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Sample records for cd3eap influence treatment

  1. Polymorphisms in the genes ERCC2, XRCC3 and CD3EAP influence treatment outcome in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette; Gimsing, Peter; Klausen, Tobias W

    2007-01-01

    Individual variations in the ability to cope with DNA damage by DNA repair may be essential for the response to chemotherapy, since cancer cells from patients with an effective DNA repair may survive treatment. We have studied the effect on time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS...... TTF was only seen in women (p = 0.001). Carriers of the combination of variant alleles of ERCC2 K751Q and XRCC3 T241M had 2.8-fold longer TTF (p = 0.0002). This indicates that suboptimal repair of both DNA mechanisms favors prolonged TTF and that polymorphism in ERCC2, XRCC3 and CD3EAP predicts...

  2. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette Juul; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    with interferon-a (INF-a) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NF¿B1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... carriers of RAI-intron1-1 or CD3EAP G-21A had the longest OS. Among patients treated with INF-a or thalidomide, no effect was seen in relation to genotype. Our results indicate that polymorphism in RAI and CD3EAP are associated with outcome of myeloma patients treated with HDT. Combination analyses...

  3. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    with interferon-α (INF-α) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NFКB1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... carriers of RAI-intron1-1 or CD3EAP G-21A had the longest OS. Among patients treated with INF-α or thalidomide, no effect was seen in relation to genotype. Our results indicate that polymorphism in RAI and CD3EAP are associated with outcome of myeloma patients treated with HDT. Combination analyses...

  4. A polymorphism in NFKB1 is associated with improved effect of interferon-alpha maintenance treatment of patients with multiple myeloma after high-dose treatment with stem cell support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J; Klausen, Tobias W; Gimsing, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    and Methods: In a retrospective study of 296 patients with multiple myelom undergoing high-dose therapy between 1994 and 2004, 146 patients were treated with interferon- as maintenance therapy. We tested the polymorphisms IL1B T-31C, IL6 G-174C, NFKB1-94ins/delATTG, CD3EAP G-21A and PPP1R13L IVS1 A4364G...... homozygous for the wild type G allele of IL6 G-174C who survived longer (p= 0.0074) than variant allele carriers. There was no association between the polymorphisms IL1B T-31C, CD3EAP G-21A and PPP1R13L IVS1 A4364G and treatment outcome for interferon-. Conclusions: Patients who are homozygous carriers...... for associations with time to treatment failure and overall survival with and without interferon- treatment. Results: The wild type ins-allele of polymorphism NFKB1-94 ins/delATTG was, by multivariate Cox analysis, associated with longer time to treatment failure (p=0.01) and overall survival (p=0.0084) when...

  5. Side effects as influencers of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Zafar

    2008-01-01

    Research relative to the efficacy of a therapeutic agent commands a clinician's greatest interest, but treatment decisions are made based on optimizing efficacy and tolerability/safety considerations. Second-generation atypical antipsychotic drugs are a study in the importance of taking a careful look at the full benefit-risk profile of each drug. The disorders that atypical antipsychotics are approved to treat--schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder--are associated with an increased rate of certain medical comorbidities compared to the general population. Between-drug differences in efficacy are relatively modest for the atypicals, or between atypicals and conventionals, while differences in safety and tolerability are larger and more clinically relevant. The current article will provide a brief summary of safety-related issues that influence treatment outcome and choice of drug.

  6. Choice of treatment with antidepressants: influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Wranik, Dominika W

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders place a large burden on patients and on society. Although efficacious treatment options for unipolar depressive disorders exist, substantial gaps in care remain. In part, the challenge lies in the matching of individual patients with appropriate care. This is complicated by the steady increases in the variety of antidepressants available in the market. The goal of this study is to highlight the decision processes in the selection of antidepressants by clinicians, given that most treatments have similar clinical effectiveness profiles. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that referred to the decisions surrounding treatment with antidepressants for the treatment of non-psychotic unipolar depression. Our analysis of the literature reveals that the choice of treatment is based on a variety of factors, of which clinical evidence is only one. These factors can be categorized into clinical factors such as illness and treatment characteristics, individual factors such as patient and physician characteristics, and contextual factors such as setting characteristics, decision supports and pharmacoeconomic aspects. Illness characteristics are defined by the type and severity of depression. Treatment characteristics include drug properties, efficacy, effectiveness and favorable as well as unintended adverse effects of the drug. Examples for patient characteristics are co-morbidities and individual preferences, and physician characteristics include knowledge, experience, values and beliefs, and the relationship with the patient. Treatment guidelines, algorithms, and most recently, computational supports and biological markers serve as decision supports.

  7. Influence of hydrogen treatment on SCR catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    reduction (SCR) process, i.e. the catalytic removal of NOx from the flue gas. A series of experiments was conducted to reveal the impact on the NO SCR activity of a industrial DeNOX catalyst (3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2) by treatment of H2. Standard conditions were treatment of the SCR catalyst for 60 min with three...... different concentrations of H2 (0-2%) in a 8% O2/N2 mixture, where the SCR activity was measured before and after the hydrogen treatment. The results show that the activity of the SCR catalyst is only negligible affected during exposure to the H2/O2 gas and in all cases it returned reversibly to the initial...... NOx conversion (temporarily higher) after reexposure to the standard NO SCR gas. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) suggests that a fraction of both V(IV) and V(V) were reduced to V(III) during exposure to 2% H2 + 8% O2. However, the distribution of vanadium in oxidation state V(III)-V(V) quickly...

  8. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  9. Influence of laser treatment on the fatigue of notched bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHui; LingWeiye; JiangShouwei

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue cutting is a new approach for separating material. Man-made fatigue can be realized by applying a rotating bending load to a notched bar. To better utilize the new method, laser treatment is adopted in this study. After laser radiation at the notch root, the fatigue cycle of the bar drops dramatically. Based on the experimental result, we draw the conclusion that the fatigue of the bar is influenced by the shape of the hardened area. A hardened area that has a small axial dimension and a relatively large radial dimension facilitates the fatigue. The desirable hardened area can be obtained by controlling the laser treatment parameters.

  10. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  11. Factors influencing response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiyama J

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 150 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1990 to 1996 (i to evaluate the frequency of drug resistance, (ii to elucidate factors influencing the response to chemotherapy, and (iii to attempt to improve the therapeutic approach. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains were not found. By univariate analysis, there were 8 factors associated with an increased sputum conversion time: male gender, prior treatment, complications, progressive chest radiographic findings, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, lymphocytopenia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and hypoproteinemia. Complications, prior treatment, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, and a high ESR were independent predictive factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA defined 3 subgroups that responded to treatment. In order to reduce the time to sputum conversion, poor responders according to the RPA should be treated with a 4-drug regimen containing pyrazinamide.

  12. Factors influencing the treatment of posterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittivej, Kittimasak; Prompaet, Sureeporn; Rojanasthien, Sattaya

    2005-10-01

    The primary objective was to determine the factors which influence the requirement of surgical treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury. Ninety one PCL injured patients diagnosed in the "Sports Medicine Clinic", Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from January 1998 to December 2000 were included in the present study. There were 63 males and 28 females with an average age of 29 years. All of the PCL-insufficient knees were initially treated by non-operative method including 3 phases of rehabilitation. They were followed through to the end of December 2003. Analysis showed that the degree of posterior laxity was the only factor that had a statistical significant correlation to failure of conservative treatment. In addition, the need for surgical treatment was not associated with gender age, cause of injury, and concomitant of injury. The authors concluded that PCL injured patients with posterior laxity greater than 10 millimeters should be treated by PCL reconstruction.

  13. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well.

  14. The influence of surface treatment on the implant roughness pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Borges Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An important parameter for the clinical success of dental implants is the formation of direct contact between the implant and surrounding bone, whose quality is directly influenced by the implant surface roughness. A screw-shaped design and a surface with an average roughness of Sa of 1-2 µm showed a better result. The combination of blasting and etching has been a commonly used surface treatment technique. The versatility of this type of treatment allows for a wide variation in the procedures in order to obtain the desired roughness. OBJECTIVES: To compare the roughness values and morphological characteristics of 04 brands of implants, using the same type of surface treatment. In addition, to compare the results among brands, in order to assess whether the type of treatment determines the values and the characteristics of implant surface roughness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three implants were purchased directly from each selected company in the market, i.e., 03 Brazilian companies (Biomet 3i of Brazil, Neodent and Titaniumfix and 01 Korean company (Oneplant. The quantitative or numerical characterization of the roughness was performed using an interferometer. The qualitative analysis of the surface topography obtained with the treatment was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy images. RESULTS: The evaluated implants showed a significant variation in roughness values: Sa for Oneplant was 1.01 µm; Titaniumfix reached 0.90 µm; implants from Neodent 0.67 µm, and Biomet 3i of Brazil 0.53 µm. Moreover, the SEM images showed very different patterns for the surfaces examined. CONCCLUSIONS: The surface treatment alone is not able to determine the roughness values and characteristics.

  15. Three-year registry data on biological treatment for psoriasis: the influence of patient characteristics on treatment outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, R.J.B.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The course of biological treatment in clinical practice may be highly different from treatment schedules in clinical trials. Treatment modifications and patient characteristics may influence treatment safety and efficacy. So far, long-term results from the use of biological treatment in

  16. Psychological influences on the timing of orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, A W; Kiyak, H A

    1998-01-01

    Debates about the "ideal" timing of orthodontic treatment have focused on issues of biologic development and readiness. In this article we examine psychologic issues that should be considered in the decision to initiate orthodontics in the younger child or to wait until adolescence or later. Psychologic development during the preadolescent and adolescent stages may influence the child's motive for, understanding of, and adherence to treatment regimens. Results of a study of some personality characteristics, motives, and aesthetic values of young phase I patients are presented. Questionnaires were completed by 75 children (mean age 10.85 years, 52.1% female, 84% white) and their parents. Children's perceived reasons for treatment were consistent with their parents' reports (chi 2 = 76.08, p crowded teeth (56%) and overbite (17.3%). Although body image and self-concept scores were within the normal range, both children and their parents expected the most improvement in self-image and oral function, with greater expectations by parents on self-image (p crowded teeth (p < .02), overbite (p < .02), and diastema (p < .01) more negatively than did ethnic minorities. These results suggest that younger children are good candidates for Phase I orthodontics, have high self-esteem and body-image, and expect orthodontics to improve their lives. White children who have been referred for Phase I orthodontics appear to have a narrower range of aesthetic acceptability than minority children.

  17. Influence of DTPA Treatment on Internal Dose Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Peleau, Bernadette; Correze, Philippe; Bohand, Sandra; Franck, Didier

    2016-06-01

    In case of internal contamination with plutonium materials, a treatment with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be administered in order to reduce plutonium body burden and consequently avoid some radiation dose. DTPA intravenous injections or inhalation can start almost immediately after intake, in parallel with urinary and fecal bioassay sampling for dosimetric follow-up. However, urine and feces excretion will be significantly enhanced by the DTPA treatment. As internal dose is calculated from bioassay results, the DTPA effect on excretion has to be taken into account. A common method to correct bioassay data is to divide it by a factor representing the excretion enhancement under DTPA treatment by intravenous injection. Its value may be based on a nominal reference or observed after a break in the treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of this factor on internal dose by comparing the dose estimated using default or upper and lower values of the enhancement factor for 11 contamination cases. The observed upper and lower values of the enhancement factor were 18.7 and 63.0 for plutonium and 24.9 and 28.8 for americium. For americium, a default factor of 25 is proposed. This work demonstrates that the use of a default DTPA enhancement factor allows the determination of the magnitude of the contamination because dose estimated could vary by a factor of 2 depending on the value of the individual DTPA enhancement factor. In case of significant intake, an individual enhancement factor should be determined to obtain a more reliable dose assessment.

  18. INFLUENCE OF REACTION CONDITIONS ON LIGNIN HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier eErdocia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organosolv lignin, obtained from olive tree pruning under optimised conditions, was subjected to a hydrothermal depolymerisation process catalysed by sodium hydroxide. The depolymerisation of lignin was carried out at 300 ºC using different reaction times (20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 min in order to study the influence of this parameter on lignin depolymerisation. The resulting products (oil and residual lignin were measured and analysed by different techniques (GC/MS, HPSEC and pyrolysis-GC/MS in order to determine their nature and composition. Coke was also formed, at a lower quantity, incompetitive repolymerisation reactions during the lignin hydrothermal treatment. The maximum oil yield and concentration of monomeric phenolic compounds was obtained after80 min of reaction time. The highest reaction time studied (100 min had the worst results with the lowest oil yield and highest coke production.

  19. Ecological System Influences in the Treatment of Pediatric Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre E Logan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Family, school and the peer network each shape the chronic pain experience of the individual child, and each of these contexts also represents a domain of functioning often impaired by chronic pain. The goal of the present article is to summarize what is known about these bidirectional influences between children with pain and the social systems that surround them. Case reports that illustrate these complex, transactional forces and their ultimate impact on the child’s pain-related functioning are included. A case involving siblings participating in an intensive interdisciplinary program for functional restoration and pain rehabilitation highlights how parents change through this treatment approach and how this change is vital to the child’s outcomes. Another case involving a child undergoing intensive interdisciplinary treatment illustrates how school avoidance can be treated in the context of pain rehabilitation, resulting in successful return to the regular school environment. Finally, an acceptance and commitment therapy-focused group intervention for children with sickle cell disease and their parents demonstrates the benefits of peer contact as an element of the therapeutic intervention.

  20. Ecological system influences in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Deirdre E; Engle, Lisa B; Feinstein, Amanda B; Sieberg, Christine B; Sparling, Penny; Cohen, Lindsey L; Conroy, Caitlin; Driesman, Dana; Masuda, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Family, school and the peer network each shape the chronic pain experience of the individual child, and each of these contexts also represents a domain of functioning often impaired by chronic pain. The goal of the present article is to summarize what is known about these bidirectional influences between children with pain and the social systems that surround them. Case reports that illustrate these complex, transactional forces and their ultimate impact on the child's pain-related functioning are included. A case involving siblings participating in an intensive interdisciplinary program for functional restoration and pain rehabilitation highlights how parents change through this treatment approach and how this change is vital to the child's outcomes. Another case involving a child undergoing intensive interdisciplinary treatment illustrates how school avoidance can be treated in the context of pain rehabilitation, resulting in successful return to the regular school environment. Finally, an acceptance and commitment therapy-focused group intervention for children with sickle cell disease and their parents demonstrates the benefits of peer contact as an element of the therapeutic intervention.

  1. Speed optimized influence matrix processing in inverse treatment planning tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Wilkens, Jan J; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig, Thomas [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Computer Science, Research Group Parallel and Distributed Systems, Im Neuenheimer Feld 348, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: p.ziegenhein@dkfz.de, E-mail: u.oelfke@dkfz.de

    2008-05-07

    An optimal plan in modern treatment planning tools is found through the use of an iterative optimization algorithm, which deals with a high amount of patient-related data and number of treatment parameters to be optimized. Thus, calculating a good plan is a very time-consuming process which limits the application for patients in clinics and for research activities aiming for more accuracy. A common technique to handle the vast amount of radiation dose data is the concept of the influence matrix (DIJ), which stores the dose contribution of each bixel to the patient in the main memory of the computer. This study revealed that a bottleneck for the optimization time arises from the data transfer of the dose data between the memory and the CPU. In this note, we introduce a new method which speeds up the data transportation from stored dose data to the CPU. As an example we used the DIJ approach as is implemented in our treatment planning tool KonRad, developed at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. A data cycle reordering method is proposed to take the advantage of modern memory hardware. This induces a minimal eviction policy which results in a memory behaviour exhibiting a 2.6 times faster algorithm compared to the naive implementation. Although our method is described for the DIJ approach implemented in KonRad, we believe that any other planning tool which uses a similar approach to store the dose data will also benefit from the described methods. (note)

  2. Psychosocial influences on low back pain, disability, and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan C; Fritz, Julie M

    2011-05-01

    Evidence suggests that psychosocial factors have an influence on the outcome of physical therapy treatment and that the extent of their influence differs considerably among patients. As a consequence, substantial research efforts are focused on developing new clinical tools designed to identify and highlight when psychosocial factors are present at a level relevant to decision making. The conceptual differences in the ways that psychosocial factors influence outcome are described, structured around 3 common research terms: (1) prognostic factors, (2) treatment effect modifiers or moderators, and (3) treatment mediators. Prognostic factors are those characteristics that help estimate a patient's likely outcome irrespective of the chosen management. Treatment effect modifiers or moderators are factors measured at baseline that influence the relationship between a specific intervention and outcome. Treatment mediators are factors that have an intermediary role in the link between treatment and outcome. How these different influences on outcome can be translated into useful and complementary tools that aim to reduce treatment variability in clinical practice is described. One approach is to use prognostic factors to develop screening tools that identify an individual's risk status, typically based on predictive psychosocial factors such as catastophizing and depression. Another approach is to identify specific treatment effect modifiers to derive treatment decision aids or prediction rules to help match a patient's characteristics to the interventions available. A third approach is to use treatment mediators (eg, self-efficacy) to develop monitoring tools to inform the clinician about which aspects of treatment to strengthen.

  3. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  4. Influence of Plasma Treatments on the Frictional Performance of Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuizen, D.J.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2012-01-01

    The frictional performance of several rubbers after pulsed-DC plasma treatments has been examined. In all cases, the treated rubbers showed better performance than the corresponding untreated ones. Stronger treatments, in terms of longer process time and/or higher substrate bias voltage, led to larg

  5. Pharmacogenetics influence treatment efficacy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Marie Louise; Dalhoff, Kim; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    in treatment resistance and toxic side effects. As most childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment protocols include up to 13 different chemotherapeutic agents, the impact of individual SNPs has been difficult to evaluate. So far focus has mainly been on the widely used glucocorticosteroids, methotrexate...

  6. Pharmacogenetics Influence Treatment Efficacy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devidsen, M.L.; Dalhoff, K.; Schmiegelow, K.

    2008-01-01

    in treatment resistance and toxic side effects. As most childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment protocols include up to 13 different chemotherapeutic agents, the impact of individual SNPs has been difficult to evaluate. So far Focus has mainly been on the widely used glucocorticosteroids, methotrexate...

  7. Influence of benzodiazepines on antiparkinsonian drug treatment in levodopa users

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Animal studies showed that benzodiazepines decrease the concentration of dopamine in the striatum. Benzodiazepines may therefore affect the treatment of Parkinson's disease. This study determined whether start of a benzodiazepine in patients on levodopa was followed by a faster increase of antiparkinsonian drug treatment. METHODS: Data came from the PHARMO database, which includes information on drug dispensing for all residents of six Dutch cities. Selected were all patients aged...

  8. Influence of patient personality in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Leticia; Redondo, Marta; Garcia-Vadillo, Alberto; Perez-Nieto, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Jover, Juan A; Gonzalez-Alvaro, Isidoro; Abasolo, Lydia

    2016-11-01

    Individualized treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) based on genetic/serologic factors is increasingly accepted. Moreover, patients are more actively involved in the management of their disease. However, personality has received little attention with respect to perception of the need and adherence to treatment. Our objective was to evaluate whether patient personality was associated with the acceptance or rejection of more aggressive early treatment. We performed a cross-sectional study in two hospitals with early arthritis clinics where sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables are systematically recorded. Patients completed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale and Pain-Related Control Scale. Aggressive treatment was considered if patients received more than two DMARDs or biological agents during the first year of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of aggressive treatment. One hundred seventy-six RA patients were included (80 % women, disease begin median age 55 years). Treatment was considered aggressive in 57.9 % of the sample. Scores were high in extraversion in 50.8 % of patients, neuroticism in 29.5 % and psychoticism in 14.7 %. Neuroticism was the only factor associated with aggressive treatment, which was less probable (p = 0.04, OR = 0.40). Neuroticism also decreased the possibility of receiving a combination of biologics and DMARDs (p = 0.04, OR = 0.28). Patients with high scores on neuroticism are more worried, obsessive and hypochondriac, leading them to reject more aggressive therapy. It is important to educate about their disease so that they will accept more aggressive approaches in clear cases of poor outcome.

  9. Influence Of Different Methods Of Operative Treatment On Ovarian Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Simrok

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the results of ovarian reserve estimation for 125 women with the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS who have undergone various methods of surgical treatment - resection of the ovaries, thermokauterisation and drilling by laser (Ho-Yag. Ovarian reserve was estimated according to the amount of antral follicles, level of follitropin and Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS, also named anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH. Blood flow in ovarian tissue was also examined after various methods of surgical treatment. The study has shown that the gentlest method of surgical treatment is drilling by Ho-Yag laser, which is least likely to injure the tissue of ovaries, and also this method is most effective in enhancing and preserving ovarian reserve.

  10. Fenbendazole treatment may influence lipopolysaccharide effects in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Randy L; Choi, Dong-Young; Kincer, Jeanie F; Cass, Wayne A; Bing, Guoying; Gash, Don M

    2007-10-01

    In evaluating discrepant results between experiments in our laboratory, we collected data that challenge the notion that anthelminthic drugs like FBZ do not alter inflammatory responses. We found that FBZ significantly modulates inflammation in F344 rats intrastriatally injected with LPS. FBZ treatment of LPS-injected rats significantly increased weight loss, microglial activation, and dopamine loss; in addition, FBZ attenuated the LPS-induced loss of astrocytes. Therefore, FBZ treatment altered the effects of LPS injection. Caution should be used in interpreting data collected from rats treated with LPS and FBZ.

  11. Influence of Heat Treatment on Color Change of Poplar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, Populus tomentosa was used as samples for heat treatment in order to find the initial effect rule of color change, when the temperature rose to180, 200 and 220 oC and the time was kept for 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. The results are shown as follows: The color of treated wood can be changed obviously by the heat treatment. Under the same temperature, the color saturation becomes smaller and the difference of color becomes more obvious with the increase of the keeping time. Lightness and color...

  12. Influence of argon plasma treatment on polyethersulphone surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N L Singh; S M Pelagade; R S Rane; S Mukherjee; U P Deshpande; V Ganeshan; T Shripathi

    2013-01-01

    Polyethersulphone (PES) was modified to improve the hydrophilicity of its surface, which in turn helps in improving its adhesive property. The modified PES surface was characterized by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Vicker’s microhardness measurement. The contact angles of the modified PES reduces from 49° to 10° for water. The surface free energy (SFE) calculated from measured contact angles increases from 66.3 to 79.5 mJ/m2 with the increase in plasma treatment time. The increase in SFE after plasma treatment is attributed to the functionalization of the polymer surface with hydrophilic groups. The XPS analysis shows that the ratio of O/C increases from 0.177 to 0.277 for modified PES polymer. AFM shows that the average surface roughness increases from 6.9 nm to 23.7 nm due to the increase in plasma treatment time. The microhardness of the film also increases with plasma treatment.

  13. The influence of cephalometrics on orthodontic treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.G.; Habets, L.L.M.H.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Zentner, A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Since its introduction, cephalometrics, i.e. cephalometric radiography and analysis, has been used for orthodontic treatment planning. However, the effectiveness of this diagnostic method remains questionable. A randomized crossover study was designed to assess the infl uence of cephalometri

  14. Influence of benzodiazepines on antiparkinsonian drug treatment in levodopa users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, D A M C; Roos, R A C; Jansen, P A F; Porsius, A J; de Boer, A

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Animal studies showed that benzodiazepines decrease the concentration of dopamine in the striatum. Benzodiazepines may therefore affect the treatment of Parkinson's disease. This study determined whether start of a benzodiazepine in patients on levodopa was followed by a faster increase

  15. Influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of noncrosslinked, glutaraldehyde crosslinked or hexamethylene diisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using bacterial collagenase is described. The results obtained were compared with the degradation beh

  16. The influence of adjunctive treatment and metacognitive deficits in schizophrenia on the experience of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; Renard, S. B.; van Donkersgoed, R. J. M.; van der Gaag, M.; Wunderink, Alexander; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Lysaker, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing work function is now widely considered a core element of comprehensive schizophrenia treatment. While research efforts have illuminated factors that influence how well patients perform at work, less is known about the factors influencing the subjective experience of work. It is not known h

  17. Factors influencing decisions about surgical treatment of cervical precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, Borek; Cibula, David; Slama, Jiri

    2014-04-01

    Cervical precancerous lesions represented by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia may progress to invasive cancer. The principle treatment of CIN is eradication of the transformation zone. However, all eradication methods are associated with some adverse events, particularly with perinatal consequences. It is therefore necessary to identify which women have CIN that has a low risk of transformation into invasive cancer. The presence of modifying factors can help to stratify CIN lesions according to their malignant potential. The evaluation of HPV genotype in particular holds great promise for defining patients at greater risk. Tailoring treatment to the individual patient is going to become a major consideration in the management of cervical precancerous lesions.

  18. Influence of antimalarial treatment on acquisition of immunity in Plasmodium berghei NK65 malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ton That Ai; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2002-07-01

    Antimalarial treatments during primary Plasmodium berghei NK65 infection in BALB/c mice influenced the acquisition of protective immunity against reinfection. Among subcurative treatments, lower doses better enable mice to acquire protective immunity than do higher doses. Eradication of parasites from the start of infection did not promote protective immunity.

  19. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, M.G.; Jayakumar, P.; King, J.D.; Guitton, T.G.; Doornberg, J.N.; Ring, D.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information. Sec

  20. Influence of parental presence on the child’s perception of, and behaviour, during dental treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C.J. Cox; J.B. Krikken; J.S. Veerkamp

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyse the influence of the presence of the parent in the dental operatory on their child's behaviour during dental treatment. METHODS: This study was a randomised controlled trial performed in a secondary paediatric dental care clinic. The child's perception of the dental treatment and its

  1. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of air quality monitoring....14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. Link to an amendment... specific air pollution concentration at a particular air quality monitoring location. (2) Demonstration...

  2. The influence of applied heat treatments on whey protein denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetahagić Safet

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstituted skim milk with 8.01% DM was standardized with 3% skim milk powder and with 3% demineralized whey powder (DWP, respectively. Gained milk samples are named as 8%, 11% and 8%+3%DWP. All samples were heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min, respectively. Untreated milk was used as control. Milk samples were coagulated by glucono-d-lactone (GDL at the temperature of 45ºC until pH 4.60 was reached. Milk nitrogen matter content decreased during heat treatments, but linear relationship between applied heat treatments and nitrogen matter decreasing was not found. Nitrogen matter content of sera gained from both untreated and heat treated milk increased with the increase of milk dry matter content and with the addition of DWP. The higher temperature of applied heat treatment, the smaller sera nitrogen matter content. Nitrogen matter content in sera obtained from untreated milk were 64.90 mg%, 96.80 mg% and 117.3 mg% for milk 8%, 11% and 8%+3.0% DWP, respectively. Sera samples obtained from milk 8% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min had 38.70 mg% 38.30 mg% and 37.20 mg% of nitrogen matter, respectively. Sera samples obtained from milk 11% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min had 55.90 mg%, 52.80 mg% and 51.30 mg% of nitrogen matter, respectively. Sera samples obtained from milk 8% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min had 69.50 mg%, 66.20 mg% and 66.00 mg% of nitrogen matter respectively. Distribution of nitrogen matter from untreated milk to milk sera were 12.01%, 11.14% and 17.69% for milk 8%, 11% and 8%+3.0% DWP respectively. Distribution of nitrogen matter from milk 8% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min to sera samples were 6.99%, 6.72% and 6.59%, respectively. Distribution of nitrogen matter from milk 11% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min to sera samples, were 6.02%, 5.32% and 5.21%, respectively

  3. [Influence of biological activated carbon dosage on landfill leachate treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan-Rui; Guo, Yan; Wu, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC) dosage on COD removal in landfill leachate treatment were compared. The COD removal efficiency of reactors with 0, 100 and 300 g activated carbon dosage per litre activated sludge was 12.9%, 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. The results indicated that BAC improved the refractory organic matter removal efficiency and there was a positive correlation between COD removal efficiency and BAC dosage. The output of carbon dioxide after 8h of aeration in reactors was 109, 193 and 306 mg corresponding to the activated carbon dosages mentioned above, which indicated the amount of biodegradation and BAC dosage also had a positive correlation. The combination of adsorption and bioregeneration of BAC resulted in the positive correlation betweem organic matter removal efficiency and BAC dosage, and bioregeneration was the root cause for the microbial decomposition of refractory organics.

  4. The influence of hyperthyroidism on implant restoration treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information about bone implant restoration treatment on edentulous patient with hyperthyroidism. This clinical report is presenting the making of dental bone implant restoration on patient with hyperthyroidism history. A 60 years old male patient with hyperthyroidism came to Prosthodontic Clinic Faculty of Dentistry University of Indonesia to improve his ailing denture. After comprehensive evaluation we treated the patient with Implant-Tissue-Supported Overdenture (4 Implants for rehabilitating upper edentulous jaw, and 2 Implant-Tooth-Supported Fixed Partial Denturesfor rehabilitating Kennedy class II lower edentulous jaw respectively. Short term clinical and radiographic evaluation based on Buser’s criteria showed positive result. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:191-5Keywords: Hyperthyroidsm, implant restoration

  5. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  6. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Wright

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a “mixed methods” design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale—Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study—Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  7. Effects of Chemical Treatments on Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E. S.; Strom, M.; Dexter, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms are known to have an effect on galvanic corrosion of alloys in seawater systems. In the Delaware Bay, biofilm formation on surface of cathodes has been shown to cause galvanic corrosion to occur up to 100 times more rapidly. Given the impacts that corrosion can have on structures, it is important to study how we can affect corrosion rates. One way of doing this is the application of chemical treatments to biofilms on metal samples. To investigate this, natural marine biofilms were grown on alloy 6XN stainless steel samples, and various chemical treatments were applied to discover their effects on open circuit potentials and corrosion currents. Another objective of this study was to determine if there was a threshold molecular weight above which molecules were unable to penetrate the biofilm. It was discovered that chemicals with molecular weights as high as 741.6 g/mol were able to penetrate at least some parts of the heterogeneous biofilm and reach the metal surface. No upper threshold value was found in this study. It was found that the reducing agents sodium L-ascorbate and NADH as well as the chelate ferizene caused a drop in open circuit potential of biofilmed 6XN samples. Also, glutaraldahyde, which is used as a fixative for bacteria, shifted the open circuit potential of biofilm samples in the noble direction but had no effect on the corrosion current. Sodium L- ascorbate was found to reach the metal surface, but in concentrations lower than those present in the bulk fluid. It was not determined in this study whether this was due to physical or chemical processes within the biofilm. A synergistic effect was observed when applying a mixture of ferizene and glutaraldahyde. It is thought that this was due to the death of the bacteria as well as the disruption of iron cycling in the biofilm. Finally, it was observed that NADH caused a reduction in current at potentials associated with iron reduction, leading us to believe that the iron was being reduced

  8. Factors influencing non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Jepara, central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondags, Angelique; Himawan, Ari Budi; Metsemakers, Job Fm; Kristina, Tri Nur

    2014-07-01

    One of the most serious problems for tuberculosis (TB) control is non-adherence to TB treatment. We studied the factors influencing non-adherence to TB treatment in Indonesia to inform TB treatment adherence strategies. We con- ducted semi-structured interviews with non-adherent patients and key informants in Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia. Three major themes were found in reasons for non-adherence to TB treatment: 1) knowledge about TB, 2) knowledge about TB treatment and 3) choosing and changing a health care treatment facility. Respondents had an inadequate knowledge about TB and its treatment. Feeling healthy and having financial problems were the most common reasons for TB treatment non-adherence. Respondents sought treatment from many different health care providers, and often changed the treatment facility location. TB treatment adherence might improve by providing better education about the disease and its treatment to those undergoing treatment. Providing information about where to receive treatment and that treatment is free could also improve compliance.

  9. Persuasion factors influencing the decision to use sustainable household water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Silvie M; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a sustainable water treatment method. With the help of the sun and plastic bottles, water is treated and illnesses prevented. This paper aims to identify the factors influencing SODIS uptake, that is, why someone may become a SODIS user. This uptake decision can be influenced by persuasion. From behaviour theory, variables are recognised which have been proven to influence intention and behaviour and simultaneously can be influenced by persuasion. A total of (n = 878) structured interviews were conducted in a field study in Zimbabwe. Linear and binary logistic regressions showed that several of the initially proposed persuasion variables have significant influence. Persuasion factors have a stronger influence on the uptake of SODIS use and on intention to use SODIS in the future than on the amount of SODIS water consumed. Ideas are presented for using the effective variables in future SODIS campaigns and campaigns in other fields.

  10. The influence of partner drug use and relationship power on treatment engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehman, Kara S; Iguchi, Martin Y; Zeller, Michelle; Morral, Andrew R

    2003-05-01

    Substance-using intimate partners negatively influence individuals' substance abuse treatment engagement and drug use, but little else is known about effects of intimate relationships on treatment. We examine how relationship dynamics (power, control, dependence, insecurity and decision-making power) influence treatment engagement, and whether this differs by gender and partner drug use. Sixty-four heroin users (42 men, 22 women) receiving methadone detoxification treatment in Los Angeles were interviewed at treatment entry and submitted daily diaries of drug use throughout the 21-day treatment. Total number of reported heroin-free days in the first eight treatment days was the dependent variable. Bivariate analyses revealed, that compared to men, women were more likely to have substance-using partners, reported greater power over a partner and greater household decision-making power in their relationships. Multivariate analysis indicated that individuals whose partners had more control over them reported fewer days abstinent. Among individuals with heroin-using partners, greater household decision-making power was associated with more days abstinent, but there was no association for individuals with non-using partners. Relationship power dynamics may be important influences on the treatment process, and some dimensions of power may interact with partner drug use status.

  11. Influence of Femtosecond Laser Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Precipitation of Silver Nanoparticles in Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾惠丹; 邱建荣; 姜雄伟; 曲士良; 朱从善; 干福熹

    2003-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were precipitated inside an Ag2 O-doped glass by femtosecond laser irradiation and successive heat treatment. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles was investigated. Absorption spectra show that the femtosecond laser irradiation results in an apparent decrease of the treatment temperature for the precipitation of Ag nanoparticles. We demonstrate the control of precipitation,dissolution and growth of silver nanoparticles inside glass by changing the heat treatment temperature or using further femtosecond laser irradiation.

  12. The influence of yarn treatment on the tensile properties of biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širvaitienė, Anne; Jankauskaitė, Virginija; Bekampienė, Paulė; Sankauskaitė, Audronė

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of cotton and linen yarns treatments at different hierarchical levels on the biocomposite tensile properties. The biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) resin was used as the matrix polymer. The water based mercerization and low pressure plasma treatment were applied for chemical modification of yarns macro- and microfibrils. To improve fiber orientation of fibre bundles and single fibers the pretension of yarn was used. It was obtained that the most efficient is the complex yarns treatment, plasma treatment with subsequent pre-tension, where especially notable was the positive effect of low-pressure plasma.

  13. An exploration of Xhosa speaking patients' understanding of cancer treatment and its influence on their treatment experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Cultural beliefs often influence people in seeking appropriate health care. In South Africa, misperceptions and fear about medical interventions contribute to the fact that many indigenous people prefer to make use of traditional healers. This qualitative study explores Xhosa patients' perception of cancer and cancer treatment modalities, and their need for support. Language creates an image of the unknown to which people attach meaning. Oncology social workers play an important role in educating people about cancer and the treatment thereof, as doctors seldom have time to deal with the psychosocial aspects of cancer. Health care providers need to be sensitive to patients' perceptions to render the best possible cancer care.

  14. Influence of Weave on Fabric Wrinkle Recovery Property before and after Resin Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海青; 周翔

    2001-01-01

    Cotton fabrics with different weaves are designed and the influence of weave on wrinkle recovery property and tensile property is analyzed. Weave type plays a prominent part in determining fabric wrinkle recovery property and tensile property. Weave factor C is in direct relation to wrinkle recovery angle and in inverse relation to tensile property. This trend also exists after resin treatment. 3/1 left-twill fabric shows good wrinkle recovery angle and lest tensile loss after resin treatment.

  15. Influence of COX-2 and OXTR polymorphisms on treatment outcome in treatment resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendlewicz, Julien; Crisafulli, Concetta; Calati, Raffaella; Kocabas, Neslihan Aygun; Massat, Isabelle; Linotte, Sylvie; Kasper, Siegfried; Fink, Martin; Sidoti, Antonina; Scantamburlo, Gabrielle; Ansseau, Marc; Antonijevic, Irina; Forray, Carlos; Snyder, Lenore; Bollen, Joseph; Montgomery, Stuart; Zohar, Joseph; Souery, Daniel; Serretti, Alessandro

    2012-05-10

    Inflammatory pathways play a crucial role in the pathomechanisms of antidepressant efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, rs5275 and rs20417) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR, rs53576 and rs2254298) genes was associated with antidepressant treatment resistance, response or remission. Three hundred seventy-two patients were recruited in the context of a multicenter resistant depression study. They were genotyped for COX-2 and OXTR SNPs. Treatment resistance (according to two different definitions), response and remission were recorded. We did not observe any association between the genotypes or alleles of the selected SNPs within COX-2 and OXTR genes and treatment resistance, response and remission in the whole sample. Our results are consistent with those of some studies but not with those of other ones. Indeed, several factors could be involved in the discrepancy observed across studies. They include sample size, environmental factors, differences in ethnicity, different study designs, and different definitions of treatment resistance.

  16. INFLUENCE OF HEAT TREATMENT ON DAMPING BEHAVIOUR OF THE MAGNESIUM WROUGHT ALLOY AZ61

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of isochronal heat treatments for 1h on variation of damping, hardness and microstructural change of the magnesium wrought alloy AZ61 was investigated. Damping and hardness behaviour could be attributed to the evolution of precipitation process. The influence of precipitation on damping behaviour was explained in the framework of the dislocation string model of Granato and Lücke.

  17. The influence of Ivermectin treatment of cattle on dung fauna and dung composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens; Nansen, Peter; Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner;

    1988-01-01

    Madsen, M., J. Gr¢nvold, P. Nansen, J.B. Jespersen, K.-M. Vagn Jensen, P. Holter and B. Overgaard Nielsen, 1988: The influence of Ivermectin treatment of cattle on dung fauna and dung composition. Programme and Abstracts of the Vth European Multicolloqui¬um of Parasitology, September 4-9, 1988...

  18. The level of Alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de Hein A.; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; Palen, van der Job; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Jong, de Cor A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was hyp

  19. Influence of heat treatment and veneering on the storage modulus and surface of zirconia ceramic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Siavikis; M. Behr; J.M. van der Zel; A.J. Feilzer; M. Rosentritt

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Glass-ceramic veneered zirconia is used for the application as fixed partial dentures. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the heat treatment during veneering, the application of glass-ceramic for veneering or long term storage has an influence on the storage modulus of

  20. INFLUENCE OF PERSONALITY ON THE OUTCOME OF TREATMENT IN DEPRESSION : SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Tyrer, Peter; Johnson, Tony; Mulder, Roger; Kool, Simone; Dekker, Jack; Schoevers, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There continues to be debate about the influence of personality disorder on the outcome of depressive disorders and is relative interactions with treatment. To determine whether personality disorder, both generically and in terms of individual clusters, leads to a worse outcome in patients with depr

  1. National Conference on Mining-Influenced Waters: Approaches for Characterization, Source Control and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conference goal was to provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current and emerging approaches to assessing characterization, monitoring, source control, treatment and/or remediation on mining-influenced waters. The conference was aimed at mining remedi...

  2. The level of alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was hyp

  3. The Level of Alexithymia in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Does Not Influence Outcomes after Inpatient Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was hyp

  4. Influence of sex on treatment and outcome in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Clark, Andrew L; Ribeiro, Jorge P

    2012-06-01

    The population is aging, the prevalence of heart failure increases with age, and on average women live longer than men. There is evidence for sex-specific effects of individual, guideline-recommended drugs used for treatment of chronic heart failure. Women are underrepresented in most clinical trials and only a minority of drug applications to regulatory authorities have included sex analyses. The present review focuses on the potential female survival benefit in heart failure, the influence of sex on medical treatment in a broader sense, and the potential benefit to be derived from guideline recommended treatment and common adjunctive heart failure medication.

  5. Factors influencing the diagnosis and treatment of chronic prostatitis among urologists in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Fei Liu; Jin-Rui Yang; David A.Ginsberg; Hui-Wen Xie; Jian-Ming Rao; Long Wang; Zhuo Yin; Qian He; Tu-Bao Yang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To identify the factors influencing diagnosis and treatment of chronic prostatitis (CP) among Chinese urologists. Methods: A sample of 656 urologists from 29 provinces of China were asked to complete a questionnaire that ex- plored attitudes towards CP as well as diagnosis and treatment patterns in the management of CP. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis schemes were used to determine the factors that influence the diagnosis and treatment of CP. Results: A total of 656 questionnaires were given out. All were returned and 410 of those were included in the final univariate and multivariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that belief of bacterial infection in the etiology of CP (odds ratio [OR], 2.544; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.650-3.923; P < 0.001) was the most significant factor influencing the routine performance of bacterial culture test. Using the same model, the type of hospital (OR, 2.799; 95% CI, 1.719-4.559; P < 0.001) and the routine use of the 4- or the 2-glass test (OR, 3.194; 95% CI, 2.069-4.931, P < 0.001) were determined to be significant factors influencing the use of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) new classification system. According to the same model, belief of bacterial infection in the etiology of CP (OR, 3.415; 95% CI, 2.024-5.762; P < 0.001) and the routine use of bacterial culture test (OR, 2.261; 95% CI, 1.364-3.749; P < 0.01) were important factors influencing the routine prescription of antibiotics. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that attitudes towards CP, and the characteristics of individual urologists' practices may influence the diagnosis and treatment of CP among Chinese urologists. (Asian JAndrol 2008 Jul; 10: 675-681)

  6. Serotonergic Mechanisms Influence the Response to Glucocorticoid Treatment in TMJ Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Fredriksson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of serotonin (5-HT on the effects of intra-articular injections of glucocorticoid on pain of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ in patients with inflammatory disorders of the TMJ. The pretreatment synovial fluid 5-HT was negatively, and plasma 5-HT positively, correlated to change in TMJ pain after treatment. The pretreatment plasma 5-HT was positively correlated to change in pressure-pain threshold after treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that local and systemic serotonergic mechanisms partly determine the effect of intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment on TMJ pain in patients with chronic TMJ arthritis of systemic nature, while change in pressure-pain threshold over the TMJ is influenced by systemic serotonergic mechanisms.

  7. Influence of Surface Pre-treatments on Laser Welding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.; Amaya-Vázquez, M. R.; González-Rovira, L.; Botana-Galvin, M.; Botana, F. J.

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, Ti6Al4V samples have been welded under conduction regime by means of a high power diode laser. The main objective of the work has been to determine the actual influence of the surface pre-treatments on the laser welding process. Thus, six different pre-treatments were applied to Ti6Al4V samples before performing bead-on-plate and butt welding treatments. The depth, width, microstructure, and microhardness of the different weld zones were deeply analyzed. Grinding, sandblasting, and chemical cleaning pre-treatments lead to welds with the highest depth values, presenting high joint strengths. Treatments based on the application of dark coatings generate welds with lower penetration and worse mechanical properties, specially the graphite-based coating.

  8. Influence of water quality on the embodied energy of drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mark V E; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2014-01-01

    Urban water treatment plants rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable water to users. Changes in influent water quality may alter the operation of a water treatment plant and its associated energy use or embodied energy. Therefore the objective of this study is to estimate the effect of influent water quality on the operational embodied energy of drinking water, using the city of Tampa, Florida as a case study. Water quality and water treatment data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility (Tippin WTF). Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) was conducted to calculate treatment chemical embodied energy values. Statistical methods including Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and relative importance were used to determine the influence of water quality on treatment plant operation and subsequently, embodied energy. Results showed that influent water quality was responsible for about 14.5% of the total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chemical dosages. The method used in this study can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to determine if drinking water source quality control or modification of treatment processes will significantly minimize drinking water treatment embodied energy.

  9. Influence of ethylene glycol pretreatment on effectiveness of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of polyethylene fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Ying; Li Ranxing [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Cai Fang [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles (Donghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Fu Kun; Peng Shujing; Jiang Qiuran; Yao Lan [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Qiu Yiping, E-mail: ypqiu@dhu.edu.cn [Department of Textile Materials Science and Product Design, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-01

    For atmospheric pressure plasma treatments, the results of plasma treatments may be influenced by liquids adsorbed into the substrate. This paper studies the influence of ethylene glycol (EG) pretreatment on the effectiveness of atmospheric plasma jet (APPJ) treatment of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers with 0.31% and 0.42% weight gain after soaked in EG/water solution with concentration of 0.15 and 0.3 mol/l for 24 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the surface of fibers pretreated with EG/water solution does not have observable difference from that of the control group. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the oxygen concentration on the surface of EG-pretreated fibers is increased less than the plasma directly treated fibers. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of plasma directly treated fibers to epoxy is increased almost 3 times compared with the control group while that of EG-pretreated fibers to epoxy does not change except for the fibers pretreated with lower EG concentration and longer plasma treatment time. EG pretreatment reduces the water contact angle of UHMWPE fibers. In conclusion, EG pretreatment can hamper the effect of plasma treatment of UHMWPE fibers and therefore longer plasma treatment duration is required for fibers pretreated with EG.

  10. Influence of drug treatment on glucocorticoid receptor levels in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong; GUO Wei-zao; YAN Zhi-hong; LI Di; LU Cui-lian

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoid signaling exerts major roles in inflammation, metabolism and depression, which are three crucial factors accompanying or underlying coronary heart disease. Although accumulating evidence indicates the influence of glucocorticoids on the pathology and treatment of coronary heart disease, there is still a dearth of pharmaceutical mechanisms for this relationship. This study aimed to investigate the influence of drug treatment on glucocorticoid receptor levels in coronary heart disease.Methods Eighty hospitalized patients (average age (59.0 7.5) years, 46 male and 34 female) with coronary heart disease were categorized into four groups with 20 members in each according to one of the four drugs they were treated with. The four drugs were: nitrated derivative isosorbide dinitrate, the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol, the calcium antagonist nifedipine, and the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin. Glucocorticoid receptor protein levels of peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested using immunoblotting analysis before and after one month of treatment. Results Immunoblotting analysis showed increased glucocorticoid receptor levels after treatment with metoprolol and nifedipine. There were no statistically significant changes of glucocorticoid receptor levels after treatment with isosorbide dinitrate or lovastatin, although there were trends of up-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor expression after both treatments.Conclusions Both the beta-blocker and the calcium blocker can increase glucocorticoid receptor levels after chronic administration. This effect suggests a mechanism for their anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic roles for coronary heart disease and comorbid disorders.

  11. Genetic influence on methadone treatment outcomes in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaan Z

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zainab Samaan,1–4 Monica Bawor,3,4 Brittany B Dennis,2,3 Carolyn Plater,5 Michael Varenbut,5 Jeffrey Daiter,5 Andrew Worster,5,6 David C Marsh,5,7 Charlie Tan,8 Dipika Desai,3 Lehana Thabane,2,9,10 Guillaume Pare11 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, 4MiNDS Neuroscience Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 5Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; 6Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 7Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 8Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 9Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, 10System Linked Research Unit, 11Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Introduction: Treatment of opioid addiction with methadone is effective; however, it is known to produce interindividual variability. This may be influenced in part by genetic variants, which can increase the initial risk of developing opioid addiction as well as explain differences in response to treatment. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale genetic analysis to identify genes that predict methadone treatment outcomes in this population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of patients admitted to a methadone maintenance treatment program for opioid addiction. We obtained demographic and clinical characteristics in addition to blood and urine samples, for the assessment of treatment outcomes. Results: The recruitment process yielded 252 patients, representing a 20% recruitment rate. We conducted genetic testing based on a 99.6% rate of provision of DNA samples. The average retention in treatment was 3.4 years, and >50% of the participants reported psychiatric and

  12. Influence of heat treatment of rayon-based activated carbon fibers on the adsorption of formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Haiqin; Ryu, Zhenyu; Zheng, Jingtang; Zhang, Yuanli

    2003-05-15

    The influence of heat treatment of rayon-based activated carbon fibers on the adsorption behavior of formaldehyde was studied. Heat treatment in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen for rayon-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) resulted in a significant increase in the adsorption capacities and prolongation of breakthrough time on removing of formaldehyde. The effect of different heat-treatment conditions on the adsorption characteristics was investigated. The porous structure parameters of the samples under study were investigated using nitrogen adsorption at the low temperature 77.4 K. The pore size distributions of the samples under study were calculated by density functional theory. With the aid of these analyses, the relationship between structure and adsorption properties of rayon-based ACFs for removing formaldehyde was revealed. Improvement of their performance in terms of adsorption selectivity and adsorption rate for formaldehyde were achieved by heat post-treatment in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen.

  13. Influence of Nasal Resistance on Oral Appliance Treatment Outcome in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Biao; Ng, Andrew T.; Qian, Jin; Petocz, Peter; Darendeliler, M. Ali; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    It has been recognized that nasal airway resistance (NAR) is elevated in patients with OSA. However, little is known regarding the influence of nasal resistance on mandibular advancement splint (MAS) treatment outcome in OSA patient. We hypothesized that nasal resistance differs between MAS responders and nonresponders and therefore may influence treatment outcome. Thirty-eight patients with known OSA underwent polysomnography while wearing a custom-made MAS. Treatment outcome was defined as follows: Responders (R) ≥50% reduction in AHI, and Nonresponders (NR) as <50% reduction in AHI. NAR was measured using posterior rhinomanometry in both sitting and supine positions, with and without MAS. The mean AHI in 26 responders was significantly reduced from 29.0 ± 2.9/h to 6.7 ± 1.2/h; P < 0.01). In 12 nonresponders there was no significant change in AHI (23.9 ± 3.0/h vs 22.0 ± 4.3/h; P=ns). Baseline NAR was significantly lower in responders in the sitting position compared to nonresponders (6.5 ± 0.5 vs 9.4 ± 1.0cm H2O; P < 0.01). There was no significant change in NAR (from baseline) with MAS in either response group while in the sitting position, but in the supine position NAR increased significantly with MAS in the nonresponder group (11.8 ± 1.5 vs 13.8 ± 1.6 cm H2O/L/s; P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that NAR and BMI were the most important predictive factors for MAS treatment outcome. These data suggest that higher levels of NAR may negatively impact on treatment outcome with MAS. Citation: Zeng B; Ng AT; Qian J; Petocz P; Darendeliler MA; Cistulli PA. Influence of nasal resistance on oral appliance treatment outcome in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31(4):543-547. PMID:18457242

  14. Influence of different pre-treatment routes on the anaerobic digestion of a filamentous algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Poulsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of outdoor cultivated Rhizoclonium biomass was investigated in this study. The influence of applying mechanical and biological pre-treatment methods prior to the biomass digestion on the overall methane yields was examined. The results show that the application of a combined...... biomass blending (treatment improved the methane yields by >20% compared to use of a mechanical size reduction method alone. The methane yields from Rhizoclonium biomass were however observed to be considerably lower than those of other algae species from...

  15. Influence of Thermal Homogenization Treatment on Structure and Impact Toughness of H13 ESR Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dang-shen; ZHOU Jian; CHEN Zai-zhi; ZHANG Zhong-kan; CHEN Qi-an; LI De-hui

    2009-01-01

    The as-cast microstrueture of H13 ESR ingot and the influence of high temperature diffusion treatment on the structure and impact toughness have been investigated. The results show that the dendrite arm spacing gradually becomes wide from the surface to the center of ingot, and the large primary carbide particles always exist in interdendritic segregation areas; by means of high temperature diffusion treatment of ingot prior to hot forging, the banded segregation is nearly eliminated, the annealed structure is more uniform and the isotropic properties have been improved remarkably.

  16. The influence of different irradiation sources on the treatment of nitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Miguel [Universidad de Los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Timokhin, Vitaliy [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3a Naukova Street, 79053 Lviv (Ukraine); Michl, Florian; Contreras, Sandra; Gimenez, Jaime; Esplugas, Santiago [Department d' Enginyeria Quimica i Metallurgia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-11-15

    This work describes the influence of light on the treatment of nitrobenzene (NB) in aqueous solutions. Three different experimental devices were used to perform a detailed study: a photoreactor with four low-pressure mercury lamps ({lambda}=253.7nm), a tubular photoreactor with a polychromatic Xe lamp (290<{lambda}<1200nm), and finally a solar reactor (sunlight). TOC analyses were performed in order to monitor and compare the extent of these processes, each of them being performed with one of the three different sources of light. The influence of Fe(II), Fe(III), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and light on the mineralization of NB in aqueous solutions was also studied. The successful use of sunlight as a source of energy and its effectiveness regarding Fenton processes as well as direct photolysis in the treatment of NB are presented.

  17. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuo-gui; YAN Hong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surface quench, the influence law of the heat process、cooling course、 temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  18. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuo-gui; YANHong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surtace quench, the influence law ot me heat process, cooling course, temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  19. Influence of carbonisation on selected engineering properties of carbon resin electrodes for electrochemical treatment of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oke, I.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-10-15

    Carbon resin electrodes (CRE) developed using a non-heat treatment process were investigated in an effort to determine the influence of several properties on electrode performance. These included density; electrical resistance; microstructure; hydroscopy; stability moisture content; and compressive and flexural strength. The influences of carbonization temperature, carbon particle size, and compaction pressure were also analyzed. Results of the study showed that the electrical resistance and density of the CRE decreased with increases in carbonization temperatures. Particle size, compacting pressure, and the percentage of resin used in the electrodes also influenced electrical resistance. The carbonization of the CREs from 30 to 220 degrees C reduced specific electrical resistance and density. The carbonization temperature did not have a significant effect on wetness, compressive and flexural strength, or on the stability and moisture content of the electrodes. It was concluded that the cost of producing the CREs is significantly cheaper than the cost of heat-treated electrodes. 78 refs., 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. INFLUENCE OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE DEFECTS OF DRYING Hovenia dulcis Thunb. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of heat treatments of heating and freezing in the drying defects of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. wood. For this, were used samples from such species of wood concerned with dimensions of 2 x 10 x 20 cm. The heat treatments of heating and freezing were conducted in tank heated to 85ºC and in a freezer at -18ºC, respectively, where the samples remained during 12 and 24 hours for both treatments. After those pre-treatment, the samples were dried an electric oven with forced air circulation at temperatures of 60 and 90°C until the final moisture content achieves set 0 to 2%. The heat treatments showed different effects in function of defects of drying, While heating and freezing treatments reduced the bending towards the samples which did not suffer any of those treatments, the IRT tended to increase it. For the temperatures of drying, the samples submitted to 60ºC showed less pronounced defects, indicating that drying mild drying temperatures decrease the incidence of defects.

  1. STUDY ON SCALP ELECTROACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF APOPLEXY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON HEMORHEOLOGY IN ISCHEMIC APOPLEXY PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yingkun; Chen Xujun

    2001-01-01

    Objectiv:To compare the therapeutic effect of scalp-electroacupuncture with that of conventional body acupuncture for apoplexy (wind stroke) and to observe the influence of both acupuncture therapies on hemorheology of ischemic apoplexy. Methods: 183 patients, whose diseases are attributed to apoplexy according to the diagnostic criteria, are randomly divided into treatment group (93 cases) and control group (90 cases) and treated respectively with scalp-electroacupuncture and conventional body acupuncture. 11 items of hemorheology of patients' blood samples are tested with NXE- 1 Viscometer which are taken in the early morning before and after treatment under fasting condition. Results: Both scalp-electroacupuncture and conventional body acupuncture exert therapeutic effect for apoplexy, but the effect of scalp-electroacupuncture is obviously better than that of conventional acupuncture (P<0.05); both treatment group and control group are statistically significant in reducing plasma viscosity, high shear reduced viscosity, low shear reduced viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hematocrit and fibrinogen, (P<0.01and 0.05); while the treatment group is statistically significant in reducing whole blood viscosity, ratio of whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte index of rigidity and electrophoresis time of erythrocyte (P<0.01~0.05), but the control group is not significant statistically in influencing these indexes (P>0.05).

  2. Influence of deformation and heat treatment on electrical conductivity of CuMoCr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Xue-hui; LIU Lin; YUE Xue-qing; LIU Jian-hua; ZHANG Rui-jun

    2009-01-01

    The solution heat treatment, cold deformation and subsequent aging were performed on CuMoCr al-loy. And the influence of deformation and aging treatment on the electrical conductivity of CuMoCr alloy was studied through metallograph, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrical conductivity measure-ment. Results show that deformation without subsequent aging can reduce the electrical conductivity of CuMoCr alloy, but deformation followed by the optimum aging treatment can effectively improve the electrical conductivi-ty of CuMoCr alloy. Aging at 500℃ for 4 h after 80% deformation, the much better electrical conductivity of CuMoCr alloy can be obtained. Reduction of Cr content in the Cu matrix could be the reason for the enhance-ment of electrical conductivity.

  3. Influence of the surface treatment of tire rubber residues added in mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Marques

    Full Text Available In this work it was evaluated the influence tire rubber addition in mortars in order to replace part of the sand (12% by volume. It was also intended to verify if the tire rubber treatment with NaOH saturated aqueous solution causes interference on the mechanical properties of the mixture. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, and flow test were made in specimens of 5cmx10cm and the tests were carried out to 7, 28, 56, 90, and 180 days. The results show reduction on mechanical properties values after addition of tire rubber and decrease of the workability. It was also observed that the tire rubber treatment does not cause any alteration on the results compared to the rubber without treatment.

  4. Influence of composition and heat treatments on corrosion resistance of Fe-Co-BSi amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, E.; Antonione, C.; Baricco, M.; Rosalbino, F.; Zucchi, F. (Ist. Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Turin (Italy) Turin Univ. (Italy) Politecnico di Torino (Italy))

    This paper studies the influence of composition and heat treatments on the corrosion resistance, in a solution of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.05M + H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.05M, at 1.5 pH, of a series of iron base amorphous alloys with increasing cobalt content, i.e., Fe/sub 80-x/Co/sub x/B/sub 10/Si/sub 10/ with x=0, 30, and 80. The treatments were carried out in an argon atmosphere over increasing time durations: 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes, and increasing temperatures: 350, 400, 450 and 500 degrees C respectively. It was possible to observe that, independent of heat treatment, the corrosion resistance increased with increasing cobalt concentration. In comparing samples having the same chemical composition, it was noted that their electrochemical behaviour worsened with increasing temperature and time.

  5. Influence of wavelength on the outcome of the treatment of TMJ disorders: TMDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.

    2013-03-01

    It is known that wavelength influences the outcome of many clinical protocols. Laser-phototherapy (LPT) and LEDs have been used on the treatment of pain of several origins including temporomandibular disorders - TMDs. TMDs are common painful multifactorial conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint whose treatment depends on the type and symptoms. Initially it requires pain control and for this, drugs, biting plates, oclusal adjustment, physiotherapy or their association are used. This work reports a series of patients of the Center of Biophotonics of the Federal University of Bahia over 10 years. Following standard anamneses, clinical and imaginologic examination and with the diagnosis of any type of TMD, the patients were set for light treatment. Treatment consisted of three sessions a week during six week. Prior irradiation, the patients were asked to score their pain using a VAS. λ780, λ 790, λ 830nm and/or λ660 and λ680nm lasers or LED were used on each session. Most patients were female (~43.6 years old). At the end of the 12 sessions the patients were again examined and score their pain using VAS. No other intervention was carried out during the treatment. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that most patients were asymptomatic or improved after treatment and that the association of wavelengths was very efficient on the symptomatic group. It is concluded that the association of both wavelengths was effective on pain reduction on TMJ disorders of several origins.

  6. Does Maternal BMI Influence Treatment Effect in Women with Mild Gestational Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M.; Mele, Lisa; Landon, Mark B.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Ramin, Susan M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Thorp, John M.; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether maternal body mass index (BMI) influences the beneficial effects of diabetes treatment in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Study Design Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized treatment trial of women with GDM. Outcomes of interest were elevated umbilical cord c-peptide levels (>90th percentile 1.77 ng/mL), LGA birth weight (>90th percentile), and neonatal fat mass (g). Women were grouped into five BMI categories adapted from the WHO International Classification of normal, overweight, and obese adults. Outcomes were analyzed according to treatment group assignment. Results A total of 958 women were enrolled (485 treated and 473 controls). Maternal BMI at enrollment was not related to umbilical cord c-peptide levels. However, treatment of women in the overweight, Class I, and Class II obese categories was associated with a reduction in both LGA birth weight and neonatal fat mass. Neither measure of excess fetal growth was reduced with treatment in normal weight (BMI <25) or Class III (BMI ≥ 40) obese women. Conclusion There was a beneficial effect of treatment on fetal growth in women with mild GDM who were overweight or Class I and II obese. These effects were not apparent for normal weight and very obese women. PMID:24839145

  7. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Hygroscopicity and Dimensional Stability of Oak Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga JUODEIKIENĖ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of thermal treatment on moisture exchange between wood and natural environment with variable air parameters as well as on dimensional stability of wood samples was investigated. The experiments were carried out with oak wood samples indoors and outside. The thickness of samples was 30 mm, width was 30 mm and length was 20 mm; conventional density varied from 500 kg/m3 to 580 kg/m3. Initially, the wood was air-dried down to 7 % – 9 % of moisture content. In order to decrease possibility of the both moisture absorption and evaporation during wood application thermal treatment must be applied. Due to that the samples were heated at temperature of 60, 80, 100 and 120 ºC for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The moisture content of wood and its variations after thermal treatment depends on the both heating temperature and duration. The higher temperature and the longer heating duration, the lower wood hygroscopicity can be achieved. The effect of thermal treatment on the moisture content and its changes were observed for wood samples stored indoor and outside. In dependence of thermal treatment conditions moisture content in wood samples independently on storing conditions (indoor or outside can decrease down to 30 % compare to the untreated ones. The change of moisture content during various seasons after 24 hours of storing indoor decreases down to 60 %, while outside that is only 39 %. Dimensional stability of wood samples also depends on the both thermal treatment temperature and duration. The higher treatment temperature and the longer duration, the higher dimensional stability can be obtained. The heat treatment of oak wood samples at selected regimes allows to decrease values of shrinkage and swelling coefficients down to 40 %.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3825

  8. [Beliefs of diabetic patients about nutritional therapy and its influence on their compliance with treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontieri, Flavia Melo; Bachion, Maria Márcia

    2010-01-01

    The system of health beliefs influences the process of compliance with diabetes treatment. Compliance with nutritional therapy is one of the greatest challenges found. The purpose of this qualitative approach study was to analyze the beliefs of type 2 diabetic patients regarding nutritional therapy and its influence on the compliance with it. The participants of the study were nine patients being treated in a reference unit for diabetic patients' treatment. The procedures involved were blood exam to check the glycated hemoglobin, a questionnaire, semi-structured recorded interview and patient report checking. The analysis of the speeches was made using the thematic categories of Bardin (2000), and the models of Rokeach (1981) and Rosenstock (1974). All participants showed glycated hemoglobin levels higher than 7%, what shows that is difficult for them to control their glicemic levels and possible non compliance. After the analysis of the speeches, two thematic categories were identified: 'Recommendations received about feeding' and 'Nutritional therapy compliance'. Both categories showed authority beliefs and consensus zero, and barriers to nutritional therapy, which the participants see as a restrictive imposition. Those beliefs have negative influence on the compliance, and so, they have to be considered when providing health assistance to the population.

  9. Influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics: implications for the dissemination of innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly; Quanbeck, Andrew; Maus, Adam; Gustafson, David H; Dearing, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics may speed the diffusion of innovations. The purpose of this study was to describe influence networks in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Washington and test two expectations, using social network analysis: (1) Social network measures can identify influential clinics; and (2) Within a network, some weakly connected clinics access out-of-network sources of innovative evidence-based practices and can spread these innovations through the network. A survey of 201 clinics in a parent study on quality improvement provided the data. Network measures and sociograms were obtained from adjacency matrixes created by UCINet. We used regression analysis to determine whether network status relates to clinics' adopting innovations. Findings suggest that influential clinics can be identified and that loosely linked clinics were likely to join the study sooner than more influential clinics but were not more likely to have improved outcomes than other organizations. Findings identify the structure of influence networks for SUD treatment organizations and have mixed results on how those structures impacted diffusion of the intervention under study. Further study is necessary to test whether use of knowledge of the network structure will have an effect on the pace and breadth of dissemination of innovations.

  10. Influence of irritable bowel syndrome on treatment outcome in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hubert M(o)nnikes; Robert C Heading; Holger Schmitt; Hubert Doerfler

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms on treatment outcomes with pantoprazole in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in a real life setting. METHODS: For this prospective, open-label, multinational, multicentre study, 1888 patients assessed by the investigators as suffering from GERD were recruited. The patients were additionally classified as with or without IBS-like symptoms at baseline. They were treated with pantoprazole 40 mg once daily and completed the Reflux Questionnaire? (ReQuest?) short version daily. Response rates and symptom scores were compared after 4 and 8 wk of treatment for subgroups defined by the subclasses of GERD [erosive(ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD)] and the presence of IBS-like symptoms. RESULTS: IBS-like symptoms were more prevalent in NERD than in ERD (18.3% vs 12.7%, P = 0.0015). Response rates after 4 and/or 8 wk of treatment were lower in patients with IBS-like symptoms than in patients without IBS-like symptoms in both ERD (Week 4: P < 0.0001, Week 8: P < 0.0339) and NERD (Week 8: P = 0.0088). At baseline, ReQuest? "lower abdominal complaints" symptom scores were highest in NERD patients with IBS-like symptoms. Additionally, these patients had the strongest symptom improvement after treatment compared with all other subgroups. CONCLUSION: IBS-like symptoms influence treatment outcome and symptom burden in GERD and should be considered in management. Proton pump inhibitors can improve IBS-like symptoms, particularly in NERD.

  11. Influence of irritable bowel syndrome on treatment outcome in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HubertM6nnikes; RobertCHeading; HolgerSchmitt; HubertDoerfler

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms on treatment outcomes with pantoprazole in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in a real life setting. METHODS: For this prospective, open-label, multinational, multicentre study, 1888 patients assessed by the investigators as suffering from GERD were recruited. The patients were additionally classified as with or without IBS-like symptoms at baseline. They were treated with pantoprazole 40 mg once daily and completed the Reflux Questionnaire (ReQuest) short version daily. Response rates and symptom scores were compared after 4 and 8 wk of treatment for subgroups defined by the subclasses of GERD [erosive(ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD)] and the presence of IBS-like symptoms. RESULTS: IBS-like symptoms were more prevalent in NERD than in ERD (18.3% vs 12.7%, P = 0.0015). Response rates after 4 and/or 8 wk of treatment were lower in patients with IBS-like symptoms than in patients without IBS-like symptoms in both ERD (Week 4: P 〈 0.0001, Week 8: P 〈 0.0339) and NERD (Week 8: P = 0.0088). At baseline, ReQuest "lower abdominal com- plaints" symptom scores were highest in NERD patients with IBS-like symptoms. Additionally, these patients had the strongest symptom improvement after treatment compared with all other subgroups. CONCLUSION: IBS-like symptoms influence treatment outcome and symptom burden in GERD and should be considered in management. Proton pump inhibitors can improve IBS-like symptoms, particularly in NERD.

  12. Influence of choroidal perfusion on retinal temperature increase during retinal laser treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Katharina; Flöhr, Christian; Stalljohann, Jens; Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela; Kandulla, Jochen; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2007-07-01

    In most retinal laser treatments the therapeutic effect is initiated by a transient temperature increase at and around the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Especially in long exposure time treatments like Transpupillary Thermotherapy (TTT) choroidal perfusion has a strong influence on the realized temperature at the fundus. The fundus blood circulation and therefore the heat dissipation is influenced by the intraocular pressure (IOP), which is investigated in the study presented here. In order to reduce the choroidal perfusion, the IOP is increased by injection of physiological saline solution into the eye of anaesthetized rabbits. The fundus is irradiated with 3.64 W/cm2 by means of a TTT-laser (λ = 810 nm) for t = 20 s causing a retinal temperature increase. Realtime temperature determination at the irradiated spot is achieved by a non invasive optoacoustic technique. Perfusion can be reduced by increasing IOP, which leads to different temperature increases when irradiating the retina. This should be considered for long time laser treatments.

  13. Influence of calcitriol treatment on nutritional status, inflammation and oxidative stress of patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Fang Zhang; Hong-Li Yan; Xin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze influences of calcitriol treatment on nutritional status, inflammation and oxidative stress of patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.Methods:A total of 132 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in our hospital were enrolled and randomly divided into observation group and control group. The observation group (n=66 cases) underwent calcitriol treatment, while control group (n=66 cases) underwent routine treatment. Nutrition status, micro inflammation and oxidative stress of the two groups were compared. Results: (1) After treatment, patients’ TSF, MAC, AMC, Hb levels of the observation group were higher than that of the control group (P<0.05); (2) After treatment, TGF-beta 1, CTGF levels of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05), but BMP-7 level was higher than control group (P<0.05). (3) Patients’ MPO, CAT, NO, TAC levels of the observation group were higher than control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:For patients with maintenance hemodialysis, Calcitriol can optimize patients' nutritional status, reduce systemic inflammatory response, enhance antioxidant capacity.

  14. [Influence of treatment with olmesartan on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregvadze, T R; Tseluĭko, V I; Mishchuk, N E

    2013-12-01

    Hypertension is the most common disease of the cardiovascular system. Active treatment of hypertension with adequate control of blood pressure (BP) can prevent complications, improve life quality and increase life expectancy. One of the interesting new antihypertensive agents, from the group of angiotensin receptor blockers is olmesartan. The obvious advantages of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to traditional one-time measurements of BP make this method perspective for quality control of anti-hypertensive therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of treatment with olmesartan on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters in patients with hypertension. 38 out-patients with hypertension at the age of 25-84 years (mean 55,3±10,6) were studied. Patients received olmesartan 20 mg daily as monotherapy (20 patients (52,6%)) or in combination with other antihypertensive agents (18 patients (47,4%)). Treatment continued for 6 months. The complex examination included: measurement of office brachial BP, electrocardiography, echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). As a result of treatment, office BP and diurnal BP, according to ABPM, significantly decreased; the favorable circadian BP profile dynamics were found: significantly less frequently observed lack of reduction in BP during night (daily index - non-dipper) - 18% vs. 64% (p treatment of hypertensive patients with olmesartan provides significant decline not only in office BP, but also in diurnal BP, normalizes BP of active and passive periods, also - daily index and reduces BP variability.

  15. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT INTERVALS OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT ON BONE INTENSITY IN PRIMARY OSTEOPOROSIS PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of different intervals of acupuncture treabment on bone intensity inprimary osteoporosis subjects. Methods: A total of 45 cases of primary osteoporosis female patients were randomly di-vided into 1 treatment/week (1-T/W), 2 treatments/week (2-T/N) and 3 treatments/week (3-T/W) groups, with 15cases being in each group. Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Shenshu (BL 23), Taixi (KI 3)and Pishu (BL 20) were used and stimulated with reinforcing needling manipulation. For patients with deficiency syn-drome of kidney-yang, themal acupuncture was applied to Shenshu (BL 23), and for patients with spleen-deficiencysyndrome, thermal acupuncture applied to Zusanli (ST 36). Results: After 6 months' treatment, in 1-T/W group, noapparent change of bone intensity was observed, while in 2-T/N and 3-T/W groups, the bone intensity was increasedsignificantly (P<0.05, 0.01). Conclusion: Acupuncture plus moxibustion treatment twice or 3 times every week canobviously improve the bone intensity.

  16. Influence of preventive dental treatment on mutans streptococci counts in patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Buzati Meca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium fluoride and sodium iodine on mutans streptococci counts in saliva of irradiated patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five patients were separated into three experimental groups and received chlorhexidine (0.12%, sodium fluoride (0.5% or sodium iodine (2%, which were used daily during radiotherapy and for 6 months after the conclusion of the treatment. In addition, a fourth group, composed by 15 additional oncologic patients, who did not receive the mouthwash or initial dental treatment, constituted the control group. Clinical evaluations were performed in the first visit to dental clinic, after initial dental treatment, immediately before radiotherapy, after radiotherapy and 30, 60, 90 days and 6 months after the conclusion of radiotherapy. After clinical examinations, samples of saliva were inoculated on SB20 selective agar and incubated under anaerobiosis, at 37ºC for 48 h. Total mutans streptococci counts were also evaluated by using real-time PCR, through TaqMan system, with specific primers and probes for S. mutans and S. sobrinus. RESULTS: All preventive protocols were able to reduce significantly mutans streptococci counts, but chlorhexidine gluconate was the most effective, and induced a significant amelioration of radiotherapy side effects, such as mucositis and candidosis. CONCLUSION: These results highlights the importance of the initial dental treatment for patients who will be subjected to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment.

  17. Evaluation of endometriosis-associated pain and influence of conventional treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bernadete Trovó de Marqui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease characterized by sustained painful symptoms that are responsible for a decline in the quality of life of sufferers. Conventional treatment includes surgical and pharmacological therapy aiming at reducing painful symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate pain levels in women with endometriosis, focusing on the influence of conventional treatment in controlling this variable. To do so, a literature search was conducted in the Medline/Pubmed databases, with 119 scientific articles found. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 were selected for reading and elaboration of this review. Thus, 9 studies evaluated the contribution of surgery, 17 the use of drugs to reduce pain levels in patients with endometriosis and one assessed surgical and medical treatment. The main results of these searches are presented and discussed in this revision. Surgery and the use of drugs provided reduced pain scores in patients with endometriosis but nevertheless exhibit disadvantages, such as risk of recurrence and side effects, respectively. Treatment of endometriosis is, therefore, a challenge for gynecologists and patients, as they must select the best therapeutic approach for this disease. However, improved quality of life in these patients has been obtained with the use of conventional treatment.

  18. Oral antibiotic treatment induces skin microbiota dysbiosis and influences wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Jiang, Ziwei; Li, Dongqing; Jiang, Deming; Wu, Yelin; Ren, Hongyan; Peng, Hua; Lai, Yuping

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic treatment eliminates commensal bacteria and impairs mucosal innate immune defenses in the gut. However, whether oral antibiotic treatment could alter the composition of the microbiota on the skin surface and influence innate immune responses remains unclear. To test this, mice were treated with vancomycin for 7 days and then wounds were made on the back skin of the mice. Five days later, scar tissue from each mouse was collected for bacterial enumeration, the bacterial composition on the scar and unwounded skin was determined using 16S RNA gene-based pyrosequencing analysis, and skin around wounds was collected for RNA extraction. Compared with the control group, the overall density and composition of skin bacteria were altered, and the proportion of Staphylococcus-related sequences was reduced in the vancomycin-treated group. Moreover, vancomycin treatment decreased the expression of RegIIIγ and interleukin (IL)-17 in the wounded skin. Taken together, our data demonstrate that antibiotic treatment decreases the bacterial density and alters the bacterial composition in skin wounds, followed by a decrease in RegIIIγ expression, which may contribute to the delayed wound repair. Our findings also indicate that antibiotic therapy should be carefully considered in the treatment of skin injury.

  19. Influence of monte carlo variance with fluence smoothing in VMAT treatment planning with Monaco TPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study aimed to investigate the interplay between Monte Carlo Variance (MCV and fluence smoothing factor (FSF in volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment planning by using a sample set of complex treatment planning cases and a X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo–based treatment planning system equipped with tools to tune fluence smoothness as well as MCV. Materials and Methods: The dosimetric (dose to tumor volume, and organ at risk and physical characteristic (treatment time, number of segments, and so on of a set 45 treatment plans for all combinations of 1%, 3%, 5% MCV and 1, 3, 5 FSF were evaluated for five carcinoma esophagus cases under the study. Result: Increase in FSF reduce the treatment time. Variation of MCV and FSF gives a highest planning target volume (PTV, heart and lung dose variation of 3.6%, 12.8% and 4.3%, respectively. The heart dose variation was highest among all organs at risk. Highest variation of spinal cord dose was 0.6 Gy. Conclusion: Variation of MCV and FSF influences the organ at risk (OAR doses significantly but not PTV coverage and dose homogeneity. Variation in FSF causes difference in dosimetric and physical parameters for the treatment plans but variation of MCV does not. MCV 3% or less do not improve the plan quality significantly (physical and clinical compared with MCV greater than 3%. The use of MCV between 3% and 5% gives similar results as 1% with lesser calculation time. Minimally detected differences in plan quality suggest that the optimum FSF can be set between 3 and 5.

  20. Influence of Fluorine on the Conductivity and Oxidation of Silicon Nanomembranes after Hydrofluoric Acid Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiang-Fu; HAN Ping; ZHANG Rong; ZHENG You-Dou

    2011-01-01

    @@ After immersion in hydrofluoric acid, the sheet resistance of a 220-nm-thick silicon nanomembrane, measured in dry air by van der Pauw method, drops around two orders of magnitude initially, then increases and reaches the level of a sample with a native oxide surface in about one month.The surface component and oxidation rate are also characterized by x-ray photo electronic spectroscopy measurement.Fluorine is found to play a significant role in improving conductivity and has no apparent influence on the oxidation rate after hydrofluoric acid treatment.

  1. The influence of heat treatment by annealing on clad plates residual stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mateša

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of applied clad procedure as well as heat treatment by annealing (650 °C/2h on level and nature of residual stresses was researched. Three clad procedures are used i.e. hot rolling, submerged arc welding (SAW with strip electrode and explosion welding. The relaxed deformation measurement on clad plate surfaces was performed by applying centre-hole drilling method using special measuring electrical resistance strain gauges (rosettes. After performed measuring, size and nature of residual stresses were determined using analytical method. Depending of residual stresses on depth of drilled blind-hole is studied.

  2. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen;

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  3. Influence of heat treatment on tribological behaviors of novel wrought aluminum bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫文; 倪东惠; 夏伟; 邱诚; 陈维平

    2002-01-01

    Influence of heat treatment on mechanica l properties and tribologica l behaviors of Ti and B modified wrought aluminum bronze were studied. The res ults show that different strength and plasticity combination of the alloy after solu tion treatment can be obtained by adjusting the ageing temperature. When aged at 45 0 ℃, the tensile strength σb, yield strength σ0.2, elongatio n δ and hardness of the alloy are 1 050 MPa, 780 MPa, 4.5%, HB282, respectively. When aged at 650 ℃, those of the alloy are 905 MPa, 600 MPa, 12%, HB232, respectively. Under boundary l ubri cation condition with pressure above 22.2 MPa, alloy with low temperature agei ng has the best wear property. However, under the condition involving impact or sh ock loading, alloy with high temperature ageing is preferable. If the load is no t heavy, the alloy under extrusion state is favorable for wear-resisting parts.

  4. Influence of surface treatment of carbon fibers on electrochemical crystallization of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ke; HUANG Su-ping; ZHOU Ke-chao

    2005-01-01

    Electrodeposition technique was used to coat calcium phosphate on carbon fiber which can be used to reinforce hydroxyapatite. The differences between fibers treated with and without nitric acid in electrodeposition were evaluated. The X-ray diffractometry results show that CaHPO4·2H2O is obtained as the kind of calcium phosphate coating on carbon fiber. The scanning electron microscopy photographs and deposit kinetic curve indicate that the influences of the functional group attained by nitric acid treatment, the crystal morphology and crystallization of the coating layers on the fiber with and without treatment rate are obviously different. The functional group, especially the acidic group, can act as nucleation centers of electrochemical crystallization.

  5. African American families on autism diagnosis and treatment: the influence of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-10-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD professionals. Cultural caring meant families protected their child from harm including potential or actual distrustful encounters, and took action for their child and community to optimize their child's health and address the knowledge deficits of ASD within their community. Families and professionals believed cultural influences delayed families' receiving and seeking appropriate health care for the African American child with ASD affecting timely autism diagnosis and treatment.

  6. INFLUENCE OF ETHYLENE-OXIDE GAS TREATMENT ON THE IN-VITRO DEGRADATION BEHAVIOR OF DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; NIEUWENHUIS, P; FEIJEN, J

    1995-01-01

    The influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of noncrosslinked, glutaraldehyde crosslinked or hexamethylene diisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using bacterial collagenase is described. The results obtained were compared with the degradation beh

  7. Does raloxifene treatment influence back pain and disability among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadokostakis, Georgios; Katonis, Pavlos; Damilakis, John; Hadjipavlou, Alexander

    2005-12-01

    Clinical studies have suggested that postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement treatment are more likely to experience back pain and related disability compared to women who do not take estrogens. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator has estrogen-like effects on bone tissue, and antagonize the action of estrogens on endometrium and breast tissue. It is unknown if the treatment of osteoporosis with raloxifene has estrogen-like or opposite effects on back pain and functional capacity among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A total of 120 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and chronic back pain were randomized to receive raloxifene 60 mg with 1,000 mg calcium, and 800 IU vitamin D daily or 1,000 mg calcium and 800 IU vitamin D daily. Pain intensity and pain-related disability were measured before treatment at 6 months and after 1 year. Repeated measures of ANOVA, did not reveal statistically significant differences over time, on pain intensity and disability scores, between groups studied. There was a trend in pain intensity changes during the follow-up period, but the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. It seems that treatment with raloxifene does not influence back pain and disability among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Raloxifene may have estrogenic agonist effects on nociceptive processing in the central nervous system.

  8. The influence of distance on utilization of outpatient mental health aftercare following inpatient substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Susan K; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Piette, John D

    2003-08-01

    This study examined whether substance abuse patients who live farther from their source of outpatient mental health care were less likely to obtain aftercare following an inpatient treatment episode. For those patients who did receive aftercare, distance was evaluated as a predictor of the volume of care received. A national sample of 33,952 veterans discharged from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) inpatient substance abuse treatment programs was analyzed using a two-part choice model utilizing logistic and linear regression. Patients living farther from their source of outpatient mental health care were less likely to obtain aftercare following inpatient substance abuse treatment. Patients who traveled 10 miles or less were 2.6 times more likely to obtain aftercare than those who traveled more than 50 miles. Only 40% of patients who lived more than 25 miles from the nearest aftercare facility obtained any aftercare services. Patients who received aftercare services had fewer visits if they lived farther from their source of aftercare. Lack of geographic access (distance) is a barrier to outpatient mental health care following inpatient substance abuse treatment, and influences the volume of care received once the decision to obtain aftercare is made. Aftercare services must be geographically accessible to ensure satisfactory utilization.

  9. Influence of treatment including second molars on final and postretention molar angulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filiphe Gonçalves Canuto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate axial mesiodistal inclinations of the mandibular molars in orthodontically treated cases, analyzing whether inclusion of second mandibular molars in treatment mechanics has any influence on final and postretention molars angulations. METHODS: The sample comprised 150 panoramic radiographs of 50 patients. Patients were treated with extraction of four first premolars and divided into 2 groups: Group 1 comprised 25 subjects without inclusion of mandibular second molars during orthodontic treatment, whereas Group 2 comprised 25 subjects with inclusion of mandibular second molars. Panoramic radiographs at three observation times were evaluated: pretreatment, posttreatment and postretention. The statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA for intragroup evaluation and independent t-tests for intergroup comparisons. RESULTS: Intragroup analysis demonstrated significant uprighting of mandibular first and second molars during treatment in Group 2, which remained stable during the postretention stage. Intergroup comparison demonstrated that Group 2 presented first and second molars significantly more uprighted in relation to Group 1 in both post-treatment and postretention stages. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that inclusion of mandibular second molars in the orthodontic mechanics is relevant not only to correct the angulation of these teeth, but also to aid mandibular first molars uprighting.

  10. Maprotiline treatment differentially influences cardiac β-adrenoreceptors expression under normal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Spasojevic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cardiac function were observed in antidepressants treated patients and published in several clinical reports. These detected changes could be either a consequence of the treatment or of depression itself, which has already been proved to be a risk factor in heart diseases. In order to determine a possible influence of chronic treatment with norepinephrinergic reuptake inhibitor, maprotiline, on the heart, we investigated gene expression of cardiac β-adrenoceptors both in controls and in animals with signs of depression. The rats were divided into two groups, unstressed controls and those exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. The groups were further divided into two subgroups, one receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (sterile water and another one maprotiline (10 mg/kg for four weeks. Tissue samples were collected after the last application. Gene expression of cardiac β1- and β2-adrenoceptor was determined using Real-time RT-PCR analysis. Our results show that in control animals expression of both adrenoreceptors was decreased in the right atria after 4 weeks of maprotiline application. Contrary, the same treatment led to a significant increase in expression of cardiac β1-adrenoceptor in the stressed rats, with no change in the characteristics of β2-adrenoceptor. Our findings might reflect the that molecular mechanisms are underlying factors involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases linked with antidepressant treatment.

  11. Influences of magnetic treatment on microstructure densification of diamond saw segments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟富刚; 张燕玲; 李娟; 张庆

    2008-01-01

    The heated test pieces were treated with alternating magnetic field by self-made experimental facility firstly. And influences of magnetic treatment on microstructure densification of Diamond Saw Segments were studied through hardness testing, ultrasonic testing, metallurgical structure and fracture pattern analysis by comparative method. The mechanism of magnetic treatment is analyzed and discussed in the end. The results show that the hardness of test pieces after magnetized are harder than before, that HRB hardness is improved by 3.58 on average. The sound path and amplitude of echo wave both decrease in test pieces after magnetized. The relative pad value of echo wave is regularly related with the microstructure densification, what is profound to further establish the regularity studying the degree of matrices densification using ultrasonic testing. The pores become few and pore shape gradually spheroidizing with the magnetic treatment, and matrices are more homogeneous and compact than the without by metallographic microscope. The degree of matrices densification is further improved after magnetized. The average crystal grain size is finer than the without, and the reason of grain refining is that densification of diamond saw blade improved. Magnetic treatment can act as one kind of effective technique to improve the microstructure densification of diamond saw segments.

  12. Influence of Hyperlipidemia on the Treatment of Supraspinatus Tendinopathy With or Without Tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of hyperlipidemia on the treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy, with or without tear. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with shoulder pain and patients with supraspinatus tendinopathy, with or without tear, were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were prior shoulder surgery, prior steroid injection, neurological diseases that could lead to shoulder pain, and use of lipid-lowering medication. According to the serum lipid profiles, patients were assigned to either the hyperlipidemia or non-hyperlipidemia group. By analyzing the numeric rating scale (NRS) before treatment, and at 2 weeks and 8 weeks after treatment, we compared the difference in treatment effect between the two groups. Results No significant baseline difference was found among the two groups for age, gender, body mass index, duration of pain, side of pain, range of motion of affected shoulder, or physical examination. On the repeated-measures analysis of variance, NRS scores significantly decreased with time for both groups (ptendinopathy with or without tear. PMID:27446783

  13. The unmet orthodontic treatment need of adolescents and influencing factors for not seeking orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalj, Stjepan; Slaj, Martina; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Govorko, Danijela Kalibović; Slaj, Mladen

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate unmet orthodontic treatment needs of adolescents in Zagreb, Croatia, compare normative and self-perceived need and investigate factors influencing the reason why untreated subjects with severe malocclusions have not been treated before. One thousand and forty-two non-orthodontically treated subjects in age groups of 12 and 18 years, from sixteen randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia were examined. The Dental Aesthetic Index, Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and a questionnaire concerning self-perceived orthodontic treatment need, perception of aesthetics, function, behaviors and socioeconomic status were used. Around one third of untreated adolescent population had an objective need, less than 20 percent had aesthetic need, and self-perceived need was reported in one third of population. Associations and agreements between objective, aesthetic and self-perceived need were weak (r = 0.27-0.48; p 0.05) to 0.32 (p malocclusion were better related in persons with no treatment need or minor need (r = 0.53-0.59) than in those with major need (r = 0.31-0.40). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed that objective, aesthetic and self-perceived needs were better related between themselves than to socio-economic status of subjects, function, activities of daily living and oral health-related behaviors. It appears that self-perceived treatment need has low role in predicting objective need, but relation between satisfaction and awareness of malocclusion could be one of basic factors in process of making decision to go for treatment and maybe could serve in predicting patient's compliance.

  14. CYP2D6 polymorphisms and their influence on risperidone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangpetch A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apichaya Puangpetch,1 Natchaya Vanwong,1 Nopphadol Nuntamool,2 Yaowaluck Hongkaew,1 Monpat Chamnanphon,1 Chonlaphat Sukasem1 1Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, 2Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Cytochrome P450 enzyme especially CYP2D6 plays a major role in biotransformation. The interindividual variations of treatment response and toxicity are influenced by the polymorphisms of this enzyme. This review emphasizes the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in risperidone treatment in terms of basic knowledge, pharmacogenetics, effectiveness, adverse events, and clinical practice. Although the previous studies showed different results, the effective responses in risperidone treatment depend on the CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Several studies suggested that CYP2D6 polymorphisms were associated with plasma concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and active moiety but did not impact on clinical outcomes. In addition, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer showed more serious adverse events such as weight gain and prolactin than other predicted phenotype groups. The knowledge of pharmacogenomics of CYP2D6 in risperidone treatment is increasing, and it can be used for the development of personalized medication in term of genetic-based dose recommendation. Moreover, the effects of many factors in risperidone treatment are still being investigated. Both the CYP2D6 genotyping and therapeutic drug monitoring are the important steps to complement the genetic-based risperidone treatment. Keywords: CYP2D6, risperidone, polymorphisms, adverse drug reaction, pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics

  15. Heat treatment of a direct composite resin: influence on flexural strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lumi Miyazaki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of a direct composite, for indirect application, that received heat treatment, with or without investment. One indirect composite was used for comparison. For determination of the heat treatment temperature, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were performed, considering the initial weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature (Tg. Then, after photoactivation (600 mW/cm² - 40 s, the specimens (10 x 2 x 2 mm were heat-treated following these conditions: 170ºC for 5, 10 or 15 min, embedded or not embedded in investment. Flexural strength was assessed as a means to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment periods and investment embedding on mechanical properties. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05. TGA showed an initial weight loss temperature of 180ºC and DSC showed a Tg value of 157°C. Heat treatment was conducted in an oven (Flli Manfredi, Italy, after 37°C storage for 48 h. Flexural strength was evaluated after 120 h at 37°C storage. The results showed that different periods and investment embedding presented similar statistical values. Nevertheless, the direct composite resin with treatments presented higher values (178.7 MPa compared to the indirect composite resin (146.0 MPa and the same direct composite submitted to photoactivation only (151.7 MPa. Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the heat treatment increased the flexural strength of the direct composite studied, leading to higher mechanical strength compared to the indirect composite.

  16. Expression of inflammatory biomarkers from cultured sebocytes was influenced by treatment with vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weon Ju Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory cytokines are the key factor in the pathophysiology of acne. It is well known that keratinocytes synthesize many kinds of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, it is reported that inflammatory cytokines are also expressed from sebocytes, which originate from the same stem cells with keratinocytes. Aim: To clarify changes in the expression of inflammatory biomarkers from cultured sebocytes after treatment with vitamin D. Materials and Methods: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was done to measure changes in the expression of inflammatory biomarkers, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and several subtypes of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs after treatment of a group of cultured sebocytes with vitamin D. Vitamin D receptor (VDR small interfering RNA (siRNA was added in the other group of cultured sebocytes to assure the role of vitamin D on the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was also performed in the vitamin D-treated sebocytes. Results: Cultured sebocytes showed non-significant changes in the gene expression of inflammatory biomarkers after treatment with vitamin D. In cultured sebocytes treated with a VDR siRNA, the expression of inflammatory biomarkers was not blocked after treatment with vitamin D. ELISA showed a significant decrease in the expression of IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9, but a significant increase in the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3, after treatment with vitamin D (10 -6 M. Conclusion: Expression of inflammatory biomarkers is influenced by treatment with vitamin D in cultured sebocytes, but not through VDR.

  17. An Analysis of the Treatment of Corporate Influence on Government by United States History and American Government High School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation to explore the possibility that ideology might be expressed in the treatment of corporate influence on federal government by social studies textbooks. Two textbooks were examined in the study--United States history and American government. Corporate influence involves activities that affect election and…

  18. Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Strength of Three Aluminum Alloys Used in Light Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig C. Menzemer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint influence of welding and artificial aging on mechanical properties were investigated for extrusions of aluminum alloy 6063, 6061, and 6005A. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on the aluminum alloys 6063-T4, 6061-T4, and 6005A-T1 in both the as-received (AR and as-welded (AW conditions. Tensile tests were also conducted on the AR and AW alloys, subsequent to artificial aging. The welding process used was gas metal arc (GMAW with spray transfer using 120–220 A of current at 22 V. The artificial aging used was a precipitation heat treatment for 6 h at 182 °C (360 °F. Tensile tests revealed the welded aluminum alloys to have lower strength, both for yield and ultimate tensile strength, when compared to the as-received un-welded counterpart. The beneficial influence of post weld heat treatment (PWHT on strength and ductility is presented and discussed in terms of current design provisions for welded aluminum light pole structures.

  19. Factors influencing mothers' role in convulsion treatment among under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ezenwa E; Awomoyi, Aanuoluwayomi O

    2009-01-01

    Convulsion among children between six months and five years is a major contributor to childhood mortality in less-developed societies, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies on under-five deaths have ignored the influence of socio-demographic and environmental factors as they relate to causes of the thematic health condition and available therapies. This study investigated mothers' perception of convulsion causation, relevant signs and symptoms, and the influence of socio-economic status on mothers' choice of remedies. The research was conducted in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria, which is densely populated with mainly Yoruba-speaking people. The study population comprised mothers who, at the time of fieldwork for the present analysis, had at least one under-five child. Five hundred questionnaire respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique, and 14 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among different categories of women identified through the snowball technique. Voluntary Social Action Theory and the Health Belief Model were used in explaining the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The findings show that the remedies mothers chose were strongly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as marriage type, religion, level of education, occupation and place of residence. It is strongly suggested that interventions, health policies and programs should focus on how best to empower women to effectively utilize medical information that will enable them recognize symptoms of this common health condition and/or undertake preliminary therapies that contribute positively to convulsion prevention or treatment.

  20. Influence of medication risks and benefits on treatment preferences in older patients with multimorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Gillian E; Tait, Kirsty; Vitry, Agnes I; Shakib, Sepehr

    2017-01-01

    Multimorbidity is associated with use of multiple medicines, increased risk of adverse events and treatment conflicts. This study aimed to examine how older patients with multimorbidity and clinicians balance the benefits and harms associated with a medication and in the presence of competing health outcomes. Interviews were conducted with 15 participants aged ≥65 years with 2 or more chronic conditions. Three clinical scenarios were presented to understand patient preference to take a medicine according to i) degree of benefit, ii) type of adverse event and impact on daily living and iii) influence of comorbid conditions as competing health outcomes. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with participants (n=15) and clinicians (n=5) to understand patient preferences and treatment decisions, in the setting of multimorbidity. The median age of participants was 79 years, 55% had 5 or more conditions and 47% took 8 or more medicines daily. When the level of benefit of the medicine ranged from 14% to 70%, 80% of participants chose to take the medicine, but when adverse effects were present, this was reduced to 0–33% depending upon impact on daily activities. In the presence of competing health outcomes, 13%–26% of patients chose to take the medicine. Two-thirds of patients reported that their doctor respects and considers their preferences and discussed medication benefits and harms. Interviews with clinicians showed that their overall approach to treatment decision-making for older individuals with multimorbidity was based upon 2 main factors, the patients’ prognosis and their preferences. The degree of benefit gained was not the driver of patients’ preference to take a medicine; rather, this decision was influenced by type and severity of adverse effects. Inclusion of patient preferences in the setting of risks and benefits of medicines with consideration and prioritization of competing health outcomes may result in improved health outcomes for

  1. Treatment of Asthma at Asthma-relieving Earpoint and its Influence on FEV1 and PEF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yao-chi

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察耳穴平喘点治疗哮喘及其对FEV1与PEF的影响.方法:选择临床明确诊断为支气管哮喘的患者178例,按简单随机数字表均分为耳贴平喘点治疗组(观察组)与体针治疗组(对照组).结果:观察组有效率为90.0%,对照组有效率为91.0%,两组疗效比照P>0.05;观察组治疗前后FEV1及PEF有显著差异(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:耳穴平喘点治疗哮喘有显著疗效并对肺功能有一定影响.%Purpose: To investigate the treatment of asthma at asthma-relieving earpoint and its influence on FEV1 and PEF. Method: One hundred and seventy-eight patients exactly diagnosed with bronchial asthma were selected and averagely divided, according to a simple random number table, into an asthma-relieving earpoint treatment group (observation group)and a body acupuncture treatment group (control group). Results: The effective rate was 90.0% in the observation group and 91.0% in the control group. A comparison of the curative effects between the two groups showed P> 0.05. In the observation group there were significant differences in FEV1 and PEF between pretreatment and posttreatment (P< 0.05 and P< 0. 01, respectively). Conclusion: Asthma-relieving earpoint is markedly effective in treating asthma and has a certain influence on lung function.

  2. Corticosteroid Treatment Influences TA-Proteinuria and Renal Survival in IgA Nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sarcina

    Full Text Available The clinical course of IgA nephropathy (IgAN and its outcome are extremely variable. Proteinuria at baseline has been considered one of the most important risk factors. More recently, mean proteinuria of follow-up (time-average proteinuria: TAp was described as a stronger marker of renal survival, suggesting to consider it as a marker of disease activity and response to treatment. We evaluated predictors of renal survival in IgAN patients with different degrees of renal dysfunction and histological lesions, focusing on the role of the therapy in influencing TAp. We performed a retrospective analysis of three prospective, randomized, clinical trials enrolling 325 IgAN patients from 1989 to 2005. Patients were divided into 5 categories according to TAp. The primary endpoint of the 100% increase of serum creatinine occurred in 54 patients (16.6% and renal survival was much better in groups having lower TAp. The median follow up was 66.6 months (range 12 to 144. The primary endpoint of the 100% increase of serum creatinine occurred in 54 patients (16,6% and renal survival was much better in groups having lower TA proteinuria. At univariate analysis plasma creatinine and 24h proteinuria, systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure during follow-up and treatment with either steroid (CS or steroid plus azathioprine (CS+A were the main factors associated with lower TAp and renal survival. At multivariate analysis, female gender, treatment with S or S+A, lower baseline proteinuria and SBP during follow-up remained as the only variables independently influencing TAp. In conclusion, TA-proteinuria is confirmed as one of the best outcome indicators, also in patients with a severe renal insufficiency. A 6-month course of corticosteroids seems the most effective therapy to reduce TAp.

  3. Neurocysticercosis: the effectiveness of the cysticidal treatment could be influenced by the host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Graciela; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosetti, Marcos; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Saenz, Brenda; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fleury, Agnes

    2014-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis, a clinically and radiologically pleomorphic parasitic disease, is still endemic to most non-developed countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Anti-helminthic drugs (AHD) are generally effective and rapidly destroy parenchymal cysticerci. In contrast, several cycles of AHD are frequently necessary to damage extraparenchymally located parasites. The present study was designed to evaluate whether differences in the immunological profile of the patients is involved in the diversity of the response to AHD. To this end, a global gene expression microarray and a cytokine analysis were made. Responder patients were those showing a radiological reduction greater than 50 % in the parasite burden following AHD treatment. Microarray pre- and post-treatment comparisons showed that a total of eighteen immune-related genes were up-regulated in the five responder patients with respect the expression profile seen in the four non-responder subjects. The function of up-regulated genes exerted pro-inflammatory (RORγC, Sema4A, SLAMF3, SLAMF6), anti-inflammatory (TGFβ, TNFRSF25, TNFRS18, SLAMF1, ILF2), or immunomodulatory effects (CXCL2, RUNX3, SLAMF9, TGFBR3). To further explore the causes of the heterogeneity in the response to treatment, a wide ELISA cytokine analysis was performed in serum, PBMC supernatants, and CSF samples from 39 responder and 26 non-responder patients. Responder patients showed higher CSF IL-17A levels (P = 0.04) and higher supernatant IL-6 levels (P = 0.03) 60 days after treatment. These results suggest a possible influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the response to AHD as observed by radiological methods, and thus the possible participation of the host immunity in the effectiveness of AHD treatment.

  4. Influence of comorbidity on the effect of adjuvant treatment and age in patients with early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, L H; Dalton, S O; Jensen, M-B;

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of comorbidity at breast cancer diagnosis increases with age and is likely to influence the likelihood of receiving treatment according to guidelines. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of breast cancer treatment on mortality, taking age at diagnosis and comorbidity...

  5. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure of hot extruded AZ31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzwonczyk, J.; Bohlen, J.; Hort, N.; Kainer, K.U. [Inst. for Materials Research, Center for Magnesium Technology, GKSS Research Center (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In the last years magnesium alloys have been increasingly considered as attractive materials for the transportation industry. Extruded magnesium alloys have been found in the centre of interest combining their lightweight, surface quality with the wide range of possible achievable geometries. In the present study the alloy AZ31 has been chosen for investigation as one of the most common commercial magnesium wrought alloys. Round bars have been obtained through hot direct extrusion. After primary microstructural characterisation and mechanical testing in the as-extruded condition the specimens have been subjected to heat treatment consisting of different times (1, 2 and 4 hours) at different temperatures (200 C, 300 C, 400 C and 500 C) followed by cooling in air. Subsequently the specimens have been subjected to microstructural characterisation using light optical microscopy. Average grain size and grain size distribution have been determined using dedicated software. The microstructural analysis has been supported by microhardness testing on selected specimens. Additionally, the specimens have been subjected to tensile tests at room temperature applying a deformation rate of 1.3 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} as used for the material in as-extruded conditions. The obtained results have shown that heat treatment has no substantial influence on the microstructure characteristics of AZ31 up to 400 C. However, specimens treated at 500 C for one hour revealed a course grain, homogeneous structure with a substantial increase in grain size from 8 {mu}m in as-extruded condition to 18 {mu}m. This change in microstructure slightly reduced the strain-hardening exponent from 0.2 to 0.16. The remaining mechanical properties did not vary extensively when compared to the untreated, as-extruded material. It is assumed that the average grain size and grain size distribution have been influenced by complex thermomechanical treatments, which occurred during extrusion process as well as

  6. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadym, Prysiazhnyi; Pavel, Slavicek; Eliska, Mikmekova; Milos, Klima

    2016-04-01

    This paper is aimed to show the influence of initial chemical pretreatment prior to subsequent plasma activation of aluminum surfaces. The results of our study showed that the state of the topmost surface layer (i.e. the surface morphology and chemical groups) of plasma modified aluminum significantly depends on the chemical precleaning. Commonly used chemicals (isopropanol, trichlorethane, solution of NaOH in deionized water) were used as precleaning agents. The plasma treatments were done using a radio frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma pencil developed at Masaryk University, which operates in Ar, Ar/O2 gas mixtures. The effectiveness of the plasma treatment was estimated by the wettability measurements, showing high wettability improvement already after 0.3 s treatment. The effects of surface cleaning (hydrocarbon removal), surface oxidation and activation (generation of OH groups) were estimated using infrared spectroscopy. The changes in the surface morphology were measured using scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements in the near-to-surface region with temperature calculations showed that plasma itself depends on the sample precleaning procedure.

  7. Influence of drinking water treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite/chlorate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Disinfection is the last treatment stage of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) and is carried out to maintain a residual concentration of disinfectant in the water distribution system. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used chemical employed for this purpose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of several treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and on chlorite and chlorate formation in the final oxidation/disinfection stage. A number of tests was performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected from the DWTP of Cremona (Italy). The following processes were studied: oxidation with potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite, coagulation/flocculation with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, filtration and adsorption onto activated carbon. The results showed that the chlorine dioxide demand is high if sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate are employed in pre-oxidation. On the other hand, chlorine dioxide leads to the highest production of chlorite and chlorate. The coagulation/flocculation process after pre-oxidation shows that chlorine dioxide demand decreases if potassium permanganate is employed as an oxidant, both with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate. Therefore, the combination of these processes leads to a lower production of chlorite and chlorate. Aluminum sulfate is preferable in terms of the chlorine dioxide demand reduction and minimization of the chlorite and chlorate formation. Activated carbon is the most effective solution as it reduced the chlorine dioxide consumption by about 50% and the DBP formation by about 20-40%.

  8. Gamma knife treatment of rat glioma Influences of irradiation dose on apoptosis and necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Mianshun Pan; Xinggen Fang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apoptosis and necrosis are cellular death mechanisms that are induced in glioma cells following gamma knife irradiation. Increased apoptosis is essential for maintaining and enhancing treatment efficacy.OBJECTIVE: To observe apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms of rat glioma models induced by gamma knife treatment and to analyze the influences of irradiation doses on apoptosis and necrosis. DESIGN: Controlled animal experiment. SETTING: Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University and Gamma Knife Center of Hefei Brain Hospital.MATERIALS: Eighteen female specific pathogen free Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 180-210 g and 5-6 weeks old, were purchased from the Experimental Animal Center, Medical College of Suzhou University. Rat C6 glioma cells were purchased from the cell bank of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Annexin V-FITC Reagent Kit (Bender Med System. Company, USA) and a flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur) were provided.METHODS: The experiment was conducted at the Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University and Gamma Knife Center of Hefei Brain Hospital from December 2006 to May 2007. All rats were inoculated with C6 glioma cells, i.e., 4 μL of a C6 glioma cell suspension was injected 5 mm deep in the cortex. All rats were divided randomly into a model group, 9-Gy treatment group, and 12-Gy treatment group. There were six rats in each group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Apoptosis and necrosis of normal brain tissue and glioma were observed by Flow Cytometry one week after irradiation, and pathological changes to tumor tissue were identified by HE staining.RESULTS: Eighteen rats were initially selected for the study: two rats from the model and 12-Gy treatment groups died from accidental anesthesia. The remaining 16 rats were included in the final result analysis. Cellular apoptosis and necrosis: apoptosis and necrosis were significantly increased in the treatment groups after gamma knife irradiation, compared to the model group (P < 0

  9. The dynamics of histamine level in patients with chronic urticaria under the influence of different methods of treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dytyatkovska Ye.M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the efficiency of different methods of chronic urticaria treatment. All patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment scteme. The paper shows the dynamics of histamine level in blood plasma, intestine disbiosis in patients with chronic urticaria under the influence of different treatment complexes. It was proved that there exists the correlation between the serum histamine level and method of treatment. Intro¬ducing bionorm into the treatment allows to decrease histamine level and correspondingly to significantly improve clinical effect and patients’ life quality.

  10. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Morphologies of Copper Nanoparticles Based Films by a Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of heat treatment on the morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides by a spin coating method. The experiments show that heat treatment can modify the sizes and morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides. We suggest that through changing the parameters of heat treatment process may be helpful to vary the scattering and absorbing intensity of copper nanoparticles when used in energy harvesting/conversion and optical devices.

  11. Influence of post-treatment strategies on the properties of activated chars from broiler manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabel M; Boykin, Debbie L; Thomas Klasson, K; Uchimiya, Minori

    2014-01-01

    There are a myriad of carbonaceous precursors that can be used advantageously to produce activated carbons or chars, due to their low cost, availability and intrinsic properties. Because of the nature of the raw material, production of granular activated chars from broiler manure results in a significant ash fraction. This study was conducted to determine the influence of several pre- and post-treatment strategies in various physicochemical and adsorptive properties of the resulting activated chars. Pelletized samples of broiler litter and cake were pyrolyzed at 700 °C for 1h followed by a 45 min steam activation at 800 °C at different water flow rates from 1 to 5 mL min(-1). For each activation strategy, samples were either water-rinsed or acid-washed and rinsed or used as is (no acid wash/rinse). Activated char's physicochemical and adsorptive properties towards copper ions were selectively affected by both pre- and post-treatments. Percent ash reduction after either rinsing or acid washing ranged from 1.1 to 15.1% but washed activated chars were still alkaline with pH ranging from 8.4 to 9.1. Acid washing or water rinsing had no significant effect in the ability of the activated char to adsorb copper ions, however it significantly affected surface area, pH, ash content and carbon content. Instead, manure type (litter versus cake) and the activation water flow rate were determining factors in copper ion adsorption which ranged from 38 mg g(-1) to 104 mg g(-1) of activated char. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between copper uptake and concentration of certain elements in the activated char such as phosphorous, sulfur, calcium and sodium. Rinsing could suffice as a post treatment strategy for ash reduction since no significant differences in the carbon properties were observed between rinsed and acid wash treatments.

  12. Influence of process parameters on thermal-rate treatment of ZA42 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成栋; 田学雷; 赵梅; 耿浩然

    2002-01-01

    Sand casting process and directional solidification technique combining thermal-rate treatment(TRT) were used. The influence of process parameters on TRT was investigated according to the values of impact toughness. At the same time, the mechanism of TRT was discussed. The results showed that TRT can improve the impact toughness of this alloy, while the hardness is basically constant. The time of heat preservation should not be more than 5min. Different forms of cooling intensification additive have different effects among which the zinc ingot solidified in graphite mold is the best one that can improve impact toughness of samples by more than 80%. With increasing the cooling temperature, the value of α(Al) crystal lattice constant increases. The element Sb has negative effect on TRT.

  13. Influence of Gate Dielectric and Its Surface Treatment on Electrical Characteristics of Solution-Processed ZnO Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Zhang, Xue; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Jaehoon

    2016-02-01

    We report how interface treatments affect electrical performance, including subthreshold characteristics, in solution-processed transparent metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with SiO2 and SiNx gate dielectrics. Ultra-violet (UV) ozone treatment and O2 plasma treatment are carried out as a surface treatment of the interface between a spin-coated zinc oxide (ZnO) layer and a gate dielectric. With the SiO2 dielectric, UV ozone treatment dominantly affects subthreshold characteristics, while O2 plasma treatment produces enhanced mobility and lower threshold voltage shift. With the SiNx dielectric, every electrical parameter including mobility, threshold voltage shift, and subthreshold characteristics is enhanced by 02 plasma treatment. Our experimental results demonstrate that interface engineering treatments variously influence the electrical performance in solution-processed ZnO TFTs.

  14. Influence of heat treatment on structural, mechanical and wear properties of crosslinked UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, R; Moscatelli, M; Giordano, C; Siccardi, F; Cigada, A

    2004-01-01

    New crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPEs) have recently been developed, characterized and introduced in clinical applications. UHMWPE cross-linking treatments are very promising for reducing osteolysis induced by wear debris. The irradiation type, gamma or beta, the dosage and the thermal treatment performed during or following the irradiation process are all factors affecting polyethylene wear resistance. Thermal stabilization treatments performed after or during the irradiation process at a temperature above melting point (i.e. >130 degrees C) have been proven to effectively remove the free radicals generated during irradiation from UHMWPE, but their effect on the mechanical properties of UHMWPE are not completely clear. In addition to wear rate reduction, maintaining good mechanical properties is fundamental aspect in designing the new generation of crosslinked UHMWPE for artificial load bearing materials, especially considering the application in total knee replacements. In this study, we investigated the influence of different stabilization treatments, performed after gamma irradiation, on structural, wear and mechanical properties of UHMWPE. We performed four different stabilization treatments, with different temperatures and cooling rates, on 100 kGy gamma irradiated UHMWPE. Structural properties of UHMWPE were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To assess the mechanical performance of the materials, uni-axial tensile tests were performed according to the ASTM D638 standard, bi-axial tension performance was evaluated by small punch tests (ASTM F2183-02), toughness resistance was evaluated by the Izod method (ASTM F648), and cold flow resistance was analysed by a dynamic compressive test. Evaluation of wear resistance was by a multidirectional pin-on-disk screening machine. Materials considered were in "aged" and "non-aged" conditions. Results confirmed that cross-linking greatly enhances UHMWPE wear resistance, but

  15. Influence of statin treatment on coronary atherosclerosis visualised using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hans [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Klinikum Brandenburg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology, and Pulmonology, Brandenburg an der Havel (Germany); Frieler, Katja [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Medical Statistics, Berlin (Germany); Potsdam Institut fuer Klimaforschung, Potsdam (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Medical Statistics, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Coronary angiography using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows non-invasive assessment of non-calcified, calcified and mixed plaques. Progression of coronary plaques may be influenced by statins. Sixty-three consecutive patients underwent MDCT as a follow-up to their original CT angiography in a retrospective longitudinal study. MDCT was performed by using a voxel size of 0.5 x 0.35 x 0.35 mm{sup 3} at two time points 25 {+-} 3 months apart. Non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaque components were analysed by using volumetric measurement. The influence of statin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and risk factors was assessed by using a linear random intercept model for plaque growth. The volumes of non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaques significantly (P < 0.001) increased from baseline (medians/interquartile ranges = 21/15-39, 7/3-20 and 36/16-69 mm{sup 3}) to follow-up (29/17-44, 13/6-29 and 41/20-75 mm{sup 3}). Statins significantly slowed the growth of non-calcified plaques (statin coefficient {beta} = -0.0036, P = 0.01) but did not significantly affect the growth rate of mixed or calcified plaques. The effect of statin treatment on non-calcified plaques remained significant after adjusting for LDL levels and cardiac risk factors. Quantification using MDCT shows that progression of non-calcified coronary plaques may be slowed by statins. (orig.)

  16. Influence of microwaves treatment of rapeseed on phenolic compounds and canolol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Zheng, Chang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Changsheng; Li, Wenlin; Huang, Fenghong

    2014-02-26

    Rapeseeds were treated with microwaves under 800 W for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 min at a frequency of 2450 MHz, and oil was extracted with a press to investigate the influence on phenolic compounds, including sinapine, the main free phenolic acids, and canolol content in the rapeseeds and oil from them. The results indicated that sinapine and sinapic acid was the main phenolic compound and free phenolic acid in the rapeseed, respectively, and canolol was the main phenolic compound in the oil from rapeseed by cold press. Microwave treatment significantly influenced phenolic compounds content in the rapeseeds and oil from them. The sinapine, sinapic acid, and canolol content in rapeseed first increased and then decreased depending on the period of microwave radiation (p rapeseed increased to the maximum and was approximately six times greater than that of the unroasted rapeseed. The amount of canolol formed was significantly correlated with the content of sinapic acid and sinapine (for sinapic acid, r = -0.950, p oil extracted by press. Almost all of the sinapine remained in the cold-pressed cake and only 1.4-2.7% of the sinapic acid, whereas approximately 56-83% of the canolol was transferred to the oil. The transfer ratio of canolol significantly increased with microwave radiation time (p rapeseed benefited improving the oxidative stability of oil.

  17. Influence of filtration velocity on DON variation in BAF for micropolluted surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng-Fei; Chen, You-Peng; Kang, Jia; Gao, Xu; Guo, Jin-Song; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Biological aerated filters (BAFs) are widely used for the treatment of micropolluted surface water. However, the biological process produces dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), which, as precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products, pose potential threats to drinking water safety. Therefore, to control DON in BAF effluent, it is necessary to study the influence of BAF operation parameters on DON production. In this study, the influence of filtration velocity in a BAF on DON production was investigated. Under different filtration velocity (0.5, 2, and 4 m/h) conditions, profiles of DON concentrations along the media layer were measured. The profile at a filtration velocity of 0.5 m/h showed a decreasing trend, and the ones under filtration velocities of 2 and 4 m/h fluctuated in a small range (from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L). Moreover, the relatively high filtration velocities of 2 and 4 m/h resulted in a lower level of DON concentration. Additionally, 3D excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize DON. It is found that the patterns of DON at a relatively high filtration velocity condition (4 m/h) were obviously different from the ones under low filtration velocity conditions (0.5 and 2 m/h).

  18. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  19. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmad Zauzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipitation, and calcination process. The optimum result from this study was the surface area of aluminium dross increases from 10.1 m2/g up to 80.0 m2/g at 40°C, 1% NaOH, and 15-minute reaction time. Thus, aluminium dross has a potential to be converted into other useful material such as catalyst and absorbent. The benefit of this research is that the hazardous industrial waste can be turned into wealth to be used in other applications such as in catalytic activities and absorber in waste water treatment. Further investigation on the physicochemical of aluminium dross with different acid or alkali should be conducted to get deeper understanding on the aluminium dross as a catalyst-type material.

  20. Influence of Processing and Heat Treatment on Corrosion Resistance and Properties of High Alloyed Steel Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Horst; Weber, Sebastian; Raab, Ulrich; Theisen, Werner; Wagner, Lothar

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion and abrasive wear are two important aspects to be considered in numerous engineering applications. Looking at steels, high-chromium high-carbon tool steels are proper and cost-efficient materials. They can either be put into service as bulk materials or used as comparatively thin coatings to protect lower alloyed construction or heat treatable steels from wear and corrosion. In this study, two different corrosion resistant tool steels were used for the production of coatings and bulk material. They were processed by thermal spraying and super solidus liquid phase sintering as both processes can generally be applied to produce coatings on low alloyed substrates. Thermally sprayed (high velocity oxygen fuel) coatings were investigated in the as-processed state, which is the most commonly used condition for technical applications, and after a quenching and tempering treatment. In comparison, sintered steels were analyzed in the quenched and tempered condition only. Significant influence of alloy chemistry, processing route, and heat treatment on tribological properties was found. Experimental investigations were supported by computational thermodynamics aiming at an improvement of tribological and corrosive resistance.

  1. Influence of the Culinary Treatment on the Quality of Lactarius deliciosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pogoń

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of culinary treatment on the nutritional value and quality of Lactarius deliciosus was established. Mushrooms: unblanched (I, blanched (II, and unblanched with onion and spices (III, were fried in oil for 10 min. Fried mushrooms were assessed before storage as well as after 48 h in storage at 20 °C, and after 48 and 96 h in storage at 4 °C. Frying increased the dry weight, protein, fat, ash, total carbohydrate, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content, as well as the caloric value of the mushrooms. In addition, frying decreased the antioxidant activity, color parameters (a*, h*, and texture. The most significant changes due to culinary treatment and storage were observed in type II product. Microbiological analysis of the samples after a 48 h storage period at 20 °C revealed the total viable count over 106 and contamination with lactic acid bacteria. Fried mushrooms stored at 4 °C for 96 h were free from microorganisms.

  2. Influence of H7N9 virus infection and associated treatment on human gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Zheng, Beiwen; Yao, Jian; Guo, Lihua; Zuo, Jian; Wu, Lingjiao; Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Lin; Guo, Jing; Ni, Shujun; Li, Ang; Zhu, Yixin; Liang, Weifeng; Xiao, Yonghong; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Between March and June, 2013, forty H7N9 patients were hospitalized in our hospital. Next-generation sequencing technologies have been used to sequence the fecal DNA samples of the patient, the within sample diversity analysis, enterotyping, functional gene and metagenomic species analysis have been carried on both the patients and healthy controls. The influence of associated treatment in H7N9 infected patients is dramatic and was firstly revealed in species level due to deep sequencing technology. We found that most of the MetaGenomic Species (MGS) enriched in the control samples were Roseburia inulinivorans DSM 16841, butyrate producing bacterium SS3/4 and most of MGS enriched in the H7N9 patients were Clostridium sp. 7 2 43FAA and Enterococcus faecium. It was concluded that H7N9 viral infection and antibiotic administration have a significant effect on the microbiota community with decreased diversity and overgrowth of the bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium. Enterotype analysis showed that the communities were unstable. Treatment including antivirals, probiotics and antibiotics helps to improve the microbiota diversity and the abundance of beneficial bacteria in the gut. PMID:26490635

  3. Influence of short anoxia treatment and maturity on quality and storage life of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojević Mirjana V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of short anoxia treatment on physical, chemical and sensory attributes of mature green and pink red tomatoes during storage was investigated. Matured green and pink red fruits were kept for 24 hrs under humidified pure N2, while the control was not treated. Subsequently, the fruits were stored at 12°C and 20°C for 14 days. Quality parameters including weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, colour, sensory and decay were analyzed. Generally, weight loss increased after 14 days of storage and depending on anoxia treatment, maturity and storage temperature. Tomato fruit treated with anoxia and kept at 12°C showed a minimal deterioration of the quality attributes and could be stored for longer periods compared to those stored at 20°C. Results for TSS were higher in tomato fruit treated with anoxia. However, pink red fruit stored at 20°C showed lower TSS than untreated fruit. Untreated and anoxia-pretreated mature green tomatoes showed higher sourness and off-flavour scores than those stored at 20°C. However, mature green and pink red tomatoes kept at 20°C showed higher acceptance (% than those stored at 12°C. Therefore, combined effect of anoxia and low temperature could have delayed the ripening of the tomatoes.

  4. Religion and HIV in Tanzania: influence of religious beliefs on HIV stigma, disclosure, and treatment attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostermann Jan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.

  5. The influence of health systems on hypertension awareness, treatment, and control: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Maimaris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HT affects an estimated one billion people worldwide, nearly three-quarters of whom live in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs. In both developed and developing countries, only a minority of individuals with HT are adequately treated. The reasons are many but, as with other chronic diseases, they include weaknesses in health systems. We conducted a systematic review of the influence of national or regional health systems on HT awareness, treatment, and control. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eligible studies were those that analyzed the impact of health systems arrangements at the regional or national level on HT awareness, treatment, control, or antihypertensive medication adherence. The following databases were searched on 13th May 2013: Medline, Embase, Global Health, LILACS, Africa-Wide Information, IMSEAR, IMEMR, and WPRIM. There were no date or language restrictions. Two authors independently assessed papers for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis of the findings was conducted. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to substantial methodological heterogeneity in included studies. 53 studies were included, 11 of which were carried out in LMICs. Most studies evaluated health system financing and only four evaluated the effect of either human, physical, social, or intellectual resources on HT outcomes. Reduced medication co-payments were associated with improved HT control and treatment adherence, mainly evaluated in US settings. On balance, health insurance coverage was associated with improved outcomes of HT care in US settings. Having a routine place of care or physician was associated with improved HT care. CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the minimization of medication co-payments in health insurance plans, and although studies were largely conducted in the US, the principle is likely to apply more generally. Studies that identify and analyze complexities and links between health

  6. Treatment influence on herbicide resistance level of Belgian Alopecurus myosuroides populations (black-grass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marechal, P Y; Henriet, F; Bodson, B

    2009-01-01

    Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. Therefore, farmers started to spray herbicide intensively and soon cases of failure occurred for different molecules and different modes of action. Black-grass populations have been tested in greenhouses to assess the influence of an herbicide treatment as to the resistance level regarding three different herbicides: chlortoluron, fenoxaprop-P and mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron. Black-grass seeds were collected in field trials in six locations in Belgium, on individuals which have survived the herbicide treatment. Each population comes from trial plots, measuring 2 meters wide by 5 meters long and characterized by a single or a combination of products. Herbicides sprayed were isoproturon, flufenacet+diflufenican, ACCase inhibitors and ALS inhibitors. Seeds were also collected in the untreated plots. The population present in these last ones corresponds to the former population, before the herbicide selection pressure was applied. In the glasshouse assay, this population was used as the standard population to compare with other populations issued from the same field. The 'R' rating system was set up with this population to assess the evolution of resistance level, year in, year out. Rothamsted and Peldon populations were also included as cross-reference. Each field population presented different behaviours towards herbicide applied in greenhouses and some cases of resistance can be highlighted. Generally, a reduction of treatment efficiency between field and greenhouse results was clearly visible for the whole of studied active ingredients. Indeed, a distribution shift of the populations towards higher resistance classes could be observed. This is particularly remarkable for active ingredients sharing the same mode of action. For example, it has been found that populations already sprayed

  7. Schedule of factors influencing access to psychiatric treatment in persons with schizophrenia: Validity and pilot testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shanivaram Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A substantial proportion of patients with severe mental disorders remain untreated in India. Qualitative research has highlighted the complex interplay of multiple factors that preclude schizophrenia patients in rural Indian settings from accessing treatment. Aims: (a To establish the face and content validities of an interview schedule titled "Schedule of Factors Influencing Access (SOFIAc to Psychiatric Treatment in Persons with Schizophrenia," which comprehensively assesses the factors that prevent schizophrenia patients from accessing psychiatric treatment. (b To assess the feasibility of its administration. Materials and Methods: SOFIAc contains 15 items. This schedule involves three phases of interviewing patients and family members. This was given to 12 experts. They used Likert scales (1=not at all satisfactory to 5=very much satisfactory to rate each item of the schedule. In addition, the experts rated (the same way as above the following five dimensions of the schedule (as a whole separately: A (comprehensiveness of the factors, B (scoring system, C (interviewing method, D (general instructions given to the raters, E (overall schedule. Later on, 10 persons with schizophrenia were interviewed with SOFIAc to test the feasibility of administration. Results: Thirteen items were rated as either satisfactory (score=4 or very much satisfactory (score=5 by all 12 experts; remaining two were rated as 4 or 5 by 11 experts. Regarding comprehensiveness of the factors, scoring methods and general instructions given to the interviewers, all provided scores >4; regarding the method of interviewing, 11 provided the score of >4; with regard to overall interview schedule, all experts provided scores >4. Pilot testing revealed that it took 60 min to administer SOFIAc. Conclusion: SOFIAc has satisfactory face and content validities. It is also feasible to administer SOFIAc.

  8. Influence of chemical heat treatment on the mechanical properties of paper knife-edge die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dybowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this article mechanical properties together with wear mechanism of paper knife-edge die made of A 681 steel with TiN, TiCN and DLC coating were analyzed. A Paper knife-edge die using in stamping machine, serves a map of complicated graphical projects. However wear resistance is strongly dependent on chemical composition of a paper mainly on the TiO2 content.Design/methodology/approach: In order to optimize the wear resistance of analyzed paper knife-edge die, influence of HS6-5-2 and A 681 substrate with Duplex treatment (vacuum nitriding/ TiN, TiCN and DLC antiwear coatings deposition were compared. Morphology and mechanical properties (hardness, adhesion were measured.Findings: The present results show that the duplex treatment (nitriding/TiN is a very promising technology for protection of paper knife-edge dies due to the uniform, dense structure with a high adhesion to the HS6-5-2 substrate. Hybrid layer fabricated by the gas nitriding and vacuum arc deposition presented improved mechanical properties.Research limitations/implications: In further examinations to compare the results obtained for each layer it should be taken into consideration to manufacture the gradient DLC layers onto nitrided high-speed cutting steel. For full analysis of worked out technology additional examinations concerning investigation of friction coefficient and wear resistance and corrosion features of deposited layers should be conducted.Originality/value: Our experiments provide in this case the evidence of increased mechanical properties of HS6-5-2 steel together with Duplex treatment (TiN coating instead of A 681 substrate with TiN or TiCN coating.

  9. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps as state-of-the-art technologies for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates...... municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested...

  10. Influence of temperature of the short-period heat treatment on mechanical properties of the NiTi alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Čapek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, known as nitinol, possesses unique properties such as superelasticity, pseudoplasticity, shape memory, while maintaining good corrosion resistance and sufficient biocompatibility. Therefore it is used for production of various devices including surgery implants. Heat treatment of nickel-rich NiTi alloys can result in precipitation of nickel-rich phases, which strongly influence tensile and fatigue behaviour of the material.In this work we have studied influence of short-period heat treatment on tensile behaviour and fatigue life of the NiTi (50.9 at. % Ni wire intended for fabrication of surgery stents.

  11. Contextual and Individual Factors Influencing Periodontal Treatment Needs by Elderly Brazilians: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalazen, Chaiane Emilia; De Carli, Alessandro Diogo; Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; dos Santos, Mara Lisiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Strategy (FHS) program oral health teams and the presence of gingival bleeding (OR = 0.67; CI95% 0.52–0.88), shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 0.76; CI95% 0.58–0.98) and deep periodontal pockets (OR = 0.62; CI95% 0.44–0.89), making these teams act as a protective factor. Conclusions This study showed evidence of the sociocontextual as well as individual sociodemographic characteristics influencing periodontal treatment needed by elderly Brazilians, based on the clinical features of periodontal disease. The results suggest the existence of inequality related to periodontal treatment needs among elderly Brazilians, especially in regard to sex and ethnicity, in addition to a potentially positive impact from the expansion of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) program oral health teams. PMID:27249677

  12. Influence of rapid mix, flocculation and decantation parameters on the treatment of the Ponta Grossa/PR water treatment plant affluent water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Icker Oroski

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian regulations, NBR 12216 (1992, admit that, in the absence of laboratory and pilot plant data, rapid mix, flocculation, decantation or dissolved air flotation parameters be adopted. The present work demonstrates that this is a dangerous practice, which can compromise or difficult the water treatment plant operation, and can leave to a serious damages on the treated water quality; as well can conduct to a bigger operational costs. Therefore, in this work it was evaluated the influence of rapid mix, flocculation and decantation parameters on the treatment of the raw water affluent to the water treatment plant of Ponta Grossa City, Parana State, Brazil. As coagulant agents it was applied aluminium sulfate, PACI (polyaluminium chloride, ferric chloride and Fenton reagent. It was observed that the mentioned parameters must not be adopted because exert a big influence on turbidity removal efficiency.Keywords: rapid mix; flocculation; decantation; alum; fenton reagent.

  13. Influence of sex on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shambhu Aryal,1 Enrique Diaz-Guzman,2 David M Mannino3 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, 3Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, one of the most common chronic diseases and a leading cause of death, has historically been considered a disease of men. However, there has been a rapid increase in the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of COPD in women over the last two decades. This has largely been attributed to historical increases in tobacco consumption among women. But the influence of sex on COPD is complex and involves several other factors, including differential susceptibility to the effects of tobacco, anatomic, hormonal, and behavioral differences, and differential response to therapy. Interestingly, nonsmokers with COPD are more likely to be women. In addition, women with COPD are more likely to have a chronic bronchitis phenotype, suffer from less cardiovascular comorbidity, have more concomitant depression and osteoporosis, and have a better outcome with acute exacerbations. Women historically have had lower mortality with COPD, but this is changing as well. There are also differences in how men and women respond to different therapies. Despite the changing face of COPD, care providers continue to harbor a sex bias, leading to underdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis of COPD in women. In this review, we present the current knowledge on the influence of sex on COPD risk factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes, and how this knowledge may be applied to improve clinical practices and advance research. Keywords: chronic obstructive lung disease, sex, smoking, comorbidity, sex bias

  14. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Nepal: a mixed-methods study.

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    Sharada P Wasti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART is a lifesaver for individual patients treated for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral drugs is essential for HIV infection management. This study aimed to understand the factors influencing adherence amongst ART-prescribed patients and care providers in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed-methods study surveying 330 ART-prescribed patients and 34 in-depth interviews with three different types of stakeholders: patients, care providers, and key people at policy level. Adherence was assessed through survey self-reporting and during the interviews. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with adherence, supplemented with a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. RESULTS: A total of 282 (85.5% respondents reported complete adherence, i.e. no missed doses in the four-weeks prior to interview. Major factors influencing adherence were: non-disclosure of HIV status (OR = 17.99, p = 0.014; alcohol use (OR = 12.89, p = 1 hour (OR = 2.84, p = 0.035. Similarly, lack of knowledge and negative perception towards ART medications also significantly affected non-adherence. Transport costs (for repeat prescription, followed by pills running out, not wanting others to notice, side-effects, and being busy were the most common reasons for non-adherence. The interviews also revealed religious or ritual obstacles, stigma and discrimination, ART-associated costs, transport problems, lack of support, and side-effects as contributing to non-adherence. CONCLUSION: Improving adherence requires a supportive environment; accessible treatment; clear instructions about regimens; and regimens tailored to individual patients' lifestyles. Healthcare workers should address some of the practical and cultural issues around ART medicine whilst policy-makers should develop

  15. The influence of economic incentives on treatment patterns in a third-party funded dental service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, N

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the response of dental practitioners to administration and remuneration adjustments to the Dental Treatment Services Scheme (DTSS) in the Republic of Ireland. DESIGN: Following the introduction of a series of administration and fee adjustments by a third party payments system in December 1999 the pattern of extractions and restorations are examined to determine whether the adjustments had influenced provider behaviour, in particular whether a substitution effect from extractions to restorations would result from a relative fee increase of 62% for amalgam fillings. DATA AND METHODS: Data on patient and provider characteristics from June 1996 to April 2005, collected by the Health Service Executive (HSE) National Shared Services Primary Care Reimbursement Service to facilitate remuneration to dentists providing services in the DTSS, was used in this analysis. A graphical analysis of the data revealed a structural break in the time-series and an apparent substitution to amalgam fillings following the introduction of the fee increases. To test the statistical significance of this break, the ratio of amalgams to restorations was regressed on the trend, growth and level dummy variables, using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression. The diagnostics of the model were assessed using the Jarque-Bera normality test and the LM to test for serial correlation. RESULTS: The initial results showed no evidence of a structural break. However on further investigation, when a pulse dummy was included to account for the immediate impact of the fee adjustment the results suggest a unit root process with a structural break in December 1999. This implies that the amalgam fee increase of December 1999 influenced the behaviour patterns of providers. CONCLUSIONS: System changes can be used to change the emphasis from a scheme that was principally exodontia\\/emergency based to a scheme that is more conservative and based on restoration\\/prevention.

  16. Influence of modified blanching treatments on inactivation of Salmonella during drying and storage of carrot slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipersio, Patricia A; Kendall, Patricia A; Yoon, Yohan; Sofos, John N

    2007-08-01

    Documented outbreaks of human illness associated with consumption of minimally processed produce have increased in recent years. This study evaluated the influence of modified treatments on inactivation of Salmonella during preparation, home-type dehydration (60 degrees C, 6h) and storage of carrot slices. Inoculated (five strains, 7.8 log cfu/g) slices were subjected to the following treatments: (i) untreated control, (ii) steam blanching (88 degrees C, 10 min), (iii) water blanching (88 degrees C, 4 min), (iv) blanching in a 0.105% citric acid solution (88 degrees C, 4 min), or (v) blanching in a 0.21% citric acid solution (88 degrees C, 4 min), dried for 6h at 60 degrees C (140 degrees F), and stored for up to 30 d. Bacterial populations were reduced by 3.8-4.1, 4.6-5.1 and 4.2-4.6 log cfu/g immediately following steam, water or citric acid blanching, respectively. After 6h of dehydration, total reductions were 1.6-1.7 (control), 4.0-5.0 (steam blanched), 4.1-4.6 (water blanched) and 4.9-5.4 (blanched in citric acid solution) log cfu/g. Populations continued to decrease throughout storage, but were still detectable by direct plating at 30 d on all samples except for those blanched in 0.21% citric acid. Results suggest that blanching carrot slices, particularly blanching in 0.21% citric acid, before drying should enhance inactivation of Salmonella during home-type dehydration and storage.

  17. The Influence of Antimicrobial Treatment on Air Permeability and Water Absorption of Knits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Mickeviciene

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobialfinishing is increasingly used for various purposes in textile products.Therefore, it is important to determine whether the antimicrobial finishchanging comfort properties (air permeability, water absorption, etc. ofknits. The objective of this research was to establish the influence ofantimicrobial treatment conditions on air permeability and water absorptionproperties of plain plated knits. The investigations were carried out with threegroups of single plain plated knits. The ground and plating yarns of I group ofknits is pure fiber cotton, man-made bamboo, polyester. The ground yarns of IIand III groups of knits are accordingly polyamide and elastane threads. Theplating yarns in mentioned groups are the same as in I group – cotton, man-madebamboo, polyester yarns. Part of the knits of all groups were treated in anantimicrobial solution of iSys AG and organic-inorganic binder iSys MTX (CHT,Germany as well as the other part of the knits were treated in the sameconditions as treated in antimicrobial solution, however, an antimicrobialmaterial and binder weren’t used.Itwas established that air permeability of investigated knits changedinsignificant regardless of whether reagents providing an antimicrobial effectwere used or not used in finishing process. This means that the chemicalsubstance used for antimicrobial finishing do not worsens an air permeabilityof knits. Meanwhile, the water absorption of antimicrobial treated knits wassignificantly lower than of blank treated knits because the organic-inorganicbinder, used in antimicrobial treatment, forms the sol-gel layer on the surfaceof fiber.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5503

  18. Influence of water-repellent treatment on the properties lime and lime pozzolan mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes Revilla, C.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence that water-repellent products can have on physical and micro-structural properties of lime mortars, and lime plus pozzolan mortars has been studied. Three water repellent products have been used. Mixes of the previously mentioned three water repellents plus a biocide product were also applied. Treatments make the total porosity and saturation coefficient of both mortars to decrease, while colorimetric coordinates bear little alteration. All treatments with water repellent products provided mortars with a hydrophobic property index close to 100%. Durability of such mortars has been also studied: salt crystallization test, frost-thaw and dry-wet cycles, as well as ultraviolet radiation test were carried out. Relationship between mortars behavior and their porosity and saturation coefficient were found.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la influencia de la aplicación de productos hidrofugantes a morteros de cal y morteros de cal y puzolana sobre sus propiedades físicas y microestructurales. Se han estudiado tres productos hidrofugantes. También han sido estudiados dichos productos junto con un biocida. La porosidad total y el coeficiente de saturación de ambos tipos de morteros se ve reducido por el efecto de los tratamientos mientras que las coordenadas colorimétricas se ven poco alteradas. Todos los tratamientos confieren un índice de hidrofobicidad a los morteros próximo al 100%. Asimismo, también se ha estudiado la durabilidad de dichos morteros frente a la cristalización de sales, hielo-deshielo, los ciclos de humedad-sequedad y radiaciones ultravioleta. Se relaciona el comportamiento de los morteros con su porosidad y el coeficiente de saturación.

  19. Factors that influence outcome in non-invasive and invasive treatment in polycystic liver disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josué Barahona-Garrido; Jesús Camacho-Escobedo; Eduardo Cerda-Contreras; Jorge Hernández-Calleros; Jesús K Yamamoto-Furusho; Aldo Torre; Misael Uribe

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the factors that influence outcome of both non-invasive and invasive treatment of polycystic liver disease.METHODS:Analysis of clinical files of patients with complete follow-up from ]uly 1986 to June 2006.RESULTS:Forty-one patients (male,7;female,34),47.8 + 11.9 years age,and 5.7±6.7 years follow-up,were studied.Alkaline phosphatase (AP) elevation (25% of patients) was associated with the requirement of invasive treatment (IT,P = 0.005).IT rate was higher in symptomatic than non-symptomatic patients (65.4% vs 14.3%,P = 0.002),and in women taking hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) (P = 0.001).Cysts complications (CO) were more frequent (22%) in the symptomatic patients group (P = 0.023).Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 25 (59%) had a trend to complications after IT (P = 0.075).Abdominal pain was the most common symptom (56%) and indication for IT (78%).Nineteen patients (46%) required a first IT:12 open fenestration (OF),4 laparoscopic fenestration (LF) and 3 fenestration with hepatic resection (FHR).Three required a second IT,and one required a third procedure.Complications due to first IT were found in 32% (OF 16.7%,LF 25%,FHR 66.7%),and in the second IT in 66.7% (OF 100%).Follow-up mortality rate was 0.COMCLUSlON:Presence of symptoms,elevatedAP,and CC are associated with IT requirement.HRT is associated with presence of symptoms and IT requirement.Patients with BMI > 25 have a trend be susceptible to IT complications.The proportions of complications are higher in FHR and second IT groups.RS is more frequent after OF.

  20. Cultural influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in Chinese- and European-heritage students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lorena; Alden, Lynn E

    2008-07-01

    We examined culture-related influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in first- and second-generation students of Chinese heritage (Ns=65, 47, respectively), and their European-heritage counterparts (N=60). Participants completed measures that assessed their willingness to seek treatment for various levels of social anxiety. Results showed that participants were similar on willingness to seek treatment at low- and high-severity levels of social anxiety; however, at moderate levels, first-generation Chinese participants were significantly less willing to seek treatment compared to their European-heritage counterparts. The reluctance of first-generation Chinese participants to seek treatment was associated with greater Chinese-heritage acculturation, and was not related to perceiving symptoms of social anxiety as less impairing. The findings support the general contention that Asians in North America tend to delay treatment for mental health problems.

  1. Influence of He/O 2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on subsequent wet desizing of polyacrylate on PET fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuming; Lin, Jun; Qiu, Yiping

    2012-01-01

    The influence of He/O2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment on subsequent wet desizing of polyacrylate on PET fabrics was studied in the present paper. Weight loss results indicated that the weight loss increased with an increase of plasma treatment time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an increased surface roughness after the plasma treatment. SEM also showed that the fiber surfaces were as clean as unsized fibers after 35 s treatment followed by NaHCO3 desizing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that oxygen-based functional groups increased for the plasma treated polyacrylate sized fabrics. The percent desizing ratio (PDR) results showed that more than 99% PDR was achieved after 65 s plasma treatment followed by a 5 min NaHCO3 desizing. Compared to conventional wet desizing, indicating that plasma treatment could significantly reduce desizing time.

  2. Influence of thermo hydrogen treatment on hot deformation behavior of Ti600 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-wei; DING Hua; WANG Yao-qi; HOU Hong-liang

    2009-01-01

    Hot compressive deformation of Ti600 alloy after thermo hydrogen treatment (THT) was carried out within hydrogen content range of 0-0.5%, temperature range of 760-920 ℃ and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1. The flow stress of Ti600 alloy after THT was obtained under hot deformation condition, and the influence of hydrogen on work-hardening rate (S*), strain energy density (U*), and deformation activation energy (Q) was analysed. The results show that the flow stress of Ti600 alloy decreases remarkably with the increase of hydrogen when the hydrogen content is less than 0.3%. Both S* and U* decrease with the increase of hydrogen when the hydrogen content is less than 0.3%, and when the hydrogen content is more than 0.3%, S* and U* increase with hydrogen addition. The value of Q decreases with the increase of strain at the same hydrogen content. The addition of small quantity of hydrogen leads to an increase of Q at small strain values, and when the strain reaches 0.6, the value of Q decreases gradually with the increase of hydrogen. When the hydrogen content is within the range of 0.1%-0.3%, the flow stress of Ti600 alloy is decreased when being deformed at the temperature range of 760-920 ℃.

  3. Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Geraldo de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatomical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive vertical growth really present a small distance between the alveolar cortical bones and the maxillary incisor roots, and whether there is a correlation between this distance and the root resorption index in comparison with patients presenting horizontal growth. METHODS: The sample comprised orthodontic records of 18 patients with extraction planning of first maxillary premolars and treatment by the standard and/or preadjusted edgewise brackets. Their initial and final periapical radiographs were evaluated to determine the amount of root resorption that occurred. RESULTS: On the palatal side, patients with excessive vertical growth (Group 2 - SN-GoGn > 43º showed a narrower alveolar bone than the horizontal growth patients (Group 1 - SN-GoGn < 29º. However, the distance between the buccal cortical bone and the central incisor root apex showed no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2; CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that there are no correlations between the proximity of buccal cortical bone, maxillary incisor roots and the root resorption index.

  4. Chronic Pain Treatment: The Influence of Tricyclic Antidepressants on Serotonin Release and Uptake in Mast Cells

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    Ilonka Ferjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of serotonin (5-HT in chronic pain mechanisms is established. 5-HT inhibits central painful stimuli, but recent data suggests that 5-HT could also enhance pain stimulus from the periphery, where mast cells play an important role. We aimed in our study to clarify the influence of selected tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs on mast cell function: secretion, uptake, and reuptake of 5-HT, that could interfere with 5-HT levels and in this way contribute to the generation of pain. As an experimental model, we used isolated rat peritoneal mast cells and incubated them with selected TCAs (clomipramine, amitriptyline, doxepin, and imipramine under different experimental conditions. 5-HT release, uptake, and reuptake were determined spectrofluorometrically. We showed that TCAs were able to inhibit 5-HT secretion from mast cells, as well as uptake of exogenous 5-HT and reuptake of secreted 5-HT back into mast cells. The effects of TCAs were concentration dependent; higher concentrations of TCAs inhibited the secretion of 5-HT induced by compound 48/80, whereas lower concentrations of TCAs inhibited 5-HT uptake. The most effective TCA was halogenated clomipramine. As TCAs are well introduced in chronic pain treatment, the insight into mechanisms of action is important for an understanding of their effect in various pain conditions.

  5. The Influence of AHI1 Variants on the Diagnosis and Treatment Outcome in Schizophrenia

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    Stefano Porcelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the AHI1 gene could be associated with schizophrenia (SCZ and whether they could predict the clinical outcomes in SCZ patients treated with antipsychotics. Four hundred twenty-six (426 in-patients with SCZ and 345 controls were genotyped for four AHI1 SNPs (rs11154801, rs7750586, rs9647635 and rs9321501. Baseline and clinical measures for SCZ patients were assessed through the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Allelic and genotypic frequencies in SCZ subjects were compared with those of controls using the χ2 statistics. The repeated-measure ANOVA was used for the assessment of treatment outcomes measured by PANSS changes. The case-control analysis did not show any difference in the genotypic distribution of the SNPs, while in the allelic analysis, a weak association was found between the rs9647635 A allele and SCZ. Furthermore, in the haplotype analysis, three haplotypes resulted in being associated with SCZ. On the other hand, two SNPs (rs7750586 and rs9647635 were associated with clinical improvement of negative symptoms in the allelic analysis, although in the genotypic analysis, only trends of association were found for the same SNPs. Our findings suggest a possible influence of AHI1 variants on SCZ susceptibility and antipsychotic response, particularly concerning negative symptomatology. Subsequent well-designed studies would be mandatory to confirm our results due to the methodological shortcomings of the present study.

  6. Outcome of community-acquired pneumonia: influence of age, residence status and antimicrobial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, H; Bauer, T; Marre, R; Suttorp, N; Welte, T; Dalhoff, K

    2008-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of mortality in developed countries. There is much discrepancy in the literature regarding factors influencing the outcome in the elderly population. Data were derived from a multicentre prospective study initiated by the German Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 2,647; 1,298 aged or = 65 yrs) were evaluated, of whom 72.3% were hospitalised and 27.7% treated in the community. Clinical history, residence status, course of disease and antimicrobial treatment were prospectively documented. Microbiological investigations included cultures and PCR of respiratory samples and blood cultures. Factors related to mortality were included in multivariate analyses. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.3%. Elderly patients exhibited a significantly higher mortality rate that was independently associated with the following: age; residence status; confusion, urea, respiratory frequency and blood pressure (CURB) score; comorbid conditions; and failure of initial therapy. Increasing age remained predictive of death in the elderly. Nursing home residents showed a four-fold increased mortality rate and an increased rate of gram-negative bacillary infections compared with patients dwelling in the community. The CURB score and cerebrovascular disease were confirmed as independent predictors of death in this subgroup. Age and residence status are independent risk factors for mortality after controlling for comorbid conditions and disease severity. Failure of initial therapy was the only modifiable prognostic factor.

  7. Influences of iron and calcium carbonate on wastewater treatment performances of algae based reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhimiao; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Yanping; Gong, Zhijie; Wang, Yuhui; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Yu; Mei, Mengyuan

    2016-09-01

    The influences of iron and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) addition in wastewater treatments reactors performance were investigated. Adding different concentrations of Fe(3+) (5, 10, 30 and 50mmol/m(3)), iron and CaCO3 powder led to changes in algal characteristics and physico-chemical and microbiological properties. According to the investigation results, nutrient removal efficiency in algae based reactors was obviously increased by the addition of 10mmol/m(3) Fe(3+), iron (5mmol/m(3)) and CaCO3 powder (0.2gm(-3)) and the removal efficiencies of BOD5, TN, and TP in Stage 2 were respectively increased by 28%, 8.9%, and 22%. The improvements in physico-chemical performances were verified by microbial community tests (bacteria quantity, activity and community measured in most probable number, extracellular enzymes activity, and Biolog Eco Plates). Microbial variations indicated the coexistence of Fe ions and carbonate-bicarbonate, which triggered the synergistic effect of physico-chemical action and microbial factors in algae based reactors.

  8. Physician personal characteristics influencing long-term treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokova E.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of a doctor personality, affecting long-term therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and methods: To determine the type of temperament, the presence and intensity of the syndrome of emotional burnout and capacity for empathy therapists and cardiologists were asked to fill in a number of questionnaires. Each doctor had a group of patients contacting by telephone for a year after the discharge from the hospital. During the telephone contact, the patients were asked about the continuation of their therapy recommended in the hospital, the regularity of therapy, the frequency of absence, and the assessment of a physician by the patients. Results: 35 questionnaires were suitable for interpretation. Through one year after the discharge from the hospital it was able to contact with 147 patients, 18.4% (27 of patients completely stopped the treatment by recommended drugs. Positive assessment of physicians was associated with the continuation of the therapy by recommended drugs and regularity of drug taking (p=0,03. Patients assessed physicians positively more often in cases of low level of emotional state, high level of depersonalization (cynicism and the reduction of personal accomplishment (feeling of professional inefficiency in a doctor. Conclusion: Assessment of physicians by patients is reliably and significantly influenced by continuation of long-term therapy and regularity of drug taking.

  9. Influence of different treatment condition on biopolymer yield production for coagulation-flocculation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, I. S.; Murshed, M. F.; Norli, I.

    2016-06-01

    Two different agro wastes (banana pseudostem and rice straw) were utilized in order to extract biopolymer (pectin) known as coagulant aid in water and wastewater treatment. Factors such as pH, temperature and time were chosen due to the critical role in hot acid extraction process. The yield of biopolymer extraction from banana pseudostem was found to be higher at 28% meanwhile only 18% from rice straw was manage to produce from the dry weight 10 g, respectively. It was found that extraction temperature and extraction time were the most important factors influencing the biopolymer yield which increased with temperature and time or decreasing pH. Based on two level factorial design, the same condition of pH 1.5, temperature 90 oC and 4 hours extraction time can produce high amount of extracted biopolymer. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect the existence of functional group which helps in the coagulation-flocculation process. Result indicates a similar functional group of biopolymer were detected for both difference agro wastes.

  10. Normalizing treatment influence on the forged steel SAE 8620 fracture properties

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    Paulo de Tarso Vida Gomes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In a PWR nuclear power plant, the reactor pressure vessel (RPV contains the fuel assemblies and reactor vessels internals and keeps the coolant at high temperature and high pressure during normal operation. The RPV integrity must be assured all along its useful life to protect the general public against a significant radiation liberation damage. One of the critical issues relative to the VPR structural integrity refers to the pressurized thermal shock (PTS accident evaluation. To better understand the effects of this kind of event, a PTS experiment has been planned using an RPV prototype. The RPV material fracture behavior characterization in the ductile-brittle transition region represents one of the most important aspects of the structural assessment process of RPV's under PTS. This work presents the results of fracture toughness tests carried out to characterize the RPV prototype material behavior. The test data includes Charpy energy curves, T0 reference temperatures for definition of master curves, and fracture surfaces observed in electronic microscope. The results are given for the vessel steel in the "as received" and normalized conditions. This way, the influence of the normalizing treatment on the fracture properties of the steel could be evaluated.

  11. Influence of Heat Treatments on the Corrosion Resistance of Medium -Carbon Steel using Sulfuric Spring Water

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    Ikhlas Basheer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion is one of the important problems that may be occur to the parts of machinery and equipment after manufactured and when used as a result of exposure to corrosive media. Plain-carbon steel is considered as one of the most common minerals used in industrial applications. Some of heat treatments can have direct effect on the corrosion rate of steel by building up galvanic corrosion cells between its microscopic phases. Therefore, to adopt one of kinds of the plain-carbon steel and the most commonly used in industry to be study subject, that is medium carbon steel and took samples of this steel has been treated thermally in three methods which the normalising, annealing, and hardening .The corrosive media used in the research is Sulfuric Spring, it contains many chemical compounds to show its influence on the corrosion of steel. The weight loss method is used to determine corrosion rate and to compare between the results obtained, show that the greatest corrosion resistance of the annealed steel and the corrosion resistance of the hardened steel is the lowest while the corrosion  resistance of the normalised steel is in-between them.         Calcium carbonate was formed on the metal surface which acts as an isolating layer which decrease corrosion rate with time

  12. Factors influencing a patient's decision to choose the type of treatment to improve dental esthetics

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    Gržić Renata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroung/Aim. Interest in dental esthetics has increased rapidly during the last few decades among both patients and dentists, and the creation of a natural dental appearance has become an important task in all fields of dentistry, especially in prosthodontics and restorative dentistry. The aim of this research was to investigate factors influencing a patient's decision to choose the type of treatment to improve dental esthetics. Methods. A total of 700 Caucasian subjects participated in the crosssectional study (261 men, 439 women, aged 18-86 years, mean age 46.2 ± 18.6. The study included clinical examination and a self-administrated questionnaire based on self-perceived esthetics, satisfaction with the appearance of their maxillary anterior teeth and previous dental experience. Multiple logistic regression was used in statistical analysis. Results. Hiding teeth during smile was the most important predictor for choosing fixed prosthetic restorations (OR 9.1, followed by self-perceived bad fixed prosthesis, malpositioned teeth and female gender (OR 2.9, 2.4, and 1.5, respectively. The increase in satisfaction with dental appearance and previous orthodontic therapy reduced chances for seeking prosthetic therapy (each OR 0.4. The significant predictors for bleaching choosing were hiding teeth during smiling, already done bleaching, female gender, lower levels of satisfaction with dental appearance and the absence of the previous orthodontic therapy (OR 5.8, 2.4, 1.8, 0.5 and 0.4, respecitively. Hiding teeth during smile, self-perceived malposition and crowding, and lower levels of satisfaction, were significant predictors for choosing orthodontic treatment (OR 3.1, 2.4, 2.2 and 0.6, respectively. None of current dental statuses was statistically significant predictor for choosing prosthodontic, bleeching nor orthodontic therapy. Conclusion. The psychological elements and female gender are the main predictors of seeking dental therapy

  13. The influence of spiritual beliefs and practices on the treatment preferences of African Americans: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly S; Elbert-Avila, Katja I; Tulsky, James A

    2005-04-01

    Spirituality is an important part of African-American culture and is often cited as an explanation for the more-aggressive treatment preferences of some African Americans at the end of life. This paper reviews the literature on spiritual beliefs that may influence the treatment decisions of African Americans. Medline 1966 to February 2003, Psych Info 1872 to February 2003, and CINAHL 1982 to February 2003 were searched for studies exploring spiritual beliefs that may influence the treatment preferences of African Americans. All candidate papers were examined for quality, and data were extracted on study population, design, analysis, and results to identify recurrent themes. Forty studies met inclusion criteria. Recurrent themes describing spiritual beliefs that may influence the treatment preferences of African Americans throughout the course of illness include the following: spiritual beliefs and practices are a source of comfort, coping, and support and are the most effective way to influence healing; God is responsible for physical and spiritual health; and the doctor is God's instrument. Spiritual beliefs specifically addressing treatment preferences at the end of life include: only God has power to decide life and death, there are religious prohibitions against physician-assisted death or advance directives limiting life-sustaining treatments, and divine intervention and miracles occur. For some African Americans, spiritual beliefs are important in understanding and coping with illness and may provide a framework within which treatment decisions are made. Given the growing ethnic diversity of the United States, some understanding of the complexities of culture and spirituality is essential for healthcare providers.

  14. INFLUENCE OF REACTION TEMPERATURE AND REACTION TIME ON PRODUCT FROM HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF BIOMASS RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaphong Kongpanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is facing with problems associated with biomass residue such as palm oil residues (oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches, shells and fibers. Biomass is promising source for the production of an array of energy-related produts including, liquid, solid and gaseous fuels, heat, chemicals electricity and other materials. Therefore, the use of biomass for energy is not still fully utilization due to the high moisture content, lower heating value of the energy unit or low bulk density and the problems withtar. While Thailand has high potential because the reisa lot of biomass that has not been utilizedfor example biomass residues from palm oil industry. About 2 million tons of empty fruit bunches in Thailand have great potential. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand, the largest crude palm oil producer in the world. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand palm oil industry. Therefore, a better method to manage such biomass residues is highly desired. One of the potential ways for alternative utilization of biomass is thermo-chemical process. Hydrothermal treatment is a process for making a homogenizinged, carbon rich and energy-dense solid fuel, called hydrochar. The objective of the study was to identify the effect of reaction temperature and reaction time for hydrothermal treatment of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB. Influence of temperature 100°C, 150°C and 200°C for 30 to 90 min and active biogas process on 1.00-15.538 bars, within 1,000 mL stainless steel 316 batch-type reactor with a stirrer and there is an automatic temperature controller. Results showed that the highest chemical and physical properties of hydrochar product was achieved when operated on 200°C for 90 min. Maximum heating value was found that 5678 cal/g for EFB9. The result showed that the chemical and physical properties increased progressively with higher temperature. The results was

  15. Compliance with methotrexate treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: influence of patients' beliefs about the medicine. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Annette; Nørgaard, Mette; Harder, Ingegerd;

    2010-01-01

    Objective of the study is to investigate how compliance during the first year of methotrexate (MTX) treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is influenced by the patients' perception of the necessity for and concern about MTX, the patients' functional disability, and the dose of MTX. A total of 126...

  16. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

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    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  17. Gender influences short-term growth hormone treatment response in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sävendahl, Lars; Blankenstein, Oliver; Oliver, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment.......Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment....

  18. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...

  19. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant was compared for a series of model assumptions. Three different model approaches describing BNR are considered. In the reference case, the original model implementations are used to simulate WWTP1 (ASM1 & 3) and WWTP2 (ASM2d). The second set of models includes a reactive settler, which extends the description of the non-reactive TSS sedimentation and transport in the reference case with the full set of ASM processes. Finally, the third set of models is based on including electron acceptor dependency of biomass decay rates for ASM1 (WWTP1) and ASM2d (WWTP2). The results show that incorporation of a reactive settler: (1) increases the hydrolysis of particulates; (2) increases the overall plant's denitrification efficiency by reducing the S(NOx) concentration at the bottom of the clarifier; (3) increases the oxidation of COD compounds; (4) increases X(OHO) and X(ANO) decay; and, finally, (5) increases the growth of X(PAO) and formation of X(PHA,Stor) for ASM2d, which has a major impact on the whole P removal system. Introduction of electron acceptor dependent decay leads to a substantial increase of the concentration of X(ANO), X(OHO) and X(PAO) in the bottom of the clarifier. The paper ends with a critical discussion of the influence of the different model assumptions, and emphasizes the need for a model user to understand the significant differences in simulation results that are obtained when applying different combinations of 'standard' models.

  20. Factors that influence adherence to antiretroviral treatment in an urban population, Jakarta, Indonesia.

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    Emma Rosamond Nony Weaver

    Full Text Available Although the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in Indonesia has increased in recent years, little is known about the specific characteristics affecting adherence in this population. Indonesia is different from most of its neighbors given that it is a geographically and culturally diverse country, with a large Muslim population. We aimed to identify the current rate of adherence and explore factors that influence ART adherence.Data were collected from ART-prescribed outpatients on an HIV registry at a North Jakarta hospital in 2012. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were explored as factors associated with adherence using logistics regression analyses. Chi squared test was used to compare the difference between proportions. Reasons for missing medication were analyzed descriptively.Two hundred and sixty-one patients participated, of whom 77% reported ART adherence in the last 3 months. The level of social support experienced was independently associated with adherence where some social support (p = 0.018 and good social support (p = 0.039 improved adherence compared to poor social support. Frequently cited reasons for not taking ART medication included forgetting to take medication (67%, busy with something else (63% and asleep at medication time (60%.This study identified that an increase in the level of social support experienced by ART-prescribed patients was positively associated with adherence. Social support may minimize the impact of stigma among ART prescribed patients. Based on these findings, if social support is not available, alternative support through community-based organizations is recommended to maximize treatment success.

  1. Investigation of Sulfate concentration influence on Anaerobic Lagoon performance: Birjand Wastewater Treatment plant: A Case study

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    Mohammad Malakootian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the present study the influence of the different sulfate concentration on the anaerobic lagoon stabilization was investigated. Materials and Methods: The present study is an experimental research carried out on anaerobic stabilization pond pilot for 7 months in Birjand wastewater treatment plant. After making sure of a steady state sulfate with different concentrations of 200, 300 and 400 mg/L were injected into the pilot. Then parameters including pH, organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, BOD5, COD and nitrate were measured. All of the experiments were carried out according to the methods presented in the book "Standard Method" for the examination of water and wastewater (2005. Results: It was found that by increasing sulfate concentration from 200 to 300 mg/L all of parameters  except BOD5 (10% reduction had no significant changes., but by increasing the sulfate concentration from 200 to 400 mg/L the removal efficiency of the parameters such as BOD5, COD, Organic nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate and sulfate reduced to 11, 8, 12, 26, 6 and 10 percent, respectively. PH in the first stage was alkaline and then changed to acidic. Conclusion: Anaerobic stabilization ponds have different capacities for removal of organic compounds at different sulfate concentrations; so that; in sulfate concentration of 200 mg/L, the proper operation was seen and in concentration of 300 mg/L, sulfate-reducing bacteria get dominant and therefore odor is produced..  Alternatively, by increasing the concentration of sulphate to 400 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen increased 2.5 times (150% in the effluent.

  2. A meta-analysis of the influence of comorbidity on treatment outcome in the anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cisler, Josh M; Tolin, David F

    2010-08-01

    Although psychiatric comorbidity is common among patients with anxiety disorders, its impact on treatment outcome remains unclear. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the relationship between diagnostic comorbidity and treatment outcome for patients with anxiety disorders. One hundred forty-eight anxiety-disordered treatment samples (combined N=3534) were examined for post-treatment effects from the PsychINFO database. Samples consisted of those exposed to both active (CBT, dynamic therapy, drug treatment, CBT+drug treatment, mindfulness) and inactive treatments (placebo/attention control, wait-list). All treatments were associated with significant improvement at post-treatment, and active treatments were associated with greater effects than were inactive treatments. However, overall comorbidity was generally unrelated to effect size at post-treatment or at follow-up. A significant negative relationship between overall comorbidity and treatment outcome was found for mixed or "neurotic" anxiety samples when examining associations between comorbidity and specific diagnoses. Conversely, there was a significant positive relationship between overall comorbidity and treatment outcome for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and PTSD or sexual abuse survivors. These findings suggest that while diagnostic comorbidity may not impact the effects of specific anxiety disorder treatments, it appears to differentially impact outcome for specific anxiety disorder diagnoses.

  3. Influence of ginkgo leaf tablets combined with nifedipine tablets treatment on relevant indexes of prethrombotic state in hypertension patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhou; Xiu-Hong Liu; Ya-Ping Du; Xiao-Xia Han; Guo-Mei Dan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of ginkgo leaf tablets combined with nifedipine tablets treatment on the relevant indexes of prethrombotic state in hypertension patients.Methods:A total of 80 cases with hypertension were selected, who were admitted in our hospital from May 2014 to June 2015, and all of whom was randomly divided into study group and control group (n=40). Patients in study group were given ginkgo leaf tablets combined with nifedipine tablets treatment, while patients in control group were given nifedipine tablets treatment only. The changes of blood pressure indexes between groups before and after treatment were compared. the changes of hemodynamic indexes between groups before and after treatment were analyzed. And the changes of molecular markers of prethrombotic state between groups before and after treatment were observed.Results:Before treatment, comparative difference of systolic pressure, diastolic pressure levels, hemodynamic indexes(MH, ML, MP, HCT, ESR, AI), VWF, GMP, D-dimer and PAI-1 levels between groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05); while after treatment, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure levels, hemodynamic indexes(MH, ML, MP, HCT, ESR, AI), VWF, GMP, D-dimer and PAI-1 levels in both groups were obviously lower than before treatment (P<0.05), but systolic pressure, diastolic pressure levels, MH, ML, MP, ESR, VWF, GMP, D-dimer and PAI-1 levels in study group were lower than that in control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05), after treatment, the four index levels in both groups were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05).Conclusions:Ginkgo leaf tablets combined with nifedipine tablets in the treatment of hypertension patients could significantly reduce the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure levels, reduce the levels of hemodynamic indexes (MH, ML, MP, HCT, ESR, AI) and reduce the levels of molecular markers (VWF, GMP, D-dimer , PAI-1) of prethrombotic state, which was an

  4. The prevalence of hypothyroidism after treatment for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas : are autoantibodies of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo Galbo, Annalisa M.; De Bree, Remco; Kuik, Dirk J.; Lips, Paul Th. A. M.; Von Blomberg, B. Mary E.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions. The incidence rate of hypothyroidism after treatment for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer is high, especially after combination treatment. An association between hypothyroidism and autoantibodies was found. Objectives. The incidences of hypothyroidism and autoantibodies were assessed

  5. Factors influencing the perceived orthodontic treatment need and its relationship with awareness of malocclusion among college adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha P Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The orthodontic need assessment is of interest for dental public health programs. The major factors determining a patient′s perceived need for orthodontic treatment may be aesthetic, functional, financial, or social. Adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment have been found to have poorer aesthetics than their peers, but whether poor aesthetics alone generates greater treatment demand has not been determined in the Indian context. Objective: The aim was to study the factors determining perceived orthodontic treatment need among college adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 448 adolescents between 17 and 19 years of age were selected randomly from the colleges. Data were collected on pretested and standardized questionnaire. Perceived need for orthodontic treatment was assessed by asking question to the participants. Dental Esthetic Index (DAI was used to assess the severity of malocclusion. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion was 21.6% as per DAI. The perceived need for orthodontic treatment was 11.2%, though the level of dissatisfaction with dental appearance was 19.2%. No agreement was seen between the treatment need assessed objectively by DAI and that perceived by the patient. The determinants for perceived and normative orthodontic treatment need were socioeconomic status (SES, awareness of malocclusion, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and avoided smile due to dental appearance. The positive correlation between perceived and normative need was statistically significant. Conclusion: The uptake of orthodontic care may be influenced by SES, awareness of malocclusion; dissatisfaction with dental appearance, perceived need and DAI score.

  6. The Influence of Treatment Attendance on Subsequent Aggression among Severely Mentally Ill Substance Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Yue; BRADIZZA, CLARA M.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationships between severe mental illness, substance use, and aggression are of longstanding importance with implications for community treatment programs, treatment research and public policy. Through the analysis of longitudinal data collected from 278 patients over a 6-month period following admission to an outpatient dual diagnosis treatment program, this study examined the association between dual diagnosis treatment attendance and subsequent aggression among individuals diagn...

  7. [Papaver bracteatum, influence of cold treatment and cloning on Thebaine content of the capsules.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastart-Malsot, M; Paris, M

    1982-05-01

    A high heterogeneity of thébaïne yields is revealed in capsules of plants obtained from seeds cultivated in a phytotron. Clonage methods could be used to perform culture. Heterogeneity of plants hides influence of low temperature on thebaïne production. With clone this influence appears to be slight but appreciable.

  8. Influence of biological aerosol from wastewater treatment plants on workers and the local residents health – literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Michalak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosol forms microbes, their toxins and fragments of microorganisms suspended as small droplets or solid particles. The group particularly exposed are workers of sewage treatment plants and local residents. Literature reports stress the role of the fecal bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and yeasts, which create a real risk of air pollution near the waste water treatment plants Emission of pathogenic microbes prevails in the neighbourhood of of sedimentation tanks, sludge drying beds. Research shows that the extent of bioaerosol influence reaches the distance of 3 km away from any waster water treatment plant.. The most frequent symptoms reported by workers from waste water treatment plants and local residents are respiratory disorders. There are also gastrointestinal and skin problems and general disorders, that can be explained by exposure to endotoxins in bioaerosol.

  9. Using instrumental variables to disentangle treatment and placebo effects in blinded and unblinded randomized clinical trials influenced by unmeasured confounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaibub Neto, Elias

    2016-11-01

    Clinical trials traditionally employ blinding as a design mechanism to reduce the influence of placebo effects. In practice, however, it can be difficult or impossible to blind study participants and unblinded trials are common in medical research. Here we show how instrumental variables can be used to quantify and disentangle treatment and placebo effects in randomized clinical trials comparing control and active treatments in the presence of confounders. The key idea is to use randomization to separately manipulate treatment assignment and psychological encouragement conversations/interactions that increase the participants’ desire for improved symptoms. The proposed approach is able to improve the estimation of treatment effects in blinded studies and, most importantly, opens the doors to account for placebo effects in unblinded trials.

  10. Influence of Solution Heat Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties of ZnAl22Cu3 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of solution heat treatment at 385°C over 10 h with cooling in water on the structure, hardness and strength of the ZnAl22Cu3 eutectoid alloy is presented in the paper. The eutectoid ZnAl22Cu3 alloy is characterized by a dendritic structure. Dendrites are composed of a supersaturated solid solution of Al in Zn. In the interdendritic spaces a eutectoid mixture is present, with an absence of the ε (CuZn4 phase. Solution heat treatment of the ZnAl22Cu3 alloy causes the occurrence of precipitates rich in Zn and Cu, possibly ε phase. Solution heat treatment at 385°C initially causes a significant decrease of the alloy hardness, although longer solution heat treatment causes a significant increase of the hardness as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  11. The Structure Characteristics and Air Permeability of PA and PES Plain and Plated Knits Influenced of Antimicrobial Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne MICKEVIČIENĖ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile materials are usually exposed to thermal, physical and mechanical effects during treatment processes. These influence the changes of material dimensions. Designing knitted products it is important to predict direction and rate of dimensions change, because this can affect physical properties such as air permeability of knits. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of antimicrobial treatment conditions on the structure characteristics, thickness and air permeability of plain and plaited knits. The investigations were carried out with two groups of plain and plated single jersey knits. The face yarns of these groups were cotton, bamboo viscose yarn and polyester (Dacron® thread. 10 tex × 2 textured polyamide (PA and 20 tex textured polyester (PES threads were used as the base threads in plated knits. Knitted samples were treated with antimicrobial material Isys AG and organic-inorganic binder Isys MTX (CHT, Germany. It was established that blank and antimicrobial treated knits changed structure parameters, thickness and air permeability. The changes of structure parameters, thickness and air permeability were more associated with conditions of treatment (temperature, treatment in solution, mechanical action rather than with antimicrobial and sol-gel substances used in treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.3196

  12. Which factors influence onset and latency to treatment in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Beatrice; Camuri, Giulia; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Cremaschi, Laura; Sembira, Ester; Palazzo, Carlotta; Oldani, Lucio; Dobrea, Cristina; Arici, Chiara; Primavera, Diego; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Castellano, Filippo; Carrà, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Baldwin, David S; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are common, comorbid, and disabling conditions, often underdiagnosed and under-treated, typically with an early onset, chronic course, and prolonged duration of untreated illness. The present study aimed to explore the influence of sociodemographic and clinical factors in relation to onset and latency to treatment in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 157 patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of PD (n=49), GAD (n=68), and OCD (n=40) were recruited, and epidemiological and clinical variables were collected through a specific questionnaire. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare variables across diagnostic groups. PD, GAD, and OCD patients showed a duration of untreated illness of 53.9±81.5, 77.47±95.76, and 90.6±112.1 months, respectively. Significant differences between groups were found with respect to age, age of first diagnosis, age of first treatment, family history of psychiatric illness, onset-related stressful events, benzodiazepine prescription as first treatment, antidepressant prescription as first treatment, and help-seeking (self-initiated vs. initiated by others). Patients with GAD, PD, and OCD showed significant differences in factors influencing onset and latency to treatment, which may, in turn, affect condition-related outcome and overall prognosis. Further studies with larger samples are warranted in the field.

  13. The influence of self-efficacy expectations on the treatment of preorgasmic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogat, G A; Hamernik, K; Brooks, L A

    1987-01-01

    One of the most successful treatments developed for women who never or rarely experience orgasm is Barbach's preorgasmic treatment program. We propose that Bandura's theory of self-efficacy provides a useful framework for understanding the success of Barbach's program. This pilot study was designed to determine whether treatment affects subjects' Certainty of and Comfort with Sexual Efficacy. Treatment (n = 5) and control (n = 6) subjects completed prepoint and postpoint instruments that measured sexual efficacy expectations, body satisfaction, locus of control, and assertiveness. Although most postpoint differences were nonsignificant (probably due to small sample size), intriguing trends emerged. In particular, treatment seemed to contribute to increased Certainty of Sexual Efficacy and body satisfaction.

  14. The Influence of Treatment Parameters on the Microstructure, Properties and Bend Angle of Laser Formed Construction Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurp P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors presented the research on laser formed construction bars made of C20 steel on the example of the T-shape. The CO2 TRUMPF TruFlow 6000 laser was used in the research. The influence of the laser treatment parameters (the power and speed of the heat source on the volume of the bend angle, structure and properties of the elements (hardness and tensile strength was examined. On the basis of the results obtained from the conducted experiments, the authors suggested a way of selecting treatment parameters so that the element should meet the strength assumptions at the allowable time of its implementation.

  15. [Conservative treatment, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis for elderly patients: The choice of treatment does not influence the survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveure, Anne-Cécile; Bonnefoy, Marc; Laville, Maurice

    2016-02-01

    Hemodialysis is the predominant replacement therapy in the 70 year-old French population (18% in peritoneal dialysis, 72% in hemodialysis from the REIN registry). Managing older patients reaching the end stage renal disease poses many ethical questions, since outcomes balanced regarding survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the survival of patients aged over 70 years according to the ESRD treatment choice: conservative treatment without dialysis (CT), hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). We included all patients over 70 years reaching stade IV CKD integrated in a predialysis information program between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2010. We compared their survival from the start of their program, in function of their treatment choice: HD, PD or CT. On this period, 148 patients were included, we excluded from analysis 17 patients who had a contraindication to PD, 26 patients who did not make a choice because their kidney function was stabilized, 4 patients lost to follow-up and 12 patients who died before the treatment choice. The average age was 79±6 years, 40% of patients were women, and the mean eGFR was 16±9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at the entry in the program. Among the 89 patients, 21 choose CT (24%), 68 accepted dialysis (76%), including 48 HD (71%) and 20 PD (29%). No significant eGFR difference at the inclusion time between the groups. The time initiation of dialysis was significantly shorter in the PD group (146 days vs 442 in the HD group; P=0.004). Survival between the groups of patients who accepted or refused dialysis was not statistically different (749 days or 2 years in the HD + PD group vs 562 days, or 1 year and 6 months in the CT group; P=0.95) and between the HD group (760 days or 2 years and 2 months) and the PD group (343 days or 11 months; P=0.32). As measured from the time they entered in the predialysis program, the survival of older patients over 70 years does not seem to depend on

  16. Influence of hydrophilic pre-treatment on resin bonding to zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Akio; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma or ultraviolet (UV) treatment alters the surface characteristics of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP), increasing its hydrophilicity by reducing the contact angle against water to zero. This suggests that such treatment would increase the wettability of bonding resin. The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing the hydrophilicity of TZP through plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or application of ceramic primer affected initial bonding with resin composites. Here, the effect of each pre-treatment on the hydrophilicity of TZP surfaces was determined by evaluating change in shear bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV, or ceramic primer pre-treatment showed no significant effect on bonding strength between TZP surfaces and resin composites. In addition, alumina blasting yielded no significant increase in bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or ceramic primer pre-treatment did not lead to significant increase in bond strength between TZP and resin composites.

  17. Influence of heat treatment and KIc/HRc ratio on the dynamic wear properties of coated high speed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sedlaček

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the impact of various heat treatments on the KIc/HRc ratio and subsequently on the wear properties of coated high-speed steel under dynamic impact loading. The results showed that hardness and improvement in the fracture toughness have significant influence on the adhesion and impact wear properties of the coated high-speed steel.

  18. Preoperative physical therapy treatment did not influence postoperative pain and disability outcomes in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Valencia,1 Rogelio A Coronado,2 Corey B Simon,3,4 Thomas W Wright,5 Michael W Moser,5 Kevin W Farmer,5 Steven Z George3,6,7 1Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 3Department of Physical Therapy, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 4Department of Community Dentistry and Behavioral Science, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville,FL, 5Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 7Brooks–PHHP Research Collaboration, Jacksonville, FL, USA Background: There is limited literature investigating preoperative physical therapy (pre-op PT treatment on pain intensity and disability after musculoskeletal surgery. The purposes of the present cohort study were to describe patient characteristics for those who had and did not have pre-op PT treatment and determine whether pre-op PT influenced the length of postoperative physical therapy (post-op PT treatment (number of sessions and 3-month and 6-month postsurgical outcomes, such as pain intensity and disability. Patients and methods: A total of 124 patients (mean age =43 years, 81 males with shoulder pain were observed before and after shoulder arthroscopic surgery. Demographic data, medical history, and validated self-report questionnaires were collected preoperatively and at 3 months and 6 months after surgery. Analysis of variance models were performed to identify differences across measures for patients who had pre-op PT treatment and those who did not and to examine outcome differences at 3 months and 6 months. Alpha was set at the 0.05 level for statistical significance. Results: Males had less participation in pre-op PT than females (P=0.01. In

  19. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Hsu, Julia [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

  20. Does Patient Race/Ethnicity Influence Physician Decision-Making for Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Disruptive Behavior Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Sarina

    2015-06-01

    Race/ethnic disparities in utilization of children's mental health care have been well documented and are particularly concerning given the long-term risks of untreated mental health problems (Institute of Medicine, 2003; Kessler et al. Am J Psychiatry 152:10026-1032, 1995). Research investigating the higher rates of unmet need among race/ethnic minority youths has focused primarily on policy, fiscal, and individual child or family factors that can influence service access and use. Alternatively, this study examines provider behavior as a potential influence on race/ethnic disparities in mental health care. The goal of the study was to examine whether patient (family) race/ethnicity influences physician diagnostic and treatment decision-making for childhood disruptive behavior problems. The study utilized an internet-based video vignette with corresponding survey of 371 randomly selected physicians from across the USA representing specialties likely to treat these patients (pediatricians, family physicians, general and child psychiatrists). Participants viewed a video vignette in which only race/ethnicity of the mother randomly varied (non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and African American) and then responded to questions about diagnosis and recommended treatments. Physicians assigned diagnoses such as oppositional defiant disorder (48 %) and attention deficit disorder (63 %) to the child, but there were no differences in diagnosis based on race/ethnicity. The majority of respondents recommended psychosocial treatment (98 %) and/or psychoactive medication treatment (60 %), but there were no significant differences based on race/ethnicity. Thus, in this study using mock patient stimuli and controlling for other factors, such as insurance coverage, we did not find major differences in physician diagnostic or treatment decision-making based on patient race/ethnicity.

  1. The influence of underweight and obesity on the diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marjolijn E W; Groen, Henk; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The impact of lower body mass index (BMI) on appendicitis has never been addressed. We investigated whether different BMIs affect the diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis in children. METHODS: The correlation between BMI and diagnosis accuracy and treatment quality was evaluated by retro

  2. Influence of cover crop treatments on the performance of a vineyard in a humid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo-Córdoba, E.; Bouzas-Cid, Y.; Orriols-Fernández, I.; Díaz-Losada, E.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.

    2015-07-01

    Vineyards are usually managed by tilling the inter-rows to avoid competition from other plants for soil water and nutrients. However, in humid and sub-humid climates, such as that of NW Spain, cover crops may be an advantage for controlling vine vegetative growth and improving berry composition, while reducing management costs. The current study was conducted over three consecutive growing seasons (2012-2014) to assess the effects of establishing three permanent cover crop treatments on water relations, vine physiology, yield and berry composition of a vineyard of the red cultivar ‘Mencía’ (Vitis vinifera L.) located in Leiro, Ourense. Treatments consisted of four different soil management systems: ST, soil tillage; NV, native vegetation; ER, English ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.); and SC, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). Midday stem water potential was more negative in the native vegetation treatment, causing significant reductions in leaf stomatal conductance on certain dates. Total vine leaf area and pruning weight was reduced in the cover crop treatments in the last year of the experiment. Yield was unaffected by the presence of a cover crop. No significant differences among treatments were observed for berry composition; however, wines were positively affected by the SC treatment (higher tannin content and colour intensity and lower malic acid concentration when compared with ST). Wines from the cover crop treatments were preferred by taste panelists. These results indicate that in humid climates cover crop treatments can be useful for reducing vine vegetative growth without compromising yield and berry quality. (Author)

  3. Surface Observation and Pore Size Analyses of Polypropylene/Low-Melting Point Polyester Filter Materials: Influences of Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes making filter materials with polypropylene (PP and low-melting point (LPET fibers. The influences of temperatures and times of heat treatment on the morphology of thermal bonding points and average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. The test results indicate that the morphology of thermal bonding points is highly correlated with the average pore size. When the temperature of heat treatment is increased, the fibers are joined first with the thermal bonding points, and then with the large thermal bonding areas, thereby decreasing the average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. A heat treatment of 110 °C for 60 seconds can decrease the pore size from 39.6 μm to 12.0 μm.

  4. Depression Treatment Among Rural Older Adults: Preferences and Factors Influencing Future Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Katherine A; McKibbin, Christine L; Wykes, Thomas L; Lee, Aaron A; Carrico, Catherine P; McConnell, Katelynn A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate depression treatment preferences and anticipated service use in a sample of adults aged 55 years or older who reside in rural Wyoming. Sixteen participants (mean age = 59) completed 30- to 60-minute, semi-structured interviews. Qualitative methods were used to characterize common themes. Social/provider support and community gatekeepers were perceived by participants as important potential facilitators for seeking depression treatment. In contrast, perceived stigma and the value placed on self-sufficiency emerged as key barriers to seeking treatment for depression in this rural, young-old sample. Participants anticipated presenting for treatment in the primary care sector and preferred a combination of medication and psychotherapy for treatment. Participants were, however, more willing to see mental health professionals if they were first referred by a clergy member or primary care physician.

  5. WOOD PRE-TREATMENT INFLUENCE ON THE HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT IN COMBINATION WITH SOME TROPICAL WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola SADIKU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three pre-treatment methods on the hydration characteristics of Portland cement in combination with three tropical hardwood species was investigated. The maximum hydration temperature and time to reach maximum hydration temperature were analysed for the wood-cement-water mixtures of the three species after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples by extraction with 5% Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, cold and hot water after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples. There were differences in the hydration reaction of the wood species with Portland cement using the different pre-treatment methods. The compatibility of the wood species with Portland cement improved following pre-treatment. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment had the most significant effect followed by hot water. Terminalia ivorensis (Idigbo, and Antiaris africana (Oriro species showed considerable improvement in their compatibility with Portland cement at 5% Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment with maximum hydration temperature of 65oC where Arere had 60.5oC where both cold and hot water were unable to raise the hydration temperature beyond 55.5oC . This study shows that the wood species requires more than cold and hot water extraction to make them suitable for wood cement composite materials as extraction with sodium hydroxide (1% solution was found to be the most effective treatment for the wood species under investigation.

  6. Spiritual well-being and its influence on fatigue in patients undergoing active cancer directed treatment: A correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spiritual well-being and fatigue are key parameters in assessing health related quality of life that determine treatment tolerance, treatment outcomes and reflect patient′s coping ability in the illness-wellness disease trajectory. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients on active cancer treatment were enrolled to the study. Functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-spirituality (FACIT-Sp and FACIT-Fatigue scales were used to assess spiritual well-being and fatigue scores during their cancer treatment. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and bivariate relationships determined using the Spearman Correlation analysis. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of fatigue score during treatment. Results: Mean spiritual well-being score was 20.96 out of 48 and scores were significantly higher in females compared with males (P = 0.03, lower with higher stage (P = 0.008 and lower in head and neck and gastrointestinal malignancies (P = 0.03 when compared with gynecological and breast malignancies. Fatigue was present in all the 200 patients studied and the mean fatigue score was 13.09. Higher fatigue scores were observed in patients with advanced stages of cancer (Stage IV (F [3,199] = 5.67, P = 0.001. There was a significant inverse relationship between fatigue scores with spiritual well-being (P < 0.001. Spiritual well-being score emerged as a significant primary negative predictor (β = -0.23, P = 0.001 for fatigue scores followed by stage of disease (β =0.23, P = 0.001 and gender (β = -0.18, P = 0.01 as significant secondary predictors. Conclusion: Fatigue during cancer directed treatment is influenced by spiritual wellbeing, disease stage and gender. Further studies should examine the mediating variables that influence fatigue.

  7. Influence of late treatment on how chronic myeloid leukemia responds to imatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Costa Scerni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML in the chronic phase were not given first-line imatinib treatment until 2008. Therefore, there was a long period of time between diagnosis and the initiation of imatinib therapy for many patients. This study aims to compare the major molecular remission (MMR rates of early versus late imatinib therapy in chronic phase CML patients. METHODS: Between May 2002 and November 2007, 44 patients with chronic phase CML were treated with second-line imatinib therapy at the Hematology Unit of the Ophir Loyola Hospital (Belém, Pará, Brazil. BCR-ABL transcript levels were measured at approximately six-month intervals using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The early treatment group presented a 60% probability of achieving MMR, while the probability for those patients who received late treatment was 40%. The probability of either not achieving MMR within one year of the initiation of imatinib therapy or losing MMR was higher in patients who received late treatment (79%, compared with patients who received early treatment (21%, odds ratio=5.75, P=0.012. The probability of maintaining MMR at 30 months of treatment was 80% in the early treatment group and 44% in the late treatment group (P=0.0005. CONCLUSIONS: For CML patients in the chronic phase who were treated with second-line imatinib therapy, the probability of achieving and maintaining MMR was higher in patients who received early treatment compared with those patients for whom the time interval between diagnosis and initiation of imatinib therapy was longer than one year.

  8. [The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood.

  9. Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Pola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself.

  10. Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Morphology and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Rafael; Marques, Maria F V; Jonas, Renato; Grafova, Iryna; Grafov, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized by different oxidative treatments to insert polar groups on their surface. The treatments included sulfuric/nitric acid mixture, 6 M nitric acid solution, concentrated hydrochloric acid, sulfuric/potassium permanganate solution, and alkaline solution. The procedures succeeded in eliminating catalyst residues remaining from the MWCNT synthesis. Physical treatment by sonication was used to modify the intertubular distances and to reduce the average particle size. The materials obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and their morphology was studied by TEM. Particle size was analyzed by dynamic light scattering. FTIR spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of functional groups and thermo-gravimetry (TGA) was employed to estimate the oxidation degree attained. The results confirmed polar group insertion on the surface of treated carbon nanotubes. Oxidation with 6 M nitric acid followed by sonication in xylene was found to be the most effective treatment.

  11. Influence of cover crop treatments on the performance of a vineyard in a humid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Trigo-Córdoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards are usually managed by tilling the inter-rows to avoid competition from other plants for soil water and nutrients. However, in humid and sub-humid climates, such as that of NW Spain, cover crops may be an advantage for controlling vine vegetative growth and improving berry composition, while reducing management costs. The current study was conducted over three consecutive growing seasons (2012-2014 to assess the effects of establishing three permanent cover crop treatments on water relations, vine physiology, yield and berry composition of a vineyard of the red cultivar ‘Mencía’ (Vitis vinifera L. located in Leiro, Ourense. Treatments consisted of four different soil management systems: ST, soil tillage; NV, native vegetation; ER, English ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; and SC, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.. Midday stem water potential was more negative in the native vegetation treatment, causing significant reductions in leaf stomatal conductance on certain dates. Total vine leaf area and pruning weight was reduced in the cover crop treatments in the last year of the experiment. Yield was unaffected by the presence of a cover crop. No significant differences among treatments were observed for berry composition; however, wines were positively affected by the SC treatment (higher tannin content and colour intensity and lower malic acid concentration when compared with ST. Wines from the cover crop treatments were preferred by taste panelists. These results indicate that in humid climates cover crop treatments can be useful for reducing vine vegetative growth without compromising yield and berry quality.

  12. The influence of alkali treatment on banana fibre’s mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Mejía Osorio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the effect of alkali treatment on the mechanical properties of banana fibre (Musa Paradisiaca. Fibres were extracted from the pseudostem by a defibring machine; they were mercerised and modified by 5% NaOH (w/v alkali treatment. Morphological characterisation showed that treated fibres’ surface was rougher than that of untreated fibres. Mechanical characterisation indicated that Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength and strain became decreased by increasing both treated and untreated fibres’ diameter.

  13. Influencing CYP Enzymes to Boost Psychiatric Treatment : A Review on Clinical Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, F. M.; Coehorst, Y.; Wilffert, B.; Loonen, A. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize blood plasma concentrations is advised for certain psychiatric drugs. The current standard is to change the dose based on the blood plasma concentration. We present an overview that blood plasma concentrations can also be influenced by adding co-

  14. Crack resistance of pvd coatings : Influence of surface treatment prior to deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; De Hosson, JTM

    2002-01-01

    The crack resistance of three different PVD coatings, TiN, Ti(C,N), and a multilayer system of alternating TiN and TiAlN, have been investigated. The three coating systems were deposited onto substrates with a different surface roughness to study the influence of this pretreatment on the crack resis

  15. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-11-24

    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  16. Influence of treatments on prognosis for vulvar lichen sclerosus: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodrick, Brooks; Belkin, Zoe R; Goldstein, Andrew T

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory dermatosis with a predilection for the anogential skin. Vulvar LS can be a debilitating disease, causing pruritus and pain, and it carries the potential for atrophy, scarring, and significant functional impairment. Recently, many advances have been made regarding the etiology and natural history of the disease process; however, much debate still exists regarding the most advantageous medical and surgical management of this disorder. In an effort to provide a comprehensive review on current vulvar LS literature, the following three controversies will be discussed: (1) optimal disease treatment, (2) theories behind LS's oncogenicity and treatments for minimizing malignancy, and (3) the value of surgical treatment for LS. Ultra-potent topical corticosteroids (TCSs) are the first-line treatment for vulvar LS, while topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) remain second-line agents for patients for whom TCS treatment resulted in incomplete resolution of symptoms or adverse events. Due to the relapsing nature of the disease, long-term maintenance therapy is often required. In addition, recent advances have contributed to the understanding of the association between LS and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). While the exact mechanism responsible for LS-associated SCC is not known, immune dysregulation and inflammation may play an important role; therefore, successful treatment of LS should be directed towards alleviation of symptoms and reversal of the underlying histopathologic changes. Patients with LS-associated malignancy, as well as patients who need correction of functionally restrictive, scarring processes, can successfully undergo surgical intervention with tissue conservation.

  17. State policy influence on the early diffusion of buprenorphine in community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Amanda J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buprenorphine was approved for use in the treatment of opioid dependence in 2002, but its diffusion into everyday clinical practice in community-based treatment programs has been slow. This study examines the net impact of efforts by state agencies, including provision of Medicaid coverage, on program-level adoption of buprenorphine as of 2006. Methods Interviews were conducted with key informants in 49 of the 50 state agencies with oversight responsibility for addiction treatment services. Information from these interviews was integrated with organizational data from the 2006 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services. A multivariate logistic regression model was estimated to identify the effects of state efforts to promote the use of this medication, net of a host of organizational characteristics. Results The availability of Medicaid coverage for buprenorphine was a significant predictor of its adoption by treatment organizations. Conclusion Inclusion of buprenorphine on state Medicaid formularies appears to be a key element in ensuring that patients have access to this state-of-the-art treatment option. Other potential barriers to the diffusion of buprenorphine require identification, and the value of additional state-level policies to promote its use should be evaluated.

  18. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminova, Anna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Shelemin, Artem [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Effect of atmospheric pressure DBD plasma on PET foils was investigated. • DBD treatment causes increase in surface density of O-containing functional groups. • DBD plasma causes increase of wettability, roughness and complex modulus of PET. • DBD treatment positively influences cells growth on PET. • Enhancement of cell growth on treated PET depends on the cell type. - Abstract: In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  19. Influence of melt-treatment on material constants of aluminum sheet used for easy-open can during hot deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-lu; FU Gao-sheng; CHEN Wen-zhe

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal compression test at elevated temperature was carried out for aluminum sheets prepared by different melt-treatment methods with aid of dynamic hot/mechanical simulation experimental technology. The material constants of hot deformation have been solved by multivariate regression directly. Influence of metallurgy factors on the constants was analyzed. The results show that at some strain, the relationship of sheets' flow stress with deformation temperature and strain rate can be expressed more suitably with Arrhenius equation modified by hyperbolic sine function. Structure factor A1,stress-level coefficient α, strain rate sensibility exponent m and deformation activation energy Q all increase with increment of strain, while stress exponent n decreases gradually. The bigger α value or the smaller n value is, the more obvious the dynamic softening is, but the α value will increase for the metallurgy defects existing in the sheets. Influence of melt-treatment on Q depends upon the synthesis effect of all kinds of metallurgy defects. The Q and n values of the sheet prepared by high-efficient melt-treatment are the least, while the m value is the biggest, and the sheet can deform easily and evenly.

  20. Influence of mirena treatment on uterine blood flow dynamics and serum related indexes of patients with uterine adenomyosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yun Wang; Hua Zhang; Zhen-Zhen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of mirena treatment on uterine blood flow dynamics and serum related indexes of patients with uterine adenomyosis.Methods:A total of 58 patients with uterine adenomyosis who were treated in our hospital during the time from June 2014 to July 2015 were randomly divided into two groups, 29 patients in the control group were treated with danazol, and 29 patients in the observation group were treated with mirena. Then the total effective rate, adverse reaction rates, uterine blood flow dynamics indexes, serum MMP related indexes and other disease related indexes of the two groups before the treatment and at first, third and sixth month after the treatment were compared.Results:The total effective rate and adverse reaction rate of observation group were both worse than that of control group (allP0.05). While the uterine blood flow dynamics indexes of the observation group at different time after the treatment were all significantly better than those of control group (allP<0.05).Conclusions:Mirena treatment can effectively improve the uterine blood flow dynamics and serum related indexes of patients with uterine adenomyosis, and it has application value for the patients with uterine adenomyosis is higher.

  1. Influence of solid-solution treatment on microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Xuan Nam; Yang, S.; Qin, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of solid-solution treatment on microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy was studied in the present investigation by SEM, tensile test, electrochemical and immersion test. The results show that the microstructure of Mg alloys after solid solution treatment significantly changed, a large number of the second phase (Ca2Mg6Zn3, Mg2Ca) dissolved into the α-Mg matrix reaching a supersaturated state, and the grains size was bigger than before solid solution treatment; the mechanical properties were obviously improved. In particular the tensile strength of 0.5wt.% Ca of Mg alloy reached 220MPa and the ductility reached 16.6%. Compared with the as-cast Mg alloys, the corrosion potential after solid-solution treatment slightly shifted negative, but the corrosion current density significantly decreased. After solid solution treatment, the surface corrosion was not serious and the result of weight gain was lower compared with those of the as-cast Mg alloys.

  2. Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Otto R; Borden-Stewart, Deborah J; Hook, Paul B; Jones, Warren L

    2007-08-01

    To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and daylight duration. Four treatments were compared: unplanted controls, Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail), and Schoenoplectus acutus (hardstem bulrush), all at low COD loading (267 mg/L), plus bulrush at high COD loading (534 mg/L). Initial SO4-S and zinc concentrations were 67 and 24 mg/L, respectively. For all treatments, sulfate removal was least in winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) greatest in summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and intermediate in spring and fall (14 degrees C), but seasonal variation was greater in cattail, and especially, bulrush treatments. Redox measurements indicated that, in winter, plant-mediated oxygen transfer inhibited activity of sulfate reducing bacteria, exacerbating the reduction in sulfate removal due to temperature. Doubling the COD load in bulrush treatments increased sulfate removal by only 20-30% when averaged over all seasons and did not alter the basic pattern of seasonal variation, despite tempering the wintertime increase in redox potential. Seasonal and treatment effects on zinc removal were broadly consistent with sulfate removal and presumably reflected zinc-sulfide precipitation. Results strongly suggest that interactive effects of COD loading rate, temperature, season, and plant species control not only sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration, but also the balance of competition between various microbial consortia responsible for water treatment in constructed wetlands.

  3. The influence of cognition, anxiety and psychiatric disorders over treatment adherence in uncontrolled hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Úrsula Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor adherence is estimated to cause 125 thousand deaths per year and is linked to 10% of all hospital stays in the U.S. Up to one third of elderly hypertensive patients don't have adherence, which is responsible for high proportion of hospitalizations. Hypertension is also related to poor performance in tests that assess cognitive functions. On the other hand, poor cognitive performance is associated with low adherence to treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between cognitive function, anxiety and psychiatric disorders with adherence to drug treatment in patients with hypertension. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This a cohort studies with 56 adult patients with uncontrolled hypertension who participated of all meetings of a pharmaceutical intervention in a randomized clinical trial of pharmaceutical care. Cognitive function was measured by the Mini Mental State Examination (Mini-mental. The memory was measured by digit and word spans, tower and church shadow test, short story test and metamemory. Anxiety and psychiatric disorders were evaluated by the State Trace Anxiety Inventory and the Self-Report Questionnaire, respectively. The participants were classified as adherent or non-adherent to the drug treatment, according to the identification of plasma levels of hydrochlorothiazide. All non-adherent patients (n = 12 and 35 out 44 (79.5% patients with adherence to treatment had at least one memory test with an altered score (P = 0.180. Participants with an unsatisfactory score in the Mini-mental had six-fold higher risk of non-adherence to treatment when compared to those with a normal score (RR = 5.8; CI 95%: 1.6-20.8; P = 0.007. The scores of anxiety and psychiatric disorders were not associated with adherence to the pharmacological treatment. CONCLUSION: Cognitive deficit impairs adherence to drug therapy and should be screened as part of a program of pharmaceutical care to improve adherence to

  4. Factors influencing soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhatcha Maetevorakul

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown soft tissue profile changes after orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. However, a few studies have described factors influencing the soft tissue changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. Methods The subjects comprised 104 Thai patients age 8–16 years who presented Class II Division 1 malocclusions and were treated with different orthodontic modalities comprising cervical headgear, Class II traction and extraction of the four first premolars. The profile changes were evaluated from the lateral cephalograms before and after treatment by means of the X-Y coordinate system. Significant soft tissue profile changes were evaluated by paired t test at a 0.05 significance level. The correlations among significant soft tissue changes and independent variables comprising treatment modality, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis at a 0.05 significance level. Results The multiple regression analysis indicated that different treatment modalities, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were related to the profile changes. The predictive power of these variables on the soft tissue profile changes ranged from 9.9 to 40.3 %. Conclusions Prediction of the soft tissue profile changes following treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion from initial patient morphology, age, sex and types of treatment was complicated and required several variables to explain their variations. Upper lip change in horizontal direction could be found only at the stomion superius and was less predictable than those of the lower lip. Variations in upper lip retraction at the stomion superius were explained by types of treatment (R 2 = 0.099, whereas protrusion of the lower

  5. The influences of heat treatments and interdiffusion on the adhesion of plasma-sprayed NiCrAlY coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, C.S. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne (France). Departement de Genie Mecanique; Beranger, G. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne (France). Departement de Genie Mecanique; Lu, J. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Departement de Genie des Systemes Mecaniques, 10000, Troyes (France); Flavenot, J.F. [Centre Technique des Industries Mecaniques (CETIM), Departement Materiaux, 60306 Senlis (France)

    1996-07-01

    Most coatings are applied with a specific aim in mind, such as improving the base material resistance to corrosion or wear, or providing a barrier against high temperatures. These aims can obviously only be achieved if the coating is properly bonded to the substrate. This study is focused on a NiCrAlY metallic bonding layer and its adhesion on to nickel-based superalloy substrate. It also looks at the influence of different spraying methods (atmospheric plasma spraying and vacuum plasma spraying) and the influence of a post-heat treatment on adhesion of the coatings. In order to determine adherence, a Vickers indentation test was performed at the substrate/coating interface. In each case, the residual stresses were evaluated by a step-by-step hole drilling method and these were taken into account in assessing the adhesion parameters. The results were supplemented by a microstructural study of the interface. (orig.)

  6. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  7. Influence of secondary treatment with CO2 laser irradiation for mitigation site on fused silica surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Zhou, Qiang; Qiu, Rong; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hui-Li; Yao, Cai-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Bo; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Ming; Xiang, Xia; Zu, Xiao-Tao; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Miao, Xin-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    The ablation debris and raised rim, as well as residual stress and deep crater will be formed during the mitigation of damage site with a CO2 laser irradiation on fused silica surface, which greatly affects the laser damage resistance of optics. In this study, the experimental study combined with numerical simulation is utilized to investigate the effect of the secondary treatment on a mitigated site by CO2 laser irradiation. The results indicate that the ablation debris and the raised rim can be completely eliminated and the depth of crater can be reduced. Notable results show that the residual stress of the mitigation site after treatment will reduce two-thirds of the original stress. Finally, the elimination and the controlling mechanism of secondary treatment on the debris and raised rim, as well as the reasons for changing the profile and stress are analyzed. The results can provide a reference for the optimization treatment of mitigation sites by CO2 laser secondary treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505170, 61505171, and 51535003), the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1530109), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M592709).

  8. Influence of Hot-Etching Surface Treatment on Zirconia/Resin Shear Bond Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lv

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of hot-etching surface treatment on the shear bond strength between zirconia ceramics and two commercial resin cements. Ceramic cylinders (120 units; length: 2.5 mm; diameter: 4.7 mm were randomly divided into 12 groups (n = 10 according to different surface treatments (blank control; airborne-particle-abrasion; hot-etching and different resin cements (Panavia F2.0; Superbond C and B and whether or not a thermal cycling fatigue test (5°–55° for 5000 cycles was performed. Flat enamel surfaces, mounted in acrylic resin, were bonded to the zirconia discs (diameter: 4.7 mm. All specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. All data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and multiple-comparison least significant difference tests (α = 0.05. Hot-etching treatment produced higher bond strengths than the other treatment with both resin cements. The shear bond strength of all groups significantly decreased after the thermal cycling test; except for the hot-etching group that was cemented with Panavia F2.0 (p < 0.05. Surface treatment of zirconia with hot-etching solution enhanced the surface roughness and bond strength between the zirconia and the resin cement.

  9. The influence of surface treatment on mass transfer between air and building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    The processes of mass transfer between air and building structure and in the material influence not only the conditions within the material but also inside the connected air spaces. The material which absorbs and desorbs water vapour can be used to moderate the amplitude of indoor relative humidity...... and therefore to participate in the improvement of the indoor air quality and energy saving. Many parameters influence water vapour exchange between indoor air and building material. The aim of this work is to present the change of mass transfer under different climatic and material conditions. The measurements...... for the experiments: gypsum board and calcium silicate. The wallpaper and paint were used as finishing materials. Impact of the following parameters for changes of RH was studied: coating, temperature and air movement. The measurements showed that acryl paint (diffusion open) can significantly decrease mass uptake...

  10. Influence of heat treatment on properties of ti-nb alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kunčicka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ti-Nb alloys are of a large potential for industrial, as well as biomedical utilisation. Oxygen content in the alloy is a parameter influencing its properties and cannot be neglected. The main focus of this paper is on observation of influence of annealing time on oxygen content in the structure of Ti – 20,7 (at.% Nb alloy. Four groups of the samples were annealed at the temperature of 800 °C from 15 to 60 minutes with 15 min. step. As it was proven by the analysis, the oxygen content increased with increasing annealing time. Moreover, microhardness measurements showed increasing trend of HV microhardness value with increasing oxygen content.

  11. Thermal stresses in hexagonal materials - heat treatment influence on their mechanical behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloaguen, D.; Freour, S.; Guillen, R.; Royer, J. [Nantes Univ., GeM, Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6183, 44 (France); Francois, M. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Lab. des Systemes Mecaniques et d' Ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS), 10 - Troyes (France)

    2004-12-01

    Internal stresses due to anisotropic thermal and plastic properties were investigated in rolled zirconium and titanium. The thermal stresses induced by a cooling process were predicted using a self-consistent model and compared with experimental results obtained by X-ray diffraction. The study of the elastoplastic response during uniaxial loading was performed along the rolling and the transverse direction of the sheet, considering the influence of the texture and the thermal stresses on the mechanical behaviour. An approach in order to determine the thermal behaviour of phases embedded in two-phase materials is also presented. For zirconium, the residual stresses due to thermal anisotropy are rather important (equivalent to 35% of the yield stress) and consequently they play an important role on the elastoplastic transition contrary to titanium. The study of two-phase material shows the influence and the interaction of the second phase on the thermal behaviour in the studied phase.

  12. The influence of dry matter, applied heat treatment and storage period on the viscosity of stirred yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denin-Đurđević Jelena D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Skim milk powder reconstituted to 8.44% TS, 9.65% TS and 10.84% TS respectively was used for investigation. Untreated milk and milk heat treated at 85ºC/20 min and 90ºC/10 min, respectively, were used for the investigation. Milk was inoculated with 2.5% of yogurt culture (containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the ratio 1:1 at 43ºC. Samples were incubated until pH 4.6 was reached. Samples were immediately cooled to 4ºC and held at that temperature during 14 days. Acid casein gel was stirred after 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. Measurements were done at 30 rpm during 2 min, at 20ºC. According to the investigation, it could be concluded that both applied heat treatment and dry matter content influence viscosity of stirred yogurt. Viscosity increases when dry matter content increases. The smallest viscosity had yogurt produced from untreated milk with 8.44% TS, while samples produced from milk with 10.84% TS had the highest viscosity. Applied heat treatments had significant influence on viscosity of yogurt gained by stirring of acid casein gels after 7 and 14 days of storage. Stirred yogurt produced from milk heat treated at 90ºC/10 min had a higher viscosity than samples produced from milk heat treated at 85ºC/20 min. Storage period influenced average viscosity of stirred yogurt. Samples of stirred yogurt produced from milk with 8.44% TS showed a decrease of average viscosity during storage regardless of the applied heat treatment of milk. The highest average viscosity had samples produced from milk with 10.84% TS.

  13. Influence of isochronal heat treatment on damping behavior of AZ61 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chu-ming; LIU Zi-juan; ZHU Xiu-rong; HU Bi-wen; WANG Rong; WANG Meng-jun

    2007-01-01

    Strain amplitude dependence of the logarithmic decrement was measured and studied on an AZ61 magnesium alloy at room temperature. Measurements were carried out before and after isochronal thermal treatment step by step with increasing temperature. For all specimens, the strain dependence of the logarithmic decrement exhibits two regions. At lower strains the logarithmic decrement is strain independent and in the higher strain region it depends strongly on strain amplitude. The strain-independent logarithmic decrement is mainly composed of thermoelastic damping and dislocation damping, which can be temperatures is a little lower than that for as-cast specimen, and it increases with increasing temperature of heat treatment.Microstructure changes due to heat treatment are responsible for changes of the logarithmic decrement.

  14. Influence of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juániz, Isabel; Ludwig, Iziar A; Huarte, Estibaliz; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Moreno-Rojas, Jose Manuel; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2016-04-15

    The impact of cooking heat treatments (frying in olive oil, frying in sunflower oil and griddled) on the antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of onion, green pepper and cardoon, was evaluated. The main compounds were quercetin and isorhamnetin derivates in onion, quercetin and luteolin derivates in green pepper samples, and chlorogenic acids in cardoon. All heat treatments tended to increase the concentration of phenolic compounds in vegetables suggesting a thermal destruction of cell walls and sub cellular compartments during the cooking process that favor the release of these compounds. This increase, specially that observed for chlorogenic acids, was significantly correlated with an increase in the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH (r=0.70). Griddled vegetables, because of the higher temperature applied during treatment in comparison with frying processes, showed the highest amounts of phenolic compounds with increments of 57.35%, 25.55% and 203.06% compared to raw onion, pepper and cardoon, respectively.

  15. Influence of the physical environment on treatment effect in exercise therapy for knee or hip pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Louise Fleng

    , participants from the standard environment stated that they felt at-home, experienced a strong sense of fellowship, and identified their own body image with the standard environment. The mean age of the study population was 58.5 years, 63% had knee pain as primary complaint, 61% were women and 88% reported...... treatment outcomes in other health-care settings, such as rehabilitation and exercise therapy settings. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of the physical environment as a contributor to context effects in the treatment response from exercise therapy as treatment for muskuloskeletal pain....... In a randomised controlled double-blind trial (RCT), 103 participants were randomised in a 2:2:1 allocation to three groups: 1) 42 participants exercised in a contextually enhanced environment, 2) 40 participants exercised in a standard environment, and 3) 21 participants were on a passive waiting list. Middle...

  16. Class I malocclusion treatment: influence of a missing mandibular incisor on anterior guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sérgio Estelita C; Janson, Guilherme; Torres, Fernando César; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with a deep-overbite Angle Class I malocclusion, agenesis of a mandibular central incisor, and 2 supernumerary teeth, which caused impaction of the mandibular first premolars. The 15-year-old patient also had a convex profile, maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion, and deficiency of space for the correct alignment of teeth. Therefore, treatment consisted of fixed appliance therapy, cervical headgear, extraction of the supernumeraries and the mandibular and maxillary first premolars, and mesiodistal reduction of the maxillary incisors to solve the arch perimeter discrepancy as much as possible with interproximal stripping. This method of treatment significantly improved the patient's facial and dental esthetics and provided a good functional occlusion, despite the absence of a mandibular incisor, which generally impairs achieving adequate incisal guidance.

  17. Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatomical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive...

  18. Examining cultural factors that influence treatment decisions: a pilot study of Latino men with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Iraida V; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances R; Marquez, David X

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore beliefs and treatment decisions of foreign-born Latino men from Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, and Venezuela, who have been diagnosed with cancer and who live in Central Florida, USA. Experiences related to knowledge of diagnosis, treatment decisions, communication with health providers, family involvement, and advance care planning (ACP) discussions following the diagnosis of cancer are central to this study. This study used qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. The interviews were conducted with 15 Latino men who have been diagnosed with cancer within the past 5 years and who reside in the community. The interviews were conducted and transcribed in Spanish and then translated into English. The median age was 55.4 years. Nine Latino men had prostate cancer, two had brain cancer, two had colorectal cancer, and two had lung cancer. Emerging themes involved the suddenness of the diagnosis, fear of dying, expectations of diagnosis-related communication, reliance on physicians for treatment decisions, limited information pertaining to ACP, family support, and role changes. Latino men's limited knowledge of cancer diagnosis and treatment options coupled with their fear led them to immediately believe that they were going to die. Knowledge gaps regarding diagnosis-related communication, treatment decisions, and ACP varied among the men. The forthright diagnosis communication and the expectation to engage in decision making are contrary to Latinos men's beliefs of reliance on health providers decisions. The findings contribute to understanding Latino men's beliefs about a cancer diagnosis and treatment decisions.

  19. Influence of psychosocial factors on treatment of elderly Chinese patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolong Yu; Tianlun Yang; Cesar V. Borlongan; Christine E. Stahl; Xiumei Xie; Jin He; Biefei Li; Ke Xia

    2007-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of psychosocial factors on the treatment of elderly patients with hypertension. Methods Atotalof 260 elderly Chinese patients with hypertension were treated with benazepril alone or benazepril combined with amlodipine for 8 weeks. The target blood pressure (BP) (both <140 mmHg systolic, SBP, and <90 mmHg diastolic, DBP)was achieved in 180 patients, who were then assigned to the well-controlled BP group; the rest were placed in the modestly controlled BP group. The psychosocial factors present in both groups were assessed by the Hamilton depression scale, Hamilton anxiety scale, life event scale and social support evaluation list before and after anti-hypertensive treatment. Results There were no significant differences in gender, mean age, hist ory of hypertension, education and smoking habit, or in SBP and DBP between the groups before treatment.Significant differences were also not found in all psychosocial factors before and after treatment in the patients. However, significant differences were found between the groups with respect to post-treatment SBP and marital status. The patients with modestly controlled BP had significantly higher scores, as well as incidents, on the depressive, anxiety, and stressful life event scales than those with well-controlled BP. The patients with well-controlled BP had significantly higher scores in tangible support, subjective support,and social support compared to the patients with modestly controlled BP. Logistic regression analysis showed the independent contribution of psychosocial factors in reaching the goal of lowering BP at treatment endpoint in these hypertensive patients. Conclusions The results suggest that psychosocial factors stand as a main barrier to achieving the BP-lowering target in the management of elderly Chinese patients with hypertension.

  20. Influence of physical treatment on disease activity and health status of patients with chronic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustur Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This is an open uncontrolled study about effects of physical treatment on disease activity parameters of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Objective The aim of the study was to establish if there was any improvement of disease activity parameters after four weeks of physical and spa treatment. METHOD We compared morning stiffness, tender and swollen joint count, body pain level and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS-28 in patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and assessed the effect of physical and spa treatment on those parameters. The research encompassed 109 patients: 69 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA group and 40 with psoriatic arthritis (PA group. They were from Norway, staying for four weeks in June-September 2003. The groups served as their own controls - "one group pre-test post test" study. Disease activity measurement was made twice: at the beginning and at the end of treatment. The therapeutic set consisted of mud applications, kinesitherapy, mineral water pool and electrotherapy. Results At the beginning there was no significant difference in observed disease activity parameters between patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis (p>0.05. After four weeks of physical and spa treatment disease activity was significantly reduced in all observed parameters in both groups: morning stiffness (p<0.001 RA+PA, tender joint count (p<0.01 RA+PA, swollen joint count (p<0.01 RA; p<0.05 PA, body pain (p<0.01 RA+PA and DAS-28 score (p<0.01 RA+PA. Conclusion Physical and spa treatment, together with climatic factors in Igalo, lead to a significant reduction of disease activity parameters of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. .

  1. Influence Of Heat Treatment On Duplex Stainless Steel To Study The Material Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithin M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The various heat treatment processes are annealing normalizing hardening tempering spheroidising surface hardening flame and induction hardening nitriding cyaniding carbonitriding carburizing etc Heat treatment on duplex stainless steel is to improve ductility toughness strength hardness and to relieve internal stress developed in the material. Here basically the experiment of hardness test impact test wear test and compression is done to get idea about heat treated duplex stainless steel which has extensive uses in all industries and scientific research and development fields.

  2. Influence of feeding flushing and progestative treatment duration on reproductive performances in mutton sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marsico

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Long progestative treatments (from 9 to 12 days have been widely used for estrus induction and synchronization in past. However, these treatments worsen fertility in comparison with naturally induced estrus because they determine an hormonal disruption which affects the synchronicity between estrus and ovulation and hampers sperm transport inside the female reproductive tract (Pearce and Robinson, 1985; Scaramuzzi et al., 1988. Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG is administered, at different times, in order to improve the reproductive performances; however, it determines a high individual variability in the ovarian response (Martemucci et al., 1988...

  3. Characterization Of Chemically Induced Ovarian Carcinomas In An Ethanol-preferring Rat Model: Influence Of Long-term Melatonin Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo A Chuffa; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Mendes, Leonardo O; Fávaro, Wagner J; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F.; Marcelo Martinez; Francisco Eduardo Martinez

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths among women, and chronic alcoholism may exert cocarcinogenic effects. Because melatonin (mel) has oncostatic properties, we aimed to investigate and characterize the chemical induction of ovarian tumors in a model of ethanol-preferring rats and to verify the influence of mel treatment on the overall features of these tumors. After rats were selected to receive ethanol (EtOH), they were surgically injected with 100 μg of 7,12-dime...

  4. INFLUENCE ОF MODIFIER THERMAL TREATMENT ОN CHARACTERISTICS ОF COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivashko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results that reveal influence of modifiers characterized by different nature and composition and subjected to heat treatment on operational characteristics of single and binary compositions. Interaction between dispersed clay particles and dependence of  coating properties on  their mass content in oligomeric and polymeric matrices have been justified in the paper. The paper contains data that prove an increase of coating hardness by 15–20 %. The coating composition includes thermally-treated dispersed clay particles.

  5. [Factors influencing the course and duration of inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric treatment: between empiricism and clinical reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branik, Emil

    2003-09-01

    In the last two decades considerable changes influenced the scope of inpatient treatment in child and adolescent psychiatry. Proceeding from a literature review dilemmas between available research data and clinical practice will be pointed out. Proposals will be made to take into account the complex developmental processes, the individuality and the social context by psychic impaired children and adolescents requiring hospitalisation. This could improve the transfer of research findings into the clinical practice. It will be argued against a confusion of economical interests with research findings.

  6. Factors which influence on force of boxers` and footballers` shots on the stage of base pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitenko S.A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available On the stage of base pre-treatment factors which influence on force of shots the hands of boxers and feet of footballers as a criterion of competition activity efficiency are certain. Connections are certain between force of shots by hands and feet. The objective test of the specialized sense determination of boxers` and footballers` shots is offered. It is recommended to develop maximal and explosive force of all parts of sportsman body at implementation preparatory exercises with the further transfer of physical qualities on implementation of the special exercises.

  7. "Who can you tell?" Features of Arab culture that influence conceptualization and treatment of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L; Alyan, Hala

    2013-01-01

    The literature on child sexual abuse reflects growing recognition of the manner in which culture impacts the conceptualization, experience, and treatment of such cases. Despite heightened visibility of Arab Americans within the United States, population due to recent media attention, little empirical research exists on the occurrence of child sexual abuse within this population. Arab culture is often characterized by an emphasis on collectivism and familial obligations, and such features may prove to either facilitate or impede assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse, depending on how they are manifested. In terms of reporting child sexual abuse, cultural values pertaining to shame and honor as well as the stigma attached to mental health problems may influence the response to abuse. As such, enhancing the cultural competence of the therapist is key to facilitating effective cultural practice. Empirical research is required to investigate and substantiate these concepts as they relate to child sexual abuse in Arab-American populations.

  8. The influence of post-growth thermal treatments on the critical current density of TSMG YBCO bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diko, P; Antal, V; Zmorayova, K; Sefcikova, M; Kovac, J [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Chaud, X [CNRS/CRETA, 25, Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Yao, X [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, I [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University (NCKU) Tainan, Taiwan (China); Eisterer, M; Weber, H W [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    Oxygenation and thermochemical post-growth treatments of top seeded melt-growth (TSMG) YBCO bulk superconductors can significantly influence critical current density. It is shown that, depending on oxygenation conditions and the size of 211 particles, different reductions of intrinsic critical current density values can be obtained due to the reduction in the sample cross-section caused by the presence of a/b-microcracks induced by 211 particles, and a/b- and a/c-cracks induced by oxygenation. The possibility of eliminating oxygenation cracks by high pressure oxygenation and consequently significantly increasing the macroscopic critical current density is demonstrated. An effective dopant concentration for chemical pinning is proposed and possible clustering of substitutions in the Y123 lattice by thermochemical treatments is shown.

  9. Influence of adalimumab treatment on anastomotic strength, degree of inflammation, and collagen formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Andersen, Kristian; Hansen, Katrine;

    2013-01-01

    Adalimumab is a TNF-α inhibitor, which has gained wide use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. The potential detrimental effect of TNF-α inhibitors on postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single...... therapeutic dose of adalimumab on anastomotic strength inflammation and collagen formation....

  10. Influence of Duplex Treatment on Structural and Tribological Properties of Commercially Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ilhan

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used in many fields, including aerospace and the chemical and biomedical industries. This is due to their mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility although they do have poor wear resistance. In this study, a duplex layer was successfully formed on the commercially pure titanium surface by duplex treatments (plasma nitriding and physical vapor deposition (PVD)). In the initial treatment, plasma nitriding was performed on the pure titanium samples and in the second treatment, the nitrided samples were coated with CrN by PVD. The friction and wear properties of the duplex-treated samples were investigated for tribological applications. Surface morphology and microstructure of the duplex-treated samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the tribological properties were investigated using pin-on-disc tribometer. A compound layer composed of ɛ-Ti2N and δ-TiN phases and a diffusion layer formed under the compound layer were obtained on the surface of pure titanium after the nitriding treatments. CrN coated on the nitrided surface provided an increase in the surface hardness and in the wear resistance.

  11. Influence of Si content and heat treatment on microstructure of Al-Fe-Si alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yuhua; Wang Xiubin; Liu Yulin; Wang Chao

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Si addition and heat treatment on the Al-5wt.%Fe al oy has been investigated by OM, SEM-EDS and XRD. The results show that the Si plays a significant role in refining the primary Al3Fe phase. It was found that the addition of 3.0wt.% Si made the al oy present the finest and wel -distributed primary Al3Fe phase, but the Al3Fe phase almost disappeared when 5wt.% Si was added. With further increase in the Si content, some Fe-rich phases appeared in the inter-grains and coarsened. In addition, the heat treatments exert a significant impact on the microstructural evolution of the Al-5wt.%Fe-5wt.%Si al oy. After heat treatment for 28 hours at 590 ºC, the coarse platelet or blocky Fe-rich phase in Al-5wt.%Fe-5wt.%Si al oys was granulated; the phase transformation from metastable platelet Al3FeSi and blocky Al8Fe2Si to stable Al5FeSi had occurred. With the extension of heat treatment, the Si phase coarsened gradual y.

  12. Influence of water/O₂ plasma treatment on cellular responses of PCL and PET surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu Şaşmazel, Hilal; Aday, Sezin; Manolache, Sorin; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2011-01-01

    In this study, low pressure water/O₂ plasma treatment was performed in order to obtain COOH functionalities on the surface of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) membranes as well as non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF) discs. The plasma treatments were performed in a cylindrical, capacitively coupled RF-plasma-reactor and then following steps were performed: in situ (oxalyl chloride vapors) gas/solid reaction to convert -OH functionalities into -COCl groups; and hydrolysis under open laboratory conditions using air moisture for final-COOH functionalities. COOH and OH functionalities on modified surfaces were detected quantitatively by using fluorescent labeling technique and an UVX 300G sensor. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to evaluate the relative surface atomic compositions and the carbon and oxygen linkages located in non-equivalent atomic positions of untreated and modified surfaces. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis showed that nanoscale features of the PCL surfaces are dramatically changed during the surface treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated the changes in the relatively smooth appearance of the untreated NWPF discs after the plasma treatment. Periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were used in cell culture studies. Cell culture results showed that plasma treated PCL membranes and NWPF discs were favorable for the PDL cell spreading, growth and viability due to the presence of functional groups and/or nanotopographies on their surfaces.

  13. The influence of endocrine treatments for breast cancer on health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Willemse, Pax H. B.

    2008-01-01

    Many hormonal modalities are available for breast cancer treatment, such as selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), aromatase inhibitors, progestins and luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists. The Long-term impact of these endocrine manipulations is an issue, because the dura

  14. Motivational interviewing group at inpatient detoxification, its influence in maintaining abstinence and treatment retention after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Diana; Grau-López, Lara; Barral, Carmen; Daigre, Constanza; Alberich, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Valero, Sergi; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-06-17

    The relapse rate after discharge from inpatient detoxification is high. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic factors associated with maintaining abstinence in patients who participated in a brief motivational interviewing group during admission for detoxification. A total of 46 patients, diagnosed substance dependent according to DSM -IV, and admitted to the Hospital Detoxification Unit, participated in a brief motivational interviewing group. Sociodemographic, clinical, motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, URICA) and satisfaction with the treatment group (Treatment Perceptions Questionnaire, CPT) data were collected. Abstinence and treatment retention two months after discharge were assessed by weekly telephone calls. A survival analysis was performed. Being male, having more cognitions of the maintenance stage of change at discharge, being satisfied with group therapy and therapist during hospitalization are associated with longer abstinence after discharge. The brief motivational interviewing group approach with patients admitted for detoxification is related to greater likelihood of maintaining abstinence and subsequent treatment retention.

  15. Musical Auditory Stimulation Influences Heart Rate Autonomic Responses to Endodontic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniano, Eli Carlos; Monteiro, Larissa Raylane Lucas; Valenti, Vitor E.; Sorpreso, Isabel Cristina Esposito; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the acute effect of musical auditory stimulation on heart rate autonomic regulation during endodontic treatment. The study included 50 subjects from either gender between 18 and 40 years old, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis of the upper front teeth and endodontic treatment indication. HRV was recorded 10 minutes before (T1), during (T2), and immediately (T3 and T4) after endodontic treatment. The volunteers were randomly divided into two equal groups: exposed to music (during T2, T3, and T4) or not. We found no difference regarding salivary cortisol and anxiety score. In the group with musical stimulation heart rate decreased in T3 compared to T1 and mean RR interval increased in T2 and T3 compared to T1. SDNN and TINN indices decreased in T3 compared to T4, the RMSSD and SD1 increased in T4 compared to T1, the SD2 increased compared to T3, and LF (low frequency band) increased in T4 compared to T1 and T3. In the control group, only RMSSD and SD1 increased in T3 compared to T1. Musical auditory stimulation enhanced heart rate autonomic modulation during endodontic treatment. PMID:28182118

  16. Influence of rmhTNF on the Chemotherapy Treatment of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of the recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor (rmhTNF) combined with chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone in the treatment of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were evaluated in this study. The selected 37 patients with SCLC were divided into experimental group (n = 18) and control group (n = 19). Bothgroups were subjected to EP regimen. While in the experimental group, a regimen of 4 × 106 U/m2 rmhTNF intramuscular injection was given once a day from the 1st to 7th day and 11th to 17th day on the chemotherapy cycle.Twenty-one days were as a chemotherapy cycle and all patients received treatment with 2 cycles.The response rate was 83.3 % (15/18) in the experimental group and 63.2 % (12/19) in the control group respectively (P<0.05). The KPS score after treatment was 78.4±9.6 in the experimental group and 71.2±9.7 in the control group with the difference being significant (P<0.05).No severe adverse effects occurred in the two groups. It was concluded that the curative effectiveness of the rmhTNF combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of SCLC was more satisfactory than chemotherapy alone. The former could obviously improve the quality of life of the patients with SCLC.

  17. Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Marine and Botanical Oils: Influence on Serum Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara C. Olendzki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gap in mortality between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and the general population (1.5–3.0 fold risk is increasing. This disparity is attributable mainly to cardiovascular disease (CVD, as the CVD risk is comparable to patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether borage seed oil rich in gamma-linolenic acid, fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, or the combination of both oils are useful treatments for dyslipidemia in patients with RA. We randomized patients into a double blind, 18 month trial. Mixed effects models were used to compare trends over time in serum lipids. No significant differences were observed between the three groups: All three treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful improvement in the lipid profile at 9 and 18 months. When all groups were combined, these treatments significantly reduced total and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased HDL-cholesterol, and improved the atherogenic index. All improvements observed at 9 months persisted at 18 months (P<0.001 verses baseline. Conclusion. Marine and botanical oils may be useful treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease compared to the general population.

  18. Influence of chemical treatment on the tensile properties of kenaf fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. El-Shekeil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of polymeric Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (pMDI chemical treatment on kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU/KF was examined using two different procedures. The first consisted of treating the fibers with 4% pMDI, and the second involved 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI. The composites were characterized according to their tensile properties, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The treatment of the composite with 4% pMDI did not significantly affect its tensile properties, but the treatment with 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI significantly increased the tensile properties of the composite (i.e., 30 and 42% increases in the tensile strength and modulus, respectively. FTIR also showed that treatment with 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI led to the strongest H-bonding. Additionally, the surface morphology of specimens after tensile fracture confirmed that the composite treated with 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI had the best adhesion and wettability.

  19. Influence of data collection schemes on the Life Cycle Assessment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Clavreul, Julie; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was conducted to illustrate the effect of an emission inventory data collection scheme on the outcomes of an environmental impact assessment. Due to their burden in respect to data collection, LCAs often rely heavily...

  20. Influence of composition, heat treatment and neutron irradiation on the electrical conductivity of copper alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of three different types of copper alloys, viz. CuNiBe, CuCrZr and Cu-Al(2)O(3) as well as of pure copper are reported. The alloys have undergone different pre-irradiation heat treatments and have been fission-neutron irradiated up to 0.3 dpa. In some cases post...

  1. Social influences on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J M; Hilkens, A; Zoche-Golob, V; Krömker, V; Buddiger, M; Jansen, J; Lam, T J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis treatment i

  2. Influence of medical treatment, smoking and disease activity on pregnancy outcomes in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian Lodberg

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Little is known about predictors for adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with Crohn’s disease (CD). In this population-based study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in CD stratified by medical treatment and smoking status while accounting for disease activity. Methods. In two Danish...

  3. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V.; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  4. The main factors influencing canine demodicosis treatment outcome and determination of optimal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenović, Milica; Pezo, Lato; Vasić, Nebojša; Ćirić, Rodoljub; Stefanović, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The main idea of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of canine demodicosis conventional treatments using mathematical analyses. All available papers published between 1980 and 2014 were used in this study. One hundred six clinical trials enrolling 3414 cases of generalized demodicosis in dogs are studied. Dogs entered in the analysis were only the ones in which the disease occurred naturally, excluding the studies in which transplantation of Demodex canis mites was done from other animals. In conventional acaricide treatments, sorted according to active substances (moxidectin, amitraz, doramectin, ivermectin, and milbemycin oxime), the way of application (spot-on, dips, orally, or subcutaneous), concentration, and interval of application were used as input parameters in mathematical modeling. Data of interest were the treatment outcome, the number of dogs that went into remission, the number of animals not responding to treatment microscopically, the average duration of therapy, the follow-up period, the number of patients with disease recurrence, the number of adverse effects, and the number of animals with side effects. Dogs lost to follow-up or when the treatment was discontinued, due to various reasons not in connection with the therapy protocol, were not considered. Statistical and mathematical analyses were applied for prediction of the drugs' effectiveness. Developed mathematical models showed satisfactorily r (2), higher than 0.87. Good evidence for recommending the use of milbemycin oxime PO (0.5 mg/kg, daily) and moxidectin spot-on (Advocate®, Bayer) weekly is found. A bit less effective therapies were based on ivermectin PO (0.5 mg/kg, daily), moxidectin PO (0.35 mg/kg, daily), and amitraz dips (0.05 % solution, weekly), respectively. It is important to keep in mind that Advocate® is recommended by the manufacturer for use in milder cases.

  5. Which adverse effects influence the dropout rate in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment? Results for 50,824 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostev, Karel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Nowadays, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently prescribed antidepressants due to their superior clinical efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability, and safety as compared to tricyclic antidepressants or monoamino oxidase inhibitors. However, despite these advantages SSRIs are still associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, especially in the early stages of treatment, which may lead to premature discontinuation of therapy in some cases. The aim of the present study was to assess the most common adverse drug reactions of SSRIs as well as their impact on dropout rate in a large study population.Patients and methods: Data for 50,824 patients treated for major depressive disorder with SSRIs for the first time was accessed via the Disease Analyzer database (IMS Health, Germany, providing information on SSRI adverse drug reactions and their influence on premature treatment discontinuation calculated by regression analysis. The presence of certain co-morbidities was also registered. Results: The mean age was 54.5 ± 19 years, two-thirds of the study population being female. The adverse effects mentioned most frequently were: “discomfort” of the digestive system (10%, sleep disorders (8.6%, and heart rhythm disorders (4%; however, these were of tolerable severity as they did not significantly influence the dropout rate. Contrary to that, somnolence and younger age (≤50 years in particular increased the chance of premature treatment discontinuation, while patients suffering from cardiovascular risk factors or osteoporosis tended to adhere to the therapy.Conclusions: Overall, there is high tolerability for early SSRI treatment, whereas the occurrence of somnolence leads to discontinuation.

  6. Additive manufacturing of Co-Cr-Mo alloy: Influence of heat treatment on microstructure, tribological and electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar Mallik Mantrala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-Cr-Mo alloy samples, fabricated using Laser Engineered Net Shaping – a laser based additive manufacturing technology, have been subjected heat treatment to study its influence on microstructure, wear and corrosion properties. Following L9 Orthogonal array of Taguchi method, the samples were solutionized at 1200oC for 30, 45 and 60 min followed by water quenching. Ageing treatment was done at 815oC and 830oC for 2, 4 and 6 h. Heat treated samples were evaluated for their microstructure, hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The results revealed that highest hardness of 512 ± 58 Hv and wear rate of 0.90 ± 0.14 × 10-4 mm3/N.m can be achieved with appropriate post-fabrication heat treatment. ANOVA and grey relational analysis on the experimental data revealed that the samples subjected to solution treatment for 60 min, without ageing, exhibit best combination of hardness, wear and corrosion resistance.

  7. The influence of four dual-cure resin cements and surface treatment selection to bond strength of fiber post

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Liu; Hong Liu; Yue-Tong Qian; Song Zhu; Su-Qian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the influence of post surface pre-treatments on the bond strength of four different cements to glass fiber posts. Eighty extracted human maxillary central incisors and canines were endodontically treated and standardized post spaces were prepared. Four post pre-treatments were tested:(i) no pre-treatment (NS, control), (ii) sandblasting (SA), (iii) silanization (SI) and (iv) sandblasting followed by silanization (SS). Per pre-treatment, four dual-cure resin cements were used for luting posts:DMG LUXACORE Smartmix Dual, Multilink Automix, RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0. All the specimens were subjected to micro push-out test. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were performed (a50.05) to analyze the data. Bond strength was significantly affected by the type of resin cement, and bond strengths of RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0 to the fiber posts were significantly higher than the other cement groups. Sandblasting significantly increased the bond strength of DMG group to the fiber posts.

  8. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT ON TAPIOCA WASTEWATER PRE-CHLORINATION TOWARD EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Mulyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to study about influence of calcium hypochlorite dosage adjustment on tapioca wastewater chlorination toward efficiency of activated sludge treatment especially at MLVSS profile and percentage of COD removal. This research mainly divided into pre-chlorination and activated sludge treatment. Pre-chlorination taken place for 60 minutes at pH 8. The variation of calcium hypochlorite dosages which used are 58, 59, and 60 mg/L. Pre-chlorination effluent with no free chlorine residual then becomes activated sludge treatment influent. Sampling has done each aeration time interval 0, 2, 4, and 6 hour for analysis of COD and MLVSS content. Research result generally shows that addition of aeration time for each variation of calcium hypochlorite dosage will increase MLVSS and decrease COD content. Smallest value of COD effluent could achieved in the activated sludge treatment with calcium hipochlorite dosage 60 mg/L addition at influent during 4 hours aeration time. Addition of 58 mg/l calcium hypochlorite results highest MLVSS and percentage of COD removal.

  10. Influence of vacuum carburizing treatment on fatigue crack growth characteristic in DSG2

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nambu; Egami, N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to clarify the influence of vacuum carburizing on the fatigue-crack progress characteristics of DSG2 steel. The test specimen tempering material (QT material) and vacuum carburizing material (VC material) has been used. The fatigue-crack progress was examined by subjecting the samples to four-point bending. The loading-capacity fixed experiment was done using a maximum load of Pmax = 4000– 7000 N. The ΔK fixed experiment was done using a load of ΔK = 18...

  11. Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Strength of Three Aluminum Alloys Used in Light Poles

    OpenAIRE

    Craig C. Menzemer; Eric Hilty; Shane Morrison; Ray Minor; Tirumalai S. Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    The conjoint influence of welding and artificial aging on mechanical properties were investigated for extrusions of aluminum alloy 6063, 6061, and 6005A. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on the aluminum alloys 6063-T4, 6061-T4, and 6005A-T1 in both the as-received (AR) and as-welded (AW) conditions. Tensile tests were also conducted on the AR and AW alloys, subsequent to artificial aging. The welding process used was gas metal arc (GMAW) with spray transfer using 120–220 A of current at ...

  12. Factors influencing syphilis treatment failure and/or re-infection in HIV co-infected patients: immunosuppression or behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong Hun Kim; George Psevdos Jr; Jin Suh; Victoria Sharp

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have reported overall increasing rates of syphilis with a high rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. However, there is little information about factors influencing syphilis treatment failure and/or re-infection in HIV co-infected patients. We conducted a study to evaluate factors associated with syphilis treatment failure/re-infection in HIV co-infected patients.Methods We reviewed 3542 medical records of HIV-infected patients from January 2005 to December 2007 followed up at HIV Clinic in New York City. Patients were categorized by rapid plasma regain titer (RPR) into success/serofast (4-fold decrease in RPR by 12 months after treatment, RPR conversion to nonreactive, persistently stable reactive RPR with no 4-fold increase), and failure/re-infection (failure to decrease 4 folds in RPR by 12 months after treatment, 4-fold increase in RPR from baseline).Results Among a total of 156 patients who met the eligibility criteria, 122 (78.2%) were under success/serofast category,and 34 (21.8%) were under failure/re-infection category. HIV viral load, CD4 cell count, and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were not associated with syphilis treatment failure/re-infection. However, early syphilis stage (OR:11.036, 95% CI: 2.499-48.740, P=0.002) and high (>1∶64) RPR titers (OR: 715.921, 95% CI: 422.175-23 113.396, P <0.001) were significantly associated.Conclusions No correlations were seen with depressed immune states with syphilis treatment failure and/or re-infection. However, association with early stage syphilis suggests that risky psychological sexual behaviors may be the most important leading factor, emphasizing needs for safe sex education.

  13. The influence of heat treatment on the semi-crystalline structure of polyaniline Emeraldine-salt form

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lilian R.; Manzato, Lizandro; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P.; Sanches, Edgar A.

    2017-01-01

    Polyaniline emeraldine-salt form (PANI-ES) was chemically synthesized using hydrochloric acid and subjected to heat treatment for 1 h at 50, 100, 200 and 300 °C. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Le Bail method structural refinement, Infrared-transform Fourier Spectroscopy (FTIR), Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electrical Conductivity measurements were used to evaluate the influence of heat treatment on the semi-crystalline structure of PANI. The heat treatment has resulted in a progressive decrease of crystallinity from 50 to 22%. A crosslinking process during heat treatment was observed by FTIR at 200 °C, revealing some chemical changes in molecular structure of PANI such as elimination of HCl on the imino groups and the simultaneous chlorination of the aromatic rings. Le Bail method showed that crystal structure of the unheated ES-PANI is strongly dependent on the molecular size of the counter ion, so the unit cell volume needed to be increased for their accommodation in the polymer structure. The refined parameters suggested a decomposition from tetrameric to dimeric-folded chains, accompanied by a decrease in the crystallite anisotropy and average size and shape, which reduced from 36 Å to 16 Å and acquired oblate shape. The pair-distance distribution function (p(r)) curves suggested particles tending from oblate to prolate form over heat treatment. Well-defined nanofibers were observed in unheated ES-PANI, which decreased and lost progressively their initial morphology over heat treatment. Electrical conductivity showed a decreasing of about 90% due to the loss of emeraldine sequences and removal of chloride ions.

  14. Yield of Potato as Influenced by Crop Sanitation and Reduced Fungicidal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop sanitation and reduced sprays of "Ridomil plus®" (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide on the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in two field experiments in 1993 in Dschang, Cameroon. In the first experiment, sanitation (five weekly removals of blighted leaves and two fungicidal treatments were initiated from first symptoms. In the second experiment, both fungicidal sprays were made at varying rates. Marketable yields increased by 50 % in sanitation-treated plots, by 94 % in plots sprayed with Ridomil plus (2.24 kg a. i./ha, or by 55 % in those exposed to both control methods. The fungicide equivalence of the sanitation treatment was two sprays of Ridomil plus at 0.76 kg a. i./ha. These results suggest that proper removal of diseased leaves or reduced fungicidal protection may be an effective late blight control method in potato farming.

  15. Influence of surgical orthodontic treatment on masticatory function in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T; Yagi, T; Tomonari, H; Ikemori, T; Miyawaki, S

    2015-10-01

    Skeletal Class III patients exhibit malocclusion characterised by Angle Class III and anterior crossbite, and their occlusion shows total or partially lateral crossbite of the posterior teeth. Most patients exhibit lower bite force and muscle activity than non-affected subjects. While orthognathic surgery may help improve masticatory function in these patients, its effects have not been fully elucidated. The aims of the study were to evaluate jaw movement and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles before and after orthognathic treatment in skeletal Class III patients in comparison with control subjects with normal occlusion. Jaw movement variables and EMG data were recorded in 14 female patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and 15 female controls with good occlusion. Significant changes in jaw movement, from a chopping to a grinding pattern, were observed after orthognathic treatment (closing angle P Class III patients improves the masticatory chewing pattern and muscle activity. However, the chewing pattern remains incomplete compared with controls.

  16. The influence of preliminary aerobic treatment on the efficacy of waste stabilisation under leachate recirculation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the changes in the chemical composition of leachate and the concentrations and quantity of methane production in each individual decomposition phases, determined for untreated and after aerobic treatment of waste stabilised in anaerobic reactors with and without leachate recirculation. The research results demonstrate that leachate recirculation intensifies the decomposition of both aerobically treated and untreated waste. The methane production in the reactor with untreated, stabilised waste with recirculation was 28% higher; and in the reactor with aerobically treated waste, the methane production was 24% higher than in the reactors without recirculation. An important finding of the study is that aerobic treatment of waste prior to landfilling effectively reduces the quantity of pollutant emissions in leachate and biogas from waste and increases the availability for methane micro-organisms of organic substrates from difficult-to-decompose organic substances.

  17. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Donna Yarri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previously been given credit. This paper addresses important aspects of Darwin’s theory for understanding our relationship with other animals and the implications for their subsequent treatment. First, this paper considers themes in Darwin’s original writings regarding relationships among different species; second, enhancements to his theory in support of these themes; and third, recommendations for how these themes can and should inform our moral reasoning and successive treatment of other animals.

  18. SO2 gas adsorption by modified kaolin clays: influence of previous heating and time acid treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volzone, Cristina; Ortiga, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Modified kaolin clays were used as adsorbents for SO(2) gas adsorptions. The clays were heated up to 900 °C previous to acid treatments with 0.5 N sulfuric acid solutions at boiling temperature during different times up to 1440 min. Equilibrium adsorption at 25 °C and 0.1 MPa was carried out by using a volumetric apparatus. The samples were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis. The heating of the clays followed by acid treatment improved the adsorption capacity of the kaolin clays. The presence of amorphous silica and hydroxyl in the final products improved SO(2) adsorption capacity. Better properties for SO(2) adsorption were found in kaolin rich in not well ordered kaolinite clay mineral.

  19. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the peak pressure in the process of dust-cleaning. The pressure of filter bag was increased as the dust layers were thickened. The higher temperature in filtration rose the peak pressure of filter bag, but decreased the rate of rising.

  20. The influence of familial predisposition to cardiovascular complications upon childhood obesity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise A; Bøjsøe, Christine; Kloppenborg, Julie T;

    2015-01-01

    included 1421 obese children (634 boys) with a median age of 11.5 years (range 3.1-17.9 years), enrolled in treatment for 0.04 to 5.90 years (median 1.3 years) at the Children's Obesity Clinic, Denmark. At baseline, weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS...... outcomes were categorically analysed according to the prevalence of familial predispositions. RESULTS: The median BMI SDS at enrollment was 3.2 in boys and 2.8 in girls. One-thousand-and-forty-one children had obesity in their family, 773 had hypertension, 551 had T2DM, 568 had thromboembolic events......, and 583 had dyslipidaemia. Altogether, 733 had three or more predispositions. At baseline, familial T2DM was associated with a higher mean BMI SDS (p = 0.03), but no associations were found between the other predispositions and the children's degree of obesity. During treatment, girls with familial...

  1. [The Influence of Runoff Pollution to DOM Features in an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Ji, Fang-ying; Lai, Ming-sheng; Xu, Xuan; Zhou, Wei-wei; Mao, Bo-lin; Yang, Ming-jia

    2015-03-01

    Combined with wastewater treatment process, the sewage in sunny and rainy day was collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was used to investigate the characteristic fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), fluorescence index (ƒ450/500) and fluorescence intensity ratio γ (A, C) of fulvic acid in ultraviolet and visible region were used to analyze the impact of rain runoff pollution on sewage DOM. According to the experimental data, the DOM fluorescence fingerprints of this wastewater treatment plant were quite different from typical municipal sewage, and the main component was tryptophan with low excitation wavelength (Peak S), then the tryptophan with long wavelength excitation (Peak T) followed. A2/O process had an approximative degradation of the protein-like both in sunny day and rainy day, but had a better degradation of fulvic-like, DOC and COD in rainy day than that in sunny day. Morever, the fluorescence peaks got red-shifted after the biological treatment. The differences of DOM fluorescence fingerprint between sunny and rainy day were significant, the fluorescence center of UV fulvic (Peak A) in rainy day getting blue-shifted obviously, shifting from 240 - 248/390 - 440 to 240 - 250/370 - 400 nm. Although the DOM types in sunny and rainy day were the same, the source of fulvic got more complex by runoff and the component ratio of DOM also changed. Compared with the sunny day, the proportion of Peak S in DOM dereased by 10%, and the proportion of Peak A increased by 7% in rainy day.

  2. Treatment temperature and insult severity influence the neuroprotective effects of therapeutic hypothermia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is standard care for moderate and severe neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), the leading cause of permanent brain injury in term newborns. However, the optimal temperature for HT is still unknown, and few preclinical studies have compared multiple HT treatment temperatures. Additionally, HT may not benefit infants with severe encephalopathy. In a neonatal rat model of unilateral hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), the effect of five different HT temperatures was ...

  3. Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Helena Vieira Portella Brunharo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10, where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill micro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. RESULTS: Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27±2.78; burs 9.26±3.01; stone 7.95±3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04±3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82±1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54±2.87, and without treatment 2.75±1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83, burs (0.98 and stone drilling (0.46. CONCLUSION: The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

  4. Factors influencing success rate of IVF/ET:analysis of 770 treatment cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶碧绿; 林金菊; 周颖; 黄学峰; 赵军招; 郑菊芬; 林文琴

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors influencing success ra te of in vitro fertilization /embryo transfer(IVF/ET).Methods: A retrospective study of 770 consecutive cycles under gone IVF/ET or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from March 1999 to June 2 001.Estradiol and progesterone concentrations on the day of hCG administration w ere measured. Factors effecting embryo transfer on the effects of clinical pregn ancy rate were evaluated.Results: The overall clinical pregnancy rate in 770 cycles was 40.8%. Take home baby rate was 31%. No significantly differences rate were obse rved between groups with different estradiol levels.If the progesterone concentr ation on the day of hCG administration was >6.36 nmol/L, the implantation and cl inical pregnancy rate was lower(P<0.003). The lowest clinical pregnancy rat e was observed when the duration of infertility was ≥10 years. The average numb er of embryos transferred was 2.23±0.83.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the most important fac tor on clinical pregnancy rate was low progesterone concentration on the day of hCG administration. The other two important variables influencing success rate o f IVF/ET were the duration of infertility, the number of high-grade embryos tra nsferred.

  5. HEAT TREATMENTS INFLUENCE ON THE BREAKING TORSION OF WOOL TYPE FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORDEIANU Demetra Lăcrămioara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to convert the textile fibers in yarns, these must be subjected to twisting operation which confers them a certain tensile strength. Twisting also results in certain effects, such as crepe effect. The importance of knowing the twisting behavior consists in the possibility to avoid fiber degradation as the result of an excessive twisting. The present work took for study three types of chemical fibers (wool-type rayon, wool-type polyester, wool-type polyacrylonitrile and two types of wool fibers S11 and S12. The main characteristics of wool type chemical fibers (fiber count, nominal length, breaking length, relative elongation, brightness and of wool fibers (diameter, almeter length, uster irregularit have been measured. Then the fibers were subjected to thermal treatments in certain conditions. From the researches performed for the both wool blends, S11 and S21, one can notice that the torsional rigidity/stiffness increases after the thermal treatment and the wool fibers changes their handle accordingly. The rayon fibers present the biggest torsional rigidity, as compared to the other types of analyzed fibers, both untreated and heat treated. After heat treatment, the rayon fibers considerable improves their handle. The variation coefficient of breaking torsion increases in the case of heat treated polyester and poly-acrylonitrile fibers while for rayon and wool fibers this coefficient decreases.

  6. Influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of DZ951 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Pengcheng; YU Jingjiang; SUN Xiaofeng; GUAN Hengrong; HU Zhuangqi

    2008-01-01

    DZ951 directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy is mainly strengthened by y phase.Regularly aligned cuboidal and bimodal γ precipitates were attained by two heat treatments.The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties of DZ951 alloy has been investigated.The results indicate that MC carbide changes to little blocks during aging treatment at 1050℃ (HT1).MC carbide partly degrades into M23c6 and there is a layer of γ around the carbide during aging treatment at 115℃ (HT2),which is beneficial to the elongation of DZ951 alloy.Small γ volume fraction and the uneven deformation structure are contributed to low mechanical propexties of the as-cast alloy.HT1 alloy has a better stress rupture life at 1100℃50 MPa and yield stress at 20℃,800℃ and 1100℃,which is attributed to regularly aligned cuboidal γ phase and even deformation structure.HT2 alloy has a good combination of strength and ductility.This arises fi'om the bimodal γ precitates and the degeneration of MC carbide.

  7. Influence of physical, chemical and inducer treatments on menaquinone-7 biosynthesis by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2756

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Puri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of physical and chemical treatment on nutrient mobility, their utilization for menaquinone-7 (MK-7 biosynthesis; growth of microbial cells has been investigated in the present research. Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2756 fermented medium was supplied with 1-naphthol and hypoxanthine resulted in a significant increase in MK-7 production. Ultrasonication, electric shock, heat shock, and tween 80 were used for inducer uptake by Bacillus subtilis and menaquinone-7 production. Induction of Bacillus subtilis (at 16 hours of fermentation using 1-naphthol (2 mg/ml, along with tween 80 (0.1% was found to increase the MK-7 production by 3 fold i.e. 14.4 µg/ml as compared to the untreated fermentation medium. The ultrasonicated (ultrasonic power 33 W, treatment time 4 min and frequency 36 KHz microbial cells yielded higher biomass and 2.5 fold increase in the MK-7 production i.e.10.3 µg/ml than control. 1-naphthol along with physical or chemical treatment is required for maximum MK-7 production by Bacillus subtilis.

  8. Influence of ceramic surface treatment on shear bond strength of ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare four different surface treatment methods and determine which produces adequate bond strength between ceramic brackets and facets of porcelain (feldspathic, and evaluate the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI scores. Materials and Methods: Ten facets of porcelain specimens with glazed surfaces were used for each group. The specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment conditions of the porcelain surface: (1 no surface treatment (control group, (2 fine diamond bur + orthophosphoric acid gel 37%, (3 hydrofluoric acid (HFL 10%, and (4 HFL 10% + silane. Ceramic brackets were bonded with the adhesive cement Transbond XT. The shear bond strength values were measured on a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results: There was a significant difference (P<0.05 between the control group and all other groups. There was no significant difference (P<0.05 between treated porcelain surface with diamond bur + orthophosphoric acid gel 37% (4.8 MPa and HFL 10% (6.1 MPa, but the group treated with HFL 10% had clinically acceptable bond strength values. The group treated with HFL 10% + silane (17.5 MPa resulted in a statistically significant higher tensile bond strength (P<0.05. In group 4, 20% of the porcelain facets displayed damage. Conclusion: Etching of the surface with HFL increased the bond strength values. Silane application was recommended to bond a ceramic bracket to the porcelain surface in order to achieve bond strengths that are clinically acceptable.

  9. The influence of antineoplastic treatment on the weight of survivors of childhood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ferrari Carneiro Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: Obesity is a late effect in survivors of childhood cancer and correlates with chronic complications. Survivors of leukemia, brain tumors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are more likely to develop obesity resulting from treatment modalities such as radiotherapy and glucocorticoids. This paper analyzes and integrates the current data available to health professionals in order to clarify strategies that can be used to treat and prevent obesity in childhood cancer survivors. Sources: This is a literature review from on scientifically reliable electronic databases. We selected articles published in the last five years and earlier articles of great scientific importance. Data synthesis: The mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity in cancer survivors are not completely understood, but it is believed that damage to the hypothalamus and endocrine disorders such as insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and hormone deficiency may be involved. The body composition of this group includes a predominance of adipose tissue, especially in those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant and total body irradiation. The use of body mass index in these patients may lead to an underestimation of individuals' risk for metabolic complications. Conclusion: Early identification of groups using accurate anthropometric assessments, interventional treatment, and/or preventative measures and counseling is essential to minimize the adverse effects of treatment. Physical activity and healthy eating to promote adequacy of weight in the whole population should be encouraged.

  10. The influence of heat treatment on properties of lead-free solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lýdia Trnková Rízeková

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the analysis of degradation of properties of two eutectic lead-free solders SnCu0.7 and SnAg3.5Cu0.7. The microstructures of the intermetallic compound (IMC layers at the copper substrate - solder interface were examined before and after heat treatment at 150°C for 50, 200, 500 and 1000 hours. The thickness of IMC layers of the Cu6Sn5 phase was growing with the increasing time of annealing and shown the typical scallops. For the heat treatment times of 200 hours and longer, the Cu3Sn IMC layers located near the Cu substrate were also observed. The experiments showed there is a link between the thickness of IMC layers and decrease of the shear strength of solder joints. In general, the joints made of the ternary solder showed higher shear strength before and after heat treatment in comparison to joints from solder SnCu0.7.

  11. Influence of annealing treatment on properties and microstructures of alumina dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ke-xing; XING Jian-dong; TIAN Bao-hong; LIU Ping; DONG Qi-ming

    2005-01-01

    Alumina dispersion strengthened copper(ADSC) alloy was produced by internal oxidation.The hardness,ultimate tensile strength and electrical conductivity measurements and microstructure observation on the produced 0.12% ADSC(0.24% Al2O3,mass fraction)and 0.25% ADSC(0.50% Al2O3 )subjected to different annealing treatments were conducted.The results show that the microstructure of the produced ADSC is characterized by an uniform distribution of nano-Al2O3 particles in Cu-matrix;the particles range in size from 20 to 50 nm with an interparticle spacing of 30-100 nm.The produced 0.12% ADSC can maintain more than 87% hardness retention after900 ℃,1 h annealing treatment;the recrystallization can be largely retarded and is not fully completed even after annealing at 1 000 ℃ for 1 h,followed by cold deformation of 84%;local grain growth can be observed after 1 050 ℃,1 h annealing treatment.The results also show that increasing either the alumina content or cold deformation degree increases the hardness of the produced ADSC.

  12. Influence of insecticide treatments on ant-hemiptera associations in tropical plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, M; Djiéto-Lordon, C; Orivel, J; Mony, R; Fabre, A; Dejean, A

    2003-04-01

    In this survey conducted in southern Cameroon, we compared ant-Hemiptera associations on plantations treated with insecticides, on plantations 2 years after insecticide treatments ceased, and on control lots that never received insecticide treatments. By eliminating arboreal-nesting ants, insecticides favored the presence of "ecologically dominant" ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species that occupied the tree crowns. The reinstallation of arboreal ants was slow as 2 yr after insecticide treatment ceased differences with the control lots were significant. This intermediary period also illustrated that arboreal ants can found and develop colonies on trees occupied by ground-nesting species. Certain arboreal species were more frequent during this intermediary period than on the control lots, showing that the period of installation in the trees was followed by competition between arboreal ants. We confirm that ground-nesting ants tend a wide range of hemipteran families, including well known agricultural pests, whereas arboreal ants, particularly dominant species, were mostly associated with Coccidae and Stictococcidae that do not pose problems to the supporting trees. A tree effect was also noted for both ant and hemipteran distribution. We concluded that because of insecticide use, ground-nesting ants pose problems through their associated Hemiptera. On the contrary, dominant arboreal ants, strong predators, benefit their supporting trees by excluding ground-nesting species and tending mostly nonpest Hemiptera. Nevertheless, certain of them, carpenter species or species likely to tend Pseudococcidae, have to be eliminated through integrated management.

  13. The influence of subacute sidnocarb treatment on cateholamine concentration in the structures of central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdov O.L.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychos stimulators are known to be able to excite catecholamine mechanisms in the nervous system, in particular to increase freeing of catecholamine from presynaptic completions. The purpose of work was an estimation of changes of catecholamine (adrenalin and noradrenalin in the structures of cerebrum after sidnocarb treatment in the conditions of ex-periment on 48 Vistar rats. The model of the proof pathological state of cerebrum for rats was created by intrastomach intro-duction of sidnocarb in the dose of 5 mg/kg 2 times per a day during 14 days. The concentration of adrenalin and noradrenalin in the structures of brain was determined by flyuorometric method. The frontal area of neocortex, striate body, medialis part of talamus, pons and hypocampus were chose. The accumulation of adrenalin was observed in hypocampus and medialis part of thalamus by the 3rd day, the increase of concentration was on 26,1% and 43,9% correspondly. The considerable increase of adrenalin concentration in the striate body have been determined (on 76,7% and in the neocortex (in 2,2 times. By the 14th day of sidnocarb treatment the level of adrenalin in the pons was lower on 48,1% that in control animals. Thus, the changes of noradrenalin concentration during the development of experimental psyxosis by sidnocarb treatment were significant and had different character.

  14. Influences of Preparation Conditions and Melt Treatment Procedures on Melt Treatment Performance of Al-5Ti-B and Al-10Sr Master Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfa FENG; Jinglin TANG; Xinyan JIN; Shuangshou LI; Daben ZENG

    2006-01-01

    The influences of preparation conditions of Al-5Ti-B (as-cast and hot-rolled) and Al-10Sr (as-cast and hotextruded) and melt treatment procedures on the grain refinement and modification performance of A356 alloy are experimentally studied. For the two master alloys, the 50% reduction is sufficient to meet the demands of the efficient grain refinement and modification of A356 alloy. When Al-5Ti-B is introduced into the melt prior to degassing, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-5Ti-B will be greatly increased due to the better dispersity of TiB2 particles. Al-5Ti-B master alloy is less prone to affect the modification effect of Al-10Sr when they are used together.

  15. Influence of the post-weld surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel 1.4062

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, P.; Müller, C.; Baumann, O.; Modersohn, W.; Halle, T.

    2017-03-01

    The duplex stainless steel 1.4062 (X2CrNiN22-2) is used as alternative material to austenitic stainless steels in the construction industry. The corrosion resistance of welded seams is influenced by the base material, the weld filler material, the welding process and also by the final surface treatment. The scale layer next to the weld seam can be removed by grinding, pickling, electro-polished or blasting depending on the application and the requested corrosion resistance. Blasted surfaces are often used in industrial practice due to the easier and cheaper manufacturing process compared to pickled or electro-polished surfaces. Furthermore blasting with corundum-grain is more effective than blasting with glass-beads which also lower the process costs. In recent years, stainless steel surfaces showed an unusually high susceptibility to pitting corrosion after grinding with corundum. For this reason, it is now also questioned critically whether the corrosion resistance is influenced by the applied blasting agent. This question was specifically investigated by comparing grinded, pickled, corundum-grain- and glass-bead-blasted welding seams. Results of the SEM analyses of the blasting agents and the blasted surfaces will be presented and correlated with the different performed corrosion tests (potential measurement, KorroPad-test and pitting potential) on welding seams with different surface treatments.

  16. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics and the corresponding resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants: effluents' influence to downstream water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Jiao, Yanan; Baig, Shams Ali; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the occurrence of 8 antibiotics [3 tetracyclines (TCs), 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim (TMP)], 12 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 types of bacteria [no antibiotics, anti-TC, anti-sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and anti-double], and intI1 in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were assessed and their influences in downstream lake were investigated. Both WWTPs' effluent demonstrated some similarities, but the abundance and removal rate varied significantly. Results revealed that biological treatment mainly removed antibiotics and ARGs, whereas physical techniques were found to eliminate antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs) abundance (about 1 log for each one). UV disinfection did not significantly enhance the removal efficiency, and the release of the abundantly available target contaminants from the excess sludge may pose threats to human and the environment. Different antibiotics showed diverse influences on the downstream lake, and the concentrations of sulfamethazine (SM2) and SMX were observed to increase enormously. The total ARG abundance ascended about 0.1 log and some ARGs (e.g., tetC, intI1, tetA) increased due to the high input of the effluent. In addition, the abundance of ARB variation in the lake also changed, but the abundance of four types of bacteria remained stable in the downstream sampling sites.

  17. Influence of postharvest hot water treatment on nutritional and functional properties of kumquat (Fortunella japonica Lour. Swingle Cv. Ovale) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Minello, Elisabeth V; Melis, Marinella; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-01-23

    The present study investigated the influence of a hot water dip (HWD) for 2 min at 50 degrees C, a standard and effective treatment for postharvest decay control of citrus fruit, on the nutritional and health-related properties of kumquats. The results show that most of the parameters examined, including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, maturity index, glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, beta-carotene, zeaxantin, rhoifolin, and antioxidant activity, were not significantly affected by treatment. The levels of beta-cryptoxanthin, narirutin, and total flavonoids increased after HWD, whereas lutein and total phenols decreased. The concentration of the essential oil and the relative percentage of the individual components of the essential oil were not affected by HWD except for the minor compound p-menta-1,5-dien-1-ol, which increased after HWD. After storage, lower levels of glucose, total sugars, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein were recorded in HWD fruit. A decrease in antioxidant activity and increases in alpha-tocopherol and total vitamin E were found both in control and HWD fruit. The influence of HWD at 50 degrees C for 2 min on individual nutraceuticals and health-related properties was thus generally low and may depend on storage conditions.

  18. Genipin Cross-Linked Chitosan-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Hydrogels: Influence of Composition and Postsynthesis Treatment on pH Responsive Behaviour

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    Chinyelumndu Jennifer Nwosu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that influence the pH responsive behaviour of biocompatible cross-linked hydrogel networks is essential when aiming to synthesise a mechanically stable and yet stimuli responsive material suitable for various applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering. In this study the behaviour of intelligent chitosan-polyvinylpyrrolidone-genipin cross-linked hydrogels is examined as a function of their composition and postsynthesis treatment. Hydrogels are synthesised with varying amounts of each component (chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and genipin and their response in a pH 2 buffer is measured optically. The influence of postsynthesis treatment on stability and smart characteristics is assessed using selected hydrogel samples synthesised at 30, 40, and 50°C. After synthesis, samples are exposed to either continuous freezing or three freeze-thaw cycles resulting in increased mechanical stability for all samples. Further morphological and mechanical characterisations have aided the understanding of how postsynthesis continual freezing or freeze-thaw manipulation affects network attributes.

  19. Differential Influence of Anticancer Treatments and Angiogenesis on the Seric Titer of Autoantibody Used as Tumor and Metastasis Biomarker

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    Florence Defresne

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of tumor-specific autoantibodies (auto-Abs has the potential to be used for cancer screening and diagnosis. Whether auto-Ab may be useful to track metastatic progression or response to treatment is, however, largely unknown. To address these issues, the serological proteome was analyzed in an invasive but treatmentresponsive mouse tumor model. Among 40 serum-reactive proteins identified by multiplex analysis, we chose to focus on glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, a chaperone protein involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. We first validated GRP78 as a protein overexpressed and mislocalized in tumor cells. We then documented that an increase in GRP78 auto-Ab titer preceded the detection of a palpable tumor mass, correlated with metastatic progression, and was influenced by the onset of tumor neovascularization. We also found that chemotherapy and radiotherapy, both leading to inhibition of tumor growth, oppositely influenced the anti-GRP78 immune response. Whereas radiation increased the concentration of GRP78 auto-Ab by three-fold, the auto-Ab titer was reduced in response to bolus or metronomic administration of cyclophosphamide. Finally, we established a decrease in auto-Ab-producing B lymphocytes in response to chemotherapy and the overexpression of GRP78 together with a strong immunoglobulin response in irradiated tumors. In conclusion, we identified GRP78 auto-Ab as an early marker of tumor and metastatic progressions. However, the multiple influences of anticancer treatments on the humoral immune system calls for caution when exploiting such auto-Ab as markers of the tumor response.

  20. Factors influencing antibiotic treatment cost and outcome in critically ill patients: A “real-life” study

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    Perić Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Critically ill patients are at very high risk of developing severe infections in intensive care units (ICUs. Procalcitonin (PCT levels are eleveted in the circulation in patients with bacterial sepsis and PCT might be useful in guiding antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate factors influencing patients survival and treatment cost in ICU with special emphasis on the impact of PCT serum levels use in guiding antimicrobial therapy. Methods. The study was conducted from August 2010 to May 2012 in the Intensive Therapy Unit, Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Military Medical Academy (MMA, Belgrade, Serbia. All adult critically ill patients with sepsis and/or trauma admitted in the ICU were included in the study. This study included only the cost of antimicrobial therapy in the ICU and the cost for PCT analysis. We used prices valid in the MMA for the year 2012. PCT in serum was measured by homogeneous immunoassay on a Brahms Kryptor analyzer. Results. A total of 102 patients were enrolled. The mean patients age was 55 ± 19 years and 61.8% of patients were male. The mean length of stay (LOS in the ICU was 12 ± 21 days. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 between the sepsis and trauma group regarding outcome (higher mortality rate was in the sepsis group, particularly in the patients with peritonitis who were mostly women. The patients younger than 70 years had better chance of survival. LOS, the use of carbapenems and PCT-measurement influenced the cost of therapy in the ICU. Conclusions. The obtained results show that age, the diagnosis and gender were the main predictors of survival of critically ill patients in the ICU. The cost of ICU stay was dependent on LOS, use of carbapenems and PCT measurement although the influence of these three factors on the outcome in the patients did not reach a statistical significance.

  1. High gastrointestinal permeability and local metabolism of naringenin: influence of antibiotic treatment on absorption and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego-Lagarón, Naiara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Escribano-Ferrer, Elvira

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to determine the permeability of naringenin in the stomach, small intestine and colon, to evaluate intestinal and hepatic first-pass metabolism, and to study the influence of the microbiota on the absorption and disposition of naringenin (3.5 μg/ml). A single-pass intestinal perfusion model in mice (n 4-6) was used. Perfusate (every 10 min), blood (at 60 min) and bile samples were taken and analysed to evaluate the presence of naringenin and its metabolites by an HPLC-MS/MS method. To study the influence of the microbiota on the bioavailability of naringenin, a group of animals received the antibiotic rifaximin (50 mg/kg per d) for 5 d, and naringenin permeability was determined in the colon. Naringenin was absorbed well throughout the gastrointestinal tract but mainly in the small intestine and colon (mean permeability coefficient 7.80 (SD 1.54) × 10(-4) cm/s and 5.49 (SD 1.86) × 10(-4) cm/s, respectively), at a level similar to the highly permeable compound, naproxen (6.39 (SD 1.23) × 10(-4) cm/s). According to the high amounts of metabolites found in the perfusate compared to the bile and plasma, naringenin underwent extensive intestinal first-pass metabolism, and the main metabolites excreted were sulfates (84.00 (SD 12.14)%), followed by glucuronides (8.40 (SD 5.67)%). Phase II metabolites were found in all perfusates from 5 min of sampling. Mice treated with rifaximin showed a decrease in naringenin permeability and in the amounts of 4-hydroxyhippuric acid and hippuric acid in the lumen. Naringenin was well absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and its poor bioavailability was due mainly to high intestinal metabolism.

  2. TO DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE FOR VARIATIONS IN LASER TREATMENT MODES ON TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CUTTING TOOL

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    O. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to higher durability and reliability of a cutting tool for cutting gastronomic products while using laser processing that leads to resistance increase of material operating surfaces against impact forces. Influence of laser fusion with additional doping on structure, microhardness, wear resistance for adhesive coatings of Fe–B–Cr–Si system has been studied in the paper. In order to solve a problem for selection of optimal qualitative and subsequently quantitative composition of a multi-component coating a mathematical modeling method using Scheffe’s simplex lattices has been used in the paper. Similar tendency for measuring micro-structure of all adhesive coatings fused by laser beams has been established in the paper. Increase in beam speed has caused the following microstructure changes: cast equilibrium, dendrite, supersaturated boride, carbide and boride. Response surface models have been found and they provide the possibility to assess influence quantity of laser processing parameters on microhardness of adhesive coatings obtained by laser doping and intensity of their wear under various conditions for all investigated compositions.It has been ascertained that there is no strict correlation between hardness and intensity of coating wear after laser doping used for adhesive coatings. This testifies to the fact that hardening has taken place not only due to an increase of carbide-boride phase, but also due to matrix hardening.In addition, a regression model for coating composition effect on tribological characteristics of the adhesive coatings has revealed that an optimal composition of a multicomponent coating ensuring maximum wear resistance of coatings constitutes B4C is 2/3 and 1/3 TaB. It has been determined that hardening of the adhesive coating after laser doping while using multicomponent coating occurs not only due to increase of carbide-boridnoy phase, but also due to matrix hardening.

  3. Influence of blanching treatments on Salmonella during home-type dehydration and storage of potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPersio, Patricia A; Kendall, Patricia A; Yoon, Yohan; Sofos, John N

    2005-12-01

    Recommended drying treatments may not enhance destruction of pathogens that could be present on home-dried foods. In this study, the effects of traditional and modified treatments on Salmonella were evaluated during preparation, home-type dehydration (60 degrees C for 6 h), and storage of potato slices. Potato slices inoculated with five strains of Salmonella (8.4 log CFU/ g) were left untreated or were treated by steam blanching (88 degrees C for 10 min), water blanching (88 degrees C for 4 min), 0.105% citric acid blanching (88 degrees C for 4 min), or 0.210% citric acid blanching (88 degrees C for 4 min). Slices were then dried (6 h for 60 degrees C) and aerobically stored for up to 30 days at 25 +/- 3 degrees C. Cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar with 0.1% pyruvate (TSAP) and on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Salmonella populations were reduced by 4.5 to 4.8 CFU/g and by >5.4 log CFU/g immediately following steam and water blanching, respectively. Populations were below the detection limit (0.80 log CFU/g) immediately following acid blanching, except for samples blanched in 0.105% citric acid and recovered on TSAP. After dehydration (6 h for 60 degrees C), Salmonella reductions on blanched potato slices (5.3 to 5.6 log CFU/g) were significantly greater (P blanched samples were undetectable by direct plating following 30 days of storage (regardless of blanching method). Blanching treatments used in this study improved the effectiveness of drying for inactivating Salmonella inoculated onto potato slices and, therefore, may enhance the safety of the product.

  4. The influence of Dupuytren's disease fingers contracture degree on surgical treatment outcome

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    Stepić Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Dupuytren’s disease is a progressive disease of the palmar and digital fascial structures, with functional limitations. There are no clear recommendations about the optimal time of surgical repair, concerning the hand impairment. The aim of our study was to investigate the relation between finger’s contracture degree and success of surgical treatment of the Dupuytren's disease. Methods. This prospective analysis included 60 patients operated on due to Dupuytren’s contracture. According to preoperative contracture degree of proximal interphalangeal (PIP and metacarpophalangeal (MCP joint, patients were divided into three groups: the group 1: 30°. All the patients underwent operation of partial palmar fasciectomy. Postoperative improvement was expressed with contracture reduction INDEX. Results. There were 60 patients with 85 fingers affected. The groups 1, 2 and 3 had 22 (37%, 37 (62% and 26 (43% fingers with MCP contracture and 32 (37.4%, 24 (28.2% and 29 (34.1% fingers with PIP contracture, respectively. Postoperative contractures of MCP joint in these groups were 0, 0.135° and 5°, and of PIP joint 0, 2.08 ° and 16.89°, respectively. After six months all MCP contractures resolved, while PIP joint contracture in the group 3 remained 13.62°. The reduction INDEX was 98.85%, 97.62% and 75.52% in the groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the INDEX value between the groups (p = 0.0001. Conclusion. The degree of PIP joint contracture is related to the outcome of surgical treatment of Dupuytren’s disease. Optimal results are achieved when contracture degree is between 15° and 30°. Surgical treatment of MCP joint contracture is successful regardless of the preoperative joint contracture degree.

  5. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Garcia, Camila S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Ogawa, Erika S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Matos, Adaias O. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 W Harrison, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); and others

    2016-02-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) (P < .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P < .006), corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) and corrosion rate (P < .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased R{sub p} and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced R{sub p} (P < .008) and increased I{sub corr} and corrosion rate (P < .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P < .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi. - Highlights: • Acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. • Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi. • Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride can be safely used.

  6. Systematic review: Do patient expectations influence treatment outcomes in total knee and total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haanstra Tsjitske M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This systematic review aims to summarise all the available evidence related to the association between pre-operative patient expectations (outcome expectations, process expectations and self efficacy expectations and 5 different treatment outcomes (overall improvement, pain, function, stiffness and satisfaction in patients with total knee or total hip arthroplasty at three different follow-op periods (>6 weeks; >6 weeks- ≤6 months; >6 months. Methods English and Dutch language articles were identified through PubMed, EMBASE.com, PsycINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library from inception to September 2012. Articles assessing the association between pre-operative patient expectations and treatment outcomes for TKA/THA in either adjusted or unadjusted analysis were included. Two reviewers, working independently, determined eligibility, rated methodological quality and extracted data on study design, population, expectation measurements, outcome measurements and strength of the associations. Methodological quality was rated by the same reviewers on a 19 item scale. The scores on the quality assessment were taken into account when drawing final conclusions. Results The search strategy generated 2252 unique references, 18 articles met inclusion criteria. Scores on the methodological quality assessment ranged between 6% and 79%. Great variety was seen in definitions and measurement methods of expectations. No significant associations were found between patient expectations and overall improvement, satisfaction and stiffness. Both significant positive and non-significant associations were found for the association between expectations and pain and function. Conclusions There was no consistency in the association between patients’ pre-operative expectations and treatment outcomes for TKA and THA indentified in this systematic review. There exists a need for a sound theoretical framework underlying the construct of

  7. Influence of ultrasound and diamond burs treatments on microtensile bond strength

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    Alexandre Conde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare surface treatments with CVDentUS ® ultrasound tips (UT and KGSorensen ® diamond burs (DB on etched (e and non-etched (n/e dentin. The microtensile bond strength (μTBS was measured and fractography was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: Sixteen molars were divided into four groups of four teeth each according to treatment (DB-n/e; DB-e; UT-n/e; UT-e. The teeth were restored, sectioned into samples for μTBS (n=40 and tested on a EMIC DL-2000 universal machine (0.5 mm/min and analyzed by SEM for fracture classification. Statistical Analysis: For analysis of the data on μTBS, the two-way ANOVA, using treatment and acid etching as fixed factor, and the Tukey test were used (α=0.05. To failures classification in cohesive in dentin (CD; cohesive in composite resin (CC; cohesive interfacial on base or top of hybrid layer (CBT; cohesive in adhesive (CA; mixed (M; interfacial on smear layer (S the Fisher′s exact test (α=0.05 was performed. Results: The mean values of μTBS (in MPa in the different groups were as follows: UT-e: 45.31±8.16; DB-e: 34.04±9.29; UT-n/e: 15.17±3.71; and DB-n/e: 9.86±3.80. On analysis of the SEM micrographs, the DB-n/e group showed total obstruction of dentinal tubules; the UT-n/e group showed partial desobstruction of dentinal tubules and irregular surface; the DB-e group showed complete desobstruction of dentinal tubules; and the UT-e group showed complete desobstruction of dentinal tubules and irregular surface. Conclusion: The combination of ultrasound treatment and acid etching provides high values of μTBS. An association exists between CA/CC failures and the UT method, CBT failure and the DB method, CBT/CC failures and etching, S failure and non-etching.

  8. Influence of Ultraviolet/Ozonolysis Treatment of Nanocarbon Filler on the Electrical Resistivity of Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, Yulia; Matzui, Lyudmila; Vovchenko, Lyudmila; Ovsiienko, Irina; Yakovenko, Olena; Lazarenko, Oleksandra; Zhuravkov, Alexander; Brusylovets, Oleksii

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we have investigated concentration and temperature dependences of electrical conductivity of graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composites. The content of nanocarbon filler is varied from 0.01 to 0.05 volume fraction. Before incorporation into the epoxy resin, the graphite nanoplatelets were subjected to ultraviolet ozone treatment at 20-min ultraviolet exposure. The electric resistance of the samples was measured by two- or four-probe method and teraohmmeter E6-13. Several characterization techniques were employed to identify the mechanisms behind the improvements in the electrical properties, including SEM and FTIR spectrum analysis.

  9. Influence of CIDR treatment during superovulation on embryo production and hormonal patterns in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, M; Ponsart, C; Nibart, M; Durand, M; Morel, A; Jeanguyot, N; Badinand, F; De Mari, K; Humblot, P

    2002-10-01

    One of the major sources of success in embryo transfer is timing of AI relative to the LH surge and ovulation. The aim of this study was to compare the embryo production following superovulation during a PGF2alpha (control cycle) or a CIDR-B synchronized cycle (CIDR-B cycle). CIDR-B (CIDR-B ND, Virbac, Carros, France) was inserted on Day 11 of a previously synchronized cycle and left for 5 days. A total dose of 350 microg FSH was administered (eight injections i.m. for 4 days; first on Day 13, decreasing doses) and PGFalpha analog (750 microg i.m.: Uniandine ND, Schering-Plough, Levallois-Perret, France) injected at the time of third FSH injection. Artificial inseminations were performed 12 and 24 h after standing estrus (Day 0). Embryos were collected on Day 7. Luteinizing hormone was measured by EIA (Reprokit Sanofi, Libourne, France) from blood samples collected every 3 h for 36 h, starting 24 h after PGF2alpha (control cycle) or 12 h after CIDR-B removal (CIDR-B cycle). The effects of treatment group and interval between the LH peak and AI (two classes, or = 10 h) on embryo production and quality were analyzed by ANOVA. No effect of treatment was observed on embryo production variables. The intervals between the end of treatment and onset of estrus and between end of treatment and LH surge were greater in heifers treated during a control than a CIDR-B cycle, respectively (45.5 +/- 1.4 versus 31.9 +/- 0.7; 42.0 +/- 1.6 versus 31.0 +/- 1.5; P or = 10 h (7.2 +/- 0.9 and 3.5 +/- 0.6) when compared to shorter intervals (4.2 +/- 1.1 and 2.0 +/- 0.7) whereas total number of embryos was unchanged (11.8 +/- 1.4 versus 10.3 +/- 1.8). It is concluded that late occurrence of LH peaks in relation to estrous behavior is associated with a lower embryo quality when first AIs are performed systematically 12 h after standing estrus. Further studies are needed to know if results may be improved when making AI at a later time after standing estrus or if LH assays are useful to

  10. Influence of Deuterium Treatments on the Polysilicon-Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Sung

    2016-06-01

    The electrical behavior of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) Schottky barrier photodetector structure, depending on deuterium treatment, is analyzed by means of the dark current and the photocurrent measurements. Al/Ti bilayer was used as Schottky metal. The deuterium incorporation into the absorption layer, undoped polysilicon, was achieved with annealing process and with ion implantation process, respectively. In the photocurrent-to-dark current ratio measurement, deuterium-ion-implanted photodetector shows over hundred higher than the control device. It means that the heightening of the Schottky barrier and the passivation of grain boundary trap were achieved effectively through the deuterium ion implantation process.

  11. Behaviours Of The Infertile Women with regard to Traditional InfertiHty Treatments And Influencing Factors.

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Dr. Mehmet Ali KURÇER Dr. Mücahit EĞRİ

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the behaviours of ınfertile women applying to Obstetric and Gynecology cünic at Turgut Özai Medicai Çenter in Malatya with regard to traditionai infertility treatments and relations with some demographic attribute. In this cross-sectionai study, 66 women applying to Obstetric and Gynecology cünic of Turgut Ozai Medicai Çenter between June and August 1997 were induded. The study was carried out using face to face questionnaire method. Nineteen women (28.7...

  12. Influence of irbesartan combined with low dose urokinase on treatment effect and serologic indexes in elderlyisolated systolic hypertension patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Peng Wang; Xiao-Mei Luo

    2017-01-01

    To study the influence of irbesartan combined with low dose urokinase on treatment effect and serologic indexes in elderly isolated systolic hypertension patients. Methods: One hundred and ten cases of elderly isolated systolic hypertension patients in our hospital during January 2013–January 2016 were randomly divided into observation group with 55 cases and control group with 55 cases. Patients in observation group received irbesartan combined with low dose hydrochlorothiazide treatment and those in control group received amlodipine combined with low dose hydrochlorothiazide treatment, each lasted for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks treatment, non-invasive blood pressure and blood pressure variability indexes were measured, serum endothelial function, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress indexes were measured. Results: After 4 weeks treatment, patients systolic blood pressure (SBP), 24 h mean systolic blood pressure (24 h SBP), 24 h systolic blood pressure standard deviation (24 h SSD) were significantly lower in observation group than in control group (P<0.05); serum endothelial function index EF-1 was lower in observation group than in control group, while NO and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were higher in observation group than in control group (P<0.05); serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents were lower in observation group than in control group (P<0.05); serum oxidation index such as malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in observation group than in control group, while antioxidant indexes such as total anti-oxidative capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH were higher in observation group than in control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Irbesartan combined with low dose hydrochlorothiazide can effectively reduce systolic hypertension and blood pressure variability in elderly isolated systolic hypertension patients, while optimizing the systemic inflammation and

  13. TB treatment initiation and adherence in a South African community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis

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    Møller Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. The Eastern Cape is known as a province with high TB incidence, prevalence and with one of the worst cure rates of South Africa. Its inhabitants can be considered lay experts when it comes to TB. Therefore, we investigated knowledge, perceptions of (access to TB treatment and adherence to treatment among an Eastern Cape population. Methods An area-stratified sampling design was applied. A total of 1020 households were selected randomly in proportion to the total number of households in each neighbourhood. Results TB knowledge can be considered fairly good among this community. Respondents' perceptions suggest that stigma may influence TB patients' decision in health seeking behavior and adherence to TB treatment. A full 95% of those interviewed believe people with TB tend to hide their TB status out of fear of what others may say. Regression analyses revealed that in this population young and old, men and women and the lower and higher educated share the same attitudes and perceptions. Our findings are therefore likely to reflect the actual situation of TB patients in this population. Conclusions The lay experts' perceptions suggests that stigma appears to effect case holding and case finding. Future interventions should be directed at improving attitudes and perceptions to potentially reduce stigma. This requires a patient-centered approach to empower TB patients and active involvement in the development and implementation of stigma reduction programs.

  14. Influence of microbiome species in hard-to-heal wounds on disease severity and treatment duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Chudobova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Infections, mostly those associated with colonization of wound by different pathogenic microorganisms, are one of the most serious health complications during a medical treatment. Therefore, this study is focused on the isolation, characterization, and identification of microorganisms prevalent in superficial wounds of patients (n = 50 presenting with bacterial infection. METHODS: After successful cultivation, bacteria were processed and analyzed. Initially the identification of the strains was performed through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on comparison of protein profiles (2-30 kDa with database. Subsequently, bacterial strains from infected wounds were identified by both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene 108. RESULTS: The most prevalent species was Staphylococcus aureus (70%, and out of those 11% turned out to be methicillin-resistant (mecA positive. Identified strains were compared with patients' diagnoses using the method of artificial neuronal network to assess the association between severity of infection and wound microbiome species composition. Artificial neuronal network was subsequently used to predict patients' prognosis (n = 9 with 85% success. CONCLUSIONS: In all of 50 patients tested bacterial infections were identified. Based on the proposed artificial neuronal network we were able to predict the severity of the infection and length of the treatment.

  15. Does aetiology of neonatal encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy influence the outcome of treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, Sarah; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve; Nelson, Karin B

    2015-04-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy, a clinical syndrome affecting term-born and late preterm newborn infants, increases the risk of perinatal death and long-term neurological morbidity, especially cerebral palsy. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, a treatment designed for hypoxic or ischaemic injury, associated mortality and morbidity rates have decreased. Unfortunately, only about one in eight neonates (95% confidence interval) who meet eligibility criteria for therapeutic cooling apparently benefit from the treatment. Studies of infants in representative populations indicate that neonatal encephalopathy is a potential result of a variety of antecedents and that asphyxial complications at birth account for only a small percentage of neonatal encephalopathy. In contrast, clinical case series suggest that a large proportion of neonatal encephalopathy is hypoxic or ischaemic, and trials of therapeutic hypothermia are specifically designed to include only infants exposed to hypoxia or ischaemia. This review addresses the differences, definitional and methodological, between infants studied and investigations undertaken, in population studies compared with cooling trials. It raises the question if there may be subgroups of infants with a clinical diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in whom the pathobiology of neonatal neurological depression is not fundamentally hypoxic or ischaemic and, therefore, for whom cooling may not be beneficial. In addition, it suggests approaches to future trials of cooling plus adjuvant therapy that may contribute to further improvement of care for these vulnerable neonates.

  16. Influence of pH and heat treatment on β-lactolobulin-oleic acid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria SIMION (CIUCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns of food technologists is to produce healthier products with specific functionalities. The potential use of β-lactoglobulin as a supplement for new functional products is encouraging due to its nutritional and functional characteristics. The aim of this work was to obtain β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid complexes at different pH values (5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 and to test their stability at different temperatures (25-85°C such as to allow identifying their potential use in a variety of food products. The complexes were characterized through different fluorescence spectroscopy based techniques: phase diagram, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence, along with fluorescence quenching experiments. Results showed the presence of more than two structurally distinct species with intermediates as induced by thermal treatment. The heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70°C caused an increase in both intrinsic and ANS fluorescence intensity. Acrylamide quenching showed no significant differences between the values of Stern-Volmer constants as function of temperature for pH 5.0, suggesting that no significant changes occurred in the Trp microenvironments. Quenching experiments with KI lead to decreases in Stern-Volmer constants in the temperature range 25-70°C, suggesting protein folding, whereas at higher temperatures a small increase was observed suggesting unfolding and an increased accessibility of the fluorophore to the quencher for all pH values.

  17. Byproducts of orange extraction: influence of different treatments in fiber composition and physical and chemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria de Mello Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated the variability in fiber content and physical and chemical parameters of byproducts from orange juice extraction. Five different treatments and two drying methods were evaluated. The results indicate that drying by lyophilization was better than that drying in an oven. The pH ranged from approximately 3.47 to 3.96. The variation in moisture values was 9.22% ± 0.02 to 18.48 ± 0.52%. The total dietary fiber content in the resulting flours ranged from 42.44% to 62.74%. The soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents differed among the samples, ranging from 5.04% to 19.95% for the first fiber type, and 23.96% to 57.70% for the second. In conclusion, three treatments, associated with freeze-drying, showed promising results in the development of fiber-rich product. However, some modifications are needed, as well as further analysis, to guarantee the benefits of these products for human health. This study contributes to the possible application of industrial byproducts.

  18. What Influences Participation in QI? A Randomized Trial of Addiction Treatment Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Quanbeck, Andrew R; Oruongo, John; Robinson, James; Ford, James H; McCarty, Dennis; Pulvermacher, Alice; Johnson, Roberta A; Gustafson, David H

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare providers have increased the use of quality improvement (QI) techniques, but organizational variables that affect QI uptake and implementation warrant further exploration. This study investigates organizational characteristics associated with clinics that enroll and participate over time in QI. The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) conducted a large cluster-randomized trial of outpatient addiction treatment clinics, called NIATx 200, which randomized clinics to one of four QI implementation strategies: (1) interest circle calls, (2) coaching, (3) learning sessions, and (4) the combination of all three components. Data on organizational culture and structure were collected before, after randomization, and during the 18-month intervention. Using univariate descriptive analyses and regression techniques, the study identified two significant differences between clinics that enrolled in the QI study (n = 201) versus those that did not (n = 447). Larger programs were more likely to enroll and clinics serving more African Americans were less likely to enroll. Once enrolled, higher rates of QI participation were associated with clinics' not having a hospital affiliation, being privately owned, and having staff who perceived management support for QI. The study discusses lessons for the field and future research needs.

  19. INFLUENCE OF SEED TREATMENT CHEMICALS AND CONTAINERS ON SEED QUALITY OF MARIGOLD DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    t. p. kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to know the effect of seed treatment and containers on seed quality of marigold during storage. Result from the study indicated that seed treated with chlorax and stored in double layer polythene bag recorded higher seed quality parameters viz., significantly higher germination (49.25% and 38.81%, root length (4.13 cmand 3.30 cm, shoot length (3.51 cm and 3.90 cm, vigour index (376 and 281, germination rate index (11.31 and 11.04 and field emergence (43.25% and 33.44 with lowest electrical conductivity of seed leachate (1.292 dSm-1 and 1.856 dSm-1, respectively of marigold at the end of storage. With the advance in the storage period, an increase in moisture, seed health and electrical conductivity of seed were observed. Therefore, these treatments can be used for storage of marigold seeds in order to maintain viability.

  20. Influence of UV Treatment on the Food Safety Status of a Model Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Deepikaa Elumalai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Few microbial studies in aquaponics, a growing trend in food production, have been conducted to determine food safety status. The aim of this study was to determine the food safety status and the effectiveness of ultraviolet treatment (15 W, luminous flux of 900 lm as a food safety intervention in reducing the microbial loads of the water system in a model aquaponic unit growing lettuce, basil, and barramundi (Australian Sea Bass. Sweet basil, bibb lettuce, water samples, and fish swabs were collected throughout the 118-day production period, and microbial analysis was conducted in triplicate for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and the prevalence of aerobic plate counts (APC, coliforms, and fecal coliforms in these systems. Absence of foodborne pathogens was confirmed using ELISA technology and enumeration through petrifilms (coliform/E. coli. A significant increase was observed in aerobic plate counts over the trial period (1 to 3 log10 CFU·mL−1 in the presence and absence of UV (p > 0.05. Ultraviolet treatment did not significantly reduce the APC or coliform counts when compared to the control system samples. Future work should focus on improving the unit design, the evaluation of bio-solid filtration, and other food safety interventions.

  1. Finite element analysis on influence of implant surface treatments, connection and bone types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Almeida, Daniel Augusto de Faria; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of different dental implant designs, bone type, loading, and surface treatment on the stress distribution around the implant by using the 3D finite-element method. Twelve 3D models were developed with Invesalius 3.0, Rhinoceros 4.0, and Solidworks 2010 software. The analysis was processed using the FEMAP 10.2 and NeiNastran 10.0 software. The applied oblique forces were 200 N and 100 N. The results were analyzed using maps of maximum principal stress and bone microstrain. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. The results showed that the Morse taper design was most efficient in terms of its distribution of stresses (p0.05). The different bone types did not show a significant difference in the stress/strain distribution (p>0.05). The surface treatment increased areas of stress concentration under axial loading (p<0.05) and increased areas of microstrain under axial and oblique loading (p<0.05) on the cortical bone. The Morse taper design behaved better biomechanically in relation to the bone tissue. The treated surface increased areas of stress and strain on the cortical bone tissue.

  2. Influence of Heat Treatment on Biocorrosion and Hemocompatibility of Biodegradable Mg-35Zn-3Ca Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hui Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mg-35Zn-3Ca (wt.% alloy containing nontoxic and biocompatible Zn and Ca as alloying elements was prepared and subjected to heat treatment and artificial aging for different duration of time to reduce its rate of degradation. Solution heat treatment was performed at 310°C while artificial aging was performed at 170°C for 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 h and they were designated as AT0, AT1, AT2, AT3, and AT4, respectively. The finest and most homogenous reticulum was observed on the surface of the AT2 group. The result of immersion test in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS showed that the corrosion rate of the AT2 group was 2.32 mg/(cm2 day, which was significantly lower as compared to other groups P<0.05. The hemolysis value was ≤5% in all groups, indicating no toxicity during short-term blood reaction.

  3. Influence of oligomeric silsesquioxane coating treatment on interfacial properties of CF/PAA composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuezhong; HUANG Yudong; WANG Tianyu; HU Lijiang

    2007-01-01

    Carbon fibres (CF) were modified with different oligomeric silsesquioxane (SSO) coatings to improve the interfacial property of carbon fibres/polyarylacetylene (CF/PAA).The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of CF/PAA was tested to determine the effect of the treatment.Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in force modulation mode was adopted to study the cross-section surface of unidirectional CF/PAA composites and the relative stiffness of various phases, including CF,interphase and resin.The probability histogram and line distribution of CF/PAA cross-section surface relative stiffness,obtained from the statistical analysis of relative stiffness image,were used to compare and study the interface characterizations of composites.The results show that the ILSS increases effectively and the effects on interfacial characterizations are distinguished from each other in accor-dance with the CF surface modified with different SSO coatings owing to the various structures.Cage oligomeric silsesquioxane,including large organic groups (methacryl isobutyl-POSS),has better treatment result.AFM observa-tions lead to the conclusion that an interfacial transition layer with different morphology and stiffness appears in CF/PAA composites after being treated by the SSO coatings of different structures.It can be inferred that the appearance of the transition layer may contribute to the improvement of fibre/matrix adhesion.

  4. Perceptions on the effectiveness of treatment and the timeline of Buruli ulcer influence pre-hospital delay reported by healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marike Alferink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delay in seeking treatment at the hospital is a major challenge in current Buruli ulcer control; it is associated with severe sequelae and functional limitations. Choosing alternative treatment and psychological, social and practical factors appear to influence delay. Objectives were to determine potential predictors for pre-hospital delay with Leventhal's commonsense model of illness representations, and to explore whether the type of available dominant treatment modality influenced individuals' perceptions about BU, and therefore, influenced pre-hospital delay. METHODOLOGY: 130 healthy individuals aged >18 years, living in BU-endemic areas in Benin without any history of BU were included in this cross-sectional study. Sixty four participants from areas where surgery was the dominant treatment and sixty six participants from areas where antibiotic treatment was the dominant treatment modality were recruited. Using a semi-structured interview we measured illness perceptions (IPQ-R, knowledge about BU, background variables and estimated pre-hospital delay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The individual characteristics 'effectiveness of treatment' and 'timeline acute-chronic' showed the strongest association with pre-hospital delay. No differences were found between regions where surgery was the dominant treatment and regions where antibiotics were the dominant treatment modality. CONCLUSIONS: Individual characteristics, not anticipated treatment modality appeared predictors of pre-hospital delay.

  5. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Treatment and the Timeline of Buruli Ulcer Influence Pre-Hospital Delay Reported by Healthy Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferink, Marike; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Agossadou, Didier C.; Barogui, Yves T.; Assouto, Frederic; Agossadou, Chantal; Stewart, Roy E.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Delay in seeking treatment at the hospital is a major challenge in current Buruli ulcer control; it is associated with severe sequelae and functional limitations. Choosing alternative treatment and psychological, social and practical factors appear to influence delay. Objectives were to

  6. Influence of chronic cocaine treatment and sleep deprivation on sexual behavior and neurogenesis of the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Perry, Juliana C; Bignotto, Magda; Perez-Mendes, Patricia; Cinini, Simone M; Mello, Luiz E A; Tufik, Sergio

    2007-08-15

    The present study investigated the influence of chronic cocaine treatment on genital reflexes associated with paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD), and possible alterations in hippocampus neurogenesis of the male rat. At 21 days of age, the rats were distributed into two groups and injected with saline or cocaine (7 mg/kg, three times a week for 12 weeks). At age 90 days, they were submitted to a four-day period of PSD (PSD groups) or maintained in home-cages (control groups), challenged with saline or cocaine administration, and placed in observation cages to assess genital reflexes. Two additional groups were used to quantify neurogenesis. PSD rats treated chronically with cocaine and challenged with saline did not differ from their respective control groups. The association of PSD with cocaine potentiated penile erection (PE) when compared to PSD-saline (saline challenged) rats, and these effects were similar to those observed in long-term cocaine treated rats. The bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay indicated a reduction in BrdU-positive cells in the adult hippocampus after chronic cocaine treatment. These findings show that long-term cocaine treatment from brain development through adulthood had a marked effect on sexual responses and neuronal proliferation.

  7. Influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and insulin treatment on the pituitary-testicular axis during sexual maturation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Valli, G; Julie, P M; Arunakaran, J; Govindarajulu, P; Balasubramanian, K

    2000-01-01

    Effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetes and insulin treatment on the functioning of pituitary-testicular axis during sexual maturation was studied. Prepubertal (30 days old) and pubertal (50 days old) male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single injection of STZ. A group of diabetic rats was given insulin (3U/100 g b.wt./day in 2 equally divided doses), 3 days after STZ treatment. Prepubertal and pubertal rats of all groups were killed on postnatal days 51 and 71, respectively. STZ-diabetes caused marked reduction in serum LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone and testicular interstitial fluid testosterone as well as the activities of Leydig cellular steroidogenic enzymes (3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases). Insulin treatment to diabetic rats maintained these changes at control range except FSH and prolactin in prepubertal rats. The results indicate that (i) diabetes-induced steroidogenic lesions in Leydig cells represent a direct consequence of dysfunctioning of pituitary-testicular axis, (ii) the adverse effects of diabetes on pituitary-testicular functions are influenced by age of its induction and (iii) optimum insulin level is essential for the acquisition of Leydig cellular steroidogenic efficacy during sexual development.

  8. Influence of heat treatment on fracture and magnetic properties of radially oriented Sm2Co17 permanent magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jian-jun; QU Xuan-hui; ZHANG Shen-gen; A. FARID; TAO Si-wu; DU Xue-li

    2007-01-01

    The quenching, fracture and aging treatment of radially oriented Sm2Co17 ring magnets were investigated. The results indicate that the ring magnets have obvious anisotropy of thermal expansion, which easily leads to the splits of the magnets during quenching. The fracture is brittle cleavage fracture. The difference (Δa) of the expansion coefficient reaches the maximum value at 800-850 ℃. So, various quenching processes at different steps are adopted in order to reduce the splits. When the magnets are aged, 1-5 phase precipitates from the 2-17 matrix phase and forms a cellular microstructure with 2-17 phase. BHmax and JHc reach the maximum value 226 kJ/m3 and 2 170 kA/m after being aged at 850 ℃ for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. The aging treatment at 850 ℃ has little influence on remanence(Br), which can always keep a high value (≥1.0 T). Through appropriate heat treatment, the ring magnets have uniform cellular microstructure and excellent magnetic properties: Br≥1.0T, JHc≥2 100 kA/m, BHmax≥220 kJ/m3.

  9. Influence of thermo-mechanical treatment on the tensile properties of a modified 14Cr–15Ni stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayanand, V.D., E-mail: vdvijayanand@igcar.gov.in; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M.D.

    2014-10-15

    The titanium modified 14Cr–15Ni austenitic stainless steel is used as clad and wrapper material for fast breeder nuclear reactor. Thermo-mechanical treatments consisting of solution annealing at two different temperatures of 1273 and 1373 K followed by cold-work and thermal ageing have been imparted to the steel to tailor its microstructure for enhancing strength. Tensile tests have been carried out on the thermo-mechanically treated steel at nominal strain rate of 1.6 × 10{sup −4} s{sup −1} over a temperature range of 298–1073 K. The yield stress and the ultimate tensile strength of the steel increased with increase in solution treatment temperature and this has been attributed to the fine and higher density of Ti(C,N) precipitate. Tensile flow behaviour of the steel has been analysed using Ludwigson and Voce constitutive equations. The steel heat treated at higher solution temperature exhibited earlier onset of cross slip during tensile deformation. The rate of recovery at higher test temperatures was also influenced by variations in solution heat treatment temperature. In addition, dynamic recrystallization during tensile deformation at higher temperatures was profound for steel solution heat-treated at lower temperature. The differences in flow behaviour and softening mechanisms during tensile testing of the steel after different heat treated conditions have been attributed to the nature of Ti(C,N) precipitation.

  10. The influence of periportal (pipestem fibrosis on long term results of surgical treatment for schistosomotic portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraz Álvaro Antônio Bandeira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the degree of influence that periportal fibrosis has on clinical development and the long term results of surgical treatment on patients with hepatic-splenic schistosomiasis with previous gastrointestinal hemorrhages. METHODS: During the period of 1992-1998, 111 patients underwent surgical treatment for the treatment of hepatic-splenic schistosomiasis with previous gastrointestinal hemorrhages. The degree of fibrosis was classified as: degree I - the portal spaces show a rich increase of young connective cells, a slight collagen production and a varying presence of inflammatory infiltrate. The periportal blade unchangeable (29/111; degree II - there is an expansion of the connective tissue with the emission of radial collagen septa, producing a star shaped aspect (38/111; degree III - the connective septa form bridges with other portal spaces or with the vein, with evident angiomatoid neo-formation (44/111. CONCLUSION: The patients with periportal fibrosis degree I present recurrent hemorrhages statistically less than patients with periportal fibrosis degrees II and III, and that the intensity of the periportal fibrosis is not the only pathophysiological factor of the esophageal varices, gastric varices, prevalence of post-operative portal vein thrombosis and hematological and biochemical alterations of the patients with pure mansoni schistosomiasis.

  11. Influence of anodic surface treatment of activated carbon on adsorption and ion exchange properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J.; Kim, K.D.

    1999-10-01

    The effect of anodic surface treatment of activated carbon on adsorption and ion exchange characteristics was investigated in the condition of 35 wt% NaOH electrolyte for 60 s. The acid and base values were determined by a titration technique, and surface and pore structures were studied in terms of BET volumetric measurement with N{sub 2} adsorption. The ion exchange capacity of the anodized activated carbons was characterized by a dry weight capacity technique. It was observed that an increase in current intensity leads to an increase in the surface functional groups of activated carbons, resulting in increasing pH, acid-base values, and anion-cation exchange capacities, without significant change of surface and pore structures (i.e., specific surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, and average pore diameter). Also, anodically treated activated carbons are more effectively evaluated on the base value or cation exchange capacity than on the oppose properties in this electrolytic system.

  12. The influence of comorbid personality disorder and neuroticism on treatment outcome in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has never been investigated whether comorbid personality disorder or neuroticism predicts a poor treatment outcome in first episode depression. METHODS: Medically treated patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital...... of any kind. Comorbid personality disorder was associated with a 2.2-times (95% CI: 1.1-4.2) increased risk of non-remission following the first antidepressant trial, whereas no effect was found following the second antidepressant trial (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.4). A high level of neuroticism...... was associated with non-remission in first as well as second trials. CONCLUSION: Comorbid personality disorder and high levels of neuroticism in first episode depression predict an increased risk of non-remission from depression....

  13. Influence of iodine on the treatment of spacecraft humidity condensate to produce potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, James M.; Muckle, Susan V.

    1990-01-01

    Several compounds in the ersatz humidity condensate do react with iodine to form iodine-substituted organic compounds (TOI), most notably phenol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, and sodium formate. Iodination of the ersatz humidity condensate produced 3.0 to 3.5 mg/L of TOI within 24 hours. The TOI that was produced by the passage of the ersatz humidity condensate through the first iodinated resin (IR) in the adsorption system was removed by the granular activated carbon that followed. TOI detected in the final effluent was formed by the reaction of the non-adsorbable condensate compounds with the final IR in the treatment series. The activated carbon bed series in the adsorption system performed poorly in its removal of TOC. The rapid breakthrough of TOC was not surprising, as the ersatz humidity condensate contained several highly soluble organic compounds, alcohols and organic acids.

  14. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: Do they influence treatment and outcome?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fernando Tavarela Veloso

    2011-01-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases that often involve organs other than those of the gastrointestinal tract. Immune-related extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) are usually related to disease activity, but sometimes may take an independent course. Globally, about one third of patients develop these systemic manifestations. Phenotypic classification shows that certain subsets of patients are more susceptible to developing EIMs, which frequently occur simultaneously in the same patient overlapping joints, skin, mouth, and eyes. The clinical spectrum of these manifestations varies from mild transitory to very severe lesions, sometimes more incapacitating than the intestinal disease itself. The great majority of these EIMs accompany the activity of intestinal disease and patients run a higher risk of a severe clinical course. For most of the inflammatory EIMs, the primary therapeutic target remains the bowel. Early aggressive therapy can minimize severe complications and maintenance treatment has the potential to prevent some devastating consequences.

  15. Influence of TiO{sub 2} Surface Properties on Water Pollution Treatment and Photocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Min [Southwest Univ. of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China)

    2013-03-15

    The titania surface showed different characteristics depending on the charge of the dye molecules. Compared with the MB molecules, the negatively charged MO molecules strongly adsorbed on the titania surface. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics of the dye molecules by the photocatalytic activity also deepened with the charge of the dye molecules. The relation between the UV irradiation time and the molar ratio of the decomposed dye molecules followed the Avrami equation. According to the results of the analysis by using the Avrami equation, the MO molecules were decomposed on the titania particle surface. In contrast, the MB molecules were decomposed in the aqueous solution. The difference in kinetics was related to the interaction of the dye molecules and the titania surface. These preferential adsorption and decomposition characteristics will improve its applications in water pollution treatment.

  16. Influence of osmotic distillation on membrane absorption for the treatment of high strength ammonia wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guan-ping; SHI Han-chang; SHEN Zhi-song

    2004-01-01

    Osmotic distillation(OD) was found to be a coupled process in membrane absorption(MA) for the treatment of high strength ammonia wastewater. As a result, ammonia could not be concentrated in absorption solution(AS) as expected. The inhibition of the coupled OD in MA process was investigated as well as various factors affecting the inhibition. The results indicated that the coupled OD can be effectively inhibited by heating concentrated solution and cooling dilute solution. It was also found that experimental minimum inhibition temperature difference(MITD) between concentrated and dilute solutions was different when using polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF)and polypropylene(PP) membranes respectively, which could be ascribed to material properties, such as OD and membrane distillation (MD) coefficients of the membranes. Experimental MITDs were found to be higher than theoretical MITDs which were calculated using a simplified method.

  17. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Biological Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina Liana; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Voicu, Georgeta; Vasile, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Predoi, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and morphological properties of silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with a silver concentration x Ag = 0.5 before and after being thermal treated at 600 and 1000 °C. The results obtained by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the structure of the samples changes gradually, from hydroxyapatite (AgHAp_40) to a predominant β-TCP structure (AgHAp_1000), achieved when the thermal treatment temperature is 1000 °C. In the AgHAp_600 sample, the presence of two phases, HAp and β-TCP, was highlighted. Also, scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the shape and dimension of the nanoparticles begin to change when the temperature increases. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was evaluated against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans strains.

  18. Nordic veterinarians' threshold for medical treatment of dairy cows, influence on disease recording and medicine use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espetvedt, Mari N.; Rintakoski, Simo; Wolff, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    linear regression was used to estimate the proportion of variability in intention explained by the three behavioural components, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The Spearman rank correlations between specific beliefs about the behaviour and intention scores were estimated...... regression models, the underlying behavioural components of the TPB explained 0.37, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.48 of the variation in intention scores in OK, Fl, NO and SE, respectively. Attitude was the most important predictor in DK, NO and SE, but perceived behavioural control was most important in Fl. In all...... the diagnosis. The threshold for initiating treatment was quantified as an intention score. Secondary, underlying behavioural components of the intention score was studied within each country. A social psychology model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), was used to design a questionnaire...

  19. Influence of source batch Sk dispersion on dosimetry for prostate cancer treatment with permanent implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez-Cumplido, Eduardo; Perez-Calatayud, J; Casares-Magaz, O;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In clinical practice, specific air kerma strength (SK) value is used in treatment planning system (TPS) permanent brachytherapy implant calculations with (125)I and (103)Pd sources; in fact, commercial TPS provide only one SK input value for all implanted sources and the certified shipment...... is to examine the impact of SK dispersion on typical implant parameters that are used to evaluate the dose volume histogram (DVH) for both planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). METHODS: The authors have developed a new algorithm to compute dose distributions with different SK values for each...... source. Three different prostate volumes (20, 30, and 40 cm(3)) were considered and two typical commercial sources of different radionuclides were used. Using a conventional TPS, clinically accepted calculations were made for (125)I sources; for the palladium, typical implants were simulated. To assess...

  20. Influence of thermal treatments on the mechanical properties of an Fe--Co--V alloy (remendur)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnel, M.R.; Mahajan, S.; Bennett, J.E.

    1976-12-01

    The effects of various thermal treatments on the mechanical properties of an equiatomic Fe/Co alloy containing 2.8 wt percent V have been investigated. The accompanying structural changes have been evaluated by optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy. Recrystallization texture changes have also been ascertained. The observed changes in yield strength have been rationalized in a qualitative manner. A peak in elongation to failure similar to that observed by Stoloff and Dillamore and also by Thornburg has been reproduced. It is shown that their explanations based on a partially recrystallized microstructure are not responsible for the enhanced elongation in this case. An alternative explanation involving the differences in the multiplication rates of dislocations in the fine and coarse grained samples is invoked to explain this effect.

  1. Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

  2. Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

  3. Influence of comorbidities on therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes I Vitry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether the number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was associated with a delay in therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using data from the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA claims database between July 2000 and June 2008. The study included new users of metformin or sulfonylurea medicines. The outcome was the time to addition or switch to another antidiabetic treatment. The total number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was identified using the pharmaceutical-based comorbidity index, Rx-Risk-V. Competing risk regression analyses were conducted, with adjustments for a number of covariates that included age, gender, residential status, use of endocrinology service, number of hospitalisation episodes and adherence to diabetes medicines. Overall, 20,134 veterans were included in the study. At one year, 23.5% of patients with diabetes had a second medicine added or had switched to another medicine, with 41.4% progressing by 4 years. The number of unrelated comorbidities was significantly associated with the time to addition of an antidiabetic medicine or switch to insulin (subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.84-0.91], P<0.001. Depression, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and Parkinson's disease were individually associated with a decreased likelihood of therapeutic progression. Age, residential status, number of hospitalisations and adherence to anti-diabetic medicines delayed therapeutic progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing numbers of unrelated conditions decreased the likelihood of therapeutic progression in veterans with diabetes. These results have implications for the development of quality measures, clinical guidelines and the construction of models of care for management of diabetes in elderly people with comorbidities.

  4. Influences of intermittent preventive treatment and persistent multiclonal Plasmodium falciparum infections on clinical malaria risk.

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    Anne Liljander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT of malaria involves administration of curative doses of antimalarials at specified time points to vulnerable populations in endemic areas, regardless whether a subject is known to be infected. The effect of this new intervention on the development and maintenance of protective immunity needs further understanding. We have investigated how seasonal IPT affects the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum infections and the risk of subsequent clinical malaria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 2227 Ghanaian children (3-59 months who were given sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP bimonthly, artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS+AQ monthly or bimonthly, or placebo monthly for six months spanning the malaria transmission season. Blood samples collected at three post-interventional surveys were analysed by genotyping of the polymorphic merozoite surface protein 2 gene. Malaria morbidity and anaemia was monitored during 12 months follow-up. RESULTS: Monthly IPT with AS+AQ resulted in a marked reduction in number of concurrent clones and only children parasite negative just after the intervention period developed clinical malaria during follow-up. In the placebo group, children without parasites as well as those infected with ≥2 clones had a reduced risk of subsequent malaria. The bimonthly SP or AS+AQ groups had similar number of clones as placebo after intervention; however, diversity and parasite negativity did not predict the risk of malaria. An interaction effect showed that multiclonal infections were only associated with protection in children without intermittent treatment. CONCLUSION: Molecular typing revealed effects of the intervention not detected by ordinary microscopy. Effective seasonal IPT temporarily reduced the prevalence and genetic diversity of P. falciparum infections. The reduced risk of malaria in children with multiclonal infections only seen in untreated children suggests that

  5. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  6. Influence of bioselector processes on 17α-ethinylestradiol biodegradation in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziels, Ryan M; Lust, Mariko J; Gough, Heidi L; Strand, Stuart E; Stensel, H David

    2014-06-03

    The removal of the potent endocrine-disrupting estrogen hormone, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) activated sludge (AS) processes can occur through biodegradation by heterotrophic bacteria growing on other organic wastewater substrates. Different kinetic and metabolic substrate utilization conditions created with AS bioselector processes can affect the heterotrophic population composition in AS. The primary goal of this research was to determine if these changes also affect specific EE2 biodegradation kinetics. A series of experiments were conducted with parallel bench-scale AS reactors treating municipal wastewater with estrogens at 100-300 ng/L concentrations to evaluate the effect of bioselector designs on pseudo first-order EE2 biodegradation kinetics normalized to mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (VSS). Kinetic rate coefficient (kb) values for EE2 biodegradation ranged from 5.0 to 18.9 L/g VSS/d at temperatures of 18 °C to 24 °C. EE2 kb values for aerobic biomass growth at low initial food to mass ratio feeding conditions (F/Mf) were 1.4 to 2.2 times greater than that from growth at high initial F/Mf. Anoxic/aerobic and anaerobic/aerobic metabolic bioselector reactors achieving biological nutrient removal had similar EE2 kb values, which were lower than that in aerobic AS reactors with biomass growth at low initial F/Mf. These results provide evidence that population selection with growth at low organic substrate concentrations can lead to improved EE2 biodegradation kinetics in AS treatment.

  7. Enzymatic treatment of specimens before DNA extraction directly influences molecular detection of infectious agents.

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    Pablo Goldschmidt

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Biological samples, pharmaceuticals or food contain proteins, lipids, polymers, ammoniums and macromolecules that alter the detection of infectious agents by DNA amplification techniques (PCR. Moreover the targeted DNA has to be released from the complex cell walls and the compact nucleoprotein matrixes and cleared from potential inhibitors. The goal of the present work was to assess the efficiency of enzymatic pretreatments on infectious agents to make DNA available for further extraction and amplification. METHODS: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani were mixed with an internal control virus and treated with: 1 proteinase K; 2 lyticase and 3 lyticase followed by proteinase K. DNAs was manually extracted using the QIAmp DNA Mini kit or the MagNA Pure Compact automate. DNA extraction yields and the inhibitors were assessed with a phocid Herpesvirus. Bacterial detection was performed using TaqMan real-time PCR and yeasts and filamentous Fungi with HRM (real-time PCR followed by high-resolution melting analysis. RESULTS: Viral DNA was released, extracted and detected using manual and automatic methods without pre enzymatic treatments. Either the manual or the automatic DNA extraction systems did not meet the sensitivity expectations if enzymatic treatments were not performed before: lyticase for Fungi and Proteinase K for Bacteria. The addition of lyticase and proteinase K did not improve results. For Fungi the detection after lyticase was higher than for Proteinase K, for which melting analysis did not allow fungal specification. DISCUSSION: Columns and magnetic beads allowed collecting DNA and separate PCR inhibitors. Detection rates cannot be related to DNA-avidity of beads or to elution but to the lack of proteolysis.

  8. Influence of methanethiol on biological sulphide oxidation in gas treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Pawel; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic and organic sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and thiols (RSH) are unwanted components in sour gas streams (e.g. biogas and refinery gases) because of their toxicity, corrosivity and bad smell. Biological treatment processes are often used to remove H2S at small and medium scales (<50 tons per day of H2S). Preliminarily research by our group focused on achieving maximum sulphur production from biological H2S oxidation in the presence of methanethiol. In this paper the underlying principles have been further studied by assessing the effect of methanethiol on the biological conversion of H2S under a wide range of redox conditions covering not only sulphur but also sulphate-producing conditions. Furthermore, our experiments were performed in an integrated system consisting of a gas absorber and a bioreactor in order to assess the effect of methanethiol on the overall gas treatment efficiency. This study shows that methanethiol inhibits the biological oxidation of H2S to sulphate by way of direct suppression of the cytochrome c oxidase activity in biomass, whereas the oxidation of H2S to sulphur was hardly affected. We estimated the kinetic parameters of biological H2S oxidation that can be used to develop a mathematical model to quantitatively describe the biodesulphurization process. Finally, it was found that methanethiol acts as a competitive inhibitor; therefore, its negative effect can be minimized by increasing the enzyme (biomass) concentration and the substrate (sulphide) concentration, which in practice means operating the biodesulphurization systems under low redox conditions.

  9. Influence of hydrofluoric acid treatment on electroless deposition of Au clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Rachela G; Mio, Antonio M; D'Arrigo, Giuseppe; Smecca, Emanuele; Alberti, Alessandra; Fisichella, Gabriele; Giannazzo, Filippo; Spinella, Corrado; Rimini, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    The morphology of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) deposited on a (100) silicon wafer by simple immersion in a solution containing a metal salt and hydrofluoric acid (HF) is altered by HF treatment both before and after deposition. The gold clusters are characterized by the presence of flat regions and quasispherical particles consistent with the layer-by-layer or island growth modes, respectively. The cleaning procedure, including HF immersion prior to deposition, affects the predominantly occurring gold structures. Flat regions, which are of a few tens of nanometers long, are present after immersion for 10 s. The three-dimensional (3D) clusters are formed after a cleaning procedure of 4 min, which results in a large amount of spherical particles with a diameter of ≈15 nm and in a small percentage of residual square layers of a few nanometers in length. The samples were also treated with HF after the deposition and we found out a general thickening of flat regions, as revealed by TEM and AFM analysis. This result is in contrast to the coalescence observed in similar experiments performed with Ag. It is suggested that the HF dissolves the silicon oxide layer formed on top of the thin flat clusters and promotes the partial atomic rearrangement of the layered gold atoms, driven by a reduction of the surface energy. The X-ray diffraction investigation indicated changes in the crystalline orientation of the flat regions, which partially lose their initially heteroepitaxial relationship with the substrate. A postdeposition HF treatment for almost 70 s has nearly the same effect of long duration, high temperature annealing. The process presented herein could be beneficial to change the spectral response of nanoparticle arrays and to improve the conversion efficiency of hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  10. Influence of Alloying Treatment and Rapid Solidification on the Degradation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg has drawn increasing attention as a tissue engineering material. However, there have been very few studies of laser-melted Mg-Zn alloys. In this study, four binary Mg-xZn (x = 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt. % alloys were fabricated by laser melting. The influence of zinc (Zn content and technique on the degradation behavior and mechanical properties of Mg were discussed. Results revealed that Mg-xZn alloys consisted of an α-Mg matrix and MgZn phases, which dispersed at the grain boundaries. In addition, the MgZn phase increased with the increase in Zn content. The laser-melted alloy had fine homogenous grains, with an average grain size of approximately 15 μm. Grain growth was effectively inhibited due to the precipitation of the MgZn phase and rapid solidification. Grain refinement consequently slowed down the degradation rate, with Zn content increasing to 6 wt. %. However, a further increase of Zn content accelerated the degradation rate due to the galvanic couple effect between α-Mg and MgZn. Moreover, the mechanical properties were improved due to the grain refinement and reinforcement of the MgZn phase.

  11. Influence of vacuum carburizing treatment on fatigue crack growth characteristic in DSG2

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    K. Nambu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to clarify the influence of vacuum carburizing on the fatigue-crack progress characteristics of DSG2 steel. The test specimen tempering material (QT material and vacuum carburizing material (VC material has been used. The fatigue-crack progress was examined by subjecting the samples to four-point bending. The loading-capacity fixed experiment was done using a maximum load of Pmax = 4000– 7000 N. The ΔK fixed experiment was done using a load of ΔK = 18–36 MPa√m. The crack progress speed of VC material fell, after the high crack progress speed was shown, and after it showed the minimum, it showed the tendency to go up again. This is considered to be what is depended on the compressive residual stress given to the carburizing layer. From this, it is thinkable that there is a crack progress depression effect in a carburizing layer. In VC material, a carburizing layer has a crack progress depression effect from a plunger-helix bottom to about 2.6 mm, and it turned out that it is larger than an effective carburizing layer. Moreover, in each ΔK, it was shown that depression effect revelation differs and the crack progress process accompanying it was able to be shown typically.

  12. Influence of a microscopic positive proximal margin in the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma of the cardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Shen; Jae-Ho Cheong; Woo-Jin Hyung; Junuk Kim; Seung-Ho Choi; Sung-Hoon Noh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of a positive proximal margin in total gastrectomy patients with gastric adenocarcinoma of the cardia.METHODS: Medical records of 191 patients with total gastrectomies for adenocarcinoma of the cardia between 1995 and 2000 were reviewed. The clinicopathologic features associated with a positive margin were determined, and the predictors for survival were analyzed.RESULTS: The incidence of positive proximal margin was 8.4% (16/191). The positive margins were associated with advanced diseases. The tumor size and the depth of tumor invasion were independent risk factors for a positive margin. The mean survival in the positive margin group was 33.9 mo as compared with 62.4 mo in the negative group (P < 0.001). However, the difference in survival lost significance in subgroup analysis according to stage. Multivariate analysis identified that a positive margin was not an independent prognostic factor for survival.CONCLUSION: A positive margin is more of an indication of advanced disease in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma of the cardia rather than an independent prognostic factor for survival.

  13. Influences of Cotton Fabric Treatments on Human Physical Responses during Exercise and Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influences of liquid water transfer property of cotton fabric on human physiological responses, such as ear canal temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, stress hormone, during exercise and recovery.Long sleeves cotton knitted sportswear treated to have special liquid water transfer property were prepared:(1) Hydrophilic; ( 2 ) Hydrophobic; and ( 3 ) Moisture Management (MM). Wearing these garments, human subjects ran on treadmill according to a pre-designed experimental protocol. It was found that during exercise hydrophilic cotton caused significantly higher mean skin temperature than MM and hydrophobic cotton fabrics, while during recovcry, hydrophilic and MM cotton fabrics caused significantly higher mean skin temperature than hydrophobic cotton fabric. Hydrophilic cotton fabric caused significantly lower heart rate than MM cotton fabric, lower systolic blood pressure than MM and hydrophobic cotton fabrics.Hydrophobic cotton fabric caused significantly higher urinary catecholamine volume than hydrophilic and MM cotton fabric, indicating stronger physical stress.Hydrophilic cotton fabric caused significantly stronger thermal and humidity sensations than MM and hydrophobic cotton fabrics at the end of first and second exercise sessions. Hydrophilic cotton fabric caused significantly stronger discomfort sensation than hydrophobic cotton fabric at the end of first session of exercise. In the end of wear trial, MM cotton fabric caused significantly higher tiredness sensation than hydrophilic and hydrophobic cotton fabrics.

  14. Influence of thermal treatment and combustible additives on properties of Latvian clay ceramics pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liga Dabare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous ceramic pellets for possible environmental application were produced from different Latvian clays by sintering at different temperatures. Their characteristics and influence of additives were analysed using X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry and BET tests. The obtained ceramic pellets from calcareous clays after immersion in distilled water change its pH value, which affects their capability to adsorb ions or molecules on the surface. The sorption capabilities are dependent on the pH level of water solution, composition of clays, and used adsorbate. Porosity of the produced pellets is mostly within range from 15 to 25 % throughout all sintering temperatures with a slight decrease at 1050 °C. The specific surface area has a wide range up to 30 m2/g. The highest surface area has pellets sintered at lower temperatures. The adsorption capability of pellets was evaluated using water solutions with different ions. The most promising results were obtained with iodine sorption. For most pellets the sorption capacity was 12.7 mg/g, although for the pellets sintered at 1050 °C it was lower.

  15. Influence of phytic acid concentration on coating properties obtained by MAO treatment on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. F.; Zhang, S. F.; Duo, S. W.

    2009-06-01

    Anodic coatings were prepared by microarc oxidation (MAO) on AZ91HP in a base solution of 10 g/L NaOH with and without the addition of 0-12 g/L phytic acid (C 6H 18O 24P 6). The influences of C 6H 18O 24P 6 and its concentration on the conductivity and breakdown voltage were studied. The morphologies and compositions of anodic coatings were determined by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Potentiodynamic polarization test was performed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution to evaluate the corrosion resistance of anodic coatings. The results showed that with the increase of C 6H 18O 24P 6 concentration, the solution conductivity decreased while the values of breakdown voltage increased. EDX analysis showed that the coatings formed in solutions with C 6H 18O 24P 6 addition contained Mg, Al, O, C, P and a trance of Na. The addition of C 6H 18O 24P 6 into the base solution was helpful in coating formation and the coatings formed in the solution containing 8 g/L C 6H 18O 24P 6 exhibited the best pore uniformity and corrosion resistance.

  16. Influence of the degree of metamorphism and reduction of the anthracites of the Donbas on the properties of the products of their thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremin, I.V.; Ivanov, V.P.; Maloletnev, A.S.; Danilova, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the reported experiments, the influence of high-temperature treatment on the structure and properties of anthracites of the Donbas of different degrees of metamorphism and reduction has been studied. It has been shown that on thermal treatment up to 1250/degree/C feebly metamorphosed anthracites achieve structural orderedness to a considerable degree and their use in the electrode industry is possible. The predominating influence of the degree of metamorphism of the initial anthracites on the physicochemical properties of the products of their thermal treatment, as compared with that of the degree of reduction, has been established. 5 refs.

  17. Incidence of depression and influence of depression on the number of treatment cycles and births in a national cohort of 42 880 women treated with ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, C S; Hageman, I; Pinborg, A

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does prior depression in women treated with assisted reproduction technology (ART) influence the number of treatment cycles and ART live births? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with a depression diagnosis prior to ART treatment initiated statistically significantly fewer ART treatment cycle....../COMPETING INTEREST(S): Research grants are funded by the Danish Health Insurance Foundation and Merck Sharp & Dohme. The funders had no influence on the data collection, analyses or conclusions of the study. No conflict of interests to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A....

  18. Pharmacogenetics and olanzapine treatment: CYP1A2*1F and serotonergic polymorphisms influence therapeutic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, B; Leucht, S; Heres, S; Schneider, H; Steimer, W

    2010-02-01

    clinical treatment decisions given the fact that olanzapine serum concentrations correlated with treatment response. Side effects and weight gain, however, seem to be more influenced by serotonergic polymorphisms.

  19. Evaluation of the Influence of Specific Surface Treatments of RBA on a Set of Properties of Concrete

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    Marcela Ondova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High water absorption of recycled brick aggregate (RBA is one of the most discussed parameters in terms of its application in the production of concrete—its influence on the amount of mixing water and, hence, the quality of the concrete, is usually considered negative. In this paper, different methods of decreasing the absorption of RBA and, consequently, the impact on the properties of concrete, are described. The RBA has been treated to decrease the water absorption capacity by impregnation approach using specific impregnators. Afterwards, the RBA samples have been dried at two different temperatures in the laboratory oven—20 and 90 °C. Concretes using 4/8 fraction of the treated RBA instead of natural aggregate (NA have been mixed and tested. The effectiveness of the RBA treatments have been evaluated on the basis of their influence on the properties of the hardened concrete; by means of the following tests: flexural strength, compressive strength, capillarity, total water absorption capacity, depth of water penetration under pressure, and frost resistance. The method of ranking by ordinal scale has been used as it is suitable for the comparison of a large set of results, while results have been analyzed in terms of the most important technological parameter that influences the quality of the concrete-effective water content. Out of all the tested surface-treatments of RBA, treatment by sodium water glass has the best potential for reduction of the water/cement (w/c ratio. When the effective w/c ratio is kept within standard limits, concretes containing treated RBA are possible to be specified for various exposure classes and manufacturing in practice. The experiment confirms that at a constant amount of mixing water, with decreasing water absorption of RBA, the effective amount of water in the concrete increases and, hence, the final properties of the concrete decrease (get worse. As the water absorption of the RBA declines, there is a

  20. Factors influencing antiretroviral treatment suboptimal adherence among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Kerim; Kanabkaew, Cheeraya; Le Coeur, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Background Existing studies have suggested decreased adherence and rebound in mortality in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared to adults and young children. Methods We used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify factors influencing adherence among perinatally infected adolescents in Thailand. We analyzed data from 568 pairs of perinatally infected adolescents (aged 12–19) and their primary caregivers in the Teens Living With Antiretrovirals (TEEWA) study, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010–2012. We also conducted 12 in-depth interviews in 2014 with infected adolescents or their primary caregivers to elicit experiences of living with long-term ART. Results From the quantitative analysis, a total of 275 (48.4%) adolescents had evidence of suboptimal adherence based on this composite outcome: adolescents self-reported missing doses in the past 7 days, caregiver rating of overall adherence as suboptimal, or latest HIV-RNA viral load ≥1000 copies/ml. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, younger age, having grandparents or extended family members as the primary caregiver, caregiver-assessed poor intellectual ability, having a boy/girlfriend, frequent online chatting, self-reported unhappiness and easiness in asking doctors questions were significantly associated with suboptimal adherence. From the in-depth interviews, tensed relationships with caregivers, forgetfulness due to busy schedules, and fear of disclosing HIV status to others, especially boy/girlfriends, were important contributors to suboptimal adherence. Social and emotional support and counseling from peer group was consistently reported as a strong adherence-promoting factor. Conclusion Our findings highlight unique barriers of ART adherence among the perinatally infected adolescents. Future interventions should be targeted at helping adolescents to improve interpersonal relationships and build adaptive skills in

  1. Influence of phytic acid concentration on coating properties obtained by MAO treatment on magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.F., E-mail: rfzhang-10@163.com [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Surface Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China) and School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhang, S.F.; Duo, S.W. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Surface Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2009-06-30

    Anodic coatings were prepared by microarc oxidation (MAO) on AZ91HP in a base solution of 10 g/L NaOH with and without the addition of 0-12 g/L phytic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6}). The influences of C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} and its concentration on the conductivity and breakdown voltage were studied. The morphologies and compositions of anodic coatings were determined by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Potentiodynamic polarization test was performed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution to evaluate the corrosion resistance of anodic coatings. The results showed that with the increase of C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} concentration, the solution conductivity decreased while the values of breakdown voltage increased. EDX analysis showed that the coatings formed in solutions with C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} addition contained Mg, Al, O, C, P and a trance of Na. The addition of C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} into the base solution was helpful in coating formation and the coatings formed in the solution containing 8 g/L C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} exhibited the best pore uniformity and corrosion resistance.

  2. Neurodevelopment and brain growth in classic Menkes disease is influenced by age and symptomatology at initiation of copper treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Stephen G

    2014-10-01

    Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of brain copper metabolism caused by mutations in an essential mammalian copper transport gene, ATP7A. Untreated affected individuals suffer failure to thrive and neurodevelopmental delays that usually commence at 6-8 weeks of age. Death by age three years is typical. While provision of working copies of ATP7A to the brain by viral vectors is a promising strategy under development, the only treatment currently available is subcutaneous copper injections. These can normalize circulating blood levels and may replete brain copper depending on the molecular context, e.g., the severity of ATP7A mutation and potential presence of mosaicism. In this paper, we summarize somatic growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes for 60 subjects enrolled in a recently concluded phase I/II clinical trial of copper histidine for Menkes disease (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00001262). Primary outcomes indicate highly statistically significant improvements in gross motor, fine motor/adaptive, personal-social, and language neurodevelopment in the cohort of subjects who received early treatment prior to onset of symptoms (n=35). Correlating with these findings, quantitative parameters of somatic growth indicated statistically significant greater growth in head circumference for the initially asymptomatic group, whereas weight and height/length at age three years (or at time of death) did not differ significantly. Mortality at age 3 was higher (50%) in subjects older and symptomatic when treatment commenced compared to the asymptomatic group (28.6%). We conclude that early copper histidine for Menkes disease is safe and efficacious, with treatment outcomes influenced by the timing of intervention, and ATP7A mutation.

  3. Influence of sitgliptin and metformin treatment on glucose fluctuation and serum inflammatory factors in preliminary diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Xiang; Xun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of stigliptin and metformin treatment on glucose fluctuation and serum inflammatory factors in preliminary diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2015, 168 cases of patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into observation group and control group. The observation group was given sitgliptin (Januvia, 100 mg per d), while the control group was given metformin (Glucophage tablet, initial dose 0.5 g bid, twice per d), and the dosage of drugs was adjusted every 2 weeks according to glucose level. If the glucose level still wasn’t controlled to reach the normal standard by maximum dosage of drugs, 0.5 g bid of acarbose (Glucobay) was applied for the treatment 3 times one day till the glucose level reached the normal standard and the observation was kept for 6 months. The HbA1c, BMI, fluctuation indexes, and serum inflammatory factors of two groups were compared. Results: After the treatment of control group and observation group, the differences of PPGE (t=8.425,P=0.012), MAGE (t=7.348,P=0.014) and MODD (t=9.327,P=0.010) between two groups were significant (P<0.05). The differences of IL-6 (t=6.337,P=0.010) and TNF-α(t=6.521,P=0.011) level of observation group and control group after treatment were statistical significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:The sitgliptin could not only achieve glycemic control goal as metformin, but also induce glucose fluctuation and inhibit serum inflammation better.

  4. Study of regulatory T-cells in patients with gastric malt lymphoma: influence on treatment response and outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar García

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg play an essential role in modulating host responses to tumors and infections. The role of these cells in the pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas remains unknown. The aims of the study were to quantify the number of infiltrating FOXP3+ and CD3+ cells in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma at diagnosis and to study kinetics of these cells and CD20+ tumor cells after treatment and during long-term follow-up. METHODS: FOXP3+, CD3+ and CD20+ cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the number of cells was quantified using a micrometric ocular. Samples of 35 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma at diagnosis and after treatment were included. Diagnostic samples were compared to 19 cases of chronic gastritis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL of the stomach. RESULTS: The median number of FOXP3+ infiltrating cells was higher (27 cells/cm(2 in gastric MALT patients than in DLBCL (10 cells; p = 0.162 but similar to chronic gastritis (20 cells; p = 0.605. No characteristic or specific distribution pattern of infiltrating FOXP3+ cells was found. Gastric MALT lymphoma patients responding to bacterial eradication therapy had higher number of FOXP3+ cells at study entry. Kinetics of both infiltrating FOXP3+ cells and tumor CD20+ cells were strongly dependent on the treatment administered. DISCUSSION: Gastric MALT lymphomas have a number of Treg cells more similar to chronic gastritis than to DLBCL. Patients with higher number of tumor infiltrating FOXP3+ cells at study entry seem to have better response to antibiotics. Kinetics of Treg and tumor cells are influenced by type of treatment.

  5. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment evokes transient oxidative stress in HaCaT keratinocytes and influences cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Kristian; Straßenburg, Susanne; Haertel, Beate; Harms, Manuela; Holtz, Sarah; Barton, Annemarie; Masur, Kai; von Woedtke, Thomas; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2014-04-01

    Modern non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma sources enable controllable interaction with biological systems. Their future applications - e.g. wound management - are based on their unique mixture of reactive components sparking both stimulatory as well as inhibitory processes. To gain detailed understanding of plasma-cell interaction and with respect to risk awareness, key mechanisms need to be identified. This study focuses on the impact of an argon non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (kINPen 09) on human HaCaT keratinocytes. With increasing duration, cell viability decreased. In accordance, cells accumulated in G2/M phase within the following 24 h. DNA single-strand breaks were detected immediately after treatment and receded in the aftermath, returning to control levels after 24 h. No directly plasma-related DNA double-strand breaks were detected over the same time. Concurrently, DNA synthesis decreased. Coincident with treatment time, an increase in intracellular 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA) conversion increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The radical scavenging activity of culture medium crucially influenced these effects. Thus, ROS changed DNA integrity, and the effectiveness of cellular defence mechanisms characterises the interaction of non-thermal plasma and eukaryotic cells. Effects were time-dependent, indicating an active response of the eukaryotic cells. Hence, a stimulation of eukaryotic cells using short-term non-thermal plasma treatment seems possible, eg in the context of chronic wound care. Long-term plasma treatments stopped in cell proliferation and apoptosis, which might be relevant in controlling neoplastic conditions.

  6. Influence of hydrothermal treatment on dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content as well as antioxidative activity of legumes seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dry legumes seeds are food of high nutrient density. Besides the biologically precious protein they contain essential unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins of group B, dietary fiber and antioxidants. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of different soaking and cooking methods on dietary fiber and phe- nolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity of selected legumes’seeds. Material and methods. The experimental material was dry kidney bean originating from collection of Krakow’s Plants and Seeds Horticulture POLAN LTD, and soya bean seeds bought at the market store. The technological treatment of seeds was performed in two stages: 1 soaking in cold and hot water, 2 cook- ing with three different kinds of equipment – electrical stove, induction stove and microwave oven. In the above described ways prepared material was examined for the dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity. Results. The highest amount of dietary fiber was found in soya bean seeds cooked on an induction stove (27.4 g·100 g-1 d.m. and electric stove (27.3 g·100 g-1 d.m. after previous soaking in hot water. The dry soya bean and kidney bean seeds were characterised by a high content of phenolic compounds 163.2 mg GAE·100 g-1d.m. and 173.1 mg GAE·100 g-1d.m. respectively. The dry matter of cooked (on induction and electric stove kidney bean and soya seeds was characterised by a higher phenolic compounds level (232.7-311.6 mg GAE·100 g-1and 224.4-315.6 respectively than raw material. Antioxidative activity of untreated seeds of kidney bean and soya bean was 4.5 and 4.1 μmol Tx·g-1d.m. respectively. The high ability of free radicals scavenging was observed in kidney bean i.e. 8.7 μmol Tx·g-1  d.m. after traditional soaking and 9.5 μmol Tx·g-1d.m. after “hot” soaking. Conclusions. Soaking and cooking of seeds (despite the species influenced growth of phenolic compounds content in dry

  7. Back to Natural Fiber: Wool Color Influences Its Sensitivity to Enzymatic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro A. Amara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many missed biotechnological opportunities in the developmental countries. Wool quality improvement is one of them. This study is concerning with improving the wool quality using technical enzymes. White wool proves to be more susceptible to the enzymatic treatment than blackish brown wool. This proves that the enzymatic reaction is sensitive to the natural color differences between wool fibers. A simple enzymatic method has been used to improve the wool quality as well as to investigate the changes happened in the wool fibers. Geobacillus stearothermophilus has been used under mesophilic and static cultivation conditions using wool as the main carbon source. These conditions prove to be more suitable for maintaining the fiber structure, less expensive, and reliable as an in-house biotechnological process that can be adapted everywhere. The enzyme activity in case of white wool was 4 Units/ml and for blackish brown wool was 1.5 Units/ml. Electron microscope has been used to evaluate the end result. By following the process included in this paper using probable microbial strain(s, the wool quality improvement can be applied globally and can add another value to the economy of the developmental countries.

  8. Back to Natural Fiber: Wool Color Influences Its Sensitivity to Enzymatic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Amro A.

    2012-01-01

    There are many missed biotechnological opportunities in the developmental countries. Wool quality improvement is one of them. This study is concerning with improving the wool quality using technical enzymes. White wool proves to be more susceptible to the enzymatic treatment than blackish brown wool. This proves that the enzymatic reaction is sensitive to the natural color differences between wool fibers. A simple enzymatic method has been used to improve the wool quality as well as to investigate the changes happened in the wool fibers. Geobacillus stearothermophilus has been used under mesophilic and static cultivation conditions using wool as the main carbon source. These conditions prove to be more suitable for maintaining the fiber structure, less expensive, and reliable as an in-house biotechnological process that can be adapted everywhere. The enzyme activity in case of white wool was 4 Units/ml and for blackish brown wool was 1.5 Units/ml. Electron microscope has been used to evaluate the end result. By following the process included in this paper using probable microbial strain(s), the wool quality improvement can be applied globally and can add another value to the economy of the developmental countries. PMID:22629141

  9. Influence of wastewater treatment plant discharges on microplastic concentrations in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estahbanati, Shirin; Fahrenfeld, N L

    2016-11-01

    The abundance of microplastic particles in the marine environment is well documented, but less is known about microplastics in the freshwater environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may not effectively remove microplastics allowing for their release to the freshwater environment. To investigate concentration of microplastic in fresh water and the impact of WWTP effluent, samples were collected upstream and downstream of four major municipal WWTPs on the Raritan River, NJ. Microplastics were categorized into three quantitative categories (500-2000 μm, 250-500 μm, 125-250 μm), and one semi-quantitative category (63-125 μm). Then, microplastics were classified as primary (manufactured in small size) or secondary (derived from larger plastics) based on morphology. The concentration of microplastics in the 125-250 and 250-500 μm size categories significantly increased downstream of WWTP. The smaller size classes, often not quantified in microplastic studies, were in high relative abundance across sampling sites. While primary microplastics significantly increased downstream of WWTP, secondary microplastic was the dominant type in the quantitative size categories (66-88%). A moderate correlation between microplastic and distance downstream was observed. These results have implications for understanding the fate and transport of microplastics in the freshwater environment.

  10. Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse. Influence of catalyst type and chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinar, J.M.; Beltran, F.J.; Ramiro, A.; Gonzalez, J.F. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica

    1997-10-01

    Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse under different experimental conditions has been studied. Variables investigated were temperature and type and concentration of catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an isothermal manner. Products of pyrolysis are gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}), liquids (methanol, acetone, furfurylic alcohol, phenol, furfural, naphthalene, and o-cresol), and solids (chars). Temperature is a significant variable, yielding increases of fixed carbon content, gases, and to a lesser extent, ash percentage. Catalyst presence also yields increases of solid phase content, but the amount of liquid components decrease. Among catalysts applied those of Fe and Zn are the most advisable to obtain gases. Chemical treatment of bagasses with sulfuric or phosphoric acid washing leads to lower char yields, although fixed carbon content is higher and ash presence diminishes with respect to catalyst pyrolysis without chemical pretreatment. A pyrolysis kinetic study based on gas generation from thermal decomposition of residues has been carried out. From the model proposed, rate constants for the formation of each gas, reaction order of the catalyst, and activation energies were determined.

  11. Influencing effect of heat-treatment on radon emanation and exhalation characteristic of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Zoltán; Szántó, János; Kovács, János; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2015-10-01

    The reuse of industrial by-products is important for members of numerous industrial sectors. However, though the benefits of reuse are evident from an economical point of view, some compounds in these materials can have a negative effect on users' health. In this study, the radon emanation and exhalation features of red mud were surveyed using heat-treatment (100-1200 °C). As a result of the 1200°C-treated samples, massic radon exhalation capacity reduced from 75 ± 10 mBq kg(-1) h(-1) to 7 ± 4 mBq kg(-1) h(-1), approximately 10% of the initial exhalation rate. To find an explanation for internal structural changes, the porosity features of the heat-treated samples were also investigated. It was found that the cumulative pore volume reduced significantly in less than 100 nm, which can explain the reduced massic exhalation capacity in the high temperature treated range mentioned above. SEM snapshots were taken of the surfaces of the samples as visual evidence for superficial morphological changes. It was found that the surface of the high temperature treated samples had changed, proving the decrement of open pores on the surface.

  12. GAIT VARIABILITY IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE: INFLUENCE OF WALKING SPEED AND DOPAMINERGIC TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Mon S; Rintala, Diana H; Hou, Jyhgong G; Charness, Ann L; Fernandez, Angel L; Collins, Robert L; Baker, Jeff; Lai, Eugene C; Protas, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To study the effects of levodopa and walking speed on gait variability in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Thirty-three individuals with PD were studied. Their mean age was 70.61 ± 9.23 yr. The average time since diagnosis was 9.65 ± 5.80 yr years. Gait variability was studied while “OFF” and “ON” dopaminergic medication when the subjects walked at their usual and fastest speeds. Results Variability of step time, double support time, stride length and stride velocity decreased significantly (p = .037; p = .037; p = .022; p = .043, respectively) after dopaminergic treatment. When subjects increased walking speed, the variability of stride length and stride velocity decreased significantly (p = .038 and p = .004, respectively) both while “OFF” and “ON” levodopa. Increasing walking speed did not change the variability of step time and double support time regardless of medication status. Conclusions Levodopa decreased gait variability in persons with PD. Stride length and stride velocity variability appeared to be speed dependent parameters, whereas, the variability of step time and double support time appeared to be speed independent measures. Levodopa had positive effects on gait stability in PD. PMID:22080998

  13. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; He, Liansheng; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China. The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined. Combined with rotated principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities. The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH. The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption. A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH, Fe, 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox), surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs. However, factors related to other properties (Ca, P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected. In addition, the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox+Alox) of the WTRs (p<0.05). Overall, WTRs with high contents of Alox, Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications.

  14. Influence of combined thermomechanical treatment on impurity segregation in ferritic-martensitic and austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, A. M.; Neustroev, V. S.; Shamardin, V. K.; Shestakov, V. P.; Tazhibaeva, I. L.; Krivchenkoa, V. A.

    2000-12-01

    In this study 13Cr2MoVNb ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) and 16Cr15Ni3MoNb austenitic stainless steel (ASS) tensile specimens were subjected to standard heat treatments and divided into two groups. Specimens in group 1 (FMS only) were aged at 400°C in a stress free and in an elastically stressed state with a tensile load (100 MPa) then doped with hydrogen in an electrolytic cell. Specimens in group 2 were subjected to cold work (up to 10%) and exposed to short-time heating at 500° for 0.5 h. All specimens were fractured at room temperature in an Auger spectrometer and Auger analysis of the fracture surfaces was performed in situ after fracturing. A noticeable increase of N and P segregation levels and a widening of the depth distribution on the grain boundary facets were observed in the FMS after aging in the stressed state. Cold-worked FMS and ASS showed a ductile dimple mode of fracture, but relatively high levels of S, P and N were observed on the dimple surfaces. We consider the origin of such effects in terms of the stressed state and plastic-deformation-enhanced segregation.

  15. The influence of applied heat-treatment on in 718 fatigue life at three point flexural bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Belan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Inconel alloy 718 is an iron-nickel based superalloy with a working temperature up to 650 °C. Presented phases such as γ'' (Ni3Nb, γ' (Ni3Al, and δ (delta – Ni3Nb are responsible for the alloy's unique properties. The δ – delta phase is profitable when situated at grain boundaries in small quantities due to increasing fatigue life. However, at temperatures close to 650 °C the γ'' transforms to δ – delta and causes a decrease in fatigue life. Heat-treatment (800°C/ for 72 hours and its influence on fatigue life are discussed in this paper. Fatigue tests were carried out at room temperature. After the tests we plotted the S-N curves for both stages. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy fractography was carried out as well.

  16. EXCHANGE RATE DIFFERENCES-THE ACCOUNTING TREATMENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF AN ECONOMIC ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Cristina MATEI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currency rate differences arise when there are certain debt rights or obligations in foreign currency of an economic entity which are collected, i.e. paid for at a different course from the one displayed by the Romanian National Bank on the date of their establishment. Such differences, according to the situation, generate expenditure or revenue which affects a company's financial result and, consequently, the accountant result as well. The results registered by an economic entity presented in the Profit and Loss Account provide information about its financial performance. This performance can be influenced by the favorable or unfavorable exchange rate differences existing when an economic entity carries out transactions or has incurred foreign currency loans having a significant share in the total amount of transactions or in capitals. The present paper shows the accounting treatment of the exchange rate differences and its impact on the financial performance.

  17. Factors influencing the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary opioids in substance abusers seeking treatment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Theodore J; Ellis, Matthew S; Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary drugs of abuse in opioid-dependent subjects (n = 3520) entering one of 160 drug treatment programs around the country. Anonymous, self-administered surveys and direct qualitative interviews were used to examine the influence of demographic characteristics, drug use patterns, and decision-related factors on primary opioid selection. Our results showed that oxycodone and hydrocodone were the drugs of choice in 75% of all patients. Oxycodone was the choice of significantly more users (44.7%) than hydrocodone (29.4%) because the quality of the high was viewed to be much better by 54% of the sample, compared to just 20% in hydrocodone users, who cited acetaminophen as a deterrent to dose escalation to get high and hence, its low euphoric rating. Hydrocodone users were generally risk-averse women, elderly people, noninjectors, and those who prefer safer modes of acquisition than dealers (ie, doctors, friends, or family members). In contrast, oxycodone was a much more attractive euphorigenic agent to risk-tolerant young, male users who prefer to inject or snort their drugs to get high and are willing to use more aggressive forms of diversion. Prevention and treatment approaches, and pain physicians, should benefit from these results because it is clear that not all drug abusers share the same characteristics, and the decision to use one drug over another is a complex one, which is largely attributable to individual differences (eg, personality, gender, age, and other factors).

  18. Experimental biofilms within drinking water treatment plant origin; evaluation of nutrient concentration and temperature influences upon their development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca FARKAS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the planktonic free-floating state, microorganisms pass to the solid state, the biofilm, cells being strongly attached to each other and usually to the interface. This changing in cells’ behavior induces surface colonization and complex interactions development within the biofilm. If the biofilm’s role into the natural aquatic habitats is, undoubtedly, a positive one, consisting in water self-purification, drinking water pipe networks biofouling can be responsible for a wide range of water quality and operational problems. This exploratory experiment was performed in order to investigate, in a time interval of 7 days, the influence of certain environmental factors such as nutrient concentration and temperature upon in vitro biofilm’s development, origin in the biofilm of water treatment plant. The method used for in vitro biofilm growth monitoring is the colorimetric measurement of the biomass. Descriptive analyses, including the mean value, variability, trends, correlations and graphic displays were performed. The correlation analysis shown that the biofilm development in the discussed experiment was influenced as by the origin source as by the temperature, time and nutrients concentration. The biomass increment was significantly different for the biofilms with clarifier and sand filter sites origin, grown at 22 oC, while at 8 oC, the differences were not significant from a statistical point of view. For all the dilutions, moments and temperatures considered, the biofilm’s development with clarifier origin registered was significantly higher than the biofilm with sand filter origin.

  19. Influence Of Thermal Treatment On Relaxor Properties Of BaBi2Nb2O9 Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczyk M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the hereby paper the implications of thermal modification of BaBi2Nb2O9 ceramics in high vacuum (5×10−11 bar at a temperature equal of 1173K are widely discussed. The mentioned modification caused changes in the ions concentration (confirmed by EDS and XPS analysis and as a consequence an influence on the value of the unit cell parameters as well as on the dielectric and relaxor properties of described ceramics. The obtained results of EDS and XPS analysis of the sample before and after thermal treatment revealed bismuth ions diffusion to the surface of the sample (which was expected and an almost complete the lack of barium ions on the modified surface. The comparison of EDS and XPS analysis results, suggested that they penetrated the interior of the sample and embedded into the crystal structure in place of bismuth. The hypothesis is in good agreement with the results of X-ray diffraction – the volume of the unit cell had an insignificant increase. The changes in the ions concentration influenced, also in a distinct manner, the dielectric and relaxor properties as well as on the shape of temperature characteristic of thermal stimulated depolarization current observed in BBN ceramics.

  20. Parental and family influences on dental treatment need among school children from north Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Murali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Very few studies have documented the relative significant factors that assess the parents and their family status that can have some impact towards dental treatment needs. Aim: To assess the burden of dental caries among children aged 8-14 years in relation to parental influence and family characteristics from North Bengaluru. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out on 1216 school children aged 8 years to 14 years. Children were examined in schools and data comprised information about dental caries status. Structured questionnaires were given to parents to collect information regarding their socioenvironmental and family characteristics. Student′s t-test on metric parameters and Chi-square/Fisher for study parameters between two or more groups were used. Results: In families where the average monthly income <6000/-, decayed, missing, and filled teeth was proportionately lower in comparison to decayed, missing, and filled surfaces which were higher. Conclusions: The socioeconomic status, which is primarily influenced by parental factors and family structure, have a definite role in dental needs of children from underprivileged background. Dental health program should aim to reduce the gross inequalities in the oral health status of these children and their families.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in Dutch recreational waters influenced by wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaak, Hetty; de Kruijf, Patrick; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

    2014-07-16

    Outside health care settings, people may acquire ESBL-producing bacteria through different exposure routes, including contact with human or animal carriers or consumption of contaminated food. However, contact with faecally contaminated surface water may also represent a possible exposure route. The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in four Dutch recreational waters and the possible role of nearby waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as contamination source. Isolates from recreational waters were compared with isolates from WWTP effluents, from surface water upstream of the WWTPs, at WWTP discharge points, and in connecting water bodies not influenced by the studied WWTPs. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in all four recreational waters, with an average concentration of 1.3 colony forming units/100ml, and in 62% of all samples. In surface waters not influenced by the studied WWTPs, ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in similar concentrations, indicating the existence of additional ESBL-E. coli contamination sources. Isolates with identical ESBL-genes, phylogenetic background, antibiotic resistance profiles, and sequence type, were obtained from effluent and different surface water sites in the same watershed, on the same day; occasionally this included isolates from recreational waters. Recreational waters were identified as a potential exposure source of ESBL-producing E. coli. WWTPs were shown to contribute to the presence of these bacteria in surface waters, but other (yet unidentified) sources likely co-contribute.

  2. Influence of number of dental autoclave treatment cycles on rotational performance of commercially available air-turbine handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masahiro; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2006-06-01

    The influence of number of autoclave treatment cycles (N) on rotational speed and total indicated run-out of commercially available air-turbine handpieces from five manufacturers was investigated at N=0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 cycles, and the significance in the test results was assessed by Dunnett's multiple comparison test. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in rotational speed at N=300 cycles, however, the decreases of the rotational speeds were only 1 to 3.5 percent. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in total indicated run-out, however, the respective values were smaller than that at N=0 cycle. Accordingly, it can be considered that the ball bearing in the air-turbine handpieces is not affected significantly by autoclave. To further evaluate rotational performance, this study focused on the rotational vibration of the ball bearing components of the air-turbine, as measured by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis; the power spectra of frequency of the ball's revolution, frequency of the cage's rotation and frequency of the ball's rotation were comparatively investigated at N=0, 150 and 300 cycles, and the influence of autoclave was evaluated qualitatively. No abnormalities in the ball bearings were recognized.

  3. Influence of surface treatment and cyclic loading on the durability of repaired all-ceramic crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Attia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the durability of repaired all-ceramic crowns after cyclic loading. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty In-ceram zirconia crowns were fabricated to restore prepared maxillary premolars. Resin cement was used for cementation of crowns. Palatal cusps were removed to simulate fracture of veneering porcelain and divided into 4 groups (n = 20. Fracture site was treated before repair as follows: roughening with diamond bur, (DB; air abrasion using 50 µm Al2O3, (AA and silica coating using Cojet system followed by silane application, (SC. Control group (CG 20 specimens were left without fracture. Palatal cusps were repaired using composite resin. Specimens were stored in water bath at 37ºC for one week. Ten specimens of each group were subjected to cyclic loading. Fracture load (N was recorded for each specimen using a universal testing machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD test (a=.05 were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: There was statistically significant difference between control and tested groups, (p<0.001. Post Hoc analysis with the Tukey HSD test showed that cyclic loading fatigue significantly decreased means fracture load of control and test groups as follows (CG, 950.4±62.6 / 872.3±87.4, P = 0.0004, (DB, 624.2 ±38 / 425.5± 31.7, P <.001, (AA, 711.5 ±15.5 / 490 ± 25.2, p <0.001 and (SC, 788.7 ± 18.1 / 610.2 ± 25.2, P <.001, while silica coating and silane application significantly increased fracture load of repaired crowns (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Repair of fractured In-ceram zirconia crowns after chairside treatment of the fracture site by silica coating and silane application could improve longevity of repaired In-ceram zirconia crowns.

  4. Influence of different curette insertion depths on the outcome of non-surgical periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Y; Hiwatashi-Horinouchi, K; Furuichi, Y; Sueda, T

    1999-11-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the effects of scaling and root planing (Sc/RP) performed from approximately 1 mm coronal to (test Sc/RP) or at the bottom of (control Sc/RP) the probeable pocket to the gingival margin. 2 male and 5 female patients with moderate to severe periodontitis participated in the study. Initial examination was performed with respect to probing pocket depth (PPD) and probing attachment level (PAL) using a pressure-controlled periodontal probe and stents. The patients received repeated instruction in oral hygiene, and their plaque control reached an excellent level. Baseline examination including PPD and PAL measurements was then performed. Following the baseline examination, single-rooted teeth in 1 quadrant of each dentition were randomly selected and subjected to the test Sc/RP (test teeth) or control Sc/RP (control teeth). The PPD and PAL were measured 1 and 3 months following Sc/RP. It was demonstrated that: (i) the PPD reduction following Sc/RP was larger at the sites with initially deep pockets than at the sites with shallow pockets; (ii) the mean PPD reduction at the sites with an initial PPD > or =3.5 mm was significantly larger in the control teeth than in the test teeth; (iii) there was a significant PAL gain in the initially deep pockets but not in the initially shallow pockets; (iv) the PAL gain in the initially shallow pockets was significantly larger in the control teeth than in the test teeth. In the treatment of periodontitis, trauma caused by Sc/RP to the most coronal part of the connective tissue attachment seems to be of minor importance compared to the effective removal of subgingival deposits.

  5. The HLA-A*31:01 allele: influence on carbamazepine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Vincent Lai Ming; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2017-01-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an effective anticonvulsant that can sometimes cause hypersensitivity reactions that vary in frequency and severity. Strong associations have been reported between specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and susceptibility to CBZ hypersensitivity reactions. Screening for HLA-B*15:02 is mandated in patients from South East Asia because of a strong association with Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). HLA-A*31:01 predisposes to multiple phenotypes of CBZ hypersensitivity including maculopapular exanthema, hypersensitivity syndrome, and SJS/TEN in a range of populations including Europeans, Japanese, South Koreans and Han Chinese, although the effect size varies between the different phenotypes and populations. Between 47 Caucasians and 67 Japanese patients would need to be tested for HLA-A*31:01 in order to avoid a single case of CBZ hypersensitivity. A cost-effectiveness study has demonstrated that HLA-A*31:01 screening would be cost-effective. Patient preference assessment has also revealed that patients prefer pharmacogenetic screening and prescription of alternative anticonvulsants compared to current standard of practice without pharmacogenetic testing. For patients who test positive for HLA-A*31:01, alternative treatments are available. When alternatives have failed or are unavailable, HLA-A*31:01 testing can alert clinicians to 1) patients who are at increased risk of CBZ hypersensitivity who can then be targeted for more intensive monitoring and 2) increase diagnostic certainty in cases where hypersensitivity has already occurred, so patients can be advised to avoid structurally related drugs in the future. On the basis of the current evidence, we would favor screening all patients for HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 prior to starting CBZ therapy. PMID:28203102

  6. The Influence of Shock Treatment on Survival Rate of Intestinal Probiotics during Freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun; ZHANG Lanwei; LIU Libo; FENG Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Probiotics which can provide potential health benefits for consumers and prevent disease, is the most important research field for functional food in the future.It is the key point that how much the count of bacteria and how long it can preserve. Freeze-drying skill is one of the best preservation methods, but it's defect that damage to biological systems can be attributed to changes in the physical state of membrane lipids or/and changes in the structure of sensitive proteins and the decreased survival rate. This work used pretreatment methods-cold shock and hot shock to reduce the damage to bacteria during freeze-drying. Using unpretreated samples as control, aspects of cold shock or heat shock. The response of Enterococcous faecalis A31 was investigated during lag phase, the middle of exponential growth phase and the terminal of exponential growth phase. The results suggested that when cold shock,the shock protein concentration produced by treated sample within 2 h during the middle of exponential growth phase was higher than 4, 8, 24 h, The concentration of shock protein produced by treated sample at 10℃ was higher than 20℃,The concentration of sample protein at the middle of exponential growth phase was higher than that at the terminal of exponential growth phase. After one-month storage, the survival rate at 10℃ was better than 20 ℃ and 4 ℃comparatively. The survival rate at (6 h) 4 ℃/24 h (lag period) was higher than (10 h) 4 ℃/24 h (the middle of exponential growth phase), and the effect of 10 ℃/8 h shock treatments was best during the middle of exponential growth phase, when hot shock, The concentration of heat shock proteins produced was not obvious, and survival rate was higher at 45 ℃, 30 min than at 45 ℃, 60 min.

  7. Influence of different treatment techniques on radiation dose to the LAD coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molls Michael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the ability of an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT technique to reduce the radiation dose to the heart plus the left ventricle and a coronary artery. Radiation-induced heart disease might be a serious complication in long-term cancer survivors. Methods Planning CT scans from 6 female patients were available. They were part of a previous study of mediastinal IMRT for target volumes used in lymphoma treatment that included 8 patients and represent all cases where the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD could be contoured. We compared 6 MV AP/PA opposed fields to a 3D conformal 4-field technique and an optimised 7-field step-and-shoot IMRT technique and evaluated DVH's for several structures. The planning system was BrainSCAN 5.21 (BrainLAB, Heimstetten, Germany. Results IMRT maintained target volume coverage but resulted in better dose reduction to the heart, left ventricle and LAD than the other techniques. Selective dose reduction could be accomplished, although not to the degree initially attempted. The median LAD dose was approximately 50% lower with IMRT. In 5 out of 6 patients, IMRT was the best technique with regard to heart sparing. Conclusion IMRT techniques are able to reduce the radiation dose to the heart. In addition to dose reduction to whole heart, individualised dose distributions can be created, which spare, e.g., one ventricle plus one of the coronary arteries. Certain patients with well-defined vessel pathology might profit from an approach of general heart sparing with further selective dose reduction, accounting for the individual aspects of pre-existing damage.

  8. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  9. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leilei Bai; Changhui Wang; Liansheng He; Yuansheng Pei

    2014-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China.The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined.Combined with rotated principal component analysis,multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities.The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20 mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH.The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption.A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH,Fe,200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox),surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs.However,factors related to other properties (Ca,P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected.In addition,the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox + Alox) of the WTRs (p < 0.05).Overall,WTRs with high contents of Alox,Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications.

  10. Influence of data collection schemes on the Life Cycle Assessment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Clavreul, Julie; Scheutz, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-06-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was conducted to illustrate the effect of an emission inventory data collection scheme on the outcomes of an environmental impact assessment. Due to their burden in respect to data collection, LCAs often rely heavily on existing emission and operational data, which are gathered under either compulsory monitoring or reporting requirements under law. In this study, an LCA was conducted using three input data sources: Information compiled under compulsory disclosure requirements (the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Registry), compliance with national discharge limits, and a state-of-the-art emission data collection scheme conducted at the same WWTP. Parameter uncertainty for each collection scheme was assessed through Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison of the results confirmed that LCA results depend heavily on input data coverage. Due to the threshold on reporting value, the E-PRTR did not capture the impact for particulate matter emission, terrestrial acidification, or terrestrial eutrophication. While the current practice can capture more than 90% of non-carcinogenic human toxicity and marine eutrophication, an LCA based on the data collection scheme underestimates impact potential due to limitations of substance coverage. Besides differences between data collection schemes, the results showed that 3-13,500% of the impacts came from background systems, such as from the provisioning of fuel, electricity, and chemicals, which do not need to be disclosed currently under E-PRTR. The incidental release of pollutants was also assessed by employing a scenario-based approach, the results of which demonstrated that these non-routine emissions could increase overall WWTP greenhouse gas emissions by between 113 and 210%. Overall, current data collection schemes have the potential to provide standardized data collection and form the basis for a sound environmental impact assessment, but

  11. Influence of composition and heat treatment on damping and magnetostrictive properties of Fe-18%(Ga+Al) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, I S [National University of Science and Technology MISIS; Palacheva, V V [National University of Science and Technology MISIS; Zadorozhnyy, V Yu [National University of Science and Technology MISIS; Zhu, J [University of Science and Technology Beijing; Jiang, H [University of Science and Technology Beijing; Cifre, J [Universitat de les Illes Balears; Lograsso, Thomas A [Ames Laboratory

    2014-10-01

    The structure, magnetostriction and damping properties of Fe82Ga(18?x)Alx(x = 0, 5, 8, 12) alloys were analyzed. The anelastic response of Fe–18(Ga + Al) alloys was studied as a function of temperature (from 0 to 600 ?C), frequency (from 0.01 to 200 Hz) and amplitude (from 0.0004% to 0.2%) of forced vibrations. The origin of the relatively high damping capacity of Fe–Ga–Al alloy at room temperature was determined by applying a magnetic field and different heat treatment regimes. The substitution of Ga by Al in Fe–18% Ga alloys was found to decrease magnetostriction and damping. The heat treatment of alloys influences the damping capacity of alloys more than variations of their chemical compositions. Thermally activated frequency and temperature-dependent anelastic effects in Fe– Ga–Al alloys were analyzed and the corresponding activation parameters for relaxation processes were evaluated. Internal friction effects caused by structural transformations were recorded and were found to be consistent with the A2 ! D03! L12reaction. The physical mechanisms for all anelastic effects are discussed

  12. Influence of bentonite in polymer membranes for effective treatment of car wash effluent to protect the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S Aditya; Arthanareeswaran, G; Thuyavan, Y Lukka; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    In this study, modified polyethersulfone (PES) and cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were used in the treatment of car wash effluent using ultrafiltration. Hydrophilic sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and bentonite as nanoclay were used as additives for the PES and CA membrane modification. Performances of modified membranes were compared with commercial PES membrane with 10kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO). The influencing parameters like stirrer speed (250-750rpm) and transmembrane pressure (100-600kPa) (TMP) were varied and their effects were studied as a function of flux. In the treatment of car wash effluent, a higher permeate flux of 52.3L/m(2)h was obtained for modified CA membrane at TMP of 400kPa and stirrer speed of 750rpm. In comparison with modified PES membrane and commercial PES membrane, modified CA membranes showed better performance in terms of flux and flux recovery ratio. The highest COD removal (60%) was obtained for modified CA membrane and a lowest COD removal (47%) was observed for commercial PES membrane. The modified membranes were better at removing COD, turbidity and maintained more stable flux than commercial PES membrane, suggesting they will provide better economic performance in car wash effluent reclamation.

  13. Influences of NOM composition and bacteriological characteristics on biological stability in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Meyer, Anne S; Kim, Sungpyo; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The influences of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteriological characteristics on the biological stability of water were investigated in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. We found that prechlorination decreased the hydrophobicity of the organic matter and significantly increased the high-molecular-weight (MW) dissolved organic matter, such as biopolymers and humic substances. High-MW organic matter and structurally complex compounds are known to be relatively slowly biodegradable; however, because of the prechlorination step, the indigenous bacteria could readily utilise these fractions as assimilable organic carbon. Sequential coagulation and sedimentation resulted in the substantial removal of biopolymer (74%), humic substance (33%), bacterial cells (79%), and assimilable organic carbon (67%). Rapid sand and granular activated carbon filtration induced an increase in the low-nucleic-acid content bacteria; however, these bacteria were biologically less active in relation to enzymatic activity and ATP. The granular activated carbon step was essential to securing biological stability (the ability to prevent bacterial growth) by removing the residual assimilable organic carbon that had formed during the ozone treatment. The growth potential of Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria were found to differ in respect to NOM characteristics. In comparison with E. coli, the indigenous bacteria utilised a broader range of NOM as a carbon source. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the measured biological stability of water could differ, depending on the NOM characteristics, as well as on the bacterial inoculum selected for the analysis.

  14. The influence of the time of antidotal treatment administration on its effectiveness against tabun-induced poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí

    2004-01-01

    1. The influence of the time of administration of antidotal treatment consisting of anticholinergic drug (atropine) and oxime (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 or trimedoxime) on its effectiveness to eliminate tabun-induced lethal effects was studied in mice. 2. The therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of tabun-induced acute poisoning depends on the time of its administration when obidoxime or the oxime HI-6 was used as an acetylcholinesterase reactivator. 3. Pralidoxime is practically ineffective to eliminate acute toxic effects of tabun regardless of the time of its administration. 4. Our results show that trimedoxime seems to be the most effective to eliminate lethal effects of tabun. In addition, its efficacy does not decrease when it is administered 5 min after tabun poisoning. 5. The findings support the hypothesis that trimedoxime appears to be the most suitable oxime to counteract acute toxicity of tabun because of its ability to eliminate lethal effects of tabun when it is injected 5 min after tabun challenge on the contrary to other oximes tested.

  15. The influence of antidotal treatment of low-level tabun exposure on cognitive functions in rats using a water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, J; Kunesova, G

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of antidotal treatment of tabun poisoning on cognitive function, in the case of low-level tabun exposure, was studied. The impairment of cognitive function was evaluated by the measurement of spatial learning and memory in rats poisoned with a sublethal dose of tabun and treated with atropine alone or in combination with newly developed oximes {K027 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethyl- pyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) propane dibromide] and K048 [1-(4-hydroxyimino- methylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) butane dibromide]} or currently available oxime (trimedoxime), using the Morris water maze. While atropine alone caused an impairment of studied cognitive functions, the addition of an oxime to atropine contributes to the improvement of cognitive performance of treated tabun-poisoned rats regardless of the type of oxime. The differences in the ameliorative effects of oximes on atropine-induced mnemonic deficits were not significant. Therefore, each low-level nerve agent exposure should be treated by complex antidotal treatment consisting of anticholinergic drug and oxime.

  16. Influence of ion nitriding regime on mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of austenitic steel subjected to different thermomechanical treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, Valentina; Astafurova, Elena; Ramazanov, Kamil; Melnikov, Eugene; Maier, Galina; Budilov, Vladimir

    2016-11-01

    The effect of thermomechanical treatments and low-temperature ion nitriding on mechanical properties and a fracture mechanism of stable austenitic stainless steel Fe-17Cr-13Ni-1.7Mn-2.7Mo-0.5Si-0.01C (in wt %, 316L-type) was investigated. Irrespective of initial heat treatments of steel and the regime of nitrogen saturation, traditional ion nitriding and nitriding with hollow cathode effect do not influence the stages of plastic flow and strain hardening; instead, they contribute to surface hardening of steel samples and reduce their plastic properties due to formation of a brittle surface layer. Ion nitriding leads to formation of a hardened surface layer with the microhardness of 12 GPa. Formation of a high-defective grain/subgrain structure with high dislocation density contributes to strengthening of steel samples under ion nitriding and formation of a thicker strengthened layer in comparison with fine-crystalline and coarse-crystalline samples.

  17. Coenzyme Q10 treatments influence the lifespan and key biochemical resistance systems in the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachecka, Aneta; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Paleolog, Jerzy; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Bajda, Milena; Krauze, Magdalena; Merska, Malwina; Chobotow, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    Natural bioactive preparations that will boost apian resistance, aid body detoxification, or fight crucial bee diseases are in demand. Therefore, we examined the influence of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, 2,3-dimethoxy, 5-methyl, 6-decaprenyl benzoquinone) treatment on honeybee lifespan, Nosema resistance, the activity/concentration of antioxidants, proteases and protease inhibitors, and biomarkers. CoQ10 slows age-related metabolic processes. Workers that consumed CoQ10 lived longer than untreated controls and were less infested with Nosema spp. Relative to controls, the CoQ10-treated workers had higher protein concentrations that increased with age but then they decreased in older bees. CoQ10 treatments increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, GPx, catalase, glutathione S-transferase), protease inhibitors, biomarkers (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase), the total antioxidant potential level, and concentrations of uric acid and creatinine. The activities of acidic, neutral, and alkaline proteases, and concentrations of albumin and urea were lower in the bees that were administered CoQ10. CoQ10 could be taken into consideration as a natural diet supplement in early spring before pollen sources become available in the temperate Central European climate. A response to CoQ10 administration that is similar to mammals supports our view that Apis mellifera is a model organism for biochemical gerontology.

  18. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work.

  19. [Comparative evaluation of influence of low-intensity laser radiation of different spectrum components and regimen of laser work upon microcirculation in comprehensive treatment of chronic parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechina, E K; Shidova, A V; Maslova, V V

    2008-01-01

    Comparative study of the influence details of low-intensity pulse and continuous oscillation of laser radiation of red and infrared parts of spectrum upon microcirculation indices in comprehensive treatment of chronic parodontitis of light and middle severity was performed. For the first time the predominantly activating influence upon microcirculation in gingival tissues of the pulsed laser radiation in the red part of spectrum was established.

  20. Thermal analysis of the influence of the support in the superficial treatment by plasma of cylindrical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belisio, A.S.; Lima, J.A.; Alves Junior, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: abelisio@yahoo.com.br; jalima@dem.ufrn.br; alvesjr@dem.ufrn.br

    2008-07-01

    Different of the conventional processes of heating, that is, transport, convection, and radiation, heat transfer in heating process by plasma also occur also by collisions of particles, in other words, through the transfer heat motion ions for the surface of the sample, the kinetic energy, and potential those particles, as well as the enthalpy of the chemical reactions involved in the surface. In thermal plasmas, that transfer can to be simplified initially through general energy balance between plasma and samples. However, existent models of temperature distribution are in its majority unidimensional and it do not analyze, mainly, support influence on sample in the heating process by r plasma. In that way, with the mark of analyzing the temperature distribution in the samples submitted to polarization voltage of 706 V, 744 V and 790 V, as well as process heating support influence analysis those samples, the present work developed a code computational for a transient (2D-t) two-dimensional model, destined to the simulation of the heat transfer during heating phases and cooling in superficial process of treatment by plasma in cylindrical samples of copper, being considered the configuration of hollow cathode and the presence of a support. The model computational serves as a tool in the predict of the final properties of treated samples, well as in the specification of the parameters of the heating processes by plasma. In the developed model was considered that the physical samples properties were variable, functions of the temperature field. The results obtained through simulation are leaning and validated in experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, as well as, in information of tests accomplished in Lab Plasma/ UFRN. (author)

  1. The influence of a biopsychosocial-based treatment approach to primary overt hypothyroidism: a protocol for a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypothyroidism is a prevalent endocrine condition. Individuals with this disease are commonly managed through supplementation with synthetic thyroid hormone, with the aim of alleviating symptoms and restoring normal thyroid stimulating hormone levels. Generally this management strategy is effective and well tolerated. However, there is research to suggest that a significant proportion of hypothyroid sufferers are being inadequately managed. Furthermore, hypothyroid patients are more likely to have a decreased sense of well-being and more commonly experience constitutional and neuropsychiatric complaints, even with pharmacological intervention. The current management of hypothyroidism follows a biomedical model. Little consideration has been given to a biopsychosocial approach to this condition. Within the chiropractic profession there is growing support for the use of a biopsychosocial-based intervention called Neuro-Emotional Technique (NET for this population. Methods/Design A placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical pilot-trial has been designed to assess the influence of Neuro-Emotional Technique on a population with primary overt hypothyroidism. A sample of 102 adults (≥18 years who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomised to either a treatment group or a placebo group. Each group will receive ten treatments (NET or placebo over a six week period, and will be monitored for six months. The primary outcome will involve the measurement of depression using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS. The secondary outcome measures to be used are; serum thyroid stimulating hormone, serum free-thyroxine, serum free-triiodothyronine, serum thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies, serum thyroglobulin auto-antibodies as well as the measurement of functional health and well-being using the Short-Form-36 Version 2. The emotional states of anxiety and stress will be measured using the DASS. Self-measurement of

  2. Enhancement of Photoluminescence from Semiconducting Nanotubes in Aqueous Suspensions due to Cysteine and Dithiothreitol Doping: Influence of the Sonication Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, Nikita V; Leontiev, Victor S; Karachevtsev, Victor A

    2016-12-01

    The influence of tip sonication duration on the spectral characteristics of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous suspension with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) has been studied by NIR luminescence, NIR absorption, and Raman spectroscopy. It was revealed that prolongation of sonication leads to weakening of the SWNT polymer coverage and appearance of additional defects on the nanotube surface. Prolongation of the tip sonication treatment of SWNT/ssDNA from 30 to 90 min leads to the increase of the number of individual nanotubes in the aqueous suspension, but it significantly decreases the photoluminescence (PL) from semiconducting SWNTs because more defects are formed on the nanotube surface. At probing the SWNT/ssDNA emission with cysteine or dithiothreitol (DTT) doping the nanotube aqueous suspension showed the different PL intensity enhancement depending on the duration of the sonication treatment and on the ability of these reducing agents to passivate emission-quenching defects on the carbon nanotube sidewall. The magnitude of the PL enhancement rises with sonication prolongation and depends on the nanotube chirality. Tight and ordered polymer coverage of (6,4) nanotubes hampers the access of the reducing agent to emission-quenching defects on the nanotube surface and provides the weaker PL intensity increasing while (7,5) nanotubes show the strongest reaction to the doping effect. The comparison of cysteine and DTT ability to passivate the emission-quenching defects showed the higher efficiency of DTT doping. This prevailing is explained by the stronger reducing activity of DTT which is determined by a lower redox potential of this molecule.

  3. Enhancement of Photoluminescence from Semiconducting Nanotubes in Aqueous Suspensions due to Cysteine and Dithiothreitol Doping: Influence of the Sonication Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, Nikita V.; Leontiev, Victor S.; Karachevtsev, Victor A.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of tip sonication duration on the spectral characteristics of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous suspension with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) has been studied by NIR luminescence, NIR absorption, and Raman spectroscopy. It was revealed that prolongation of sonication leads to weakening of the SWNT polymer coverage and appearance of additional defects on the nanotube surface. Prolongation of the tip sonication treatment of SWNT/ssDNA from 30 to 90 min leads to the increase of the number of individual nanotubes in the aqueous suspension, but it significantly decreases the photoluminescence (PL) from semiconducting SWNTs because more defects are formed on the nanotube surface. At probing the SWNT/ssDNA emission with cysteine or dithiothreitol (DTT) doping the nanotube aqueous suspension showed the different PL intensity enhancement depending on the duration of the sonication treatment and on the ability of these reducing agents to passivate emission-quenching defects on the carbon nanotube sidewall. The magnitude of the PL enhancement rises with sonication prolongation and depends on the nanotube chirality. Tight and ordered polymer coverage of (6,4) nanotubes hampers the access of the reducing agent to emission-quenching defects on the nanotube surface and provides the weaker PL intensity increasing while (7,5) nanotubes show the strongest reaction to the doping effect. The comparison of cysteine and DTT ability to passivate the emission-quenching defects showed the higher efficiency of DTT doping. This prevailing is explained by the stronger reducing activity of DTT which is determined by a lower redox potential of this molecule.

  4. Influence of heat treatment temperature on bonding and oxidation resistance of diamond particles coated with TiO2 film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Pan Liu; Dong-Dong Song; Long Wan; Xian-Bing Pang; Zheng Li

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, TiO2 films were coated on the surface of diamond particles using a sol–gel method. The effects of heat treatment temperature on the morphology, composition, chemical bonds, oxidation resistance and compressive strength of diamond particles coated with TiO2 films were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric–differential scanning calorimetry and compressive strength test. The results showed that when the temperature reached 600°C, the amorphous TiO2 on the diamond particles surface exhibited as a dense anatase film and the Ti–O–C bond formed between TiO2 and the diamond substrates. When temperature reached 800°C, TiO2 films were still in anatase phase and part of the diamond carbon began to graphitize. The graphitizated carbon can also form the Ti–O–C bond with TiO2 film, although TiO2 film would tend to crack in this condition. Meanwhile, the temperature had a serious influence on the oxidation resistance of diamond particles coated with TiO2 films in air. When the heat treatment temperature reached 600°C, the initial oxidation temperature of the coated diamond particles reached the maximum value of 754°C. When the diamond particles were oxidized at 800°C for 0.5 h in air, the weight loss rate reached the minimum value of 6.7 wt% and the compressive strength reached the maximum value of 15.7 N.

  5. Influence of He/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on subsequent wet desizing of polyacrylate on PET fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xuming [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textile and Clothing, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Lin Jun [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Qiu Yiping, E-mail: ypqiu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2012-01-15

    The influence of He/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment on subsequent wet desizing of polyacrylate on PET fabrics was studied in the present paper. Weight loss results indicated that the weight loss increased with an increase of plasma treatment time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an increased surface roughness after the plasma treatment. SEM also showed that the fiber surfaces were as clean as unsized fibers after 35 s treatment followed by NaHCO{sub 3} desizing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that oxygen-based functional groups increased for the plasma treated polyacrylate sized fabrics. The percent desizing ratio (PDR) results showed that more than 99% PDR was achieved after 65 s plasma treatment followed by a 5 min NaHCO{sub 3} desizing. Compared to conventional wet desizing, indicating that plasma treatment could significantly reduce desizing time.

  6. Influence of the Dermis Thickness on the Results of the Skin Treatment with Monopolar and Bipolar Radiofrequency Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja L. Kruglikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrically layered tissue structure significantly modifies distribution of radiofrequency (RF current in the dermis and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue comparing to that in a homogeneous medium. On the basis of the simple model of RF current distribution in a two-layer skin containing dermis and subcutis, we assess the influence of the dermal thickness on the current density in different skin layers. Under other equal conditions, current density in the dermis is higher for the skin having thinner dermis. This contradicts the main paradigm of the RF theory stating that treatment results are mainly dependent on the maximal temperature reached in a target tissue, since the best short- and long-term clinical results of RF application to the skin were reported in the areas having thicker dermis. To resolve this contradiction, it is proposed that the long-term effect of RF can be realized through a structural modification of the subcutaneous fat depot adjacent to the treated skin area. Stimulation of these cells located near the interface dermis/subcutis will demand the concentration of applied RF energy in this area and will require the optimal arrangement of RF electrodes on the skin surface.

  7. Influence of pH and length of post-treatment incubation on bleomycin-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, C.W.; Vossler, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The dependence of the extent of DNA damage by anticancer bleomycin on pH and length of post-treatment incubation was studied in yeast. Bleomycin was always removed from cells after 20-min exposures, and cells were washed prior to incubation in non-nutrient buffer. Following exposures of late stationary-phase cells to the very low dose of only 3 ..mu..g/ml, 1.5 h incubation in non-nutrient buffer, pH 5, had hardly any effect on profiles derived from alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation of nucleic acids released from spheroplasts. In contrast, after incubation of cells for 1.5 h in buffer, pH 7, DNA was all low molecular weight. Thus, even after extensive washing of cells, pH strongly influences the drug's action on DNA. At pH 5, washed cells were increasingly susceptible to DNA damage up to 26 h in non-nutrient buffer.

  8. Influences of hydraulic loading rate on SVOC removal and microbial community structure in drinking water treatment biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Zhang, Zong-Yao; Ma, Li-Ping; Liu, Ning; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Li, Ai-Min; Cheng, Shu-Pei

    2010-06-15

    Six biofilters were used for advanced treatment of Yangtze River source water to investigate the effects of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on pollutant removal and microbial community. HLR was found to exert significant influences on the removal efficiency of the conventional pollutants and 24 detectable semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). More than 85% of chemical oxygen demand and assimilable organic carbon was removed at the optimal HLR of 3.0 m h(-1). With the increase of HLR, SVOC removal showed a decreasing trend. Di-n-butyl phthalate and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, two main SVOCs in the source water, had the highest removals of 71.2% and 84.4%, respectively. Nearly 65% of 2,6-dinitrotoluene and 80% of isophorone were removed at the lowest HLR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., E. fergusonii and Firmicutes bacteria predominated in the bioreactors. The dominance of E. coli in the low-HLR biofilters might contribute greatly to the high SVOC removal.

  9. Removal of oxide nanoparticles in a model wastewater treatment plant: influence of agglomeration and surfactants on clearing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Ludwig K; Bereiter, Robert; Müller, Elisabeth; Krebs, Rolf; Galli, René; Stark, Wendelin J

    2008-08-01

    The rapidly increasing production of engineered nanoparticles has created a demand for particle removal from industrial and communal wastewater streams. Efficient removal is particularly important in view of increasing long-term persistence and evidence for considerable ecotoxicity of specific nanoparticles. The present work investigates the use of a model wastewater treatment plant for removal of oxide nanoparticles. While a majority of the nanoparticles could be captured through adhesion to clearing sludge, a significant fraction of the engineered nanoparticles escaped the wastewater plant's clearing system, and up to 6 wt % of the model compound cerium oxide was found in the exit stream of the model plant. Our study demonstrates a significant influence of surface charge and the addition of dispersion stabilizing surfactants as routinely used in the preparation of nanoparticle derived products. A detailed investigation on the agglomeration of oxide nanoparticles in wastewater streams revealed a high stabilization of the particles against clearance (adsorption on the bacteria from the sludge). This unexpected finding suggests a need to investigate nanoparticle clearance in more detail and demonstrates the complex interactions between dissolved species and the nanoparticles within the continuously changing environment of the clearing sludge.

  10. Influence of long-term treatment with tuftsin analogue TP-7 on the anxiety-phobic states and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Cygan, Beata; Wolański, Lukasz; Kozlovsky, Igor

    2006-01-01

    TP-7 is a synthetic analogue of tuftsin. It has a structure of tuftsin, to which three natural L-amino-acids Pro-Gly-Pro are attached. This heptapeptide improves learning and memorization and causes antidepressant and anxiolytic effect. It is possible to use TP-7 in the future to optimize cognitive functions and as a potential new anxioselective, fast-acting and easy-dosed drug. Therefore, it was purposeful to study such properties of the heptapeptide as its influence on anxiety-fear and body weight under a long-term treatment regimen. The experiment was performed on 24 preselected Wistar rats with the use of Rodina's method. There were three experimental groups of animals with high initial emotional reactivity: passive control group (P), active control group (A, receiving distilled water) and group treated with TP-7 at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg (T). The rats of A and T groups received intraperitoneal injections every day. The experiments were conducted 15 min after the administration of the drug, one and two days after initial testing day, then 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after that. The heptapeptide reduced the anxiety-phobic states significantly starting from the second day of drug application. The observed effects persisted throughout four weeks of the experiment, which confirmed effective long-term anxiolytic properties of the heptapeptide. TP-7 did not cause any changes in the body mass by itself.

  11. Phase composition and morphology of nanoparticles of yttrium orthophosphates synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal treatment: The influence of synthetic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanetsev, A.S., E-mail: alexander.vanetsev@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Samsonova, E.V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Gaitko, O.M. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry RAS, Leninskii Prospekt 31, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Keevend, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Popov, A.V. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov St. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Mäeorg, U. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Mändar, H.; Sildos, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Orlovskii, Yu.V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov St. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • We synthesized YPO{sub 4} and YPO{sub 4}⋅0.8H{sub 2}O nanoparticles by microwave-hydrothermal treatment. • We studied “conditions–composition–properties” relations for this synthetic path. • We revealed the mechanism of stabilization of YPO{sub 4}⋅0.8H{sub 2}O phase at high temperatures. - Abstract: Herein we report the study of the influence of synthesis conditions during the microwave-hydrothermal crystallization of freshly precipitated gels on the phase composition and morphology of the rare-earth doped yttrium orthophosphates nanoparticles. We characterize the nanoparticles of YPO{sub 4} and YPO{sub 4}⋅0.8H{sub 2}O using X-ray diffraction analysis, TEM, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, we argue that for the given phase the degree of crystallinity and thus the sample morphology depend strongly on the synthesis conditions. We establish that the hexagonal hydrate phase can be obtained by means of microwave-hydrothermal method if one uses phosphate anion excess or adjusts pH of the reaction mixture. Also we show that the metastable hydrate phase is most likely stabilized by hydroxyl groups at elevated temperatures.

  12. Influence of deposit stage and failed ESWT on the surgical results of arthroscopic treatment of calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbach, O; Kusma, M; Pape, D; Kohn, D; Dienst, M

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is the evaluation of a possible influence of the preoperative deposit stage, the postoperative deposit elimination and failed preoperative extracorporeal shockwave therapy on the surgical outcome of arthroscopic treatment of tendinosis calcarea. From 1997 to 2004, 65 patients underwent arthroscopic resection of calcific deposits of the shoulder after failed conservative treatment. Patients with rotator cuff tears, major cartilage damage, or previous surgery were excluded. Out of 50 patients 45 (17 men, 28 women) that could be contacted with a mean age of 49 +/- 8 years could be followed-up with a mean of 36 months (14-89) after surgery. A total of 24 patients (53.3%) underwent preoperative extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT). For the clinical evaluation the Constant and Murley Score, the Simple Shoulder Test, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) and visual analog scales for pain, function and satisfaction were used. For the radiological evaluation, the classifications according to Gaertner and Bosworth were used. Statistical analysis was done with the Wilcoxon test, the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA. The Constant and Murley Score improved significantly from preoperative 63.5 +/- 11.4 to postoperative 93.9 +/- 9.9 points (P < .0001) at follow-up, the Simple Shoulder Test from 1.7 +/- 2 to 9.9 +/- 2.8 points (P < .0001), the WORC score from 1,591.2 +/- 337.4 to 345.4 +/- 392 points (P < .0001). The visual analog scales for pain, function and patient satisfaction also significantly improved (P < .0001). Preoperative radiological evaluation according to the Gaertner classification revealed 37 type I deposits, 6 type II and 2 type III deposits; postoperative no calcific deposits were seen in 37 patients, 6 type I and 2 type III deposits. According to the Bosworth classification 13 type I, 19 type II and 13 type III deposits were seen preoperatively. Postoperative X-rays showed 6 type I and 1 type II and III deposits. There

  13. Influence of chemiotherapeutic protocol and neuroendocrine differentiation on metastatic non-small cell lung cancer treatment results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Ilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In 40-50% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC at the time of making a diagnosis, the disease is yet at IIIb and IV stage. Standard in the treatment of these patient is the application of systemic chemiotherapy based on CIS/Carboplatin preparations. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different chemiotherapeutic protocols and neuroendocrine differentiation on treatment response and survival in patients with metastatic NSCLC. Methods. We examined 85 patients with metastatic NSCLC, of which 51 with stage IIIb, and 34 with stage IV of the disease. The histologic diagnosis of NSCLC was determined by tissue assays using hematoxylin eosin method. Neuroendocrine differentiation was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of neuron- specific enolase (NSE, chromogranin A, and synapthophysin expression using monoclonal mouse anti- human bodies (DAKO, Denmark. According to chemiotherapeutic protocol, the patients were randomly assigned into combined Taxol + Cisplatin group (Tax + Cis, n = 35, and Cyclophosphamide + Etoposide + Carboplatin group (CEP, n = 50. The treatment was conducted within 4-6 chemiotherapeutic cycles. The efficacy was assessed after the therapy regimen and median survival time was assessed after the randomization. Results. A total of 31 (36.47% patients had a favourable therapeutic response, both partial and complete response (54.2% in the Tax + Cis group and 24% in CEP group of patients, respectively, p < 0.001. The median survival time in both groups was 13.1 months (15.3 months in the Tax + Cis group and 10.6 months in the CEP group, respectively, p < 0.001. A one-year follow-up survival period was confirmed in 40% of patients (60% only in the Tax + Cis group. A total of 23 (27.05% patients with metastatic NSCLC had neuroendocrine differentiation. The disease progression or stable disease was noted only in patient with NSCLC without neuroendocrine differentiation (n = 42, 67

  14. Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOT2014 Abstract for presentation: March 23-27, 2014; Phoenix, AZ Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats. V. Bass, D. Andrews, J. Richards, M. Schladweiler, A. Ledb...

  15. Influence of the initial transient state of plasma and hydrogen pre-treatment on the interface properties of a silicon heterojunction fabricated by PECVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chunbo; Zhou Yuqin; Li Guorong; Liu Fengzhen

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunctions (a-Si:H/c-Si SHJ) were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD).The influence of the initial transient state of the plasma and the hydrogen pre-treatment on the interfacial properties of the heterojunctions was studied.Experimental results indicate that:(1) The instability of plasma in the initial stage will damage the surface ofc-Si.Using a shutter to shield the substrate for 100 s from the starting discharge can prevent the influence of the instable plasma process on the Si surface and also the interface between a-Si and c-Si.(2) The effect of hydrogen pre-treatment on interfacial passivation is constrained by the extent of hydrogen plasma bombardment and the optimal time for hydrogen pre-treatment is about 60 s.

  16. Material recycling of post-consumer polyolefin bulk plastics: Influences on waste sorting and treatment processes in consideration of product qualities achievable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeisinger, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Material recycling of post-consumer bulk plastics made up of polyolefins is well developed. In this article, it is examined which effects on waste sorting and treatment processes influence the qualities of polyolefin-recyclats. It is shown that the properties and their changes during the product life-cycle of a polyolefin are defined by its way of polymerisation, its nature as a thermoplast, additives, other compound and composite materials, but also by the mechanical treatments during the production, its use where contact to foreign materials is possible and the waste sorting and treatment processes. Because of the sum of the effects influencing the quality of polyolefin-recyclats, conclusions are drawn for the material recycling of polyolefins to reach high qualities of their recyclats. Also, legal requirements like the EU regulation 1907/2006 concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restrictions on chemicals are considered.

  17. Characterization of chemically induced ovarian carcinomas in an ethanol-preferring rat model: influence of long-term melatonin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo A Chuffa

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths among women, and chronic alcoholism may exert co-carcinogenic effects. Because melatonin (mel has oncostatic properties, we aimed to investigate and characterize the chemical induction of ovarian tumors in a model of ethanol-preferring rats and to verify the influence of mel treatment on the overall features of these tumors. After rats were selected to receive ethanol (EtOH, they were surgically injected with 100 µg of 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA plus sesame oil directly under the left ovarian bursa. At 260 days old, half of the animals received i.p. injections of 200 µg mel/100 g b.w. for 60 days. Four experimental groups were established: Group C, rats bearing ovarian carcinomas (OC; Group C+EtOH, rats voluntarily consuming 10% (v/v EtOH and bearing OC; Group C+M, rats bearing OC and receiving mel; and Group C+EtOH+M, rats with OC consuming EtOH and receiving mel. Estrous cycle and nutritional parameters were evaluated, and anatomopathological analyses of the ovarian tumors were conducted. The incidence of ovarian tumors was higher in EtOH drinking animals 120 days post-DMBA administration, and mel efficiently reduced the prevalence of some aggressive tumors. Although mel promoted high EtOH consumption, it was effective in synchronizing the estrous cycle and reducing ovarian tumor mass by 20%. While rats in the C group displayed cysts containing serous fluid, C+EtOH rats showed solid tumor masses. After mel treatment, the ovaries of these rats presented as soft and mobile tissues. EtOH consumption increased the incidence of serous papillary carcinomas and sarcomas but not clear cell carcinomas. In contrast, mel reduced the incidence of sarcomas, endometrioid carcinomas and cystic teratomas. Combination of DMBA with EtOH intake potentiated the incidence of OC with malignant histologic subtypes. We concluded that mel reduces ovarian masses and the incidence of

  18. Characterization of Chemically Induced Ovarian Carcinomas in an Ethanol-Preferring Rat Model: Influence of Long-Term Melatonin Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A.; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A.; Mendes, Leonardo O.; Fávaro, Wagner J.; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F.; Martinez, Marcelo; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths among women, and chronic alcoholism may exert co-carcinogenic effects. Because melatonin (mel) has oncostatic properties, we aimed to investigate and characterize the chemical induction of ovarian tumors in a model of ethanol-preferring rats and to verify the influence of mel treatment on the overall features of these tumors. After rats were selected to receive ethanol (EtOH), they were surgically injected with 100 µg of 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) plus sesame oil directly under the left ovarian bursa. At 260 days old, half of the animals received i.p. injections of 200 µg mel/100 g b.w. for 60 days. Four experimental groups were established: Group C, rats bearing ovarian carcinomas (OC); Group C+EtOH, rats voluntarily consuming 10% (v/v) EtOH and bearing OC; Group C+M, rats bearing OC and receiving mel; and Group C+EtOH+M, rats with OC consuming EtOH and receiving mel. Estrous cycle and nutritional parameters were evaluated, and anatomopathological analyses of the ovarian tumors were conducted. The incidence of ovarian tumors was higher in EtOH drinking animals 120 days post-DMBA administration, and mel efficiently reduced the prevalence of some aggressive tumors. Although mel promoted high EtOH consumption, it was effective in synchronizing the estrous cycle and reducing ovarian tumor mass by 20%. While rats in the C group displayed cysts containing serous fluid, C+EtOH rats showed solid tumor masses. After mel treatment, the ovaries of these rats presented as soft and mobile tissues. EtOH consumption increased the incidence of serous papillary carcinomas and sarcomas but not clear cell carcinomas. In contrast, mel reduced the incidence of sarcomas, endometrioid carcinomas and cystic teratomas. Combination of DMBA with EtOH intake potentiated the incidence of OC with malignant histologic subtypes. We concluded that mel reduces ovarian masses and the incidence of adenocarcinomas in

  19. Influence of the Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant on surface water in the Santa Cruz River and local aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, H. M.; Brusseau, M. L.; Huth, H.

    2015-12-01

    As water resources become limited in Arizona due to drought and excessive use of ground water, treated wastewater effluent is becoming essential in creating natural ecosystems and recharging the decreasing groundwater supplies. Therefore, future water supplies are heavily dependent of the flow (quantity) and quality of the treated effluent. The Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant (NIWTP) releases treated wastewater from both Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico into the Santa Cruz River. This released effluent not only has the potential to impact surface water, but also groundwater supplies in Southern Arizona. In the recent past, the NIWTP has had reoccurring issues with elevated levels of cadmium, in addition to other, more infrequent, releases of high amounts of other metals. The industrial demographic of the region, as well as limited water quality regulations in Mexico makes the NIWTP and its treated effluent an important area of study. In addition, outdated infrastructure can potentially lead to damaging environmental impacts, as well as human health concerns. The Santa Cruz River has been monitored and studied in the past, but in recent years, there has been a halt in research regarding the state of the river. Data from existing water quality databases and recent sampling reports are used to address research questions regarding the state of the Santa Cruz River. These questions include: 1) How will change in flow eventually impact surface water and future groundwater supplies 2) What factors influence this flow (such as extreme flooding and drought) 3) What is the impact of effluent on surface water quality 4) Can changes in surface water quality impact groundwater quality 5) How do soil characteristics and surface flow impact the transport of released contaminants Although outreach to stakeholders across the border and updated infrastructure has improved the quality of water in the river, there are many areas to improve upon as the

  20. INFLUENCE OF WAYS OF MAIN SOIL TREATMENT UNDER SOYA BEANS ON CHANGE OF AGROPHYSICAL INDEXES OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko S. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There were cited the results of researches for 2010-2012 obtained in the stationary experiment of the chair of general and irrigated land management of Kuban State Agrarian University on the study of influence of the system of main soil processing under soya beans on the dynamics of main agrophysical indexes of leached black soil: on density of composition, solidity, general porosity, coefficient of structural properties in the article. There was stated that in the beginning of vegetation on the background of direct sowing of soya beans, the soil layer in 0-30 cm was characterized by values of density and solidity and in the result of it we observed the weak development of the root system. The worsening of air regime led to the decrease of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, it negatively affected on the growth and development of a cultivar. Agrophysical indexes brought nearer to optimal on variants with disposal tip on 20-22 cm and disk-shaped hulling on 8-10 cm. The worsening of investigated agrophysical soil indexes has been happened since the phase of florescence – soya bean formation till the harvesting. But the variant with disposal tip where we observed the high content of agronomically valuable fraction at the coefficient of structural property 2,42 was the closest to optimal ones. The minimization of soil treatment and especially the denial from its implementation significantly made worse the main agrophysical indexes of soil on variants with direct sowing to critical values for soya beans

  1. Influence of the surface pre-treatment of aluminum on the processes of formation of cerium oxides protective films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, R.; Stoyanova, E.; Tsanev, A.; Stoychev, D.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there is special interest in the contemporary investigations on conversion treatment of aluminum aimed at promoting its corrosion stability, which is focused on electrolytes on the basis of salts of metals belonging to the group of rare-earth elements. Their application is especially attractive, as it enables a successful substitution of the presently applied highly efficient, but at the same time toxic Cr6+-containing electrolytes. The present paper presents a study on the influence of the preliminary alkaline activation and acidic de-oxidation of the aluminum surface on the processes of immersion formation of protective cerium oxides films on Al 1050. The results obtained show that their deposition from simple electrolytes (containing only salts of Ce3+ ions) on the Al surface, treated only in alkaline solution, occurs at a higher rate, which leads to preparing thicker oxide films having a better protective ability. In the cases when the formation of oxide films is realized in a complex electrolyte (containing salts of Ce3+ and Cu2+ ions), better results are obtained with respect to the morphology and protective action of cerium oxides film on samples that have been consecutively activated in alkaline solution and deoxidized in acidic solution. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in a model corrosion medium (0.1 M NaCl); it was shown that the cerium protective films, deposited by immersion, have a cathodic character with regard to the aluminum support and inhibit the occurrence of the depolarizing corrosion process -- the reaction of oxygen reduction.

  2. The influence of cultural variables on treatment retention and engagement in a sample of Mexican American adolescent males with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Meyers, Kimberly; Corrales, Carolina; Ortiz-Jensen, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a serious public health concern, and in response to this problem, a number of effective treatment approaches have been developed. Despite this, retaining and engaging adolescents in treatment are 2 major challenges continuously faced by practitioners and clinical researchers. Low retention and engagement rates are especially salient for ethnic minority adolescents because they are at high risk for underutilization of substance abuse treatment compared to their White peers. Latino adolescents, in particular, are part of the fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States and experience high rates of substance use disorders. Heretofore, the empirical examination of cultural factors that influence treatment retention and engagement has been lacking in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the cultural variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation on the retention and engagement of Latino adolescents participating in substance abuse treatment. This study used data collected from a sample of Latino adolescent males (N = 96), predominantly of Mexican descent, and largely recruited from the juvenile justice system. Analysis was conducted using generalized regression models for count variables. Results indicated that higher levels of exploration, a subfactor of ethnic identity, and familism were predictive of attendance and engagement. In contrast, higher levels of Anglo orientation, a subfactor of acculturation, were predictive of lower treatment attendance and engagement. Clinical implications for the variables of ethnic identity, acculturation, and familism as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. The influence of programme differences on crime reduction in opioid maintenance treatment. An analysis of regional patterns in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bukten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Design: Official national criminal records were cross linked with all patients who started opioid maintenance treatment in Norway from 1997-2003 (n=3221, including patients from four different health regions in Norway; the Eastern region (n=1717, the Southern region (n=751, the Western region (n=586 and the Central-Northern region (n=167. Patients in each region were divided into separate groups according to whether they were retained or not retained in continuous treatment.Findings: During opioid maintenance treatment, patients in all four treatment regions had a considerable reduction in criminal convictions compared to pre-treatment levels. Criminal convictions during treatment were associated with retention in treatment. Among patients in continuous treatment, significant differences were found in levels of criminal convictions among the four treatment regions during treatment. Compared to patients in the Eastern region, patients in the Southern and the Central-Northern region had respectively 44 and 81 percent less criminal convictions during treatment, and patients in the Western region had 60 percent more convictions. For patients not in continuous treatment, no statistically significant differences were found between the four regions during treatment.Conclusions: Differences in criminal convictions during treatment may be related to regional differences in treatment practice within the national OMT system. In all regions, criminal convictions during OMT were higher for patients dropping out of treatment. It is suggested that clinical staff should offer more support to patients at risk of dropping out of treatment.Background: Reduced criminal activity is an important outcome for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT.

  4. Treatment of breast cancer with simultaneous integrated boost in hybrid plan technique. Influence of flattening filter-free beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrainy, Marzieh; Kretschmer, Matthias; Joest, Vincent; Kasch, Astrid; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Dahle, Joerg; Lorenzen, Joern [Radiologische Allianz, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The present study compares in silico treatment plans using hybrid plan technique during hypofractionated radiation of mammary carcinoma with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). The influence of 6 MV photon radiation in flattening filter free (FFF) mode against the clinical standard flattening filter (FF) mode is to be examined. RT planning took place with FF and FFF radiation plans for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Hybrid plans were realised with two tangential IMRT fields and one VMAT field. The dose prescription was in line with the guidelines in the ARO-2010-01 study. The dosimetric verification took place with a manufacturer-independent measurement system. Required dose prescriptions for the planning target volumes (PTV) were achieved for both groups. The average dose values of the ipsi- and contralateral lung and the heart did not differ significantly. The overall average incidental dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) of 8.24 ± 3.9 Gy in the FFF group and 9.05 ± 3.7 Gy in the FF group (p < 0.05) were found. The dosimetric verifications corresponded to the clinical requirements. FFF-based RT plans reduced the average treatment time by 17 s/fraction. In comparison to the FF-based hybrid plan technique the FFF mode allows further reduction of the average LAD dose for comparable target volume coverage without adverse low-dose exposure of contralateral structures. The combination of hybrid plan technique and 6 MV photon radiation in the FFF mode is suitable for use with hypofractionated dose schemes. The increased dose rate allows a substantial reduction of treatment time and thus beneficial application of the deep inspiration breath hold technique. (orig.) [German] Vergleich der ''In-silico''-Bestrahlungsplaene der klinisch etablierten Hybridplan-Technik bei hypofraktionierter Bestrahlung des Mammakarzinoms mit simultan integriertem Boost (SIB). Untersucht wird der Einfluss von 6MV-Photonenstrahlung im Flattening

  5. Changes of leukocyte adherence ability under the influence of magnetic field in the course of a treatment of patients with laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocek, A; Hahn, A; Ambrus, M; Dohnalová, A; Jandová, A; Pokorný, J

    2008-01-01

    The authors were monitoring adherence ability of T lymphocytes in vitro in patients with laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinoma at the presence of tumor-specific and viral LDH antigen. The results were assessed and expressed in percent of non adherent T lymphocytes (NAL). First, NAL in patients before initiating the treatment was compared with NAL control group (voluntary blood donors). The ability of the adherence in T lymphocytes in the control group is statistically significantly higher. Further on, NAL in the course of a successful oncological treatment was monitored at the interval of 6 months following the treatment, and further on at yearly intervals. NAL level drops statistically significantly within 6 months and then hold on at levels with no statistical difference unlike the control group, however, the ability of T lymphocyte in patients to adhere remains statistically significantly lower. Statistically significantly higher levels of NAL are at the presence of LDH viral antigen. Further on, the authors were following the influence of magnetic sinusoidal field of power frequency (50 Hz) of a low induction (0.5, 0.1, and 0.05 mT) on NAL. NAL values under the influence of an experimental magnetic field before initiating the treatment as well as in the course of a successful oncological treatment are statistically significantly lower. It means that magnetic filed increases the adherence ability of T lymphocytes in patients with laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer in vitro.

  6. Influence of sodium hypochlorite treatment of electropolished and magnetoelectropolished nitinol surfaces on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Ryszard; Haider, Waseem; Hryniewicz, Tadeusz

    2012-09-01

    The influence of 6 % sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatment on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells seeded on electropolished (EP) and magnetoelectropolished (MEP) nitinol surfaces were investigated. The chemistry, topography, roughness, surface energy, wettability of EP and MEP nitinol surfaces before and after NaClO treatment were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), profilometry, and contact angle meter. In vitro interaction of osteoblast cell and NaClO treated EP and MEP nitinol surfaces were assessed after 3 days of incubation by scanning electron microscopy. The XPS analysis shows that NaClO treatment increases oxygen content especially in subsurface oxide layer of EP and MEP nitinol. The changes of both basic components of nitinol, namely nickel and titanium in oxide layer, were negligible. The NaClO treatment did not influence physico-morphological surface properties of EP and MEP nitinol to a big extent. The osteoblast cells show remarkable adherence and proliferation improvement on NaClO treated EP and MEP nitinol surfaces. After 3 days of incubation they show almost total confluence on both NaClO treated surfaces. The present study shows that NaClO treatment of EP and MEP nitinol surfaces alters oxide layer by enriching it in oxygen and by this improves bone cell-nitinol interaction.

  7. INFLUENCE OF INSECT AND SEED SAMPLE SIZE AND HEAT TREATMENT ON THE INFESTATION OF CALLOSOBRUCHVS CHINENS1S (L. ON MUNGBEAN, VIGNA RADIATA (L Wilczek *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA M. BucruANON

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different insect and seed sample size and heat treatment on the infestation of bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis on mungbean,Vjg/m radiata (L. Wilczek, was studied. Insect and seed sample size as well as varieties/genotype had significant influence in obtaining large responses in the number of eggs and progenies of the bean weevil. Use of at least 10 adult weevils to infest test samples containing at least 40 seeds for a 5-day oviposition period should produce reliable results when infesting mungbean seeds with unsexed weevils. Dry heat treatment was very effective in disinfesting mungbean seeds from the bean weevil in different developmental stages. It improved germination depending upon the condition of the seed before treatment and certain temperature limits. A suggested treatment for mungbean dismfestation using dry heat would be 60°C and 70°C for two-and one-hour treatments, respectively at 12% moisture content. For seeds in bulk, 60°C is much preferred.

  8. Ligature‐associated bacterial profiles are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rat model and influenced by antibody treatment against TNF‐α or RAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstrøm, D.; Østergaard, J.A.; Paster, B.J.; Schou, S.; Flyvbjerg, A.; Holmstrup, P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is a bidirectional relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). T2D may lead to ecological perturbations in the oral environment, which may facilitate an altered microbiota. However, previous studies have been inconclusive in determining the effect of T2D on oral bacterial profiles. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the influence of T2D on the ligature‐associated bacterial profile in a diabetic rat model with PD and investigated the impact of blocking inflammatory pathways with antibodies targeting either Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF‐α) or the receptor of advanced glycation end‐products (RAGE). A total of 62 Zucker obese rats (45 T2D) and 17 lean (non‐T2D) were divided into 4 treatment groups; lean with PD, obese with PD, obese with PD and anti‐TNF‐α treatment, and obese with PD with anti‐RAGE treatment. Periodontal disease was ligature induced. Ligature‐associated bacterial profiles were analyzed using Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Ligature‐associated bacterial profiles differed between lean and obese rats. Furthermore, treatment with antibodies against TNF‐α or RAGE had an impact on subgingival bacterial profiles. T2D phenotypes are associated with different ligature‐associated bacterial profiles and influenced by treatment with antibodies against TNF‐α or RAGE.

  9. Influence of patient symptoms and physical findings on general practitioners' treatment of respiratory tract infections: a direct observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochen Michael M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high rate of antibiotic prescriptions general practitioners (GPs make for respiratory tract infections (RTI are often explained by non-medical reasons e.g. an effort to meet patient expectations. Additionally, it is known that GPs to some extent believe in the necessity of antibiotic treatment in patients with assumed bacterial infections and therefore attempt to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections by history taking and physical examination. The influence of patient complaints and physical examination findings on GPs' prescribing behaviour was mostly investigated by indirect methods such as questionnaires. Methods Direct, structured observation during a winter "cough an cold period" in 30 (single handed general practices. All 273 patients with symptoms of RTI (age above 14, median 37 years, 51% female were included. Results The most frequent diagnoses were 'uncomplicated upper RTI/common cold' (43% followed by 'bronchitis' (26%. On average, 1.8 (95%-confidence interval (CI: 1.7–2.0 medicines per patient were prescribed (cough-and-cold preparations in 88% of the patients, antibiotics in 49%. Medical predictors of antibiotic prescribing were pathological findings in physical examination such as coated tonsils (odds ratio (OR 15.4, 95%-CI: 3.6–66.2 and unspecific symptoms like fatigue (OR 3.1, 95%-CI 1.4–6.7, fever (OR 2.2, 95%-CI: 1.1–4.5 and yellow sputum (OR 2.1, 95%-CI: 1.1–4.1. Analysed predictors explained 70% of the variance of antibiotic prescribing (R2 = 0,696. Efforts to reduce antibiotic prescribing, e.g. recommendations for self-medication, counselling on home remedies or delayed antibiotic prescribing were rare. Conclusions Patient complaints and pathological results in physical examination were strong predictors of antibiotic prescribing. Efforts to reduce antibiotic prescribing should account for GPs' beliefs in those (non evidence based predictors. The method of direct observation was

  10. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p fertilizer treatment significantly, (p fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  11. Murine cysticercosis model: influence of the infection time and the time of treatment on the cysticidal efficacy of albendazole and praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Pinzón-Estrada, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, Taenia crassiceps ORF strain cysticerci have been used instead of T. solium for in vitro studies. Up to date, the main criteria for the use of the murine cysticercosis model for drug efficacy evaluation have not been assessed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of two of the main variables related to the in vivo efficacy: the length of drug treatment and the starting time of treatment after experimental infection, using albendazole (ABZ) and praziquantel (PZQ) as test drugs. Additionally, the relationship between the number of cysts and the parasite weight was assessed. For the study, female BALB/c mice were experimentally infected with T. crassiceps cysts. Three different post-infection periods (10, 20 and 30 days) and three different lengths of treatment with ABZ or PZQ (10, 20 and 30 days) were selected. The efficacy of each treatment was evaluated by comparison with a control group. Our results show that for in vivo efficacy studies, the best time to start the drug treatment is 10 days post-infection and that a minimum of 20 days of treatment is required when ABZ or PZQ are used as positive control. Moreover, in this model the parasite weight can be used as a rapid tool to measure the in vivo drug activity.

  12. Factors influencing the choice of first- and second-line biologic therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: real-life data from the Italian LORHEN Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Sara; Klersy, Catherine; Gorla, Roberto; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Pellerito, Raffaele; Fusaro, Enrico; Paolazzi, Giuseppe; Rocchetta, Pier Andrea; Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Marchesoni, Antonio; Caporali, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    According to international recommendations, the selection of the biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (bDMARD) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is mainly left to the clinician's preference. We analyzed the real-life factors influencing the first-line choice or the switching strategy, focusing on the prescription of abatacept (ABA) or tocilizumab (TCZ) compared to TNFα inhibitors (TNFi). Patients enrolled in the Lombardy Rheumatology Network (LORHEN) Registry after January 1, 2010, when all considered bDMARD agents were available, were included. The population was divided into "first-" and "second-line" bDMARD. We included 1910 patients (first line n = 1264, second line n = 646). Age was higher in ABA or TCZ vs TNFi treated patients (p second-line treatment, higher age, dyslipidemia, pulmonary disease, other comorbidities, and extra-articular RA manifestations were associated with ABA compared to TNFi. TCZ was associated with a second-line treatment, higher age, and more severe disease activity. Stopping the first bDMARD due to adverse events (AE) influenced the choice towards ABA. In real life, higher age and comorbidities influence the choice towards ABA and TCZ compared to TNFi. ABA was preferred in case of suspension of previous treatments due to AE. After failing a first-line TNFi, swapping to a different mechanism of action is more common.

  13. Implications of Infliximab Treatment Failure and Influence of Personalized Treatment on Patient-reported Health-related Quality of Life and Productivity Outcomes in Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Brynskov, Jørn; Thomsen, Ole Ø

    2015-01-01

    regimen (n = 36) or personalized treatment defined by IFX and anti-IFX antibodies (n = 33). Health-related quality of life evaluated with the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) and productivity evaluated with the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI:CD) were....... However, median presenteeism was 40% at manifestation of IFX failure and decreased only among responders across time (decrease 10-30%, p TNF) therapy was discontinued in most patients handled by personalized treatment, IBDQ and WPAI:CD scores were similar...

  14. The influence of personality disorder features on social functioning in substance abusing women five year after compulsive residential treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Background Personality disorders (PD) are related to negative outcome in substance abuse treatment, and in the general population, personality disorders are related to negative outcome in overall functioning. Little is known about the impact of PD on adjustment following substance abuse treatment...

  15. The influence of female and male body mass index on live births after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Schmidt, Lone; Pinborg, Anja;

    2013-01-01

    . Analyses were adjusted for age and smoking at treatment initiation and results stratified by BMI groups and presented by IVF/ICSI treatment. RESULT(S): In total, 12,566 women and their partners went through 25,191 IVF/ICSI cycles with 23.7% ending in a live birth. Overweight and obese women with regular...

  16. HPV type in plantar warts influences natural course and treatment response: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, S.C.; Gussekloo, J.; Koning, M.N. de; Feltkamp, M.C.; Bavinck, J.N.; Quint, W.G.V.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Eekhof, J.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is effective for common warts, but for plantar warts available treatments often fail. OBJECTIVES: Within a pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we examined whether subgroups of common and plantar warts have a favourable natural course or response to treatment based on wart-

  17. The Influence of God and Providence on Happiness and the Quality of Life of Patients Benefiting from Aesthetic Medicine Treatments in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galęba, Anna; Bajurna, Beata

    2015-08-01

    The research reveals the impact of a belief in god and god's Providence on the happiness and quality of life of patients benefiting from aesthetic medicine treatments in Poland (country where over 90 % of society declare to be deeply devout). The work also examines age and sex of the patients benefiting from beauty treatments (botulinum toxin, fillers, medical peels and needle mesotherapy), their quality of life and also the impact of various factors, including God and Divine Providence on their happiness. The research shows the analysis of factors influencing the successes or failures in the past year and presents the comparison of patients who have benefited from the aesthetic medicine treatments (cosmetic medicine) to the common average Polish citizens.

  18. The influence of the time of antidotal treatment administration on the potency of newly developed oximes to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí

    2005-01-01

    (1) The influence of the time of administration of antidotal treatment consisting of anticholinergic drug (atropine) and newly developed oxime (K027 or K048) on its effectiveness to eliminate tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was studied in mice. (2) The therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of tabun-induced acute poisoning depends on the time of its administration regardless of the choice of the oxime. (3) Our results show that both oximes studied (K027, K048) are able to sufficiently eliminate lethal effects of tabun. Nevertheless, their efficacy significantly decreases when they were administered 5 min after tabun poisoning. (4) The findings support the hypothesis that both newly developed oximes appear to be suitable oximes to counteract acute toxicity of tabun although their ability to eliminate lethal toxic effects of tabun significantly decreases with prolonged time interval between tabun challenge and antidotal treatment administration.

  19. Influence of gender, sexual orientation, and need on treatment utilization for substance use and mental disorders: Findings from the California Quality of Life Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mays Vickie M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has shown a higher prevalence of substance use and mental disorders among sexual minorities, however, the influence of sexual orientation on treatment seeking has not been widely studied. We use a model of help-seeking for vulnerable populations to investigate factors related to treatment for alcohol or drug use disorders and mental health disorders, focusing on the contributions of gender, sexual orientation, and need. Methods Survey data were obtained from a population-based probability sample of California residents that oversampled for sexual minorities. Logistic regression was used to model the enabling, predisposing, and need-related factors associated with past-year mental health or substance abuse treatment utilization among adults aged 18–64 (N = 2,074. Results Compared with individuals without a diagnosed disorder, those with any disorder were more likely to receive treatment. After controlling for both presence of disorder and other factors, lesbians and bisexual women were most likely to receive treatment and heterosexual men were the least likely. Moreover, a considerable proportion of sexual orientation minorities without any diagnosable disorder, particularly lesbians and bisexual women, also reported receiving treatment. Conclusion The study highlights the need to better understand the factors beyond meeting diagnostic criteria that underlie treatment utilization among sexual minorities. Future research should also aim to ascertain the effects of treatment provided to sexual minorities with and without diagnosable disorders, including the possibility that the provision of such treatment may reduce the likelihood of their progression to greater severity of distress, disorders, or impairments in functioning.

  20. Influence of craniofacial and upper spine morphology on mandibular advancement device treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon;

    2015-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess cephalometric predictive markers in terms of craniofacial morphology including posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology for mandibular advancement device (MAD) treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea...... patients and the no success treatment group of 19 patients. Before MAD treatment lateral cephalograms were taken and analyses of the craniofacial morphology including the posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology were performed. Differences between the groups were analysed by Fisher's exact test......, t-test, and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Upper spine morphological deviations occurred non-significantly in 25 per cent in the success treatment group and in 42.1 per cent in the no success treatment group. Body mass index (BMI; P

  1. No influence of sugar, snacks and fast food intake on the degree of obesity or treatment effect in childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Fonvig, C. E.; Bojsoe, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity....... There were no associations between the baseline intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks, and/or fast food and BMI SDS at baseline or the change in BMI SDS during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food when entering a childhood obesity treatment program...... treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. METHODS: This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University...

  2. Design of a randomized trial to evaluate the influence of mobile phone reminders on adherence to first line antiretroviral treatment in South India - the HIVIND study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Nagalingeswaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment has been a public health challenge associated with the treatment of HIV. Although different adherence-supporting interventions have been reported, their long term feasibility in low income settings remains uncertain. Thus, there is a need to explore sustainable contextual adherence aids in such settings, and to test these using rigorous scientific designs. The current ubiquity of mobile phones in many resource-constrained settings, make it a contextually appropriate and relatively low cost means of supporting adherence. In India, mobile phones have wide usage and acceptability and are potentially feasible tools for enhancing adherence to medications. This paper presents the study protocol for a trial, to evaluate the influence of mobile phone reminders on adherence to first-line antiretroviral treatment in South India. Methods/Design 600 treatment naïve patients eligible for first-line treatment as per the national antiretroviral treatment guidelines will be recruited into the trial at two clinics in South India. Patients will be randomized into control and intervention arms. The control arm will receive the standard of care; the intervention arm will receive the standard of care plus mobile phone reminders. Each reminder will take the form of an automated call and a picture message. Reminders will be delivered once a week, at a time chosen by the patient. Patients will be followed up for 24 months or till the primary outcome i.e. virological failure, is reached, whichever is earlier. Self-reported adherence is a secondary outcome. Analysis is by intention-to-treat. A cost-effectiveness study of the intervention will also be carried out. Discussion Stepping up telecommunications technology in resource-limited healthcare settings is a priority of the World Health Organization. The trial will evaluate if the use of mobile phone reminders can influence adherence to first

  3. Influence of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment on Anaerobic Digestion of Secondary Thickened Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery in Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hephzibah, D.; Kumaran, P.; Saifuddin, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of secondary thickened sludge (STS) for enhancement of biogas production that has great potential to generate energy for the utilization of the sewage treatment plant (STP) itself. Microwave pre-treatment has been adopted for this study. Experiment works have been designed and conducted to examine the effectiveness of continuous flow microwave pre-treatment on the solubility of STS, digestibility of STS and biogas production at a power level of 80 W for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. A few characteristics of the sewage sludge were monitored daily to identify the effect of pre-treatment on the sludge. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)/total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ratio increased by 0.1, 1.0 and 1.8%, while the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of the pre-treated sludge improved by 4.4, 5.1, 5.9% at the irradiation time of 5, 10 and 15 minutes, respectively at a microwave power level of 80 W. Besides that, the digestate also indicates that the pre-treated sludge undergoes efficient VS removal and TCOD removal after anaerobic digestion compared to the untreated sludge. Moreover, the biogas quantity increased by an average of 19.2, 24.1 and 32.2% in 5, 10 and 15 minutes irradiation time respectively compared to the untreated sludge. The additional quantity of biogas generated has shown a great potential for sustainable energy generation that can be utilized internally by the STP.

  4. Investigation into the influence of post-weld heat treatment on the microstructure and hardness of Inconel X-750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachya Peasura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a post-weld heat treatment for a precipitation-hardened nickel alloy. Inconel X-750 is a nickel-based superalloy for gas tungsten arc welding processes. The materials were heat-treated in two steps: solution and aging. The post-weld heat treatment variables examined in this study included post-weld heat treatment temperatures of 705°C, 775°C, and 845°C and post-weld heat treatment time of 2–24 h in 2-h increments. The resulting materials were examined using the full factorial design of experiments to determine the resulting material hardness and observed with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the fusion zone and heat-affected zone. The results show that a longer post-weld heat treatment time corresponds to larger γ′ precipitates and a smaller amount of Cr23C6 at the grain boundaries, which can decrease the overall hardness. The post-weld heat treatment analysis indicates that an increase in the amount of γ′ results in better mechanical properties for particles with octagonal shapes and a small size. A factorial analysis, which was conducted on the relationship between the post-weld heat treatment temperature and time to the hardness of the fusion zone, had a 95% confidence level.

  5. The influence of ZrB2-SiC powders mechanical treatment on the structure of sintered ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyakova, S.; Burlachenko, A.; Mirovoi, Yu; Sevostiyanova, I.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of mechanical treatment by planetary ball milling on the properties of hot pressed ZrB2 - SiC ceramics was studied. It was shown that material densification after mechanical treatment is finished at initial stages of sintering process. Addition of SiC leads to an essential increase of sample density to 99% of theoretically achievable for powder with 2% of SiC, as compared with ZrB2 with the density less than 76%. It was demonstrated that all defects that were accumulated during mechanical treatment are annealed during hot pressing, and there are no changes of CDD values in sintered ceramics.

  6. The influence of the combined treatment with Vadimezan (ASA404 and taxol on the growth of U251 glioblastoma xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Dušan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most important biological characteristics of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is high vascular density. Vadimezan (ASA404, DMXAA belongs to the class of small molecule vascular disrupting agents (VDA that cause disruption of established tumor vessels and subsequent tumor hemorrhagic necrosis. Its selective antivascular effect is mediated by intratumoral induction of several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that ASA404 acts synergistically with taxanes. In this study, we investigated if treatment of mice bearing U251 human glioblastoma xenografts with ASA404 and taxol may be synergistic. Therapy response was evaluated by measuring changes in tumor size and metabolic activity using 18F-FDG PET (Fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emision tomography imaging. Methods U251 cells were inoculated s.c. in the right hind limb of NMRI-Foxn1nu athymic female nude mice. Animals were randomly assigned into 4 groups (7–9 animals/group for treatment: control, taxol, ASA404, and ASA404 plus taxol. The animals received either a single dose of taxol (10 mg/kg, ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg, or taxol (10 mg/kg plus ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg administered i.p.; ASA404 was administred 24 h after the treatment with taxol. 4 and 24 h after treatment with ASA404 (28 and 48 h hours after treatment with taxol 18 F-FDG PET scans were performed. Results The treatment with taxol did not affect the tumor growth in comparison to untreated controls. The treatment of animals with single dose ASA404 alone or in combination with taxol caused a significant delay in tumor growth. The combined treatment did not decrease the growth of the xenografts significantly more than ASA404 alone, but early changes in tumor 18 F-FDG uptake preceded subsequent growth inhibition. The tumor weights

  7. 拔牙后出血的影响因素与治疗研究%Study on the influencing factors and treatment of bleeding after tooth extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟守鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influencing factors and treatment of bleeding after tooth extraction.Methods:The clinical data of 35 cases of patients with bleeding after tooth extraction were analyzed retrospectively,and the influencing factors and corresponding treatment measures were analyzed.Results:The influencing factors of bleeding after tooth extraction included 5 cases of systemic hemorrhage,30 cases of local bleeding.Conclusion:Systemic factors,local factors and other factors were the main causes of bleeding after tooth extraction.The basic situation of patients should be understood before the operation in order to avoid postoperative bleeding.%目的:探讨拔牙后出血的影响因素与治疗方法。方法:回顾性分析拔牙后出血患者35例的临床资料,分析拔牙后出血的影响因素及相应的治疗措施。结果:拔牙后出血的影响因素包括全身出血5例,局部出血30例。结论:全身因素、局部因素及其他因素是引起拔牙后出血的主要原因。术前一定要了解患者基本情况,避免术后出血。

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF HEAT TREATMENT WITH THE LIQUID PHASE ON FORMATION OF A MICROSTRUCTURE OF EUTECTIC Al-Si-ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on the structure of the eutectic Al-Si-alloy, a theoretical substantiation process based on thermal analyzer and cooked microstructures was presented in this paper.

  9. Influence of microwave treatment under a hydrogen or methane atmosphere on the flotability of the macerals in Shenfu coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wei; Yang Fusheng; Li Yuangang; Qu Jianlin; Zhou Anning

    2011-01-01

    The modification of Shenfu coals by a microwave treatment carried out under a hydrogen or a methane atmosphere,and the subsequent maceral separation by flotation,are described in this paper,The surface contact angle and the Zeta potential of the coal macerals were measured both with and without the treatment.The results show that the surface wettability ofSFF (Shenfu Fusain) and SFV (Shenfu Vitrain) can be changed by the microwave treatment.An increase in the difference in surface wettability of SFF and SFV causes in a subsequent increase in the enrichment of inertinite and vitrinite.The results of the Zeta potential measurements show that the surface potentials of SFF and SFV are also changed by the treatment.

  10. Influence of Heat Treatment on Microstructures and Properties of Nd8Fe78B6Co4 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Melt-spun Nd8Fe78B6Co4 magnetic powders and their bonded magnets were prepared with the optimization of compositions and preparation techniques. The microstructure change of alloy NdFeB and the relation between microstructure and heat-treatment were studied. The heat-treatment temperature is 200~700 ℃. The as-cast structure of the alloy is typically amorphous. Different melt-spun speed and different heat treatment could result in different magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets. Magnetic properties of NdFeB increase with the addition of element Co. The magnetic properties of magnet alloy get the best when the melt-spun speed reaches 23~26 m·s-1, heat treatment temperature is 690 ℃ and time is 30 min.

  11. The influence of heat treatment on properties of cold rolled alloyed steel and nickel superalloys sheets used in aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, K.; Dul, I.; Puchlerska, S.

    2017-02-01

    Superalloys based on nickel and selected steels are widely used in the aerospace industry, because of their excellent mechanical properties, heat resistance and creep resistance. Metal sheets of these materials are plastically deformed and applied, inter alia, to critical components of aircraft engines. Due to their chemical composition these materials are hardly deformable. There are various methods to improve the formability of these materials, including plastic deformation at an elevated or high temperature, or a suitable heat treatment before forming process. The paper presents results of the metal sheets testing after heat treatment. For the research, sheets of two types of nickel superalloys type Inconel and of three types of steel were chosen. The materials were subjected to multivariate heat treatment at different temperature range and time. After this step, mechanical properties were examined according to the metal sheet rolling direction. The results were compared and the optimal type of pre-trial softening heat treatment for each of the materials was determined.

  12. Changes in group treatment procedures of Danish finishers and its influence on the amount of administered antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee

    2016-01-01

    antimicrobials between the years was significantly different in Cohort Change when compared to both Cohort Water and Cohort Feed. Results from this study demonstrate that farms changing their procedure of group treatment from feed administration to water administration may increase their overall use......When treating groups of pigs orally, antimicrobials can be administered through either feed or water. During the last decade, the group treatment procedure for finishers has shifted from feed to water administration. We hypothesized that farms implementing this change in treatment procedure would...... increase their total amount of administered antimicrobials. Based on Danish national register data, we performed a retrospective cohort study with three groups. The cohort of primary interest (Cohort Change) consisted of 50 finisher farms which changed their group treatment procedure from feed...

  13. Simultaneous removal of ammonium and phosphate by zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash as influenced by acid treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-hua; WU De-yi; WANG Chong; HE Sheng-bing; ZHANG Zhen-jia; KONG Hai-nan

    2007-01-01

    Zeolite synthesized from fly ash (ZFA) without modification is not efficient for the purification of NH4+ and phosphate at low concentrations that occur in real effluents, despite the high potential removal capacity. To develop an effective technique to enhance the removal efficiency of ammonium and phosphate at low concentrations, ZFA was modified with acid treatment and the simultaneous removal of ammonium and phosphate in a wide range of concentration was investigated. It was seen that when compared with untreated ZFA, only the treatment by 0.01 mol/L of H2SO4 significantly improved the removal efficiency of ammonium at low initial concentrations. The behavior was well explained by the pH effect. Treatment by more concentrated H2SO4 led to the deterioration of the ZFA structure and a decrease in the cation exchange capacity. Treatment by 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 improved the removal efficiency of phosphate by ZFA at all initial P concentrations, while the treatment by concentrated H2SO4 (≥0.9 mol/L) resulted in a limited maximum phosphate immobilization capacity (PIC). It was concluded that through a previous mild acid treatment (e.g. 0.01 mol/L of H2SO4), ZFA can be used in the simultaneous removal of NH4+ and P at low concentrations simulating real effluent.

  14. Influence of pH on hydrothermal treatment of swine manure: Impact on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus in process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Fletcher, L A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the influence of pH on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus from swine manure following hydrothermal treatment. Conditions include thermal hydrolysis (TH) at 120°C and 170°C, and hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 200°C and 250°C in either water alone or in the presence of 0.1M NaOH, H2SO4, CH3COOH or HCOOH. Phosphorus extraction is pH and temperature dependent and is enhanced under acidic conditions. The highest level of phosphorus is extracted using H2SO4 reaching 94% at 170°C. The phosphorus is largely retained in the residue for all other conditions. The extraction of nitrogen is not as significantly influenced by pH, although the maximum N extraction is achieved using H2SO4. A significant level of organic-N is extracted into the process waters following hydrothermal treatment. The results indicate that operating hydrothermal treatment in the presence of acidic additives has benefits in terms of improving the extraction of phosphorus and nitrogen.

  15. Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Gu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h. After being hydrothermally treated, LDH–drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH–drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH–drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH–drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH–drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties.

  16. Bioartificial Therapy of Sepsis: Changes of Norepinephrine-Dosage in Patients and Influence on Dynamic and Cell Based Liver Tests during Extracorporeal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sauer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Granulocyte transfusions have been used to treat immune cell dysfunction in sepsis. A granulocyte bioreactor for the extracorporeal treatment of sepsis was tested in a prospective clinical study focusing on the dosage of norepinephrine in patients and influence on dynamic and cell based liver tests during extracorporeal therapies. Methods and Patients. Ten patients with severe sepsis were treated twice within 72 h with the system containing granulocytes from healthy donors. Survival, physiologic parameters, extended hemodynamic measurement, and the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (PDR were monitored. Plasma of patients before and after extracorporeal treatments were tested with a cell based biosensor for analysis of hepatotoxicity. Results. The observed mortality rate was 50% during stay in hospital. During the treatments, the norepinephrine-dosage could be significantly reduced while mean arterial pressure was stable. In the cell based analysis of hepatotoxicity, the viability and function of sensor-cells increased significantly during extracorporeal treatment in all patients and the PDR-values increased significantly between day 1 and day 7 only in survivors. Conclusion. The extracorporeal treatment with donor granulocytes showed promising effects on dosage of norepinephrine in patients, liver cell function, and viability in a cell based biosensor. Further studies with this approach are encouraged.

  17. Influence of a compost layer on the attenuation of 28 selected organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions: insights from a large scale column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Mario; Kröger, Kerrin Franziska; Nödler, Karsten; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesús; Hernández, Marta; Licha, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Soil aquifer treatment is widely applied to improve the quality of treated wastewater in its reuse as alternative source of water. To gain a deeper understanding of the fate of thereby introduced organic micropollutants, the attenuation of 28 compounds was investigated in column experiments using two large scale column systems in duplicate. The influence of increasing proportions of solid organic matter (0.04% vs. 0.17%) and decreasing redox potentials (denitrification vs. iron reduction) was studied by introducing a layer of compost. Secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant was used as water matrix for simulating soil aquifer treatment. For neutral and anionic compounds, sorption generally increases with the compound hydrophobicity and the solid organic matter in the column system. Organic cations showed the highest attenuation. Among them, breakthroughs were only registered for the cationic beta-blockers atenolol and metoprolol. An enhanced degradation in the columns with organic infiltration layer was observed for the majority of the compounds, suggesting an improved degradation for higher levels of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon. Solely the degradation of sulfamethoxazole could clearly be attributed to redox effects (when reaching iron reducing conditions). The study provides valuable insights into the attenuation potential for a wide spectrum of organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions. Furthermore, the introduction of the compost layer generally showed positive effects on the removal of compounds preferentially degraded under reducing conditions and also increases the residence times in the soil aquifer treatment system via sorption.

  18. The influence of autologous cytokine-induced killer cell treatment on the objective efficacy and safety of gefitinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxian Qu; Zhaozhe Liu Co-first author; Zhendong Zheng; Zhenyu Ding; Tao Han; Fang Guo; Jianing Qiu; Xiaodong Xie ; Dongchu Ma 

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to observe the influence of autologous cytokine-induced kil er cel (CIK) treatment on the objective ef icacy and safety of gefitinib in advanced non-smal cel lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Sixty-six patients with NSCLC received gefitinib as second-line treatment. They were randomly divided into 2 groups, and informed consent forms were signed before grouping. Gefitinib was administrat-ed to the control group, and autologous CIK treatment was added to the observation group. The objective treatment and adverse reactions were evaluated in both groups. Results The objective response rate (ORR) and the disease control rate (DCR) of the observation group were slightly higher than those of the control group, although no statistical dif erences were found between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The incidences of diarrhea, fatigue, anorexia, oral ulcers, and myelosuppression in the observation group were much lower than those in the control group (P 0.05). Conclusion Autologous CIK in combination with gefitinib is ef ective as second-line treatment for ad-vanced NSCLC, and can significantly reduce adverse reactions and improve the objective ef icacy.

  19. Influence of pre-orthodontic trainer treatment on the perioral and masticatory muscles in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Yagci, Ahmet; Kara, Sadik; Okkesim, Sukru

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate the effects of Pre-Orthodontic Trainer (POT) appliance on the anterior temporal, mental, orbicularis oris, and masseter muscles through electromyography (EMG) evaluations in subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion and incompetent lips. Twenty patients (mean age: 9.8 ± 2.2 years) with a Class II division 1 malocclusion were treated with POT (Myofunctional Research Co., Queensland, Australia). A group of 15 subjects (mean age: 9.2 ± 0.9 years) with untreated Class II division 1 malocclusions was used as a control. EMG recordings of treatment group were taken at the beginning and at the end of the POT therapy (mean treatment period: 7.43 ± 1.06 months). Follow-up records of the control group were taken after 8 months of the first records. Recordings were taken during different oral functions: clenching, sucking, and swallowing. Statistical analyses were undertaken with Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests. During the POT treatment, activity of anterior temporal, mental, and masseter muscles was decreased and orbicularis oris activity was increased during clenching and these differences were found statistically significant when compared to control. Orbicularis oris activity during sucking was increased in the treatment group (P muscle at clenching and orbicularis oris (P muscle at swallowing during observation period. Present findings indicated that treatment with POT appliance showed a positive influence on the masticatory and perioral musculature.

  20. Primary tumour growth in an orthotopic osteosarcoma mouse model is not influenced by analgesic treatment with buprenorphine and meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, K; Arlt, M J E; Jirkof, P; Arras, M; Born, W; Fuchs, B

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of bone pain in animal models of bone cancer. In the present study, the orthotopic 143-B human osteosarcoma xenotransplantation model was used to address the following questions: (1) Can repetitive analgesic treatment extend the experimental period by prolonging the time to reach humane endpoints and (2) Does repetitive analgesic treatment affect bone tumour development and metastasis? The analgesics, buprenorphine and meloxicam, were either applied individually or in combination at 12 h intervals as soon as the animals began to avoid using the tumour cell injected leg. While control mice treated with NaCl showed continuous body weight loss, the major criterion previously for terminating the experiments, animals treated with analgesic substances did not. The control mice had to be sacrificed 26 days after tumour cell injection, whereas the groups of animals with the different pain treatments were euthanized after an additional eight days. Importantly, primary intratibial tumour growth was not affected in any of the experimental groups by any of the pain treatment procedures. Between days 26 and 34 after tumour cell injection an increase of about 100% of the number of lung metastases was found for the groups treated with buprenorphine alone or together with meloxicam, but not for the group treated with meloxicam alone. In summary, the results indicated that both buprenorphine and meloxicam are suitable analgesics for prolonging the experimental periods in an experimental intratibial osteosarcoma mouse model.

  1. Bagging Treatment Influences Production of C6 Aldehydes and Biosynthesis-Related Gene Expression in Peach Fruit Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Shen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bagging is a useful method to improve fruit quality by altering its exposure to light, whereas its effect on fruit volatiles production is inconsistent, and the genes responsible for the observed changes remain unknown. In the present study, single-layer yellow paper bags were used to study the effects of bagging treatment on the formation of C6 aldehydes in peach fruit (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. Yulu over two succeeding seasons. Higher concentrations of n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, which are characteristic aroma volatiles of peach fruit, were induced by bagging treatment. After bagging treatment, peach fruit had significantly higher LOX and HPL enzyme activities, accompanying increased contents of C6 aldehydes. The gene expression data obtained through real-time PCR showed that no consistent significant differences in transcript levels of LOX genes were observed over the two seasons, but significantly up-regulated expression was found for PpHPL1 after bagging treatment In addition, bagging-treated fruit produced more (E-2-hexenal and had higher expression levels of PpHPL1 during postharvest ripening at room temperature. The regulatory role of the LOX-HPL pathway on the biosynthesis of n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal in response to bagging treatment during peach fruit development is discussed in the text.

  2. Influence of the heat-treatment conditions on various types of multifilamentary Nb-46.5%Ti superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ik Sang; Sim, Ki Hong; Hwang, Duck Young; Jang, Kyeong Ho; Na, Sin Hye; Park, Pyeong Yeol

    2016-08-01

    Unlike the NbTi superconducting wires used for high critical current density, NbTi wires for Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets have larger and fewer NbTi monofilaments and different cross sections, which show different superconducting properties. This study investigated the effects of varying the temperature, number of heat-treatment cycles, and total strain over a wide range for multifilamentary Nb-46.5%Ti wires on a mass production scale for use in MRI magnets. The heat-treatment conditions were optimized for an NbTi superconducting wire and the critical current density and the n-value were measured as functions of the final strain at temperatures of 4.2 K and 7 T. We noticed that the superconducting properties increased with increasing final strain of the multifilamentary NbTi wire. The microstructure and the effects of the size and the distribution of α-Ti precipitates on the individual heat-treatment steps were observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We, consequently, found the heat-treatment conditions that provided the highest superconducting performance for the two types of NbTi wires used in this study, and the results of the study are expected to very helpful in establishing not only the heat-treatment conditions but also important manufacturing parameters, such as the total strain, even as the design of NbTi wires for used in MRI magnets as changing with industrial demand.

  3. The adverse influence of spina bifida occulta on the medical treatment outcome of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previous reports have suggested that the incidence of spina bifida occulta (SBO in patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE is higher than the general population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of spina bifida occulta on the medical treatment outcome of PMNE. Material and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, a total of 223 children (151 boys and 72 girls, aged 6-16 years; mean age: 10.1 ± 3.04 years with PMNE were reviewed retrospectively. All of the children underwent physical examination, urine analysis, urinary tract ultrasonography and kidney ureter bladder (KUB scout film. All patients were initially treated with a timed voiding program and were given desmopressin acetate when necessary. Results: Spina bifida occulta was detected in 75 children (33.6%. Spina bifida occulta affected L4 in 2 children, L5 in 6 children, L4-L5 in 3 children, S1 in 52 children, S2 in 7 children and S1-S2 in 2 children. Treatment was successful in 79% of the children without SBO, and in only 48% of the children with SBO. Medical treatment success rates differed significantly between the study groups. Conclusion: The presence of spina bifida occulta significantly affects the response to medical treatment in patients with PMNE. Thus, verifying spina bifida occulta status in PMNE can facilitate prognostic predictions about the response to medical treatment.

  4. Influence of thermal treatments on the basic and catalytic properties of Mg,Al-mixed oxides derived from hydrotalcites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bastiani

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the influence of calcination conditions on basic properties and catalytic performance of Mg,Al-mixed oxides derived from a hydrotalcite sample (Al/(Al+Mg=0.20. Various heating rates, calcination atmospheres and lengths of calcination at 723K were evaluated. TPD of CO2 and retroaldolization of diacetone alcohol (DAA were used to determine the basic properties of the mixed oxides. The basic site density determined by TPD of CO2 showed a better correlation with catalytic activity for acetone/citral aldol condensation than the relative basicity obtained from retroaldolization of DAA. Calcination atmosphere was the parameter that influenced most the basic and the catalytic properties of the Mg,Al-mixed oxides, with calcination under dry air being the best choice.

  5. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphic variation in the human chromosome 19q13.3 with drug responses in the NCI60 cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, K.K.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Nexo, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the importance of certain polymorphisms on human chromosome 19q13.3 for drug sensitivity in human tumor cell cultures. NCI60 is a panel of 60 established tumor-derived cell lines, which have been tested for their sensitivity to tens of thousands of different drugs. Here we investigate...... the correlations between the responses of the NCI60 cells to different anticancer drugs and their respective alleles of five DNA polymorphisms located in a cancer-related chromosomal area. One polymorphism, located in the 5' noncoding region of the gene ASE-1, alias CD3EAP, proved to be associated with drug...... sensitivity (P=0.025). The same polymorphism has previously been associated with treatment response of multiple myeloma after bone marrow ablation. The polymorphism ASE-1-e1 was of importance for the drug response in the human cancer cell lines investigated and could eventually become important...

  6. Influence of duration of clinical signs on surgical treatment results of 16 dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzosek Marcin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of surgical treatment in 16 dogs, depending on the animal’s age, body weight, deep pain perception, and time from the onset of neurological symptoms to the consultation with a veterinary neurologist and successive surgery. Sixteen dogs diagnosed with cervical (n = 11 or thoracolumbar (n = 5 disc extrusions underwent spinal surgeries (eleven ventral slots and five hemilaminectomies. The success rate of surgical treatment was 64.3% in dogs with preserved nociception. No association between the animal’s age or body weight and the result of surgical treatment was found. A successful surgical outcome was more likely when the symptom-to-surgery time was shorter.

  7. Treatment of PDMS surfaces using pulsed DBD plasmas: comparing the use of different gases and its influence on adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimento, Fellype do; Machida, Munemasa; Parada, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present some results of the treatment of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasmas. The results of plasma treatment using different gases to produce the plasmas (argon, argon plus water, helium, helium plus water, nitrogen and nitrogen plus water) were compared testing the adhesion between two PDMS samples for each kind of plasma. We also studied the water contact angle in function of plasma process time of PDMS surfaces with each kind of plasma. The plasmas were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy to identify the emitting species and determine plasma temperatures through comparison with emission spectra simulations. Measurements of power delivered to the plasmas were also performed. Plasmas of all gases are good enough for surface treatment with long exposure time. But when only a few discharges are applied the best choice is the helium plasma.

  8. Influence of heat treatment on microstructures and micro-hardness of n-SiO2/Ni composite coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou; DONG Shi-yun; JIANG Bin; TU Wei-yi

    2004-01-01

    The n-SiO2/Ni composite electro-brush plating coating was prepared on the 1045 steel substrate. SEM and TEM were utilized to analyze the surface and cross-section morphologies or the microstructures of the composite coating before and after heat treatment, as well as a micro-hardness tester was used to measure the micro-hardness before and after heat treatment. The results show that the entrance of nano SiO2 particles into composite coating makes the micro-hardness higher. After heat treatment, due to the obstruction to growth of Ni crystals from nano particles, the composite coating still possesses a higher micro-hardness than that of common Ni-base coating.

  9. Influence of hydrothermal treatment on dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content as well as antioxidative activity of legumes seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz; Adam Florkiewicz; Ewa Cieślik; Maria Walczycka; Joanna Kapusta-Duch; Teresa Leszczyńska

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dry legumes seeds are food of high nutrient density. Besides the biologically precious protein they contain essential unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins of group B, dietary fiber and antioxidants. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of different soaking and cooking methods on dietary fiber and phe- nolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity of selected legumes’seeds. Material and methods. The experimental material was dry kidney bean origin...

  10. The Influence of Heat Treatment Time and Temperature on the Physical Properties of Assab-Corax Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Jahja

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available X-ray diffraction experiment was carried out on commercial Assab-Corax steel sample. The polished samples are then heated to various temperature for different holding time; 200 oC for 4 hours, 300 oC for 4 hours, 400oC for 6-, 8-, 12- and 16 hours, 500 oC for 4 hours and 600 oC for 4 hours. The refinement of the diffraction intensity was carried out using the Im3m model, and the results show that the Carbon atoms are distributed among the base position in the body centered cubic unit cell at the eight-fold octahedral interstitial sites. Using the refined structural parameters, thermo-physical properties such as Debye temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion are calculated. From the results of the analysis it could be concluded that Debye temperature in Assab-Corrax steels tend to decrease with increasing heat-treatment time but tend to increase with heat treatment temperature. The coefficients of linear expansion also tend to decrease with increasing heat-treatment time and tend to increase with heat treatment temperature. Although the patterns are different, for example when the Debye temperature reaches its peak value for heat treatment time of 8 hours, the coefficient of linear expansion would reach its low point at this time. Therefore, the general finding is that both treatment-temperature and – time are influential to the physical properties of Assab-Corrax steels and x-ray diffraction methods could be utilized in elucidating these important findings.

  11. The influence of baseline marijuana use on treatment of cocaine dependence: application of an informative-priors Bayesian approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eGreen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1 examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2 apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect.Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided samples for the historical dataset (Study 1: N = 64 complete observations and current dataset (Study 2: N = 113 complete observations. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo, baseline marijuana use (days in past 30, and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES.Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect.

  12. The Influence of Causal Explanations and Diagnostic Labeling on Psychology Students' Beliefs About Treatments, Prognosis, Dangerousness and Unpredictability in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Read, John; Rinaldi, Angela; Costanzo, Regina; De Leo, Renata; Schioppa, Giustina; Petrillo, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    This study explored views of 566 Italian psychology students about schizophrenia. The most frequently cited causes were psychological traumas (68 %) and heredity (54 %). Thirty-three percent of students firmly believed that people with the condition could recover. Reporting heredity among the causes, and identifying schizophrenia were both associated with prognostic pessimism, greater confidence in pharmacological treatments and lower confidence in psychological treatments. Schizophrenia labeling was also associated with higher perception of unpredictability and dangerousness. Compared to first year students, fourth/fifth year students more frequently reported heredity among the causes, and were more pessimistic about schizophrenia recovery. Stigma topics should be included in future psychologists' education.

  13. Influence of pre-fermentation treatments on wine volatile and sensory profile of the new disease tolerant cultivar Solaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Liu, Jing;

    2015-01-01

    Solaris is a new disease tolerant cultivar increasingly cultivated in cool climate regions. In order to explore the winemaking processes' potential to make different styles of Solaris wines, the effects of different pre-fermentation treatments (direct press after crushing, whole cluster press, cold...... maceration, and skin fermentation) on the volatile profile, chemical, and sensory properties of Solaris wines were investigated. Cold maceration treatment for 24 h and fermentation on skin led to wines with lower acidity and higher glycerol and total polyphenol indexes. Sensory analysis showed that cold...

  14. Influence of Stress Treatments on the Resistance of Lactococcus lactis to Freezing and Freeze-Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chan

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cold, heat, or osmotic shock treatment on the resistance of L. lactis subsp. cremoris MM160 and MM310 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM210 and FG2 cheese starter bacteria to freezing and freeze-drying. The ability to withstand freezing at -60°C for 24 h was variable among lactococci, but resistance to this treatment was significantly improved (P < 0.05) in most strains by a 2-h cold shock at l0°C or a 25-min heat shock at 39°C (L. lactis subsp. crem...

  15. The influence of statin treatment on the inflammatory biomarkers YKL-40 and HsCRP in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Naja Dam; Harutyunyan, Marina J; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 is elevated and associated with mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim was to investigate the influence of statin treatment and lipid status on serum YKL-40 and Hs-CRP in patients with stable CAD. DESIGN: Serum YKL-40......, HsCRP, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides levels were measured in 404 statin treated and in 404 matched non-statin treated patients with stable CAD. RESULTS: YKL-40 was significantly higher in non-statin treated 110 µg/l (median) compared with 65 µg/l in statin treated (p ...

  16. Influence of the pulsed plasma treatment on the corrosion resistance of the low-alloy steel plated by Ni-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumaev, P.; Yakushin, V.; Kalin, B.; Polsky, V.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents investigation results of the influence of high temperature pulsed plasma flows (HTPPF) treatment on the corrosion resistance of low-alloy steel 0.2C-Cr-Mn- Ni-Mo cladded by the rapidly quenched nickel-based alloy. A technique that allows obtaining a defect-free clad layer with a good adhesion to the substrate was developed. It is shown that the preliminary treatment of steel samples by nitrogen plasma flows significantly increases their corrosion resistance in the conditions of intergranular corrosion test in a water solution of sulfuric acid. A change of the corrosion mechanism of the clad layer from intergranular to uniform corrosion was observed as a result of sub-microcrystalline structure formation and homogeneous distribution of alloying elements in the plasma treated surface layer thus leading to the significant increase of the corrosion resistance.

  17. [The influence of ozone therapy on oxygen metabolism kinetics and the microcirculation system during spa and resort treatment of the post-infarction patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycheva, E I; Khodasevich, L S; Solomina, O E; Zubareva, M I

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate the influence of ozone therapy on oxygen metabolism kinetics and the circulation system during spa and resort treatment of 145 post-infarction patients who survived myocardial infarction. All of them were given routine spa-and-resort therapy; 56 patients received pharmacotherapy, in the remaining 89 it was supplemented with ozone-therapy. The clinical examination included electrocardiography, veloergometry, echocardiography; kinetics of oxygen metabolism was evaluated by transcutaneous polarography, laser Doppler flowmetry, and computed capillaroscopy. The results of the study indicate that ozonetherapy in combination with medicamental treatment reduces the period of post-infarction rehabilitation, decreases tissue hypoxia, improves characteristics of microcirculation and general health status of the patients.

  18. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2013-10-15

    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology.

  19. Influence of pre-treatment on enzymatic degumming of apocynum venetum bast fibers in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment of apocynum venetum bast fibers in supercritical carbon dioxide can improve the efficiency of enzymatic degumming of apocynum venetum bast fiber. This paper studies experimentally effect of pressure and degumming time on degradation rate, the results can be used for optimal design of degumming.

  20. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  1. Influence of a portable air treatment unit on health-related quality indicators of indoor air in a classroom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Hout, S.P. van; Anzion, R.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    During periods of two weeks in February and June 2010 the performance of portable air treatment units (PATUs) was evaluated in a primary school classroom using indicators of indoor air quality. Air samples were collected in an undisturbed setting on weekend days and in an occupied setting during tea

  2. In vitro digestion and lactase treatment influence uptake of quercetin and quercetin glucoside by the Caco-2 cell monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Dan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are widely consumed flavonoids found in many fruits and vegetables. These compounds have a wide range of potential health benefits, and understanding the bioavailability of flavonoids from foods is becoming increasingly important. Methods This study combined an in vitro digestion, a lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell model to examine quercetin and quercetin glucoside uptake from shallot and apple homogenates. Results The in vitro digestion alone significantly decreased quercetin aglycone recovery from the shallot digestate (p p > 0.05. Digestion increased the Caco-2 cell uptake of shallot quercetin-4'-glucoside by 2-fold when compared to the non-digested shallot. Despite the loss of quercetin from the digested shallot, the bioavailability of quercetin aglycone to the Caco-2 cells was the same in both the digested and non-digested shallot. Treatment with lactase increased quercetin recovery from the shallot digestate nearly 10-fold and decreased quercetin-4'-glucoside recovery by more than 100-fold (p p Conclusions The increase in quercetin uptake following treatment with lactase suggests that dietary supplementation with lactase may increase quercetin bioavailability in lactose intolerant humans. Combining the digestion, the lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell culture model may provide a reliable in vitro model for examining flavonoid glucoside bioavailability from foods.

  3. Toward an Optimal Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Parental Psychopathology, Selective Attention, and Cognitive Coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Legerstee (Jeroen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present thesis was to explore wether parental psychopathology and threat-related selective attention were related to outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. Pre- to post-treatment changes of selective attention were also exam

  4. Influence of pH-control in phosphoric acid treatment of titanium oxide and their powder properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp; Matsukura, Aki

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The photocatalytic activity was suppressed by phosphoric acid treatment. • The obtained pigment had small particles with sub-micrometer size. • By phosphoric acid treatment, the smoothness of samples improved. - Abstract: Titanium oxide that has the photocatalytic activity is used as a white pigment for cosmetics. A certain degree of sebum on the skin is decomposed by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, titanium oxide was shaken with phosphoric acid at various pH to synthesize a novel white pigment for cosmetics. Their chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activity, color phase, and smoothness were studied. The obtained materials indicated XRD peaks of titanium oxide, however, these peak intensity became weak by phosphoric acid treatment. These samples without heating and heated at 100 °C included the small particles with sub-micrometer size. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained powders became weak by phosphoric acid treatment at pH 4 and 5 to protect the sebum on the skin.

  5. Influence of pre-fermentation treatments on wine volatile and sensory profile of the new disease tolerant cultivar Solaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    maceration, and skin fermentation) on the volatile profile, chemical, and sensory properties of Solaris wines were investigated. Cold maceration treatment for 24 h and fermentation on skin led to wines with lower acidity and higher glycerol and total polyphenol indexes. Sensory analysis showed that cold...

  6. Influence of HCl/HF treatment on organic matter in aquifer sediments: A Rock-Eval pyrolysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, T.J.; Veld, H.; Griffioen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Rock-Eval pyrolysis is increasingly used for the routine characterization of natural organic matter in soils and sediments. In this work the bulk composition of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in sandy aquifer sediments is studied, as well as purified samples (isolation of SOM) by HCl/HF treatment.

  7. Influence of in-package cold plasma treatment on microbiological shelf life and appearance of fresh chicken breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamei; Zhuang, Hong; Hinton, Arthur; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-12-01

    The effect of in-package cold plasmas (CP) was studied on microbiological shelf life and surface lightness of fresh chicken fillets (pectoralis major). Chicken fillets were packaged in food trays in air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (O2:CO2:N2 = 65:30:5) and stored at 4 °C after exposed to an in-package cold plasma (80 kV for 180 s) treatment. Populations of mesophiles, psychrophiles, and pseudomonas spp. were measured as indicators for microbiological shelf life and CIELAB L(∗) values as an indicator for raw meat appearance. Results show that regardless of microbial type, there were no significant differences in microbial counts between the control and CP treated chicken fillets packed in air. However, in the MA packages, microbial counts were consistently lower than the non-treated control during refrigerated storage. Regardless of CP treatment, the microbial counts on the samples packed in air were much higher than in MA. They were more than 6 logs cfu/g in air compared to fewer than 4 logs cfu/g in MA after 7 d storage and fewer than 6 logs cfu/g after 14 d storage. Regardless of CP treatment and gas composition in package, there were no significant differences in the surface L(∗) value between the fillets pre-treatment and those after storage at 4 °C. These results demonstrate that the effects of in-package CP treatments on microbiological shelf life of fresh chicken fillets depend upon headspace composition in packages. When fresh chicken fillets are packed in air, CP treatment has no effect on microbiological shelf life. MA packages with high O2 and CO2 significantly extend shelf life and CP treatment with MA can at least double shelf life of fresh chicken meat (more than 14 days). Regardless of headspace composition, in-package CP does not have negative effects on chicken meat appearance.

  8. 美沙酮维持治疗影响因素%Influence Factors on Treatment of Drug Users in Methadone Maintenance Clinics in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜维华; 韩德琳; 施雅莹; 梁娴

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解美沙酮维持治疗门诊(MMT)服药人员坚持治疗的影响因素.方法 采用整群抽样的方法抽取成都市2家美沙酮门诊服药人员810人进行横断面问卷调查.结果 调查得到806份有效问卷,38.7%的人承认曾经中断过美沙酮维持治疗,23.6%的人承认曾经偷吸过,68%的人承认曾经注射过毒品,其中14.4%的承认与他人共用过注射器具.结论 MMT门诊患者治疗中断的因素为服用药物的量,服用药物的量越高越不容易中断治疗;MMT门诊患者偷吸的主要因素为工作情况和是否共用针具,工作情况越不稳定越容易偷吸,共用过针具的人偷吸的概率是没有共用针具的人的2倍左右.%Objective To analyze the influence factors on the adherence of treatment of drug users in methadone maintenance clinics in Chengdu. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted among 810 drug users selected by cluster sampling in 2 methadone maintenance clinics in Chengdu. Results Totally 806 valid questionnaires were retumed. Up to 38. 7% of the drug users admitted that they once had stop methadone maintenance treatment, 23. 6% of them once used drug during the treatment and 68% once had injection drug use,of which 14. 4% shared needle with others. Conclusion The dosage of medication was the influence factor of the interruption of methadone maintenance treatment. The higher of methadone dose is, the more difficult to interrupt the treatment is. The influence factors of re-use of drug included these drug users' job stability and needle sharing. Most re-use of drug was due to non-stability of their job. The probability of re-use of drug in those with needle sharing was 2 times higher than that in those without needle sharing.

  9. Influence of post-cure treatments on hardness and marginal adaptation of composite resin inlay restorations: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiza Tatiana Poskus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Vickers hardness number (VHN and the in vitro marginal adaptation of inlay restorations of three hybrid composite resins (Filtek Z250, Opallis and Esthet-X subjected to two post-cure treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the microhardness test, three different groups were prepared in accordance with the post-cure treatments: control group (only light cure for 40 s, autoclave group (light cure for 40 s + autoclave for 15 min at 130ºC; and microwave group (light cure for 40 s + microwave for 3 min at 450 W. To assess the marginal adaptation, the composite resin was inserted incrementally into a mesial-occlusal-distal cavity brass mold and each increment light-cured for 40 s. A previous reading in micrometers was taken at the cervical wall, using a stereomicroscope magnifying glass equipped with a digital video camera and image-analysis software. Subsequently, the specimens were subjected to the post-cure treatments (autoclave and microwave and a reading was taken again at the cervical wall. Data were compared using ANOVA for the hardness test, split-plot ANOVA for the adaptation assessment and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. A significance level of 5% was adopted for all analyses. RESULTS: The post-cure treatments increased the hardness of conventional composites (p<0.001 and the gap values of inlay restorations (p<0.01. Filtek Z250 showed higher hardness (p<0.001 and lower gap values than Opallis and Esthet-X (p<0.05. Gap values did not exceed 90 µm for any of the experimental conditions. CONCLUSION: The post-cure treatments increased the VHN and the gap values on the cervical floor of composite resin inlays. Moreover, Filtek Z250 showed the best results, with higher hardness and lower gap values.

  10. The Influence of Genetics on Response to Treatment with Ranibizumab (Lucentis) for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Lucentis Genotype Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a complex etiology arising from genetic and environmental influences. This past decade have seen several genes associated with the disease. Variants in five genes have been confirmed to play a major role. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether genes influence treatment response to ranibizumab for neovascular AMD. The hypothesis was that an individual’s genetic variation will determine treatment response. Methods The study was a two-site prospective open-label observational study of patients newly diagnosed with exudative (neovascular) AMD receiving intravitreal ranibizumab therapy. Treatment-naïve patients were enrolled at presentation and received monthly “as needed” therapy. Clinical data was collected monthly and DNA extracted. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina (San Diego, California) 660-Quad single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Regression analyses were performed to identify SNPs associated with treatment-response end points. Results Sixty-five patients were enrolled. No serious adverse events were recorded. The primary outcome measure was change in ETDRS visual acuity