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Sample records for cd14 signaling restrains

  1. Liposomal lipopolysaccharide initiates TRIF-dependent signaling pathway independent of CD14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Watanabe

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is recognized by CD14 with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, and initiates 2 major pathways of TLR4 signaling, the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent signaling pathways. The MyD88-dependent pathway induces inflammatory responses such as the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 via the activation of NFκB and MAPK. The TRIF-dependent pathway induces the production of type-I IFN, and RANTES via the activation of IRF-3 and NFκB, and is also important for the induction of adaptive immune responses. CD14 plays a critical role in initiating the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway response to LPS, to support the internalization of LPS via endocytosis. Here, we clearly demonstrate that intracellular delivery of LPS by LPS-formulated liposomes (LPS-liposomes initiate only TRIF-dependent signaling via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, independent of CD14. In fact, LPS-liposomes do not induce the production of TNF-α and IL-6 but induce RANTES production in peritoneal macrophages. Additionally, LPS-liposomes could induce adaptive immune responses effectively in CD14-deficient mice. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that LPS-liposomes are useful as a TRIF-dependent signaling-based immune adjuvant without inducing unnecessary inflammation.

  2. Liposomal Lipopolysaccharide Initiates TRIF-Dependent Signaling Pathway Independent of CD14

    OpenAIRE

    Sachiko Watanabe; Yoshio Kumazawa; Joe Inoue

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized by CD14 with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and initiates 2 major pathways of TLR4 signaling, the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent signaling pathways. The MyD88-dependent pathway induces inflammatory responses such as the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 via the activation of NFκB and MAPK. The TRIF-dependent pathway induces the production of type-I IFN, and RANTES via the activation of IRF-3 and NFκB, and is also important for the induction of adapt...

  3. Soluble CD14 in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Nicu; M.L. Laine; S.A. Morre; U. van der Velden; B.G. Loos

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binds to soluble (s)CD14. We investigated which factors contribute to variations in sCD14 levels in periodontitis, a chronic infectious disease of tooth-supporting tissues associated with endotoxemia and leading to inflammation and subsequently loss of teeth. The sCD14 level

  4. A subset of human pancreatic beta cells express functional CD14 receptors: a signaling pathway fot beta cell-related glycolipids, sulfatide and beta-galactosylceramide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osterbye, T.; Funda, David; Fundová, Petra; Mansson, J.-E.; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Buschard, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2010), s. 656-667. E-ISSN 1520-7560 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/1329; GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA ČR GA310/09/1640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : human beta-cell * cd14 * innate immunity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Soluble CD14 and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bethel, M; Bůžková, P; Fink, HA; Robbins, JA; Cauley, JA; Lee, J.; Barzilay, JI; Jalal, DI; Carbone, LD

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation Summary: Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is an inflammatory marker associated with osteoclasts. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we found a positive association between plasma levels of sCD14 and risk of incident fracture among participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study. sCD14 may be useful in identifying those at risk for fracture. Introduction: Soluble CD14, a proinflammatory cytokine, is primarily derived fro...

  6. Endotoxin and CD14 in the progression of biliary atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ching-Mei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biliary atresia (BA is a typical cholestatic neonatal disease, characterized by obliteration of intra- and/or extra-hepatic bile ducts. However, the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of BA remain uncertain. Because of decreased bile flow, infectious complications and damaging endotoxemia occur frequently in patients with BA. The aim of this study was to investigate endotoxin levels in patients with BA and the relation of these levels with the expression of the endotoxin receptor, CD14. Methods The plasma levels of endotoxin and soluble CD14 were measured with a pyrochrome Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with early-stage BA when they received the Kasai procedure (KP, in patients who were jaundice-free post-KP and followed-up at the outpatient department, in patients with late-stage BA when they received liver transplantation, and in patients with choledochal cysts. The correlation of CD14 expression with endotoxin levels in rats following common bile duct ligation was investigated. Results The results demonstrated a significantly higher hepatic CD14 mRNA and soluble CD14 plasma levels in patients with early-stage BA relative to those with late-stage BA. However, plasma endotoxin levels were significantly higher in both the early and late stages of BA relative to controls. In rat model, the results demonstrated that both endotoxin and CD14 levels were significantly increased in liver tissues of rats following bile duct ligation. Conclusions The significant increase in plasma endotoxin and soluble CD14 levels during BA implies a possible involvement of endotoxin stimulated CD14 production by hepatocytes in the early stage of BA for removal of endotoxin; whereas, endotoxin signaling likely induced liver injury and impaired soluble CD14 synthesis in the late stages of BA.

  7. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Arreguin Camacho, Lucrecia O;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The cancer stem cells (CSCs) have important therapeutic implications for multi-resistant cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the key pathways frequently activated in liver CSCs is NF-kB signaling. METHODS: We evaluated the CSCs-depleting potential of NF......-kB inhibition in liver cancer achieved by the IKK inhibitor curcumin, RNAi and specific peptide SN50. The effects on CSCs were assessed by analysis of Side Population (SP), sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Molecular changes were determined by RT-qPCR, global gene expression microarray, EMSA, and Western...... inhibition of NF-kB and HDAC signaling for treatment of liver cancer patients with poor prognosis....

  8. Soluble CD14 Enhances the Response of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells to P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrukhov, Oleh; Andrukhova, Olena; Özdemir, Burcu; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Moritz, Andreas; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are lacking membrane CD14, which is an important component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. In the present study we investigated the effect of soluble CD14 on the response of human PDLSCs to LPS of Porphyromonas (P.) gingivalis. Human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs) were stimulated with P. gingivalis LPS in the presence or in the absence of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and the production of interleukin (IL)-6, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8), and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) was measured. The response to P. gingivalis LPS was compared with that to TLR4 agonist Escherichia coli LPS and TLR2-agonist Pam3CSK4. The response of hPDLSCs to both P. gingivalis LPS and E. coli LPS was significantly enhanced by sCD14. In the absence of sCD14, no significant difference in the hPDLSCs response to two kinds of LPS was observed. These responses were significantly lower compared to that to Pam3CSK4. In the presence of sCD14, the response of hPdLSCs to P. gingivalis LPS was markedly higher than that to E. coli LPS and comparable with that to Pam3CSK4. The response of hPdLSCs to bacterial LPS is strongly augmented by sCD14. Local levels of sCD14 could be an important factor for modulation of the host response against periodontal pathogens. PMID:27504628

  9. Role of CD14 in a mouse model of acute lung inflammation induced by different lipopolysaccharide chemotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A Anas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS is required for effective defense against invading gram-negative bacteria. Recently, in vitro studies revealed that CD14 is required for activation of the myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor (TLR4 signaling pathway by smooth (S-LPS, but not by rough (R-LPS. The present study investigated the role of CD14 in induction of lung inflammation in mice by these different LPS chemotypes. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Neutrophil accumulation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined 6 hours after intranasal treatment of wild type (WT and CD14 knock-out (KO mice with different doses S-LPS or R-LPS. The contribution of CD14 to lung inflammation induced by S-LPS or R-LPS depended on the LPS dose. At low doses, S-LPS and R-LPS induced neutrophil influx in a CD14-dependent manner. Low dose S-LPS-induced cytokine release also depended on CD14. Strikingly, neutrophil influx and TNF release induced by high dose S-LPS or R-LPS was diminished in the presence of CD14. Intranasal administration of sCD14 to CD14 KO mice treated with S-LPS partially reversed the inflammatory response to the response observed in WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, CD14 modulates effects of both S-LPS and R-LPS within the lung in a similar way. Except for R-LPS-induced TNF release, S-LPS and R-LPS at low dose induced acute lung inflammation in a CD14-dependent manner, while the inflammatory response triggered by high dose S-LPS or R-LPS was diminished by CD14.

  10. LPS-induced clustering of CD14 triggers generation of PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płóciennikowska, Agnieszka; Zdioruk, Mykola I; Traczyk, Gabriela; Świątkowska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-15

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces strong pro-inflammatory reactions after sequential binding to CD14 protein and TLR4 receptor. Here, we show that CD14 controls generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in response to LPS binding. In J774 cells and HEK293 cells expressing CD14 exposed to 10-100 ng/ml LPS, the level of PI(4,5)P2 rose in a biphasic manner with peaks at 5-10 min and 60 min. After 5-10 min of LPS stimulation, CD14 underwent prominent clustering in the plasma membrane, accompanied by accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 and type-I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) isoforms Iα and Iγ (encoded by Pip5k1a and Pip5k1c, respectively) in the CD14 region. Clustering of CD14 with antibodies, without LPS and TLR4 participation, was sufficient to trigger PI(4,5)P2 elevation. The newly generated PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in rafts, which also accommodated CD14 and a large portion of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ. Silencing of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ, or application of drugs interfering with PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and availability, abolished the LPS-induced PI(4,5)P2 elevation and inhibited downstream pro-inflammatory reactions. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS induces clustering of CD14, which triggers PI(4,5)P2 generation in rafts that is required for maximal pro-inflammatory signaling of TLR4. PMID:26446256

  11. TLR-4 and CD14 Genotypes and Soluble CD14: Could They Predispose to Coronary Atherosclerosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kalliopi Konstantinidou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mechanisms are key to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Functional polymorphisms of TLR-4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, CD14 promoter area C260T polymorphism and plasma levels of soluble CD14 are studied in subjects with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. Methods: DNA was obtained from 100 human paraffin-embedded aortic specimens, from cadavers with known coronary atheromatosis (Group A and 100 blood samples from patients with CAD, as detected by cardiac Multi-Detector-row-Computed-Tomography (MDCT (Group B. Our control group consisted of 100 healthy individuals (Group C. Genotyping was performed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR. Plasma levels of sCD14 were measured with ELISA. Results: For TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms, no statistically significant differences were observed. Regarding the C260T polymorphism, frequencies of T allele were significantly higher in the control group compared to the case group (p = 0.05. The Odds Ratio (OR showed statistically significant association of TT genotype with healthy individuals (OR 0.25, 95% Confidence Interval CI 0.10–0.62, p = 0.0017. Plasma levels of sCD14 in patients with CAD (mean value = 1.35 μg/mL were reduced when compared to reference value. Conclusions: The studied polymorphisms ofTLR-4 showed no association with CAD. Conversely, the functional polymorphism of CD14 has a statistically significant difference in expression between healthy and affected by CAD individuals.

  12. Involvement of CD14 on human gingival fibroblasts in Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin-6 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P L; Sato, K; Oido, M; Fujii, T; Kowashi, Y; Shinohara, M; Ohura, K; Tani, H; Kuboki, Y

    1998-09-01

    The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Porphyromonas gingivalis are implicated in the initiation and development of periodontal diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying P. gingivalis LPS-mediated periodontal destruction are still unknown. Here, it was found that P. gingivalis LPS activates human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) to release interleukin 6 (IL-6) via CD14. Flow-cytometric analysis showed that HGFs bind to fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled LPS, and express CD14 on their surfaces. The binding of FITC LPS was competitively suppressed by unlabelled synthetic lipid A as well as by LPS. LPS-induced IL-6 production was inhibited by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody in a dose-dependent manner. The binding of FITC LPS to HGF was abrogated by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody. Engagement of LPS initiated the protein tyrosine phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, and these events were suppressed by the anti-CD14 monoclonal. These results suggest that CD14 is a cell surface binding site for LPS and is involved in the LPS-mediated activation of HGF. PMID:9783822

  13. Circulating CD14+ monocytes in patients with aortic stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Shimoni; Valery Meledin; Iris Bar; Jacob Fabricant; Gera Gandelman; Jacob George

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCalcific aortic stenosis (AS) is an active process sharing similarities with atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation. The pathophysiology of AS is notable for three cardinal components: inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Monocytes play a role in each of these processes. The role of circulating monocytes in AS is not clear. The aim of the present study was to study an association between cir-culating apoptotic and non apoptotic CD14+ monocytes and AS features.MethodsWe assessed the number of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes in 54 patients with significant AS (aortic valve area 0.74 ± 0.27 cm2) and compared them to 33 patients with similar risk factors and no valvular disease. The level of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry.ResultsThere was no difference in the risk factor profile and known coronary or peripheral vascular diseases between patients with AS and controls.Pa-tients with AS exhibited increased numbers of CD14+ monocytes as compared to controls (9.9% ± 4.9%vs. 7.7% ± 3.9%,P= 0.03). CD14+ monocyte number was related to age and the presence and severity of AS. In patients with AS, both CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic mono-cytes were inversely related to aortic valve area.ConclusionsPatients with significant AS have increased number of circulating CD14+ monocytes and there is an inverse correlation between monocyte count and aortic valve area. These findings may suggest that inflammation is operative not only in early valve injury phase, but also at later developed stages such as calcification when AS is severe.

  14. Directed evolution of an LBP/CD14 inhibitory peptide and its anti-endotoxin activity.

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    Li Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: LPS-binding protein (LBP and its ligand CD14 are located upstream of the signaling pathway for LPS-induced inflammation. Blocking LBP and CD14 binding might prevent LPS-induced inflammation. In previous studies, we obtained a peptide analog (MP12 for the LBP/CD14 binding site and showed that this peptide analog had anti-endotoxin activity. In this study, we used in vitro directed evolution for this peptide analog to improve its in vivo and in vitro anti-endotoxin activity. METHODS: We used error-prone PCR (ep-PCR and induced mutations in the C-terminus of LBP and attached the PCR products to T7 phages to establish a mutant phage display library. The positive clones that competed with LBP for CD14 binding was obtained by screening. We used both in vivo and in vitro experiments to compare the anti-endotoxin activities of a polypeptide designated P1 contained in a positive clone and MP12. RESULTS: 11 positive clones were obtained from among target phages. Sequencing showed that 9 positive clones had a threonine (T to methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. Compared to polypeptide MP12, polypeptide P1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in U937 cells (P<0.05. Compared to MP12, P1 significantly improved arterial oxygen pressure, an oxygenation index, and lung pathology scores in LPS-induced ARDS rats (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: By in vitro directed evolution of peptide analogs for the LBP/CD14 binding site, we established a new polypeptide (P1 with a threonine (T-to-methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. This polypeptide had high anti-endotoxin activity in vitro and in vivo, which suggested that amino acid 287 in the C-terminus of LBP may play an important role in LBP binding with CD14.

  15. Admissible and Restrained Revision

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, R; 10.1613/jair.1874

    2011-01-01

    As partial justification of their framework for iterated belief revision Darwiche and Pearl convincingly argued against Boutiliers natural revision and provided a prototypical revision operator that fits into their scheme. We show that the Darwiche-Pearl arguments lead naturally to the acceptance of a smaller class of operators which we refer to as admissible. Admissible revision ensures that the penultimate input is not ignored completely, thereby eliminating natural revision, but includes the Darwiche-Pearl operator, Nayaks lexicographic revision operator, and a newly introduced operator called restrained revision. We demonstrate that restrained revision is the most conservative of admissible revision operators, effecting as few changes as possible, while lexicographic revision is the least conservative, and point out that restrained revision can also be viewed as a composite operator, consisting of natural revision preceded by an application of a "backwards revision" operator previously studied by Papini. ...

  16. Ethanol alters cellular activation and CD14 partitioning in lipid rafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol consumption interferes with innate immunity. In vivo EtOH administration suppresses cytokine responses induced through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inhibits TLR4 signaling. Actually, EtOH exhibits a generalized suppressive effect on signaling and cytokine responses induced by through most TLRs. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS or co-treated with EtOH or with lipid raft-disrupting drugs. TNF-α production, IRAK-1 activation, and CD14 partition were evaluated. EtOH or nystatin, a lipid raft-disrupting drug, suppressed LPS-induced production of TNF-α. The suppressive effect of EtOH on LPS-induced TNF-α production was additive with that of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD), another lipid raft-disrupting drug. EtOH interfered with IRAK-1 activation, an early TLR4 intracellular signaling event. Cell fractionation analyses show that acute EtOH altered LPS-related partition of CD14, a critical component of the LPS receptor complex. These results suggest a novel mechanism of EtOH action that involves interference with lipid raft clustering induced by LPS. This membrane action of EtOH might be one of the mechanisms by which EtOH acts as a generalized suppressor for TLR signaling

  17. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ hg19 Unclassified Blood Monocytes-CD14+ SRX749793,...SRX749797 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ hg19 DNase-seq Blood Monocytes-CD14+ SRX069106,SRX...055205,SRX040416,SRX201301,SRX055167,SRX252602 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ hg19 Histone Blood Monocytes-CD14+ SRX186755,SRX18...1545,SRX181493,SRX181489 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ hg19 DNase-seq Blood Monocytes-CD14+ SRX201301,SRX...040416,SRX055167,SRX069106,SRX055205,SRX252602 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ hg19 Histone Blood Monocytes-CD14+ SRX186735,SRX18...1539,SRX186760,SRX749792 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+.bed ...

  12. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. Buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan ÖZÇELİK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buckling restrained braces (BRBs have high energy dissipation capacity and equal tension and compression axial load capacity. Therefore, the application of BRBs has gained popularity in seismic regions. The first studies on BRBs started in Japan in 1970 and since then more studies have been undertaken in other earthquake prone countries. Although the BRBs perform well in component and subassembly tests, they do not perform as well in frame tests because of the interaction between beam-column-gusset plate and BRB. In this study, the component and subassembly test of the BRBs and then BRB frame tests available in the literature are summarized.

  14. Phagocytosis of gram-negative bacteria by a unique CD14-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, D E; Kline, L; Soldau, K; Lee, J D; Pugin, J; Tobias, P S; Ulevitch, R J

    1997-12-01

    THP-1-derived cell lines were stably transfected with constructs encoding glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored or transmembrane forms of human CD14. CD14 expression was associated with enhanced phagocytosis of serum (heat-inactivated)-opsonized Escherichia coli (opEc). Both the GPI-anchored and transmembrane forms of CD14 supported phagocytosis of opEc equally well. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) played a role in CD14-dependent phagocytosis as evidenced by inhibition of CD14-dependent phagocytosis of opEc with anti-LBP monoclonal antibody (mAb) and by enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli opsonized with purified LBP. CD14-dependent phagocytosis was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) and a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tyrphostin 23) but not a protein kinase C inhibitor (bisindolyl-maleimide) or a divalent cation chelator (ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Anti-LBP mAb 18G4 and anti-CD14 mAb 18E12 were used to differentiate between the pathways involved in CD14-dependent phagocytosis and CD14-dependent cell activation. F(ab')2 fragments of 18G4, a mAb to LBP that does not block cell activation, inhibited ingestion of opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. 18E12 (an anti-CD14 mAb that does not block LPS binding to CD14 but does inhibit CD14-dependent cell activation) did not inhibit phagocytosis of LBP-opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. Furthermore, CD14-dependent phagocytosis was not inhibited by anti-CD18 (CR3 and CR4 beta-chain) or anti-Fcgamma receptor mAb. PMID:9400820

  15. Molecular cloning, chromosomal location, and expression analysis of porcine CD14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Gema; Pérez, Eva; Jiménez-Marín, Angeles; Mompart, Florence; Morera, Luis; Barbancho, Manuel; Llanes, Diego; Garrido, Juan J

    2007-01-01

    CD14 is a membrane-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria and enables LPS-dependent responses in a variety of cells. In this study a cDNA containing the porcine CD14 coding sequence has been cloned and its complete sequence determined. The amino acid sequence deduced from pig CD14 cDNA encodes a 373 amino acid polypeptide that exhibits 75%, 72%, 69%, 66%, 57% and 56% similarity to CD14 from cow, horse, human, rabbit, mouse and rat, respectively. Structural analysis showed that the porcine CD14 is a membrane glycoprotein with a GPI-anchor site and an extracellular domain containing 11 leucine-rich repeats. In addition, the LPS-binding regions identified in the human CD14 are highly conserved in the N-terminal domain of the porcine sequence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to locate the CD14 gene on the pig chromosome 2, band q28. Expression analysis revealed that porcine CD14 transcripts were detected in all tissues and cells examined, suggesting that the expression of porcine CD14 gene is not restricted to myeloid cell lineage. Finally, we report that LPS stimulation significantly up-regulated CD14 gene expression in porcine alveolar macrophages. PMID:17169425

  16. Role of LPS/CD14/TLR4-mediated inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis: Pathogenesis and therapeutic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwong L Chan; Kwong F Wong; John M Luk

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To establish the roles of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/CD14/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammation in a rat model of human necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). METHODS: Six pairs of intestinal samples from human NEC were collected before and after recovery for histological and molecular analysis of inflammatory cytokines and signaling components. In the rat NEC model, we isolated 10-cm jejunum segments and divided them into six groups ( n = 6) for sham operation, treatment with LPS, bowel distension, combined bowel distension and LPS stimulation, and two therapeutic groups. The potential efficacy of a recombinant CD18 peptide and a monoclonal CD14 antibody was evaluated in the latter two groups. The serum and tissue levels of several inflammatory mediators were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, ELISA and immunoblotting. RESULTS: Human acute phase NEC tissues displayed significant increases ( P < 0.05) in levels of TLR4, CD14, myeloid differentiation protein (MD)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nuclear factor-κB when compared to those after recovery. The histological and inflammatory picture of human NEC was reproduced in rats that were treated with combined bowel distension and LPS, but not in the sham-operated and other control rats. Serum levels of interleukin-6 and TNF-α were also elevated. The NEC pathology was attenuated by treating the NEC rats with a monoclonal CD14 antibody or an LPS-neutralizing peptide. CONCLUSION: LPS and distension are required to produce the histological and inflammatory features of NEC. A potential treatment option is blocking LPS activation and leukocyte infiltration.

  17. Dual effects of soluble CD14 on LPS priming of neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, A; Giepmans, B N; Van Kessel, K P; Lichenstein, H S; Verhoef, J; Van Strijp, J A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of soluble CD14 (sCD14) on human neutrophil response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we developed an LPS-priming assay that measures the chemiluminescence response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine stimulation. Priming by 1 ng/mL rough LPS occurred in the presence of eit

  18. CD14: a soluble pattern recognition receptor in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karine; Donnet-Hughes, Anne

    2008-01-01

    An innate immune system capable of distinguishing among self, non-self, and danger is a prerequisite for health. Upon antigenic challenge, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of proteins, enable this system to recognize and interact with a number of microbial components and endogenous host proteins. In the healthy host, such interactions culminate in tolerance to self-antigen, dietary antigen, and commensal microorganisms but in protection against pathogenic attack. This duality implies tightly regulated control mechanisms that are not expected of the inexperienced neonatal immune system. Indeed, the increased susceptibility of newborn infants to infection and to certain allergens suggests that the capacity to handle certain antigenic challenges is not inherent. The observation that breast-fed infants experience a lower incidence of infections, inflammation, and allergies than formula-fed infants suggests that exogenous factors in milk may play a regulatory role. There is increasing evidence to suggest that upon exposure to antigen, breast milk educates the neonatal immune system in the decision-making processes underlying the immune response to microbes. Breast milk contains a multitude of factors such as immunoglobulins, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and antimicrobial peptides that, qualitatively or quantitatively, may modulate how neonatal cells perceive and respond to microbial components. The specific role of several of these factors is highlighted in other chapters in this book. However, an emerging concept is that breast milk influences the neonatal immune system's perception of "danger." Here we discuss how CD14, a soluble PRR in milk, may contribute to this education. PMID:18183930

  19. Restrained roman domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roushini Leely Pushpam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (RDF on a graph G = (V,E is defined to be a function satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. A set S V is a Restrained dominating set if every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex in S and to a vertex in . We define a Restrained Roman dominating function on a graph G = (V,E to be a function satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2 and at least one vertex w for which f(w = 0. The weight of a Restrained Roman dominating function is the value . The minimum weight of a Restrained Roman dominating function on a graph G is called the Restrained Roman domination number of G and denoted by . In this paper, we initiate a study of this parameter.

  20. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology. PMID:27050553

  1. Characterization of osteoclasts derived from CD14+ monocytes isolated from peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Grøndahl; Henriksen, Kim; Schaller, Sophie; Henriksen, Dennis Bang; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Karsdal, Morten Asser

    2007-01-01

    resorption. We have established a pure, stable, and reproducible system for purification of human osteoclasts from peripheral blood. We isolated CD14-positive (CD14+) monocytes using anti-CD14-coated beads. After isolation, the monocytes are differentiated into mature osteoclasts by stimulation with...... demonstrated that actin rings were only formed in the presence of RANKL. Moreover, the osteoclasts were capable of forming acidic resorption lacunae, and inhibitors of lysosomal acidification attenuated this process. Finally, we measured the response to known bone resorption inhibitors, and found that the...

  2. Interaction of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein C with CD14 and Lipopolysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto, Luis A.; Synguelakis, Monique; Johansson, Jan; Pedron, Thierry; Girard, Robert; Chaby, Richard

    2003-01-01

    In addition to their effects on alveolar surface tension, some components of lung surfactant also have immunological functions. We found recently that the hydrophobic lung surfactant protein SP-C specifically binds to the lipid A region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, we show that SP-C also interacts with CD14. Four observations showed cross talk between the three molecules SP-C, LPS, and CD14. (i) Like LBP, SP-C allows the binding of a fluorescent LPS to cells expressing CD14 (th...

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  11. Soluble CD14 subtype (sCD14-ST) presepsin in premature and full term critically ill newborns with sepsis and SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, Michele; Puxeddu, Elisabetta; Puddu, Melania; Ottonello, Giovanni; Coghe, Ferdinando; Comite, Paola; Cibecchini, Francesco; Fanos, Vassilios

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal sepsis still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Recently, soluble CD14 subtype (sDC14-ST) also named presepsin, was proposed as an effective biomarker for diagnosing, monitoring, and assessing the risk of neonatal sepsis and septic shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of sCD14-ST presepsin in diagnosing neonatal bacterial sepsis and in discriminating non-bacterial systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from bacterial sepsis. This study involved 65 critically ill full-term and preterm newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), divided into three groups: 25 newborns with bacterial neonatal sepsis (group A); 15 newborns with a diagnosis of non-bacterial SIRS and with no localizing source of bacterial infection (group B); and 25 babies with no clinical or bacteriological signs of systemic or local infection receiving routine NICU care, most of them treated with phototherapy for neonatal jaundice (group C). A total of 102 whole blood samples were collected, 40 in group A, 30 in group B and 32 in group C. In 10 babies included in group A, sCD14-ST presepsin was also measured in an additional second blood sample collected 3 days after the start of antibiotic treatment. sCD14-ST presepsin was measured by a commercially available chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) optimized on an automated immunoassay analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed by means of MedCalc® statistical package; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was computed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the ability of sCD14-ST to discriminate neonatal bacterial sepsis from non-bacterial SIRS. Blood sCD14-ST presepsin levels were found significantly higher in bacterial sepsis when compared with controls (p<0.0001); similarly, they were higher in non-bacterial SIRS when compared with controls (p<0.0001). However, no statistically

  12. Outcome of urogenital infection with Chlamydia muridarum in CD-14 gene knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsey Kyle H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD14 has been postulated to play a role in chlamydial immunity and immunopathology. There is evidence to support this role in human infections but its function in a mouse model has not been investigated. Methods Female CD14 gene knockout and C57BL/6J wild type mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum. The infection course was monitored by detection of viable chlamydiae from serially collected cervical-vaginal swabs. The sequela of tubal factor infertility was assessed using hydrosalpinx formation as a surrogate marker. Results A significantly abbreviated infection course was observed in the CD14 gene knockout mice but hydrosalpinx formation occurred at similar rates between the two groups. Conclusion Involvement of CD14 during chlamydial infection impedes infection resolution but this does not affect the sequela of infertility as assessed by hydrosalpinx formation.

  13. Establishment of a mouse model to express bovine CD14 short hairpin RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangping; Huang, Shihai; Ren, Yanping; Wang, Meng; Kang, Chao; Xie, Liangliang; Shi, Deshun

    2015-01-01

    Background Cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) functions as a co-receptor for Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and myeloid differentiation factor (MD)-2 in detecting bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Together, these complexes promote the phagocytosis and digestion of Gram-negative bacteria, and initiate immune responses. To date, much of our understanding of CD14 function during Gram-negative bacterial inflammation comes from studies on mouse knockout models and cell transfection. To identify the effe...

  14. Plasma sCD14 as a biomarker to predict pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S Quon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One in four cystic fibrosis (CF patients diagnosed with a pulmonary exacerbation will not recover their baseline lung function despite standard treatment. This highlights the importance of preventing such events. Clinical decision-making can be improved through a simple blood test that predicts individuals at elevated short-term risk of an exacerbation. METHODS: We obtained plasma samples from 30 stable CF patients from the St. Paul's Hospital Adult CF Clinic (Vancouver, Canada. For 15 patients, an additional plasma sample was obtained during an exacerbation. Soluble CD14 (sCD14 and C-reactive protein (CRP were quantified using ELISA kits. Myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin(IL-6, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF were quantified using Luminex™ immunoassays. Stable state biomarker levels were examined in their ability to predict individuals that would experience a pulmonary exacerbation requiring intravenous (IV antibiotics within 4 months. Paired stable and exacerbation plasma biomarker levels were also compared. RESULTS: sCD14 levels were significantly higher in patients that experienced a pulmonary exacerbation requiring IV antibiotics within 4 months (p = 0.001. sCD14 cut-off value of 1450 ng/mL was associated with an area under the curve of 0.91 (95% CI 0.83-0.99 for predicting an exacerbation within 4 months of a stable visit, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 82%. Plasma sCD14 levels were significantly higher during exacerbations than during periods of clinical stability (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD14 is a promising biomarker for identifying CF patients who will exacerbate within 4 months of a stable visit but requires further study in larger, independent cohorts.

  15. Circulating levels of the innate and humoral immune regulators CD14 and CD23 are associated with adult glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mi; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Bracci, Paige; Wrensch, Margaret R.; McCoy, Lucie; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jennette; Patoka, Joseph; Wiencke, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Allergy history has been consistently inversely associated with glioma risk. Two serologic markers, soluble CD23 (sCD23) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), are part of the innate and adaptive humoral immune systems and modulate allergic responses in opposite directions, with sCD23 enhancing and sCD14 blunting inflammatory responses. We measured sCD23 and sCD14 in serum from blood that was drawn at a single time point from 1079 glioma patients post diagnosis and 736 healthy controls. Glioma was strongl...

  16. Enhanced host immune recognition of E.coli causing mastitis in CD-14 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherchia coli causes mastitis, an economically significant disease in dairy animals. E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) when bound by host membrane proteins such as CD-14, causes release of pro-inflammatory cytokines recruiting neutrophils as a early innate immune response. Excessive pr...

  17. CD14+ monocytes promote the immunosuppressive effect of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, the effect of CD14+ monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion capacities of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as an important soluble mediator. CD14+ monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, either exogenously added or produced by CD14+ monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE2 by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE2 expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14+ monocytes and partially restored CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

  18. A Neoglycoconjugate Containing the Human Milk Sugar LNFPIII Drives Anti-Inflammatory Activation of Antigen Presenting Cells in a CD14 Dependent Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smanla Tundup

    Full Text Available The milk pentasaccharide LNFPIII has therapeutic action for metabolic and autoimmune diseases and prolongs transplant survival in mice when presented as a neoglycoconjugate. Within LNFPIII is the Lewisx trisaccharide, expressed by many helminth parasites. In humans, LNFPIII is found in human milk and also known as stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. LNFPIII-NGC drives alternative activation of macrophages and dendritic cells via NFκB activation in a TLR4 dependent mechanism. However, the connection between LNFPIII-NGC activation of APCs, TLR4 signaling and subsequent MAP kinase signaling leading to anti-inflammatory activation of APCs remains unknown. In this study we determined that the innate receptor CD14 was essential for LNFPIII-NGC induction of both ERK and NFkB activation in APCs. Induction of ERK activation by LNFPIII-NGC was completely dependent on CD14/TLR4-Ras-Raf1/TPL2-MEK axis in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs. In addition, LNFPIII-NGC preferentially induced the production of Th2 "favoring" chemokines CCL22 and matrix metalloprotease protein-9 in a CD14 dependent manner in BMDCs. In contrast, LNFPIII-NGC induces significantly lower levels of Th1 "favoring" chemokines, MIP1α, MIP1β and MIP-2 compared to levels in LPS stimulated cells. Interestingly, NGC of the identical human milk sugar LNnT, minus the alpha 1-3 linked fucose, failed to activate APCs via TLR4/MD2/CD14 receptor complex, suggesting that the alpha 1-3 linked fucose in LNFPIII and not on LNnT, is required for this process. Using specific chemical inhibitors of the MAPK pathway, we found that LNFPIII-NGC induction of CCL22, MMP9 and IL-10 production was dependent on ERK activation. Over all, this study suggests that LNFPIII-NGC utilizes CD14/TLR4-MAPK (ERK axis in modulating APC activation to produce anti-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines in a manner distinct from that seen for the pro-inflammatory PAMP LPS. These pathways may explain the in vivo

  19. Clinical proteomics identifies urinary CD14 as a potential biomarker for diagnosis of stable coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Recently, urinary proteins were found to be useful markers for reflecting inflammation status of different organs. To identify potential biomarker for diagnosis of CAD, we performed one-dimensional SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Among the proteins differentially expressed in urine samples, monocyte antigen CD14 was found to be consistently expressed in higher amounts in the CAD patients as compared to normal controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to analyze the concentrations of CD14 in urine and serum, we confirmed that urinary CD14 levels were significantly higher in patients (n = 73 with multi-vessel and single vessel CAD than in normal control (n = 35 (P < 0.001. Logistic regression analysis further showed that urinary CD14 concentration level is associated with severity or number of diseased vessels and SYNTAX score after adjustment for potential confounders. Concomitantly, the proportion of CD14+ monocytes was significantly increased in CAD patients (59.7 ± 3.6% as compared with healthy controls (14.9 ± 2.1% (P < 0.001, implicating that a high level of urinary CD14 may be potentially involved in mechanism(s leading to CAD pathogenesis. By performing shotgun proteomics, we further revealed that CD14-associated inflammatory response networks may play an essential role in CAD. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated that release of CD14 in urine coupled with more CD14+ monocytes in CAD patients is significantly correlated with severity of CAD, pointing to the potential application of urinary CD14 as a novel noninvasive biomarker for large-scale diagnostic screening of susceptible CAD patients.

  20. Association between CD14 gene polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two polymorphisms, -260C/T and -651C/T, in the CD14 gene have been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. However, the results remain inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between the two polymorphisms and risk of cancer. METHODS: All eligible case-control studies published up to March 2014 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and WanFang database. Pooled odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI were used to access the strength of this association in fixed- or random-effects model. RESULTS: 17 case-control studies from fourteen articles were included. Of those, there were 17 studies (4198 cases and 4194 controls for -260C/T polymorphism and three studies (832 cases and 1190 controls for -651C/T polymorphism. Overall, no significant associations between the two polymorphisms of CD14 gene and cancer risk were found. When stratified by ethnicity, cancer type and source of control, similar results were observed among them. In addition, in further subgroups analysis by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection status and tumor location in gastric cancer subgroup, we found that the CD14 -260C/T polymorphism may increase the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the CD14 -260C/T polymorphism may increase the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals. However, large and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.

  1. CD14{sup +} monocytes promote the immunosuppressive effect of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ding, E-mail: qqhewd@gmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ke, E-mail: chenke_59@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Du, Wei Ting, E-mail: duwtpumc@yahoo.com.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); Han, Zhi-Bo, E-mail: zhibohan@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Ren, He, E-mail: knifesharp2000@hotmail.com [National Engineering Research Center of Cell Products, AmCellGene Co. Ltd, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Chi, Ying, E-mail: caizhuying@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); and others

    2010-09-10

    Here, the effect of CD14{sup +} monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) secretion capacities of CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) as an important soluble mediator. CD14{sup +} monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1{beta}, either exogenously added or produced by CD14{sup +} monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE{sub 2} by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE{sub 2} expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14{sup +} monocytes and partially restored CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cell proliferation and IFN-{gamma} secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

  2. Association of CD14+ monocyte-derived progenitor cells with cardiac allograft vasculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Mohamed; Andrukhova, Olena; Roedler, Susanne; Zuckermann, Andreas; Laufer, Guenther; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein

    2011-01-01

    Objective The pathogenesis of cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplant remains controversial. Histologically, cardiac allograft vasculopathy is characterized by intimal hyperplasia of the coronary arteries induced by infiltrating cells. The origin of these infiltrating cells in cardiac allograft vasculopathy is unclear. Endothelial progenitor cells are reportedly involved in cardiac allograft vasculopathy; however, the role of CD14+ monocyte-derived progenitor cells in cardiac al...

  3. BLUNTING AIRWAYS EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATION RESULTS IN A DECREASED AIRWAY NEUTROPHIL RESPONSE TO INHALED LPS IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS A ROLE FOR CD-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent data demonstrate that atopic inflammation might enhance airway responses to inhaled LPS in individuals with atopic asthma by increasing CD14 expression on airway macrophages. We sought to determine whether blunting airway eosinophilic inflammation decreases CD14 expressio...

  4. Improved flow cytometric identification of myelopoiesis by the simultaneous labelling with CD13, CD14 and CD66 monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J; Meyer, K; Broe, M K; Hokland, M; Turley, H; Hokland, P

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to increase our knowledge of myelopoiesis evaluated by flow cytometry. We therefore designed a triple-marker assay employing monoclonal antibodies against the CD13 (immature), the CD14 (monocytic), and the CD66 (mature myeloid) antigens using three......-colour immunofluorescence. In normal donor bone marrow the assay enables simultaneous identification of immature (CD13+, CD14-, CD66-), intermediate (CD13+, myelopoietic differentiation stages through the exclusion of CD14+ monocytic cells. In the diagnosis and longitudinal follow-up of AML patients the assay was of value...

  5. Association of CD14 -260 (-159) C>T and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken Michael B; Zhao Linlu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Asthma is a phenotypically diverse disease with genetic susceptibility. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CD14 gene at position -260 (also known as -159) C>T has been inconsistently associated with asthma. The aim of this study was to estimate the combined likelihood of developing asthma given the CD14 -260C>T genotype. Methods Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic search and meta-anal...

  6. A systematic review of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to asthma in Caucasian children

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, Ester MM; Thönissen, Brenda EJT; van Eys, Guillaume; Dompeling, Edward; Jöbsis, Quirijn

    2013-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood asthma is complex. An early dysfunction in the immunological development of the innate immune system in combination with environmental factors possibly triggers asthma. CD14 and toll-like receptors are important components of the innate immune system. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain a better insight into the relation between CD14 and toll-like receptors and childhood asthma in Caucasians. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles. In total,...

  7. The anti-inflammatory effect of combined complement and CD14 inhibition is preserved during escalating bacterial load

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Combined inhibition of complement and CD14 is known to attenuate bacterial-induced inflammation, but the dependency of the bacterial load on this effect is unknown. Thus, we investigated whether the effect of such combined inhibition on Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-induced inflammation was preserved during increasing bacterial concentrations. Human whole blood was preincubated with anti-CD14, eculizumab (C5-inhibitor) or compstatin (C3-inhibitor), or combinations thereof. Then ...

  8. Circulating levels of the innate and humoral immune regulators CD14 and CD23 are associated with adult glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Wiemels, Joseph L; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; McCoy, Lucie S; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jennette D; Patoka, Joseph S; Wiencke, John K

    2010-10-01

    Allergy history has been consistently inversely associated with glioma risk. Two serologic markers, soluble CD23 (sCD23) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), are part of the innate and adaptive humoral immune systems and modulate allergic responses in opposite directions, with sCD23 enhancing and sCD14 blunting inflammatory responses. We measured sCD23 and sCD14 in serum from blood that was drawn at a single time point from 1,079 glioma patients postdiagnosis and 736 healthy controls. Glioma was strongly associated with high sCD14 [highest versus lowest quartile odds ratio (OR), 3.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.98-5.21] and low sCD23 (lowest versus highest quartile OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.89-3.23). Results were consistent across glioma histologic types and grades, but were strongest for glioblastoma. Whereas temozolomide treatment was not associated with either sCD14 or sCD23 levels among cases, those taking dexamethasone had somewhat lower sCD23 levels than those not taking dexamethasone. However, sCD23 was associated with case status regardless of dexamethasone treatment. These results augment the long-observed association between allergies and glioma and support a role for the innate and adaptive humoral functions of the immune system, in particular immunoregulatory proteins, in gliomagenesis. PMID:20719886

  9. Involution of the mouse mammary gland is associated with an immune cascade and an acute-phase response, involving LBP, CD14 and STAT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Involution of the mammary gland is a complex process of controlled apoptosis and tissue remodelling. The aim of the project was to identify genes that are specifically involved in this process. We used Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to perform a detailed transcript analysis on the mechanism of controlled involution after withdrawal of the pups at day seven of lactation. Some of the results were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. We identified 145 genes that were specifically upregulated during the first 4 days of involution; of these, 49 encoded immunoglobulin genes. A further 12 genes, including those encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), were involved in the acute-phase response, demonstrating that the expression of acute-phase response genes can occur in the mammary gland itself and not only in the liver. Expression of LBP and CD14 was upregulated, at both the RNA and protein level, immediately after pup withdrawal; CD14 was strongly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells. Other genes identified suggested neutrophil activation early in involution, followed by macrophage activation late in the process. Immunohistochemistry and histological staining confirmed the infiltration of the involuting mammary tissue with neutrophils, plasma cells, macrophages and eosinophils. Oligonucleotide microarrays are a useful tool for identifying genes that are involved in the complex developmental process of mammary gland involution. The genes identified are consistent with an immune cascade, with an early acute-phase response that occurs in the mammary gland itself and resembles a wound healing process

  10. CD14 cooperates with complement receptor 3 to mediate MyD88-independent phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Kelly L.; Olson, Chris M.; Iglesias-Pedraz, Juan M.; Navasa, Nicolás; Cervantes, Jorge L.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Izadi, Hooman; Ingalls, Robin R.; Pal, Utpal; Salazar, Juan C.; Radolf, Justin D.; Anguita, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a poorly understood process, despite its importance during the host immune response to infection. B. burgdorferi has been shown to bind to different receptors on the surface of phagocytic cells, including the β2 integrin, complement receptor 3 (CR3). However, whether these receptors mediate the phagocytosis of the spirochete remains unknown. We now demonstrate that CR3 mediates the phagocytosis of the spirochete by murine macrophages and human monocytes. Interaction of B. burgdorferi with the integrin is not sufficient, however, to internalize the spirochete; phagocytosis requires the interaction of CR3 with the GPI-anchored protein, CD14, independently of TLR/MyD88-induced or inside-out signals. Interestingly, the absence of CR3 leads to marked increases in the production of TNF in vitro and in vivo, despite reduced spirochetal uptake. Furthermore, the absence of CR3 during infection with B. burgdorferi results in the inefficient control of bacterial burdens in the heart and increased Lyme carditis. Overall, our data identify CR3 as a MyD88-independent phagocytic receptor for B. burgdorferi that also participates in the modulation of the proinflammatory output of macrophages. These data also establish a unique mechanism of CR3-mediated phagocytosis that requires the direct cooperation of GPI-anchored proteins. PMID:22232682

  11. Circulating CD14brightCD16+ 'intermediate' monocytes exhibit enhanced parasite pattern recognition in human helminth infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Turner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Circulating monocyte sub-sets have recently emerged as mediators of divergent immune functions during infectious disease but their role in helminth infection has not been investigated. In this study we evaluated whether 'classical' (CD14brightCD16-, 'intermediate' (CD14brightCD16+, and 'non-classical' (CD14dimCD16+ monocyte sub-sets from peripheral blood mononuclear cells varied in both abundance and ability to bind antigenic material amongst individuals living in a region of Northern Senegal which is co-endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. Monocyte recognition of excretory/secretory (E/S products released by skin-invasive cercariae, or eggs, of S. mansoni was assessed by flow cytometry and compared between S. mansoni mono-infected, S. mansoni and S. haematobium co-infected, and uninfected participants. Each of the three monocyte sub-sets in the different infection groups bound schistosome E/S material. However, 'intermediate' CD14brightCD16+ monocytes had a significantly enhanced ability to bind cercarial and egg E/S. Moreover, this elevation of ligand binding was particularly evident in co-infected participants. This is the first demonstration of modulated parasite pattern recognition in CD14brightCD16+ intermediate monocytes during helminth infection, which may have functional consequences for the ability of infected individuals to respond immunologically to infection.

  12. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors. PMID:27081544

  13. Solution NMR studies provide structural basis for endotoxin pattern recognition by the innate immune receptor CD14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CD14 functions as a key pattern recognition receptor for a diverse array of Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell-wall components in the host innate immune response by binding to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) at partially overlapping binding site(s). To determine the potential contribution of CD14 residues in this pattern recognition, we have examined using solution NMR spectroscopy, the binding of three different endotoxin ligands, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and a PGN-derived compound, muramyl dipeptide to a 15N isotopically labeled 152-residue N-terminal fragment of sCD14 expressed in Pichia pastoris. Mapping of NMR spectral changes upon addition of ligands revealed that the pattern of residues affected by binding of each ligand is partially similar and partially different. This first direct structural observation of the ability of specific residue combinations of CD14 to differentially affect endotoxin binding may help explain the broad specificity of CD14 in ligand recognition and provide a structural basis for pattern recognition. Another interesting finding from the observed spectral changes is that the mode of binding may be dynamically modulated and could provide a mechanism for binding endotoxins with structural diversity through a common binding site

  14. CD14 promoter polymorphism in Chinese alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of liver and acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Chen Chao; Heng-Cheng Chu; Wei-Kuo Chang; Hsin-Hung Huang; Tsai-Yuan Hsieh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphism of the CD14 promoter and the occurrence of alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic pancreatitis, and to challenge the conclusion made earlier that the patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of liver are two different subpopulations.METHODS: Using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, we determined the polymorphism of CD14 gene and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene 2 (ALDH 2) in 335 alcoholic patients with different organ complications i.e., cirrhosis of liver (n = 100), acute pancreatitis (n = 100), esophageal cancer (n = 82) and avascular necrosis of hip joint (AVN) (n = 53)and 194 non-alcoholic controls in a Chinese group.RESULTS: The results showed that the carriage of T allele was not different among alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic patients with other complication and non-alcoholic controls. On the other hand, the carriage of the C allele was significantly more prevalent for alcoholic pancreatitis than for esophageal cancer (0.79 vs 0.60,P<0.001), alcoholic AVN (0.79 vs 0.65, P<0.025) and nonalcoholic controls (0.79 vs 0.68, P<0.025). Furthermore,when only subjects with ALDH2 1-1 genotype were examined, the C allele frequency was significantly more prevalent for alcoholic pancreatitis than for alcoholic liver cirrhosis (0.82 vs 0.69, P<0.025), esophageal cancer (0.82 vs 0.61, P<0.01), alcoholic AVN (0.82 vs 0.64,P<0.01) and non-alcoholic controls (0.82 vs 0.69, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The C allele may be associated with some mechanism, which is important in the pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis, and that alcoholic patients with acute pancreatitis and cirrhosis of liver are probably two different subpopulations.

  15. Effect of continuous sedation with low-dose propofol on HLA-DR antigen expression on CD14+ monocytes in extensively burned patients%丙泊酚持续小剂量镇静对大面积烧伤患者CD14+单核细胞HLA-DR表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡超; 杨红明; 魏雪菁; 马丽; 冯永强; 褚万立

    2012-01-01

    bjective To investigate HLA-DR antigen expression on CD 14+ monocytes in extensively burned patients and the influence of continuous sedation with low-dose propofol on the said expression. Methods A total of 30 patients with total burn surface area (TBSA) of at least 30% admitted from Mar. 2010 to Nov. 2011 were enrolled into this study. Twenty patients were treated using conventional therapy (conventional therapy group), and 13 patients were treated with continuous sedation using low-dose propofol beside conventional treatment (propofol therapy group). Peripheral blood was collected before and after sedation on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Flow cytometry was used to detect the HLA-DR antigen expression on CD14+ monocytes. For comparison, 20 healthy individuals were also enrolled into the study. Results HLA-DR antigen expression on the CD 14+ monocytes of extensively burned patients (25.07% ± 14.83%) admitted into the hospital within 24 hours of the injury was obviously lower than that of the control group (76.45% ± 7.96%, P<0.0l). The rates of HLA-DR antigen expression in the conventional therapy group on 3 days to 5 days after treatment (27.76% ± 11.36%, 27.11% ± 14.49%) were lower than that in the propofol therapy group (3S.44% ± 11.55% and 37.47% ± 15.46%). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups on pre-treatment and post-treatment days 1 and 7. Conclusion Propofol may relieve the excessive stress response among extensively burned patients by restraining the excessive release of the main stress hormone to improve the immune function of extensively burned patients.%目的 探讨大面积烧伤患者CD14+单核细胞HLA-DR抗原的表达规律及丙泊酚持续小剂量镇静对HLA-DR抗原表达的影响.方法 选取2010年3月-2011年11月收治的烧伤而积大于30% TBSA的严重烧伤患者30例,其中17例给予常规治疗(常规治疗组),13例除常规治疗外还应用丙泊酚

  16. Maternal influences on daughters' restrained eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Lori A; Birch, Leann L

    2005-11-01

    This study examined whether mothers' preoccupation with their own weight and eating was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior. Participants included 173 non-Hispanic, White mother-daughter dyads, measured longitudinally when daughters were ages 5, 7, 9, and 11. Mothers who were preoccupied with their own weight and eating reported higher levels of restricting daughters' intake and encouraging daughters to lose weight over time. Mothers' encouragement of daughters' weight loss was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior; this relationship was partially mediated by daughters' perception of maternal pressure to lose weight. These findings suggest that mothers' preoccupation with weight and eating, via attempts to influence daughters' weight and eating, may place daughters at risk for developing problematic eating behaviors. PMID:16287400

  17. Transversely Compressed- and Restrained Shear Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    2013-01-01

    Anchorage of FRP strengthening systems where the deformation perpendicular to the FRP material is restrained or a compressive force is applied on the strengthening, seems to provide ductility, increased utilization of the FRP and failure modes which can be controlled through the anchorage method....... This paper presents theoretical model which can predict the response of transversely compressed and restrained single- and double lap shear joints. The interface material model is based on a cohesive law in the shear-slip plane with a descending branch and a uniform frictional stress added due to the...... friction in the crack, emanating from the transverse pressure or restraint. The theoretical model is compared with experimental results from transversely compressed single- and double shear joints. Also theoretical predictions of a mechanical integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage load capacity are carried out...

  18. Maternal Influences on Daughters' Restrained Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Lori A.; Birch, Leann L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' preoccupation with their own weight and eating was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior. Participants included 173 non-Hispanic, White mother–daughter dyads, measured longitudinally when daughters were ages 5, 7, 9, and 11. Mothers who were preoccupied with their own weight and eating reported higher levels of restricting daughters' intake and encouraging daughters to lose weight over time. Mothers' encouragement of daughters' weight loss was li...

  19. Innate Recognition of Bacteria in Human Milk Is Mediated by a Milk-Derived Highly Expressed Pattern Recognition Receptor, Soluble Cd14

    OpenAIRE

    Labéta, Mario O; Vidal, Karine; Nores, Julia E. Rey; Arias, Mauricio; Vita, Natalio; Morgan, B. Paul; Guillemot, Jean Claude; Loyaux, Denis; Ferrara, Pascual; Schmid, Daniel; Affolter, Michael; Borysiewicz, Leszek K.; Donnet-Hughes, Anne; Schiffrin, Eduardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  20. A RNA transcript (Heg) in mononuclear cells is negatively correlated with CD14 mRNA and TSH receptor autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, G.; Bratholm, P.; Christensen, Niels Juel

    2008-01-01

    During a study of gene expression of foxp3 in blood mononuclear cells we observed a DNA product of an unknown RNA fragment. The area of this peak correlated with CD14 mRNA in a small group of subjects. The sequence was localized to chromosome 1. We tested the hypothesis that gene expression of the...

  1. Biochemical analysis of myeloid antigens and cDNA expression of gp55 (CD14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have analyzed the reactivity patterns of the myeloid panel of mAbs by immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE analysis of 125I-labelled membrane extracts and surface binding to transfected COS7 and L-cells expressing specific gene products. Forty-seven of the 150 myeloid antibodies precipitated recognizable protein products. Fifteen mAbs reacted with molecules of 160-170kDa, four reacted with molecules of 220kDa, two reacted with molecules of 43kDa, and five reacted with molecules of 130- 140kDa. Several others reacted with protein products that did not fall into any of these categories. By surface binding to COS7 cells transfected with a specific gp55 (CD14) cDNA clone, 20 mAbs were shown to have reactivity with the gp55 molecule. Similarly, surface binding to transfected L-cells expressing a 130-140kDa (CD31) product demonstrated that two mAbs had a unique specificity

  2. 子痫前期患者胎盘蜕膜组织CD14+巨噬细胞的表达及意义%Significance of CD14+ macrophages expression in placenta decidual tissue for patients with preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 王玉珏; 房芳; 杨玲; 邢思思; 魏军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨子痫前期患者胎盘局部蜕膜组织CD14+巨噬细胞表达水平与子痫前期的发病关系.方法 选取2010 年1 月至2012 年6 月在中国医科大学附属盛京医院住院分娩的重度子痫前期患者30例为实验组,年龄(28.94±3.98)岁,怀孕 (36.56±2.94)周.选择同期分娩的正常妊娠妇女30例作为对照组,年龄(27.50±3.61)岁,孕(38.97±3.03)周.均排除内科合并症和其他产科并发症.采用免疫酶化学技术分析两组蜕膜组织CD14+巨噬细胞水平变化,同时对蜕膜CD14+巨噬细胞水平与产妇平均动脉压、24 h尿蛋白定量以及新生儿体质量的Spearman秩相关性分析.结果 验组患者CD14+巨噬细胞水平表达阳性率为85.56%,明显高于对照组的45.22%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.335,P=0.001);CD14+巨噬细胞水平与产妇平均动脉压、24 h尿蛋白定量呈正相关(r=0.582、0.453,P<0.05),与新生儿体质量呈负相关(r=-0.108,P<0.05).结论 胎盘组织中蜕膜CD14+巨噬细胞水平与子痫前期的发病有关,且与病情的严重程度相关.

  3. In situ Delivery of Antigen to DC-SIGN + CD14 + Dermal Dendritic Cells Results in Enhanced CD8 + T-Cell Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehres, Cynthia M.; Van Beelen, Astrid J.; Bruijns, Sven C M; Ambrosini, Martino; Kalay, Hakan; Van Bloois, Louis; Unger, Wendy W J; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Storm, G; De Gruijl, Tanja D.; Van Kooyk, Yvette V.

    2015-01-01

    CD14 + dendritic cells (DCs) present in the dermis of human skin represent a large subset of dermal DCs (dDCs) that are considered macrophage-like cells with poor antigen (cross)-presenting capacity and limited migratory potential to the lymph nodes. CD14 + dDC highly express DC-specific ICAM-3-grab

  4. Study on Oridonin for Antitumor Based on Restraining Wnt Signal Pathway in Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells%基于Wnt信号通路抑制的冬凌草甲素抗乳腺癌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳静; 陈如意; 洪姣; 贵志芳; 张婷; 任军; 许健

    2014-01-01

    Objective] To explore the effects of oridonin on the growth and Wnt signal pathway in MCF-7 cel s;. [Methods] Cel viability of MCF-7 cel s was evaluated by MTT assay. Cel cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. Expression of the proteins related to Wnt signal pathway was detected by Western Blot. [Result] Oridonin inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cel s in a manner as dose- and time-dependence. MCF-7 cel s were arrested in G2/M by oridonin. The expressions of Wnt4, GSK3βandβ-catenin were down-regulated by oridonin. [Conclusion] Oridonin could inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cel s, and influence the Wnt signal pathway.%[目的]探究冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞生长及Wnt信号通路的影响。[方法] MTT法检测冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞活度的影响,流式细胞术检测冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞周期、细胞凋亡的影响,免疫蛋白印记法检测冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞Wnt通路相关蛋白Wnt4、GSK3β和β-catenin表达的影响。[结果]冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖抑制作用呈时间依赖性、浓度依赖性;冬凌草甲素阻滞MCF-7细胞于G2/M期,且可诱导其凋亡;冬凌草甲素可下调Wnt4、GSK3β、β-catenin的表达。[结论]冬凌草甲素可抑制乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖,且影响了Wnt信号通路。

  5. Study on Oridonin for Antitumor Based on Restraining Wnt Signal Pathway in Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells%基于Wnt信号通路抑制的冬凌草甲素抗乳腺癌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳静; 陈如意; 洪姣; 贵志芳; 张婷; 任军; 许健

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探究冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞生长及Wnt信号通路的影响。[方法] MTT法检测冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞活度的影响,流式细胞术检测冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞周期、细胞凋亡的影响,免疫蛋白印记法检测冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞Wnt通路相关蛋白Wnt4、GSK3β和β-catenin表达的影响。[结果]冬凌草甲素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖抑制作用呈时间依赖性、浓度依赖性;冬凌草甲素阻滞MCF-7细胞于G2/M期,且可诱导其凋亡;冬凌草甲素可下调Wnt4、GSK3β、β-catenin的表达。[结论]冬凌草甲素可抑制乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖,且影响了Wnt信号通路。%Objective] To explore the effects of oridonin on the growth and Wnt signal pathway in MCF-7 cel s;. [Methods] Cel viability of MCF-7 cel s was evaluated by MTT assay. Cel cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. Expression of the proteins related to Wnt signal pathway was detected by Western Blot. [Result] Oridonin inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cel s in a manner as dose- and time-dependence. MCF-7 cel s were arrested in G2/M by oridonin. The expressions of Wnt4, GSK3βandβ-catenin were down-regulated by oridonin. [Conclusion] Oridonin could inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cel s, and influence the Wnt signal pathway.

  6. Tumor stroma-derived factors skew monocyte to dendritic cell differentiation toward a suppressive CD14+ PD-L1+ phenotype in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spary, Lisa K; Salimu, Josephine; Webber, Jason P; Clayton, Aled; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-associated stromal myofibroblasts are essential for the progression and metastatic spread of solid tumors. Corresponding myeloid cell infiltration into primary tumors is a negative prognostic factor in some malignancies. The aim of this study was to define the exact role of stromal myofibroblasts and stromal factors in early prostate carcinoma (PCa) regulating monocyte infiltration and differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs). Epithelial and stromal primary cultures were generated from PCa biopsies and their purity confirmed. Stromal cells produced significantly more of the (C–C) motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) than epithelial cells. Monocyte chemoattraction was predominantly due to stromal-derived factors, mainly CCL2. DCs generated in the presence of stromal (but not epithelial) factors upregulated CD209, but failed to downregulate the monocyte marker CD14 in a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent manner. Monocytes exposed to stromal factors did not produce detectable amounts of IL-10, however, upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, stromal factor generated dendritic cells (sDC) produced significantly more IL-10 and less IL-12 than their conventional DC counterparts. sDC failed to cross-present tumor-antigen to CD8+ T cells and suppressed T-cell proliferation. Most importantly, sDC expressed significantly elevated levels of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in a primarily STAT3 and IL-6-dependent manner. In parallel with our findings in vitro, tumor-infiltrating CD14+ cells in situ were found to express both PD-L1 and CD209, and a higher percentage of tumor-associated CD3+ T cells expressed programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) molecules compared to T cells in blood. These results demonstrate a hitherto undescribed, fundamental contribution of tumor-associated stromal myofibroblasts to the development of an immunosuppressive microenvironment in early PCa. PMID

  7. Trappin-2 promotes early clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa through CD14-dependent macrophage activation and neutrophil recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Thomas S; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Hamilton, Thomas W; Lipka, Alexander F; Farrell, Lesley; Davidson, Donald J; Duffin, Rodger; Morris, Andrew Conway; Haslett, Chris; Govan, John R W; Gregory, Christopher D; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Simpson, A John

    2009-04-01

    Microaspiration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to the pathogenesis of nosocomial pneumonia. Trappin-2 is a host defense peptide that assists with the clearance of P. aeruginosa through undefined mechanisms. A model of macrophage interactions with replicating P. aeruginosa (strain PA01) in serum-free conditions was developed, and the influence of subantimicrobial concentrations of trappin-2 was subsequently studied. PA01 that was pre-incubated with trappin-2 (at concentrations that have no direct antimicrobial effects), but not control PA01, was cleared by alveolar and bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, trappin-2-enhanced clearance of PA01 was completely abrogated by CD14- null macrophages. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated the presence of trappin-2 on the bacterial cell surface of trappin-2-treated PA01. In a murine model of early lung infection, trappin-2-treated PA01 was cleared more efficiently than control PA01 2 hours of intratracheal instillation. Furthermore, trappin-2-treated PA01 up-regulated the murine chemokine CXCL1/KC after 2 hours with a corresponding increase in neutrophil recruitment 1 hour later. These in vivo trappin-2-treated PA01 effects were absent in CD14-deficient mice. Trappin-2 appears to opsonize P. aeruginosa for more efficient, CD14-dependent clearance by macrophages and contributes to the induction of chemokines that promote neutrophil recruitment. Trappin-2 may therefore play an important role in innate recognition and clearance of pathogens during the very earliest stages of pulmonary infection. PMID:19264904

  8. The Polynomially Exponential Time Restrained Analytical Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    眭跃飞

    1991-01-01

    A polynomially exponential time restrained analytical hierarchy is introduced with the basic properties of the hierarchy followed.And it will be shown that there is a recursive set A such that A does not belong to any level of the p-arithmetical hierarchies.Then we shall prove that there are recursive sets A and B such that the different levels of the analytical hierarchy relative to A are different and for some n every level higher than n of the analytical hierarchy relative to B is the same as the n-th level.And whether the higher levels are collapsed into some lower level is neither provable nor disprovable in set theory and several other results.

  9. Atopy and new-onset asthma in young Danish farmers and CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 genetic polymorphisms: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, L A M; Bongers, S I M; Ruven, H J T; Rijkers, G T; Wouters, I M; Heederik, D; Omland, Ø; Sigsgaard, T

    2007-01-01

    genotyped 100 new-onset asthma cases and 88 control subjects for three CD14 SNPs, three TLR2 SNPs, and two TLR4 SNPs. Atopy at baseline (defined as a positive skin prick test to one or more common inhalant allergens) was found in 17 asthma cases (17.0%) and in 17 controls (19.3%). RESULTS: The CD14/-260T...... atopy. OBJECTIVE: To study potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 genes, and atopy and new-onset asthma in young farmers. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 1901 young Danish farmers. We...... analysis by farm childhood showed stronger effects of both CD14 SNPs on atopy among farmers who were born and raised on a farm, although no significant interaction was found. No associations between CD14, TLR2, or TLR4 genotypes and new-onset asthma were found. CONCLUSION: The CD14/-260 and CD14...

  10. Soluble CD14 and CD83 from Human Neonatal Antigen-Presenting Cells Are Inducible by Commensal Bacteria and Suppress Allergen-Induced Human Neonatal Th2 Differentiation▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lundell, Anna-Carin; Andersson, Kerstin; Josefsson, Elisabet; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Rudin, Anna

    2007-01-01

    CD14 is expressed on the cell surface of various antigen-presenting cells, and CD83 is a maturation marker for dendritic cells (DC). CD14 and CD83 are also present as soluble proteins, and both have immunoregulatory functions. We examined whether neonatal cord blood monocytes or DC released soluble CD14 (sCD14) or sCD83 when exposed to the commensal intestinal bacteria Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides fragilis. We found...

  11. Mechanical Analysis of Concrete Specimen under Restrained Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xinwei; NIU Changren; R D Hooton

    2005-01-01

    In order to quantify the development of the tensile stresses and obtain a reliable estimation of the cracking risk, the concrete was subjected to restrained conditions. The fully restrained condition was achieved by keeping the length constant of a concrete specimen. Comparing the free shrinkage with the restrained shrinkage,tensile creep could be discriminated from shrinkage. The testing method was introduced in details, and the mechanical behaviors under tensile load were analyzed. Results show that concrete exhibits a pronounced viscoelasticity. Under restrained condition, the self induced tensile stress increases with time. The lower the water to cement ratio, the larger the tensile stress at the same age. The tensile creep of hardening concrete is much larger than that of hardened concrete. The relationships among autogenous shrinkage under free condition, elastic strain and creep under restrained condition are described, and the mathematical model for the calculation of elastic strain and creep is proposed.

  12. DMPD: Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Schumann RR. Res Immunol. 1992 Jan;143(1):11-5. (.png) (.svg) (...ride (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Authors Schuma.../LBP complexes: a short review. PubmedID 1373512 Title Function of lipopolysaccha....html) (.csml) Show Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS

  13. In situ Delivery of Antigen to DC-SIGN(+)CD14(+) Dermal Dendritic Cells Results in Enhanced CD8(+) T-Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehres, Cynthia M; van Beelen, Astrid J; Bruijns, Sven C M; Ambrosini, Martino; Kalay, Hakan; van Bloois, Louis; Unger, Wendy W J; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; Storm, Gert; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-09-01

    CD14(+) dendritic cells (DCs) present in the dermis of human skin represent a large subset of dermal DCs (dDCs) that are considered macrophage-like cells with poor antigen (cross)-presenting capacity and limited migratory potential to the lymph nodes. CD14(+) dDC highly express DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), a receptor containing potent endocytic capacity, facilitating intracellular routing of antigens to major histocompatibility complex I and II (MHC-I andII) loading compartments for the presentation to antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Here we show using a human skin explant model that the in situ targeting of antigens to DC-SIGN using glycan-modified liposomes enhances the antigen-presenting capacity of CD14(+) dDCs. Intradermal vaccination of liposomes modified with the DC-SIGN-targeting glycan Lewis(X), containing melanoma antigens (MART-1 or Gp100), accumulated in CD14(+) dDCs and resulted in enhanced Gp100- or MART-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. Simultaneous intradermal injection of the cytokines GM-CSF and IL-4 as adjuvant enhanced the migration of the skin DCs and increased the expression of DC-SIGN on the CD14(+) and CD1a(+) dDCs. These data demonstrate that human CD14(+) dDCs exhibit potent cross-presenting capacity when targeted in situ through DC-SIGN. PMID:25885805

  14. Expression of FOXP3, CD14, and ARG1 in Neuroblastoma Tumor Tissue from High-Risk Patients Predicts Event-Free and Overall Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Stigliani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of children with metastatic neuroblastoma (NB > 18 months at diagnosis is dismal. Since the immune status of the tumor microenvironment could play a role in the history of disease, we evaluated the expression of CD45, CD14, ARG1, CD163, CD4, FOXP3, Perforin-1 (PRF1, Granzyme B (GRMB, and IL-10 mRNAs in primary tumors at diagnosis from children with metastatic NB and tested whether the transcript levels are significantly associated to event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS, resp.. Children with high expression of CD14, ARG1 and FOXP3 mRNA in their primary tumors had significantly better EFS. Elevated expression of CD14, and FOXP3 mRNA was significantly associated to better OS. CD14 mRNA expression levels significantly correlated to all markers, with the exception of CD4. Strong positive correlations were found between PRF1 and CD163, as well as between PFR1 and FOXP3. It is worth noting that the combination of high levels of CD14, FOXP3, and ARG1 mRNAs identified a small group of patients with excellent EFS and OS, whereas low levels of CD14 were sufficient to identify patients with dismal survival. Thus, the immune status of the primary tumors of high-risk NB patients may influence the natural history of this pediatric cancer.

  15. Association of CD14 -260 (-159 C>T and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracken Michael B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a phenotypically diverse disease with genetic susceptibility. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CD14 gene at position -260 (also known as -159 C>T has been inconsistently associated with asthma. The aim of this study was to estimate the combined likelihood of developing asthma given the CD14 -260C>T genotype. Methods Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search and meta-analysis of the literature was conducted to estimate the association between this SNP and asthma. Planned subgroup analyses were performed to detect potential sources of heterogeneity from selected study characteristics. Post-hoc sensitivity analysis was performed to identify studies exerting excessive influence on among-study heterogeneity and combined effects. Results Meta-analysis of 23 studies yielded a non-significant overall association with high heterogeneity across studies. After restricting analysis to studies using atopic asthma and non-atopic non-asthma case-control phenotypes and excluding studies influencing heterogeneity, the genotype-specific odds ratios (ORs suggested a codominant model. Carriers of the TT and CT genotypes were about 33% less likely (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.84 and about 20% less likely (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66-0.95, respectively, to have atopic asthma compared to carriers of the CC genotype. Among-study heterogeneity may be explained by overly broad asthma phenotype definitions, gene-environment interactions, and gene-gene interactions. Conclusions A protective dose-response relationship between the CD14 -260T allele and atopic asthma susceptibility was observed. These results demonstrate the importance of precisely specified case-control groups as well as the need to assess interactions in the investigation of complex diseases such as asthma.

  16. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B.; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, signif...

  17. Association between CD14 gene C-260T polymorphism and inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengting Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gene encoding CD14 has been proposed as an IBD-susceptibility gene with its polymorphism C-260T being widely evaluated, yet with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between this polymorphism and IBD by conducting a meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 18 case-control studies, including 1900 ulcerative colitis (UC cases, 2535 Crohn's disease (CD cases, and 4004 controls. Data were analyzed using STATA software. Overall, association between C-260T polymorphism and increased UC risk was significant in allelic comparison (odds ratio [OR]  =1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.43; P=0.027, homozygote model (OR  =1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.01; P=0.033, as well as dominant model (OR  =1.36, 95% CI: 1.06-1.75; P=0.016. However, there was negative association between this polymorphism and CD risk across all genetic models. Subgroup analyses by ethnicity suggested the risk-conferring profiles of -260T allele and -260 TT genotype with UC in Asians, but not in Caucasians. There was a low probability of publication bias. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Expanding previous results of individual studies, our findings demonstrated that CD14 gene C-260T polymorphism might be a promising candidate marker in susceptibility to UC, especially in Asians.

  18. Comparison of Electroacupuncture in Restrained and Unrestrained Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haolin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA are widely used to treat a variety of diseases including pain. In preclinical research, EA is usually applied by inserting acupuncture needles into the hindlimbs of rats restrained in small tubes or bags. This restrained model of EA not only causes stress-like behaviors but also is limited in stimulating locations and intensities. In 2004, a novel, unrestrained model of EA was introduced. However, these two EA methods have never been directly compared regarding their analgesic effects and other features such as stress. In the present study, we reported similar analgesic effects between restrained and unrestrained EA in rats of acute inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar injection of CFA. In addition, rats receiving unrestrained EA showed less significant stress-like behaviors and tolerated higher current intensity. These advantages suggest that this unrestrained EA method can replace the traditional restrained procedure with similar analgesic effects and allow for more choices of stimulating intensities and locations.

  19. Evolving efficiency of restraining bends within wet kaolin analog experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Alexandra E.; Cooke, Michele L.; Madden, Elizabeth H.

    2015-03-01

    Restraining bends along strike-slip fault systems evolve by both propagation of new faults and abandonment of fault segments. Scaled analog modeling using wet kaolin allows for qualitative and quantitative observations of this evolution. To explore how bend geometry affects evolution, we model bends with a variety of initial angles, θ, from θ = 0° for a straight fault to θ = 30°. High-angle restraining bends (θ ≥ 20°) overcome initial inefficiencies by abandoning unfavorably oriented restraining segments and propagating multiple new, inwardly dipping, oblique-slip faults that are well oriented to accommodate convergence within the bend. Restraining bends with 0° < θ ≤ 15° maintain activity along the restraining bend segment and grow a single new oblique slip fault on one side of the bend. In all restraining bends, the first new fault propagates at ~5 mm of accumulated convergence. Particle Image Velocimetry analysis provides a complete velocity field throughout the experiments. From these data, we quantify the strike-slip efficiency of the system as the percentage of applied plate-parallel velocity accommodated as slip in the direction of plate motion along faults within the restraining bend. Bends with small θ initially have higher strike-slip efficiency compared to bends with large θ. Although they have different fault geometries, all systems with a 5 cm bend width reach a steady strike-slip efficiency of 80% after 50 mm of applied plate displacement. These experimental restraining bends resemble crustal faults in their asymmetric fault growth, asymmetric topographic gradient, and strike-slip efficiency.

  20. Exact buckling load of a restrained RC column

    OpenAIRE

    Krauberger, Nana; Saje, Miran; Planinc, Igor; Bratina, Sebastjan

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical foundation for the buckling load determination in reinforced concrete columns is described and analytical solutions for buckling loads of the Euler-type straight reinforced concrete columns given. The buckling analysis of the limited set of restrained reinforced concrete columns is also included, and some conclusions regarding effects of material non-linearity and restrain stiffhesses on the buckling loads and the buckling lengths are presented. It is shown that the material non-l...

  1. Exploring the Use of Adaptively Restrained Particles for Graphics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Luc Manteaux; Fran\\xe7ois Faure; Stephane Redon; Marie-Paule Cani

    2013-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we explore the use of Adaptively Restrained (AR) particles for graphics simulations. Contrary to previous methods, Adaptively Restrained Particle Simulations (ARPS) do not adapt time or space sampling, but rather switch the positional degrees of freedom of particles on and off, while letting their momenta evolve. Therefore, inter-particles forces do not have to be updated at each time step, in contrast with traditional methods that spend a lot of time ...

  2. Bezafibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, decreases circulating CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Tomoko; Aso, Yoshimasa; Omori, Kyoko; Fukushima, Maiko; Momobayashi, Atsushi; Inukai, Toshihiko

    2015-02-01

    CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes are proinflammatory cells that produce tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-1β. The number of circulating CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes is increased in patients with chronic renal failure or coronary artery disease. We investigated the effect of bezafibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, on circulating CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Using cells isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects, we also examined the in vitro expression of CD16 messenger RNA (mRNA) by mononuclear cells (MNCs) exposed to bezafibrate. The percentage of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes among all CD14(+) monocytes was significantly higher in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (P bezafibrate (400 mg/d) than in patients not taking it (P bezafibrate for 12 weeks significantly reduced the percentage of circulating CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes from 45.4 ± 25.2% to 38.3 ± 21.8% (P = 0.0144). In an in vitro study, the expression of CD16 mRNA by MNCs from 6 diabetic subjects was decreased after 24 hours of treatment with 10 μg/mL of bezafibrate (P bezafibrate, whereas the IL-1β level in the culture supernatant was significantly decreased after treatment of MNCs with either 1 or 10 μg/mL of bezafibrate. In conclusion, bezafibrate decreased circulating CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes in patients with type 2 diabetes, probably by inhibiting the expression of CD16 mRNA. PMID:25134759

  3. Ironic processes in the eating behaviour of restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Brigitte; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; Ijntema, Richta

    2002-02-01

    Theory. The present study examines the processes underlying the disinhibition of the eating behaviour of restrained eaters following negative emotions. Based on Herman and Polivy's (1984) Boundary Model and Wegner's Ironic Process Theory (1994), the limited capacity hypothesis is formulated, suggesting that overeating in restrained eaters results from cognitive capacity limitations. Predictions were that (1) impairment of cognitive capacity during eating will lead to overeating in restrained but not in unrestrained eaters and that (2) this difference should only emerge with food perceived to be high in calories.METHOD: The hypotheses were tested in an experiment with a 2 (restrained/unrestrained) x 2 (distraction yes/no) x 2 (perceived calories high/low) design, in which subjects consumed ice-cream in a taste test situation. Ice-cream consumption was the dependent variable.RESULTS: A second-order interaction was found: as predicted, in the high calorie condition restrained eaters ate the same amount as unrestrained eaters when not distracted, but considerably more when distracted. There was also an unexpected main effect of distraction, which indicated that restrained as well as unrestrained eaters ate more if distracted than if not distracted.DISCUSSION: The restraintxdistractionxperceived calories interaction can be explained by both the Ironic Process Theory and the Boundary Model; and the limited capacity hypothesis appears to be confirmed. The overall main effect of distraction remains puzzling. Two speculative views for the latter effect are offered. PMID:14596713

  4. 急性胆道感染时肝组织脂多糖受体CD14的表达机制%Expression of lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 in rat liver after acute biliary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慷; 刘作金; 龚建平

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨急性胆道感染时大鼠肝组织巾脂多糖(1ipopolysaccharide,LPS)受体CDl4的表达及其对细胞因子分泌的影响.方法 通过结扎Wiser大鼠月日总管,在胆总管内注人大肠杆菌0111:B4,复制急性胆道感染动物模型.于术后0、3、6、12、24 h分别检测肝组织中CDl4蛋白和mRNA表达水平,血浆内毒素、TNF-Ot和IL-6的含量、枯否细胞(kupffer cells,KCs)吞噬活性,电镜观察KCs超微结构的变化.结果 在急性胆道感染时随着感染时间延长,血浆内毒素浓度逐渐升高,KCs呈现激活的改变,血浆TNF-a、IL-6含量明显增加,而此时肝组织中CD14的表达也显著增加.结论 急性胆道感染时肝组织中CD14的表达进行性增强,KCs激活,释放的细胞因子也逐渐增多,这可能是急性胆道感染时KCs敛炎作用增强的重要机制之一.

  5. Association of promoter polymorphism of the CD14 C (-159) T endotoxin receptor gene with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh; Mitra Ranjbar; Mehrdad Hajilooi; Farahnaz Fallahian

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter regions of endotoxin-responsive genes CD14 C (-159) T is associated with chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: We obtained genomic DNA from 80 patients with established diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B and 126 healthy subjects served as a control population. The CD 14 C (-159) T polymorphism was investigated using an allele specific PCR method.RESULTS: Twenty seven percent of chronic hepatitis B patients and 75% of controls were heterozygous for CT genotype. The difference between the chronic hepatitis B and control groups was statistically significant [P <0.0001; Odds ratio (OR) = 2.887; 95% CI: 1.609-5.178].Twenty four point six percent of chronic hepatitis B and patients 12.3% of the control group were heterozygous for TT genotype. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.256; OR = 0.658; 95% CI:0.319-1.358). Forty eight point four percent of chronic hepatitis B patients and 12.7% of control were homozygote for CC genotype (P < 0.004; OR = 0.416; 95% CI:0.229-0.755). The frequency of allele C was 61.9% and allele T was 38.1% in hepatitis B patients group. The frequency of allele C was 55.2% and allele T was 44.8% for the control group (P = 0.179; OR = 1.319; 95% CI:0.881-1.977).CONCLUSION: The TT heterozygous genotype was not a risk factor for chronic hepatitis B. CC homozygote genotype is protective for hepatitis B. Lack of heterozygosis of genotype CT is a risk factor for chronic hepatitis B.Alleles C or T were not risk factors for chronic hepatitis B. These findings show the role of a single-nucleotide polymorphism at CD14/-159 on the development of chronic hepatitis B. Endotoxin susceptibility may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B.

  6. Significance of detection of the monocyte CD14+CD16+ subsets and monocyte-platelet aggregates in patients with cerebral infarction by FCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the mononuclear cell subsets distribution and monocyte-platelet aggregates of the peripheral blood in patients with cerebral infarction and its clinical significance. Methods: In 48 patients with cerebral infarction and 31 normal controls, the expression levels of CD14, CD16, CD41 were measured by flow cytometry. Results: The expression levels of CD14, Cr16 and CD41 on monocyte in group of cerebral infarction patients were significant difference than those in normal control (P+CD16+ subsets and the monocyte-platelet aggregates (PMAs) were helpful for the early diagnosis in patients with cerebral infarction. (authors)

  7. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)-Related Hypertriglyceridemia Is Associated With Failure of Recovery of CD14lowCD16+ Monocyte Subsets in AIDS Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Junyan; Zhao, Hongxin; Ma, Yaluan; Zhou, Haiwei; Hao, Yu; Li, Yanmei; Song, Chuan; Han, Ning; Liu, Xiangyi; Zeng, Hui; QIN, MINGZHAO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As cellular reservoirs, CD16+ monocyte subsets play important roles in the progression of HIV infection. Previous studies have shown that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduced the percentages of CD14highCD16+ monocyte subsets, but did not recover the percentages of CD14lowCD16+ subsets. Eighty-four chronic HIV-infected, HAART-naïve individuals and 55 HIV-negative subjects (31 without hyperlipidemia and 24 with hypertriglyceridemia) were enrolled. Plasma HIV-1 RNA level...

  8. Different expression of CD180, CD284 and CD14 receptors on the CD19+ subpopulation of normal and B-CLL lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marzec-Kotarska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental data indicate that B-CLL development and progression are influenced by antigenic pressure. It can not be excluded that these antigens may originate from bacteria and viruses. Toll like receptors (TLRs interact with pathogen associated molecular patterns as part of innate immunity. TLRs are currently used to target different subclasses of B-cell leukemia, and TLR agonists are being evaluated in clinical trials. It is little known regarding the repertoire and function of TLR in B-CLL. The aim of the study was to assess the CD180, CD284 and mCD14 levels in CD19+ subpopulation of B-CLL peripheral blood lymphocytes and compare them with respective levels in the normal B-cells of adult volunteers, before and after LPS stimulation. We investigated the percentage of the CD19+CD180+, CD19+CD284+, CD19+CD14+ cells and the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of CD180, CD284 and CD14 antigens among CD19+ B-CLL as well as in the normal B cells for comparison. MFI analysis revealed that CD180, CD284 and CD14 expression was higher on normal B cells then on CD19+ B-CLL (MFI CD180: 99.16 vs. 25.3, MFI CD284: 7.37 vs. 5.79 and MFI CD14 25.07 vs. 8.32. After 24-hour LPS activation of B-cells, CD180 MFI appeared to decrease, in both healthy and B-CLL patients. CD284 MFI in healthy controls decreased after LPS stimulation while slight increase of MFI was observed in leukemic cells. CD14 MFI in leukemic cells was moderately higher after LPS in comparison to CD14 MFI without LPS stimulation, whereas CD14 MFI in normal CD19+ cells after LPS stimulation decreased over three times. Variations observed in expression of both normal and leukemic receptors may be due to their different sensitivity to antigenic stimulation.

  9. Expression of CD14 and Toll-Like Receptors on beta-Cells: A Molecular Basis for Innate Anti-beta Cell Immunity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Funda, David; Osterbye, T.; Harrison, L. C.; Buschard, K.; Tlaskalová, Helena

    Montréal, 2004, s. 162. [International Congress of Immunology /12./. Montréal (CA), 18.07.2004-23.07.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : tlk * cd14 * lps Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Characterization and use of new monoclonal antibodies to CD11c, CD14, and CD163 to analyze the phenotypic complexity of ruminant monocyte subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Mahmoud M; Abdellrazeq, Gaber S; Mack, Victoria; Fry, Lindsay M; Davis, William C; Park, Kun Taek

    2016-10-01

    The sequencing of the bovine genome and development of mass spectrometry, in conjunction with flow cytometry (FC), have afforded an opportunity to complete the characterization of the specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), only partially characterized during previous international workshops focused on antibody development for livestock (1991, Leukocyte Antigens in Cattle, Sheep, and Goats; 1993, Leukocyte Antigens of Cattle and Sheep; 1996, Third Workshop on Ruminant Leukocyte Antigens). The objective of this study was to complete the characterization of twelve mAbs incompletely characterized during the workshops that reacted with molecules predominantly expressed on bovine monocytes and use them to provide further information on the phenotypic complexity of monocyte subsets in ruminants. Analysis revealed that the mAbs could be grouped into three clusters that recognize three different molecules: CD11c, CD14, and CD163. Following characterization, comparison of the patterns of expression of CD14 and CD163 with expression of CD16, CD172a, and CD209 revealed the mononuclear cell population is comprised of multiple subsets with differential expression of these molecules. Further analysis revealed the epitopes recognized by mAbs to CD14 and CD163 are conserved on orthologues in sheep and goats. In contrast to CD14 that is also expressed on sheep and goat granulocytes, CD163 is a definitive marker for their monocytes. PMID:27496743

  11. Expression of CD14 and toll-like receptors 2 and 4 by milk neutrophils in bovine mammary glands infected with Corynebacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara G. Blagitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the expression of CD14, toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and TLR4 on the surface of milk neutrophils in bovine mammary glands infected with Corynebacterium bovis. Here, we used 23 culture-negative control quarters with no abnormal secretion on the strip cup test and milk somatic cell count lower than 1x105 cells/mL, and 14 C. bovis infected quarters. The identification of neutrophils, as well as, the percentage of neutrophils that expressed CD14, TLR2 and TLR4 were analyzed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. The present study encountered no significant difference in the percentages of milk neutrophils that expressed TLR2 and TLR4 or in the expression of TLR4 by milk neutrophils. Conversely, a lower median fluorescence intensity of TLR2 in milk neutrophils was observed in C. bovis-infected quarters. The percentage of neutrophils that expressed CD14 and the median fluorescence intensity of CD14 in milk neutrophils was also lower in C. bovis-infected quarters.

  12. CD14+ cells are required for IL-12 response in bovine blood mononuclear cells activated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8 ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Joram; Benjamin, Ponn; Zhu, Jianzhung; Wilson, Heather L; Lipford, Grayson; Krieg, Arthur M; Babiuk, Lorne A; Mutwiri, George K

    2008-12-15

    Single-stranded viral RNA (ssRNA) was recently identified as the natural ligand for TLR7 and TLR8. ssRNA sequences from viruses, as well as their synthetic analogues stimulate innate immune responses in immune cells from humans and mice, but their immunostimulatory activity has not been investigated in ruminants. In the present investigations, we tested whether synthetic RNA oligoribonucleotides (ORN) can activate immune cells from cattle. In vitro incubation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with ORN-induced production of IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. No significant induction of IFN-alpha was observed. Depletion of CD14+ cells from PBMC abrogated the IL-12 response and consequently the IFN-gamma response, suggesting that CD14+ cells are required for PBMC immune activation with ORN. Consistent with these findings, the putative receptors for ORN (TLR7 and TLR8) were expressed at higher levels in the CD14+ fraction than the CD14- PBMC fraction. Pre-treatment of PBMC with bafilomycin (an inhibitor of phagosomal acidification) prior to stimulation with ORN abolished the cytokine responses, confirming that the receptor(s) which mediate the ORN-induced responses are intracellular. These results demonstrate for the first time that the TLR7/8 agonist ORN's have strong immune stimulatory effects in cattle, and suggest that further investigation on the potential of TLR7/8 ligands to activate innate and adaptive immune responses in domestic animals are warranted. PMID:18789542

  13. Propofol exerts anti-inflammatory effects in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibition of CD14 and TLR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ma

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of propofol (Prop administration (10 mg kg-1 h-1, intravenously on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced acute lung injury and its effect on cluster of differentiation (CD 14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 expression in lung tissue of anesthetized, ventilated rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 8 rats each: control, LPS, and LPS+Prop. Lung injury was assayed via blood gas analysis and lung histology, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β levels were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using ELISA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect CD14 and TLR4 mRNA levels, and CD14 and TLR4 protein expression was determined by Western blot. The pathological scores were 1.2 ± 0.9, 3.3 ± 1.1, and 1.9 ± 1.0 for the control, LPS, and LPS+Prop groups, respectively, with statistically significant differences between control and LPS groups (P < 0.05 and between LPS and LPS+Prop groups (P < 0.05. The administration of LPS resulted in a significant increase in TNF-α and IL-1β levels, 7- and 3.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.05, while treatment with propofol partially blunted the secretion of both cytokines (P < 0.05. CD14 and TLR4 mRNA levels were increased in the LPS group (1.48 ± 0.05 and 1.26 ± 0.03, respectively compared to the control group (1.00 ± 0.20 and 1.00 ± 0.02, respectively; P < 0.05, while propofol treatment blunted this effect (1.16 ± 0.05 and 1.12 ± 0.05, respectively; P < 0.05. Both CD14 and TLR4 protein levels were elevated in the LPS group compared to the control group (P < 0.05, while propofol treatment partially decreased the expression of CD14 and TLR4 protein versus LPS alone (P < 0.05. Our study indicates that propofol prevents lung injury, most likely by inhibition of CD14 and TLR4 expression.

  14. Propofol exerts anti-inflammatory effects in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibition of CD14 and TLR4 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ling; Wu, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Li-Hong; Chen, Wei-Min [Department of Anesthesiology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Uchiyama, Akinori; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    We investigated the effect of propofol (Prop) administration (10 mg kg{sup -1} h{sup -1}, intravenously) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and its effect on cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression in lung tissue of anesthetized, ventilated rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 8 rats each: control, LPS, and LPS+Prop. Lung injury was assayed via blood gas analysis and lung histology, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using ELISA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect CD14 and TLR4 mRNA levels, and CD14 and TLR4 protein expression was determined by Western blot. The pathological scores were 1.2 ± 0.9, 3.3 ± 1.1, and 1.9 ± 1.0 for the control, LPS, and LPS+Prop groups, respectively, with statistically significant differences between control and LPS groups (P < 0.05) and between LPS and LPS+Prop groups (P < 0.05). The administration of LPS resulted in a significant increase in TNF-α and IL-1β levels, 7- and 3.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.05), while treatment with propofol partially blunted the secretion of both cytokines (P < 0.05). CD14 and TLR4 mRNA levels were increased in the LPS group (1.48 ± 0.05 and 1.26 ± 0.03, respectively) compared to the control group (1.00 ± 0.20 and 1.00 ± 0.02, respectively; P < 0.05), while propofol treatment blunted this effect (1.16 ± 0.05 and 1.12 ± 0.05, respectively; P < 0.05). Both CD14 and TLR4 protein levels were elevated in the LPS group compared to the control group (P < 0.05), while propofol treatment partially decreased the expression of CD14 and TLR4 protein versus LPS alone (P < 0.05). Our study indicates that propofol prevents lung injury, most likely by inhibition of CD14 and TLR4 expression.

  15. Propofol exerts anti-inflammatory effects in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibition of CD14 and TLR4 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effect of propofol (Prop) administration (10 mg kg-1 h-1, intravenously) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and its effect on cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression in lung tissue of anesthetized, ventilated rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 8 rats each: control, LPS, and LPS+Prop. Lung injury was assayed via blood gas analysis and lung histology, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using ELISA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect CD14 and TLR4 mRNA levels, and CD14 and TLR4 protein expression was determined by Western blot. The pathological scores were 1.2 ± 0.9, 3.3 ± 1.1, and 1.9 ± 1.0 for the control, LPS, and LPS+Prop groups, respectively, with statistically significant differences between control and LPS groups (P < 0.05) and between LPS and LPS+Prop groups (P < 0.05). The administration of LPS resulted in a significant increase in TNF-α and IL-1β levels, 7- and 3.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.05), while treatment with propofol partially blunted the secretion of both cytokines (P < 0.05). CD14 and TLR4 mRNA levels were increased in the LPS group (1.48 ± 0.05 and 1.26 ± 0.03, respectively) compared to the control group (1.00 ± 0.20 and 1.00 ± 0.02, respectively; P < 0.05), while propofol treatment blunted this effect (1.16 ± 0.05 and 1.12 ± 0.05, respectively; P < 0.05). Both CD14 and TLR4 protein levels were elevated in the LPS group compared to the control group (P < 0.05), while propofol treatment partially decreased the expression of CD14 and TLR4 protein versus LPS alone (P < 0.05). Our study indicates that propofol prevents lung injury, most likely by inhibition of CD14 and TLR4 expression

  16. Nonlinear Vibration of an Elastically Restrained Tapered Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimpour, S; Ganji, S.S; Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Domairry, G

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical simulation of an elastically restrained tapered cantilever beam using the energy balance method (EBM) and the iteration perturbation method (IPM). To assess the accuracy of solutions, we compare the results with the harmonic balance method (HBM). The obtained...

  17. Cognitive and weight-related correlates of flexible and rigid restrained eating behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenhoefer, Joachim; Engel, Daniel; Holst, Claus; Lorenz, Jürgen; Peacock, Matthew; Stubbs, James; Whybrow, Stephen; Raats, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Examine the association between components of restrained eating, cognitive performance and weight loss maintenance.......Examine the association between components of restrained eating, cognitive performance and weight loss maintenance....

  18. Activation of human monocytes by streptococcal rhamnose glucose polymers is mediated by CD14 antigen, and mannan binding protein inhibits TNF-alpha release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soell, M; Lett, E; Holveck, F; Schöller, M; Wachsmann, D; Klein, J P

    1995-01-15

    The present work was initiated to define mechanisms that account for the binding on human monocytes of streptococcal cell wall polysaccharides formed by rhamnose glucose polymers (RGPs), and subsequent stimulatory activities. We show here that RGPs bind to and stimulate human monocytes to produce TNF-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. To detect cell surface RGPs binding proteins, intact monocytes were biotinylated before lysis with Nonidet P-40 and solubilized proteins were incubated with RGPs Affi-Prep beads. One major membrane protein of 55 kDa was specifically detected and identified as CD14 because it reacted with anti-CD14 mAbs. Furthermore, anti-CD14 mAbs were able to perform a dose-dependent inhibition of RGPs binding, and suppressed TNF-alpha release from RGPs-stimulated monocytes. Moreover, we demonstrated that RGPs also bind to CD11b; however, this binding is not implicated in synthesis of TNF-alpha. Interestingly, RGPs binding to monocytes was enhanced by human normal serum (HNS) whereas HNS inhibits the TNF-alpha-stimulating activity of RGPs. Western blotting analysis of HNS proteins purified on RGPs Affi-prep beads revealed three specific bands of 75, 55, and 32 kDa reactive with anti-C3 Abs, anti-CD14 mAbs (TUK4), and anti-human mannan binding protein (hMBP)-derived peptide IgG, respectively. These results suggest that C3, soluble CD14, and hMBP form complexes that are probably active in enhancing the binding of RGPs to monocytes. Additional studies have shown that hMBP that recognizes RGPs prevents, unlike the LPS binding protein, TNF-alpha release by inhibiting the binding of RGPs to CD14 Ag. By incubating cells with a constant amount of RGPs-hMBP complexes in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of C1q, we also demonstrated that C1q receptor mediates the binding and probably the uptake of RGPs-hMBP complexes by human monocytes. PMID:7529289

  19. Are Temporary Restraining Orders More Likely to Be Issued When Applications Mention Firearms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    Restraining orders, an important legal intervention for victims of domestic violence, have broad potential for injury prevention. Using data from one of the busiest restraining order clinics in the nation, the authors examined 1,354 applicants' descriptions of abuse. Most (89.2%) applicants were issued a restraining order. A total of 16.0% of…

  20. Configuration Synthesis for Fully Restrained 7-Cable-Driven Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Tang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cable distribution plays a vital role in Cable Driven Parallel Manipulators (CDPMs regarding tension and workspace quality, especially in fully restrained CDPMs. This paper focuses on three typical configurations of fully restrained CDPMs with 7 cables in order to introduce an approach for configuration synthesis. Firstly, the kinematic models of three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are set up. Then, in order to evaluate workspace quality, two new indices are proposed by using tensions along each cable, which are the All Cable Tension Distribution Index (ACTDI and Global Tension Distribution Index (GTDI. Next, the three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are analysed with the two indices. At the end, according to different performance requirements, the configurations of cable distribution are discussed and selected.

  1. Cracks in base-restrained plain and reinforced concrete walls

    OpenAIRE

    OUZAA, Kheira; BENMANSOUR, Mohammed Benali

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the problem of shrinkage cracks in reinforced concrete walls restrained at the base. A finite element model to study cracking of the wall was proposed. Nonlinear behavior of concrete was considered by means of a smeared crack approach. The equations proposed by ACI Committee 209 were used to model the mechanical properties of concrete, as well as the average concrete shrinkage within the thickness of the wall. It was found that the suggested model closely pred...

  2. Restraining zero drift in an ultrahigh-g impact environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To restrain the zero drift of a piezoelectric accelerometer and the zero drift from a charge amplifier (CA) in an ultrahigh-g impact environment, a reformative design approach for an on-board ultrahigh-g deceleration–time measurement system is presented. First, a simplified zero-drift model of the on-board ultrahigh-g deceleration–time measurement system is built. Secondly, possible reasons for zero drifts in the ultrahigh-g impact environment are discussed. Then, a universal reformative CA and subsequent circuits are designed for restraining the zero drift. Finally, an air cannon is used to simulate the ultrahigh-g impact environment and a modified Michelson-type laser interferometer is set as a primary standard source to calibrate the reformative on-board measurement system. Comparisons between the measured curve and the reference curve verify that the zero drift is less than 3% of the peak value and deceleration–time data describe the real penetration process accurately. All differences in curves are not due to the proposed design and can be characterized by errors or uncertainties. Experimental results prove that the proposed design approach can restrain the zero drift effectively in the ultrahigh-g impact environment. (paper)

  3. Cis and trans acting factors involved in human cytomegalovirus experimental and natural latent infection of CD14 (+ monocytes and CD34 (+ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprian C Rossetto

    Full Text Available The parameters involved in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV latent infection in CD14 (+ and CD34 (+ cells remain poorly identified. Using next generation sequencing we deduced the transcriptome of HCMV latently infected CD14 (+ and CD34 (+ cells in experimental as well as natural latency settings. The gene expression profile from natural infection in HCMV seropositive donors closely matched experimental latency models, and included two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, RNA4.9 and RNA2.7 as well as the mRNAs encoding replication factors UL84 and UL44. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on experimentally infected CD14 (+ monocytes followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq were employed to demonstrate both UL84 and UL44 proteins interacted with the latent viral genome and overlapped at 5 of the 8 loci identified. RNA4.9 interacts with components of the polycomb repression complex (PRC as well as with the MIE promoter region where the enrichment of the repressive H3K27me3 mark suggests that this lncRNA represses transcription. Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE, which identifies nucleosome-depleted viral DNA, was used to confirm that latent mRNAs were associated with actively transcribed, FAIRE analysis also showed that the terminal repeat (TR region of the latent viral genome is depleted of nucleosomes suggesting that this region may contain an element mediating viral genome maintenance. ChIP assays show that the viral TR region interacts with factors associated with the pre replication complex and a plasmid subclone containing the HCMV TR element persisted in latently infected CD14 (+ monocytes, strongly suggesting that the TR region mediates viral chromosome maintenance.

  4. GM-CSF increases LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators via upregulation of TLR4 and CD14 in murine microglia

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli Bijay; Sonobe Yoshifumi; Kawanokuchi Jun; Doi Yukiko; Noda Mariko; Takeuchi Hideyuki; Mizuno Tetsuya; Suzumura Akio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Microglia are resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause innate immune responses via the LPS receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and CD14, in a variety of neuroinflammatory disorders including bacterial infection, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activates microglia and induces inflammatory responses via binding to GM-CSF receptor complex composed of two dif...

  5. Induction of Experimental Arthritis by Borrelial Lipoprotein and CpG Motifs: Are Toll-Like Receptors 2, 4, 9 or CD-14 Involved?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batsford, S.; Dunn, J.; Mihatsch, M.

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins and CpG-DNA are ligands for Toll-Like-Receptors (TLR) 2 and 9 respectively. Both classes of molecules were reported to induce experimental arthritis in rodents following direct intra-articular injection. Here we studied: (1) whether arthritis induction by Outer surface (Lipo)protein A (OspA) (B.burgdorferi) involved the TLR-2 as well as the TLR-4 or the CD-14 receptors in addition, and (2) re-examined the arthritogenic potential of CpG-DNA motifs in mice. Following intra-articular injection of the test substances [20 {micro}g recombinant, lipidated OspA; 1nM(6 {micro}g) to 10nM(60 {micro}g) synthetic CpG-DNA], inflammation was monitored by {sup 99}Tc scintigraphy (ratio left/right knee joint uptake > 1.1 indicates inflammation) and by histology. Lipoprotein OspA induced severe, acute arthritis in TLR-2{sup +/+} w.t. but not in TLR-2{sup -/-} mice (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in the severity of arthritis induced in TLR-4{sup +/+} w.t. and TLR-4{sup -/-} mutant mice, or between CD14{sup +/+} w.t. and CD14{sup -/-} mice. CpG-DNA (1or 10 nM) did not cause notable inflammation in C57BL/6 mice; {sup 99}Tc ratios were < 1.0 and histology showed only minimal changes. Induction of arthritis by the OspA lipoprotein of B.burgdorferi involves the TLR-2 receptor, no evidence for additional participation of TLR-4 or CD14 receptors was found. Intra-articular injection of CpG-DNA did not produce manifest joint injury in mice, at variance with previous reports.

  6. Genetic association between inflammatory genes (IL-1α, CD14, LGALS2, PSMA6) and risk of ischemic stroke: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shubham; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Amit; Sagar, Ram; Chakravarty, Kamalesh; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Background Sequence variations in genes involved in inflammatory system are known to contribute to the risk of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) including stroke. Very few number of studies have been published in the context of the association between Interleukin-1α(IL-1α), CD14 cell surface glycoprotein (CD14), Galectin-2-encoding gene (LGALS2)and proteasome subunit type 6 (PSMA6) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to ischemic stroke (IS). Objective The present meta-analysis aimed to provide a comprehensive account of the association between IL-1α (-C889T and -C511T), CD14 (-C159T), LGALS2 (-C3279T) and PSMA6 (-C8G) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to IS. Methods A literature search for eligible genetic studies published before August 31, 2015 was conducted in the PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, OVID, and Google Scholar databases. Fixed or random effects models were used to estimate the Pooled Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using RevMan 5.3 software. Results Total 21 studies were included in our meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between IL-1α (-C889T) [OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.67–2.08, P = 0.58], IL-1α (-C511T) [OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.66–1.37, P = 0.77], LGALS2(-C2379T) [OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.02–4.26, P = 0.37] and CD14 (-C260T) [OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.77–1.11, P = 0. 42] gene polymorphisms and risk of IS. However, protective level of association was observed between PSMA6 (-C8G) gene polymorphism and susceptibility to IS under the recessive model [OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08–0.72, P = 0.01]. Conclusion Our meta-analysis shows that IL-1α (-C889T and -C511T), CD14 (-C159T), LGALS2 (-C3279T) and gene polymorphisms are not significantly associated with the risk of IS while PSMA6 (-C8G) gene polymorphism may play a protective role with the susceptibility of IS. Further prospective large epidemiological studies are needed to confirm these findings in different populations. PMID:27014587

  7. GM-CSF increases LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators via upregulation of TLR4 and CD14 in murine microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parajuli Bijay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia are resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS and cause innate immune responses via the LPS receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 and CD14, in a variety of neuroinflammatory disorders including bacterial infection, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF activates microglia and induces inflammatory responses via binding to GM-CSF receptor complex composed of two different subunit GM-CSF receptor α (GM-CSFRα and common β chain (βc. GM-CSF has been shown to be associated with neuroinflammatory responses in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. However, the mechanisms how GM-CSF promotes neuroinflammation still remain unclear. Methods Microglia were stimulated with 20 ng/ml GM-CSF and the levels of TLR4 and CD14 expression were evaluated by RT-PCR and flowcytometry. LPS binding was analyzed by flowcytometry. GM-CSF receptor complex was analyzed by immunocytechemistry. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in culture supernatant of GM-CSF-stimulated microglia and NF-κB nuclear translocation were determined by ELISA. Production of nitric oxide (NO was measured by the Griess method. The levels of p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, p-p38 and p38 were assessed by Western blotting. Statistically significant differences between experimental groups were determined by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test for multiple comparisons. Results GM-CSF receptor complex was expressed in microglia. GM-CSF enhanced TLR4 and CD14 expressions in microglia and subsequent LPS-binding to the cell surface. In addition, GM-CSF priming increased LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NO by microglia. GM-CSF upregulated the levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-p38, suggesting that induction of TLR4 and CD14 expression by GM-CSF was mediated through ERK1/2 and p38, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that GM

  8. Cracking Tendency of Restrained Concrete at Early Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BA Hengjing; SU Anshuang; GAO Xiaojian; TAO Qi

    2008-01-01

    A modified testing system characterized by full automation, steady operation and high accuracy of strain and stress measurements was developed to determine the cracking tendency of high strength concrete (HSC) in restrained condition at early ages. The shrinkage stress and the tensile creep behavior of HSC at early ages were investigated. The influence of W/C ratio and curing conditions on the early-age shrinkage stress and tensile creep was evaluated. It was found that the lower W/C ratio and drying curing condition resulted in higher shrinkage stress, stress induced tensile creep and greater cracking tendency.

  9. Lactoferrin restrains allergen-induced pleurisy in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta; Kocięba, Maja; Kaleta-Kuratewicz, Katarzyna; Kruzel, Marian L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the utility of lactoferrin (LF), a natural immunomodulator, to restrain allergen-induced pleurisy in mice. Material and subjects BALB/c female mice, 8- to 10-week old, weighing 24 g on average, were used. Treatment Mice were immunized intraperitoneally with 50 μg of ovalbumin (OVA) and the pleurisy was elicited 14 days later by intrapleural injection of 12.5 μg of OVA. LF was given 24 and 3 h before elicitation of the allergic reaction. Methods T...

  10. Thermal behavior of cylindrical buckling restrained braces at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Elnaz; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Zahmatkesh, Farshad; Yasreen, Airil; Mirza, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB) elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core's surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system. PMID:24526915

  11. Strategy of restraining ripple error on surface for optical fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tan; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Tam, Honyuen

    2014-09-10

    The influence from the ripple error to the high imaging quality is effectively reduced by restraining the ripple height. A method based on the process parameters and the surface error distribution is designed to suppress the ripple height in this paper. The generating mechanism of the ripple error is analyzed by polishing theory with uniform removal character. The relation between the processing parameters (removal functions, pitch of path, and dwell time) and the ripple error is discussed through simulations. With these, the strategy for diminishing the error is presented. A final process is designed and demonstrated on K9 work-pieces using the optimizing strategy with magnetorheological jet polishing. The form error on the surface is decreased from 0.216λ PV (λ=632.8  nm) and 0.039λ RMS to 0.03λ PV and 0.004λ RMS. And the ripple error is restrained well at the same time, because the ripple height is less than 6 nm on the final surface. Results indicate that these strategies are suitable for high-precision optical manufacturing. PMID:25321688

  12. Bacterial lipoprotein delays apoptosis in human neutrophils through inhibition of caspase-3 activity: regulatory roles for CD14 and TLR-2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Colm P

    2012-02-03

    The human sepsis syndrome resulting from bacterial infection continues to account for a significant proportion of hospital mortality. Neutralizing strategies aimed at individual bacterial wall products (such as LPS) have enjoyed limited success in this arena. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) is a major constituent of the wall of diverse bacterial forms and profoundly influences cellular function in vivo and in vitro, and has been implicated in the etiology of human sepsis. Delayed polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis is a characteristic feature of human sepsis arising from Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacterial infection. Bacterial wall product ligation and subsequent receptor-mediated events upstream of caspase inhibition in neutrophils remain incompletely understood. BLP has been shown to exert its cellular effects primarily through TLR-2, and it is now widely accepted that lateral associations with the TLRs represent the means by which CD14 communicates intracellular messages. In this study, we demonstrate that BLP inhibits neutrophil mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a subsequent reduction in caspase-3 processing, ultimately leading to a significant delay in PMN apoptosis. Pretreatment of PMNs with an anti-TLR-2 mAb or anti-CD14 mAb prevented BLP from delaying PMN apoptosis to such a marked degree. Combination blockade using both mAbs completely prevented the effects of BLP (in 1 and 10 ng\\/ml concentrations) on PMN apoptosis. At higher concentrations of BLP, the antiapoptotic effects were observed, but were not as pronounced. Our findings therefore provide the first evidence of a crucial role for both CD14 and TLR-2 in delayed PMN apoptosis arising from bacterial infection.

  13. Association between CD14 SNP -159 C/T and gastric cancer: an independent case–control study and an updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ai-Min; Li, Xin-Yuan; Xie, Yi-Qiang; Jia, Zhan-Dong; Li, Yuan-Xin; Zou, Yong-Yan; Xu, Chang-Qing; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The association between CD14 -159C/T polymorphism and the susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC) has been reported. However, the results were inconclusive. In the present study, a case–control study and a meta-analysis were performed to assess the possible association between -159C/T in the CD14 gene and GC risk. Patients and methods Relevant studies were searched in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and Wanfang database (last search was performed on December 30, 2015). In addition, a case–control study involving 164 GC cases and 169 controls was also performed in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by the software Revman5.3. Results A total of ten published studies and the present case–control study involving 2,844 GC and 3,983 controls were included for the meta-analysis. The analysis result indicated that the T allele of CD14 -159C/T polymorphism did not confer risk for GC (in our study: [P=0.93]; in the meta-analysis: T vs 2N odds ratio =1.28 and 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.95–1.24, [P=0.24]). However, we found a significant association in the recessive model (in our study: TT vs TC+CC [P=0.04]; in the meta-analysis: TT vs TC+CC odds ratio =1.12 and 95% CI =1.01–1.26, [P=0.04]). Furthermore, a subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that TT genotype was significantly associated with GC in Asian (odds ratio =1.17 and 95% CI =1.02–1.34, [P=0.02]) but not in Caucasian. Conclusion Our results highlight the TT genotype of CD14 -159C/T as a genetic susceptibility factor for gastric cancer, particularly, in Asians and population-based controls. PMID:27486336

  14. Mucosal and Peripheral Lin− HLA-DR+ CD11c/123− CD13+ CD14− Mononuclear Cells Are Preferentially Infected during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Andrew C.; Bixler, Sandra L.; Mark. G. Lewis; Verthelyi, Daniela; Mattapallil, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Massive infection of memory CD4 T cells is a hallmark of early simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, with viral infection peaking at day 10 postinfection (p.i.), when a majority of memory CD4 T cells in mucosal and peripheral tissues are infected. It is not clear if mononuclear cells from the monocyte and macrophage lineages are similarly infected during this early phase of explosive HIV and SIV infections. Here we show that, at day 10 p.i., Lin− HLA-DR+ CD11c/123− CD13+ CD14− macrop...

  15. Optimal dosing time of acid algaecide for restraining algal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-chao PANG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Restraining algal growth by algaecide has been studied by many researchers, but the dosing time has not yet been studied. In this study, we examined the appropriate dosing time of algaecide through a series of experiments. In the experiments, the pH value of water is significantly affected by Microcystis aeruginosa, and the variation of the pH value is in favor of the growth of the alga. Therefore, using acid algaecide in the period with maximum pH values, i.e., the stable phase, would change the acidity-alkalinity of the water significantly, and would negatively affect algal growth. Acid algaecide does not eliminate the alga effectively if the acid algaecide is dosed in the logarithmic growth phase. Using acid algaecide in the decline phase after algal bloom not only is unfavorable for eliminating the alga, but also prolongs the decline phase, and even brings about next larger algal bloom.

  16. Vitamin D, d-dimer, Interferon γ, and sCD14 Levels are Independently Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective, International Study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Tierney, Ann; Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F.; Rupert, Adam; Lederman, Michael M.; Sanne, Ian; Sierra Madero, Juan G.; Sereti, Irini

    2016-01-01

    To determine the immunological profile most important for IRIS prediction, we evaluated 20 baseline plasma biomarkers in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled ART initiation trial in South Africa and Mexico to test whether maraviroc could prevent IRIS. Participants were classified prospectively as having IRIS within 6 months of ART initiation. Twenty plasma biomarkers were measured at study enrollment for 267 participants. Biomarkers were tested for predicting IRIS with adjustment for covariates chosen through forward stepwise selection. Sixty-two participants developed IRIS and of these 19 were tuberculosis (TB)-IRIS. Baseline levels of vitamin D and higher d-dimer, interferon gamma (IFNγ), and sCD14 were independently associated with risk of IRIS in multivariate analyses. TB-IRIS cases exhibited a distinct biosignature from IRIS related to other pathogens, with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), sCD14, IFNγ, and lower levels of Hb that could be captured by a composite risk score. Elevated markers of Type 1 T helper (Th1) response, monocyte activation, coagulation and low vitamin D were independently associated with IRIS risk. Interventions that decrease immune activation and increase vitamin D levels warrant further study. PMID:26981576

  17. Mechanisms of HIV entry into the CNS: increased sensitivity of HIV infected CD14+CD16+ monocytes to CCL2 and key roles of CCR2, JAM-A, and ALCAM in diapedesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionna W Williams

    Full Text Available As HIV infected individuals live longer, the prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders is increasing, despite successful antiretroviral therapy. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes are critical to the neuropathogenesis of HIV as they promote viral seeding of the brain and establish neuroinflammation. The mechanisms by which HIV infected and uninfected monocytes cross the blood brain barrier and enter the central nervous system are not fully understood. We determined that HIV infection of CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes resulted in their highly increased transmigration across the blood brain barrier in response to CCL2 as compared to uninfected cells, which did not occur in the absence of the chemokine. This exuberant transmigration of HIV infected monocytes was due, at least in part, to increased CCR2 and significantly heightened sensitivity to CCL2. The entry of HIV infected and uninfected CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes into the brain was facilitated by significantly increased surface JAM-A, ALCAM, CD99, and PECAM-1, as compared to CD14(+ cells that are CD16 negative. Upon HIV infection, there was an additional increase in surface JAM-A and ALCAM on CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes isolated from some individuals. Antibodies to ALCAM and JAM-A inhibited the transmigration of both HIV infected and uninfected CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes across the BBB, demonstrating their importance in facilitating monocyte transmigration and entry into the brain parenchyma. Targeting CCR2, JAM-A, and ALCAM present on CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes that preferentially infiltrate the CNS represents a therapeutic strategy to reduce viral seeding of the brain as well as the ongoing neuroinflammation that occurs during HIV pathogenesis.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW-BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H. Yang; J. Chen; D.N. He; X. Y. Ruan

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory anddepending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system, a simplifiedmethod to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental methodin cup-shaped drawing process. The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement. It shows the method is effective.

  19. Body Dissatisfaction Mediates the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Restrained Eating in Female Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianini, Loren M.; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the eating behavior, self-esteem, and social anxiety of restrained and non-restrained eaters exposed to an interpersonal stressor. Sixty female undergraduate students completed questionnaires and took part in a stressor and taste test. Results indicated that self-esteem was not predictive of eating…

  20. Bacterial wall products induce downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on endothelial cells via a CD14-dependent mechanism: implications for surgical wound healing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, C

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogenic cytokine which has been identified as the principal polypeptide growth factor influencing endothelial cell (EC) migration and proliferation. Ordered progression of these two processes is an absolute prerequisite for initiating and maintaining the proliferative phase of wound healing. The response of ECs to circulating VEGF is determined by, and directly proportional to, the functional expression of VEGF receptors (KDR\\/Flt-1) on the EC surface membrane. Systemic sepsis and wound contamination due to bacterial infection are associated with significant retardation of the proliferative phase of wound repair. The effects of the Gram-negative bacterial wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) on VEGF receptor function and expression are unknown and may represent an important biological mechanism predisposing to delayed wound healing in the presence of localized or systemic sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a series of in vitro experiments investigating this phenomenon and its potential implications for infective wound repair. VEGF receptor density on ECs in the presence of LPS and BLP was assessed using flow cytometry. These parameters were assessed in hypoxic conditions as well as in normoxia. The contribution of CD14 was evaluated using recombinant human (rh) CD14. EC proliferation in response to VEGF was quantified in the presence and absence of LPS and BLP. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that LPS and BLP have profoundly repressive effects on VEGF receptor density in normoxic and, more pertinently, hypoxic conditions. The observed downregulation of constitutive and inducible VEGF receptor expression on ECs was not due to any directly cytotoxic effect of LPS and BLP on ECs, as measured by cell viability and apoptosis assays. We identified a pivotal role for soluble\\/serum CD14, a highly specific bacterial wall product receptor, in

  1. Gene expression profiling of Gram-negative bacteria-induced inflammation in human whole blood: The role of complement and CD14-mediated innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Corinna; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Holden, Marit; Nygård, Ståle; Fure, Hilde; Lappegård, Knut Tore; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Espevik, Terje; Hovig, Eivind; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-09-01

    Non-sterile pathogen-induced sepsis and sterile inflammation like in trauma or ischemia-reperfusion injury may both coincide with the life threatening systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organ failure. Consequently, there is an urgent need for specific biomarkers in order to distinguish sepsis from sterile conditions. The overall aim of this study was to uncover putative sepsis biomarkers and biomarker pathways, as well as to test the efficacy of combined inhibition of innate immunity key players complement and Toll-like receptor co-receptor CD14 as a possible therapeutic regimen for sepsis. We performed whole blood gene expression analyses using microarray in order to profile Gram-negative bacteria-induced inflammatory responses in an ex vivo human whole blood model. The experiments were performed in the presence or absence of inhibitors of complement proteins (C3 and CD88 (C5a receptor 1)) and CD14, alone or in combination. In addition, we used blood from a C5-deficient donor. Anti-coagulated whole blood was challenged with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli for 2 h, total RNA was isolated and microarray analyses were performed on the Affymetrix GeneChip Gene 1.0 ST Array platform. The initial experiments were performed in duplicates using blood from two healthy donors. C5-deficiency is very rare, and only one donor could be recruited. In order to increase statistical power, a technical replicate of the C5-deficient samples was run. Subsequently, log2-transformed intensities were processed by robust multichip analysis and filtered using a threshold of four. In total, 73 microarray chips were run and analyzed. The normalized and filtered raw data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and are accessible with GEO Series accession number GSE55537. Linear models for microarray data were applied to estimate fold changes between data sets and the respective multiple testing adjusted p-values (FDR q-values). The interpretation of the

  2. Gene expression profiling of Gram-negative bacteria-induced inflammation in human whole blood: The role of complement and CD14-mediated innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Lau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-sterile pathogen-induced sepsis and sterile inflammation like in trauma or ischemia–reperfusion injury may both coincide with the life threatening systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organ failure. Consequently, there is an urgent need for specific biomarkers in order to distinguish sepsis from sterile conditions. The overall aim of this study was to uncover putative sepsis biomarkers and biomarker pathways, as well as to test the efficacy of combined inhibition of innate immunity key players complement and Toll-like receptor co-receptor CD14 as a possible therapeutic regimen for sepsis. We performed whole blood gene expression analyses using microarray in order to profile Gram-negative bacteria-induced inflammatory responses in an ex vivo human whole blood model. The experiments were performed in the presence or absence of inhibitors of complement proteins (C3 and CD88 (C5a receptor 1 and CD14, alone or in combination. In addition, we used blood from a C5-deficient donor. Anti-coagulated whole blood was challenged with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli for 2 h, total RNA was isolated and microarray analyses were performed on the Affymetrix GeneChip Gene 1.0 ST Array platform. The initial experiments were performed in duplicates using blood from two healthy donors. C5-deficiency is very rare, and only one donor could be recruited. In order to increase statistical power, a technical replicate of the C5-deficient samples was run. Subsequently, log2-transformed intensities were processed by robust multichip analysis and filtered using a threshold of four. In total, 73 microarray chips were run and analyzed. The normalized and filtered raw data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO and are accessible with GEO Series accession number GSE55537. Linear models for microarray data were applied to estimate fold changes between data sets and the respective multiple testing adjusted p-values (FDR q-values. The

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of olive seed polyphenolic extract in the THP1-XBLUE-CD14 human monocytes cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Cortés Castell; C. Veciana Galindo; L. Torro Montell; E. Sirvent Segura; M. M. Rizo Baeza; V. Gil Guillén

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de un extracto de naturaleza polifenólica de huesos de oliva. Material y métodos: Se incubó la línea celular THP1-XBlue-CD14 (invivogen), 80.000 células/pocillo, provocando inflamación (activación de NF-kb) mediante 0.1 μg/ml LPS (lipopolisacárido de E. coli) durante 24 horas. Se evaluó la presencia del extracto (10 y 50 mg/l, concentraciones bioseguras) durante 2 horas a 37 ºC, previa (efecto preventivo) y posterior a la ac...

  4. Changes in monocyte counts and expression of mCD14 and HLA-DR in the peripheral blood of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    National Research Project for SARS, Beijing Group

    2004-01-01

    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease that originally emerged in China in November 2002. It subsequently spread worldwide.Investigators involved in an international collaboration have attempted to determine a specific etiology in order to redefine what is currently best described as a syndrome into a specific disease. At present, a novel coronavirus is generally accepted as the single most probable causative agent. In the case of HIV infection, monocytes/macrophages are infected early in the infection process,and the activation of monocytes/macrophages can influence the susceptibility of these cells to infection. 1Therefore, we examined the number of monocytes and the expression of CD14 and HLA-DR in the peripheral blood of patients with SARS to determine whether monocytes were involved in the pathogenesis of SARS.

  5. Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields for Bioinformatics applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martelli Pier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discriminative models are designed to naturally address classification tasks. However, some applications require the inclusion of grammar rules, and in these cases generative models, such as Hidden Markov Models (HMMs and Stochastic Grammars, are routinely applied. Results We introduce Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields (GRHCRFs as an extension of Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs. GRHCRFs while preserving the discriminative character of HCRFs, can assign labels in agreement with the production rules of a defined grammar. The main GRHCRF novelty is the possibility of including in HCRFs prior knowledge of the problem by means of a defined grammar. Our current implementation allows regular grammar rules. We test our GRHCRF on a typical biosequence labeling problem: the prediction of the topology of Prokaryotic outer-membrane proteins. Conclusion We show that in a typical biosequence labeling problem the GRHCRF performs better than CRF models of the same complexity, indicating that GRHCRFs can be useful tools for biosequence analysis applications. Availability GRHCRF software is available under GPLv3 licence at the website http://www.biocomp.unibo.it/~savojard/biocrf-0.9.tar.gz.

  6. Thermal stress estimation in relation to spalling of HSC restrained with steel rings at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanibe T.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental study regarding the behavior of steel ring-restrained concrete in response to fire exposure. The study was conducted to enable estimation of thermal stress based on steel ring strain in such concrete under the conditions of a RABT 30 heating curve. The specimens used were made from high-strength concrete (Fc: 80 MPa restrained using steel rings with thicknesses of 0.5, 8 and 18 mm.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW—BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Yang; J.Chen; 等

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory and depending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system,a simplified method to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental method in cup-shaped drawing process.The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement.It shows the method is effective.

  8. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. METHODS: We conducted an onl...

  9. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. Methods We conducted an online s...

  10. Influence of specimen thickness on cracking behavior in restrained shrinkage ring test

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, W.; Zhou, X.; Wu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The standard test method using circular ring is adopted to assess the potential cracking of restrained shrinkage concrete by ASTM and AASHTO, respectively. The difference of them is the ring specimen thickness, which are 37.5 mm and 75 mm. To investigate the mechanism of ring tests with two concrete thicknesses, a numerical approach is proposed to simulate stress development and crack initiation in restrained concrete ring subject to circumferential drying.Afictitious temperature field is app...

  11. Interaction between M-CSF and IL-10 on productions of IL-12 and IL-18 and expressions of CD14, CD23, and CD64 by human monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hui JI; Ting YAO; Jun-chuan QIN; Shu-kui WANG; Hui-juan WANG; Kun YAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To Study the interaction of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in productions of IL-12 and IL-18 and expressions of CD14, CD23, and CD64 by human monocytes. METHODS:Purified adherent human monocytes were cultured with M-CSF or IL-10 alone, or with M-CSF+IL-10 and 2-3d later, the culture supernatants and cells were separated and collected. IL-12P40 and IL-18 levels in the supernatants were determined by ELISA and the percentages of CD14, CD23, and CD64 positive cells were examined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: (1) IL-10 decreased M-CSF-induced IL-18 levels, while M-CSF further reduced IL-12P40 level in the culture supernatants of IL-10-treated monocytes; (2) IL-10 alone had no effect on the percentage of CD14-positive cells, but further increased the percentage of CD14-positive cells induced by M-CSF; M-CSF alone had no effect on the percentage of CD64-positive cells, but further increased the percentage of CD64-positive cells induced by IL-10; (3) IL-10 decreased the percentage of CD23-positive cells induced by M-CSF.CONCLUSION: Between M-CSF and IL-10, there were antagonistic effects on inducing IL-18 and CD23 expressions by monocytes; there were also synergistic effects on inhibiting IL-12P40 production and inducing CD 14 and CD64 expressions by monocytes.

  12. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González-Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram. First experimental results are shown.

  13. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Carlos; Fraile, Juan-Carlos; Pérez-Turiel, Javier; Damm, Ellen; Schneider, Jochen G; Zimmermann, Heiko; Schmitt, Daniel; Ihmig, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC) sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram). First experimental results are shown. PMID:27399713

  14. TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 Recognize Venom-Associated Molecular Patterns from Tityus serrulatus to Induce Macrophage-Derived Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Karla; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion sting-induced human envenomation provokes an intense inflammatory reaction. However, the mechanisms behind the recognition of scorpion venom and the induction of mediator release in mammalian cells are unknown. We demonstrated that TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 receptors sense Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV) and its major component, toxin 1 (Ts1), to mediate cytokine and lipid mediator production. Additionally, we demonstrated that TsV induces TLR2- and TLR4/MyD88-dependent NF-κB activation and TLR4-dependent and TLR2/MyD88-independent c-Jun activation. Similar to TsV, Ts1 induces MyD88-dependent NF-κB phosphorylation via TLR2 and TLR4 receptors, while c-Jun activation is dependent on neither TLR2 nor TLR4/MyD88. Therefore, we propose the term venom-associated molecular pattern (VAMP) to refer to molecules that are introduced into the host by stings and are recognized by PRRs, resulting in inflammation. PMID:24516606

  15. TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 recognize venom-associated molecular patterns from Tityus serrulatus to induce macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Furlani Zoccal

    Full Text Available Scorpion sting-induced human envenomation provokes an intense inflammatory reaction. However, the mechanisms behind the recognition of scorpion venom and the induction of mediator release in mammalian cells are unknown. We demonstrated that TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 receptors sense Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV and its major component, toxin 1 (Ts1, to mediate cytokine and lipid mediator production. Additionally, we demonstrated that TsV induces TLR2- and TLR4/MyD88-dependent NF-κB activation and TLR4-dependent and TLR2/MyD88-independent c-Jun activation. Similar to TsV, Ts1 induces MyD88-dependent NF-κB phosphorylation via TLR2 and TLR4 receptors, while c-Jun activation is dependent on neither TLR2 nor TLR4/MyD88. Therefore, we propose the term venom-associated molecular pattern (VAMP to refer to molecules that are introduced into the host by stings and are recognized by PRRs, resulting in inflammation.

  16. Mycobacterial antigen driven activation of CD14++CD16- monocytes is a predictor of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS is an aberrant inflammatory response occurring in a subset of TB-HIV co-infected patients initiating anti-retroviral therapy (ART. Here, we examined monocyte activation by prospectively quantitating pro-inflammatory plasma markers and monocyte subsets in TB-HIV co-infected patients from a South Indian cohort at baseline and following ART initiation at the time of IRIS, or at equivalent time points in non-IRIS controls. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers of innate and myeloid cell activation were increased in plasma of IRIS patients pre-ART and at the time of IRIS; this association was confirmed in a second cohort in South Africa. Increased expression of these markers correlated with elevated antigen load as measured by higher sputum culture grade and shorter duration of anti-TB therapy. Phenotypic analysis revealed the frequency of CD14(++CD16(- monocytes was an independent predictor of TB-IRIS, and was closely associated with plasma levels of CRP, TNF, IL-6 and tissue factor during IRIS. In addition, production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes was higher in IRIS patients compared to controls pre-ART. These data point to a major role of mycobacterial antigen load and myeloid cell hyperactivation in the pathogenesis of TB-IRIS, and implicate monocytes and monocyte-derived cytokines as potential targets for TB-IRIS prevention or treatment.

  17. The adaptive immune system restrains Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis by modulating microglial function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abud, Edsel M.; Lakatos, Anita; Karimzadeh, Alborz; Yeung, Stephen T.; Davtyan, Hayk; Fote, Gianna M.; Lau, Lydia; Weinger, Jason G.; Lane, Thomas E.; Inlay, Matthew A.; Poon, Wayne W.; Blurton-Jones, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In contrast, the role of adaptive immunity in AD remains largely unknown. However, numerous clinical trials are testing vaccination strategies for AD, suggesting that T and B cells play a pivotal role in this disease. To test the hypothesis that adaptive immunity influences AD pathogenesis, we generated an immune-deficient AD mouse model that lacks T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. The resulting “Rag-5xfAD” mice exhibit a greater than twofold increase in β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology. Gene expression analysis of the brain implicates altered innate and adaptive immune pathways, including changes in cytokine/chemokine signaling and decreased Ig-mediated processes. Neuroinflammation is also greatly exacerbated in Rag-5xfAD mice as indicated by a shift in microglial phenotype, increased cytokine production, and reduced phagocytic capacity. In contrast, immune-intact 5xfAD mice exhibit elevated levels of nonamyloid reactive IgGs in association with microglia, and treatment of Rag-5xfAD mice or microglial cells with preimmune IgG enhances Aβ clearance. Last, we performed bone marrow transplantation studies in Rag-5xfAD mice, revealing that replacement of these missing adaptive immune populations can dramatically reduce AD pathology. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that adaptive immune cell populations play an important role in restraining AD pathology. In contrast, depletion of B cells and their appropriate activation by T cells leads to a loss of adaptive–innate immunity cross talk and accelerated disease progression. PMID:26884167

  18. The adaptive immune system restrains Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis by modulating microglial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Samuel E; Abud, Edsel M; Lakatos, Anita; Karimzadeh, Alborz; Yeung, Stephen T; Davtyan, Hayk; Fote, Gianna M; Lau, Lydia; Weinger, Jason G; Lane, Thomas E; Inlay, Matthew A; Poon, Wayne W; Blurton-Jones, Mathew

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, the role of adaptive immunity in AD remains largely unknown. However, numerous clinical trials are testing vaccination strategies for AD, suggesting that T and B cells play a pivotal role in this disease. To test the hypothesis that adaptive immunity influences AD pathogenesis, we generated an immune-deficient AD mouse model that lacks T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. The resulting "Rag-5xfAD" mice exhibit a greater than twofold increase in β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology. Gene expression analysis of the brain implicates altered innate and adaptive immune pathways, including changes in cytokine/chemokine signaling and decreased Ig-mediated processes. Neuroinflammation is also greatly exacerbated in Rag-5xfAD mice as indicated by a shift in microglial phenotype, increased cytokine production, and reduced phagocytic capacity. In contrast, immune-intact 5xfAD mice exhibit elevated levels of nonamyloid reactive IgGs in association with microglia, and treatment of Rag-5xfAD mice or microglial cells with preimmune IgG enhances Aβ clearance. Last, we performed bone marrow transplantation studies in Rag-5xfAD mice, revealing that replacement of these missing adaptive immune populations can dramatically reduce AD pathology. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that adaptive immune cell populations play an important role in restraining AD pathology. In contrast, depletion of B cells and their appropriate activation by T cells leads to a loss of adaptive-innate immunity cross talk and accelerated disease progression. PMID:26884167

  19. Inhibition Ability of Food Cues between Successful and Unsuccessful Restrained Eaters: A Two-Choice Oddball Task

    OpenAIRE

    Fanchang Kong; Yan Zhang; Hong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have presented mixed findings on the inhibition ability in restrained eaters (REs) due to the limited amount of neural evidence and limitations of behavioral measures. The current study explores the neural correlations of the specific inhibition ability among successful restrained eaters (S-REs), unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs), and unrestrained eaters (UREs). Methodology and Principal Findings Three groups of females (with 13 participants in each group) co...

  20. That swimsuit becomes you: sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, B L; Roberts, T A; Noll, S M; Quinn, D M; Twenge, J M

    1998-07-01

    Objectification theory (B. L. Fredrickson & T. Roberts, 1997) posits that American culture socializes women to adopt observers' perspectives on their physical selves. This self-objectification is hypothesized to (a) produce body shame, which in turn leads to restrained eating, and (b) consume attentional resources, which is manifested in diminished mental performance. Two experiments manipulated self-objectification by having participants try on a swimsuit or a sweater. Experiment 1 tested 72 women and found that self-objectification increased body shame, which in turn predicted restrained eating. Experiment 2 tested 42 women and 40 men and found that these effects on body shame and restrained eating replicated for women only. Additionally, self-objectification diminished math performance for women only. Discussion centers on the causes and consequences of objectifying women's bodies. PMID:9686464

  1. Restraining and neck cutting or stunning and neck cutting of veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooij, E; van der Werf, J T N; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V A

    2012-05-01

    Brain and heart activities were measured in 31 veal calves during restraining and rotating followed by neck cutting with or without stunning to evaluate welfare. After neck cutting correlation dimension analyses and %power of EEG beta wave fraction decreased gradually to lower values resulting in an induction of unconsciousness lasting on average 80s. Corneal reflex response ceased 135±57s after neck cutting. The CD scores and the %power of beta waves fell immediately after post-cut captive bolt and pre-cut electrical stunning to levels indicating unconsciousness. Heart rate in lairage increased upon entrance to the restrainer and again after rotation, heart rate variability decreased. Rotating the restrainer 90°, 120° or 180° compromised veal calf welfare and should be avoided. It is recommended to use post-cut captive bolt stunning or pre-cut electrical stunning inducing immediate unconsciousness. PMID:22209298

  2. Effects of 9cis,11trans and 10trans,12cis CLA on osteoclast formation and activity from human CD14+ monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sohemy Ahmed

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed CLA isomers variably affect bone resorption in animals and decrease osteoclast formation and activity in murine osteoclasts. These variable effects may be due to the different isomers present in commercial preparations of CLA, and the effects of the predominant individual isomers, 9cis,11trans (9,11 and 10trans,12cis (10,12 CLA are not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the individual CLA isomers on osteoclast formation and activity from human CD14+ monocytes, and to determine whether any changes are accompanied by changes in cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα gene expression. Osteoclasts were identified as TRAP+ multinucleated cells. Osteoclast activity was quantified by the amount of TRAP in the cultured media. Results At 50 μM, 9,11 CLA inhibited osteoclast formation by ~70%, and both 9,11 and 10,12 CLA decreased osteoclast activity by ~85–90%. Both isomers inhibited cathepsin K (50 μM 9,11 by ~60%; 10,12 by ~50% and RANK (50 μM 9,11 by ~85%; 50 μM 10,12 by ~65% expression, but had no effect on MMP-9 or TNFα expression. Conclusion 9,11 CLA inhibits osteoclast formation and activity from human cells, suggesting that this isomer may prevent bone resorption in humans. Although 10,12 CLA did not significantly reduce osteoclast formation, it reduced osteoclast activity and cathepsin K and RANK expression, suggesting that this isomer may also affect bone resorption.

  3. STUDY ON RESTRAINING THE RESIDUAL VIBRATION OF FLEXIBLE ARM BY PLANNING ACCELERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jian; Shao Hao; Wang Xingsong

    2000-01-01

    The method of planning acceleration is discussed to restrain the residual vibration of flexible arm.Based on the built mathematical model of the flexible arm,the equations of vibration with acceleration,vibration frequency,damping and time are obtained theoretically.According to the vibration frequency and damping,the suitable acceleration is executed experimentally to the flexible arm at the corresponding time.The result shows that this way can give rise to good effect to restrain the residual vibration.

  4. Common TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen-Olsen Jesper

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes associated with sepsis and septic shock with conflicting results. Only few studies have combined the analysis of multiple SNPs in the same population. Methods Clinical data and DNA from consecutive adult patients with culture proven Gram negative bacteremia admitted to a Danish hospital between 2000 and 2002. Analysis for commonly described SNPs of tumor necrosis-α, (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 was done. Results Of 319 adults, 74% had sepsis, 19% had severe sepsis and 7% were in septic shock. No correlation between severity or outcome of sepsis was observed for the analyzed SNPs of TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 or TLR-4. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, increasing age, polymicrobial infection and haemoglobin levels were associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion We did not find any association between TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and outcome of Gram negative sepsis. Other host factors appear to be more important than the genotypes studied here in determining the severity and outcome of Gram negative sepsis.

  5. IL-36α induces maturation of Th1-inducing human MDDC and synergises with IFN-γ to induce high surface expression of CD14 and CD11c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John; Mutamba, Shilla; Mahida, Yashwant; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

    2015-04-01

    We show that IL-36α induced maturation of human MDDCs and stimulated differentiation of IFN-γ producing (Type 1) CD3+ lymphocytes but was not as effective as IL-36β in doing so. For the first time, we also show that IL-36α induced expression of CD14 by MDDCs and this was highly potentiated by co-cultured with IFN-γ. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not increase CD14 expression by MDDCs, suggesting that if MDDCs represent a physiologically relevant population in vivo, they need to be stimulated by relevant inflammatory cytokines prior to CD14 expression and detection of LPS, expressed by Gram negative bacteria. IFN-γ synergised with IL-36α to restore the high levels of CD11c expression by MDDCs, which was reduced by culture with these cytokines in isolation. IL-36α/IFN-γ synergy also correlated with increased binding of the opsonic complement protein (iC3b) to MDDCs. However although IL-36α increased the phagocytic capacity of MDDCs for Salmonella Typhimurium 4/74 this was not synergistically increased by IFN-γ (P>0.05). In conclusion we report the hitherto unknown effects of IL-36α on the innate cell function of human MDDCs. PMID:25700962

  6. STRUCTURE FROM NMR AND MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS - DISTANCE RESTRAINING INHIBITS MOTION IN THE ESSENTIAL SUBSPACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheek, R.M.; van Nuland, N.A.J.; de Groot, B.L.; Amadei, A

    1995-01-01

    We address the question how well proteins can be modelled on the basis of NMR data, when these data are incorporated into the protein model using distance restraints in a molecular dynamics simulation. We found, using HPr as a model protein, that distance restraining freezes the essential motion of

  7. Temporary restraining orders in the Netherlands: a qualitative examination of perpetrator and victim views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.B. van Rooij; J. ten Haaf; A.P. Verhoeff

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Netherlands introduced a 10-day temporary restraining order (TRO) intended for adult perpetrators of domestic violence to defuse dangerous situations and to reduce recidivism by combining a legal action with social services. For this study, 18 victims and 10 perpetrators were interviewe

  8. Disarming Batterers through Restraining Orders: The Promise and the Reality in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seave, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Laws that prohibit persons under a domestic violence restraining order from purchasing or possessing a firearm are a primary way to keep guns out of the hands of batterers. In July 2005, the California Attorney General's Task Force on the Local Criminal Justice Response to Domestic Violence issued a report called Keeping the Promise: Victim Safety…

  9. Minimum Reinforcement in Concrete Structures under Restrained Shrinkage and Thermal Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Bo; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1999-01-01

    The present paper deals with minimum reinforcement to ensure limitation of crack widths in concrete structures subjected to small imposed strains, such as those from restrained shrinkage or thermal actions. A theory is presented, which models the behaviour of a tensile member from zero load to...

  10. Changes of plasma ratios of sCD14 to LPS in patients with traumatic MODS%创伤性MODS患者血可溶性白细胞分化抗原14与内毒素比值变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占科; 柴长春; 何凤田; 郭宝珠

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨创伤多器官功能不全综合症(MODS)患者血浆可溶性白细胞分化抗原14与内毒素比值(sCD14/LPS)变化及其临床意义.方法测定正常对照组,创伤MODS生存组和MODS死亡组血浆sCD14和LPS的摩尔浓度含量,并计算sCD14和LPS比值.观察创伤MODS患者血浆sCD14/LPS变化及其与主要器官功能受损指标的关系.结果创伤性MODS各组血浆sCD14,LPS均明显高于正常对照组(P<0.01),且创伤MODS死亡组LPS明显高于创伤MODS生存组(P<0.01),但sCD14与创伤MODS生存组没有显著差别.创伤MODS生存组sCD14/LPS与正常对照组无显著差异,MODS死亡组sCD14/LPS明显低于MODS生存组(P<0.01).创伤MODS患者血sCD和LPS水平均与血谷丙转氨酶、肌酐和二氧化碳分压明显正相关(P<0.01),但sCD14/LPS与血谷丙转氨酶、肌酐和二氧化碳分压明显负相关(P<0.01).sCD14/LPS与血谷丙转氨酶、肌酐和二氧化碳分压相关系数绝对值最大.结论创伤性MODS患者血sCD14浓度升高幅度不如LPS.sCD14/LPS比值可能作为判断MODS患者器官功能不全程度及预后转归的预警指标.

  11. Reworking of structural inheritance at strike-slip restraining-bends: templates from sandbox analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Yago; Storti, Fabrizio; Cavozzi, Cristian; Magistroni, Corrado; Meda, Marco; Piero Righetti, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    Structural inheritance plays a fundamental role during crustal deformation because pre-existing fault and shear zones typically provide weakness zone suitable to fail again when affected by a new regional stress field. Re-activation of structural inheritance is expected to unavoidably increase the complexity of structural architectures, whose geometric and kinematic patterns can significantly deviate from what expected in newly deformed crustal sectors. Availability of templates from analogue models can provide a very effective tool to help unraveling such a structural complexity. For this purpose, we simulated the reworking of a set of basement hosted pre-existing fault zones at strike-slip restraining fault bends. In the models, the mechanical stratigraphy consists of a basement, made of a mixture of dry kaolin and sand to slightly increase cohesion, and a sedimentary cover made by pure dry sand. Inherited fault zones are confined to the basement and coated by a thin veneer of silicone putty. In the experimental programme, the geometry of the left-lateral restraining bend is maintained the same, with a bending angle of 30° of the restraining fault segment. The strike of the inherited fault zones, measured counterclockwise with respect to that of the master strike-slip fault zone outside the restraining bend, was 0°, 30°, and 60° in different experiments, respectively. An end member experiment without inheritance was also run for comparison. Our experimental results show that the angle that the inherited fault zones make with the restraining bend plays a fundamental role in governing the deformation pattern. When structural inheritance is near parallel to the master strike-slip fault zone, synthetic shears form and severely compartmentalize the transpressional pop-up anticline growing on top of the restraining bend. Fault-bounded blocks undergo sinistral escape during transpression. On the other hand, when structural inheritance makes a high angle to the

  12. Investigation on the Free and Restrained Shrinkage of Self-compacting Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel ellipsis-ring cracking apparatus with an automatic monitoring system was used to measure the restrained shrinkage and initial cracking time of self-compacting concrete (SCC). The free shrinkage, restrained shrinkage and strength were integrated to evaluate the effect of the mineral admixtures and content of cementitious materials on shrinkage of SCC. The experimental results show that the initial cracking time of SCC incorporating fly ash was delayed, the shrinkage value and rate was reduced.The hydration achievement of silica fume increased free shrinkage and reduced initial cracking time of FA-SCC comparing to control sample, but silica fume improved the mechanical properties of FA-SCC in early age. As same strength, with the reducing the content of cementitious materials, the initial cracking time of SCC delayed and cracking sensitivity decreased markedly, especially when the content of cementitious materials achieve 450 kg/m3.

  13. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, pmotivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. PMID:27133731

  14. Selective attention to food and body shape words in dieters and restrained nondieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W; Rogers, P J

    1993-12-01

    The current study investigated the presence of an attentional bias towards the processing of body shape and food-related material amongst noneating disordered women. Subjects carried out a computer-based Stroop color-naming task in which they had to name the colors of food-related words, body shape-related words, and two sets of matched neutral words. Significant color-naming disruptions of both food and body shape-related material were found for highly restrained eaters, irrespective of whether they were currently dieting. There were no reliable differences in color-naming times found for low to medium restrained eaters. Procedural differences probably account for the failure of previous studies to reveal such effects in nonclinical groups. PMID:8293036

  15. Genetic association of TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 Thr399Ile, and CD14 C-159T polymorphisms with the risk of severe RSV infection: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiahui; Zhang, Xiangning; Liu, Shuming; Wang, Ziyou; Chen, Qicong; Wu, Yongfu; He, Zhiwei; Huang, Zunnan

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infants worldwide. It is recognized by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4) and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) in the innate immune response. Previous case-control studies reported the influence of TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 Thr399Ile, and CD14 C-159T polymorphisms on the risk of severe RSV infection. However, a decisive conclusion has not been achieved. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to examine the association between these three polymorphisms and the development of RSV bronchiolitis. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, EMbase, Google Scholar Search, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biological Medicine, and Wanfang Databases. The data were extracted and pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated under six genetic models. A total of six studies with 1009 cases and 1348 controls, three studies with 473 cases and 481 controls, or four studies with 325 cases and 650 controls relating to each of the three polymorphisms were included in this meta-analysis. The analyzed data indicated that all of these polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of severe RSV infection. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate the relationship of TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 Thr399Ile, and CD14 C-159T polymorphisms with the risk of severe RSV infection. Although the results of this retrospective analysis indicated a lack of the association, more extensive multicentric studies with large sample sizes are necessary to provide a more reliable estimation of the association between these three polymorphisms and RSV bronchiolitis susceptibility. PMID:26901241

  16. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Formulation for Restrained Roman Domination Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivanović

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a subgroup of Roman domination problems (RDP named Restrained Roman dominationproblem (RRDP. It introduces a new mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation for the RRDP. The presentedmodel uses relatively small number of the variables and constraints and could be of use both in theoretical andpractical purposes. Proof of its correctness is given, i.e. it was shown that optimal solution to the RRDP formulationis equal to the optimal solution of the original problem.

  17. Coal combustion restrained by ultra-fine water mist in confined space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ming-gao; YANG Ke; JIA Hai-lin; LU Chang; LU Lai-xiang

    2009-01-01

    In order to apply ultra-fine water mist technology on spontaneous coal combustion in the goaf of a coal mine, we built a small scale compartment with ultra-fine water mist for restraining coal combustion in a confined space and then investigated the restraining efficiency and related factors. The study obtained the following results: a descending rate of heat release, an increase in O2, the production of CO2 decreased gradually, while the production of CO increased dramatically and quickly and then decreased; ultimately it tended to become stable after the discharge of an ultra-fine water mist. The technology showed that the ultra-fine water mist can effectively reduce the heat release rate of coal and the rate to generate components. We found that the restraining effect relied on the mist flux, the discharge time and other factors. A sufficient amount of mist has a better effect compared to an insufficient amount of mist. To combat coal combustion, the greater the discharge time, the better coal flames are extinguished.

  18. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2005-03-03

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  19. Monocyte Signal Transduction Receptors in Active and Latent Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Druszczynska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that promote either resistance or susceptibility to TB disease remain insufficiently understood. Our aim was to compare the expression of cell signaling transduction receptors, CD14, TLR2, CD206, and β2 integrin LFA-1 on monocytes from patients with active TB or nonmycobacterial lung disease and healthy individuals with M.tb latency and uninfected controls to explain the background of the differences between clinical and subclinical forms of M.tb infection. A simultaneous increase in the expression of the membrane bound mCD14 receptor and LFA-1 integrin in patients with active TB may be considered a prodrome of breaking immune control by M.tb bacilli in subjects with the latent TB and absence of clinical symptoms.

  20. A fracture mechanics-based method for prediction of cracking of circular and elliptical concrete rings under restrained shrinkage

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, W.; Zhou, X.; Wu, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental method, utilizing elliptical ring specimens, is developed for assessing the likelihood of cracking and cracking age of concrete subject to restrained shrinkage. To investigate the mechanism of this new ring test, a fracture mechanics-based numerical approach is proposed to predict crack initiation in restrained concrete rings by using the R-curve method. It has been found that numerical results accord well with experimental results in terms of cracking ages for both circula...

  1. A thermal active restrained shrinkage ring test to study the early age concrete behaviour of massive structures

    OpenAIRE

    BRIFFAUT, M; BENDOUJEMA, F; Torrenti, Jean Michel; NAHAS, G

    2011-01-01

    In massive concrete structures, cracking may occur during hardening, especially if autogenous and thermal strains are restrained. The concrete permeability due to this cracking may rise significantly and thus increase leakage (in tank, nuclear containment ) and reduce the durability. The restrained shrinkage ring test is used to study the early age concrete behaviour (delayed strains evolution and cracking). This test shows, at 20 °C and without drying, for a concrete mix which is representat...

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes Th17 expansion via regulation of human dendritic cells toward a high CD14 and low IL-12p70 phenotype that reprograms upon exogenous IFN-γ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jonas Nørskov; Laursen, Janne Marie; Rosholm, Lisbeth Buus;

    2014-01-01

    ) are some of the first cells to interact with Mtb and they play an essential role in development of protective immunity against Mtb. Given that Mtb-infected macrophages have difficulties in degrading Mtb, they need help from IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells propagated via IL-12p70-producing DCs. Here we...... report that Mtb modifies human DC plasticity by expanding a CD14+ DC subset with weak IL-12p70-producing capacity. The CD14+ Mtb-promoted subset was furthermore poor inducers of IFN-γ by naive CD4+ T cells, but instead prompted IL-17A-producing RORγT+ CD4+ T cells. Mtb-derived peptidoglycan and......-challenged DCs. We conclude that Mtb exploits DC plasticity to reduce production of IL-12p70, and that this process is entirely divertible by exogenous IFN-γ. These data suggest that strategies to increase local IFN-γ production in the lungs of tuberculosis patients may boost host immunity toward Mtb....

  3. ACOUSTIC SIGNALLING IN EURASIAN PENDULINE TITS REMIZ PENDULINUS : REPERTOIRE SIZE SIGNALS MALE NEST DEFENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogany, A.; van Dijk, R. E.; Menyhart, O.; Miklosi, A.; DeVoogd, T. J.; Szekely, T.

    2013-01-01

    Elaborate male song may restrain competitors in various songbirds, although the exact mechanism, information content and information flow of acoustic signals are not completely understood. Here we focus on the interactions between resident and intruder males using the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pe

  4. Distributed and Localized Deformation Along the Lebanese Restraining Bend from Geomorphic Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, L.; Castelltort, S.; Klinger, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Dead Sea Fault System changes its orientation across Lebanon and forms a restraining bend. The oblique deformation along the Lebanese restraining bend is characterized by a complex suite of tectonic structures, among which, the Yammouneh Fault (YF), is believed to be the main strand that relays deformation from the southern section to the northern section of the Dead Sea Fault System. However, uncertainties regarding slip rates and strain partitioning in Lebanon still prevail. Here, we use morphometric analysis together with analytical and numerical models to constrain rates and modes of distributed and localized deformation along the Lebanese restraining bend.The rivers that drain the western flank of Mount Lebanon show a consistent counterclockwise rotation with respect to an expected orogen perpendicular orientation. Moreover, a pattern of divide disequilibrium in between these rivers emerges from an application of the χ mapping technique, which aims at estimating the degree of geometrical and topological disequilibrium in river networks. These geometrical patterns are compatible with simulation results using a landscape evolution model, which imposes a distributed velocity field along a domain that represents the western flank of Mount Lebanon. We further develop an analytical model that relates the river orientation to a set of kinematic parameters that represents a combined pure and simple shear strain field, and we find the parameters that best explain the present orientation of the western Lebanon rivers. Our results indicate that distributed deformation to the west of the YF takes as much as 30% of the relative Arabia-Sinai plate velocity since the late Miocene, and that the average slip rate along the YF during the same time interval has been 3.8-4.4 mm/yr. The theoretical model can further explain the inferred rotation from Paleomagnetic measurements.

  5. Time-dependent Early-age Behaviors of Concrete under Restrained Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xinwei; CAO Lixin; R D Hooton; H Lam; NIU Changren

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the early-age behaviors of concrete under a restrained condition, a set of apparatus was developed. In this way, the tensile creep and other early-age properties can be investigated in depth. By measuring the modulus of elasticity of concrete, synchronous shrinkage of concrete and steel rings and free shrinkage of concrete, the deformations of concrete ring can be quantified respectively. The experimental results show the tensile stress in concrete is time-dependent, and the stress at cracking is much lower than the tensile strength at that age; the tensile creep plays an important role in relaxing the tensile stress and postponing the cracking of concrete.

  6. Cognitive and weight-related correlates of flexible and rigid restrained eating behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Westenhoefer, J; D. Engel; Holst, C.; Lorenz, J.; Stubbs, J.; Peacock, M; Whybrow, S; Raats, MM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Examine the association between components of restrained eating, cognitive performance and weight loss maintenance. Methods: 106 women, all members of a commercial slimming organisation for at least 6. months (mean ± SD: 15.7 ± 12.4 months), were studied who, having lost 10.1 ± 9.7 kg of their initial weight, were hoping to sustain their weight loss during the 6. month study. Dietary restraint subcomponents flexible and rigid restraint, as well as preoccupying cognitions with food...

  7. Elasto-Plastic Instability of Restrained Beam-Columns Made of High-Strength Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Tawa, Hideo; MORINO, Shosuke; Kawaguchi, Jun; Yamamoto, Shinya; 田和, 英夫; 森野, 捷輔; 川口, 淳; 山本, 真也

    1994-01-01

    L-shaped steel frames consisting of an elastic beam and a column were tested under a constant vertical load and varying horizontal load, with the objective to investigate the load-displacement characteristics of beam-columns made of high-strength steel, which were restrained by the beam. The paper presents the test results of specimens failing due to combined effects of lateral-torsional buckling, local buckling and P∆ moment caused by excessive in-plane displacement, and discusses the load-d...

  8. β2-Syntrophin is a Cdk5 substrate that restrains the motility of insulin secretory granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Sandra; Knoch, Klaus-Peter; Ouwendijk, Joke;

    2010-01-01

    results support the notion that β2-syntrophin restrains the mobility of cortical granules in insulinoma INS-1 cells, thereby reducing insulin secretion and increasing insulin stores in resting cells, while increasing insulin release upon stimulation. Using mass spectrometry, in vitro phosphorylation....../dephosphorylation of β2-syntrophin regulates this association. Here we tested this hypothesis by analyzing INS-1 cells expressing GFP-β2-syntrophin through the combined use of biochemical approaches, imaging studies by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy as well as electron microscopy. Our...

  9. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation. PMID:26893056

  10. CD13 restricts TLR4 endocytic signal transduction in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Mallika; Subramani, Jaganathan; Rahman, M Mamunur; Shapiro, Linda H

    2015-05-01

    Dysregulation of the innate immune response underlies numerous pathological conditions. The TLR4 is the prototypical sensor of infection or injury that orchestrates the innate response via sequential activation of both cell surface and endocytic signaling pathways that trigger distinct downstream consequences. CD14 binds and delivers LPS to TLR4 and has been identified as a positive regulator of TLR4 signal transduction. It is logical that negative regulators of this process also exist to maintain the critical balance required for fighting infection, healing damaged tissue, and resolving inflammation. We showed that CD13 negatively modulates receptor-mediated Ag uptake in dendritic cells to control T cell activation in adaptive immunity. In this study, we report that myeloid CD13 governs internalization of TLR4 and subsequent innate signaling cascades, activating IRF-3 independently of CD14. CD13 is cointernalized with TLR4, CD14, and dynamin into Rab5(+) early endosomes upon LPS treatment. Importantly, in response to TLR4 ligands HMGB1 and LPS, p-IRF-3 activation and transcription of its target genes are enhanced in CD13(KO) dendritic cells, whereas TLR4 surface signaling remains unaffected, resulting in a skewed inflammatory response. This finding is physiologically relevant as ischemic injury in vivo provoked identical TLR4 responses. Finally, CD13(KO) mice showed significantly enhanced IFNβ-mediated signal transduction via JAK-STAT, escalating inducible NO synthase transcription levels and promoting accumulation of oxidative stress mediators and tissue injury. Mechanistically, inflammatory activation of macrophages upregulates CD13 expression and CD13 and TLR4 coimmunoprecipitate. Therefore, CD13 negatively regulates TLR4 signaling, thereby balancing the innate response by maintaining the inflammatory equilibrium critical to innate immune regulation. PMID:25801433

  11. The Role of CD14 Promoter-159 C-> T Polymorphism on Changes of Serum Lipid Ratios Induced by Highcarbohydrate/Low-fat Diets in Healthy Chinese Han Youth%脂多糖受体CD14基因启动子-159位点C/T基因多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂比值变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜喆; 龚仁蓉; 李元昊; 樊梅; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the tole of CD14 promoter - 159 C-> T polymorphism on ratios of serum lipids and its interaction on the ratios with a high-earbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet in a young and healthy Chinese Han population. Methods After a washout diet for seven daye, fifty six healthy young subjects (22. 89± 1. 80 years) were given the HC/LF diet for six days. Twelve-hour fasting venous blood samples were collected in the mornings of the first, the eighth and the fourteenth days. The serum lipid profiles and the CD14-159 C->T polymorphism were analyzed. The ratios of triglyceride/high density lipoproteln-cholesterol (TG/HDL-c), log (TG/HDL-c), total cholesterol/high density llpoproteincholesterol (TC/HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c/HDL-c) were calculated. Results The male carriers of the C allele had significantly higher TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) than the female carriers at baseline, after the washout diet and after the HC/LF diet, higher TC/HDL-c at baseline and after the washout diet, and higher LDL- c/HDL-c only after the washout diet. The female subjects with the TT genotype had higher TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) than the female carriers of the C allele at baseline, after the washout diet and after the HC/LF diet, higher LDL-c/HDL-c at baseline and after the HC/LF diet, and higher TC/HDL-c only after the washout diet. Compared with that before the HC/LF diet, TC/HDL-c was significantly decreased after the HC/LF diet regardless of gender and the genotype of the CD14-159 polymorphism. LDL-c/HDL-c was significantly decreased in both the male and female carriers of the C allele. TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) were significantly increased only in the female carriers of the C allele. Conclusion In the subjects with C allele, the HC/LF diet is a minor factor and its effects on the lipid ratios can be masked by the effects of the C allele at CD14-159. The interaction between the HC/LF diet and the C

  12. Neurofeedback reduces overeating episodes in female restrained eaters: a randomized controlled pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Martin, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Overeating episodes, despite of intentions to control weight, are a common problem among women. Recurring episodes of overeating and dietary failure have been reported to result in higher Body Mass Indexes and to induce severe distress even in non-clinical groups. Based on findings from physiological research on eating behavior and craving, as well as previous biofeedback studies, we derived a cue exposure based EEG neurofeedback protocol to target overeating episodes. The treatment was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial, comparing a neurofeedback group (NFG; n = 14) with a waiting list control group (WLG; n = 13) in a sub-clinical sample of female restrained eaters. At post-treatment, the number of weekly overeating episodes and subsequent distress were significantly reduced in the NFG compared to the WLG (p  .50). In a 3 month follow-up, effects in the NFG remained stable. As secondary outcomes, perceived dieting success was enhanced after the treatment. At follow-up, additional beneficial effects on trait food craving were observed. Altogether, we found preliminary evidence for the cue exposure neurofeedback against overeating episodes in female restrained eaters, although specific effects and underlying mechanisms still have to be explored in future research. PMID:26164414

  13. Structural and kinematic evolution of a Miocene to Recent sinistral restraining bend: the Montejunto massif, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    The Montejunto massif lies in the apex of a large-scale restraining bend at the southern termination of a sinistral transpressive fault system, in the Lusitanian basin of Portugal. Cenozoic deformation within the Montejunto massif initiated with southerly directed thrusting along the southern boundary of the massif, in association with the development of the E-W oriented Montejunto anticline, probably during the Langhian. Deformation switched to the northern boundary of the massif, in association with a change to NW-directed thrusting and continued development of the Montejunto anticline. The youngest set of structures within the massif is related to the sinistral reactivation of the Arieiro fault system, and steeply inclined bedding. This late phase of deformation represents the accommodation of a component of sinistral displacement across the restraining bend along mechanical anisotropies formed during this progressive Cenozoic deformation event. Variation in the kinematic style of the Main Arieiro fault is related to the angle ( α) between the fault plane and the displacement vector. Where α≈20°, abrupt pene-contemporaneous switches in displacement direction are recorded along the fault, whereas strike-slip kinematics predominate where α<20°. The timing of deformation events in the Montejunto massif is uncertain. However, correlation with the established Cenozoic Africa/Europe plate convergence directions may provide potential temporal constraints.

  14. Increased level of both CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and CD14+HLA-DR⁻/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells and decreased level of dendritic cells in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes, M K; Vangsted, Annette Juul; Knudsen, L M;

    2010-01-01

    immune status in patients with MM seems crucial prior to active immune therapy. We evaluated the proportion of both, DC, Treg cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in peripheral blood from patients with MM at diagnosis and in remission as well as patients with monoclonal gammopathy of......+FOXP3+ Treg cells was increased in patients at diagnosis and not in patients in remission or with MGUS. Also, Treg cells from patients with MM were functionally intact as they were able to inhibit proliferation of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, we observed an increase in the proportion of CD14+HLA......-DR¿/low MDSC in patients with MM at diagnosis, illustrating that this cell fraction is also distorted in patients with MM. Taken together, our results illustrate that, both mDC, pDC, Treg cells and MDSC are affected in patients with MM underlining the fact that the immune system is dysregulated as a...

  15. Effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Changfeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During an earthquake, the nonlinearity of the bridge structure mainly occurs at the supports, bridge piers and restrainers. When entering nonlinear stage, members of the bridge structure affect the elasto-plastic seismic response of the whole structure to a certain extent; for multi-span continuous bridges, longitudinal restrainers can be installed on the movable piers to optimise the distribution of seismic force and enable the movable piers to bear a certain amount of seismic effect. In order to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge, analytical models of continuous girder bridge structure considering the nonlinearity of movable supports, restrainers and bridge piers were built and the nonlinear time history analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restraining devices and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge. Relevant structural measures and recommendation were made to reduce the seismic response of the fixed piers of the continuous girder bridge.

  16. A thermal active restrained shrinkage ring test to study the early age concrete behaviour of massive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In massive concrete structures, cracking may occur during hardening, especially if autogenous and thermal strains are restrained. The concrete permeability due to this cracking may rise significantly and thus increase leakage (in tank, nuclear containment...) and reduce the durability. The restrained shrinkage ring test is used to study the early age concrete behaviour (delayed strains evolution and cracking). This test shows, at 20 oC and without drying, for a concrete mix which is representative of a French nuclear power plant containment vessel (w/c ratio equal to 0.57), that the amplitude of autogenous shrinkage (about 40 μm/m for the studied concrete mix) is not high enough to cause cracking. Indeed, in this configuration, thermal shrinkage is not significant, whereas this is a major concern for massive structures. Therefore, an active test has been developed to study cracking due to restrained thermal shrinkage. This test is an evolution of the classical restrained shrinkage ring test. It allows to take into account both autogenous and thermal shrinkages. Its principle is to create the thermal strain effects by increasing the temperature of the brass ring (by a fluid circulation) in order to expand it. With this test, the early age cracking due to restrained shrinkage, the influence of reinforcement and construction joints have been experimentally studied. It shows that, as expected, reinforcement leads to an increase of the number of cracks but a decrease of crack widths. Moreover, cracking occurs preferentially at the construction joint.

  17. HIV-1 Tat Protein Induces Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Human Dendritic Cells and Monocytes/Macrophages through Engagement of TLR4-MD2-CD14 Complex and Activation of NF-κB Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Ben Haij

    Full Text Available We recently reported that the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 Tat protein induced the expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 on dendritic cells (DCs through a TLR4 pathway. However, the underlying mechanisms by which HIV-1 Tat protein induces the abnormal hyper-activation of the immune system seen in HIV-1 infected patients remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that HIV-1 Tat protein induced the production of significant amounts of the pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines by DCs and monocytes from both healthy and HIV-1 infected patients. Such production was abrogated in the presence of anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies or soluble recombinant TLR4-MD2 as a decoy receptor, suggesting TLR4 was recruited by Tat protein. Tat-induced murine IL-6 and CXCL1/KC a functional homologue of human IL-8 was abolished in peritoneal macrophages derived from TLR4 KO but not from Wt mice, confirming the involvement of the TLR4 pathway. Furthermore, the recruitment of TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex by Tat protein was demonstrated by the activation of TLR4 downstream pathways including NF-κB and SOCS-1 and by down-modulation of cell surface TLR4 by endocytosis in dynamin and lipid-raft-dependent manners. Collectively, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that HIV-1 Tat interacts with TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex and activates the NF-κB pathway, leading to overproduction of IL-6 and IL-8 pro-inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells from both healthy and HIV-1 infected patients. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which HIV-1, via its early expressed Tat protein, hijacks the TLR4 pathway, hence establishing abnormal hyper-activation of the immune system.

  18. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Olea-Lopez, Ana-Lorena; Johnson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19-64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all ener...

  19. A Regulatory Focus Perspective on Eating Behavior: How Prevention and Promotion Focus Relates to Emotional, External, and Restrained Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ePfattheicher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By applying regulatory focus theory (RFT to the context of eating behavior, the present research examines the relations between individual differences in the two motivational orientations as conceptualized in RFT, that is, prevention-focused and promotion-focused self-regulation and emotional, external, and restrained eating. Building on a representative study conducted in the Netherlands (N = 4,230, it is documented that individual differences in prevention focus are positively related to emotional eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to external and restrained eating. Individual differences in promotion focus are positively related to external eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to emotional and restrained eating. In relating RFT to different eating styles we were able to document significant relations of basic self-regulatory orientations with regard to essential daily behavior associated with health and well-being. The implications for changing eating styles are discussed.

  20. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi(®)) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco(®)). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters. PMID:24979333

  1. Motor Vehicle Crash–Related Injury Causation Scenarios for Spinal Injuries in Restrained Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZONFRILLO, MARK R.; LOCEY, CAITLIN M.; SCARFONE, STEVEN R.; ARBOGAST, KRISTY B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related spinal injuries result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. The objective was to identify MVC-related injury causation scenarios for spinal injuries in restrained children. Methods This was a case series of occupants in MVCs from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) data set. Occupants aged 0–17 years old with at least one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ severity spinal injury in vehicles model year 1990+ that did not experience a rollover were included. Unrestrained occupants, those not using the shoulder portion of the belt restraint, and those with child restraint gross misuse were excluded. Occupants with preexisting comorbidities contributing to spinal injury and occupants with limited injury information were also excluded. A multidisciplinary team retrospectively reviewed each case to determine injury causation scenarios (ICSs). Crash conditions, occupant and restraint characteristics, and injuries were qualitatively summarized. Results Fifty-nine cases met the study inclusion criteria and 17 were excluded. The 42 occupants included sustained 97 distinct AIS 2+ spinal injuries (27 cervical, 22 thoracic, and 48 lumbar; 80 AIS-2, 15 AIS-3, 1 AIS-5, and 1 AIS-6), with fracture as the most common injury type (80%). Spinal-injured occupants were most frequently in passenger cars (64%), and crash direction was most often frontal (62%). Mean delta-V was 51.3 km/h ± 19.4 km/h. The average occupant age was 12.4 ± 5.3 years old, and 48% were 16- to 17-year-olds. Thirty-six percent were right front passengers and 26% were drivers. Most occupants were lap and shoulder belt restrained (88%). Non-spinal AIS 2+ injuries included those of the lower extremity and pelvis (n = 56), head (n = 43), abdomen (n = 39), and thorax (n = 36). Spinal injury causation was typically due to flexion or lateral bending over the lap and or shoulder belt or child restraint harness, compression by occupant

  2. A plastic collapse method for evaluating rotation capacity of full-restrained steel moment connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungkoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method to model failure of steel beam plastic hinges due to local buckling and low-cycle fatigue is proposed herein. This method is based on the plastic collapse mechanism approach and a yield-line plastic hinge (YLPH model whose geometry is based on buckled shapes of beam plastic hinges observed in experiments. Two limit states, strength degradation failure induced by local buckling and low-cycle fatigue fracture, are considered. The proposed YLPH model was developed for FEMA-350 WUF-W, RBS and Free Flange connections and validated in comparisons to experimental data. This model can be used to estimate the seismic rotation capacity of fully restrained beam-column connections in special steel moment-resisting frames under both monotonic and cyclic loading conditions.

  3. Image segmentation algorithm based on high-dimension fuzzy character and restrained clustering network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoping Wang; Yang Fang; Chao Sun

    2014-01-01

    An image segmentation algorithm of the restrained fuzzy Kohonen clustering network (RFKCN) based on high-dimension fuzzy character is proposed. The algorithm includes two steps. The first step is the fuzzification of pixels in which two redundant images are built by fuzzy mean value and fuzzy median value. The second step is to construct a three-dimensional (3-D) feature vector of redundant images and their original images and cluster the feature vector through RFKCN, to realize image seg-mentation. The proposed algorithm ful y takes into account not only gray distribution information of pixels, but also relevant information and fuzzy information among neighboring pixels in constructing 3-D character space. Based on the combination of competitiveness, redundancy and complementary of the information, the proposed algorithm improves the accuracy of clustering. Theoretical anal-yses and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a good segmentation performance.

  4. Functional Langerinhigh-Expressing Langerhans-like Cells Can Arise from CD14highCD16- Human Blood Monocytes in Serum-Free Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarda, Gaëlle; Chéneau, Coraline; Humbert, Jean-Marc; Bériou, Gaëlle; Pilet, Paul; Martin, Jérôme; Duteille, Franck; Perrot, Pierre; Bellier-Waast, Frédérique; Heslan, Michèle; Haspot, Fabienne; Guillon, Fabien; Josien, Regis; Halary, Franck Albert

    2016-05-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are epithelial APCs that sense danger signals and in turn trigger specific immune responses. In steady-state, they participate in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens whereas under inflammation LCs efficiently trigger immune responses in secondary lymphoid organs. It has been demonstrated in mice that LC-deprived epithelia are rapidly replenished by short half-life langerin-expressing monocyte-derived LCs (MDLCs). These surrogate LCs are thought to be progressively replaced by langerin(high) LCs arising from self-renewing epithelial precursors of hematopoietic origin. How LCs arise from blood monocytes is not fully understood. Hence, we sought to characterize key factors that induce differentiation of langerin(high)-expressing monocyte-derived Langerhans-like cells. We identified GM-CSF and TGF-β1 as key cytokines to generate langerin(high)-expressing cells but only in serum-free conditions. These cells were shown to express the LC-specific TROP-2 and Axl surface markers and contained Birbeck granules. Surprisingly, E-cadherin was not spontaneously expressed by these cells but required a direct contact with keratinocytes to be stably induced. MDLCs induced stronger allogeneic T cell proliferations but released low amounts of inflammatory cytokines upon TLR stimulation compared with donor-paired monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Immature langerin(high) MDLCs were responsive to MIP-3β/CCL20 and CTAC/CCL27 chemokine stimulations. Finally, we demonstrated that those cells behaved as bona fide LCs when inserted in a three-dimensional rebuilt epithelium by becoming activated upon TLR or UV light stimulations. Collectively, these results prompt us to propose these langerin(high) MDLCs as a relevant model to address LC biology-related questions. PMID:27016604

  5. Comportamento de restrição alimentar e obesidade Restrained eating behavior and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bernardi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é uma doença de alta prevalência no mundo e é responsável por sérias repercussões orgânicas e psicossociais, desde a infância até a vida adulta. O comportamento alimentar tem bases biológicas e sociais e, associado, à obesidade, torna-se um processo ainda mais complexo pelos aspectos psicológicos envolvidos, os quais se expressam por meio de humor depressivo, ansiedade, sentimento de culpa e, também, por mecanismos fisiológicos, como a resistência ao jejum na vigência de dietas restritivas. Há evidências de que, em indivíduos obesos, comportamentos de compulsão alimentar e ou restrição são mais freqüentes e parecem ser, em parte, responsáveis pelos fracassos observados no tratamento da obesidade. As restrições e auto-imposições das pessoas que fazem dieta, parecem ter um efeito rebote, resultando em compulsão alimentar, a qual pode associar-se a conseqüências psicológicas, como a perda da auto-estima, mudanças de humor e distração. As reflexões desta revisão sugerem que os programas para redução de peso corporal devem enfocar as bases do comportamento alimentar e desenvolver, efetivamente, ações interdisciplinares que permitam obter resultados eficazes no tratamento da obesidade.Obesity is a widespread disease in the world, responsible for serious organic and psychosocial repercussions, from infancy to adulthood. Eating behavior has biological as well as social bases. Associated to obesity, it becomes an even more complex process, since it is accompanied by psychological aspects showing symptoms such as depressive moods, anxiety, feelings of guilt, and physiological mechanisms as, for instance, the resistance to fast during restrictive diets. Obese individuals prevalently present behaviors such as binge or restrained eating, both leading to failure in the treatment of obesity. Restrained eating refers to the tendency to restrict food intake consciously, in order to prevent weight gain or to

  6. Flexural -Torsional Buckling Tests of Cold-Formed Lipped Channel Beams Under Restrained Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KANDASAMY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, tests on flexural buckling ( Lateral – Torsional of cold-formed steel(CFS lipped Channel beams under restrained boundary conditions are described Two point loading for flexural tests have been established for 3.0m span to obtain uniform bending moment. The section sizes selected for testing are 100x50x10 mm, 100x50x15 mm and 100x50x20 mm with 1.6mm and 2.0mm thickness for the investigation. Carefully designed loading and support systems were used in the tests to apply gravity load through the web of the section and to ensure that simply supported ends were established. The test results are compared in the BS5950:Part 5 and IS code 801-1975. The influence of warping and torsional restraints on flexural capacity is presented. The influence of buckling length for different boundary conditions proposed by Rhodes was considered to calculate critical flexural-torsional buckling moment.

  7. Apoptosis repressor with a CARD domain (ARC restrains Bax-mediated pathogenesis in dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Davis

    Full Text Available Myofiber wasting in muscular dystrophy has largely been ascribed to necrotic cell death, despite reports identifying apoptotic markers in dystrophic muscle. Here we set out to identify the contribution of canonical apoptotic pathways to skeletal muscle degeneration in muscular dystrophy by genetically deleting a known inhibitor of apoptosis, apoptosis repressor with a card domain (Arc, in dystrophic mouse models. Nol3 (Arc protein genetic deletion in the dystrophic Sgcd or Lama2 null backgrounds showed exacerbated skeletal muscle pathology with decreased muscle performance compared with single null dystrophic littermate controls. The enhanced severity of the dystrophic phenotype associated with Nol3 deletion was caspase independent but dependent on the mitochondria permeability transition pore (MPTP, as the inhibitor Debio-025 partially rescued skeletal muscle pathology in Nol3 (-/- Sgcd (-/- double targeted mice. Mechanistically, Nol3 (-/- Sgcd (-/- mice showed elevated total and mitochondrial Bax protein levels, as well as greater mitochondrial swelling, suggesting that Arc normally restrains the cell death effects of Bax in skeletal muscle. Indeed, knockdown of Arc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts caused an increased sensitivity to cell death that was fully blocked in Bax Bak1 (genes encoding Bax and Bak double null fibroblasts. Thus Arc deficiency in dystrophic muscle exacerbates disease pathogenesis due to a Bax-mediated sensitization of mitochondria-dependent death mechanisms.

  8. Finite Element Model for the Behavior of Partially Restrained High Strength Web Angle Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taufik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the behavior of Partially Restrained (PR connections with high strength steel through the use of Finite Element (FE modeling. The connection model is such that double web angles are represented by radiused corner section shell elements. The full interaction between the angle and the beam and/or column is simulated by the contact element.The analysis of the moment- rotation relationship and behavior characteristics of the connection with high strength steel are compared and discussed. It is established that the contact elements and strength enhancements of the corner regions employed in this model are important parameters for accurate predictions of Double Web Angle (DWA connection behavior with cold-formed high strength steel. The proposed connection FE model is capable making highly accurate predictions about the ultimate load capacity and the plastic strain pattern. The model presented provides excellent results for significantly increasing the connection capacity as a result of employing a higher strength steel section. A power model expression was proposed to predict the ultimate moment and initial stiffness of the high strength DWA connection. A reasonable prediction was obtained for high strength PR connection.

  9. β2-Syntrophin is a Cdk5 substrate that restrains the motility of insulin secretory granules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schubert

    Full Text Available The molecular basis for the interaction of insulin granules with the cortical cytoskeleton of pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. We have proposed that binding of the granule protein ICA512 to the PDZ domain of β2-syntrophin anchors granules to actin filaments and that the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of β2-syntrophin regulates this association. Here we tested this hypothesis by analyzing INS-1 cells expressing GFP-β2-syntrophin through the combined use of biochemical approaches, imaging studies by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy as well as electron microscopy. Our results support the notion that β2-syntrophin restrains the mobility of cortical granules in insulinoma INS-1 cells, thereby reducing insulin secretion and increasing insulin stores in resting cells, while increasing insulin release upon stimulation. Using mass spectrometry, in vitro phosphorylation assays and β2-syntrophin phosphomutants we found that phosphorylation of β2-syntrophin on S75 near the PDZ domain decreases its binding to ICA512 and correlates with increased granule motility, while phosphorylation of S90 has opposite effects. We further show that Cdk5, which regulates insulin secretion, phosphorylates S75. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how stimulation displaces insulin granules from cortical actin, thus promoting their motility and exocytosis.

  10. An oligodeoxynucleotide with CCT repeats restrains CpG ODN-induced TLR9 trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Sun, Wei; Wu, Xiuli; Wang, Hua; Yan, Youyou; Guo, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Li, Hainan; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Luowei; Yu, Yongli; Wang, Liying

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) can sense pathogen DNA and CpG ODN or even self-DNA by trafficking assisted by Unc93B1, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein, from ER to endolysosomes or cell surface. In previous study, we found that an oligodeoxynucleotide with CCT repeats (SAT05f) could selectively inhibit TLR7/9 activation. However, the mechanism for the inhibitory activity of SAT05f is still unknown. In present research, it was found that SAT05f could inhibit CpG ODN-induced the intracellular trafficking of TLR9 and Unc93B1 with feedback the responses of decreased surface TLR9 and enhanced TLR9 mRNA expression but not influence TLR9 protein level by using human plasmacytoid dendritic cell line CAL-1 cells, suggesting that SAT05f inhibits TLR9 activation by restraining TLR9 trafficking. Since the mitochondrial DNA released from injured tissue can cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), this study may provide valuable data for prevention and treatment of SIRS and rescue severe trauma patients. PMID:25374030

  11. Whiplash-type neck distortion in restrained car drivers: frequency, causes and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Otte, D; Pohlemann, T; Krettek, C; Blauth, M

    2000-04-01

    An analysis was made of 1176 whiplash-type neck distortions taken from a total of 3838 restrained car driver incident reports. The percentage of whiplash-type neck distortion among injured drivers increased from less than 10% in 1985 to over 30% in 1997. Most occurred in head-on crashes or crashes with multiple collisions; only 15% occurred in rear-end collisions. More than 1,000 questionnaires were sent to the injured to find out about the duration and type of complaints caused by their cervical spine injury. Although only 138 (12%) returned the questionnaire, which may not be a representative sample, a further analysis was carried out. Of the 138, 121 (88%) indicated that they had suffered or were still suffering from their symptoms. The percentages of the various complaints were as follows: pain (74%), tension (6%) and stiffness (5%) in the head (27%), neck (55%) and shoulder (8%). The duration of the complaints was longest after multiple collisions and when the onset of complaints was longer than 24 h after trauma. Women and elderly persons predominated slightly in the group with longer duration of complaints. A correlation between the severity of the accompanying injuries and duration of complaints was found. Lack of adequate follow-up for patients with less severe injuries posed considerable difficulties for this retrospective study. In order to better evaluate this problem, prospective studies are necessary, with documentation including diagnosis, treatments, complaint duration and type. PMID:10823426

  12. Early age damage quantification of actively restrained concrete using inverse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Ali

    Early-age cracking can be a significant problem in concrete pavements, floors, and bridge decks. Cracking occurs when the volumetric changes associated with drying, hydration, and temperature reduction are prevented. Good knowledge about the characteristics of early age concrete is necessary to achieve reliable crack control. Volumetric changes due to shrinkage depend on the type of concrete and its components. It has been found that light weight aggregates can work as internal reservoir to supply the concrete matrix with water that is needed during the early age; this process is called internal curing. Also fibers can give more ductility to the concrete and produce less shrinkage. There is a need to better understand the effects of early age uniaxial restraint on long term concrete mechanical performance. In this study, two types of concrete were studied (high performance fiber reinforced concrete and ordinary concrete) under actively restrained loading conditions to assess the effect on the long term fracture toughness and energy. Single edge notched specimens having dimensions of 250 mm x 150 mm x 75 mm and a notch to depth ratio of 0.33 were caste and used in both direct tension and three point bending. The direct tension tests were carried out on a direct tension loading frame constructed in house that was supplied with two mechanical jacks and load cell.

  13. Restrained Shrinkage-Induced Cracking of Light Weight High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh F.U Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Shrinkage induced cracking cause damage to reinforced concrete structures. An experimental study was conducted on restrained shrinkage test of cement mortar and light weight High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (HPFRCC. Approach: Two types of light weight HPFRCC and a premix mortar containing small amount of fiber were included in the experiment. Results: Results showed the multiple cracks, as many as 49, in light weight HPFRCC specimens compared to few cracks (about six cracks in the premix mortar specimen. At the end of shrinkage test, the width of the cracks in the mortar specimen was more than 250 μm with the largest crack width of about 400 μm. However, the scenario was quite different in light weight HPFRCC specimens, where the width of almost all cracks was less than 100 μm. Conclusion: The higher number of multiple cracks with small cracks width in light weight HPFRCC specimens due to drying shrinkage was due to their strain hardening and ductile behavior compared to quasi brittle behavior of premix mortar where less number of wide cracks was observed.

  14. Assessment of early-age cracking of high-performance concrete in restrained ring specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang-phu NGUYEN NGUYEN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High-performance concrete (HPC is stronger and more durable than conventional concrete. However, shrinkage and shrinkage cracking are common phenomena in HPC, especially early-age cracking. This study assessed early-age cracking of HPC for two mixtures using restrained ring tests. The two mixtures were produced with water/binder mass ratio (mW/mB of 0.22 and 0.40, respectively. The results show that, with greater steel thickness, the higher degree of restraint resulted in a higher interface pressure and earlier cracking. With steel thickness of 6 mm, 19 mm, and 30 mm, the age of cracking were, respectively, 12 days, 8 days, and 5.4 days with the mW/mB = 0.22 mixture; and 22.5 days, 12.6 days, and 7.1 days with the mW/mB = 0.40 mixture. Cases of the same steel thickness show that the ring specimens with a thicker concrete wall crack later. With the mW/mB = 0.22 mixture, concrete walls with thicknesses of 37.5 mm, 75 mm, and 112.5 mm cracked at 3.4 days, 8.0 days, and 9.8 days, respectively; with the mW/mB = 0.40 mixture, the ages of cracking were 7.1 days, 12.6 days, and 16.0 days, respectively.

  15. CD14 - a receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bažil, Vladimír

    Paříž : Flammarion MedicineScience, 1993 - (Baumgartner, J.; Calandra, T.; Carlet, J.), s. 47-54 [Colloguium: Mediators of sepsis : From patophysiology to therapeutic approaches. Les-Baux-de Provence (FR), 05.11.1992-06.11.1992

  16. Identification and processing of hiding ammonium-nitrate explosives detecting signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the study of identification and processing of hiding ammonium-nitrate explosives detecting signals in the safety inspection passages of airport, railway station etc. Restricting to the detecting conditions, the signals were faint, and the scattering backgrounds were high. According to this situation, spectrum shifted adding method was used to restrain the scattering background, at the same time peak area calculating method with strong ability of statistic fluctuation restraining were introduced, and the identification abilities of the system were improved notably. The explosives detection software based on Windows 95 was developed, and the key codes on initializing DMA controller in the hardware driver were listed

  17. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    OpenAIRE

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin; Vulcu Cristian; Dubina Dan

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB) can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR) Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE) scale of reference paramet...

  18. Solution structure of human insulin-like growth factor 1: A nuclear magnetic resonance and restrained molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, R.M.; Harvey, T.S.; Campbell, I.D. (Univ. of Oxford (England))

    1991-06-04

    The solution structure of human insulin-like growth factor 1 has been investigated with a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance and restrained molecular dynamics methods. The results show that the solution structure is similar to that of insulin, but minor differences exist. The regions homologous to insulin are well-defined, while the remainder of the molecular exhibits greater disorder. The resultant structures have been used to visualize the sites for interaction with a number of physiologically important protein.

  19. Solution structure of human insulin-like growth factor 1: A nuclear magnetic resonance and restrained molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution structure of human insulin-like growth factor 1 has been investigated with a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance and restrained molecular dynamics methods. The results show that the solution structure is similar to that of insulin, but minor differences exist. The regions homologous to insulin are well-defined, while the remainder of the molecular exhibits greater disorder. The resultant structures have been used to visualize the sites for interaction with a number of physiologically important protein

  20. A regulatory focus perspective on eating behavior: how prevention and promotion focus relates to emotional, external, and restrained eating

    OpenAIRE

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Sassenrath, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    By applying regulatory focus theory (RFT) to the context of eating behavior, the present research examines the relations between individual differences in the two motivational orientations as conceptualized in RFT, that is, prevention-focused and promotion-focused self-regulation and emotional, external, and restrained eating. Building on a representative study conducted in the Netherlands (N = 4,230), it is documented that individual differences in prevention focus are positively related to ...

  1. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doku David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. Methods A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%. Results In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths’ future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  2. Low-input Modified Extensive Shrimp Culture Systems for Penaeus monodon Restrain Vibriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Oliveira Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that an outbreak of vibriosis can be restrained in ponds with a low stocking density (~5 post-larvae m-2 till harvest. Therefore, during a 135 day production cycle of Penaeus monodon at an aquaculture facility, we monitored (i physico-chemical parameters (ii abundance of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB, total Vibrio like organisms (TVLO and luminescent bacteria (LB (iii alterations in environmental factors controlling Vibrio abundance and (iv changes in composition of the Vibrio community. Physico-chemical parameters were within the optimum range recommended for culture of P. monodon. In source and pond water, THB abundance remained steady at 103 CFU mL-1 throughout the culture period whereas in sediments, they varied between 102-4 CFU g-1. The abundance of TVLO and LB in pond components were below the threshold levels of 104 CFU mL-1 and 102 CFU mL-1 respectively. THB, TVLO and LB were more abundant in the shrimp hepatopancreas (105 CFU g-1 yet apparently below the threshold for the outbreak of vibriosis in the current set up. Changes in bacterial abundance were seemingly independent of changes in environmental parameters suggesting that the systems maintained TVLO below disease-causing threshold. The Vibrio community was represented mainly by V. metschnikovii, V. fluvialis, V. mimicus and the closely related Aeromonas spp.. The vibrios in shrimp hepatopancreas were similar to other pond components with no dominance of particular species. A disease-free environment prevailed and shrimp yield was sustainable within the set framework perhaps due to the low abundance of vibrios represented by innocuous strains.

  3. Non-clinical adolescent girls at risk of eating disorder: under-reporters or restrained eaters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Babio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the plausibility of self-reported energy intake, Goldberg et al proposed a technique to identify the miss-reporters. Subjects: After screening2,967 adolescents by EAT-40 test, 132 at risk of ED and 151 as a control group were studied. Aim: To determine whether subjects at risk of eating disorders that are identified as under reporters can be considered as UR or in turn as restrained eaters. Methods: We determined dietary energy intake, body mass index, body satisfaction, physical activity, psychopathology, dietary restraint factor, weight loss and diagnoses of eating disorders. We applied Goldberg's equations to identify under reporters. Results: 40.9% of girls at risk of eating disorders were identified as under reporters and only 7.3% were in the control group. A total of 64.4% of the Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified were under reporters. The body mass index of under reporters was significantly higher than in the other of subjects regardless of whether they were at risk of eating disorders. Girls at risk of eating disorders and under reporter had significantly lower body satisfaction than other groups. Multiple logistic regressions in all subjects showed that the risk of being UR was associated with an increase in the body mass index, increase in dietary restraint scores and weight loss; whereas, that only the body mass index was associated with the control group. Conclusion: The prevalence of under reporter increases with the severity of the eating disorders several adolescent girls at risk of eating disorder and identified by Goldberg cut-off technique as under reporter may to be restricting their intake and therefore they would not be under reporter.

  4. Impulse control and restrained eating among young women: Evidence for compensatory cortical activation during a chocolate-specific delayed discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Debo; Wang, Yulin; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Shuaiyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Theory and associated research indicate that people with elevated restrained eating (RE) scores have higher risk for binge eating, future bulimic symptom onset and weight gain. Previous imaging studies have suggested hyper-responsive reward brain area activation in response to food cues contributes to this risk but little is known about associated neural impulse control mechanisms, especially when considering links between depleted cognitive resources related to unsuccessful RE. Towards illuminating this issue, we used a chocolate-specific delayed discounting (DD) task to investigate relations between RE scores, behavior impulsivity, and corresponding neural impulse control correlates in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 27 young women. Specifically, participants were required to choose between more immediate, smaller versus delayed, larger hypothetical chocolate rewards following initial consumption of a chocolate. As predicted, RE scores were correlated positively with behavior impulse control levels. More critically, higher RE scores were associated with stronger activation in impulse control region, the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the completion of difficult decision trials reflecting higher cognitive demands and resource depletion relative to easy decision trials. Exploratory analyses revealed a positive correlation between RE scores and activity in a reward system hub, the right striatum. Moreover, a positive correlation between left DLPFC and striatum activation was posited to reflect, in part, impulse control region compensation in response to stronger reward signal among women with RE elevations. Findings suggested impulse control lapses may contribute to difficulties in maintaining RE, particularly when cognitive demands are high. PMID:27208593

  5. Actividad antiinflamatoria de un extracto polifenólico de hueso de olivas en la línea celular de monocitos humanos THP1-XBLUE-CD14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés Castell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de un extracto de naturaleza polifenólica de huesos de oliva. Material y métodos: Se incubó la línea celular THP1-XBlue-CD14 (invivogen, 80.000 células/pocillo, provocando inflamación (activación de NF-kb mediante 0.1 gg/ml LPS (lipopolisacárido de E. coli durante 24 horas. Se evaluó la presencia del extracto (10 y 50 mg/l, concentraciones bioseguras durante 2 horas a 37 ºC, previa (efecto preventivo y posterior a la activación proinflamatoria (efecto terapéutico y se cuantificó colorimétricamente la actividad de fosfatasa alcalina, que se expresa bajo el control del promotor del factor transcripcional de NF-kb. Se evalúa el % actividad de NF-kb en efecto preventivo y terapéutico respecto a cultivos control de células con LPS y sin extracto añadido, que se consideran 100% de NF-kb. Resultados: La capacidad antiinflamatoria preventiva del extracto a 50 mg/l es del 25,5% (IC 95% 16,8-34,2 y el efecto terapéutico del 34,9% (IC 95% 25,3-44,4 para la misma concentración, no presentando actividad significativa a 10 mg/l. Conclusión: Se muestra una actividad de los polifenoles extraídos de los huesos de aceitunas, tanto preventivo de la inflamación como terapéutico de eliminación de la inflamación a través de la inhibición del factor NF-kB previamente activado por LPS a concentraciones de 50 mg/l de polifenoles que previamente se han mostrado seguras.

  6. Restrained shrinkage experiments on coated particle fuel compacts in the temperature range 600-1200 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on irradiation induced creep in reactor graphite and in fuel compact material is an essential ingredient in the design of any reactor core layout, because the creep plasticity of these materials diminishes the stresses which are built up in the fuel element during reactor operation. The restrained shrinkage method in which the shrinkage of a dumbbell shaped creep specimen is restrained by a graphite material which shows less irradiation shrinkage, offers a good possibility of performing a large series of tensile creep experiments in a limited irradiation volume. The irradiations, evaluations and the results of a series of restrained shrinkage experiments in which six different materials were tested, of which five were dummy coated particle compacts and one pure matrix material are described and discussed. These materials were irradiated in the High Flux Reactor of the Euratom Joint Research Centre in Petten/Netherlands. The irradiations were performed in three successive capsules at irradiation temperatures of 600 deg C, 900 deg C, 1050 deg C and 1200 deg C up to a neutron fluence of maximum 3x1021n.cm2 (DNE). The post-irradiation examinations yielded plastic strains up to 2,3%, and values for the radiation creep coefficient were calculated, ranging from 4 to 8.10-12 at 600 deg C and 8 to 30.10-12 at 1200 deg C always given per dyn.cm-2 tensile stresses and per 1020n.cm-2 fluence units. Generally it was found that the creep behavior of these materials and the temperature dependence of the creep process could be compared with those for normal reactor graphites

  7. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  8. Study Under AC Stimulation on Excitement Properties of Weighted Small-World Biological Neural Networks with Side-Restrain Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Wu-Jie; LUO Xiao-Shu; JIANG Pin-Qun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new model of weighted small-world biological neural networks based on biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with side-restrain mechanism.Then we study excitement properties of the model under alternating current (AC) stimulation.The study shows that the excitement properties in the networks are preferably consistent with the behavior properties of a brain nervous system under different AC stimuli,such as refractory period and the brain neural excitement response induced by different intensities of nolse and coupling.The results of the study have reference worthiness for the brain nerve electrophysiology and epistemological science.

  9. Study Under AC Stimulation on Excitement Properties of Weighted Small-World Biological Neural Networks with Side-Restrain Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new model of weighted small-world biological neural networks based on biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with side-restrain mechanism. Then we study excitement properties of the model under alternating current (AC) stimulation. The study shows that the excitement properties in the networks are preferably consistent with the behavior properties of a brain nervous system under different AC stimuli, such as refractory period and the brain neural excitement response induced by different intensities of noise and coupling. The results of the study have reference worthiness for the brain nerve electrophysiology and epistemological science.

  10. Cone restraining and head-only electrical stunning in broilers: effects on physiological responses and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooij, E; Reimert, H G M; Verhoeven, M T W; Hindle, V A

    2014-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a new electrical stunning system for broilers. The objective of the first experiment was to evaluate the behavioral, neural, and physiological responses of 27 broilers after head-only electrical stunning while their bodies were restrained in cone-shaped holders. In the second experiment, quality of meat from 30 broilers after head-only electrical stunning in a cone-shaped restrainer was compared with that from 30 broilers stunned in a conventional water bath. Broilers were restrained in the cone with their heads positioned to facilitate a correct stun, followed by a neck cut by hand. After stunning, each broiler displayed a tonic phase, followed by minimal brain activity during bleeding. On average, heart rate was 258 ± 51 beats/min before stunning. The heart was observed to malfunction after cutting. According to the correlation dimension analyses, the score remained low. Within a confidence limit of 95%, taking into account the number of birds with a reliable electroencephalogram (n = 27), the chance of an effective stun and exsanguination with all broilers lies between 0.90 and 1.00 using a sinusoidal AC current of 264 ± 29 mA (∼130 V). After a brief learning period, operators were able to easily position the broilers in the cone in a commercial setting. The pH after chilling was 0.5 units lower (P < 0.05) in the head-only stunned group compared with the group stunned in a conventional water bath. After head-only stunning, 60% of breast fillets showed no blood splashes and 3% showed severe blood splashes compared with 20 and 27% after conventional water bath stunning. No differences in temperature and color were observed between the 2 groups. It is concluded that broilers could be restrained in a cone, followed by correct head-only stunning, neck-cutting, and unconscious shackling afterward under laboratory and commercial slaughterhouse conditions. When this procedure was used, meat quality was better compared with

  11. Focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters: a test of restraint theory and the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2014-04-01

    Although research consistently shows that images of thin women in the media (media body ideals) affect women negatively (e.g., increased weight dissatisfaction and food intake), this effect is less clear among restrained eaters. The majority of experiments demonstrate that restrained eaters - identified with the Restraint Scale - consume more food than do other participants after viewing media body ideal images; whereas a minority of experiments suggest that such images trigger restrained eaters' dietary restraint. Weight satisfaction and mood results are just as variable. One reason for these inconsistent results might be that different methods of image exposure (e.g., slideshow vs. film) afford varying levels of attention. Therefore, we manipulated attention levels and measured participants' weight satisfaction and food intake. We based our hypotheses on the elaboration likelihood model and on restraint theory. We hypothesised that advertent (i.e., processing the images via central routes of persuasion) and inadvertent (i.e., processing the images via peripheral routes of persuasion) exposure would trigger differing degrees of weight dissatisfaction and dietary disinhibition among restrained eaters (cf. restraint theory). Participants (N = 174) were assigned to one of four conditions: advertent or inadvertent exposure to media or control images. The dependent variables were measured in a supposedly unrelated study. Although restrained eaters' weight satisfaction was not significantly affected by either media exposure condition, advertent (but not inadvertent) media exposure triggered restrained eaters' eating. These results suggest that teaching restrained eaters how to pay less attention to media body ideal images might be an effective strategy in media-literary interventions. PMID:24854816

  12. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blake M. Andrews; Junho Song; Larry A. Fahnestock

    2009-01-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United :States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  13. C-NAP1 and rootletin restrain DNA damage-induced centriole splitting and facilitate ciliogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Pauline C.; Saladino, Chiara; Dantas, Tiago J.; Lalor, Pierce; Dockery, Peter; Morrison, Ciaran G.

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are found on most human cells and exist as motile cilia or non-motile primary cilia. Primary cilia play sensory roles in transducing various extracellular signals, and defective ciliary functions are involved in a wide range of human diseases. Centrosomes are the principal microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells and contain two centrioles. We observed that DNA damage causes centriole splitting in non-transformed human cells, with isolated centrioles carrying the mother centriole ...

  14. An alternative discourse of productive aging: A self-restrained approach in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Minxia; Chui, Ernest Wing-Tak

    2016-08-01

    While Western discourses regarding productive aging emphasize individuals' contributions to economic productivity, the Confucian cultural heritage of the Chinese community may provide an alternative perspective. This qualitative study explores interpretations of what constitutes productive aging, based on a series of in-depth interviews with older Chinese people in Hong Kong. It shows that some of these individuals adopted a passive and indirect interpretation of productive aging, distinct from that found in Western countries. The Confucianism-based, collectivist, normative order underpinning Hong Kong society disposed these older people to adopting a self-restrained attitude with the aim of avoiding becoming a burden to others, especially family members. Such a tendency toward self-restraint or avoidance also encompassed a compromise between ideals and reality, with the older people opting to compromise their expectations of the younger generation as a whole, their adult children in particular, in terms of respect and reciprocity. PMID:27531450

  15. SEISMIC RESPONSE AND PERFORMANCE OF BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACED FRAMES%偏心BRBFs的抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    In order to learn the seismic performance of eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames , two kinds of structures portal eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames and herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames, were designed with PKPM and numerically simulated based on finite element software ANSYS. The models' response sto- ry drifts, story shear forces under basic seismic intensity were measured. The deformation of the two structures present a shear-flexural type,and the low model has a great influention on the displacement of structure. Story drifts, story shear forces can both meet the seismic-resistent deflection demand, which indicates that the two kinds of structures both have good seismic performance. The components can be equivalent to the structure damping to be analyzed ,when they dissipate the energy through plastic deformation. The solution of calculating the equivalent damping ratio was presented. The seismic performance of the two strutures were evaluated furtherly through the investgation of toplevel displacement and story shear forces under 0.4g peak acceleration seismic ground motion , the result showed that the herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames performed better in earthquake-resistance.%为了解偏心屈曲约束支撑钢框架(BRBFs)的抗震性能,运用pkpm设计软件设计门架式偏心BRBFs和人字形偏心BRBFs两种结构,基于大型有限元软件ANSYS对两种结构进行有限元数值模拟,分析了两种结构在基本烈度作用下的各层位移反应及层间位移角,结果表明,两种结构变形受低阶振型影响较大,沿高度呈倒三角地形分布,结构变形为弯剪形,各层位移及层间位移角均满足规范要求,体现出良好的抗震性能。构件产生塑性变形而耗能时,可以将结构构件等效为结构阻尼进行分析,介绍了等效阻尼比的求解方法。通过对罕遇地震作用下的两种结

  16. Interferon-alpha restrains growth and invasive potential of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by hepatitis B virus X protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Qing Yang; Guang-Dong Pan; Guang-Ping Chu; Zhen Liu; Qiang Liu; Yi Xiao; Lin Yuan

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) to restrain the growth and invasive potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein.METHODS: The pcDNA3.1-HBx plasmid was transfected into Chang cells by Lipofectamine In vitro,and Chang/HBx was co-cultured with IFN-α.Cell survival growth curve and donogenicity assay were used to test the growth potential of Chang/pcDNA3.1,Chang/Hbxand IFN-a-Chang/HBx in vitro.Growth assay in nude mice was used to detect the growth potential of Chang/pcDNA3.1,Chang/HBx and IFN-α-Chang/HBx in vivo.Wound healing and transwell migration assays were used to detect the invasive ability of Chang/pcDNA3.1,Chang/HBx and IFN-α-Chang/HBx.RESULTS: Compared with CCL13 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1,CCL13 with stable expression of hepatitis B virus X protein showed the characteristics of malignant cells with high capability of growth and invasion by detecting their growth curves,colony forming efficiency,wound healing,transwell migration assays and growth assays in nude mice.Its capability of growth and invasion could be controlled by IFN-α.CONCLUSION: IFN-α can restrain the growth and invasive potential of HCC cells induced by HBx protein,which has provided an experimental basis for IFN-αtherapy of HCC.

  17. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) restrains concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mao; Zhang, Zhenwei; Cheng, Yi; Liu, Guangze; Chen, Xiusheng; Wu, Xin; Zhuang, Caifang; Liu, Bingying; Kong, Xiangping; You, Song

    2016-06-01

    Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), produced and released by hepatocytes, has cytoprotective and immunoregulatory effects on liver injury, and has been used in many experimental applications. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of ALR on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis. The purpose of this paper is to explore the protective effect of ALR on Con A-induced hepatitis and elucidate potential mechanisms. We found that the ALR pretreatment evidently reduced the amount of ALT and AST in serum. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and iNOS were suppressed. ALR pretreatment also decreased CD4(+), CD8(+) T cell infiltration in liver. Besides, we observed that ALR pretreatment was capable of suppressing the activation of several signaling pathways in Con A-induced hepatitis. These findings suggest that ALR can obviously weaken Con A-induced hepatitis and ALR has some certain immune regulation function. PMID:27085679

  18. Interviewer BMI effects on under- and over-reporting of restrained eating: Evidence from a national Dutch face-to-face survey and a postal follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Larsen, J.K.; Pelzer, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of interviewer BMI on self-reported restrained eating in a face-to-face survey and to examine under- and over-reporting using the face-to face study and a postal follow-up. Methods A sample of 1,212 Dutch adults was assigned to 98 interviewers with different BMI wh

  19. The Children’s DEBQ (DEBQ-C) for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating in 7-12 year old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Oosterveld, P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Construct an age adapted version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for measurement of restrained, emotional and external eating in 7- to 12-year-old children: the DEBQ-C. xxx METHOD: The DEBQ-C was constructed and tested for its reliability, factorial validity, factorial

  20. Diurnal, seasonal, and sex patterns of heart rate in grip-restrained African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzenda, Tavershima; Ayo, Joseph O; Sinkalu, Victor O; Yaqub, Lukuman S

    2015-10-01

    This study was carried out to determine heart rate (HR) values, including diurnal, seasonal, and sex patterns, in the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse). HR was measured using stethoscope in grip-restrained African giant rats of either sex (103 bucks and 98 does), live-trapped from a tropical Savannah, and caged individually in the laboratory during the harmattan (cold-dry), hot-dry, and rainy seasons over a 3-year period. The HR fluctuated between 90 and 210 beats per minute (bpm) throughout the study period. Diurnal changes in HR (mean ± SEM) during the hot-dry and rainy seasons were nonsignificant (P > 0.05), but the morning and afternoon values differed (P  0.05). Overall, mean HR was lower (P < 0.0001) in bucks (158.8 ± 0.53 bpm) than in does (164.8 ± 0.53 bpm). In conclusion, values of HR in African giant rats are shown for the first time. Season, sex, and daytime influenced the HR, and should be considered during clinical evaluations of the rats. PMID:26471756

  1. Excitatory amino acid transporters tonically restrain nTS synaptic and neuronal activity to modulate cardiorespiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matott, Michael P; Ruyle, Brian C; Hasser, Eileen M; Kline, David D

    2016-03-01

    The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) is the initial central termination site for visceral afferents and is important for modulation and integration of multiple reflexes including cardiorespiratory reflexes. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the nTS and is removed from the extracellular milieu by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of EAATs in the nTS on basal synaptic and neuronal function and cardiorespiratory regulation. The majority of glutamate clearance in the central nervous system is believed to be mediated by astrocytic EAAT 1 and 2. We confirmed the presence of EAAT 1 and 2 within the nTS and their colocalization with astrocytic markers. EAAT blockade withdl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) produced a concentration-related depolarization, increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) frequency, and enhanced action potential discharge in nTS neurons. Solitary tract-evoked EPSCs were significantly reduced by EAAT blockade. Microinjection of TBOA into the nTS of anesthetized rats induced apneic, sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic responses. These effects mimicked the response to microinjection of exogenous glutamate, and glutamate responses were enhanced by EAAT blockade. Together these data indicate that EAATs tonically restrain nTS excitability to modulate cardiorespiratory function. PMID:26719090

  2. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  3. Sense of coherence and employees' experience of helping and restraining factors in the working environment / Yolandé Müller

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Yolandé

    2007-01-01

    By developing strong, self-sustaining individuals in organisations, employees will need to withstand the forces of stressors and be able to cope with continuous changes within their working environment. To move the equilibrium level from the current to the desired condition, the field of forces must be altered - by adding driving forces and by removing restraining forces. An individual's sense of coherence may either alleviate or aggravate reactions to a stressor and moderate t...

  4. Worry or craving? A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating. PMID:25311212

  5. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Is Expressed in Neutrophils and Restrains an Inflammatory Response in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Agnes E; Kipari, Tiina M J; Zhang, Zhenguang; Esteves, Cristina L; Lucas, Christopher D; Gilmour, James S; Webster, Scott P; Walker, Brian R; Hughes, Jeremy; Savill, John S; Seckl, Jonathan R; Rossi, Adriano G; Chapman, Karen E

    2016-07-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoid action within cells is enhanced by prereceptor metabolism by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts intrinsically inert cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone into active cortisol and corticosterone, respectively. 11β-HSD1 is highly expressed in immune cells elicited to the mouse peritoneum during thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and is down-regulated as the inflammation resolves. During inflammation, 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells and delayed acquisition of macrophage phagocytic capacity. However, the key cells in which 11β-HSD1 exerts these effects remain unknown. Here we have identified neutrophils (CD11b(+),Ly6G(+),7/4(+) cells) as the thioglycollate-recruited cells that most highly express 11β-HSD1 and show dynamic regulation of 11β-HSD1 in these cells during an inflammatory response. Flow cytometry showed high expression of 11β-HSD1 in peritoneal neutrophils early during inflammation, declining at later states. In contrast, expression in blood neutrophils continued to increase during inflammation. Ablation of monocytes/macrophages by treatment of CD11b-diphtheria-toxin receptor transgenic mice with diphtheria toxin prior to thioglycollate injection had no significant effect on 11β-HSD1 activity in peritoneal cells, consistent with neutrophils being the predominant 11β-HSD1 expressing cell type at this time. Similar to genetic deficiency in 11β-HSD1, acute inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity during thioglycollate-induced peritonitis augmented inflammatory cell recruitment to the peritoneum. These data suggest that neutrophil 11β-HSD1 increases during inflammation to contribute to the restraining effect of glucocorticoids upon neutrophil-mediated inflammation. In human neutrophils, lipopolysaccharide activation increased 11β-HSD1 expression, suggesting the antiinflammatory effects of 11β-HSD1 in neutrophils may be conserved in humans. PMID:27145012

  6. Sepsis and mechnaical ventilation restrain translation initiation in skeletal muscle by inducing AMPK-associated TSC[2] restriction of mTOR signaling in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In skeletal muscle, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor of AMP: ATP and modulates translation by repressing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Endotoxin (LPS)-induced sepsis reduces muscle protein synthesis by blunting translation initiation. We hypothe...

  7. 有关"食物相克"的调查及实验观察%SURVEY OF THE LITERATURES AND THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ABOUT "MUTUAL RESTRAINED FOOD COMBINATIONS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张印红; 邓丽丽; 王玉; 赵金生; 岳莉; 葛可佑

    2011-01-01

    Objective Based on the literatures review of "mutual restrained food combinations", the current cognition of some groups of people in Lanzhou area was surveyed and both the animal experiment and human study were performed to provide scientific evidences for better understanding of this hearsay, whether it was right or wrong. Method The full-text database from Chinese periodicals and relevant books collected from the bookstores were used as the source of information.1346 subjects were randomly chosen from Lanzhou area for survey of cognition about "mutual restrained food combinations"with questionnaires. 50 Kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, one fed the basic diet as control and the other groups fed 4 "mutual restrained food combinations" respectively. The feed consumed, body weight, hemogram, liver and kidney function tests of the animals were observed and the histo-pathological pictures of main organs were examined as well.30 males and 30 females selected from Lanzhou city were divided into 6 groups. One group consumed usual diet as control and the other 5 consumed diet with 5 "mutual restrained food combinations" respectively. Their subjective feeling and adverse reactions were recorded during 7 d. Results Most statements about "mutual restrained food combinations" in literatures and books was without scientific evidences. The major source of these informations was from books, periodicals,television programs, and communications with relatives and friends. The farmers obtained the lowest mean score in the knowledge about "mutual restrainal food combinations", while the college students obtained higher scores than other groups.The animal experiment showed that neither physical and behavioral disorders nor biochemical and morphological changes were observed in mice fed with 4 pairs of "mutual restrained combined foods". There were also no clinical symptoms or adverse reactions observed in human subjects after eating 5 "mutual restrained combined foods

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species Alter Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangar, Richard C.; Bollinger, Nikki; Weber, Thomas J.; Tan, Ruimin; Markillie, Lye Meng; Karin, Norman J.

    2011-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the most abundant P450 protein in human liver and intestine and is highly inducible by a variety of drugs and other compounds. The P450 catalytic cycle is known to uncouple and release reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the effects of ROS from P450 and other enzymes in the endo-plasmic reticulum have been poorly studied from the perspective of effects on cell biology. In this study, we expressed low levels of CYP3A4 in HepG2 cells, a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, and examined effects on intracellular levels of ROS and on the secretion of a variety of growth factors that are important in extracellular communication. Using the redox-sensitive dye RedoxSensor red, we demonstrate that CYP3A4 expression increases levels of ROS in viable cells. A customELISA microarray platform was employed to demonstrate that expression of CYP3A4 increased secretion of amphiregulin, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, matrix metalloprotease 2, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor, but suppressed secretion of CD14. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed all P450-dependent changes in protein secretion except for CD14. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that changes in protein secretion were consistently associated with corresponding changes in gene expression. Inhibition of the NF-{kappa}B pathway blocked P450 effects on PDGF secretion. CYP3A4 expression also altered protein secretion in human mammary epithelial cells and C10 mouse lung cells. Overall, these results suggest that increased ROS production in the endoplasmic reticulum alters the secretion of proteins that have key roles in paracrine and autocrine signaling.

  9. Study on the response characteristics of photomultiplier tubes measuring tens of milliseconds scale broad pulsed signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has provided the origin of tens of milliseconds scale broad pulsed signal and discussed the reasons of photomultiplier tubes distortions. This thesis also gives the application background of this test. In order to get the response characteristics of the photomultiplier tubes measuring tens of milliseconds scale broad pulsed signals, it has built the broad signal test equipments. After that it has researched a method to restrain the response distortions of the photomultiplier tubes. What it has researched gives the basis for broad pulsed neutrons detector and provides the important references for broad pulsed neutrons detection. (authors)

  10. Mechanical Analysis of an SM 2 Blk IV restrained firing within a concentric canister launcher test unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassner, M C; Kennedy, T C; Puttapitukporn, T; Rosen, R S

    1999-03-01

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) and PMS512 have undertaken a program to develop a new Vertical Launching System (VLS) for future generation ships, such as the DD-21 Destroyer. The Naval Sea Systems Command Combat Weapons Program (NAVSEA 05K) and Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD) are working jointly with industry and universities to develop one such launcher design, the Concentric Canister Launcher (CCL). The basic CCL design consists of a tube made of two concentric cylinders; one end is open, the other is sealed with a hemispherical end cap. During firing, the missile exhaust gas is turned 180 degrees by the hemispherical end cap and flows through the annular space between inner and outer cylinders. Depending on the missile utilized and the particular service environment of the CCL, maximum temperatures within the cylinder material have been calculated to exceed 2000 F. In an earlier study [1], the authors determined the high temperature mechanical properties of several candidate alloys being considered for fabrication of the CCL. This study [1] found that, of these candidate materials, titanium alloys exhibit higher yield stresses than that of 316L stainless steel at temperatures up to about 1000 F; above 1500 F, the yield stress of 316L stainless steel is comparable to those of the titanium alloys. The 316L stainless steel was found to strain harden (increase its flow stress with increasing strain) at temperatures up to about 1800 F. The ability of the 316L stainless steel to strain harden at high temperatures may provide an added margin of safety for engineering design of the CCL. The objective of the current study was to perform a computer simulation of the structural response of a CCL during a restrained firing, one in which a SM-2 Blk IV missile would fail to exit the canister. A finite element model of the inner cylinder, outer cylinder, end rings (mounting brackets), and lateral restraints in the uptake was constructed. An elastic

  11. Mechanical Analysis of an SM 2 Blk IV restrained firing within a concentric canister launcher test unit; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) and PMS512 have undertaken a program to develop a new Vertical Launching System (VLS) for future generation ships, such as the DD-21 Destroyer. The Naval Sea Systems Command Combat Weapons Program (NAVSEA 05K) and Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD) are working jointly with industry and universities to develop one such launcher design, the Concentric Canister Launcher (CCL). The basic CCL design consists of a tube made of two concentric cylinders; one end is open, the other is sealed with a hemispherical end cap. During firing, the missile exhaust gas is turned 180 degrees by the hemispherical end cap and flows through the annular space between inner and outer cylinders. Depending on the missile utilized and the particular service environment of the CCL, maximum temperatures within the cylinder material have been calculated to exceed 2000 F. In an earlier study[1], the authors determined the high temperature mechanical properties of several candidate alloys being considered for fabrication of the CCL. This study[1] found that, of these candidate materials, titanium alloys exhibit higher yield stresses than that of 316L stainless steel at temperatures up to about 1000 F; above 1500 F, the yield stress of 316L stainless steel is comparable to those of the titanium alloys. The 316L stainless steel was found to strain harden (increase its flow stress with increasing strain) at temperatures up to about 1800 F. The ability of the 316L stainless steel to strain harden at high temperatures may provide an added margin of safety for engineering design of the CCL. The objective of the current study was to perform a computer simulation of the structural response of a CCL during a restrained firing, one in which a SM-2 Blk IV missile would fail to exit the canister. A finite element model of the inner cylinder, outer cylinder, end rings (mounting brackets), and lateral restraints in the uptake was constructed. An elastic

  12. Interviewer BMI effects on under- and over-reporting of restrained eating: evidence from a national Dutch face-to-face survey and a postal follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Eisinga, Rob; Te Grotenhuis, Manfred; Junilla K Larsen; Pelzer, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of interviewer BMI on self-reported restrained eating in a face-to-face survey and to examine under- and over-reporting using the face-to face study and a postal follow-up. Methods A sample of 1,212 Dutch adults was assigned to 98 interviewers with different BMI who administered an eating questionnaire. To further evaluate misreporting a mail follow-up was conducted among 504 participants. Data were analyzed using two-level hierarchical models. Results Inter...

  13. Solution conformations of the B-loop fragments of human transforming growth factor α and epidermal growth factor by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and restrained molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A restrained molecular dynamics simulation approach that explicitly includes the effect of the surrounding solvent molecules is applied to the NMR determination of the conformations of the B-loop fragments of human transforming growth factor α and epidermal growth factor. Backbone interproton distance restraints are obtained by using two-dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY). The simulations are carried out both in vacuum and in water. The results are discussed in terms of the energetics, agreement with the NMR distances, and the flexibility of the peptides

  14. Workshop Scheduling Based on a Rule-restrained Colored Petri Net and the Development of a Scheduling System on the Internet/Intranet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yan; ZHAO Ru-jia

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, the gap between theoretical research and practical applications of workshop scheduling is analyzed. According to practical application requirements, the traditional Petri net is expanded and a Rule-restrained Colored Petri Net(RCPN) is put forward to model workshop activities.Then, the architecture of the workshop scheduling system based on RCPN is presented. Finally, the scheduling system that adopts a 3-layer B/S/D mode is developed on the Internet/Intranet by using the Web database and Java.

  15. Derivation of Reliable Geometries in QM Calculations of DNA Structures: Explicit Solvent QM/MM and Restrained Implicit Solvent QM Optimizations of G-Quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkionis, Konstantinos; Kruse, Holger; Šponer, Jiří

    2016-04-12

    Modern dispersion-corrected DFT methods have made it possible to perform reliable QM studies on complete nucleic acid (NA) building blocks having hundreds of atoms. Such calculations, although still limited to investigations of potential energy surfaces, enhance the portfolio of computational methods applicable to NAs and offer considerably more accurate intrinsic descriptions of NAs than standard MM. However, in practice such calculations are hampered by the use of implicit solvent environments and truncation of the systems. Conventional QM optimizations are spoiled by spurious intramolecular interactions and severe structural deformations. Here we compare two approaches designed to suppress such artifacts: partially restrained continuum solvent QM and explicit solvent QM/MM optimizations. We report geometry relaxations of a set of diverse double-quartet guanine quadruplex (GQ) DNA stems. Both methods provide neat structures without major artifacts. However, each one also has distinct weaknesses. In restrained optimizations, all errors in the target geometries (i.e., low-resolution X-ray and NMR structures) are transferred to the optimized geometries. In QM/MM, the initial solvent configuration causes some heterogeneity in the geometries. Nevertheless, both approaches represent a decisive step forward compared to conventional optimizations. We refine earlier computations that revealed sizable differences in the relative energies of GQ stems computed with AMBER MM and QM. We also explore the dependence of the QM/MM results on the applied computational protocol. PMID:26914292

  16. Effects of restrain and regulation on production of β-adrenergic receptors in lung of Sprague-Dawley rats by 60Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the restrain and regulation on production of β-adrenergic receptors in Sprague-Dawley rat lung by 20 Gy γ-ray irradiation. Methods: To determine production of β-adrenergic receptors (Bmax) after irradiation and BAAM irreversible blockade by radioligand binding assay of receptors. Results: β-adrenergic receptors were sensitive to γ-rays, and the sensitivity level declined to the lowest on day 20 after radiation, then the receptors were recovered gradually. But the receptor production rate (Pr) was slower, i. e., Pr was (0.36±0.03) x 109 sites/mg protein/h [control groups, (8.20 ± 1.47) x 109]. The half-time of update (T1/2 ) was put off for 10.9 days as compared to BAAM group. Conclusion: Production of receptors can be restrained by 20 Gy γ-ray irradiation, resulting in lower receptor production rate, and longer half-time of update (T1/2 ). (authors)

  17. Development and construction of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks: Free shrinkage tests, restrained ring tests, construction experience, and crack survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiqiu

    2011-12-01

    The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained during the construction of 13 LC-HPC bridge decks in Kansas, along with another deck bid under the LC-HPC specifications but for which the owner did not enforce the specification. This study is divided into four parts covering (1) an evaluation of the free shrinkage properties of LC-HPC candidate mixtures, (2) an investigation of the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete, (3) a study of the restrained shrinkage performance of concrete using restrained ring tests, and (4) a description of the construction and preliminary evaluation of LC-HPC and control bridge decks constructed in Kansas. The first portion of the study involves evaluating the effects of the duration of curing, fly ash, and a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) on the free-shrinkage characteristics of concrete mixtures. The results indicate that an increase of curing period reduces free shrinkage. With 7 days of curing, concretes containing fly ash as a partial replacement for cement exhibit higher free shrinkage than concretes with 100% portland cement. When the curing period is increased to 14, 28, and 56 days, the adverse effect of adding fly ash on free shrinkage is minimized and finally reversed. The addition of an SRA significantly reduces free shrinkage for both the 100% portland cement mixture and the mixture containing fly ash. The second portion of the study investigates the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete. A linear relationship between free shrinkage and evaporable water content in the cement paste is observed. For a given mixture, specimens cured for a longer period contain less evaporable water and exhibit lower free shrinkage and less weight loss in the free shrinkage

  18. 软性磨粒流加工中约束模块的设计方法研究%Research on Design Method of Restrain Component in Soft Abrasive Flow Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计时鸣; 池永为

    2012-01-01

    针对软性磨粒流加工方法的特点提出了约束模块的设计目标、设计方法.以最简单的约束模块结构为研究对象,利用Realizable κ-ε湍流模型和Mixture两相流模型对流道内流场进行仿真,并通过试验进行对比.突起结构约束模块可以有效增强突起结构对应区域流速和动压力,试验工件表面在突起结构对应区域光洁度得到明显提高.%Based on characteristic of soft abrasive flow machining method, design target and design method of restrain component were proposed. Taking the simplest restrain component structure as study object, the paper used Realizable k-ε model and Mixture two-phase flow model to simulate flow field in restrained flow passage, and compared with experimental results. The results show that flow velocity and dynamic pressure are enhanced by jut of restrain component in correspondent flow passage, and the smoothness of workpiece surface correspond to jut of restrain component was increased obviously. [Ch,7 fig. 10 ref.

  19. Experimental study on the effect of fiber reinforced rubber-rolled pin of the bridge restrainer plate system; Gomu dansho pin wo mochiita rakkyo boshi renketsuban no seiteki oyobi doteki oto tokusei ni kansuru jikkenteki kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Y.; Hikosaka, H. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ishikawa, N. [Defence Academy, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)] Ikoma, N. [Shibata Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-07-21

    As for the big earthquake like Hyogo Ken southern Earthquake, accident like collapsing of bridge girder is extremely difficult to prevent by only one bridge restrainer device. However, there exist considerable many spots not having enough space such as urban roads and so forth or the spots where the renewal of the existing restrainer device is difficult and as for these spots, it is thought that improvement of earthquake resistance performance is necessary by using the restrainer system based o the simple reformation of existing bridge restrainer plate system. In this report, under such condition, rolled pin winding the fiber reinforced rubber surrounding the connected pin was proposed as a technique for improving earthquake resistance by easy reformation of bridge restrainer of Spectacle type bridges which has many construction findings. In order to carry out characteristic and quantitative evaluation of the effect of rubber-rolled pin, two stages, o use level and ultimate level, were considered and static behavior and impact load characteristics for each level were studied experimentally, and comparison was made with the conventional steel pin. 13 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Identification of TGFβ signaling, p53, and actin stress fibers as targets of LKB1 tumor suppressor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vaahtomeri, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is a consequence of inactivating mutations of tumor suppressor genes and activating mutations of proto-oncogenes. Most of the mutations compromise cell autonomous and non-autonomous restrains on cell proliferation by modulating kinase signal transduction pathways. LKB1 is a tumor suppressor kinase whose sporadic mutations are frequently found in non-small cell lung cancer and cervical cancer. Germ-line mutations in the LKB1 gene lead to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with an increased r...

  1. 抑制电压波动的风电机组自抗扰控制仿真研究%Auto-disturbance rejection simulation of double-fed wind turbine with restraining fluctuation of voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 李斌; 岳有军

    2011-01-01

    Wind power has the characteristics of random and intermittent, so wind turbine output power varies widely. Wind turbines may therefore cause the output power fluctuations and lead to voltage fluctuations, which may cause flicker problems. Based on the features of wind power and characteristics of wind power generators, a mathematical model had been built in this paper and the auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) was introduced to the wind turbine control system. The torque spikes signal was treated as uncertain disturbances in the system. ADRC controller was used to estimate and compensated disturbances signal, nonlinear state error feedback (NLSEF) inhibit the fluctuations of rotor current, and suppress torque disturbance. The simulation results show that the new controller ensures very good robustness. In the generator output side, it can effectively restrain the disturbance signal. The improved static and dynamic performance of wind turbine will help to enhance the quality of power supply.%由于风具有随机性和间歇性等特点,风力机的输出功率变化很大.而风力发电引起电压波动和闪变的根本原因是并网风电机组输出功率的波动.为提高风电机组控制系统的鲁棒性,本文将自抗扰控制技术(ADRC)引入到风电机组转矩控制中,将转矩尖波信号归到未知扰动中,在风速突变的情况下保持输出转矩稳定.采用非线性状态误差反馈控制率(NLSEF)抑制转子电流波动,从而抑制转矩扰动.MATLAB/Simulink仿真证实该方法能在发电机输出侧有效抑制扰动,提高了风电机组动态性能,有利于改善供电质量.

  2. The digital penalized LMS deconvolution method for TPC X-ray polarimeter signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the Digital Penalized LMS (Least Mean Square) deconvolution method for processing the X-ray polarimeter readout electronics output signal. The deconvolution filter is used to recover the detector signal high frequency component, which is lost due to the limited bandwidth of the readout electronics. The DPLMS deconvolution method does not need to know the transfer function of the readout electronics system in advance and can restrain the deconvolution noise by using a noise constraint. In this paper, this method will be applied to process the simulation data generated by GEANT4 and the resulting photoelectron angular resolution of a X-ray polarimeter will be presented

  3. Expression of CD14 on human intestinal epithelial cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Funda, David; Tučková, Ludmila; Farré Castany, Maria; Iwase, T.; Moro, I.; Tlaskalová, Helena

    Elsevier. Roč. 118, č. 4 (2000), s. 666. ISSN 0016-5085. [Annual Meeting of the American Gastroenterology Association /101./. 21.05.2000-24.05.2000, San Diego] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  4. Combined cardiomyocyte PKCδ and PKCε gene deletion uncovers their central role in restraining developmental and reactive heart growth

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Moshi; Matkovich, Scot J.; Zhang, Yan; Hammer, Daniel J.; Dorn, Gerald W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell growth is orchestrated by changes in gene expression that respond to developmental and environmental cues. Among the signaling pathways that direct growth are enzymes of the protein kinase C (PKC) family, which are ubiquitous proteins belonging to three distinct subclasses: conventional PKCs, novel PKCs, and atypical PKCs. Functional overlap makes determining the physiological actions of different PKC isoforms difficult. We showed that two novel PKC isoforms, PKCδ and PKCε, redundantly g...

  5. Leptin signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, immune function, and other systems. The binding of leptin to its specific receptor activates various intracellular signaling pathways, including Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/ signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and...

  6. Restraining of the EMI in Ignition Systems of UAV Engines%基于UAV发动机点火系统的EMI抑制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学平; 濮思方; 张小林; 宋祖勋; 宁乐

    2012-01-01

    UAV集电子设备于一身,其最大射频电磁干扰(EMI)源自发动机点火系统,它不同程度地影响着机载计算机、自动驾驶仪等以及不同任务载荷的正常工作;通过对某UAV发动机研制的电容放电式点火系统(CDI)的电路和布局描述,研讨了屏蔽对其二次回路影响的机理,合理确定了工程路径.并研究出一种阻尼-屏蔽法实施在CDI中,降低点火系统EMI近20dB,同时不影响其可靠性;本研究的成功,使长期困扰CDI的EMI深入抑制取得了进步.%UAV systems bearing the complexities of integrated avionics are susceptible to the disturbance of electromagnetic interferences (EMI), that are typically originated from the ignition systems of UAV engines. The presence of EMI can deleteriously affect the functionality of the UAV computing units, auto piloting units, and various mission payloads etc. In this paper, by using the a novel electric design based on the capacitor-discharging ignition (CDI) circuits, we investigate the mechanism of the influence of electrical shielding on its second circuits, which facilitates the rational engineering designs. We focus on utilizing a damping-shielding-restraining methodology for the CDI, which greatly reduces the EMI of the ignition systems down to 20 dB with remaining the durability of the operation. Out results provide one strategy to efficiently restrain the undesirable EMI in the CDIs.

  7. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  8. Juxtacellular Monitoring and Localization of Single Neurons within Sub-cortical Brain Structures of Alert, Head-restrained Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey D; Deschênes, Martin; Kleinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a variety of techniques to monitor extracellular activity of single neuronal units. However, monitoring this activity from deep brain structures in behaving animals remains a technical challenge, especially if the structures must be targeted stereotaxically. This protocol describes convenient surgical and electrophysiological techniques that maintain the animal's head in the stereotaxic plane and unambiguously isolate the spiking activity of single neurons. The protocol combines head restraint of alert rodents, juxtacellular monitoring with micropipette electrodes, and iontophoretic dye injection to identify the neuron location in post-hoc histology. While each of these techniques is in itself well-established, the protocol focuses on the specifics of their combined use in a single experiment. These neurophysiological and neuroanatomical techniques are combined with behavioral monitoring. In the present example, the combined techniques are used to determine how self-generated vibrissa movements are encoded in the activity of neurons within the somatosensory thalamus. More generally, it is straightforward to adapt this protocol to monitor neuronal activity in conjunction with a variety of behavioral tasks in rats, mice, and other animals. Critically, the combination of these methods allows the experimenter to directly relate anatomically-identified neurophysiological signals to behavior. PMID:25938559

  9. GATA3 induces human T-cell commitment by restraining Notch activity and repressing NK-cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Walle, Inge; Dolens, Anne-Catherine; Durinck, Kaat; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Loocke, Wouter; Damle, Sagar; Waegemans, Els; De Medts, Jelle; Velghe, Imke; De Smedt, Magda; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Kerre, Tessa; Plum, Jean; Leclercq, Georges; Rothenberg, Ellen V; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Speleman, Frank; Taghon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The gradual reprogramming of haematopoietic precursors into the T-cell fate is characterized by at least two sequential developmental stages. Following Notch1-dependent T-cell lineage specification during which the first T-cell lineage genes are expressed and myeloid and dendritic cell potential is lost, T-cell specific transcription factors subsequently induce T-cell commitment by repressing residual natural killer (NK)-cell potential. How these processes are regulated in human is poorly understood, especially since efficient T-cell lineage commitment requires a reduction in Notch signalling activity following T-cell specification. Here, we show that GATA3, in contrast to TCF1, controls human T-cell lineage commitment through direct regulation of three distinct processes: repression of NK-cell fate, upregulation of T-cell lineage genes to promote further differentiation and restraint of Notch activity. Repression of the Notch1 target gene DTX1 hereby is essential to prevent NK-cell differentiation. Thus, GATA3-mediated positive and negative feedback mechanisms control human T-cell lineage commitment. PMID:27048872

  10. Induction of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in avian macrophages inhibits infectious laryngotracheitis virus replication in a nitric oxide dependent way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Siamak; Kim, Dae-Sun; Jasmine, Hui; van der Meer, Frank; Czub, Markus; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2013-10-01

    LPS is one of the pathogen associated molecular patterns that activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway eliciting antiviral host responses in mammals although information on such responses in avian species is scarce. Our objectives were to characterize the LPS induced innate responses particularly the expression of LPS receptors (TLR4, CD14) in avian macrophages and observe whether TLR4 mediated induction of NO can elicit antiviral response against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) replication. We found that LPS was capable of inducing the expression of TLR4, CD14 and NO production but not the type 1 interferons in an avian macrophage cell line, MQ-NCSU. We also showed that TLR4 mediated NO production can lead to antiviral response against ILTV replication when MQ-NCSU cells were treated with LPS and the resultant supernatant was then transferred to ILTV replicating cells to assess antiviral activity. Antiviral activity of NO was blocked by a selective inhibitor, S-methylisothiourea sulfate that inhibits inducible NO synthase. This observation confirms that the antiviral activity is positively correlated with NO production. The data show that LPS can be a potential innate immune stimulant that can be used against ILTV infection in chickens that require further evaluation in vivo. PMID:24034933

  11. Prosocial Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha

    suggested that consumers pay price premium because this sends the signal that the consumer has prosocial preferences and a few empirical studies have documented that reputation plays a key role when consumers choose products containing prosocial components. However, little is known about consumers...... consumer goods and presents empirical evidences from a natural consumption data. This thesis also investigates consumers’ behaviour under a newly introduced pricing system called Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) and investigates empirically whether reputation signalling can be used as a policy instrument in other...... role of social network in facilitating factor input transactions and the role of reputation in reducing enforcement. Finally, the third part consists of one paper which is concerned with investigating the effect of climate change and adaptation policy on agricultural production in Eastern Africa. The...

  12. Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed asymmetric bistable system with mixed periodic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker–Planck equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise intensity Q, multiplicative noise intensity D, static asymmetry r and delay time τ on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the static asymmetry r can restrain stochastic resonance, and the delay time τ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the longer the delay time τ is, the larger the additive noise intensity Q and the multiplicative noise intensity D are, when the stochastic resonance appears. (general)

  13. Auxin signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Quint, Marcel; Gray, William M.

    2006-01-01

    Auxin regulates a host of plant developmental and physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vascular differentiation, organogenesis, tropic growth, and root and shoot architecture. Genetic and biochemical studies carried out over the past decade have revealed that much of this regulation involves the SCFTIR1/AFB-mediated proteolysis of the Aux/IAA family of transcriptional regulators. With the recent finding that the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1 (TIR1)/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (AFB) pro...

  14. 约束高强度Q460钢柱抗火性能分析%Fire Resistance Analysis of Restrained High Strength Q460 Steel Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛勇; 王卫永

    2012-01-01

    为了研究高强度约束钢柱在火灾下的反应,根据高强度结构钢Q460在高温下的力学性能参数,建立了约束高强度钢柱受火分析模型,得到了高强度约束钢柱在火灾下的轴向位移、跨中挠度、最大应力以及临界温度.采用有限元分析对理论结果进行了验证,两者吻合很好.利用验证过的该文计算方法计算了2种荷载比、长细比和约束刚度比条件下的高强钢柱的抗火性能;采用CECS200:2006的力学性能参数计算了约束普通钢柱的抗火性能.通过对高强钢和普通钢的抗火性能分析发现,轴向约束明显降低钢柱的临界温度,长细比、荷载比越大,临界温度越低;高强钢的抗火性能要优于普通钢.%In order to investigate the behavior of high strength steel column in fire, the analysis model is established based on mechanical properties of Q460 at high temperatures. The axial displacement, mid-span deflection, maximum stress and critical temperature for high strength steel columns are obtained. The analysis results are validated by finite element analysis, and a good agreement is found. The fire resistance of high strength steel columns, which have two kinds of load ratio, slenderness ratio and axial restraint stiffness, is calculated by the validated calculation method. The fire resistance of conventional steel columns is also calculated based on mechanical properties of CECE200:2006. Through the comparison of the fire resistance of high strength steel columns with that of conventional steel columns, it is found that axial restrain reduces the critical temperature of steel column significantly; the critical temperature decreases with the increase of slenderness ratio and load ratio; And the fire resistance property of high strength restrained steel columns is better than conventional steel columns.

  15. Pdcd4 restrains the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Shang, Q; Zhao, H; Pan, Z; Guo, C; Zhang, L; Wang, Q

    2016-01-01

    The stemness maintenance of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is important for adipose homeostasis and energy balance. Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of obesity, but its possible roles in ADSC function and adipogenic capacity remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Pdcd4 is a key controller that limits the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of ADSCs. Pdcd4 deficiency in mice caused stemness enhancement of ADSCs as evidenced by increased expression of CD105, CD90, Nanog and Oct4 on ADSCs, together with enhanced in situ proliferation in adipose tissues. Pdcd4 deficiency promoted proliferation, colony formation of ADSCs and drove more ADSCs entering the S phase accompanied by AKT activation and cyclinD1 upregulation. Blockade of AKT signaling in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs led to a marked decline in cyclinD1, S-phase entry and cell proliferation, revealing AKT as a target for repressing ADSC self-renewal by Pdcd4. Intriguingly, depletion of Pdcd4 promoted the transdifferentiation of ADSCs into beige adipocytes. A reduction in lipid contents and expression levels of white adipocyte markers including C/EBPα, PPAR-γ, adiponectin and αP2 was detected in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs during white adipogenic differentiation, substituted by typical beige adipocyte characteristics including small, multilocular lipid droplets and UCP1 expression. More lactate produced by Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs might be an important contributor to the expression of UCP1 and white-to-beige transdifferentiation. In addition, an elevation of UCP1 expression was confirmed in white adipose tissues from Pdcd4-deficient mice upon high-fat diet, which displayed increased energy expenditure and resistance to obesity as compared with wild-type obese mice. These findings provide evidences that Pdcd4 produces unfavorable influences on ADSC stemness, which contribute to adipose dysfunction, obesity and metabolic syndromes, thereby

  16. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 targets and restrains mouse B16 melanoma and 4T1 breast tumors through expression of azurin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlei; Zhang, Youming; Xia, Liqiu; Zhang, Xiangli; Ding, Xuezhi; Yan, Fu; Wu, Feng

    2012-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that intravenously administered bacteria can target and proliferate in solid tumors and then quickly be released from other organs. Here, we employed the tumor-targeting property of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to inhibit mouse B16 melanoma and 4T1 breast tumors through the expression of azurin protein. For this purpose, recombinant azurin-expressing E. coli Nissle 1917 was developed. The levels of in vitro and in vivo azurin secretion in the engineered bacterium were determined by immunochemistry. Our results demonstrated that B16 melanoma and orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor growth were remarkably restrained and pulmonary metastasis was prevented in immunocompetent mice. It is worth noting that this therapeutic effect partially resulted from the antitumor activity of neutrophils and lymphocytes due to inflammatory responses caused by bacterial infections. No toxicity was observed in the animal during the experiments. This study indicates that E. coli Nissle 1917 could be a potential carrier to deliver antitumor drugs effectively for cancer therapy. PMID:22923405

  17. Enhanced delivery of etoposide across the blood-brain barrier to restrain brain tumor growth using melanotransferrin antibody- and tamoxifen-conjugated solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Wang, I-Hsin

    2016-08-01

    Melanotransferrin antibody (MA) and tamoxifen (TX) were conjugated on etoposide (ETP)-entrapped solid lipid nanoparticles (ETP-SLNs) to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glioblastom multiforme (GBM). MA- and TX-conjugated ETP-SLNs (MA-TX-ETP-SLNs) were used to infiltrate the BBB comprising a monolayer of human astrocyte-regulated human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and to restrain the proliferation of malignant U87MG cells. TX-grafted ETP-SLNs (TX-ETP-SLNs) significantly enhanced the BBB permeability coefficient for ETP and raised the fluorescent intensity of calcein-AM when compared with ETP-SLNs. In addition, surface MA could increase the BBB permeability coefficient for ETP about twofold. The viability of HBMECs was higher than 86%, suggesting a high biocompatibility of MA-TX-ETP-SLNs. Moreover, the efficiency in antiproliferation against U87MG cells was in the order of MA-TX-ETP-SLNs  >  TX-ETP-SLNs  >  ETP-SLNs  >  SLNs. The capability of MA-TX-ETP-SLNs to target HBMECs and U87MG cells during internalization was verified by immunochemical staining of expressed melanotransferrin. MA-TX-ETP-SLNs can be a potent pharmacotherapy to deliver ETP across the BBB to GBM. PMID:26768307

  18. The 3D fault and vein architecture of strike-slip releasing- and restraining bends: Evidence from volcanic-centre-relatedmineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    High-temperature, volcanic-centre-related hydrothermal systems involve large fluid-flow volumes and are observed to have high discharge rates in the order of 100-400 kg/s. The flows and discharge occur predominantly on networks of critically stressed fractures. The coupling of hydrothermal fluid flow with deformation produces the volumes of veins found in epithermal mineral deposits. Owing to this coupling, veins provide information on the fault-fracture architecture in existence at the time of mineralization. They therefore provide information on the nature of deformation within fault zones, and the relations between different fault sets. The Virginia City and Goldfield mining districts, Nevada, were localized in zones of strike-slip transtension in an Early to Mid-Miocene volcanic belt along the western margin of North America. The Camp Douglas mining area occurs within the same belt, but is localized in a zone of strike-slip transpression. The vein systems in these districts record the spatial evolution of strike-slip extensional and contractional stepovers, as well as geometry of faulting in and adjacent to points along strike-slip faults where displacement has been interrupted and transferred into releasing and restraining stepovers. ?? The Geological Society of London 2007.

  19. Pilot Study for Investigating the Cyclic Behavior of Slit Damper Systems with Recentering Shape Memory Alloy (SMA Bending Bars Used for Seismic Restrainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwon Seo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the steel slit dampers commonly utilized for aseismic design approach can dissipate considerable energy created by the yielding of base materials, large residual deformation may happen in the entire frame structure. After strong external excitation, repair costs will be incurred in restoring a structure to its original condition and to replace broken components. For this reason, alternative recentering devices characterized by smart structures, which mitigate the damage for such steel energy dissipation slit dampers, are developed in this study. These devices, feasibly functioning as seismic restrainers, can be improved by implementing superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA bending bars in a parallel motion with the steel energy-dissipating damper. The bending bars fabricated with superelastic SMAs provide self-centering forces upon unloading, and accordingly contribute to reducing permanent deformation in the integrated slit damper system. The steel slit dampers combined with the superelastic SMA bending bars are evaluated with respect to inelastic behavior as simulated by refined finite element (FE analyses. The FE slit damper models subjected to cyclic loads are calibrated to existing test results in an effort to predict behavior accurately. The responses of the proposed slit damper systems are compared to those of the conventionally used slit damper systems. From the analysis results, it is concluded that innovative steel slit dampers combined with superelastic SMA bending bars generate remarkable performance improvements in terms of post-yield strength, energy dissipation, and recentering capability.

  20. The cholesterol-binding protein NPC2 restrains recruitment of stromal macrophage-lineage cells to early-stage lung tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Tamihiro; Jin, Hong; Giblett, Susan; Patel, Bipin; Patel, Falguni; Foster, Charles; Pritchard, Catrin

    2015-09-01

    The tumour microenvironment is known to play an integral role in facilitating cancer progression at advanced stages, but its function in some pre-cancerous lesions remains elusive. We have used the (V600) (E)BRAF-driven mouse lung model that develop premalignant lesions to understand stroma-tumour interactions during pre-cancerous development. In this model, we have found that immature macrophage-lineage cells (IMCs) producing PDGFA, TGFβ and CC chemokines are recruited to the stroma of premalignant lung adenomas through CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1)-dependent mechanisms. Stromal IMCs promote proliferation and transcriptional alterations suggestive of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in isolated premalignant lung tumour cells ex vivo, and are required for the maintenance of early-stage lung tumours in vivo. Furthermore, we have found that IMC recruitment to the microenvironment is restrained by the cholesterol-binding protein, Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2). Studies on isolated cells ex vivo confirm that NPC2 is secreted from tumour cells and is taken up by IMCs wherein it suppresses secretion of the CCR1 ligand CC chemokine 6 (CCL6), at least in part by facilitating its lysosomal degradation. Together, these findings show that NPC2 secreted by premalignant lung tumours suppresses IMC recruitment to the microenvironment in a paracrine manner, thus identifying a novel target for the development of chemopreventive strategies in lung cancer. PMID:26183450

  1. Inventory Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Among practitioners, inventory is often thought to be the root of all evil in operations management. The stock market hates it, the media abhors it, and managers have come to fear it. But high inventory levels can also be the result of strategic buying and high-availability strategies. The problem is that when the market sees lots of inventory, it cannot tell whether it is because of poor or smart operations. We hypothesize that inventory has a signaling role. In our model, publicly- traded f...

  2. Wnt/β-catenin signaling enables developmental transitions during valvulogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosada, Fernanda M; Devasthali, Vidusha; Jones, Kimberly A; Stankunas, Kryn

    2016-03-15

    Heart valve development proceeds through coordinated steps by which endocardial cushions (ECs) form thin, elongated and stratified valves. Wnt signaling and its canonical effector β-catenin are proposed to contribute to endocardial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) through postnatal steps of valvulogenesis. However, genetic redundancy and lethality have made it challenging to define specific roles of the canonical Wnt pathway at different stages of valve formation. We developed a transgenic mouse system that provides spatiotemporal inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by chemically inducible overexpression of Dkk1. Unexpectedly, this approach indicates canonical Wnt signaling is required for EMT in the proximal outflow tract (pOFT) but not atrioventricular canal (AVC) cushions. Furthermore, Wnt indirectly promotes pOFT EMT through its earlier activity in neighboring myocardial cells or their progenitors. Subsequently, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in cushion mesenchymal cells where it supports FGF-driven expansion of ECs and then AVC valve extracellular matrix patterning. Mice lacking Axin2, a negative Wnt regulator, have larger valves, suggesting that accumulating Axin2 in maturing valves represents negative feedback that restrains tissue overgrowth rather than simply reporting Wnt activity. Disruption of these Wnt/β-catenin signaling roles that enable developmental transitions during valvulogenesis could account for common congenital valve defects. PMID:26893350

  3. An Updated GA Signaling 'Relief of Repression' Regulatory Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Hua Gao; Sen-Lin Xiao; Qin-Fang Yao; Yu-Juan Wang; Xiang-Dong Fu

    2011-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA)regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. The DELLA proteins act to restrain plant growth, and GA relieves this repression by promoting their degradation via the 26S proteasome pathway.The elucidation of the crystalline structure of the GA soluble receptor GID1 protein represents an important breakthrough for understanding the way in which GA is perceived and how it induces the destabilization of the DELLA proteins. Recent advances have revealed that the DELLA proteins are involved in protein-protein interactions within various environmental and hormone signaling pathways. In this review, we highlight our current understanding of the 'relief of repression" model that aims to explain the role of GA and the function of the DELLA proteins, incorporating the many aspects of cross-talk shown to exist in the control of plant development and the response to stress.

  4. Toll-like receptors: cellular signal transducers for exogenous molecular patterns causing immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschning, C J; Bauer, S

    2001-09-01

    Innate immunity initiates protection of the host organism against invasion and subsequent multiplication of microbes by specific recognition. Germ line-encoded receptors have been identified for microbial products such as mannan, lipopeptide, peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG-DNA. The Drosophila Toll protein has been shown to be involved in innate immune response of the adult fruitfly. Members of the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in vertebrates have been implicated as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Ten TLRs are known and six of these have been demonstrated to mediate cellular activation by distinct microbial products. TLR4 has been implicated as activator of adaptive immunity, and analysis of systemic LPS responses in mice led to the identification of LPS-resistant strains instrumental in its identification as a transmembrane LPS signal transducer. Structural similarities between TLRs and receptor molecules involved in immune responses such as CD14 and the IL-1 receptors (IL-1Rs), as well as functional analysis qualified TLR2 as candidate receptor for LPS and other microbial products. Targeted disruption of the TLR9 gene in mice led to identification of TLR9 as CpG-DNA signal transducer. Involvement of TLR5 in cell activation by bacterial flagellin has been demonstrated. Further understanding of recognition and cellular signaling activated through the ancient host defense system represented by Toll will eventually lead to means for its therapeutic modulation. PMID:11680785

  5. Piperine alleviates osteoclast formation through the p38/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kruger, Marlena C; Joubert, Annie; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Increased bone fracture is one of the health risk factors in patients with bone loss related disorders such as osteoporosis and breast cancer metastasis to bone. Over activity of osteoclasts leads to uncoupling of bone remodeling favoring bone loss over bone formation. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL) triggers the differentiation pathway leading to multinucleated osteoclast formation. Modulation of RANKL or its downstream signaling pathways involved in osteoclast formation is of significant interest in the development of anti-resorptive agents. In this study, the effects of piperine, an alkaloid present in Piper nigrum L. on osteoclast formation was investigated. Piperine inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclast formation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and human CD14+ monocytes induced by RANKL and breast cancer cells. Piperine attenuated the p38-mitogen activated protein kinase pathway activation, while the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or NF-κβ pathways downstream of RANKL remained unaffected. Concomitantly, expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), the key transcription factors involved in osteoclastogenesis were remarkably inhibited by piperine. Furthermore, piperine disrupted the actin ring structure and bone resorption, a characteristic hallmark of osteoclasts. Collectively, these results suggested that piperine inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the p38/NFATc1/c-Fos signaling axis.. PMID:26627060

  6. Bupleurum polysaccharides attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation via modulating Toll-like receptor 4 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bupleurum polysaccharides (BPs, isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium, possesses immunomodulatory activity, particularly on inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS triggers innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 on host cell membrane. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the therapeutic efficacy of BPs on suppression of LPS's pathogenecity could be associated with the modulating of TLR4 signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LPS stimulated expression and activation of factors in the TLR4 signaling system, including TLR4, CD14, IRAK4, TRAF6, NF-κB, and JNK, determined using immunocytochemical and/or Western blot assays. BPs significantly inhibited these effects of LPS. LPS increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p40, and IFN-β and NO production, evaluated using ELISA and Griess reaction assays, respectively. BPs antagonized these effects of LPS. Interestingly, BPs alone augmented secretion of some pro-inflammatory cytokines of non-LPS stimulated macrophages and enhanced phagocytic activity towards fluorescent E.coli bioparticles. In a rat model of acute lung injury (ALI with pulmonary hemorrhage and inflammation, BPs ameliorated lung injuries and suppressed TLR4 expression. SIGNIFICANCE: The therapeutic properties of BPs in alleviating inflammatory diseases could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling.

  7. Interferon Regulator Factor 8 (IRF8) Limits Ocular Pathology during HSV-1 Infection by Restraining the Activation and Expansion of CD8+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Rong; He, Chang; Mahdi, Rashid M.; Chan, Chi-Chao; Wang, Hongsheng; Morse, Herbert C.; Egwuagu, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Interferon Regulatory Factor-8 (IRF8) is constitutively expressed in monocytes and B cell lineages and plays important roles in immunity to pathogens and cancer. Although IRF8 expression is induced in activated T cells, the functional relevance of IRF8 in T cell-mediated immunity is not well understood. In this study, we used mice with targeted deletion of Irf8 in T-cells (IRF8KO) to investigate the role of IRF8 in T cell-mediated responses during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection of the eye. In contrast to wild type mice, HSV-1-infected IRF8KO mice mounted a more robust anti-HSV-1 immune response, which included marked expansion of HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cells, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells into the cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG) and enhanced elimination of virus within the trigeminal ganglion. However, the consequence of the enhanced immunological response was the development of ocular inflammation, limbitis, and neutrophilic infiltration into the cornea of HSV-1-infected IRF8KO mice. Surprisingly, we observed a marked increase in virus-specific memory precursor effector cells (MPEC) in IRF8KO mice, suggesting that IRF8 might play a role in regulating the differentiation of effector CD8+ T cells to the memory phenotype. Together, our data suggest that IRF8 might play a role in restraining excess lymphocyte proliferation. Thus, modulating IRF8 levels in T cells can be exploited therapeutically to prevent immune-mediated ocular pathology during autoimmune and infectious diseases of the eye. PMID:27171004

  8. Effect of continuous female exposure on behavioral repertoire and stereotypical behaviors in restrained male dromedary camels during the onset of the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, David; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to test the effects of the three management systems on the behavioral repertoire and particularly on the incidence of stereotypical behavior in restrained camels. Five male camels were tested under the following management systems: (i) unexposed, housing in a single box (Unexpo); (ii) continuous exposure, exposed continuously to females (ConExpoF); and (iii) re-unexposed, housing again in a single box (Re-Unexpo). Every day, bulls were filmed for 30 min and videos were analyzed using a focal animal sampling ethogram. Under the ConExpoF system, camels spent the majority of time in standing with opened legs (490.0 ± 94.3 s), looking (925.0 ± 93.7 s), and walking toward the females (206.0 ± 73.4 s) and they ate and ruminated less compared to Unexpo and Re-Unexpo systems. Rumination and standing durations were significantly longer in Re-Unexpo than in Unexpo and ConExpoF management systems. When camels were continuously exposed to females, they showed few stereotypical behaviors compared to Unexpo (490.0 ± 146.1 s) and Re-Unexpo (624.0 ± 146.1 s) systems. The frequency of both total and oral stereotypes was significantly higher in Unexpo and Re-Unexpo systems compared to ConExpoF; however, no significant difference was observed among the three management systems in the frequency of locomotor stereotypes. Overall, it appears that the continuous female exposure system might be a suitable management practice for male camels used for intensive reproduction, as it decreases the manifestation of stereotypical behavior in comparison with housing for 24 h in a single box. PMID:26970973

  9. Interferon Regulator Factor 8 (IRF8 Limits Ocular Pathology during HSV-1 Infection by Restraining the Activation and Expansion of CD8+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun

    Full Text Available Interferon Regulatory Factor-8 (IRF8 is constitutively expressed in monocytes and B cell lineages and plays important roles in immunity to pathogens and cancer. Although IRF8 expression is induced in activated T cells, the functional relevance of IRF8 in T cell-mediated immunity is not well understood. In this study, we used mice with targeted deletion of Irf8 in T-cells (IRF8KO to investigate the role of IRF8 in T cell-mediated responses during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 infection of the eye. In contrast to wild type mice, HSV-1-infected IRF8KO mice mounted a more robust anti-HSV-1 immune response, which included marked expansion of HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cells, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells into the cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG and enhanced elimination of virus within the trigeminal ganglion. However, the consequence of the enhanced immunological response was the development of ocular inflammation, limbitis, and neutrophilic infiltration into the cornea of HSV-1-infected IRF8KO mice. Surprisingly, we observed a marked increase in virus-specific memory precursor effector cells (MPEC in IRF8KO mice, suggesting that IRF8 might play a role in regulating the differentiation of effector CD8+ T cells to the memory phenotype. Together, our data suggest that IRF8 might play a role in restraining excess lymphocyte proliferation. Thus, modulating IRF8 levels in T cells can be exploited therapeutically to prevent immune-mediated ocular pathology during autoimmune and infectious diseases of the eye.

  10. Experiment on crack strain of rubber aggregate concrete restrained by bedrock%岩基约束橡胶集料混凝土开裂应变试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可良; 隋同波; 许尚杰; 刘玲

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of bedrock concrete cracking can improve the durability and operation safety of hydraulic structures.In this work,the cracking mechanism and restrained strain of rubber aggregate motar were studied through an experiment of restrained loop with resistance strain gauges,scanning electron microscrope and mercury porosimeter.The strain gauges were buried into bedrock concrete for measurement of restrained strain of rubber aggregate concrete.The results reveal that the rubber aggregate material under stressing causes a change in the shape of pores in the cement paste matrix and part of its stress is released.In the condition of ordinary motar cracking,this material develops curing strain and larger restrained strain,so the concrete does not crack.At the ages of 45d and 90d,the restrained strain in ordinary bedrock concrete is reduced quickly and its cracks start developing.Thus,rubber aggregate can improve the performances of bedrock concrete against cracking.This study provides an effective technical measure for prevention of bedrock concrete cracking.%解决岩基混凝土开裂有利于提高水工建筑物的耐久性和安全运行.采用约束圆环试验、电阻应变仪、电子扫描电镜和压汞试验,分析了橡胶集料砂浆约束开裂应变及其作用机理.在岩基混凝土内埋设应变计,观测橡胶集料混凝土的约束应变.结果表明:橡胶集料在应力作用下,改变了水泥石中孔的形态,缓冲部分应力,普通砂浆开裂时,橡胶集料开始表现硬化应变.在45d和90d龄期时,岩基普通混凝土应变急剧降低,混凝土出现开裂.岩基橡胶集料混凝土约束应变大,混凝土无开裂.橡胶集料有利于改善岩基混凝土的抗裂性能,为解决岩基混凝土裂缝提供一种新的技术措施.

  11. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin αM (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS.

  12. LPS-Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Signaling on Expression of Protein S and C4b-Binding Protein in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein S (PS, mainly synthesized in hepatocytes and endothelial cells, plays a critical role as a cofactor of anticoagulant activated protein C (APC. PS activity is regulated by C4b-binding protein (C4BP, structurally composed of seven α-chains (C4BPα and a β-chain (C4BPβ. In this paper, based primarily on our previous studies, we review the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced signaling which affects expression of PS and C4BP in the liver. Our in vivo studies in rats showed that after LPS injection, plasma PS levels are significantly decreased, whereas plasma C4BP levels first are transiently decreased after 2 to 12 hours and then significantly increased after 24 hours. LPS decreases PS antigen and mRNA levels in both hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs, and decreases C4BP antigen and both C4BPα and C4BPβ mRNA levels in hepatocytes. Antirat CD14 and antirat Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 antibodies inhibited LPS-induced NFκB activation in both hepatocytes and SECs. Furthermore, inhibitors of NFκB and MEK recovered the LPS-induced decreased expression of PS in both cell types and the LPS-induced decreased expression of C4BP in hepatocytes. These data suggest that the LPS-induced decrease in PS expression in hepatocytes and SECs and LPS-induced decrease in C4BP expression in hepatocytes are mediated by MEK/ERK signaling and NFκB activation and that membrane-bound CD14 and TLR-4 are involved in this mechanism.

  13. Digital Signal Processing Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Dorran, David

    2015-01-01

    Signals are all around us and come in a wide variety of shapes and forms. When we speak we create pressure variations in the air which generate audio signals; earthquakes produce large seismic signals; healthcare professionals monitor ECG signals which capture the electrical activity of the heart; radio, internet and telephone signals are being transmitted across the world; the list of signals is endless! (see 2 minute video at pzdsp.com/vid1 for some examples) Digital signal processing (DSP)...

  14. Non-clinical adolescent girls at risk of eating disorder: under-reporters or restrained eaters? Mujeres adolescentes en riesgo de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria, no clínicas: ¿infra-declaran o restringen el consumo?

    OpenAIRE

    Babio, N.; Canals, J.; J. Fernández-Ballart; V. Arija

    2008-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the plausibility of self-reported energy intake, Goldberg et al proposed a technique to identify the miss-reporters. Subjects: After screening2,967 adolescents by EAT-40 test, 132 at risk of ED and 151 as a control group were studied. Aim: To determine whether subjects at risk of eating disorders that are identified as under reporters can be considered as UR or in turn as restrained eaters. Methods: We determined dietary energy intake, body mass index, body satisfactio...

  15. Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Lessard, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals presents the most widely used techniques in signal and system analysis. Specifically, the book is concerned with methods of characterizing signals and systems. Author Charles Lessard provides students and researchers an understanding of the time and frequency domain processes which may be used to evaluate random physiological signals such as brainwave, sleep, respiratory sounds, heart valve sounds, electromyograms, and electro-oculograms.Another aim of the book is to have the students evaluate actual mammalian data without spending most or all

  16. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  17. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-11-22

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer-resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism. PMID:24068354

  18. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  19. Multiplexing oscillatory biochemical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that biochemical signals are not necessarily constant in time and that the temporal dynamics of a signal can be the information carrier. Moreover, it is now well established that the protein signaling network of living cells has a bow-tie structure and that components are often shared between different signaling pathways. Here we show by mathematical modeling that living cells can multiplex a constant and an oscillatory signal: they can transmit these two signals simultaneously through a common signaling pathway, and yet respond to them specifically and reliably. We find that information transmission is reduced not only by noise arising from the intrinsic stochasticity of biochemical reactions, but also by crosstalk between the different channels. Yet, under biologically relevant conditions more than 2 bits of information can be transmitted per channel, even when the two signals are transmitted simultaneously. These observations suggest that oscillatory signals are ideal for multiplexing signals. PMID:24685537

  20. Radiation-induced signal transduction mechanisms and consequences; Modification de la signalisation intracellulaire provoquee par l'irradiation. Mecanismes et consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrlich, P. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany); Herrlich, P.; Bender, K.; Knebel, A.; Blattner, Ch.; Rahmsdorf, H.J.; Gottlicher, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Genetik; Bohmer, F.; Grob, S. [Research Unit Molecular Cell Biology, Klinikum der Friedrich Schiller Universitat Jena (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Over a dose range up to 50 Gy of low-LET (linear energy transfer) ionizing radiation and up to 5 kJ/m{sup 2} UVB, mammalian cells convert molecular damage into productive response (mostly gain of function). By inactivation of negative regulatory components, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases as one mechanism discovered, the balance between restraining and stimulating influences is disturbed and an increase in signal flow results. Also DNA damage causing transcriptional arrest produces a signalling cascade of as yet unknown details. Such stimulation of the intracellular communication network can lead to apoptosis, elevated cell cycling and differentiation processes possibly including repair and recombination. The outcome likely depends on integration of all signals received which is as yet ill-understood. Although accurate determinations of low-dose inductions have not been achieved for technical reasons, the dose-response curves of induced signal transduction likely show threshold characteristics, in contrast to the direct consequences of DNA damage. (author)

  1. Can Split-share Reform Restrain the Overinvestment Behavior of Controlling Shareholders?%股权分置改革能抑制控股股东过度投资行为吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晶; 陈工孟; 包文卿; 陈峥嵘

    2011-01-01

    文章基于上市公司投资行为的视角研究了控股股东侵占与公司治理问题,特别考察了股权分置改革是否有助于缓解控股股东过度投资。基于Richardson(2006)预期投资模型,文章的研究结果显示控制权与现金流权分离度对过度投资有显著的正向影响,而股权分置改革能够显著弱化这种分离度与过度投资之间的正向关系。政府控股公司比私人控股公司的过度投资更为严重,而改善外部治理环境在一定程度上可以抑制过度投资。文章为控股股东侵占行为提供了证据,同时表明股权分置改革有效缓解了过度投资。%From the angle of investment behavior of listed companies, this paper investigates the expropriation behavior of controlling shareholders and corporate governance, especially the positive effect of the split-share reform on restraining the overinvestment behavior of controlling sharehdders. Based on the expected investment model raised by Richardsonin in 2006, the results show that the divergence of control right and cash flow right has significantly positive effect on overinvestment, but the split-share reform can obviously weaken the positive relation between the divergence and overinvestment. Compared to private companies, the overinvestment in stateowned companies is more serious, and the improvement of external governance environment can restrain overinvestment to a certain extent. This paper provides evidence for the expropriation behavior of controlling shareholders and the effectively positive effect of the split share reform on restraining overinvestment.

  2. Algebraic Signal Processing Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Pueschel, Markus; Moura, Jose M. F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an algebraic theory of linear signal processing. At the core of algebraic signal processing is the concept of a linear signal model defined as a triple (A, M, phi), where familiar concepts like the filter space and the signal space are cast as an algebra A and a module M, respectively, and phi generalizes the concept of the z-transform to bijective linear mappings from a vector space of, e.g., signal samples, into the module M. A signal model provides the structure for a p...

  3. Retinoid signalling during embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappel, W.W.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Durston, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusion: Retinoids are suspected to have multiple functions during embryogenesis, which are carried out via various different signal transduction pathways involving active retinoids and nuclear retinoid receptors. Research focuses on the identification of the retinoid signal transduction componen

  4. Signal sciences workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-01

    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing.

  5. Signal sciences workshop. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing

  6. Cell signaling review series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiming Lin; Zhenggang Liu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Signal transduction is pivotal for many, if not all, fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and programmed cell death. Deregulation of cell signaling may result in certain types of cancers and other human diseases.

  7. Yesterday's noise - today's signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noise signals can yield information on both the dynamic and steady-state performance of a system. Application of signal noise presents many challenges which can be met successfully, resulting in significant benefits. The concept and characteristics of signal noise and the benefits that can be obtained through use of signal noise are discussed. Results from practical applications to nuclear systems are given with emphasis on applications to the Gentilly-1 reactor

  8. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  9. Nonlinear phonocardiographic Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlström, Christer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work has been to develop signal analysis methods for a computerized cardiac auscultation system, the intelligent stethoscope. In particular, the work focuses on classification and interpretation of features derived from the phonocardiographic (PCG) signal by using advanced signal processing techniques. The PCG signal is traditionally analyzed and characterized by morphological properties in the time domain, by spectral properties in the frequency domain or by nonstation...

  10. 信息不对称对公共图书馆建设的影响及抑制策略%The Influence of Information Asymmetry on the Construction of Public Library and Restraining Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田苗

    2015-01-01

    The information asymmetry,which has become a serious impediment to the development of the public library,will produce a significant impact to the library and the readers. This paper briefly expounds the concept and reasons of the information asymmetry, analyzes the manifestations and influences if the information asymmetry in public library, and probes into the strategies for restraining the information asymmetry in public library.%信息不对称严重阻碍着公共图书馆的发展,对图书馆和读者都将产生重大的影响。简述了信息不对称的概念及原因,分析了信息不对称在公共图书馆的表现及影响,探讨了抑制公共图书馆中信息不对称的策略。

  11. Eficácia do sistema de contenção (automatizado e mecânico no atordoamento de bovinos Effectiveness of the restraining system (automated and mechanical in the cattle stunning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bertoloni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 800 bovinos machos (nelore/anelorados, com idade entre 28 e 36 meses, foi atordoado com pistola pneumática, com pressão de operação de 11 a 12bar e haste de penetração de 15.9mm de diâmetro, em sistemas de contenção diferentes (mecânico e atomatizado. O box de contenção mecânico tradicional (2,53x0,88x2,20m não permitiu a contenção da cabeça do animal; no segundo tratamento utilizou-se box de contenção automatizado (2,60x0,85x2,30m, com parede lateral e piso móveis, guilhotina e elevador de cabeça. O box automatizado proporcionou menor número de disparos necessários para o atordoamento (1,0625±0,013 em comparação ao mecânico(1,2025±0,026, (P≤0,0001, reduziu a distância em relação ao ponto ideal no primeiro disparo (1,246±0,918 e 2,357±1,246 e no segundo (3,042±0,141 e 4,016±0,101, (P 0,0001, assim como proporcionou ausência de reflexo respiratório comparativamente ao sistema mecânico (0,0275±0,008, (P≤0,001. O box automatizado apresentou maior bem-estar e maior eficácia na contenção e insensibilização dos bovinosA total of 800 male cattle (Nelore, aged 28-36 months, stunned by pneumatic captive bolt pistol (operating pressure 160-175psi 11-12bar , air consumption (per cycle 1.45ft³ 41L , penetrating shaft diameter 0.625 in 15.9mm in different restrainer systems (mechanical and automated. The traditional mechanical restraint (2.53x0.88x2.20m did not allow the containment of the animal's head, the automated restrainer (2.60x0.85x2.30m allowed adjustable sidewall and restraint and elevating the head. The automatic restrainer provided smaller number of shots required for stunning (1.0625±0.013 compared to mechanical (1.2025±0.026 (P≤0.0001, reduced the distance from the ideal point in the first shot (1.246±0.918 and (2.357±1.246 and second (3.042±0.141 and (4.016±0.101 (P 0.0001, and provided no respiratory reflex compared to the mechanical system (0.0275±0.008, (P≤0.001. The

  12. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling.

    OpenAIRE

    Broom, M.; Ruxton, G.D; Schaefer, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verificat...

  13. 防屈曲耗能支撑在三边简支网架结构中的应用研究%Applied Analysis of Trilateral Simply Supported Space Grid with Buckling-restrained Brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国杰; 傅昶彬

    2012-01-01

    采用SAP2000V14.1对防屈曲耗能支撑在矩形平面三边简支一边自由的斜放四角锥网架结构进行了弹塑性时程分析.在难以直接比较多方案网架结构减震优劣的情况下,提出了以综合轴力减震值作为进一步的比较指标的方法,并用此方法对9种防屈曲耗能支撑替换方案的减震效果进行了对比分析.得出了较优的替换方案.为今后该类网架结构的耗能减震设计提供了参考依据.此外对结构不同部位的动力响应也作了分析.%The elastic-plastic time history analysis of a rectangular planar trilateral simply-supported and one side free diagonal square pyramid grids with buckling-restrained brace was explored with the SAP2000V14. 1 software. Facing the difficulty of determining the better scheme directly, further comparison index synthetic parameters -comprehensive anti-seismic value of axial force were put forward. Comparison analysis of the anti-seismic effect of 9 replacement schemes of buckling-restrained brace in the dynamic process was carried out using this method, and then a replacement scheme of the optimal solution was obtained, providing reference for the energy dissipation and anti-seismic design of grid structure of this kind in the future. The analysis of dynamic response in different parts of the structure was also made.

  14. 双层柱面网壳结构在BRB作用下的减震分析%Vibration reduction analysis of double - layer cylinder lattice shell with bucking- restrained brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕秋; 甄晓慧; 史三元

    2012-01-01

    运用SAP2000有限元软件对跨度30 m,长度42 m的正放四角锥双层柱面网壳建立模型,并进行模态分析和力学性能分析.在EL - Centro波作用下对支撑布置位置不同和布置数量不同时的网壳结构进行地震响应分析.结果表明:防屈曲支撑在双层柱面网壳中替换部分杆件时可以起到较好的减震效果,其中替换受力较大的腹杆要比替换其他位置杆件的减震效果要好,而在替换腹杆的不同方案中,替换了48根杆件的减震效果明显优于替换20根杆件的效果.%The model of square pyramid double - layer cylindrical lattice shell with 30 m span and 42 m length was established for modal analysis and mechanical property analysis by use of the finite element analysis software SAP2000. The seismic response analysis of the shell structures was carried out with the bucking - restrained braces in different locations and different numbers under the EL - Centro wave. The results show that replacing some bars with the bucking - restrained braces in the double -layer cylindrical lattice shell could strengthen the damping effect. The replacement of the web members bearing more loads has a better damping effect than the replacement of other members, and the effect of replacing 48 web members is better than replacing 20 web members in the web - member replacement scheme.

  15. The Signal Distribution System

    CERN Document Server

    Belohrad, D; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of LHC signal observation and high frequency signal distribution, the Signal Distribution System (SDS) was built. The SDS can contain up to 5 switching elements, where each element allows the user to switch between one of the maximum 8 bi-directional signals. The coaxial relays are used to switch the signals. Depending of the coaxial relay type used, the transfer bandwidth can go up to 18GHz. The SDS is controllable via TCP/IP, parallel port, or locally by rotary switch.

  16. Separating signal from noise

    OpenAIRE

    Lev, Nir; Peled, Ron; Peres, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Suppose that a sequence of numbers $x_n$ (a `signal') is transmitted through a noisy channel. The receiver observes a noisy version of the signal with additive random fluctuations, $x_n + \\xi_n$, where $\\xi_n$ is a sequence of independent standard Gaussian random variables. Suppose further that the signal is known to come from some fixed space of possible signals. Is it possible to fully recover the transmitted signal from its noisy version? Is it possible to at least detect that a non-zero s...

  17. Autophagy Inhibition Dysregulates TBK1 Signaling and Promotes Pancreatic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shenghong; Imamura, Yu; Jenkins, Russell W; Cañadas, Israel; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Aref, Amir; Brannon, Arthur; Oki, Eiji; Castoreno, Adam; Zhu, Zehua; Thai, Tran; Reibel, Jacob; Qian, Zhirong; Ogino, Shuji; Wong, Kwok K; Baba, Hideo; Kimmelman, Alec C; Pasca Di Magliano, Marina; Barbie, David A

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy promotes tumor progression downstream of oncogenic KRAS, yet also restrains inflammation and dysplasia through mechanisms that remain incompletely characterized. Understanding the basis of this paradox has important implications for the optimal targeting of autophagy in cancer. Using a mouse model of cerulein-induced pancreatitis, we found that loss of autophagy by deletion of Atg5 enhanced activation of the IκB kinase (IKK)-related kinase TBK1 in vivo, associated with increased neutrophil and T-cell infiltration and PD-L1 upregulation. Consistent with this observation, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of autophagy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells, including suppression of the autophagy receptors NDP52 or p62, prolonged TBK1 activation and increased expression of CCL5, IL6, and several other T-cell and neutrophil chemotactic cytokines in vitro Defective autophagy also promoted PD-L1 upregulation, which is particularly pronounced downstream of IFNγ signaling and involves JAK pathway activation. Treatment with the TBK1/IKKε/JAK inhibitor CYT387 (also known as momelotinib) not only inhibits autophagy, but also suppresses this feedback inflammation and reduces PD-L1 expression, limiting KRAS-driven pancreatic dysplasia. These findings could contribute to the dual role of autophagy in oncogenesis and have important consequences for its therapeutic targeting. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 520-30. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27068336

  18. 束缚应激所致小鼠脑区的神经递质和行为改变及运动干预效果%Restrained stress induced changes of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and behaviors of mice as well as exercise intervention effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马磊; 黄文英; 杨念恩; 肖晓玲; 孙飙; 康学军

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨束缚应激对小鼠神经递质、行为的影响及有氧运动的干预效果。选用1月龄C57BL/6小鼠80只,随机分为4组:控制组(Control,n=20只)、束缚应激组(Stress,n=20只)、运动组(Ex,n=20只)、运动束缚应激组(Stress+Ex,n=20只)。控制组安静饲养,束缚应激组进行2周的束缚应激,运动组每天进行2 h跑台锻炼,运动束缚应激组同时进行束缚应激和跑台锻炼。结果发现:行为试验中,束缚应激组小鼠社交行为显著下降、焦虑及抑郁行为水平发生显著上升(P<0.05),而运动干预能够缓解束缚应激对这些行为的影响。生化指标同样说明有氧锻炼有效缓解了束缚应激导致的行为和单胺类神经递质的改变。结果说明:束缚应激会导致社交及情绪相关行为的改变,而运动干预会起到有效的缓解作用。%In order to probe into the effects of restrained stress on monoamine neurotransmitters and behaviors of mice as well as aerobic exercise intervention effects, the authors selected 80 1-month old C57BL/6 mice, randomly divided them into 4 groups: a control group (Control, n=20), a restrained stress group (Stress, n=20), an exercise group (Ex, n=20) and an exercise + restrained stress group (Stress + Ex, n=20), fed the control group in a calm con-dition, let the restrained stress group suffer restrained stress for 2 weeks, let the exercise group exercise on a tread-mill 2 hours a day, let the exercise + restrained stress group suffer restrained stress and exercise on a treadmill si-multaneously, and revealed the following findings: in the behavior experiment, the mice in the restrained stress group had significantly decreased social behaviors and significantly increased levels of anxiety and depression be-haviors (P<0.05), while exercise intervention could alleviate the effects of restrained stress on these behaviors. Bio-chemical indexes indicated as well that aerobic exercise

  19. Olfactory Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, Kush R.; Varshney, Lav R.

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction, the sense of smell, has received scant attention from a signal processing perspective in comparison to audition and vision. In this paper, we develop a signal processing paradigm for olfactory signals based on new scientific discoveries including the psychophysics concept of olfactory white. We describe a framework for predicting the perception of odorant compounds from their physicochemical features and use the prediction as a foundation for several downstream processing tasks. We...

  20. Software Radar signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    T. Grydeland; Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P J; J. M. Holt

    2005-01-01

    Software infrastructure is a growing part of modern radio science systems. As part of developing a generic infrastructure for implementing Software Radar systems, we have developed a set of reusable signal processing components. These components are generic software-based implementations for use on general purpose computing systems. The components allow for the implementation of signal processing chains for radio frequency signal reception, correlation-based data processing, and cross-correla...

  1. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  2. Digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book are introduction of digital signal processing, continuous time signal and transform with fourier series, Laplace function and impulse function, sampling on sampling theory, restore of continuous signal out of sampling and A/D transform, Discrete time signal and transform about transform of discrete fourier, cutting and leaking a spectrum and transform of fast fourier transform, Z transform on relationship of Z transform and laplace transform, Discrete time system with frequency response and system implementation, Design of finite impulse response filter about characteristic of F/R filter and optimization way, and Design of infinite impulse response filter.

  3. Honest signalling among gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, M

    1993-06-10

    The gametes of many lower eukaryotic organisms emit pheromones that attract gametes of the opposite mating type or sex. Gametes move or grow in the direction of the highest pheromone concentration, suggesting that the strength of the pheromonal signal is used to infer proximity, or that the strongest signal is most likely to be notice. Here I offer a new explanation of pheromonal signalling and chemotaxis in gametes. I show that pheromonal signals can be interpreted as sexually selected traits that honestly advertise variation in quality among gametes, given that signals are costly to produce and that gametes compete; by 'quality' I refer to some aspect of a gamete's fitness. A gamete's preference for a mating partner, then, is predicted to vary with the quality of a prospective partner as inferred from the strength of its signal. This view can explain characteristics of the signalling and mate selection behaviours of gametes that are not predicted by models of mate choice based on proximity or 'passive attraction' to the strongest signal. These include repeated partner exchanges, escalated exchanges of mating pheromones, and rejection of gametes that signal at low levels. PMID:8505979

  4. Geolocation of RF signals

    CERN Document Server

    Progri, Ilir

    2011-01-01

    ""Geolocation of RF Signals - Principles and Simulations"" offers an overview of the best practices and innovative techniques in the art and science of geolocation over the last twenty years. It covers all research and development aspects including theoretical analysis, RF signals, geolocation techniques, key block diagrams, and practical principle simulation examples in the frequency band from 100 MHz to 18 GHz or even 60 GHz. Starting with RF signals, the book progressively examines various signal bands - such as VLF, LF, MF, HF, VHF, UHF, L, S, C, X, Ku, and, K and the corresponding geoloca

  5. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  6. Lyn Kinase Suppresses the Transcriptional Activity of IRF5 in the TLR-MyD88 Pathway to Restrain the Development of Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Tatsuma; Sato, Go R; Nishiyama, Akira; Akiyama, Ai; Takasuna, Marie; Umehara, Marina; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Ichino, Motohide; Matsunaga, Satoko; Kimura, Ayuko; Kimura, Yayoi; Yanai, Hideyuki; Miyashita, Sadakazu; Kuromitsu, Junro; Tsukahara, Kappei; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Endo, Itaru; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Hirano, Hisashi; Ryo, Akihide; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu; Tamura, Tomohiko

    2016-08-16

    Interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF5), a transcription factor critical for the induction of innate immune responses, contributes to the pathogenesis of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans and mice. Lyn, a Src family kinase, is also implicated in human SLE, and Lyn-deficient mice develop an SLE-like disease. Here, we found that Lyn physically interacted with IRF5 to inhibit ubiquitination and phosphorylation of IRF5 in the TLR-MyD88 pathway, thereby suppressing the transcriptional activity of IRF5 in a manner independent of Lyn's kinase activity. Conversely, Lyn did not inhibit NF-κB signaling, another major branch downstream of MyD88. Monoallelic deletion of Irf5 alleviated the hyperproduction of cytokines in TLR-stimulated Lyn(-/-) dendritic cells and the development of SLE-like symptoms in Lyn(-/-) mice. Our results reveal a role for Lyn as a specific suppressor of the TLR-MyD88-IRF5 pathway and illustrate the importance of fine-tuning IRF5 activity for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. PMID:27521268

  7. Coke restraining ability of oil-soluble catalyst for residue hydrocracking%渣油加氢裂化反应中油溶性催化剂的抑焦性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔文龙; 邓文安; 李传; 刘东; 阙国和

    2011-01-01

    The yield of coke, coke formation status, and products of hydrocracking reaction over oil-soluble catalyst systems were analyzed and the coke restraining ability of oil-soluble catalyst for residue hydrocracking was investigated by using Iiaohe atmospheric residue as the study object and simulating residue hydrocracking reaction in the autoclave. The results showed that the yield of coke over single metal Co and Ni oil-soluble catalysts decreased with the increase of active metal contents. Co-Fe and Ni-Fe compounded catalysts exhibited high coke restraining ability due to their synergistic effect. The tendency for the coke formation status was consistent with the amount of coking. Asphaltenes and saturated fraction in > 480 ℃ fractions of hydrocracking products generally showed an increasing tendency, while aromatics and resins gradually reduced with the activity enhancement of restraining coke of the catalyst. In addition,the state of the active metal of the catalyst in the reaction products was sulfide species. The diffraction peaks of FeS crystal and Co8FeS8 mixed crystal in Co-Fe catalytic system and FeS and FeS2 in Ni-Fe catalyst system were detected, respectively.%以辽河常压渣油为研究对象,通过高压釜模拟渣油加氢裂化反应,对不同油溶性催化剂体系反应后的生焦量、生焦状况及产物进行分析,深入研究渣油加氢裂化反应中油溶性催化剂的抑焦性能.研究表明,随着活性金属含量的增大,油溶性单金属Co催化剂和Ni催化剂的生焦量减少,Co - Fe或Ni - Fe复配体系具有协同效应,抑焦性能增强,由生焦状况比较得出的规律与生焦量趋势一致.随着催化剂抑焦活性的增强,加氢裂化反应产物> 480℃馏分中沥青质和饱和分组分大致呈增长趋势,而芳香分和胶质逐渐降低.此外,反应产物中催化剂活性金属以硫化态物种存在,在Co - Fe复配催化体系中检测出FeS晶体和CosFeS8

  8. Second-hand signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    of signal of firms, which is based on a formalized common practice of external, academic experts referring to firms in their peer reviewed publications. The findings provide qualitative evidence that helps explain why and how this new type of ‘second‐hand’ signal is created, validated and systematically...

  9. SignalR blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed for software developers, primarily those with knowledge of C#, .NET, and JavaScript. Good knowledge and understanding of SignalR is assumed to allow efficient programming of core elements and applications in SignalR.

  10. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  11. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  12. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  13. Bioelectric Signal Measuring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells

  14. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  15. Exosomes in developmental signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ian John; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-15

    In order to achieve coordinated growth and patterning during development, cells must communicate with one another, sending and receiving signals that regulate their activities. Such developmental signals can be soluble, bound to the extracellular matrix, or tethered to the surface of adjacent cells. Cells can also signal by releasing exosomes - extracellular vesicles containing bioactive molecules such as RNA, DNA and enzymes. Recent work has suggested that exosomes can also carry signalling proteins, including ligands of the Notch receptor and secreted proteins of the Hedgehog and WNT families. Here, we describe the various types of exosomes and their biogenesis. We then survey the experimental strategies used so far to interfere with exosome formation and critically assess the role of exosomes in developmental signalling. PMID:27436038

  16. Neutron signal transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pleinert, H; Lehmann, E

    1999-01-01

    A new method called neutron signal transfer analysis has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogenous distributions from neutron radiographic measurements. The technique is based on a model which describes the detector signal obtained in the measurement as a result of the action of three different mechanisms expressed by signal transfer functions. The explicit forms of the signal transfer functions are determined by Monte Carlo computer simulations and contain only the distribution as a variable. Therefore an unknown distribution can be determined from the detector signal by recursive iteration. This technique provides a simple and efficient tool for analysis of this type while also taking into account complex effects due to the energy dependency of neutron interaction and single and multiple scattering. Therefore this method provides an efficient tool for precise quantitative analysis using neutron radiography, as for example quantitative determination of moisture distributions in porous buil...

  17. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will...... present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  18. Biological signals as handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, A

    1990-06-21

    An ESS model of Zahavi's handicap principle is constructed. This allows a formal exposition of how the handicap principle works, and shows that its essential elements are strategic. The handicap model is about signalling, and it is proved under fairly general conditions that if the handicap principle's conditions are met, then an evolutionarily stable signalling equilibrium exists in a biological signalling system, and that any signalling equilibrium satisfies the conditions of the handicap principle. Zahavi's major claims for the handicap principle are thus vindicated. The place of cheating is discussed in view of the honesty that follows from the handicap principle. Parallel signalling models in economics are discussed. Interpretations of the handicap principle are compared. The models are not fully explicit about how females use information about male quality, and, less seriously, have no genetics. A companion paper remedies both defects in a model of the handicap principle at work in sexual selection. PMID:2402153

  19. Adaptive signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  20. Parametric Studies on Critical Temperature of Restrained Steel Column in a Fire%火灾下约束钢柱临界温度的参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 陈琛

    2011-01-01

    利用经实验验证过的ABAQUS有限元模型对轴力和弯矩共同作用下的约束钢柱进行了参数分析.以钢柱的屈曲温度和临界温度作为主要的评价指标,主要考虑了轴力荷载比、弯矩荷载比、轴向约束刚度比、转动约束刚度比、长细比和钢柱端部弯矩比等参数的影响,并且对不同参数之间的耦合性进行了分析.参数分析结果表明,轴向约束刚度的增大将会明显降低约束钢柱的屈曲温度,但是对其临界温度的影响相对较小;端部弯矩比对钢拄的临界温度影响很小;当钢柱的轴力荷载比和弯矩荷载比较小、轴向约束刚度比和长细比较大时,考虑屈曲后性能可以显著提高钢拄的抗火能力.%This paper investigates the critical temperature of a restrained steel column in a fire by using the ABAQUS finite element method model. Results are presented by the buckling temperatures and critical temperatures of steel columns. The influence of axial load, bending moment, axial restraint, rotational restraint , slenderness and end moment ratio is considered in the parametric study. The coupling between parameters has also been analyzed. Results of parametric study show that: ① The axial restraint will reduce the buckling temperature of the restrained steel column significantly, but the critical temperature is scarcely affected by the restraint; ② The end moment ratio has a very small influence on the critical temperature of steel columns; ③ The performance of steel column in fire will be much better if the post-buckling behavior is considered, when the axial load ratio and bending moment ratio of the column are small and the slenderness of the column is large.

  1. Fire resistance limit and its influence factors of axial restrained PEC columns subjected to standard fire%标准升温下轴向约束PEC柱耐火极限及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满建政; 毛小勇

    2012-01-01

    为考察高温下相邻构件作用对PEC柱耐火极限的影响,应用有限元软件ABAQUS建立了标准升温条件下约束PEC柱数值分析模型,得到了试验数据的验证。应用验证后的模型,分析了火灾荷载比、轴向约束刚度比、长细比、偏心率对约束PEC柱耐火极限的影响规律。结果表明,随着火灾荷载比的增大,约束PEC柱的耐火极限呈线性降低的趋势;轴向约束刚度比对PEC柱耐火极限几乎没有影响;长细比和偏心率对PEC柱耐火极限影响不大;在荷载比相同的情况下,随着长细比的增加PEC柱耐火极限略有降低,随着偏心率的增加PEC柱耐火极限略有上升。%In order to investigate the influence of adjoining members on the fire resistance of PEC (Partially En- cased Concrete) columns under the high temperature, the ABAQUS software of the finite element model was used to develop the model for numerical analysis of restrained PEC columns under the standard fire, and the model was verified by the test data. The verified model was then used to analyze the influence rules of the load ratio, axial restraint ratio, slenderness ration and eccentricity on the fire resistance limit of restrained PEC columns. The result shows that the limit tends to be low when the load ratio increases; the axial restraint ratio has little in- fluence on the load ratio; the slenderness and load eccentricity have slight influence; under the same load ratio, the increase of slenderness leads to a slight decrease of the fire resistance of the PEC columns, and the increase of the load eccentricity leads to slight increase of the fire resistance of the columns.

  2. Applied Analysis of Three Layer Flat Diagonal Square Pyramid Grid with Buckling-restrained Brace%防屈曲耗能支撑在三层斜放四角锥网架中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国杰; 熊峰

    2012-01-01

    The model of a three layer flat diagonal square pyramid grid was built in space structure designing software MST2011 and then imported into SAP2000. The anti-seismic effect of three layer flat diagonal square pyramid grid of long span with buckling-restrained brace was explored with the large-scale finite element analysing program SAP2000V14. 1 . The bars in different parts of the grid structure were replaced with buckling-restrained brace and dynamic time history analysis was carried out under different replacement schemes. The dynamic response of key bars and key nodes of different replacement schemes is compared, and the better substitution scheme is then drawed, providing reference for the energy dissipation and anti-seismic design of three layer diagonal square pyramid grid of long span. The analysis of dynamic response in different parts of the structure is also made.%采用空间结构设计软件MST2011建立周边中弦简支的正方形大跨度三层网架结构模型,并导入SAP2000中.利用大型有限元分析程序SAP2000V14.1,对防屈曲耗能支撑在大跨度三层网架结构中的减震效果进行探究.对网架结构中不同位置处的杆件用防屈曲支撑进行替换,在不同的替换方案下对结构进行动力时程分析.比较不同替换方案下关键杆件及关键节点的动力响应.得出较优的替换形式,为超大跨度三层网架结构的耗能减震设计提供参考.此外对结构不同部位的动力响应也作了分析.

  3. 14-Deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide exerts anti-influenza A virus activity and inhibits replication of H5N1 virus by restraining nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wentao; Li, Yongtao; Chen, Sunrui; Wang, Mengli; Zhang, Anding; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has become a worldwide public health threat, and current antiviral therapies have limited activity against the emerging, resistant influenza viruses. Therefore, effective drugs with novel targets against influenza A viruses, H5N1 strains in particular, should be developed. In the present study, 14-deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide (DAP), a major component of the traditional Chinese medicine Andrographis paniculata, exerted potent anti-influenza A virus activity against A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1), A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1), A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/NanChang/08/2010 (H1N1) and A/HuNan/01/2014 (H3N2) in vitro. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, a series of experiments was conducted using A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1) as an example. Our results demonstrated that DAP strongly inhibited H5N1 replication by reducing the production of viral nucleoprotein (NP) mRNA, NP and NS1proteins, whereas DAP had no effect on the absorption and release of H5N1 towards/from A549 cells. DAP also effectively restrained the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. This inhibitory effect ought to be an important anti-H5N1 mechanism of DAP. Meanwhile, DAP significantly reduced the upregulated expression of all the tested proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-α, IL-1β and IFN-β) and chemokines (CXCL-10 and CCL-2) stimulated by H5N1. Overall results suggest that DAP impairs H5N1 replication at least in part by restraining nuclear export of vRNP complexes, and the inhibition of viral replication leads to a subsequent decrease of the intense proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression. In turn, the effect of modification of the host excessive immune response may contribute to overcoming H5N1. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of DAP in vitro against H5N1 influenza A virus infection. PMID:25800824

  4. Mitochondrial emitted electromagnetic signals mediate retrograde signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagkos, Georgios; Koufopoulos, Kostas; Piperi, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence shows that mitochondria regulate nuclear transcriptional activity both in normal and cell stress conditions, known as retrograde signaling. Under normal mitochondrial function, retrograde signaling is associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, normal cell phenotype and metabolic profile. In contrast, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to abnormal (oncogenic) cell phenotype and altered bio-energetic profile (nucleus reprogramming). Despite intense research efforts, a concrete mechanism through which mitochondria determine the group of genes expressed by the nucleus is still missing. The present paper proposes a novel hypothesis regarding retrograde signaling. More specifically, it reveals the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the accompanied strong electromagnetic field (EF) as key regulatory factors of nuclear activity. Mitochondrial emitted EFs extend in long distance and affect the function of nuclear membrane receptors. Depending on their frequencies, EFs can directly activate or deactivate different groups of nuclear receptors and so determine nuclear gene expression. One of the key features of the above hypothesis is that nuclear membrane receptors, besides their own endogenous or chemical ligands (hormones, lipids, etc.), can also be activated by electromagnetic signals. Moreover, normal MMP values (about -140 mV) are associated with the production of high ATP quantities and small levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) while the hyperpolarization observed in all cancer cell types leads to a dramatic fall in ATP production and an analogous increase in ROS. The diminished ATP and increased ROS production negatively affect the function of all cellular systems including nucleus. Restoration of mitochondrial function, which is characterized by the fluctuation of MMP and EF values within a certain (normal) range, is proposed as a necessary condition for normal nuclear function and cancer therapy. PMID:26474928

  5. Signal Reconstruction with Adaptive Multi-Rate Signal Processing Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Korhan Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Multi-rate digital signal processing techniques have been developed in recent years for a wide range of applications, such as speech and image compression, statistical and adaptive signal processing and digital audio. Multi-rate statistical and adaptive signal processing methods provide solution to original signal reconstruction, using observation signals sampled at different rates. In this study, a signal reconstruction process by using the observation signals which are sampled at different ...

  6. Hedgehog signaling and steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Isabella; LaPensee, Christopher R; Krill, Kenneth T; Hammer, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    Since its discovery nearly 30 years ago, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been shown to be pivotal in many developmental and pathophysiological processes in several steroidogenic tissues, including the testis, ovary, adrenal cortex, and placenta. New evidence links the evolutionarily conserved Hh pathway to the steroidogenic organs, demonstrating how Hh signaling can influence their development and homeostasis and can act in concert with steroids to mediate physiological functions. In this review, we highlight the role of the components of the Hh signaling pathway in steroidogenesis of endocrine tissues. PMID:25668018

  7. Signal processing for microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowiak, A. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Moseley, S. H.; Stahle, C. K.

    1993-11-01

    Most of the power in the signals from microcalorimeters occurs at relatively low frequencies. At these frequencies, typical amplifiers will have significant amounts of 1/f noise. Our laboratory systems can also suffer from pickup at several harmonics of the AC power line, and from microphonic pickup at frequencies that vary with the configuration of the apparatus. We have developed some optimal signal processing techniques in order to construct the best possible estimates of our pulse heights in the presence of these non-ideal effects. In addition to a discussion of our laboratory systems, we present our plans for providing this kind of signal processing in flight experiments.

  8. Signal flow analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, J R; Hiller, N

    1965-01-01

    Signal Flow Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of signal flow analysis. This book discusses the basic theory of signal flow graphs and shows their relation to the usual algebraic equations.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of properties of a flow graph. This text then demonstrates how flow graphs can be applied to a wide range of electrical circuits that do not involve amplification. Other chapters deal with the parameters as well as circuit applications of transistors. This book discusses as well the variety of circuits using ther

  9. Signal sampling circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converter via a respective output switch. The output switch of each channel opens for a tracking time period when the track-and-hold circuit is in a tracking mode for sampling the signal, and closes for a ...

  10. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells. PMID:26055819

  11. Hepatitis C virus-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells regulate T-cell differentiation and function via the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun P; Zhao, Juan; Dai, Jun; Griffin, Jeddidiah W D; Wang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Y; Morrison, Zheng D; Li, Guang Y; El Gazzar, Mohamed; Ning, Shun B; Moorman, Jonathan P; Yao, Zhi Q

    2016-08-01

    T cells play a pivotal role in controlling viral infection; however, the precise mechanisms responsible for regulating T-cell differentiation and function during infections are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrated an expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), in particular the monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs; CD14(+) CD33(+) CD11b(+) HLA-DR(-/low) ), in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Notably, HCV-induced M-MDSCs express high levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared with healthy subjects. Blocking STAT3 signalling reduced HCV-mediated M-MDSC expansion and decreased IL-10 expression. Importantly, we observed a significant increase in the numbers of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells following incubation of healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with MDSCs derived from HCV-infected patients or treated with HCV core protein. In addition, depletion of MDSCs from PBMCs led to a significant reduction of Foxp3(+) Treg cells developed during chronic HCV infection. Moreover, depletion of MDSCs from PBMCs significantly increased interferon-γ production by CD4(+) T effector (Teff) cells derived from HCV patients. These results suggest that HCV-induced MDSCs promote Treg cell development and inhibit Teff cell function, suggesting a novel mechanism for T-cell regulation and a new strategy for immunotherapy against human viral diseases. PMID:27149428

  12. Study on Effective Restraining Mechanism for Overloading of Freight Vehicles of Transportation Enterprises%物流运输企业货运车辆超载问题的有效约束机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾子若; 宋守信

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, in order to effectively deal with the vehicle overloading of the logistics transportation enterprises, we used the research method of the decision-making theory and, in accordance with the fairness theory and the maximized expected utility principle of the decision theory, deduced the necessary and sufficient condition, penalty strength and detection probability in the effective restraining mechanism for vehicle overloading. At the end, we proposed the optimal strategy for the administrators to manage the overloading of the freight vehicles of the logistics transportation enterprises.%为了有效治理物流运输企业货运车辆超载的问题,运用决策论的研究方法,根据公平理论及决策理论的期望效用最大化原理,推出了超载问题有效约束机制的充分必要条件、惩罚强度和查处概率,通过对货运车辆超载行为的分析,对货运车辆超载问题的约束机制进行设计,并提出治理物流运输企业货运车辆超载的管理者最优策略.

  13. Comment on: "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend" by Leomaris Domínguez-González, Louis Andreani, Klaus P. Stanek and Richard Gloaguen [Geomorphology, 228 (2015) 320-334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Simon F.; James-Williamson, Sherene; Miller, David J.; Mandal, Arpita

    2016-06-01

    We provide comments on the paper: "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend" by Domínguez-González et al. (2015). The literature review given is lacking in significant elements, particularly recent papers detailing the geology and uplift history of Jamaica. The paper undertakes a GIS analysis of a DEM and produces a drainage network for Jamaica, yet the networks created do not match the actual drainage network of the island. River profiles were extracted using 150 m contours and many of the knickpoints identified are not related to tectonics. The recognition of different erosional (and thus evolutionary) stages does not take into account the differing geology and the different geomorphological processes that were in operation, and the proposed model for the progressive uplift of different parts of Jamaica must therefore be treated with caution. This is particularly the case where their uplift model agrees neither with recent models based on provenance analysis or on the origin of Jamaican bauxite deposits. This paper demonstrates the problems of relying on remote sensing using inadequate datasets, no ground truthing and incomplete consideration of previous research.

  14. Honest signalling with costly gambles

    OpenAIRE

    Meacham, Frazer; Perlmutter, Aaron; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2013-01-01

    Costly signalling theory is commonly invoked as an explanation for how honest communication can be stable when interests conflict. However, the signal costs predicted by costly signalling models often turn out to be unrealistically high. These models generally assume that signal cost is determinate. Here, we consider the case where signal cost is instead stochastic. We examine both discrete and continuous signalling games and show that, under reasonable assumptions, stochasticity in signal co...

  15. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  16. Modularity in signaling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modularity is a property by which the behavior of a system does not change upon interconnection. It is crucial for understanding the behavior of a complex system from the behavior of the composing subsystems. Whether modularity holds in biology is an intriguing and largely debated question. In this paper, we discuss this question taking a control system theory view and focusing on signaling systems. In particular, we argue that, despite signaling systems being constituted of structural modules, such as covalent modification cycles, modularity does not hold in general. As in any engineering system, impedance-like effects, called retroactivity, appear at interconnections and alter the behavior of connected modules. We further argue that while signaling systems have evolved sophisticated ways to counter-act retroactivity and enforce modularity, retroactivity may also be exploited to finely control the information processing of signaling pathways. Testable predictions and experimental evidence are discussed with their implications. (paper)

  17. Signals from the Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the basics of radio astronomy and describes how to assemble several simple systems for receiving radio signals from the cosmos. Includes schematics, parts lists, working drawings, and contact information for radio astronomy suppliers. (11 references) (Author/JJK)

  18. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. Error-prone signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, R A; Grafen, A

    1992-06-22

    The handicap principle of Zahavi is potentially of great importance to the study of biological communication. Existing models of the handicap principle, however, make the unrealistic assumption that communication is error free. It seems possible, therefore, that Zahavi's arguments do not apply to real signalling systems, in which some degree of error is inevitable. Here, we present a general evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) model of the handicap principle which incorporates perceptual error. We show that, for a wide range of error functions, error-prone signalling systems must be honest at equilibrium. Perceptual error is thus unlikely to threaten the validity of the handicap principle. Our model represents a step towards greater realism, and also opens up new possibilities for biological signalling theory. Concurrent displays, direct perception of quality, and the evolution of 'amplifiers' and 'attenuators' are all probable features of real signalling systems, yet handicap models based on the assumption of error-free communication cannot accommodate these possibilities. PMID:1354361

  20. Sound Signalling in Orthoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, David J.; Hall, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    The sounds produced by orthopteran insects are very diverse. They are widely studied for the insight they give into acoustic behaviour and the biophysical aspects of sound production and hearing, as well as the transduction of sound to neural signals in the ear and the subsequent processing of information in the central nervous system. The study of sound signalling is a multidisciplinary area of research, with a strong physiological contribution. This review considers recent research in physi...

  1. Signal-light nomogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J. I.; Edgerton, C. F.; Duntley, S. Q.

    1975-01-01

    A nomogram is presented for predicting the sighting range for white, steady-burning signal lights. The theoretical and experimental bases are explained and instructions are provided for its use for a variety of practical problems concerning the visibility of signal lights. The nomogram is appropriate for slant path as well as horizontal sightings, and the gain of range achieved by utilizing binoculars can be predicted by use of it.

  2. Modest Advertising Signals Strength.

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Orzach; Per Baltzer Overgaard; Yair Tauman

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a signaling model where both price and advertising expenditures are used as signals of the initially unobservable quality of a newly introduced experience good. Consumers can be either "fastidious" or "indifferent". Fastidious individuals place a greater value on a high-quality product and a lesser value on the low-quality product than do indifferent individuals. It is shown that a sensible separating equilibrium exists where both firms set their full information prices. H...

  3. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  4. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  5. DMPD: CD14 and other recognition molecules for lipopolysaccharide: a review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  6. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  7. Signaling cascades modulate the speed of signal propagation through space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Govern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells are not mixed bags of signaling molecules. As a consequence, signals must travel from their origin to distal locations. Much is understood about the purely diffusive propagation of signals through space. Many signals, however, propagate via signaling cascades. Here, we show that, depending on their kinetics, cascades speed up or slow down the propagation of signals through space, relative to pure diffusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled simple cascades operating under different limits of Michaelis-Menten kinetics using deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Cascades operating far from enzyme saturation speed up signal propagation; the second mobile species moves more quickly than the first through space, on average. The enhanced speed is due to more efficient serial activation of a downstream signaling module (by the signaling molecule immediately upstream in the cascade at points distal from the signaling origin, compared to locations closer to the source. Conversely, cascades operating under saturated kinetics, which exhibit zero-order ultrasensitivity, can slow down signals, ultimately localizing them to regions around the origin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Signal speed modulation may be a fundamental function of cascades, affecting the ability of signals to penetrate within a cell, to cross-react with other signals, and to activate distant targets. In particular, enhanced speeds provide a way to increase signal penetration into a cell without needing to flood the cell with large numbers of active signaling molecules; conversely, diminished speeds in zero-order ultrasensitive cascades facilitate strong, but localized, signaling.

  8. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  9. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  10. Purinergic signalling and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is an organ with a central role in nutrient breakdown, nutrient sensing and release of hormones regulating whole body nutrient homeostasis. In diabetes mellitus, the balance is broken-cells can be starving in the midst of plenty. There are indications that the incidence of diabetes...... type 1 and 2, and possibly pancreatogenic diabetes, is rising globally. Events leading to insulin secretion and action are complex, but there is emerging evidence that intracellular nucleotides and nucleotides are not only important as intracellular energy molecules but also as extracellular signalling...... molecules in purinergic signalling cascades. This signalling takes place at the level of the pancreas, where the close apposition of various cells-endocrine, exocrine, stromal and immune cells-contributes to the integrated function. Following an introduction to diabetes, the pancreas and purinergic...

  11. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  12. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  13. Experimental study on restraining coal fires by ultra-fine water mist in confined space%超细水雾抑制煤燃烧的模拟实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文芳; 张爱绒; 郭勇义; 吴世跃

    2013-01-01

    In order to research the restraining effect on coal fires by ultra-fine water mist, based on the small size space inhibit burning experiment platform , the research on the coal burning inhibition effect by ultra - fire water mist was conducted. The changes of internal oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and the temperature change in different parts of volume fraction for, and were contrasted with the situation of coal natural combustion. It showed that the water mist entrainment can effectively reduce the heat release rate of coal, and inhibit the burning of coal. Conclusion for the water mist entrainment used in coal mine fire extinguishment has certain directive significance.%为了研究超细水雾对煤燃烧的抑制效果,基于小尺寸空间抑制燃烧实验平台,研究了超细水雾对煤燃烧的抑制效果,计算在超细水雾作用下实验空间内部氧气、二氧化碳、一氧化碳体积分数的变化情况以及燃烧空间内不同部位的温度变化情况,并且与煤自由燃烧的情况做对比.研究表明超细水雾对煤燃烧的火灾发展过程有很好的抑制作用.研究结论对超细水雾应用于熄灭矿井煤炭火灾具有一定的指导意义.

  14. The Status Evaluation and Analysis of Restraining Factors of Western Balancing Urban and Rural Development%西部城乡统筹的现状评价及制约因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鲜苗

    2009-01-01

    本文通过构建评价指标体系对西部城乡统筹发展水平进行测定得出:西部地区1O个省(市、自治区)城乡统筹水平均低于全国平均水平,且内部差距较大.为了确定西部城乡统筹的制约因素,本文计算了城乡统筹与各影响因素的关联度,结果表明:经济技术水平对西部城乡统筹的影响程度最大,其次是城镇体系建设,最后是资源禀赋.为此要着重提升西部经济整体实力、完善城镇体系及软硬件建设、加快配套制度改革、促进资源向资本转换.%The level of balancing urban and rural development of 10 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in western areas is measured by constructing an evaluation index system. The result indicates that western level is relatively low and that different provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions)have large internal gap. To certain the restraining factors, this paper calculated the degree of association between balancing urban and rural development and its factors. The most important influencing factor is economic technology level and after it is urban system construction. The least important factor is endowment of resources. Therefore, it is advisable to strengthen economic power, perfect urban system and software and hardware construction, intensify the corresponding system reformation and promote transformation of resources to capital.

  15. Hybrid ECG signal conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Circuit with high common-mode rejection has ability to filter and amplify accepted analog electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of varying amplitude, shape, and polarity. In addition, low power circuit develops standardized pulses that can be counted and averaged by heart/breath rate processor.

  16. World economy: Restrained trend in 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Großer, Günter; Weinert, Günter

    1985-01-01

    In 1984 the world economy witnessed the kind of high growth rate it had last seen eight years ago. In the industrialised countries real GNP increased by almost 5%. The most pronounced increase was in the USA, although the initial thrust clearly tailed off during the course of the year. Against this background what are the prospects for the world economy during 1985?

  17. Restraining Epidemics by Improving Immunization Strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian M; Havlin, Shlomo; Herrmann, Hans J

    2011-01-01

    The way diseases spread through social and global transportation networks is crucially determining their risk for humanity. Based on percolation theory we quantitatively analyze the effect of immunization strategies on the spreading of diseases through networks and propose a novel approach to improve their effectiveness. We find that the network's vulnerability to epidemics can be significantly reduced by implementing improved immunization strategies based on high betweenness centrality. We demonstrate this on two real networks, the global flight network, which is known as the most important source of pandemic spreading and a school friendship network. In theses networks, the average probability for a node to get infected is reduced by more than 10% compared to the betweenness centrality method believed to be the most efficient strategy to prevent epidemic spreading.

  18. Wnt signaling in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carol H; Ji, Tao; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Hoang, Bang H

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy diagnosed in children and adolescents with a high propensity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Despite current multidisciplinary treatments, there has not been a drastic change in overall prognosis within the last two decades. With current treatments, 60-70 % of patients with localized disease survive. Given a propensity of Wnt signaling to control multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, cell fate determination, and differentiation, it is a critical pathway in OS disease progression. At the same time, this pathway is extremely complex with vast arrays of cross-talk. Even though decades of research have linked the role of Wnt to tumorigenesis, there are still outstanding areas that remain poorly understood and even controversial. The canonical Wnt pathway functions to regulate the levels of the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin, which ultimately controls key developmental gene expressions. Given the central role of this mediator, inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been investigated as a potential strategy for cancer control. In OS, several secreted protein families modulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, including secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), Wnt inhibitory protein (WIF), Dickkopf proteins (DKK-1,2,3), sclerostin, and small molecules. This chapter focuses on our current understanding of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in OS, based on recent in vitro and in vivo data. Wnt activates noncanonical signaling pathways as well that are independent of β-catenin which will be discussed. In addition, stem cells and their association with Wnt/β-catenin are important factors to consider. Ultimately, the multiple canonical and noncanonical Wnt/β-catenin agonists and antagonists need to be further explored for potential targeted therapies. PMID:24924167

  19. Small Turing universal signal machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durand-Lose

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at providing signal machines as small as possible able to perform any computation (in the classical understanding. After presenting signal machines, it is shown how to get universal ones from Turing machines, cellular-automata and cyclic tag systems. Finally a halting universal signal machine with 13 meta-signals and 21 collision rules is presented.

  20. Quench detection/protection of an HTS coil by AE signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quench detection/protection system based on measuring AE signals was developed. The system was tested for a Bi2223 coil. Temperature rise after a quench occurrence was restrained at very low value. The normal zone propagation velocities in high Tc superconductors are slow at high operation temperature and therefore local and excessive temperature rise generates at quench occurrence, and then the superconductors are degraded or burned. Therefore it is essential to detect the temperature rise in high Tc superconducting (HTS) coils as soon as possible and protect them. The authors have presented a quench detection method for HTS coils by time-frequency visualization of AE signals and have shown its usefulness for a HTS coil with height and outer diameter of 40-50 mm. In this paper, the authors present a quench detection/protection system based on superior method in quench detection time to the previous method and show its usefulness for a larger HTS coil (height and outer diameter: 160-190 mm) than the previous coil.

  1. The newest digital signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chae Uk

    2002-08-15

    This book deal with the newest digital signal processing, which contains introduction on conception of digital signal processing, constitution and purpose, signal and system such as signal, continuos signal, discrete signal and discrete system, I/O expression on impress response, convolution, mutual connection of system and frequency character,z transform of definition, range, application of z transform and relationship with laplace transform, Discrete fourier, Fast fourier transform on IDFT algorithm and FFT application, foundation of digital filter of notion, expression, types, frequency characteristic of digital filter and design order of filter, Design order of filter, Design of FIR digital filter, Design of IIR digital filter, Adaptive signal processing, Audio signal processing, video signal processing and application of digital signal processing.

  2. The newest digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deal with the newest digital signal processing, which contains introduction on conception of digital signal processing, constitution and purpose, signal and system such as signal, continuos signal, discrete signal and discrete system, I/O expression on impress response, convolution, mutual connection of system and frequency character,z transform of definition, range, application of z transform and relationship with laplace transform, Discrete fourier, Fast fourier transform on IDFT algorithm and FFT application, foundation of digital filter of notion, expression, types, frequency characteristic of digital filter and design order of filter, Design order of filter, Design of FIR digital filter, Design of IIR digital filter, Adaptive signal processing, Audio signal processing, video signal processing and application of digital signal processing.

  3. Financial Signaling and Earnings Forecasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliia Brushko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which financial signaling affects the analysts' and managers' forecast releases. The findings give evidence of heterogeneity of analysts' forecast errors between firms with strong financial indicators (high signal group), weak financial indicators (low signal group), and those with both positive and negative signals (mixed signal group). The paper further indicates that managers' forecast releases also depend on the type of the firm and that managers may try ...

  4. Analog and digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baher, H.

    The techniques of signal processing in both the analog and digital domains are addressed in a fashion suitable for undergraduate courses in modern electrical engineering. The topics considered include: spectral analysis of continuous and discrete signals, analysis of continuous and discrete systems and networks using transform methods, design of analog and digital filters, digitization of analog signals, power spectrum estimation of stochastic signals, FFT algorithms, finite word-length effects in digital signal processes, linear estimation, and adaptive filtering.

  5. Education - A Job Market Signal?

    OpenAIRE

    Leino, Topias

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on job market signalling and on education as a job market signal. Possible economic implications of educational job market signalling to an individual and the society are represented based on existing theories. The paper also reviews central methods in empirical testing of the signalling/screening hypothesis. The empirical section of the paper carries out two alternative methods for testing the signalling/sorting hypothesis. The firs...

  6. NOX3 NADPH oxidase couples transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-mediated inflammation and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheehan, Kelly; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheth, Sandeep; Bunch, Jennifer; Perro, Christopher; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2011-03-15

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24 h, which recovered by 72 h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss. PMID:20712533

  7. Expression of Toll-like receptor signaling-related genes in pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Van Hieu; Tu, Pang-Yan; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Hsiu-Luan; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan; Chung, Wen-Bin

    2015-08-01

    Pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) have been shown to develop more severe diseases than pigs infected with PRRSV or PCV2 only. The underlying interaction mechanisms between the two viruses in developing the disease are unclear. The present study investigates the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling-related molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs infected with PRRSV or PCV2 or both. The mRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Co-infection of pigs with PRRSV and PCV2 resulted in a negatively synergistic effect on the mRNA expression of the negative regulators of TLR, including A20, Bcl-3, IRAK-M, MKP-1, SARM1 and SIGIRR, as well as the TLR downstream transcription factors IRF-1 and IRF-3. A positively synergistic effect of a combined infection of PRRSV and PCV2 on the CD14 mRNA expression was also observed. PMID:26022073

  8. LukS-PV induces differentiation by activating the ERK signaling pathway and c-JUN/c-FOS in human acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunyang; Zhang, Chengfang; Sun, Xiaoxi; Pan, Qing; Peng, Jing; Shen, Jilong; Ma, Xiaoling

    2016-07-01

    LukS-PV, a component of Panton-Valentine leukocidin, is a pore-forming cytotoxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus. Here we examined the potential effect of LukS-PV in differentiation of human leukemia cells and the underlying mechanism. We found that LukS-PV could induce differentiation of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, including AML cell lines and primary AML blasts, as determined by morphological changes, phagocytosis assay and expression of CD14 and CD11b surface antigens. In addition, LukS-PV activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and significantly upregulated the phosphorylation of c-JUN and c-FOS transcriptional factors in the process of differentiation. Inhibiting ERK pathway activation with U0126 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) markedly blocked LukS-PV-induced differentiation and decreased the phosphorylation of c-JUN and c-FOS. These findings demonstrate an essential role for the ERK pathway together with c-JUN and c-FOS in the differentiation activity of LukS-PV. Taken together, our data suggest that LukS-PV could be a potential candidate as a differentiation-inducing agent for the therapeutic treatment of AML. PMID:27102414

  9. Plant signalling peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśniewska, Justyna; Trejgell, Alina; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Biochemical and genetic studies have identified peptides that play crucial roles in plant growth and development, including defence mechanisms in response to wounding by pests, the control of cell division and expansion, and pollen self-incompatibility. The first two signalling peptides to be described in plants were tomato systemin and phytosulfokine (PSK). There is also biochemical evidence that natriuretic peptide-like molecules, immunologically-relatedt o those found ...

  10. Insulin signaling and addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lynette C Daws; Avison, Malcolm J.; Robertson, Sabrina D.; Niswender, Kevin D.; Galli, Aurelio; Saunders, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Across species, the brain evolved to respond to natural rewards such as food and sex. These physiological responses are important for survival, reproduction and evolutionary processes. It is no surprise, therefore, that many of the neural circuits and signaling pathways supporting reward processes are conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to Drosophilae, to rats, monkeys and humans. The central role of dopamine (DA) in encoding reward and in attaching salience to external environmental cues i...

  11. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  12. Nonlinear cochlear signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Jont

    2001-01-01

    This chapter describes the mechanical function of the cochlea, or inner ear, the organ that converts signals from acoustical to neural. Many cochlear hearing disorders are still not well understood. If systematic progress is to be made in improved diagnostics and treatment of these disorders, a clear understanding of basic principles is essential. Models of the cochlea are useful because they succinctly describe auditory perception principles. Several topics will...

  13. Signal processing for hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Caceres Duran, Mauricio A.; Closas Gómez, Pau; Falletti, Emanuela; Fernández Prades, Carlos; Nájar Martón, Montserrat; Sottile, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents several signal processing strategies to combine together, in a seamless estimation process, position-related measurements coming from different technologies and/or systems (e.g., TOA and TDOA measurements in terrestrial networks, TOA and RSS measurements, or even satellite and terrestrial systems, or satellite and inertial navigation systems). This approach, generally indicated as “hybridization”, promises to provide better accuracy with respect to its stand-alone counte...

  14. Analog Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Caloz, Christophe; Gupta, Shulabh; Zhang, Qingfeng; Nikfal, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Analog signal processing (ASP) is presented as a systematic approach to address future challenges in high speed and high frequency microwave applications. The general concept of ASP is explained with the help of examples emphasizing basic ASP effects, such as time spreading and compression, chirping and frequency discrimination. Phasers, which represent the core of ASP systems, are explained to be elements exhibiting a frequency-dependent group delay response, and hence a nonlinear phase resp...

  15. Mediation as Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Holler, M.J.; Lindner, I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes mediation as a signal. Starting from a stylized case, a game theoretical model of one-sided incomplete information, taken from Cho and Kreps (1987), is applied to discuss strategic effects of mediation. It turns out that to reject mediation can be interpreted as a ”negative signal” while the interpretation of accepting or proposing mediation is ambiguous and does not necessarily change the prior beliefs of the uninformed party. This asymmetry suggests that, in equilibrium,...

  16. Phytosulfokine peptide signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Margret

    2015-08-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) belongs to the group of plant peptide growth factors. It is a disulfated pentapeptide encoded by precursor genes that are ubiquitously present in higher plants, suggestive of universal functions. Processing of the preproprotein involves sulfonylation by a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase in the trans-golgi and proteolytic cleavage in the apoplast. The secreted peptide is perceived at the cell surface by a membrane-bound receptor kinase of the leucine-rich repeat family. The PSK receptor PSKR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana is an active kinase and has guanylate cyclase activity resulting in dual-signal outputs. Receptor activity is regulated by calmodulin. While PSK may be an autocrine growth factor, it also acts non-cell autonomously by promoting growth of cells that are receptor-deficient. In planta, PSK has multiple functions. It promotes cell growth, acts in the quiescent centre cells of the root apical meristem, contributes to funicular pollen tube guidance, and differentially alters immune responses depending on the pathogen. It has been suggested that PSK integrates growth and defence signals to balance the competing metabolic costs of these responses. This review summarizes our current understanding of PSK synthesis, signalling, and activity. PMID:25754406

  17. Uncertainty product of composite signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The well known uncertainty product of communication theory for a signal in the time domain and its Fourier transform in the frequency domain is studied for a 'composite signal', i.e. a 'pure' signal to which a time-delayed replica is added. This uncertainty product shows the appearance of local maxima and minima as a function of the time delay, leading to the following conjecture: the uncertainty product of a non-Gaussian composite signal can be smaller than that of the 'pure' signal. As an example this conjecture will be proven for the derivative of the Gaussian signal and for the Cauchy distribution. The effect on the uncertainty product of adding a delayed scaled replica of a signal to the original signal in the time domain leads to an important possibility for interpretation in the study of the reverberation phenomenon in echo-location signals of dolphins. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  18. CEO vs CFO:女性高管能否抑制财务舞弊行为%CEO vs CFO:Can Female Executives Restrain Financial Fraud?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周泽将; 刘中燕; 胡瑞

    2016-01-01

    女性高管已经对企业决策产生了重要影响。文章以中国资本市场2000年至2012年A股上市公司为样本,实证分析了女性高管及其不同类型与财务舞弊行为之间的关系。研究表明:总体而言,女性高管显著抑制了财务舞弊行为;区分女性高管类型后,发现女性CFO对于财务舞弊产生了抑制作用,而女性CEO则促使财务舞弊行为的发生,女性其他高管对财务舞弊的影响不显著。进一步将研究区间划分为企业会计准则2006实施前后两个阶段,发现上述效应主要存在于企业会计准则2006实施后阶段。文章的研究结论揭示,在中国鼓励发挥女性高管积极作用的同时,应制定女性高管的分类监管政策并完善女性高管履职的外部制度。%Female executives have exerted an important effect on corporate decisions .This pa‐per uses A-share listed companies from 2000 to 2012 in China’s capital market as the sample ,and empirically analyzes the relationship between female executives (including its types) and financial fraud .It comes to the results as follows :firstly ,in general ,female executives restrain financial fraud significantly ;secondly ,while female executives are divided into several types ,it finds that female CFOs play an inhibition role in financial fraud ,but female CEOs even promote financial fraud ,and other types of female executives have no significant impacts on financial fraud .Fur‐thermore ,when research range is separated into before and after the implementation of Chinese Accounting Standard (CAS) 2006 ,the effects above-mentioned mainly exist in the duration after CAS 2006 .The research conclusions reveal that while encouraging female executives to play a positive role in China ,it should also pay attention to classified regulatory policy setting and exter‐nal institution of the performance of duties in terms of female executives .

  19. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  20. Biphonation in voice signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzel, H. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technical University, Hardenbergstr. 36, Sekr. PN 7-1, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Reuter, R. [Institute of Electronics, Technical University, Einsteinufer 17, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    Irregularities in voiced speech are often observed as a consequence of vocal fold lesions, paralyses, and other pathological conditions. Many of these instabilities are related to the intrinsic nonlinearities in the vibrations of the vocal folds. In this paper, a specific nonlinear phenomenon is discussed: The appearance of two independent fundamental frequencies termed biphonation. Several narrow-band spectrograms are presented showing biphonation in signals from voice patients, a newborn cry, a singer, and excised larynx experiments. Finally, possible physiological mechanisms of instabilities of the voice source are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  2. Signal Communication Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Johanssen, Marius; Dasic, Stefan; Nielsen, Eivind; Kamboj, Armaan; Solberg, Dan Filip

    2015-01-01

    SCU er i hovedsak en IO-tester som skal kunne utføre forskjellige tester på Kongsberg Maritime sine moduler, RIO og Stahl. Boksen sin egenskap er i hovedsak at den kan sende og motta både analoge og digitale signaler. De digitale signalene er ganske enkelt kommunikasjon med logisk 1 og logisk 0, de analoge signalene er blant annet 4-20 mA, i tillegg til at boksen kan simulere en PT100 RTD-sensor. Boksen er utstyrt med, en 3.2" berøringsskjerm, to potensiometre, en vribryter og ...

  3. Sphingosine in apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier, Olivier

    2002-12-30

    The sphingolipid metabolites ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate contribute to controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis. Ceramide and its catabolite sphingosine act as negative regulators of cell proliferation and promote apoptosis. Conversely, sphingosine 1-phosphate, formed by phosphorylation of sphingosine by a sphingosine kinase, has been involved in stimulating cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis. As the phosphorylation of sphingosine diminishes apoptosis, while dephosphorylation of sphingosine 1-phosphate potentiates it, the role of sphingosine as a messenger of apoptosis is of importance. Herein, the effects of sphingosine on diverse signaling pathways implicated in the apoptotic process are reviewed. PMID:12531549

  4. Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Zayed, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling presents recent advances in multiscale analysis and modeling using wavelets and other systems. This book also presents applications in digital signal processing using sampling theory and techniques from various function spaces, filter design, feature extraction and classification, signal and image representation/transmission, coding, nonparametric statistical signal processing, and statistical learning theory. This book also: Discusses recently developed signal modeling techniques, such as the multiscale method for complex time series modeling, multiscale positive density estimations, Bayesian Shrinkage Strategies, and algorithms for data adaptive statistics Introduces new sampling algorithms for multidimensional signal processing Provides comprehensive coverage of wavelets with presentations on waveform design and modeling, wavelet analysis of ECG signals and wavelet filters Reviews features extraction and classification algorithms for multiscale signal and image proce...

  5. Signal quality of endovascular electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bryan D.; Ebrahimi, Mosalam; Palafox, Leon; Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan

    2016-02-01

    Objective, Approach. A growing number of prototypes for diagnosing and treating neurological and psychiatric diseases are predicated on access to high-quality brain signals, which typically requires surgically opening the skull. Where endovascular navigation previously transformed the treatment of cerebral vascular malformations, we now show that it can provide access to brain signals with substantially higher signal quality than scalp recordings. Main results. While endovascular signals were known to be larger in amplitude than scalp signals, our analysis in rabbits borrows a standard technique from communication theory to show endovascular signals also have up to 100× better signal-to-noise ratio. Significance. With a viable minimally-invasive path to high-quality brain signals, patients with brain diseases could one day receive potent electroceuticals through the bloodstream, in the course of a brief outpatient procedure.

  6. Biological signals classification and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiasaleh, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random, and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently ...

  7. Quantum signalling in cavity QED

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Robert H.; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

    2013-01-01

    We consider quantum signalling between two-level quantum systems in a cavity, in the pertubative regime of the earliest possible arrival times of the signal. We present two main results: First we find that, perhaps surprisingly, the analogue of amplitude modulated signalling (Alice using her energy eigenstates |g>, |e>, as in the Fermi problem) is generally sub-optimal for communication. Namely, e.g., phase modulated signalling (Alice using, e.g., |+>,|e>-states) overcomes the quantum noise a...

  8. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  9. Digital Signal Processing (Second Edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Blackledge (Thesis), Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    This book provides an account of the mathematical background, computational methods and software engineering associated with digital signal processing. The aim has been to provide the reader with the mathematical methods required for signal analysis which are then used to develop models and algorithms for processing digital signals and finally to encourage the reader to design software solutions for Digital Signal Processing (DSP). In this way, the reader is invited to develop a small DSP lib...

  10. Two-dimensional signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Garello, René

    2010-01-01

    This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.

  11. Endocannabinoid Signaling in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Persico, Antonio; Battista, Natalia; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex behavioral condition with onset during early childhood and a lifelong course in the vast majority of cases. To date, no behavioral, genetic, brain imaging, or electrophysiological test can specifically validate a clinical diagnosis of ASD. However, these medical procedures are often implemented in order to screen for syndromic forms of the disorder (i.e., autism comorbid with known medical conditions). In the last 25 years a good deal of information has been accumulated on the main components of the "endocannabinoid (eCB) system", a rather complex ensemble of lipid signals ("endocannabinoids"), their target receptors, purported transporters, and metabolic enzymes. It has been clearly documented that eCB signaling plays a key role in many human health and disease conditions of the central nervous system, thus opening the avenue to the therapeutic exploitation of eCB-oriented drugs for the treatment of psychiatric, neurodegenerative, and neuroinflammatory disorders. Here we present a modern view of the eCB system, and alterations of its main components in human patients and animal models relevant to ASD. This review will thus provide a critical perspective necessary to explore the potential exploitation of distinct elements of eCB system as targets of innovative therapeutics against ASD. PMID:26216231

  12. Vertebrate Hedgehog signaling: cilia rule

    OpenAIRE

    Stainier Didier YR; Wilson Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway differentially utilizes the primary cilium in mammals and fruit flies. Recent work, including a study in BMC Biology, demonstrates that Hh signals through the cilium in zebrafish, clarifying the evolution of Hh signal transduction. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/65

  13. Isolated transfer of analog signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, T.

    1974-01-01

    Technique transfers analog signal levels across high isolation boundary without circuit performance being affected by magnetizing reactance or leakage inductance. Transfers of analog information across isolated boundary are made by interrupting signal flow, with switch, in such a manner as to produce alternating signal which is applied to transformer.

  14. Cellular signalling properties in microcircuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; El Manira, Abdeljabbar; Wallén, Peter; Svirskis, Gytis; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    Molecules and cells are the signalling elements in microcircuits. Recent studies have uncovered bewildering diversity in postsynaptic signalling properties in all areas of the vertebrate nervous system. Major effort is now being invested in establishing the specialized signalling properties at th...... cellular and molecular levels in microcircuits in specific brain regions. This review is part of the TINS Microcircuits Special Feature....

  15. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique ro...

  16. Análise e avaliação do mercado reprimido de energia no contexto do desenvolvimento limpo na Região Administrativa de Araçatuba Analysis and assessment of the restrained energy market in the clean development context of the Araçatuba Administrative Region

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bertrand Heideier; Marcos Z. Ueocka; Miguel Edgar Morales Udaeta

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo avalia o mercado reprimido de eletricidade, gás natural e álcool na Região Administrativa de Araçatuba (RAA), comparando o consumo com o consumo médio do estado de São Paulo e do estado da Flórida, EUA, onde se acredita que a demanda é plenamente satisfeita. O artigo apresenta uma projeção para o atendimento da demanda no contexto do desenvolvimento limpo em um cenário hipotético.This article assesses the restrained market of electricity, natural gas and alcohol in the Araçatuba A...

  17. Binary-Signal Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  18. Emerging Trends in Retrograde Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Yashasvi; Maity, Nivedita; Shivamurthy, M C

    2016-05-01

    Retrograde signaling is defined as the signaling events leading from the plastids to the nucleus in plants and across the chemical synapse, from the postsynaptic neuron to the presynaptic neuron in animals. The discovery of various retrograde messengers has opened many avenues and clouds of thoughts as to the role of retrograde signaling. They have been implicated particularly in long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity. But the basic assumptions about retrograde signaling have not been studied upon for many years. This review focuses on established facts and hypothesis put forward in retrograde signaling. PMID:26081150

  19. Finding Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types. It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box. The other type may be called TATA-less signal, and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition. While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot, their TATA-less signals are significantly different. A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming. By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature, an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  20. Detection of signals in noise

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, Anthony D; Declaris, Nicholas

    1971-01-01

    Detection of Signals in Noise serves as an introduction to the principles and applications of the statistical theory of signal detection. The book discusses probability and random processes; narrowband signals, their complex representation, and their properties described with the aid of the Hilbert transform; and Gaussian-derived processes. The text also describes the application of hypothesis testing for the detection of signals and the fundamentals required for statistical detection of signals in noise. Problem exercises, references, and a supplementary bibliography are included after each c

  1. [Signal Processing Suite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahr, John D.; Mir, Hasan; Morabito, Andrew; Grossman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Our role in this project was to participate in the design of the signal processing suite to analyze plasma density measurements on board a small constellation (3 or 4) satellites in Low Earth Orbit. As we are new to space craft experiments, one of the challenges was to simply gain understanding of the quantity of data which would flow from the satellites, and possibly to interact with the design teams in generating optimal sampling patterns. For example, as the fleet of satellites were intended to fly through the same volume of space (displaced slightly in time and space), the bulk plasma structure should be common among the spacecraft. Therefore, an optimal, limited bandwidth data downlink would take advantage of this commonality. Also, motivated by techniques in ionospheric radar, we hoped to investigate the possibility of employing aperiodic sampling in order to gain access to a wider spatial spectrum without suffering aliasing in k-space.

  2. Olfactory receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Gabriela; Simoes de Souza, Fabio Marques

    2016-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily represents the largest class of membrane protein in the human genome. More than a half of all GPCRs are dedicated to interact with odorants and are termed odorant-receptors (ORs). Linda Buck and Richard Axel, the Nobel Prize laureates in physiology or medicine in 2004, first cloned and characterized the gene family that encode ORs, establishing the foundations to the understanding of the molecular basis for odor recognition. In the last decades, a lot of progress has been done to unravel the functioning of the sense of smell. This chapter gives a general overview of the topic of olfactory receptor signaling and reviews recent advances in this field. PMID:26928542

  3. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  4. EEG signal analysis: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, D Puthankattil; Joseph, Paul K; Acharya U, Rajendra; Lim, Choo Min

    2010-04-01

    The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signal indicates the electrical activity of the brain. They are highly random in nature and may contain useful information about the brain state. However, it is very difficult to get useful information from these signals directly in the time domain just by observing them. They are basically non-linear and nonstationary in nature. Hence, important features can be extracted for the diagnosis of different diseases using advanced signal processing techniques. In this paper the effect of different events on the EEG signal, and different signal processing methods used to extract the hidden information from the signal are discussed in detail. Linear, Frequency domain, time - frequency and non-linear techniques like correlation dimension (CD), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Hurst exponent (H), different entropies, fractal dimension(FD), Higher Order Spectra (HOS), phase space plots and recurrence plots are discussed in detail using a typical normal EEG signal. PMID:20433058

  5. Wavelet analysis for nonstationary signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical vibration signals play an important role in anomalies identification resulting of equipment malfunctioning. Traditionally, Fourier spectral analysis is used where the signals are assumed to be stationary. However, occasional transient impulses and start-up process are examples of nonstationary signals that can be found in mechanical vibrations. These signals can provide important information about the equipment condition, as early fault detection. The Fourier analysis can not adequately be applied to nonstationary signals because the results provide data about the frequency composition averaged over the duration of the signal. In this work, two methods for nonstationary signal analysis are used: Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and wavelet transform. The STFT is a method of adapting Fourier spectral analysis for nonstationary application to time-frequency domain. To have a unique resolution throughout the entire time-frequency domain is its main limitation. The wavelet transform is a new analysis technique suitable to nonstationary signals, which handles the STFT drawbacks, providing multi-resolution frequency analysis and time localization in a unique time-scale graphic. The multiple frequency resolutions are obtained by scaling (dilatation/compression) the wavelet function. A comparison of the conventional Fourier transform, STFT and wavelet transform is made applying these techniques to: simulated signals, arrangement rotor rig vibration signal and rotate machine vibration signal Hanning window was used to STFT analysis. Daubechies and harmonic wavelets were used to continuos, discrete and multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The results show the Fourier analysis was not able to detect changes in the signal frequencies or discontinuities. The STFT analysis detected the changes in the signal frequencies, but with time-frequency resolution problems. The wavelet continuos and discrete transform demonstrated to be a high efficient tool to detect

  6. Study on the influence factors of thermal stresses of axial-restrained steel columns%轴向约束钢柱温度应力影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪瑞

    2012-01-01

    建筑结构多为超静定结构.火灾条件下,组成结构的各构件在受到不均匀温度作用时,构件内将会产生温度应力.温度应力增加了构件的作用荷载,并影响受火钢柱的稳定性,是导致约束钢柱屈服破坏的主要原因.根据文献分析,轴向约束钢柱的温度应力影响因素主要有轴向约束刚度、长细比、初应力水平和构件升温.采用试验方法研究各因素对约束钢柱温度应力的影响规律.在温度应力增长阶段,构件所产生的温度应力与构件的温度升高值之间为线性关系,温度越高,温度应力越大.温度应力随轴向约束刚度和长细比的增大而增大;初应力水平越高,温度应力值越小.初应力水平的大小不影响温度应力的增长,但决定构件何时进入塑性状态.%Most of steel structures are statically indeterminate structures. Under fire condition, the compositions of a structure will give rise to thermal stress when exposed to non-uniform temperature. On the basis of analysis on reference , the influence factors of thermal stresses of axial-restrained steel columns were investigated. They were temperature increment, axial restraint stiffness, slenderness ratio and initial stress ratio. A series of tests were carried out by using crossover trial method to study the influence rules of these factors. The end restraint stiffness was set as 3 levels, slenderness ratio was set as 4 levels and initial stress ratio was set as 3 levels. The results showed that the relationship between temperature increment of columns and its thermal stresses was a linear relation. The higher temperature, the larger thermal stresses. Before buckling, because of the bigger end restraint stiffness, the bigger restraint for axial elongation of steel column, the axial thermal stress increased with the increasing of restraint stiffness. The axial thermal stress increased with the increasing of slenderness ratio. The columns of large

  7. P2P网络中搭便车行为分析与抑制机制建模%Analysis of Free-riding Behaviors and Modeling Restrain Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐光学; 李仁发; 陈志; 周旭

    2011-01-01

    In a real peer-to-peer (P2P) network, large amounts of network measurement results show that free riding is prevalent in almost all P2P reliable streaming media networks, which reduces the robustness, availability, service response speed, and lifetime of P2P reliable streaming media networks. Research of the reasonable and effective mechanisms to prohibit free-riders and incite selfish nodes to contribute more to the system has become an important direction for application research of P2P reliable streaming media network. Analysis by the intrinsic characteristics of freeriding and the related impacts on system performance, the behaviors of P2P reliable streaming media nodes are modeled and an idea with the goal of keeping moderate safety by allowing some errors but no crimes is introduced without sacrificing overall performance. Furthermore, the game theory is used to restrain free-riders and encourage them to be more altruistic. Reputation, contribution, and revenue of each node are adopted as metrics to assess the model. And the existence of Nash equilibrium for the model is proved; the rules, constraints, and a detailed analysis of it are given as well. Simulations show that the proposed model is effective in countering free-riding behavior, improving the performance and quality of service (QoS) of the P2P reliable streaming media network. It is able to keep relative balance.%在现实网络中,节点日益严重的搭便车行为对P2P可信流媒体网络的健壮性、可用性、服务响应速度和生命周期等产生了重要的影响.设计合理且有效的搭便车行为抑制和鼓励自私节点为系统作贡献的策略已成为P2P可信流媒体系统应用研究的一个重要方向.在全面分析节点的搭便车行为机理和搭便车行为对网络性能影响的基础上,对节点在P2P可信流媒体网络中的行为建模,在保证网络性能的前提下引入"适度安全、容错不容罪"的思想以保持网络系

  8. Comparative Research on Design Methods for Frame-Buckling Restrained Slit Steel Plate Wall System%框架-防屈曲开缝钢板墙体系设计方法的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙飞飞; 张葳; 李立树

    2012-01-01

    The buckling-restrained slit steel plate wall (BRSSPW) in general is a new type lateral resistant member. Besides having the characteristics of traditional steel plate shear walls,it still has many advantages such as good plasticity performance, stable hysteresis characteristics and the bearing capacity and stiffness can be independently adjusted. At present,some scholars have proposed capacity design method and capacity criteria method which are performance-based seismic design approaches for this structural system. In this paper, by using the above two approaches and the Japanese design method (performance demand method) for passively-controlled structure, a six-story, three-span BRSSPW structure was designed to compare their influence on the performance of structure. The calculation results show that: for capacity design method, by appropriately increasing steel plate wall's yielding displacement, the ductility of the structure can be effectively increased. For capacity criteria method, trial calculation needs to be conducted for several times,and the structural performance index is difficult to assess. Meanwhile the wall-plate yielding displacement is designed under control by loading capacity, but with relatively high energy dissipation efficiency as a result. The best ductility could be obtained in a structure designed with performance demand method, but requiring a higher steel consumption. When it is applied in designing BRSSPW, issues of designing frame beams and determining the yielding displacement of steel plates need to be solved.%防屈曲开缝钢板墙是一种新型的抗侧力构件,除具有一般钢板墙的特点外,还具有塑性性能好、滞回特性稳定以及可以独立地变化墙板承载力和刚度等优点.目前,有学者针对该结构体系提出基于性能设计的能力设计法和能力准则法,采用上述理论以及日本被动减震结构的设计方法(性能需求法),对1榀6层3跨的防屈曲开缝钢板墙结构

  9. Signal Propagation in Cortical Networks: A Digital Signal Processing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a digital signal processing approach to representing and modeling transmission and combination of signals in cortical networks. The signal dynamics is modeled in terms of diffusion, which allows the information processing undergone between any pair of nodes to be fully characterized in terms of a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Diffusion without and with time decay are investigated. All filters underlying the cat and macaque cortical organization are found to be of l...

  10. FPGA Based RADAR Signal Emulator for Signal Processing Test Applications

    OpenAIRE

    S. Yoganand; S. Sundara Babu

    2014-01-01

    The RADARs use complex techniques such as stagger PRI, jitter PRI with frequency agile characteristics. The frequency agile RADARs switch frequencies with in a pulse to get different types of advantages. Today lot of RADAR signal processing takes place on FPGA platform. These signal processing algorithms include pulse parameters estimation, deinterleaving of mixed pulse patterns, processing complex chirp signals etc. All these algorithms need to be tested at various levels bef...

  11. Latent membrane protein 1 inhibits apoptosis induced by 60 irradiation via Survivin triggering signal-pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the anti-apoptosis mechanism of EB virus encoden latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) via the survivin signal transduction pathway after irradiation induction. Methods: Tet-on- LMP1 HNE2 cells, as a model, were detected with morphological assay, flowcytometry and Caspase 3 assay after 60Co irradiation with LMP1 induced by doxycycline. The apoptosis in the anti-sense survivin transfected cells was tested. Results: The results showed that, with LMP1 expression, the apoptosis rates from morphological assay and flowcytometry were 32.7%±2.1% and 6.3%, which showed that they were all lower than that without LMP1 expression (66.0%±3.0% and 29.6%). When anti-sense of survivin was induced, the apoptosis rates were 59.0%±3.2% and 3.0% respectively, and caspase 3 activity was 3.78 nmol/106 cells, which were higher than that of the control (26.0%±2.6%, 8.6% and 2.79 nmol/106). Survivin restrained the cell apoptosis induced by irradiation, but anti-sense of survivin could release this inhibition of cell apoptosis triggered by LMP1 expression. Conclusion: LMP1 inhibits the irradiation-induced cell apoptosis via triggering survivin expression. Survivin may be targeted in some certain therapy

  12. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  13. Angular signal radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping

    2016-03-21

    Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780

  14. Digitally programmable signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) includes a first memory from which data is written into a second memory formed of n banks. Each bank includes four memories and a multiplexer, the banks being read once during each time frame, the read-out bits being multiplexed and fed out serially in synchronism with a plurality of clock pulses occuring during a time frame. The resulting serial bit streams may be fed in parallel to a digital-to-analog converter. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material, optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range. (author)

  15. Unmixing binocular signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney R Lehky

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Incompatible images presented to the two eyes lead to perceptual oscillations in which one image at a time is visible. Early models portrayed this binocular rivalry as involving reciprocal inhibition between monocular representations of images, occurring at an early visual stage prior to binocular mixing. However, psychophysical experiments found conditions where rivalry could also occur at a higher, more abstract level of representation. In those cases, the rivalry was between image representations dissociated from eye-of-origin information, rather than between monocular representations from the two eyes. Moreover, neurophysiological recordings found the strongest rivalry correlate in inferotemporal cortex, a high-level, predominantly binocular visual area involved in object recognition, rather than early visual structures. An unresolved issue is how can the separate identities of the two images be maintained after binocular mixing in order for rivalry to be possible at higher levels? Here we demonstrate that after the two images are mixed, they can be unmixed at any subsequent stage using a physiologically plausible nonlinear signal-processing algorithm, non-negative matrix factorization, previously proposed for parsing object parts during object recognition. The possibility that unmixed left and right images can be regenerated at late stages within the visual system provides a mechanism for creating various binocular representations and interactions de novo in different cortical areas for different purposes, rather than inheriting then from early areas. This is a clear example how nonlinear algorithms can lead to highly non-intuitive behavior in neural information processing.

  16. Purinergic signaling in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassendren, François; Audinat, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    Until recently, analysis of the mechanisms underlying epilepsy was centered on neuron dysfunctions. Accordingly, most of the available pharmacological treatments aim at reducing neuronal excitation or at potentiating neuronal inhibition. These therapeutic options can lead to obvious secondary effects, and, moreover, seizures cannot be controlled by any known medication in one-third of the patients. A purely neurocentric view of brain functions and dysfunctions has been seriously questioned during the past 2 decades because of the accumulation of experimental data showing the functional importance of reciprocal interactions between glial cells and neurons. In the case of epilepsy, our current knowledge of the human disease and analysis of animal models clearly favor the involvement of astrocytes and microglial cells during the progression of the disease, including at very early stages, opening the way to the identification of new therapeutic targets. Purinergic signaling is a fundamental feature of neuron-glia interactions, and increasing evidence indicates that modifications of this pathway contribute to the functional remodeling of the epileptic brain. This Review discusses the recent experimental results indicating the roles of astrocytic and microglial P2X and P2Y receptors in epilepsy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27302739

  17. SUMO chains: polymeric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2010-02-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins are conjugated to a wide variety of target proteins that play roles in all biological processes. Target proteins are conjugated to ubiquitin monomers or to ubiquitin polymers that form via all seven internal lysine residues of ubiquitin. The fate of these target proteins is controlled in a chain architecture-dependent manner. SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) shares the ability of ubiquitin to form chains via internal SUMOylation sites. Interestingly, a SUMO-binding site in Ubc9 is important for SUMO chain synthesis. Similar to ubiquitin-polymer cleavage by USPs (ubiquitin-specific proteases), SUMO chain formation is reversible. SUMO polymers are cleaved by the SUMO proteases SENP6 [SUMO/sentrin/SMT3 (suppressor of mif two 3)-specific peptidase 6], SENP7 and Ulp2 (ubiquitin-like protease 2). SUMO chain-binding proteins including ZIP1, SLX5/8 (synthetic lethal of unknown function 5/8), RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) and CENP-E (centromere-associated protein E) have been identified that interact non-covalently with SUMO chains, thereby regulating target proteins that are conjugated to SUMO multimers. SUMO chains play roles in replication, in the turnover of SUMO targets by the proteasome and during mitosis and meiosis. Thus signalling via polymers is an exciting feature of the SUMO family. PMID:20074033

  18. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... excitation signal. Although a gain in signal-to-noise ratio of about 20 dB is theoretically possible for the time-bandwidth product available in ultrasound, it is shown that the effects of transducer weighting and tissue attenuation reduce the maximum gain at 10 dB for robust compression with low sidelobes...... described. Application of coded excitation in array imaging is evaluated through simulations in Field II. The low degree of the orthogonality among coded signals for ultrasound systems is first discussed, and the effect of mismatched filtering in the cross-correlation properties of the signals is evaluated...

  19. Steganography in arrhythmic electrocardiogram signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Jero, S; Ramu, Palaniappan; Ramakrishnan, S

    2015-08-01

    Security and privacy of patient data is a vital requirement during exchange/storage of medical information over communication network. Steganography method hides patient data into a cover signal to prevent unauthenticated accesses during data transfer. This study evaluates the performance of ECG steganography to ensure secured transmission of patient data where an abnormal ECG signal is used as cover signal. The novelty of this work is to hide patient data into two dimensional matrix of an abnormal ECG signal using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition based steganography method. A 2D ECG is constructed according to Tompkins QRS detection algorithm. The missed R peaks are computed using RR interval during 2D conversion. The abnormal ECG signals are obtained from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Percentage Residual Difference, Kullback-Leibler distance and Bit Error Rate are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. PMID:26736533

  20. Retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 inhibits CXCL2 production from microglial BV-2 cells via attenuation of NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Moeka; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that retinoic acid receptor agonists such as Am80 exerts anti-inflammatory actions in the central nervous system, although detailed mechanisms of the action remain largely unknown. Our previous findings suggest that Am80 provides therapeutic effect on intracerebral hemorrhage in mice via suppression of expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2). Here we investigated the mechanisms of inhibitory action of Am80 on expression of CXCL2 and other pro-inflammatory factors in microglial BV-2 cells. Pretreatment with Am80 markedly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of CXCL2 mRNA and release of CXCL2 protein. Am80 had no effect on LPS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. On the other hand, Am80 prevented LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB complex. In addition, total expression levels of p65 and IκBα proteins, as well as of mRNAs encoding p65 and IκBα, were lowered by Am80. Dependence of CXCL2 expression on NF-κB was confirmed by the effect of an NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester that abolished LPS-induced CXCL2 expression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester also abolished LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α, which may be relevant to the inhibitory effect of Am80 on expression of these pro-inflammatory factors. We additionally found that Am80 attenuated LPS-induced up-regulation of CD14, a co-receptor for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These results suggest that inhibitory effect on TLR4 signaling mediated by NF-κB pathway underlies the anti-inflammatory action of retinoic acid receptor agonists in microglia. PMID:27351827

  1. Systems theory of Smad signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, D. C.; Betterton, M D; Liu, X

    2006-01-01

    Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) signalling is an important regulator of cellular growth and differentiation. The principal intracellular mediators of TGF-beta signalling are the Smad proteins, which upon TGF-beta stimulation accumulate in the nucleus and regulate transcription of target genes. To investigate the mechanisms of Smad nuclear accumulation, we developed a simple mathematical model of canonical Smad signalling. The model was built using both published data and our experi...

  2. Semi-classical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Sorine, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method called SCSA, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in the SCSA is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schr\\"odinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms.

  3. Introduction to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Roman

    2008-01-01

    This book approaches digital Signal Processing and filter design in a Novel way, by presenting the relevant theory and then having the Student apply it by implementing signal processing routines on a computer. This mixture of theory and application has worked successfully. With this approach, the students receive a deeper and intuitive understanding of the theory, its applications and its limitations. This text also includes projects that require students to write Computer programs to accomplish signal processing projects.

  4. Digital Signal Processing in Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Jasche, J.; Kitaura, F. S.; Ensslin, T. A.

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of discretizing continuous cosmological signals such as a galaxy distribution for further processing with Fast Fourier techniques. Discretizing, in particular representing continuous signals by discrete sets of sample points, introduces an enormous loss of information, which has to be understood in detail if one wants to make inference from the discretely sampled signal towards actual natural physical quantities. We therefore review the mathematics of discretizing signa...

  5. An algebra for signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Thielemann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Our paper presents an attempt to axiomatise signal processing. Our long-term goal is to formulate signal processing algorithms for an ideal world of exact computation and prove properties about them, then interpret these ideal formulations and apply them without change to real world discrete data. We give models of the axioms that are based on Gaussian functions, that allow for exact computations and automated tests of signal algorithm properties.

  6. Mathematical methods of signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Sayols Baixeras, Narcís

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to present in a systematic way the more relevant mathematical methods of signal processing, and to explore how they are applied to speech and image precessing. After explaining the more common parts of a standard course in signal processing, we put special emphasis in two new tools that have played a significant role in signal processing in the past few years: pattern theory and wavelet theory. Finally, we use all these techniques to implement an algorit...

  7. Discrete Signal Processing on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Sandryhaila, Aliaksei; Moura, Jose M. F.

    2012-01-01

    In social settings, individuals interact through webs of relationships. Each individual is a node in a complex network (or graph) of interdependencies and generates data, lots of data. We label the data by its source, or formally stated, we index the data by the nodes of the graph. The resulting signals (data indexed by the nodes) are far removed from time or image signals indexed by well ordered time samples or pixels. DSP, discrete signal processing, provides a comprehensive, elegant, and e...

  8. Adaptive multiscale biological signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Testoni, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Biological processes are very complex mechanisms, most of them being accompanied by or manifested as signals that reflect their essential characteristics and qualities. The development of diagnostic techniques based on signal and image acquisition from the human body is commonly retained as one of the propelling factors in the advancements in medicine and biosciences recorded in the recent past. It is a fact that the instruments used for biological signal and image rec...

  9. Signal processing in cellular clocks

    OpenAIRE

    Forger, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Many biochemical events within a cell need to be timed properly to occur at specific times of day, after other events have happened within the cell or in response to environmental signals. The cellular biochemical feedback loops that time these events have already received much recent attention in the experimental and modeling communities. Here, we show how ideas from signal processing can be applied to understand the function of these clocks. Consider two signals from the network s(t) and r(...

  10. Image quality. Signals and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among many parameters relating image quality, neutrons and observed signals prior to handle observed signals are considered in this report. A relation between signals and their qualities on neutron images is studied considering on neutron intensity and its statistical character, effective energy, and characteristic of neutron detection systems. Geometrical parameter of neutron beam is discussed as the other importance to characterize image quality.(author)

  11. Fundamentals of statistical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Steven M

    1993-01-01

    A unified presentation of parameter estimation for those involved in the design and implementation of statistical signal processing algorithms. Covers important approaches to obtaining an optimal estimator and analyzing its performance; and includes numerous examples as well as applications to real- world problems. MARKETS: For practicing engineers and scientists who design and analyze signal processing systems, i.e., to extract information from noisy signals — radar engineer, sonar engineer, geophysicist, oceanographer, biomedical engineer, communications engineer, economist, statistician, physicist, etc.

  12. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-09-30

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  13. Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Min Fan; Xiaoyan Feng; Yu Wang; Xing Wang Deng

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, significant knowledge has accumulated regarding gibberellin (GA) signal transduction in rice as a result of studies using multiple approaches, particularly molecular genetics. The present review highlights the recent developments in the identification of GA signaling pathway components, the discovery of GA-induced destruction of GA signaling represser (DELLA protein), and the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of GA-responsive gene expression in rice.

  14. Pragmatic circuits signals and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Signals and Filters is built around the processing of signals. Topics include spectra, a short introduction to the Fourier series, design of filters, and the properties of the Fourier transform. The focus is on signals rather than power. But the treatment is still pragmatic. For example, the author accepts the work of Butterworth and uses his results to design filters in a fairly methodical fashion. This third of three volumes finishes with a look at spectra by showing how to get a spectrum even if a signal is not periodic. The Fourier transform provides a way of dealing wi

  15. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy; Andersen, Jens S

    2007-01-01

    mass spectrometry-based proteomics has allowed exciting views on the very early events in signal transduction. Activation profiles of regulated phosphorylation sites on epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream signal transducers showed different kinetics within the first ten seconds of...

  16. Separating equilibria in continuous signalling games.

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Carl T.; Számadó, Szabolcs; Lachmann, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Much of the literature on costly signalling theory concentrates on separating equilibria of continuous signalling games. At such equilibria, every signaller sends a distinct signal, and signal receivers are able to exactly infer the signaller's condition from the signal sent. In this paper, we introduce a vector-field solution method that simplifies the process of solving for separating equilibria. Using this approach, we show that continuous signalling games can have low-cost separating equi...

  17. Retrograde signaling: Organelles go networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Tatjana; Leister, Dario

    2016-08-01

    The term retrograde signaling refers to the fact that chloroplasts and mitochondria utilize specific signaling molecules to convey information on their developmental and physiological states to the nucleus and modulate the expression of nuclear genes accordingly. Signals emanating from plastids have been associated with two main networks: 'Biogenic control' is active during early stages of chloroplast development, while 'operational' control functions in response to environmental fluctuations. Early work focused on the former and its major players, the GUN proteins. However, our view of retrograde signaling has since been extended and revised. Elements of several 'operational' signaling circuits have come to light, including metabolites, signaling cascades in the cytosol and transcription factors. Here, we review recent advances in the identification and characterization of retrograde signaling components. We place particular emphasis on the strategies employed to define signaling components, spanning the entire spectrum of genetic screens, metabolite profiling and bioinformatics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26997501

  18. Signals in Communication Engineering History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Denise; Silva, Magno T. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark…

  19. Echolocation signals of wild dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W. W. L.

    2004-07-01

    Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone array arranged in a symmetrical star pattern was used to measure the echolocation signals of four species of dolphins in the wild. Echolocation signals of the following dolphins have been measured with the symmetrical star array: white-beaked dolphins in Iceland, Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas, killer whales in British Columbia, and dusky dolphins in New Zealand. There are many common features in the echolocation signals of the different species. Most of the signals had spectra that were bimodal: two peaks, one at low frequencies and another about an octave higher in frequency. The source level of the sonar transmission varies as a function of 20log R, suggesting a form of time-varying gain but on the transmitting end of the sonar process rather than the receiving end. The results of the field work call into question the issue of whether the signals used by captive dolphins may be shaped by the task they are required to perform rather than what they would do more naturally.

  20. Parallel Computers in Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsingh Deo

    1985-07-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing often requires a great deal of raw computing power for which it is important to take a look at parallel computers. The paper reviews various types of parallel computer architectures from the viewpoint of signal and image processing.

  1. Signaling a Change of Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    introduced welfare state retrenchment measures. Social Democrats can win votes and join coalitions by shifting rightwards. In contrast, they can pursue policy objectives by shifting leftwards. To communicate these shifts, in other words, ‘changes of heart’, parties send signals to voters and other parties......, namely after having signalled ‘a change of heart’....

  2. The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sams, Thomas; Baker, Ysobel; Hodgkinson, James;

    2015-01-01

    is now known to be under the con-trol of the quorum sensing (QS) system. Over the last15 years, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) has beenfound to play a crucial role in QS by linking the two seg-ments (las and rhl) of the P. aeruginosa N-acylhomoserinelactone-dependent QS signaling pathways...

  3. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal...

  4. Signals and systems with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Won Young; Song, Ik H; Cho, Yong S

    2009-01-01

    Covers some of the theoretical foundations and mathematical derivations that can be used in higher-level related subjects such as signal processing, communication, and control, minimizing the mathematical difficulty and computational burden. This book illustrates the usage of MATLAB and Simulink for signal and system analysis and design.

  5. Signaling equilibria in sensorimotor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibfried, Felix; Grau-Moya, Jordi; Braun, Daniel A

    2015-08-01

    Although complex forms of communication like human language are often assumed to have evolved out of more simple forms of sensorimotor signaling, less attention has been devoted to investigate the latter. Here, we study communicative sensorimotor behavior of humans in a two-person joint motor task where each player controls one dimension of a planar motion. We designed this joint task as a game where one player (the sender) possesses private information about a hidden target the other player (the receiver) wants to know about, and where the sender's actions are costly signals that influence the receiver's control strategy. We developed a game-theoretic model within the framework of signaling games to investigate whether subjects' behavior could be adequately described by the corresponding equilibrium solutions. The model predicts both separating and pooling equilibria, in which signaling does and does not occur respectively. We observed both kinds of equilibria in subjects and found that, in line with model predictions, the propensity of signaling decreased with increasing signaling costs and decreasing uncertainty on the part of the receiver. Our study demonstrates that signaling games, which have previously been applied to economic decision-making and animal communication, provide a framework for human signaling behavior arising during sensorimotor interactions in continuous and dynamic environments. PMID:25935748

  6. Experimental study on the thermal stress of axially compressed steel tube columns with restrained thermal elongation%轴心受压约束钢管柱温度应力试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈立军; 杨洪瑞; 史可贞; 张平; 李焕群; 李胜利

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the thermal stress variation of axially compressed steel elements with restrained thermal elongation, a self-designed special equipment and the method of continuous heating under constant loads were used. 215 tests on the tube columns made of Q345 steel were performed with 13 levels of restraint stiffness, 3 levels of initial stress and 6 different slenderness ratios prescribed. The results show that: ( 1 ) Thermal stress plays the most important role, and should be considered in the fire protection design and evaluation of steel structure. Thermal stress decreases in the later stage of temperature rise, but before that the specimen already failed. (2) The greater the restraint stiffness and slenderness ratio are, the larger thermal stress is, and the lower the failure temperature for the specimen is. On the contrary, the opposite results are obtained. The greater the restraint stiffness is and the smaller the slenderness ratio is, the longer the plastic plateau on the curve thermal stress-temperature rise is. (3) Failure characteristics of specimens may be affected by the slenderness ratio: a greater slenderness ratio may lead to a larger lateral residual deformation and a smaller axial deformation, indicating that the specimen is undergoing the buckling failure; Otherwise, the specimen is experiencing the strength failure. (4) The early stages of thermal stress-temperature rise curves for different initial stresses are almost similar and the corresponding slopes are same. The lower the initial stress is, the larger the thermal stress is and the later the curve deviates from the initial superposition stage. On the contrary, the opposite results may be observed. (5) There are four stages presented on the thermal stress-temperature rise curve: when the temperature rise is small, the relationship between thermal stress and temperature rise appears to be linear; Subsequently, the increase of stress becomes slow, and a nonlinear relationship is observed; With

  7. Non-clinical adolescent girls at risk of eating disorder: under-reporters or restrained eaters? Mujeres adolescentes en riesgo de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria, no clínicas: ¿infra-declaran o restringen el consumo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Babio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the plausibility of self-reported energy intake, Goldberg et al proposed a technique to identify the miss-reporters. Subjects: After screening2,967 adolescents by EAT-40 test, 132 at risk of ED and 151 as a control group were studied. Aim: To determine whether subjects at risk of eating disorders that are identified as under reporters can be considered as UR or in turn as restrained eaters. Methods: We determined dietary energy intake, body mass index, body satisfaction, physical activity, psychopathology, dietary restraint factor, weight loss and diagnoses of eating disorders. We applied Goldberg's equations to identify under reporters. Results: 40.9% of girls at risk of eating disorders were identified as under reporters and only 7.3% were in the control group. A total of 64.4% of the Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified were under reporters. The body mass index of under reporters was significantly higher than in the other of subjects regardless of whether they were at risk of eating disorders. Girls at risk of eating disorders and under reporter had significantly lower body satisfaction than other groups. Multiple logistic regressions in all subjects showed that the risk of being UR was associated with an increase in the body mass index, increase in dietary restraint scores and weight loss; whereas, that only the body mass index was associated with the control group. Conclusion: The prevalence of under reporter increases with the severity of the eating disorders several adolescent girls at risk of eating disorder and identified by Goldberg cut-off technique as under reporter may to be restricting their intake and therefore they would not be under reporter.Antecedentes: Para vaidar la ingesta valorada a través de encuestas alimentarias, Goldberg y cols., propusieron ecuaciones para detectar a sujetos que informan mal de su consumo alimentario. Sujetos: Después de realizar un cribado entre 2.967 escolares

  8. Recovery of Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph; Pope, Graeme; Bölcskei, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the recovery of signals exhibiting a sparse representation in a general (i.e., possibly redundant or incomplete) dictionary that are corrupted by additive noise admitting a sparse representation in another general dictionary. This setup covers a wide range of applications, such as image inpainting, super-resolution, signal separation, and recovery of signals that are impaired by, e.g., clipping, impulse noise, or narrowband interference. We present deterministic recovery guarantees based on a novel uncertainty relation for pairs of general dictionaries and we provide corresponding practicable recovery algorithms. The recovery guarantees we find depend on the signal and noise sparsity levels, on the coherence parameters of the involved dictionaries, and on the amount of prior knowledge on the support sets of signal and noise. We finally identify situations under which the recovery guarantees are tight.

  9. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Mitsutoshi, E-mail: nakada@ns.m.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan); Teng, Lei [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Clinical College of Harbin Medical University, Nangang, Harbin 150001 (China); Pyko, Ilya V.; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan)

    2011-08-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies.

  10. Smoke Signal or Smoke Screen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergne, Jean-Philippe; Wernicke, Georg; Brenner, Steffen

    This paper explains the amount of disapproval faced by firms that overpay their CEO by integrating signaling and categorization theories. We argue that, in contexts characterized by intense scrutiny, ambivalent signals sent by firms suspend categorization by stakeholders, leading to further...... disapproval, whereas ambiguous signals represent a form of category straddling that attenuates disapproval. We find empirical support for this proposition in the context of CEO overcompensation in the U.S. (1995-2007) after examining two organizational signals that affect perceptions of economic fairness (i.......e. corporate philanthropy) and social fairness (i.e. employee diversity). Our integration of the signaling and categorization literatures adds to extant knowledge on firm’s social evaluations and recasts CEO compensation research within the literature on information intermediaries....

  11. Signal processing devices and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graveline, S. W.

    1985-02-01

    According to an axiom employed with respect to electronic warfare (EW) behavior, system effectiveness increases directly with the amount of information recovered from an intercepted signal. The evolution in EW signal processing capability has proceeded accordingly. After an initiation of EW systems as broadband receivers, the most significant advance was related to the development of digital instantaneous frequency measurement (DIFM) devices. The use of such devices provides significant improvements regarding signal identification and RF measurement to within a few MHz. An even more accurate processing device, the digital RF memory (DRFM), allows frequency characterization to within a few Hz. This invention was made in response to the need to process coherent pulse signals. Attention is given to the generic EW system, the modern EW system, and the generic receiver function for a modern EW system showing typical output signals.

  12. Fining Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeimouZheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types.It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box.The other type may be called TATA-less signal,and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition.While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot,their TATA-less signals are significantly different.A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming.By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature,an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  13. Perception and Signaling of Strigolactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs), a recently discovered class of phytohormones, are important regulators of plant growth and development. While the biosynthetic pathway of these molecules is well documented, until recently there was not much known about the molecular mechanisms underlying SL perception and signal transduction in plants. Certain aspects of their perception and signaling, including the hormone-mediated interaction between receptor and F-box protein, degradation of suppressor proteins and activation of transcription factors, are also found in other phytohormones. However, some of SL signaling features seem to be specific for the SL signaling pathway. These include the enzymatic activity of the SL receptor and its destabilization caused by SLs. This review summarizes the current knowledge about SL signaling pathway in plants. PMID:27602041

  14. Reinforcement learning in signaling game

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yilei; Tarrès, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    We consider a signaling game originally introduced by Skyrms, which models how two interacting players learn to signal each other and thus create a common language. The first rigorous analysis was done by Argiento, Pemantle, Skyrms and Volkov (2009) with 2 states, 2 signals and 2 acts. We study the case of M_1 states, M_2 signals and M_1 acts for general M_1, M_2. We prove that the expected payoff increases in average and thus converges a.s., and that a limit bipartite graph emerges, such that no signal-state correspondence is associated to both a synonym and an informational bottleneck. Finally, we show that any graph correspondence with the above property is a limit configuration with positive probability.

  15. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies

  16. Functional analysis of small signaling molecules in jasmonate signaling.

    OpenAIRE

    Meesters, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Plants exhibit multitudes of defense mechanisms against different kinds of stress. Jasmonic acid (JA) is one of the identified signaling compounds mediating plant’s response to wounding, attack by herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens. Central parts of the JA signaling pathway have recently been unraveled by demonstrating that (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile is the most bioactive form of JA and that the SCF(COI1)-complex functions as its receptor. However, many other components of the JA signaling pathway re...

  17. Inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by preventing TGF-β1/Smad signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, S D; Liu, T; Dong, M F; Li, Z K; Tang, P Z; Wang, J T; Ma, S J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the common colonizing bacteria of the human body and is an opportunistic pathogen frequently associated with respiratory infections. Inactivated P. aeruginosa (IPA) have a variety of biological effects against inflammation and allergy. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and development in a wide range of biological systems. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of IPA on TGF-β/Smad signaling in vivo, using a hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) rat model. Sprague Dawley rats (n=40) were exposed to 10% oxygen for 21 days to induce PH. At the same time, IPA was administered intravenously from day 1 to day 14. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and the right ventricle (RV) to left ventricle plus the interventricular septum (LV+S) mass ratio were used to evaluate the development of PH. Vessel thickness and density were measured using immunohistochemistry. Primary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were isolated and the proliferation of PASMCs was assayed by flow cytometry. The production of TGF-β1 in cultured supernatant of PASMCs was assayed by ELISA. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), TGF-β1 and phospho-Smad 2/3 in PASMCs were assayed by western blot. Our data indicated that IPA attenuated PH, RV hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats, which was probably mediated by restraining the hypoxia-induced overactive TGF-β1/Smad signaling. In conclusion, IPA is a promising protective treatment in PH due to the inhibiting effects on TGF-β1/Smad 2/3 signaling. PMID:27580007

  18. Baird's beaked whale echolocation signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Yack, Tina M; Barlow, Jay; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-06-01

    Echolocation signals from Baird's beaked whales were recorded during visual and acoustic shipboard surveys of cetaceans in the California Current ecosystem and with autonomous, long-term recorders in the Southern California Bight. The preliminary measurement of the visually validated Baird's beaked whale echolocation signals from towed array data were used as a basis for identifying Baird's signals in the autonomous recorder data. Two distinct signal types were found, one being a beaked whale-like frequency modulated (FM) pulse, the other being a dolphin-like broadband click. The median FM inter-pulse interval was 230 ms. Both signal types showed a consistent multi-peak structure in their spectra with peaks at ~9, 16, 25, and 40 kHz. Depending on signal type, as well as recording aspect and distance to the hydrophone, these peaks varied in relative amplitude. The description of Baird's echolocation signals will allow for studies of their distribution and abundance using towed array data without associated visual sightings and from autonomous seafloor hydrophones. PMID:23742381

  19. VLSI systems design for digital signal processing. Volume 1 - Signal processing and signal processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B. A.; Brown, W. R.

    This book is concerned with the design of digital signal processing systems which utilize VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) components. The presented material is intended for use by electrical engineers at the senior undergraduate or introductory graduate level. It is the purpose of this volume to present an overview of the important elements of background theory, processing techniques, and hardware evolution. Digital signals are considered along with linear systems and digital filters, taking into account the transform analysis of deterministic signals, a statistical signal model, time domain representations of discrete-time linear systems, and digital filter design techniques and implementation issues. Attention is given to aspects of detection and estimation, digital signal processing algorithms and techniques, issues which must be resolved in a processor design methodology, the fundamental concepts of high performance processing in terms of two early super computers, and the extension of these concepts to more recent processors.

  20. Signalling among relatives. I. Is costly signalling too costly?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, C. T.; Lachmann, M.

    1997-01-01

    Zahavi's handicap principle,originally proposed as an explanation for sexual selection ofelaborate male traits, suggests that a sufficient cost to dishonest signals can outweigh the rewards of deception and allow individuals to communicate honestly. Maynard Smith (1991) and Johnstone and Grafen (1992) introduce the Sir Philip Sidney game in order to extend the handicap principle to interactions among related individuals, and to demonstrate that stable costly signalling systems can exist among...

  1. Queen signaling in social wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom;

    2014-01-01

    sterile (queen control), or if instead queens honestly signal their fertility and workers reproduce according to their own evolutionary incentives (queen signaling). Here, we test these competing hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We show that in natural colonies of the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula...... saxonica, queens emit reliable chemical cues of their true fertility and that these putative queen signals decrease as the colony develops and worker reproduction increases. Moreover, these putative pheromones of D. saxonica show significant conservation with those of Vespula vulgaris and other Vespinae...

  2. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  3. HI Signal from Reionization Epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Sethi, S K

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the all-sky signal in redshifted atomic hydrogen (HI) line from the reionization epoch. HI can be observed in both emission and absorption depending on the ratio of Lyman-$\\alpha$ to ionizing flux and the spectrum of the radiation in soft xray. We also compute the signal from pre-reionization epoch and show that within the uncertainty in cosmological parameters, it is fairly robust. The main features of HI signal can be summarized as: (a) The pre-ionized HI can be seen in absorption for $\

  4. Statistical theory of signal detection

    CERN Document Server

    Helstrom, Carl Wilhelm; Costrell, L; Kandiah, K

    1968-01-01

    Statistical Theory of Signal Detection, Second Edition provides an elementary introduction to the theory of statistical testing of hypotheses that is related to the detection of signals in radar and communications technology. This book presents a comprehensive survey of digital communication systems. Organized into 11 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the theory of signal detection and the typical detection problem. This text then examines the goals of the detection system, which are defined through an analogy with the testing of statistical hypotheses. Other chapters consider

  5. Signaling with Capital Structure Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Wanzenried

    2002-01-01

    We consider a signaling model with a good and a bad type of firm. The market does a priori not know the firm's type. The firms, which are run by equally qualified managers, can use their debt level to signal their true value to the market. In addition to debt, the manager chooses his effort level, which directly affects the firm's product market returns. The effort choice interacts with the signaling mechanism of debt issue and affects the equilibrium debt level. As a result, it is not always...

  6. The Systemic Acquired Resistance Regulator OsNPR1 Attenuates Growth by Repressing Auxin Signaling through Promoting IAA-Amido Synthase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozun; Yang, Dong-Lei; Sun, Li; Li, Qun; Mao, Bizeng; He, Zuhua

    2016-09-01

    Systemic acquired resistance is a long-lasting and broad-spectrum disease resistance to pathogens. Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (OsNPR1), a master gene for systemic acquired resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), greatly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae However, the growth and development of the OsNPR1 overexpression (OsNPR1-OX) plants were restrained, and the mechanism remained elusive. In this study, we dissected the OsNPR1-induced growth inhibition. We found that the OsNPR1-OX lines displayed phenotypes mimicking auxin-defective mutants, with decreases in root system, seed number and weight, internode elongation, and tiller number. Whole-genome expression analysis revealed that genes related to the auxin metabolism and signaling pathway were differentially expressed between the OsNPR1-OX and wild-type plants. Consistently, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content was decreased and the auxin distribution pattern was altered in OsNPR1-OX plants. Importantly, we found that some GH3 family members, in particular OsGH3.8 coding IAA-amido synthetase, were constitutively up-regulated in OsNPR1-OX plants. Decreased OsGH3.8 expression by RNA interference could partially restore IAA level and largely rescue the restrained growth and development phenotypes but did not affect the disease resistance of OsNPR1-OX plants. Taken together, we revealed that OsNPR1 affects rice growth and development by disrupting the auxin pathway at least partially through indirectly up-regulating OsGH3.8 expression. PMID:27378815

  7. Signal processing with free software practical experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, François

    2014-01-01

    An ideal resource for students, industrial engineers, and researchers, Signal Processing with Free Software Practical Experiments presents practical experiments in signal processing using free software. The text introduces elementary signals through elementary waveform, signal storage files and elementary operations on signals and then presents the first tools to signal analysis such as temporal and frequency characteristics leading to Time-frequency analysis. Non-parametric spectral analysis is also discussed as well as signal processing through sampling, resampling, quantification, an

  8. Identification of amino-acid residues in the V protein of peste des petits ruminants essential for interference and suppression of STAT-mediated interferon signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a fatal disease in small ruminants. V protein of PPRV plays a pivotal role in interfering with host innate immunity by blocking IFNs signaling through interacting with STAT1 and STAT2. In the present study, the results demonstrated that PPRV V protein blocks IFN actions in a dose dependent manner and restrains the translocation of STAT1/2 proteins. We speculate that the translocation inhibition might be caused by the interfering of the downstream of STAT protein. Mutagenesis defines that Cys cluster and Trp motif of PPRV V protein are essential for STAT-mediated IFN signaling. These findings give a new sight for the further studies to understand the delicate mechanism of PPRV to escape the IFN signaling. - Highlights: • PPRV V protein inhibits type I IFN production and blocks its activation. • PPRV V protein negatively regulates activation of ISRE and GAS promoter. • PPRV V protein inhibits nuclear translocation of STAT protein by non-degradation. • PNT and VCT domain of PPRV V protein inhibit IFN transduction. • PPRV V protein binds with STAT protein via some conserved motifs

  9. Identification of amino-acid residues in the V protein of peste des petits ruminants essential for interference and suppression of STAT-mediated interferon signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xusheng, E-mail: maxushengtt@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Yang, Xing [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Nian, Xiaofeng [Institute of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 07500 (China); Zhang, Zhidong; Dou, Yongxi [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Xuehu [Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou (China); Luo, Xuenong; Su, Junhong; Zhu, Qiyun [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Cai, Xuepeng, E-mail: caixp@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a fatal disease in small ruminants. V protein of PPRV plays a pivotal role in interfering with host innate immunity by blocking IFNs signaling through interacting with STAT1 and STAT2. In the present study, the results demonstrated that PPRV V protein blocks IFN actions in a dose dependent manner and restrains the translocation of STAT1/2 proteins. We speculate that the translocation inhibition might be caused by the interfering of the downstream of STAT protein. Mutagenesis defines that Cys cluster and Trp motif of PPRV V protein are essential for STAT-mediated IFN signaling. These findings give a new sight for the further studies to understand the delicate mechanism of PPRV to escape the IFN signaling. - Highlights: • PPRV V protein inhibits type I IFN production and blocks its activation. • PPRV V protein negatively regulates activation of ISRE and GAS promoter. • PPRV V protein inhibits nuclear translocation of STAT protein by non-degradation. • PNT and VCT domain of PPRV V protein inhibit IFN transduction. • PPRV V protein binds with STAT protein via some conserved motifs.

  10. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Zas Sandra L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection (IMI with S. uberis and relate these with other physiological measurements associated with immune and/or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEG. Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each, the majority of which were signaling pathways. Among the most inhibited were LXR/RXR Signaling and PPARα/RXRα Signaling. Pathways activated by IMI were IL-10 Signaling and IL-6 Signaling which likely reflected counter mechanisms of mammary tissue to respond to infection. Of the 2,102 DEG, 1,082 were up-regulated during IMI and were primarily involved with the immune response, e.g., IL6, TNF, IL8, IL10, SELL, LYZ, and SAA3. Genes down-regulated (1,020 included those associated with milk fat synthesis, e.g., LPIN1, LPL, CD36, and BTN1A1. Network analysis of DEG indicated that TNF had positive relationships with genes involved with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2 and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL and antioxidant activity (SOD1. Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary tissue that are associated with the innate immune response to S. uberis infection. Our study indicated that IMI challenge with S. uberis (strain O140J elicited

  11. Extracellular modulators of Wnt signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Tomas; Jones, E Yvonne

    2014-12-01

    Wnt morphogens are secreted signalling proteins that play leading roles in embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis throughout life. Wnt signalling is controlled by multiple mechanisms, including posttranslational modification of Wnts, antagonist binding (to Wnts or their receptors), and regulation of the availability of Wnt receptors. Recent crystallographic, structure-guided biophysical and cell-based studies have advanced our understanding of how Wnt signalling is regulated at the cell surface. Structures include Wnt in complex with the cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of Frizzled, extracellular fragments of Wnt co-receptor LRP6, LRP6-binding antagonists Dickkopf and Sclerostin, antagonists 5T4/WAIF1 and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF-1), as well as Frizzled-ubiquitin ligases ZNRF3/RNF43 (in isolation and in complexes with Wnt signalling promoters R-spondins and LGR5). We review recent discoveries and remaining questions. PMID:25460271

  12. Dopamine signaling: target in glioblastoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), 1116-1117. ISSN 1949-2553 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Dopamine signaling * glioblastoma * MAPK Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.359, year: 2014

  13. Signal transforms in dynamic measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Layer, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the analysis of measurement signals which requires specific mathematical operations like Convolution, Deconvolution, Laplace, Fourier, Hilbert, Wavelet or Z transform which are all presented in the present book. The different problems refer to the modulation of signals, filtration of disturbance as well as to the orthogonal signals and their use in digital form for the measurement of current, voltage, power and frequency are also widely discussed. All the topics covered in this book are presented in detail and illustrated by means of examples in MathCad and LabVIEW. This book provides a useful source for researchers, scientists and engineers who in their daily work are required to deal with problems of measurement and signal processing and can also be helpful to undergraduate students of electrical engineering.    

  14. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  15. Signal processing for semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A balanced perspective is provided on the processing of signals produced by semiconductor detectors. The general problems of pulse shaping to optimize resolution with constraints imposed by noise, counting rate and rise time fluctuations are discussed

  16. Sounds, signals and space maps

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The auditory system transforms information from one frame of reference into another to create a map of space in the brain. The source of a visual signal that guides this transformation in barn owls has now been found.

  17. Discretization of Parametrizable Signal Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, Elif; 10.1109/TIP.2011.2155077

    2011-01-01

    Transformation-invariant analysis of signals often requires the computation of the distance from a test pattern to a transformation manifold. In particular, the estimation of the distances between a transformed query signal and several transformation manifolds representing different classes provides essential information for the classification of the signal. In many applications the computation of the exact distance to the manifold is costly, whereas an efficient practical solution is the approximation of the manifold distance with the aid of a manifold grid. In this paper, we consider a setting with transformation manifolds of known parameterization. We first present an algorithm for the selection of samples from a single manifold that permits to minimize the average error in the manifold distance estimation. Then we propose a method for the joint discretization of multiple manifolds that represent different signal classes, where we optimize the transformation-invariant classification accuracy yielded by the...

  18. Signaling theory and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gambetta, Diego

    2010-01-01

    My course, which comprised 4 lectures, was an introduction to the principles of signalling theory, its history, and its common misconceptions. I also presented two applications: to trust decisions and to interpersonal violence. Herewith, I give a brief overview of the theory and of the range of its applications, without going into the details of the two particular applications which I presented in my lectures. Signalling theory (ST) tackles a fundamental problem of communication: how can an a...

  19. Aberrant Wnt Signaling in Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Frank J T; Famili, Farbod; Garcia Perez, Laura; Pike-Overzet, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is essential in the development and homeostasis of blood and immune cells, but its exact role is still controversial and is the subject of intense research. The malignant counterpart of normal hematopoietic cells, leukemic (stem) cells, have hijacked the Wnt pathway for their self-renewal and proliferation. Here we review the multiple ways dysregulated Wnt signaling can contribute to leukemogenesis, both cell autonomously as well as by changes in the microenvironment. PMID:27571104

  20. Apoptotic Signaling in Mouse Odontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Matalova, Eva; Svandova, Eva; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odon...