size and low energy consumption. There are different ways to prepare thin films, however deposition in liquid phase have received special attention, whose main features are: fast deposition, reduced cost and the possibility of covering large areas. Basically, the method consists to deposit a polymeric precursor solution, with synthesis based on the methodology developed by M. Pechini, on a crystalline substrate using a spin coating equipment also called spinner. In the deposition process by spinner, must be considered some physical parameters, such as, rotation speed, viscosity solution, substrate acceleration and rotating time, evaporation rate and temperature solution. Immediately after the deposition, the material is submitted to different thermal treatments, this consists of two stages, in other words, calcination and sintering stages. The objective of the first stage is to remove the organic compounds, which can be done at temperatures around 500 deg C - 600 deg C, and the other stage, it can be done around 750 deg C and 850 deg C, it means the same interval of phase formation. In this work, films were made with five layers of deposition on Si substrate in three different sintering temperatures, 750, 800 and 850 deg C and it was studied the evolution of the films due to thermal treatment applied. Characterizations were made by x-ray diffraction, microscopy by field emission gun and energy dispersive x-ray (EDS). X-ray diffractograms shown that 2212 phase was obtained in all samples submitted to different temperatures, for higher sintering temperature was not observed any kind of crystalline planes orientation and the electron microscopy and EDS showed that the films are also more homogeneous. (author)

  4. Influence of comorbidities on therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes I Vitry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether the number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was associated with a delay in therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using data from the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA claims database between July 2000 and June 2008. The study included new users of metformin or sulfonylurea medicines. The outcome was the time to addition or switch to another antidiabetic treatment. The total number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was identified using the pharmaceutical-based comorbidity index, Rx-Risk-V. Competing risk regression analyses were conducted, with adjustments for a number of covariates that included age, gender, residential status, use of endocrinology service, number of hospitalisation episodes and adherence to diabetes medicines. Overall, 20,134 veterans were included in the study. At one year, 23.5% of patients with diabetes had a second medicine added or had switched to another medicine, with 41.4% progressing by 4 years. The number of unrelated comorbidities was significantly associated with the time to addition of an antidiabetic medicine or switch to insulin (subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.84-0.91], P<0.001. Depression, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and Parkinson's disease were individually associated with a decreased likelihood of therapeutic progression. Age, residential status, number of hospitalisations and adherence to anti-diabetic medicines delayed therapeutic progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing numbers of unrelated conditions decreased the likelihood of therapeutic progression in veterans with diabetes. These results have implications for the development of quality measures, clinical guidelines and the construction of models of care for management of diabetes in elderly people with comorbidities.