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Sample records for cd14 signaling restrains

  1. Attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation by ICT, a derivate of icariin, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

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    Wu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Junmin; Chen, Xianghong; Fortenbery, Nicole; Eksioglu, Erika A; Wei, Sheng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of ICT in LPS stimulated human innate immune cells. 3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone (ICT) is a novel derivative of icariin, the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. We previously demonstrated its anti-inflammatory potential in a murine macrophage cell line as well as in mouse models. We measured TNF-α production by ELISA, TLR4/CD14 expression by flow cytometry, and NF-κB and MAPK activation by western blot all in LPS-stimulated PBMC, human monocytes, or THP-1 cells after treatment with ICT. ICT inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP-1 cells, PBMCs and human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. ICT treatment resulted in down-regulation of the expression of CD14/TLR4 and attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation induced by LPS. We illustrate the anti-inflammatory property of ICT in human immune cells, especially in monocytes. These effects were mediated, at least partially, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Endotoxin and CD14 in the progression of biliary atresia

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    Chen Ching-Mei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biliary atresia (BA is a typical cholestatic neonatal disease, characterized by obliteration of intra- and/or extra-hepatic bile ducts. However, the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of BA remain uncertain. Because of decreased bile flow, infectious complications and damaging endotoxemia occur frequently in patients with BA. The aim of this study was to investigate endotoxin levels in patients with BA and the relation of these levels with the expression of the endotoxin receptor, CD14. Methods The plasma levels of endotoxin and soluble CD14 were measured with a pyrochrome Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with early-stage BA when they received the Kasai procedure (KP, in patients who were jaundice-free post-KP and followed-up at the outpatient department, in patients with late-stage BA when they received liver transplantation, and in patients with choledochal cysts. The correlation of CD14 expression with endotoxin levels in rats following common bile duct ligation was investigated. Results The results demonstrated a significantly higher hepatic CD14 mRNA and soluble CD14 plasma levels in patients with early-stage BA relative to those with late-stage BA. However, plasma endotoxin levels were significantly higher in both the early and late stages of BA relative to controls. In rat model, the results demonstrated that both endotoxin and CD14 levels were significantly increased in liver tissues of rats following bile duct ligation. Conclusions The significant increase in plasma endotoxin and soluble CD14 levels during BA implies a possible involvement of endotoxin stimulated CD14 production by hepatocytes in the early stage of BA for removal of endotoxin; whereas, endotoxin signaling likely induced liver injury and impaired soluble CD14 synthesis in the late stages of BA.

  3. CD14 polymorphisms in mother and infant, soluble CD14 in breast milk and atopy development in the infant (KOALA Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Bianca E. P.; Stelma, Foekje F.; Reijmerink, Naomi E.; Thijs, Carel; van der Steege, Gerrit; Damoiseaux, Jan G. M. C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; van Ree, Ronald; Postma, Dirkje S.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    Different CD14 polymorphisms have been associated with atopic phenotypes in infants. In addition, CD14 genotypes of breastfeeding mothers have been associated with soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels in breast milk. The role of CD14 genotypes of infant and mother and their interaction with sCD14 levels in

  4. TLR-4 and CD14 Genotypes and Soluble CD14: Could They Predispose to Coronary Atherosclerosis?

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    Maria Kalliopi Konstantinidou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mechanisms are key to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Functional polymorphisms of TLR-4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, CD14 promoter area C260T polymorphism and plasma levels of soluble CD14 are studied in subjects with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. Methods: DNA was obtained from 100 human paraffin-embedded aortic specimens, from cadavers with known coronary atheromatosis (Group A and 100 blood samples from patients with CAD, as detected by cardiac Multi-Detector-row-Computed-Tomography (MDCT (Group B. Our control group consisted of 100 healthy individuals (Group C. Genotyping was performed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR. Plasma levels of sCD14 were measured with ELISA. Results: For TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms, no statistically significant differences were observed. Regarding the C260T polymorphism, frequencies of T allele were significantly higher in the control group compared to the case group (p = 0.05. The Odds Ratio (OR showed statistically significant association of TT genotype with healthy individuals (OR 0.25, 95% Confidence Interval CI 0.10–0.62, p = 0.0017. Plasma levels of sCD14 in patients with CAD (mean value = 1.35 μg/mL were reduced when compared to reference value. Conclusions: The studied polymorphisms ofTLR-4 showed no association with CAD. Conversely, the functional polymorphism of CD14 has a statistically significant difference in expression between healthy and affected by CAD individuals.

  5. CD14 is a key mediator of both lysophosphatidic acid and lipopolysaccharide induction of foam cell formation.

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    An, Dong; Hao, Feng; Zhang, Fuqiang; Kong, Wei; Chun, Jerold; Xu, Xuemin; Cui, Mei-Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays an important role in foam cell formation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We report here that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxLDL uptake in macrophages. Our data revealed that both LPA and LPS highly induce the CD14 expression at messenger RNA and protein levels in macrophages. The role of CD14, one component of the LPS receptor cluster, in LPA-induced biological functions has been unknown. We took several steps to examine the role of CD14 in LPA signaling pathways. Knockdown of CD14 expression nearly completely blocked LPA/LPS-induced oxLDL uptake in macrophages, demonstrating for the first time that CD14 is a key mediator responsible for both LPA- and LPS-induced oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation. To determine the molecular mechanism mediating CD14 function, we demonstrated that both LPA and LPS significantly induce the expression of scavenger receptor class A type I (SR-AI), which has been implicated in lipid uptake process, and depletion of CD14 levels blocked LPA/LPS-induced SR-AI expression. We further showed that the SR-AI-specific antibody, which quenches SR-AI function, blocked LPA- and LPS-induced foam cell formation. Thus, SR-AI is the downstream mediator of CD14 in regulating LPA-, LPS-, and LPA/LPS-induced foam cell formation. Taken together, our results provide the first experimental evidence that CD14 is a novel connecting molecule linking both LPA and LPS pathways and is a key mediator responsible for LPA/LPS-induced foam cell formation. The LPA/LPS-CD14-SR-AI nexus might be the new convergent pathway, contributing to the worsening of atherosclerosis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. The Mediator Kinase Module Restrains Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling and Represses Vulval Cell Fate Specification in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Grants, Jennifer M; Ying, Lisa T L; Yoda, Akinori; You, Charlotte C; Okano, Hideyuki; Sawa, Hitoshi; Taubert, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Cell signaling pathways that control proliferation and determine cell fates are tightly regulated to prevent developmental anomalies and cancer. Transcription factors and coregulators are important effectors of signaling pathway output, as they regulate downstream gene programs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, several subunits of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex promote or inhibit vulva development, but pertinent mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we show that Mediator's dissociable cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) module (CKM), consisting of cdk-8, cic-1/Cyclin C, mdt-12/dpy-22, and mdt-13/let-19, is required to inhibit ectopic vulval cell fates downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. cdk-8 inhibits ectopic vulva formation by acting downstream of mpk-1/ERK, cell autonomously in vulval cells, and in a kinase-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that the CKM acts as a corepressor for the Ets-family transcription factor LIN-1, as cdk-8 promotes transcriptional repression by LIN-1. In addition, we find that CKM mutation alters Mediator subunit requirements in vulva development: the mdt-23/sur-2 subunit, which is required for vulva development in wild-type worms, is dispensable for ectopic vulva formation in CKM mutants, which instead display hallmarks of unrestrained Mediator tail module activity. We propose a model whereby the CKM controls EGFR-Ras-ERK transcriptional output by corepressing LIN-1 and by fine tuning Mediator specificity, thus balancing transcriptional repression vs. activation in a critical developmental signaling pathway. Collectively, these data offer an explanation for CKM repression of EGFR signaling output and ectopic vulva formation and provide the first evidence of Mediator CKM-tail module subunit crosstalk in animals. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. CD14 deficiency impacts glucose homeostasis in mice through altered adrenal tone.

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    James L Young

    Full Text Available The toll-like receptors comprise one of the most conserved components of the innate immune system, signaling the presence of molecules of microbial origin. It has been proposed that signaling through TLR4, which requires CD14 to recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, may generate low-grade inflammation and thereby affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. To examine the long-term influence of partial innate immune signaling disruption on glucose homeostasis, we analyzed knockout mice deficient in CD14 backcrossed into the diabetes-prone C57BL6 background at 6 or 12 months of age. CD14-ko mice, fed either normal or high-fat diets, displayed significant glucose intolerance compared to wild type controls. They also displayed elevated norepinephrine urinary excretion and increased adrenal medullary volume, as well as an enhanced norepinephrine secretory response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. These results point out a previously unappreciated crosstalk between innate immune- and sympathoadrenal- systems, which exerts a major long-term effect on glucose homeostasis.

  8. CD14 Deficiency Impacts Glucose Homeostasis in Mice through Altered Adrenal Tone

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    Young, James L.; Mora, Alfonso; Cerny, Anna; Czech, Michael P.; Woda, Bruce; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.; Finberg, Robert W.; Corvera, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The toll-like receptors comprise one of the most conserved components of the innate immune system, signaling the presence of molecules of microbial origin. It has been proposed that signaling through TLR4, which requires CD14 to recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), may generate low-grade inflammation and thereby affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. To examine the long-term influence of partial innate immune signaling disruption on glucose homeostasis, we analyzed knockout mice deficient in CD14 backcrossed into the diabetes-prone C57BL6 background at 6 or 12 months of age. CD14-ko mice, fed either normal or high-fat diets, displayed significant glucose intolerance compared to wild type controls. They also displayed elevated norepinephrine urinary excretion and increased adrenal medullary volume, as well as an enhanced norepinephrine secretory response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. These results point out a previously unappreciated crosstalk between innate immune- and sympathoadrenal- systems, which exerts a major long-term effect on glucose homeostasis. PMID:22253759

  9. Directed evolution of an LBP/CD14 inhibitory peptide and its anti-endotoxin activity.

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    Li Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: LPS-binding protein (LBP and its ligand CD14 are located upstream of the signaling pathway for LPS-induced inflammation. Blocking LBP and CD14 binding might prevent LPS-induced inflammation. In previous studies, we obtained a peptide analog (MP12 for the LBP/CD14 binding site and showed that this peptide analog had anti-endotoxin activity. In this study, we used in vitro directed evolution for this peptide analog to improve its in vivo and in vitro anti-endotoxin activity. METHODS: We used error-prone PCR (ep-PCR and induced mutations in the C-terminus of LBP and attached the PCR products to T7 phages to establish a mutant phage display library. The positive clones that competed with LBP for CD14 binding was obtained by screening. We used both in vivo and in vitro experiments to compare the anti-endotoxin activities of a polypeptide designated P1 contained in a positive clone and MP12. RESULTS: 11 positive clones were obtained from among target phages. Sequencing showed that 9 positive clones had a threonine (T to methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. Compared to polypeptide MP12, polypeptide P1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in U937 cells (P<0.05. Compared to MP12, P1 significantly improved arterial oxygen pressure, an oxygenation index, and lung pathology scores in LPS-induced ARDS rats (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: By in vitro directed evolution of peptide analogs for the LBP/CD14 binding site, we established a new polypeptide (P1 with a threonine (T-to-methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. This polypeptide had high anti-endotoxin activity in vitro and in vivo, which suggested that amino acid 287 in the C-terminus of LBP may play an important role in LBP binding with CD14.

  10. Ethanol alters cellular activation and CD14 partitioning in lipid rafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Qun; Zhang Jun; Pruett, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption interferes with innate immunity. In vivo EtOH administration suppresses cytokine responses induced through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inhibits TLR4 signaling. Actually, EtOH exhibits a generalized suppressive effect on signaling and cytokine responses induced by through most TLRs. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS or co-treated with EtOH or with lipid raft-disrupting drugs. TNF-α production, IRAK-1 activation, and CD14 partition were evaluated. EtOH or nystatin, a lipid raft-disrupting drug, suppressed LPS-induced production of TNF-α. The suppressive effect of EtOH on LPS-induced TNF-α production was additive with that of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD), another lipid raft-disrupting drug. EtOH interfered with IRAK-1 activation, an early TLR4 intracellular signaling event. Cell fractionation analyses show that acute EtOH altered LPS-related partition of CD14, a critical component of the LPS receptor complex. These results suggest a novel mechanism of EtOH action that involves interference with lipid raft clustering induced by LPS. This membrane action of EtOH might be one of the mechanisms by which EtOH acts as a generalized suppressor for TLR signaling

  11. The attenuated inflammation of MPL is due to the lack of CD14-dependent tight dimerization of the TLR4/MD2 complex at the plasma membrane.

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    Tanimura, Natsuko; Saitoh, Shin-Ichiroh; Ohto, Umeharu; Akashi-Takamura, Sachiko; Fujimoto, Yukari; Fukase, Koichi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Kensuke

    2014-06-01

    TLR4/MD-2 senses lipid A, activating the MyD88-signaling pathway on the plasma membrane and the TRIF-signaling pathway after CD14-mediated TLR4/MD-2 internalization into endosomes. Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a detoxified derivative of lipid A, is weaker than lipid A in activating the MyD88-dependent pathway. Little is known, however, about mechanisms underlying the attenuated activation of MyD88-dependent pathways. We here show that MPL was impaired in induction of CD14-dependent TLR4/MD-2 dimerization compared with lipid A. Impaired TLR4/MD-2 dimerization decreased CD14-mediated TNFα production. In contrast, MPL was comparable to lipid A in CD14-independent MyD88-dependent TNFα production and TRIF-dependent responses including cell surface CD86 up-regulation and IFNβ induction. Although CD86 up-regulation is dependent on TRIF signaling, it was induced by TLR4/MD-2 at the plasma membrane. These results revealed that the attenuated MPL responses were due to CD14-initiated responses at the plasma membrane, but not just to responses initiated by MyD88, that is, MPL was specifically unable to induce CD14-dependent TLR4/MD-2 dimerization that selectively enhances MyD88-mediated responses at the plasma membrane. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2013. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. CD14-negative isolation enhances chondrogenesis in synovial fibroblasts.

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    Bilgen, Bahar; Ren, Yuexin; Pei, Ming; Aaron, Roy K; Ciombor, Deborah McK

    2009-11-01

    Synovial membrane has been shown to contain mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesized that an enriched population of synovial fibroblasts would undergo chondrogenic differentiation and secrete cartilage extracellular matrix to a greater extent than would a mixed synovial cell population (MSCP). The optimum doses of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) for chondrogenesis were investigated. CD14-negative isolation was used to obtain a porcine cell population enriched in type-B synovial fibroblasts (SFB) from an MSCP. The positive cell surface markers in SFB were CD90, CD44, and cadherin-11. SFB and MSCP were cultured in the presence of 20 ng/mL TGF-beta1 for 7 days, and SFB were demonstrated to have higher chondrogenic potential. Further dose-response studies were carried out using the SFB cells and several doses of TGF-beta1 (2, 10, 20, and 40 ng/mL) and/or IGF-1 (1, 10, 100, and 500 ng/mL) for 14 days. TGF-beta1 supplementation was essential for chondrogenesis and prevention of cell death, whereas IGF-1 did not have a significant effect on the SFB cell number or glycosaminoglycan production. This study demonstrates that the CD14-negative isolation yields an enhanced cell population SFB that is more potent than MSCP as a cell source for cartilage tissue engineering.

  13. Phagocytosis of gram-negative bacteria by a unique CD14-dependent mechanism.

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    Schiff, D E; Kline, L; Soldau, K; Lee, J D; Pugin, J; Tobias, P S; Ulevitch, R J

    1997-12-01

    THP-1-derived cell lines were stably transfected with constructs encoding glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored or transmembrane forms of human CD14. CD14 expression was associated with enhanced phagocytosis of serum (heat-inactivated)-opsonized Escherichia coli (opEc). Both the GPI-anchored and transmembrane forms of CD14 supported phagocytosis of opEc equally well. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) played a role in CD14-dependent phagocytosis as evidenced by inhibition of CD14-dependent phagocytosis of opEc with anti-LBP monoclonal antibody (mAb) and by enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli opsonized with purified LBP. CD14-dependent phagocytosis was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) and a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tyrphostin 23) but not a protein kinase C inhibitor (bisindolyl-maleimide) or a divalent cation chelator (ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Anti-LBP mAb 18G4 and anti-CD14 mAb 18E12 were used to differentiate between the pathways involved in CD14-dependent phagocytosis and CD14-dependent cell activation. F(ab')2 fragments of 18G4, a mAb to LBP that does not block cell activation, inhibited ingestion of opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. 18E12 (an anti-CD14 mAb that does not block LPS binding to CD14 but does inhibit CD14-dependent cell activation) did not inhibit phagocytosis of LBP-opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. Furthermore, CD14-dependent phagocytosis was not inhibited by anti-CD18 (CR3 and CR4 beta-chain) or anti-Fcgamma receptor mAb.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein stimulates CD14-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 internalization and LPS-induced TBK1-IKKϵ-IRF3 axis activation.

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    Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Shino; Kubota, Kanae; Kobayashi, Yohei; Kozakai, Sao; Ukai, Ippo; Shichiku, Ayumi; Okubo, Misaki; Numasaki, Muneo; Kanemitsu, Yoshitomi; Matsumoto, Yotaro; Nochi, Tomonori; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa

    2018-05-14

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an indispensable immune receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall. Following LPS stimulation, TLR4 transmits the signal from the cell surface and becomes internalized in an endosome. However, the spatial regulation of TLR4 signaling is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of LPS-induced TLR4 internalization and clarified the roles of the extracellular LPS-binding molecules, LPS-binding protein (LBP), and glycerophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (CD14). LPS stimulation of CD14-expressing cells induced TLR4 internalization in the presence of serum, and an inhibitory anti-LBP mAb blocked its internalization. Addition of LBP to serum-free cultures restored LPS-induced TLR4 internalization to comparable levels of serum. The secretory form of the CD14 (sCD14) induced internalization but required a much higher concentration than LBP. An inhibitory anti-sCD14 mAb was ineffective for serum-mediated internalization. LBP lacking the domain for LPS transfer to CD14 and a CD14 mutant with reduced LPS binding both attenuated TLR4 internalization. Accordingly, LBP is an essential serum molecule for TLR4 internalization, and its LPS transfer to membrane-anchored CD14 (mCD14) is a prerequisite. LBP induced the LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of TBK1, IKKϵ, and IRF3, leading to IFN-β expression. However, LPS-stimulated late activation of NFκB or necroptosis were not affected. Collectively, our results indicate that LBP controls LPS-induced TLR4 internalization, which induces TLR adaptor molecule 1 (TRIF)-dependent activation of the TBK1-IKKϵ-IRF3-IFN-β pathway. In summary, we showed that LBP-mediated LPS transfer to mCD14 is required for serum-dependent TLR4 internalization and activation of the TRIF pathway. Copyright © 2018, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide modulation of a CD14-like molecule on porcine alveolar macrophages

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    Kielian, T. L.; Ross, C. R.; McVey, D. S.; Chapes, S. K.; Blecha, F.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14) functions as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) LPS-binding protein (LBP) complexes. Because LPS has varying effects on CD14 expression in vitro, we evaluated CD14 expression in response to LPS with a fully differentiated macrophage phenotype, the alveolar macrophage. By using flow microfluorometric analysis and a radioimmunoassay with an anti-human CD14 monoclonal antibody (My4) that cross-reacts with porcine CD14, we found that macrophages stimulated with LPS for 24 h exhibited a two- to fivefold increase in CD14-like antigen compared with unstimulated cells. At low concentrations of LPS, up-regulation of the CD14-like antigen was dependent on serum; at higher concentrations of LPS, serum was not required. In the absence of serum a 10-fold higher dose of LPS (10 ng/ml) was required to increase CD14-like expression. In addition, LPS-induced CD14-like up-regulation correlated with secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, regardless of serum concentration. Blockade with My4 antibody significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion at 1 ng/ml of LPS. However, inhibition decreased as we increased the LPS concentration, suggesting the existence of CD14-independent pathways of macrophage activation in response to LPS. Alternatively, My4 may have a lower affinity for the porcine CD14 antigen than LPS, which may have only partially blocked the LPS-LBP binding site at high concentrations of LPS. Therefore, these data suggest that LPS activation of porcine alveolar macrophages for 24 h increased CD14-like receptor expression. The degree of CD14-like up-regulation was related to LPS concentration, however, activation did not require the presence of serum at high concentrations of LPS.

  16. Early elevation of soluble CD14 may help identify trauma patients at high risk for infection.

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    Carrillo, E H; Gordon, L; Goode, E; Davis, E; Polk, H C

    2001-05-01

    Elevated levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) have been implicated in both gram-positive and gram-negative sepsis, and it has been associated with high mortality in trauma patients who become infected. Eleven healthy volunteers and 25 adult trauma patients with multiple injuries and a mean Injury Severity Score of 32 participated. Whole blood was obtained at intervals. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify membrane CD14 (mCD14), by flow cytometry and plasma levels of sCD14 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analysis of variance and Student's T test with Mann-Whitney posttest were used to determine significance at p < 0.05. On posttrauma day 1, sCD14 was significantly different in the plasma of infected patients compared with normal controls (7.16 +/- 1.87 microg/mL vs. 4.4 +/- 0.92 microg/mL, p < 0.01), but not significantly different from noninfected patients. The percentage of monocytes expressing mCD14 in trauma patients did not differentiate them from normal controls; however, mCD14 receptor density did demonstrate significance in septic trauma patients (n = 15) versus normal controls on posttrauma day 3 (p = 0.0065). On the basis of our data, mCD14 did not differentiate infected and noninfected trauma patients, although trauma in general reduced mCD14 and elevated sCD14. Interestingly, 100% of patients who exceeded plasma levels of 8 microg/mL of sCD14 on day 1 after injury developed infections. Therefore, early high expressers of sCD14 may be at higher risk for infectious complications after trauma.

  17. Patient restraining strap for scintiphotography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.; Harper, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    A patient restraining strap for scintiphotography having a pair of expandable cloth-like bags joined together is presented. The strap encompasses the head of a patient and is then secured to a Gamma Scintillation Camera. Once inflated the restraining strap immobilizes the head without discomfort to the patient during the scintiphotography procedure. 1 claim, 1 drawing figure

  18. DMPD: CD14 and other recognition molecules for lipopolysaccharide: a review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7542643 CD14 and other recognition molecules for lipopolysaccharide: a review. Kiel...her recognition molecules for lipopolysaccharide: a review. PubmedID 7542643 Title CD14 and other recognitio...n molecules for lipopolysaccharide: a review. Authors Kielian TL, Blecha F. Publi

  19. Effects of hepatocyte CD14 upregulation during cholestasis on endotoxin sensitivity.

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    Ming-Huei Chou

    Full Text Available Cholestasis is frequently related to endotoxemia and inflammatory response. Our previous investigation revealed a significant increase in plasma endotoxin and CD14 levels during biliary atresia. We therefore propose that lipopolysacharides (LPS may stimulate CD14 production in liver cells and promote the removal of endotoxins. The aims of this study are to test the hypothesis that CD14 is upregulated by LPS and investigate the pathophysiological role of CD14 production during cholestasis. Using Western blotting, qRT-PCR, and promoter activity assay, we demonstrated that LPS was associated with a significant increase in CD14 and MD2 protein and mRNA expression and CD14 promoter activity in C9 rat hepatocytes but not in the HSC-T6 hepatic stellate cell line in vitro. To correlate CD14 expression and endotoxin sensitivity, in vivo biliary LPS administration was performed on rats two weeks after they were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL or a sham operation. CD14 expression and endotoxin levels were found to significantly increase after LPS administration in BDL rats. These returned to basal levels after 24 h. In contrast, although endotoxin levels were increased in sham-operated rats given LPS, no increase in CD14 expression was observed. However, mortality within 24 h was more frequent in the BDL animals than in the sham-operated group. In conclusion, cholestasis and LPS stimulation were here found to upregulate hepatic CD14 expression, which may have led to increased endotoxin sensitivity and host proinflammatory reactions, causing organ failure and death in BDL rats.

  20. [Effect of lipopolysaccharides extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis on the expression of CD14 in osteoblast].

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    Jia, Ge; Qiu, Li-hong; Li, Ren; Yang, Di; Guo, Yan

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharides(LPS) extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) on the expression of CD14 in osteoblast. Under the condition with or without serum, MC3T3-E1 cells were stimulated with 10 μg/mL P.e-LPS for 24 hours, then the expression of CD14 was measured using flow cytometry; the membrane CD14 mRNA was detected at different time point (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h) by RT-PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using two-sample t test, one-way ANOVA and Dunnett t test with SPSS13.0 software package. Flow cytometry showed that CD14 protein increased after the stimulation of P.e-LPS for 24 h, while the non-serum group demonstrated more increase; the membrane CD14 mRNA level was up-regulated by 10 μg/mL P.e-LPS at 1 hour, and reached the maximum at 3 h and declined after 6 h. P.e-LPS can induce the expression of CD14 in osteoblast MC3T3-E1, which indicates that P.e-LPS may play an important role in osteoblast through CD14.

  1. Ingested soluble CD14 from milk is transferred intact into the blood of newborn rats.

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    Ward, Tonya L; Spencer, William J; Davis, Laura D R; Harrold, Joann; Mack, David R; Altosaar, Illimar

    2014-02-01

    Milk acts as an edible immune system that is transferred from mother to newborn. Soluble Cluster of Differentiation 14 (sCD14) is a protein found in significant quantities in human milk (~8-29 µg/ml). At a 10-fold lower concentration in the blood (~3 µg/ml), the most notable role of sCD14 is to sequester lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria from immune cells. To explore the pharmacodynamics of this milk protein and its biological fate, the biodistribution of radiolabeled sCD14 ((14)C, (125)I) was monitored in 10-d-old rat pups. Up to 3.4 ± 2.2% of the radiolabeled sCD14 administered was observed, intact, in the pup blood for up to 8 h post-ingestion. Additionally, 30.3 ± 13.0% of the radiolabeled sCD14 administered was observed degraded in the stomach at 8 h post-ingestion. A reservoir of intact, administered sCD14 (3.2 ± 0.3%), however, remained in the stomach at 8 h post-ingestion. Intact sCD14 was observed in the small intestine at 5.5 ± 1.6% of the dose fed at 8 h post-ingestion. The presence of intact sCD14 in the blood and the gastrointestinal tract of newborns post-ingestion has implications in the development of allergies, obesity, and other inflammation-related pathogeneses later in life.

  2. Role of offending out-door aero-allergen and CD14 C(-159)T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child- hood-onset and adult-onset of asthma showed significant difference in allergen sensitivity as well as genetic background with respect to CD14 polymorphism. Keywords: Asthma, aero-allergen, skin prick test, total IgE, CD14 gene polymorphism. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i4.18. Cite as: Dutta S, Mondal P, ...

  3. DMPD: Monocyte CD14: a multifunctional receptor engaged in apoptosis from both sides. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10380893 Monocyte CD14: a multifunctional receptor engaged in apoptosis from both s...ides. Heidenreich S. J Leukoc Biol. 1999 Jun;65(6):737-43. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Monocyte CD14: a multifunction...al receptor engaged in apoptosis from both sides. PubmedID 10380893 Title Monocyte CD14: a multifunction

  4. Ablation of MCM10 using CRISPR/Cas9 restrains the growth and migration of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells through inhibition of Akt signaling

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    Yan J

    2018-06-01

    significantly restored the aggressive phenotype of MCM10-null EC109 cells. Conclusion: In conclusion, these results suggest that MCM10 acts as an oncogene in ESCC through activation of Akt signaling and represents a promising therapeutic target for this malignancy. Keywords: esophageal cancer, growth, migration, minichromosome maintenance proteins

  5. Soluble CD14 in human breast milk and its role in innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, K; Labéta, M O; Schiffrin, E J; Donnet-Hughes, A

    2001-10-01

    Immune factors secreted in milk are important for health in the neonatal gut. We have detected the bacterial pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14 (sCD14) in human breast milk at different times during lactation. The molecule occurs in a single form in milk, in contrast to human serum, in which there are two isoforms. Produced by mammary epithelial cells, milk sCD14 mediates secretion of innate immune response molecules such as interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and epithelial neutrophil activator-78 by CD14-negative intestinal epithelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacteria. Although present at low concentrations in milk, LPS-binding protein may be implicated in the biological effects observed. Our findings support the premise that milk sCD14 acts as a 'sentinel' molecule and immune modulator in homeostasis and in the defense of the neonatal intestine. In so doing, it may prevent the immune and inflammatory conditions of the gut to which non-breastfed infants are predisposed.

  6. Characterization of osteoclasts derived from CD14+ monocytes isolated from peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Grøndahl; Henriksen, Kim; Schaller, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Bone resorption is solely mediated by osteoclasts. Therefore, a pure osteoclast population is of high interest for the investigation of biological aspects of the osteoclasts, such as the direct effect of growth factors and hormones, as well as for testing and characterizing inhibitors of bone...... resorption. We have established a pure, stable, and reproducible system for purification of human osteoclasts from peripheral blood. We isolated CD14-positive (CD14+) monocytes using anti-CD14-coated beads. After isolation, the monocytes are differentiated into mature osteoclasts by stimulation...... of osteoclast precursors. No expression of osteoclast markers was observed in the absence of RANKL, whereas RANKL dose-dependently induced the expression of cathepsin K, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), and matrix metallo proteinase (MMP)-9. Furthermore, morphological characterization of the cells...

  7. Effects of CD14 macrophages and proinflammatory cytokines on chondrogenesis in osteoarthritic synovium-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sun Ae; Lee, Sahnghoon; Seong, Sang Cheol; Lee, Myung Chul

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the effects of CD14 macrophages and proinflammatory cytokines on chondrogenic differentiation of osteoarthritic synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs). Osteoarthritic synovial fluid was analyzed for interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-6. Levels of stem cell surface markers in osteoarthritic SDSCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. CD14-negative cells were obtained using magnetically activated cell sorting. We compared chondrogenic potentials between whole cells and CD14-negative cells in CD14(low) cells and CD14(high) cells, respectively. To assess whether nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) modulate IL-1β-induced alterations in chondrogenic potential, we performed small interfering RNA transfection. We observed a significant correlation between the CD14 ratio in osteoarthritic SDSCs and IL-1β and TNF-α in osteoarthritic synovial fluid. Phenotypic characterization of whole cells and CD14-negative cells showed no significant differences in levels of stem cell markers. mRNA expression of type II collagen was higher in CD14-negative cell pellets than in whole cell pellets. Immunohistochemical staining indicated higher levels of type II collagen in the CD14-negative cell pellets of CD14(high) cells than in whole cell pellets of CD14(high) cells. As expected, IL-1β and TNF-α significantly inhibited the expression of chondrogenic-related genes in SDSCs, an effect which was antagonized by knockdown of NF-κB and C/EBPβ. Our results suggest that depletion of CD14(+) synovial macrophages leads to improved chondrogenic potential in CD14(high) cell populations in osteoarthritic SDSCs, and that NF-κB (RelA) and C/EBPβ are critical factors mediating IL-1β-induced suppression of the chondrogenic potential of human SDSCs.

  8. Plasma sCD14 as a biomarker to predict pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

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    Bradley S Quon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One in four cystic fibrosis (CF patients diagnosed with a pulmonary exacerbation will not recover their baseline lung function despite standard treatment. This highlights the importance of preventing such events. Clinical decision-making can be improved through a simple blood test that predicts individuals at elevated short-term risk of an exacerbation. METHODS: We obtained plasma samples from 30 stable CF patients from the St. Paul's Hospital Adult CF Clinic (Vancouver, Canada. For 15 patients, an additional plasma sample was obtained during an exacerbation. Soluble CD14 (sCD14 and C-reactive protein (CRP were quantified using ELISA kits. Myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin(IL-6, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF were quantified using Luminex™ immunoassays. Stable state biomarker levels were examined in their ability to predict individuals that would experience a pulmonary exacerbation requiring intravenous (IV antibiotics within 4 months. Paired stable and exacerbation plasma biomarker levels were also compared. RESULTS: sCD14 levels were significantly higher in patients that experienced a pulmonary exacerbation requiring IV antibiotics within 4 months (p = 0.001. sCD14 cut-off value of 1450 ng/mL was associated with an area under the curve of 0.91 (95% CI 0.83-0.99 for predicting an exacerbation within 4 months of a stable visit, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 82%. Plasma sCD14 levels were significantly higher during exacerbations than during periods of clinical stability (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD14 is a promising biomarker for identifying CF patients who will exacerbate within 4 months of a stable visit but requires further study in larger, independent cohorts.

  9. Enhanced host immune recognition of E.coli causing mastitis in CD-14 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherchia coli causes mastitis, an economically significant disease in dairy animals. E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) when bound by host membrane proteins such as CD-14, causes release of pro-inflammatory cytokines recruiting neutrophils as a early innate immune response. Excessive pr...

  10. CD14+ monocytes promote the immunosuppressive effect of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ding; Chen, Ke; Du, Wei Ting; Han, Zhi-Bo; Ren, He; Chi, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Here, the effect of CD14 + monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion capacities of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) as an important soluble mediator. CD14 + monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, either exogenously added or produced by CD14 + monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE 2 by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE 2 expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14 + monocytes and partially restored CD4 + and CD8 + T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

  11. Elevated levels of peripheral blood CD14(bright) CD16+ and CD14(dim) CD16+ monocytes may contribute to the development of retinopathy in patients with juvenile onset type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryba-Stanisławowska, Monika; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Juhas, Ulana; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to analyze the CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 in the context of their association with microvascular complications. 61 children with type 1 diabetes and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in a study. CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were quantified in peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. At the time of sampling blood glucose concentration was taken along with biochemical measurement of renal function, CRP and glycosylated hemoglobin. The Spearman's correlations were used to compare the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict the development of microangiopathies. The flow cytometric analysis of monocyte subsets in peripheral blood of analyzed subjects revealed that the numbers of CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than in the healthy individuals. As to the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict development of microangiopathies, it was shown that both CD16(+) subsets were associated with increased risk of retinopathy development, defined as retinopathy development value. Elevated levels of intermediate CD14(bright) CD16(+) and non-classical CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes predict development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Music for untying restrained patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelli, L M; Kanski, G

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this descriptive pilot study was two-fold: (a) to test psychometrically an observational instrument designed to measure patient behaviors displayed while unrestrained and receiving a musical intervention; and (b) to determine the effect of a musical intervention on the behavioral reactions of physically restrained patients. The Restraint-Music Response Instrument (RMRI) is a 40-item observational checklist consisting of 22 positive and 18 negative responses developed by the researchers. Content validity was assessed by a panel of experts. The RMRI was tested for interrater reliability using three simulated and 10 actual patients. Results suggest that the RMRI is a valid and reliable measure of patients' responses to music but requires additional study with a control group not receiving the intervention.

  13. Inhibition of transglutaminase 2 reduces efferocytosis in human macrophages: Role of CD14 and SR-AI receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eligini, S; Fiorelli, S; Tremoli, E; Colli, S

    2016-10-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), a member of the transglutaminase family of enzymes, is a multifunctional protein involved in numerous events spanning from cell differentiation, to signal transduction, apoptosis, and wound healing. It is expressed in a variety of cells, macrophages included. Macrophage TGM2 promotes the clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) and emerging evidence suggests that defective efferocytosis contributes to the consequences of inflammation-associated diseases, including atherosclerotic lesion progression and its sequelae. Of interest, active TGM2 identified in human atherosclerotic lesions plays critical roles in plaque stability through effects on matrix cross-linking and TGFβ activity. This study explores the mechanisms by which TGM2 controls efferocytosis in human macrophages. Herein we show that TGM2 increases progressively during monocyte differentiation towards macrophages and controls their efferocytic potential as well as morphology and viability. Two experimental approaches that took advantage of the inhibition of TGM2 activity and protein silencing give proof that TGM2 reduction significantly impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Among the mechanisms involved we highlighted a role of the receptors CD14 and SR-AI whose levels were markedly reduced by TGM2 inhibition. Conversely, CD36 receptor and αvβ3 integrin levels were not influenced. Of note, lipid accumulation and IL-10 secretion were reduced in macrophages displaying defective efferocytosis. Overall, our data define a crucial role of TGM2 activity during macrophage differentiation via mechanisms involving CD14 and SR-AI receptors and show that TGM2 inhibition triggers a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CD14-159C/T polymorphism in the development of delayed skin hypersensitivity to tuberculin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Druszczynska

    Full Text Available The skin tuberculin test (TST, an example of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction, is based on measuring the extent of skin induration to mycobacterial tuberculin (PPD. Little is known about the genetic basis of TST reactivity, widely used for diagnosing TB infection. The study investigated the relationship of the single base change polymorphic variants in CD14 gene (CD14(-159C/T with the development of DTH to PPD in BCG-vaccinated Polish Caucasian individuals. We found persistent lack of TST reactivity in about 40% of healthy subjects despite receiving more than one dose of BCG. The TST size was negatively correlated with the number of BCG inoculations. The distribution of C/T genotype was significantly more frequent among TST-negative compared with TST-positive individuals. The concentration of serum sCD14 was positively associated with mCD14 expression, but not with the TST status or CD14(-159C/T polymorphism. A significant increase in mCD14 expression and serum sCD14 levels was found in TB group. We hypothesize that CD14(-159C/T polymorphic variants might be one of genetic components in the response to attenuated M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  15. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis R V Antonelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+CD16- (classical, CD14(+CD16(+ (inflammatory, and CD14loCD16(+ (patrolling cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+ cells, in particular the CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+CD16(+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.

  16. A Neoglycoconjugate Containing the Human Milk Sugar LNFPIII Drives Anti-Inflammatory Activation of Antigen Presenting Cells in a CD14 Dependent Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smanla Tundup

    Full Text Available The milk pentasaccharide LNFPIII has therapeutic action for metabolic and autoimmune diseases and prolongs transplant survival in mice when presented as a neoglycoconjugate. Within LNFPIII is the Lewisx trisaccharide, expressed by many helminth parasites. In humans, LNFPIII is found in human milk and also known as stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. LNFPIII-NGC drives alternative activation of macrophages and dendritic cells via NFκB activation in a TLR4 dependent mechanism. However, the connection between LNFPIII-NGC activation of APCs, TLR4 signaling and subsequent MAP kinase signaling leading to anti-inflammatory activation of APCs remains unknown. In this study we determined that the innate receptor CD14 was essential for LNFPIII-NGC induction of both ERK and NFkB activation in APCs. Induction of ERK activation by LNFPIII-NGC was completely dependent on CD14/TLR4-Ras-Raf1/TPL2-MEK axis in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs. In addition, LNFPIII-NGC preferentially induced the production of Th2 "favoring" chemokines CCL22 and matrix metalloprotease protein-9 in a CD14 dependent manner in BMDCs. In contrast, LNFPIII-NGC induces significantly lower levels of Th1 "favoring" chemokines, MIP1α, MIP1β and MIP-2 compared to levels in LPS stimulated cells. Interestingly, NGC of the identical human milk sugar LNnT, minus the alpha 1-3 linked fucose, failed to activate APCs via TLR4/MD2/CD14 receptor complex, suggesting that the alpha 1-3 linked fucose in LNFPIII and not on LNnT, is required for this process. Using specific chemical inhibitors of the MAPK pathway, we found that LNFPIII-NGC induction of CCL22, MMP9 and IL-10 production was dependent on ERK activation. Over all, this study suggests that LNFPIII-NGC utilizes CD14/TLR4-MAPK (ERK axis in modulating APC activation to produce anti-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines in a manner distinct from that seen for the pro-inflammatory PAMP LPS. These pathways may explain the in vivo

  17. Clinical proteomics identifies urinary CD14 as a potential biomarker for diagnosis of stable coronary artery disease.

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    Min-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Recently, urinary proteins were found to be useful markers for reflecting inflammation status of different organs. To identify potential biomarker for diagnosis of CAD, we performed one-dimensional SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Among the proteins differentially expressed in urine samples, monocyte antigen CD14 was found to be consistently expressed in higher amounts in the CAD patients as compared to normal controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to analyze the concentrations of CD14 in urine and serum, we confirmed that urinary CD14 levels were significantly higher in patients (n = 73 with multi-vessel and single vessel CAD than in normal control (n = 35 (P < 0.001. Logistic regression analysis further showed that urinary CD14 concentration level is associated with severity or number of diseased vessels and SYNTAX score after adjustment for potential confounders. Concomitantly, the proportion of CD14+ monocytes was significantly increased in CAD patients (59.7 ± 3.6% as compared with healthy controls (14.9 ± 2.1% (P < 0.001, implicating that a high level of urinary CD14 may be potentially involved in mechanism(s leading to CAD pathogenesis. By performing shotgun proteomics, we further revealed that CD14-associated inflammatory response networks may play an essential role in CAD. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated that release of CD14 in urine coupled with more CD14+ monocytes in CAD patients is significantly correlated with severity of CAD, pointing to the potential application of urinary CD14 as a novel noninvasive biomarker for large-scale diagnostic screening of susceptible CAD patients.

  18. Association between CD14 gene polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two polymorphisms, -260C/T and -651C/T, in the CD14 gene have been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. However, the results remain inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between the two polymorphisms and risk of cancer. METHODS: All eligible case-control studies published up to March 2014 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and WanFang database. Pooled odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI were used to access the strength of this association in fixed- or random-effects model. RESULTS: 17 case-control studies from fourteen articles were included. Of those, there were 17 studies (4198 cases and 4194 controls for -260C/T polymorphism and three studies (832 cases and 1190 controls for -651C/T polymorphism. Overall, no significant associations between the two polymorphisms of CD14 gene and cancer risk were found. When stratified by ethnicity, cancer type and source of control, similar results were observed among them. In addition, in further subgroups analysis by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection status and tumor location in gastric cancer subgroup, we found that the CD14 -260C/T polymorphism may increase the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the CD14 -260C/T polymorphism may increase the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals. However, large and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.

  19. CD14{sup +} monocytes promote the immunosuppressive effect of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ding, E-mail: qqhewd@gmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ke, E-mail: chenke_59@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Du, Wei Ting, E-mail: duwtpumc@yahoo.com.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); Han, Zhi-Bo, E-mail: zhibohan@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Ren, He, E-mail: knifesharp2000@hotmail.com [National Engineering Research Center of Cell Products, AmCellGene Co. Ltd, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Chi, Ying, E-mail: caizhuying@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); and others

    2010-09-10

    Here, the effect of CD14{sup +} monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) secretion capacities of CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) as an important soluble mediator. CD14{sup +} monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1{beta}, either exogenously added or produced by CD14{sup +} monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE{sub 2} by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE{sub 2} expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14{sup +} monocytes and partially restored CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cell proliferation and IFN-{gamma} secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

  20. [Effects of lipopolysaccharides from various Porphyromonas on the expression of CD14 and TLRs in mouse osteoblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ge; Xue, Ming; Li, Ren; Lv, You; Qiu, Li-hong

    2011-12-01

    To observe the effect of lipopolysaccharides(LPS) extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) and Porphyromonas gingivals(P.g) on the expression of CD14 and TLRs in osteoblast. MC3T3-E1 cells were stimulated with 10μg/mL P.e-LPS and P.g-LPS. The change of CD14,TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA was observed at different time point (0,1,3,6,12,24h) using RT-PCR,and the expression of CD14,TLR2 and TLR4 protein was measured by flow cytometry at 24-hour. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett t test with SPSS11.0 software package. MC3T3-E1 cells were stimulated with 10μg/mL P.e-LPS for 1h,the expression of CD14 and TLR4 mRNA increased significantly. There was no increase of TLR2 mRNA with stimulation of P.e-LPS. The CD14,TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression increased significantly after stimulation with 10μg/mL P.g-LPS. Flow cytometry showed that CD14 and TLR4 protein increased significantly after stimulation with 10μg/mL P.e-LPS. CD14,TLR2 and TLR4 protein increased significantly after treatment with 10μg/mL P.g-LPS. CD14,TLR4 receptors are involved in P.e-LPS effect and CD14,TLR2 and TLR4 receptors are involved in P.g-LPS effect in mouse osteoblast.

  1. A RNA transcript (Heg) in mononuclear cells is negatively correlated with CD14 mRNA and TSH receptor autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, G.; Bratholm, P.; Christensen, Niels Juel

    2008-01-01

    of the poly A(-) transcript (designated Heg) in mononuclear cells was correlated with CD14 mRNA in normal subjects and with CD14 mRNA and TSH receptor autoantibodies in patients with acute and untreated Graves' disease. mRNA was expressed in amol/mu g DNA. The main study groups were: (i) normal subjects; (ii......) patients with early and untreated Graves' disease; and (iii) patients with Graves' disease studied after treatment. In 18 normal subjects and in 20 patients with treated Graves' disease CD14 mRNA was negatively correlated with Heg (P Graves' disease Heg and thyroid...

  2. Dopamine Increases CD14+CD16+ Monocyte Migration and Adhesion in the Context of Substance Abuse and HIV Neuropathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Jacqueline S.; Calderon, Tina M.; Gaskill, Peter J.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major comorbidity of HIV infection and cognitive disorders are often more severe in the drug abusing HIV infected population. CD14+CD16+ monocytes, a mature subpopulation of peripheral blood monocytes, are key mediators of HIV neuropathogenesis. Infected CD14+CD16+ monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier mediates HIV entry into the brain and establishes a viral reservoir within the CNS. Despite successful antiretroviral therapy, continued influx of CD14+CD16+ monocytes, both infected and uninfected, contributes to chronic neuroinflammation and the development of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse increases extracellular dopamine in the CNS. Once in the brain, CD14+CD16+ monocytes can be exposed to extracellular dopamine due to drug abuse. The direct effects of dopamine on CD14+CD16+ monocytes and their contribution to HIV neuropathogenesis are not known. In this study, we showed that CD14+CD16+ monocytes express mRNA for all five dopamine receptors by qRT-PCR and D1R, D5R and D4R surface protein by flow cytometry. Dopamine and the D1-like dopamine receptor agonist, SKF38393, increased CD14+CD16+ monocyte migration that was characterized as chemokinesis. To determine whether dopamine affected cell motility and adhesion, live cell imaging was used to monitor the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes on the surface of a tissue culture dish. Dopamine increased the number and the rate at which CD14+CD16+ monocytes in suspension settled to the dish surface. In a spreading assay, dopamine increased the area of CD14+CD16+ monocytes during the early stages of cell adhesion. In addition, adhesion assays showed that the overall total number of adherent CD14+CD16+ monocytes increased in the presence of dopamine. These data suggest that elevated extracellular dopamine in the CNS of HIV infected drug abusers contributes to HIV neuropathogenesis by increasing the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes in dopamine rich brain

  3. NMR spectral mapping of Lipid A molecular patterns affected by interaction with the innate immune receptor CD14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, Seth; Agrawal, Prashansa; Jain, Nitin U.

    2009-01-01

    Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a serum glycoprotein that binds to the Lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with high affinity as part of the innate immune response to bacterial endotoxins. In order to investigate structural interactions of Lipid A with sCD14, we have prepared an isotopically labeled form of a fully active and chemically defined endotoxin, Kdo 2 -Lipid A, which allowed us to carry out detailed NMR spectral mapping of this agonist ligand bound to sCD14 and identify for the first time structural regions that are strongly affected during complex formation with sCD14. These map to two adjacent areas comprising the lower portions of the sugar headgroup and upper half of the acyl chains I, III, and V, which are spatially proximal to the 1- and 4'-phosphate ends. Additionally, we have detected for the first time, presence of differential dynamic behavior for the affected resonances, suggesting a likely role for dynamics in the mechanism of Lipid A pattern recognition by sCD14.

  4. [Effect of CD-14 and toll like receptors on the expression of interleukin-6 induced by lipopolysaccharides of Porphyromonas endodontalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ge; Qiu, Li-Hong; Li, Ren; Lü, You; Yu, Ya-Qiong; Zhong, Ming

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD-14) and Toll like receptors (TLR) on the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA induced by Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe) lipopolysaccharides (LPS). MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with 10 mg/L Pe-LPS for different hours, and the cells uninvolved by anything as the blank group. The expression of IL-6 was detected by reverse transcription polymerse chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of CD-14, TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA was observed at different time point (0 - 24 h) by RT-PCR. The protein of CD-14, TLR-2 and TLR-4 was analyzed with a flow cytometer. MC3T3-E1 cells were pretreated with anti-CD-14, anti-TLR-2 and anti-TLR-4 antibody for 1 h, and then cells were stimulated with 10 mg/L Pe-LPS for 6 h. The expression of IL-6 mRNA was examined by RT-PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA Dunnett-t test with SPSS 11.0 software package. The IL-6 mRNA and proteins increased significantly after treatment with Pe-LPS. When MC3T3-E1 cells treated by Pe-LPS for 6 h, the expression of proteins soared from (11.696 ± 0.672) ng/L to (36.534 ± 0.574) ng/L (P < 0.01); In the control group, the CD-14 and TLR-4 mRNA are ambly-expression, and the ratios of CD-14 and TLR-4 positive cells were (39.038 ± 3.131)% and (11.438 ± 0.385)% respectively in MC3T3-E1. After treatment by Pe-LPS, the expression of CD-14 and TLR-4 mRNA increased significantly, and the ratios of CD-14 and TLR-4 positive cells markedly increased to (62.407 ± 1.800)% and (21.367 ± 2.271)%. TLR-2 expression did not change apparently after Pe-LPS treatment. The expression of IL-6 mRNA was partly inhibited by anti-CD-14 or anti-TLR-4 antibody, but not by TLR-2. Pe-LPS can induce the expression of IL-6 in osteoblast MC3T3-E1 through CD-14 and TLR-4, but not TLR-2.

  5. Circulating CD14brightCD16+ 'intermediate' monocytes exhibit enhanced parasite pattern recognition in human helminth infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Turner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Circulating monocyte sub-sets have recently emerged as mediators of divergent immune functions during infectious disease but their role in helminth infection has not been investigated. In this study we evaluated whether 'classical' (CD14brightCD16-, 'intermediate' (CD14brightCD16+, and 'non-classical' (CD14dimCD16+ monocyte sub-sets from peripheral blood mononuclear cells varied in both abundance and ability to bind antigenic material amongst individuals living in a region of Northern Senegal which is co-endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. Monocyte recognition of excretory/secretory (E/S products released by skin-invasive cercariae, or eggs, of S. mansoni was assessed by flow cytometry and compared between S. mansoni mono-infected, S. mansoni and S. haematobium co-infected, and uninfected participants. Each of the three monocyte sub-sets in the different infection groups bound schistosome E/S material. However, 'intermediate' CD14brightCD16+ monocytes had a significantly enhanced ability to bind cercarial and egg E/S. Moreover, this elevation of ligand binding was particularly evident in co-infected participants. This is the first demonstration of modulated parasite pattern recognition in CD14brightCD16+ intermediate monocytes during helminth infection, which may have functional consequences for the ability of infected individuals to respond immunologically to infection.

  6. Transversely Compressed- and Restrained Shear Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    2013-01-01

    Anchorage of FRP strengthening systems where the deformation perpendicular to the FRP material is restrained or a compressive force is applied on the strengthening, seems to provide ductility, increased utilization of the FRP and failure modes which can be controlled through the anchorage method....

  7. High-disinhibition restrained eaters are disinhibited by self-regulatory depletion in the food-related inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yizhou; Gao, Xiao; Chen, Hong; Kong, Fanchang

    2017-08-01

    Restrained eating for weight control and loss is becoming highly prevalent in many affluent societies, while most of the restrained eaters are rather unsuccessful in the long term. According to the strength model of self-control, the disinhibition effect of restrained eaters may occur after the depletion of self-control resources. However, no work has examined the direct impact of self-control resources on inhibitory control ability of restrained eaters. This study investigated the influences of self-control resources on the food-related inhibitory control among high-restraint/low-disinhibition restrained eaters, high-restraint/high-disinhibition restrained eaters and unrestrained eaters using stop signal task. Results reveal that there's no difference of food-related inhibitory control between three groups when the self-control resources are non-depleted, while high-restraint/high-disinhibition restrained eaters showing a decrease of food-related inhibitory control after ego-depletion. This disinhibition effect only seems to occur in samples of restrained eaters with a high tendency toward overeating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-Elicited TSLPR Expression Enriches a Functionally Discrete Subset of Human CD14+ CD1c+ Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Di Somma, Sarah; Vastolo, Viviana; Petrosino, Giuseppe; Visconte, Feliciano; Raia, Maddalena; Scalia, Giulia; Loffredo, Stefania; Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Granata, Francescopaolo; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Portella, Giuseppe; Marone, Gianni

    2017-05-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine produced mainly by epithelial cells in response to inflammatory or microbial stimuli and binds to the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) complex, a heterodimer composed of TSLPR and IL-7 receptor α (CD127). TSLP activates multiple immune cell subsets expressing the TSLPR complex and plays a role in several models of disease. Although human monocytes express TSLPR and CD127 mRNAs in response to the TLR4 agonist LPS, their responsiveness to TSLP is poorly defined. We demonstrate that TSLP enhances human CD14 + monocyte CCL17 production in response to LPS and IL-4. Surprisingly, only a subset of CD14 + CD16 - monocytes, TSLPR + monocytes (TSLPR + mono), expresses TSLPR complex upon LPS stimulation in an NF-κB- and p38-dependent manner. Phenotypic, functional, and transcriptomic analysis revealed specific features of TSLPR + mono, including higher CCL17 and IL-10 production and increased expression of genes with important immune functions (i.e., GAS6 , ALOX15B , FCGR2B , LAIR1 ). Strikingly, TSLPR + mono express higher levels of the dendritic cell marker CD1c. This evidence led us to identify a subset of peripheral blood CD14 + CD1c + cells that expresses the highest levels of TSLPR upon LPS stimulation. The translational relevance of these findings is highlighted by the higher expression of TSLPR and CD127 mRNAs in monocytes isolated from patients with Gram-negative sepsis compared with healthy control subjects. Our results emphasize a phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in an apparently homogeneous population of human CD14 + CD16 - monocytes and prompt further ontogenetic and functional analysis of CD14 + CD1c + and LPS-activated CD14 + CD1c + TSLPR + mono. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Association among oral health, apical periodontitis, CD14 polymorphisms, and coronary heart disease in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Damiano; Bergandi, Loredana; Palumbo, Luigi; Borraccino, Alberto; Dambra, Valentina; Alovisi, Mario; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Gaetana; Ghigo, Dario; Bergerone, Serena; Scotti, Nicola; Aimetti, Mario; Berutti, Elio

    2012-12-01

    There is evidence to suggest that an association exists between oral infections and coronary heart disease (CHD). Subjects presenting lesions of endodontic origin (LEOs) or pulpal inflammation had an increased risk of developing CHD. However, findings concerning systemic manifestations of apical periodontitis (AP) remain controversial. An association between CD14 gene polymorphisms and atherosclerosis-associated diseases has been shown, but there are no data regarding an association between CD14 polymorphism and AP. This study evaluated associations between clinical oral health status, CD14 polymorphisms, and CHD. A case-controlled clinical trial was designed to compare middle-aged adults with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina (n = 51) within 12 months of the acute event defined as first manifestation with healthy controls (n = 49). Participants were matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Indicators of oral disease and compliance were evaluated. CD14 polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. CHD subjects had a higher prevalence of oral diseases and lower compliance to oral preventive strategies than healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed a positive association between missing teeth (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.85), the number of LEOs (OR = 4.37; 95% CI, 1.69-11.28), chronic periodontitis (OR = 5.87; 95% CI, 1.17-29.4), and CHD. No statistically significant association emerged between the CD14 C(-260)T and the CD14 C(-159)T polymorphism, endodontic or periodontal disease, and CHD. Chronic oral diseases may increase the risk of CHD and may be an unconventional risk factor for CHD. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dopamine Increases CD14+CD16+ Monocyte Transmigration across the Blood Brain Barrier: Implications for Substance Abuse and HIV Neuropathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Tina M; Williams, Dionna W; Lopez, Lillie; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Cheney, Laura; Gaskill, Peter J; Veenstra, Mike; Anastos, Kathryn; Morgello, Susan; Berman, Joan W

    2017-06-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infected individuals, substance abuse may accelerate the development and/or increase the severity of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). It is proposed that CD14 + CD16 + monocytes mediate HIV entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and that uninfected and infected CD14 + CD16 + monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier (BBB) contributes to the establishment and propagation of CNS HIV viral reservoirs and chronic neuroinflammation, important factors in the development of HAND. The effects of substance abuse on the frequency of CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in the peripheral circulation and on the entry of these cells into the CNS during HIV neuropathogenesis are not known. PBMC from HIV infected individuals were analyzed by flow cytometry and we demonstrate that the frequency of peripheral blood CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in HIV infected substance abusers is increased when compared to those without active substance use. Since drug use elevates extracellular dopamine concentrations in the CNS, we examined the effects of dopamine on CD14 + CD16 + monocyte transmigration across our in vitro model of the human BBB. The transmigration of this monocyte subpopulation is increased by dopamine and the dopamine receptor agonist, SKF 38393, implicating D1-like dopamine receptors in the increase in transmigration elicited by this neurotransmitter. Thus, elevated extracellular CNS dopamine may be a novel common mechanism by which active substance use increases uninfected and HIV infected CD14 + CD16 + monocyte transmigration across the BBB. The influx of these cells into the CNS may increase viral seeding and neuroinflammation, contributing to the development of HIV associated neurocognitive impairments.

  11. Vitamin D effects on monocytes' CCL-2, IL6 and CD14 transcription in Addison's disease and HLA susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, A U; Penna-Martinez, M; Meyer, G; Badenhoop, K

    2018-03-01

    Addison's disease is a rare autoimmune disorder leading to adrenal insufficiency and life-long glucocorticoid dependency. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and vitamin D deficiency predispose to Addison's disease. Aim of the current study was, to investigate potential anti-inflammatory vitamin D effects on monocytes in Addison's disease, focusing on inflammatory CCL-2 and IL6, as well on monocyte CD14 markers. Addison's disease is genetically linked to distinct HLA susceptibility alleles. Therefore we analyzed, whether HLA genotypes differed for vitamin D effects on monocyte markers. CD14 + monocytes were isolated from Addison's disease patients (AD, n=13) and healthy controls (HC, n=15) and stimulated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and IL1β as an inflammatory stimulant. Cells were processed for mRNA expression of CCL-2, IL6 and CD14 and DNA samples were genotyped for major histocompatibility class (MHC) class II-encoded HLA- DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes. We found a downregulation of CCL-2 after vitamin D treatment in IL1β-stimulated monocytes both from AD patients and HC (AD p<0.001; HC p<0.0001). CD14 expression however, was upregulated in both HC and AD patients after vitamin D treatment (p<0.001, respectively). HC showed higher CD14 transcription level than AD patients after vitamin D treatment (p=0.04). Compared to IL1β-induced inflammation, HC have increased CD14 levels after vitamin D treatment (p<0.001), whereas the IL1β-induced CD14 expression of AD patients' monocytes did not change after vitamin D treatment (p=0.8). AD patients carrying HLA high-risk haplotypes showed an increased CCL-2 expression after IL1β-induced inflammation compared to intermediate-risk HLA carriers (p=0.05). Also HC monocytes' CD14 transcription after IL1β and vitamin D co-stimulation differed according to HLA risk profile. We show that vitamin D can exert anti-inflammatory effects on AD patients' monocytes which may be modulated by HLA risk genotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  12. Innate recognition of bacteria in human milk is mediated by a milk-derived highly expressed pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14.

    OpenAIRE

    Lab?ta, MO; Vidal, K; Nores, JE; Arias, M; Vita, N; Morgan, BP; Guillemot, JC; Loyaux, D; Ferrara, P; Schmid, D; Affolter, M; Borysiewicz, LK; Donnet-Hughes, A; Schiffrin, EJ

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  13. Innate Recognition of Bacteria in Human Milk Is Mediated by a Milk-Derived Highly Expressed Pattern Recognition Receptor, Soluble Cd14

    OpenAIRE

    Labéta, Mario O.; Vidal, Karine; Nores, Julia E. Rey; Arias, Mauricio; Vita, Natalio; Morgan, B. Paul; Guillemot, Jean Claude; Loyaux, Denis; Ferrara, Pascual; Schmid, Daniel; Affolter, Michael; Borysiewicz, Leszek K.; Donnet-Hughes, Anne; Schiffrin, Eduardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  14. Altered Expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on Peripheral CD14+ Blood Monocytes in Children with Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karananou, Panagiota; Fleva, Alexandra; Tramma, Despoina; Alataki, Anastasia; Pavlitou-Tsiontsi, Aikaterini; Emporiadou-Peticopoulou, Maria; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common bacterial infection, after otitis media, in infants and children. The mechanisms of disease susceptibility and the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of UTI in children have been evaluated. In recent years, Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) have been recognized as specific components of the innate immune system constituting important mediators in host immune recognition. The aim of the present study was to determine ΤLR2 and TLR4 expression during the acute phase of UTI in infants and children by measuring the CD14/TLR2 and CD14/TLR4 expression on monocytes. We also attempted to compare the TLRs expression with the immunological status of the patients to healthy children. The study group consisted of 60 children (36 females and 24 males) and the control group included 60 age-matched pediatric subjects (27 females and 33 males). In our study, no antibody deficiency was found either in the children with UTI or in healthy subjects. There might be a connection between low IgA, IgG, and IgG subclasses serum levels and UTI as there was a statistically significant difference between patients and healthy children. A higher expression of CD14/TLR2 was revealed in patients (90,07%) compared to controls (85,48%) as well as CD14/TLR4 in patients (90,53%) compared to controls (87,25%) (statistically significant difference, p UTIs' pathogenesis in children.

  15. Emphysema and soluble CD14 are associated with pulmonary nodules in HIV-infected patients: implications for lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, Matthew; Sigel, Keith M; Morris, Alison; Shahrir, Shahida; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Kong, Chung Y; Diaz, Phillip T; Petraglia, Alycia; Crothers, Kristina

    2017-07-31

    Lung cancer screening may benefit HIV-infected (HIV) smokers because of an elevated risk of lung cancer, but may have unique harms because of HIV-specific risk factors for false-positive screens. This study seeks to understand whether inflammatory biomarkers and markers of chronic lung disease are associated with noncalcified nodules at least 4 mm (NCN) in HIV compared with uninfected patients. This is a cohort study of Examinations of HIV-Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE), including 158 HIV and 133 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants underwent a laboratory assessment [including measurement of D-dimer, interleukin 6, and soluble CD14 (sCD14)], chest computed tomography (CT), and pulmonary function testing. We created multivariable logistic regression models to determine predictors of NCN in the participants stratified by HIV status, with attention to semiqualitative scoring of radiographic emphysema, markers of pulmonary function, and inflammatory biomarkers. Of the 291 participants, 69 had NCN on chest CT. As previously reported, there was no difference in prevalence of these nodules by HIV status. Emphysema and elevated sCD14 demonstrated an association with NCN in HIV participants independent of smoking status, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and pulmonary function. Emphysema and sCD14, a marker of immune activation, was associated with a higher prevalence of NCN on chest CT in HIV participants. Patients with chronic immune activation and emphysema may be at higher risk for both false-positive findings and incident lung cancer, thus screening in this group requires further study to understand the balance of benefits and harms.

  16. Temporal attention for visual food stimuli in restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeijer, Renate A M; de Jong, Peter J; Roefs, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Although restrained eaters try to limit their food intake, they often fail and indulge in exactly those foods that they want to avoid. A possible explanation is a temporal attentional bias for food cues. It could be that for these people food stimuli are processed relatively efficiently and require less attentional resources to enter awareness. Once a food stimulus has captured attention, it may be preferentially processed and granted prioritized access to limited cognitive resources. This might help explain why restrained eaters often fail in their attempts to restrict their food intake. A Rapid Serial Visual Presentation task consisting of dual and single target trials with food and neutral pictures as targets and/or distractors was administered to restrained (n=40) and unrestrained (n=40) eaters to study temporal attentional bias. Results indicated that (1) food cues did not diminish the attentional blink in restrained eaters when presented as second target; (2) specifically restrained eaters showed an interference effect of identifying food targets on the identification of preceding neutral targets; (3) for both restrained and unrestrained eaters, food cues enhanced the attentional blink; (4) specifically in restrained eaters, food distractors elicited an attention blink in the single target trials. In restrained eaters, food cues get prioritized access to limited cognitive resources, even if this processing priority interferes with their current goals. This temporal attentional bias for food stimuli might help explain why restrained eaters typically have difficulties maintaining their diet rules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Probiotic treatment decreases the number of CD14 expressing cells in porcine milk which correlates with several intestinal immune parameters in the piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia eScharek-Tedin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modulating the mucosal immune system of neonates by probiotic treatment of their mothers is a promising approach which can only be investigated through the use of animal models. Here, we used sows and their piglets to investigate the impact of a bacterial treatment on the sow´s milk and on the neonate piglet intestinal immune system.In previous experiments, feed supplementation of sows with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 during pregnancy and lactation had been shown to affect intestinal microbiota and cytokine expression of the offspring during the suckling and weaning periods. We therefore investigated the composition of the milk from treated sows in comparison to samples from a control group. In treated sows, the amount of lactose increased, and the somatic cell numbers were reduced. In all milk samples, the percentage of cells expressing membranous CD14 (mCD14 was greater than the fractions of immune cells, indicating expression of mCD14 on mammary epithelial cells. However, in the milk of E. faecium-treated sows, mCD14+ cells were reduced. Furthermore, the number of CD14+ milk cells was positively correlated with the percentages of B cells and activated T cells in the ileal MLN of the piglets. This study provides evidence for the expression of mCD14 by the porcine mammary epithelium, and suggests an immunological effect of mCD14+ milk cells on the piglets’ intestinal immune system. Our study further suggests that mCD14+ mammary epithelial cell populations can be modulated by probiotic feed supplementation of the sow. Keywords: pig, Enterococcus faecium, milk, mCD14, intestinal, B cells, T cells.

  18. Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J; Schotte, D E; McNally, R J

    1992-05-01

    We tested the effects of 3 mood inductions (neutral, positive, and negative) on food intake in 91 women of varying degrees of dietary restraint. Mood induction was accomplished by exposure to 1 of 3 film segments: a travelogue (neutral affect), a comedy film (positive affect), and a horror film (negative affect). In subjects exposed to the neutral film, food intake decreased with increasing levels of dietary restraint. Among subjects who viewed either the comedy film or the horror film, however, food intake increased with increasing restraint. Although the horror film appeared to be more disinhibiting than the comedy film, this effect may have resulted from a difference in the intensity of the emotions induced rather than from their valence. These results suggest that emotional arousal, regardless of valence, may trigger overeating among restrained eaters.

  19. 49 CFR 1103.22 - Restraining clients from improprieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restraining clients from improprieties. 1103.22... Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.22 Restraining clients from improprieties. A practitioner should see that his clients act with the same restraint that the practitioner himself uses...

  20. CD14-dependent monocyte isolation enhances phagocytosis of listeria monocytogenes by proinflammatory, GM-CSF-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Neu

    Full Text Available Macrophages are an important line of defence against invading pathogens. Human macrophages derived by different methods were tested for their suitability as models to investigate Listeria monocytogenes (Lm infection and compared to macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Human primary monocytes were isolated by either positive or negative immunomagnetic selection and differentiated in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF into pro- or anti-inflammatory macrophages, respectively. Regardless of the isolation method, GM-CSF-derived macrophages (GM-Mφ stained positive for CD206 and M-CSF-derived macrophages (M-Mφ for CD163. THP-1 cells did not express CD206 or CD163 following incubation with PMA, M- or GM-CSF alone or in combination. Upon infection with Lm, all primary macrophages showed good survival at high multiplicities of infection whereas viability of THP-1 was severely reduced even at lower bacterial numbers. M-Mφ generally showed high phagocytosis of Lm. Strikingly, phagocytosis of Lm by GM-Mφ was markedly influenced by the method used for isolation of monocytes. GM-Mφ derived from negatively isolated monocytes showed low phagocytosis of Lm whereas GM-Mφ generated from positively selected monocytes displayed high phagocytosis of Lm. Moreover, incubation with CD14 antibody was sufficient to enhance phagocytosis of Lm by GM-Mφ generated from negatively isolated monocytes. By contrast, non-specific phagocytosis of latex beads by GM-Mφ was not influenced by treatment with CD14 antibody. Furthermore, phagocytosis of Lactococcus lactis, Escherichia coli, human cytomegalovirus and the protozoan parasite Leishmania major by GM-Mφ was not enhanced upon treatment with CD14 antibody indicating that this effect is specific for Lm. Based on these observations, we propose macrophages derived by ex vivo differentiation of negatively selected human primary monocytes as the most

  1. DMPD: Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Schumann RR. Res Immunol. 1992 Jan;143(1):11-5. (.png) (.svg) (...ride (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Authors Schuma.../LBP complexes: a short review. PubmedID 1373512 Title Function of lipopolysaccha....html) (.csml) Show Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS

  2. [The frequency of peripheral blood CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs is negatively correlated with the inflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guan, Shihe; Yang, Kai; Ye, Jun; Yan, Kaili; Pan, Ying; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Aihua; Sun, Beibei

    2015-10-01

    To study the frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and the relationship with biochemical characteristics, viral load and liver pathology. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood of 96 patients with CHB and 20 healthy control cases were detected by flow cytometry. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies as well as HBV-related serological tests were performed in HBV-infected individuals to analyze the biochemical characteristics, viral load and pathology. The data were assessed using Spearman correlation analysis. The frequency of the peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the 96 CHB cases was (6.03 ± 0.09)%, which was significantly higher than that of the 20 healthy control cases (1.87 ± 0.05)%. The group of HBeAg positive cases had a significantly higher frequency of the peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs compared with the group of HBeAg negative cases and the healthy control group. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood was negatively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. There was no correlation between the frequency of peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs and HBV load. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood was negatively correlated with the liver inflammation grade, but not related with the fibrosis stage in patients with CHB. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs is negatively correlated with the inflammation of CHB.

  3. Expression of FOXP3, CD14, and ARG1 in Neuroblastoma Tumor Tissue from High-Risk Patients Predicts Event-Free and Overall Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Stigliani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of children with metastatic neuroblastoma (NB > 18 months at diagnosis is dismal. Since the immune status of the tumor microenvironment could play a role in the history of disease, we evaluated the expression of CD45, CD14, ARG1, CD163, CD4, FOXP3, Perforin-1 (PRF1, Granzyme B (GRMB, and IL-10 mRNAs in primary tumors at diagnosis from children with metastatic NB and tested whether the transcript levels are significantly associated to event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS, resp.. Children with high expression of CD14, ARG1 and FOXP3 mRNA in their primary tumors had significantly better EFS. Elevated expression of CD14, and FOXP3 mRNA was significantly associated to better OS. CD14 mRNA expression levels significantly correlated to all markers, with the exception of CD4. Strong positive correlations were found between PRF1 and CD163, as well as between PFR1 and FOXP3. It is worth noting that the combination of high levels of CD14, FOXP3, and ARG1 mRNAs identified a small group of patients with excellent EFS and OS, whereas low levels of CD14 were sufficient to identify patients with dismal survival. Thus, the immune status of the primary tumors of high-risk NB patients may influence the natural history of this pediatric cancer.

  4. Association between CD14 gene C-260T polymorphism and inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengting Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gene encoding CD14 has been proposed as an IBD-susceptibility gene with its polymorphism C-260T being widely evaluated, yet with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between this polymorphism and IBD by conducting a meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 18 case-control studies, including 1900 ulcerative colitis (UC cases, 2535 Crohn's disease (CD cases, and 4004 controls. Data were analyzed using STATA software. Overall, association between C-260T polymorphism and increased UC risk was significant in allelic comparison (odds ratio [OR]  =1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.43; P=0.027, homozygote model (OR  =1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.01; P=0.033, as well as dominant model (OR  =1.36, 95% CI: 1.06-1.75; P=0.016. However, there was negative association between this polymorphism and CD risk across all genetic models. Subgroup analyses by ethnicity suggested the risk-conferring profiles of -260T allele and -260 TT genotype with UC in Asians, but not in Caucasians. There was a low probability of publication bias. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Expanding previous results of individual studies, our findings demonstrated that CD14 gene C-260T polymorphism might be a promising candidate marker in susceptibility to UC, especially in Asians.

  5. Conformationally restrained aromatic analogues of fosmidomycin and FR900098.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Thomas; Schlüter, Katrin; Pein, Miriam; Behrendt, Christoph; Bergmann, Bärbel; Walter, Rolf D

    2007-07-01

    The synthesis and in-vitro antimalarial activity of conformationally restrained bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) ester analogues of the natural product fosmidomycin is presented. In contrast to alpha-aryl-substituted analogues, conformationally restrained aromatic analogues exhibit only moderate in-vitro antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The most active derivative displays an IC(50) value of 47 microM.

  6. Behaviour of biaxially restrained concretes under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienel, K.-Ch.; Rostasy, F.S.

    1993-01-01

    Under asymmetric biaxial loading the major restraining stresses of concrete made with expanded shale or quarzite aggregates change between both loading axis. Differences between uniaxial and biaxial restraint vanish, if the restraint is normalized with respect to the ultimate strength at ambient temperature of the same stress ratio K. The type of aggregate and the mix proportions do affect the restraining stresses irrespective of the initial stress ratio K 0 . (author)

  7. Unchanged Levels of Soluble CD14 and IL-6 Over Time Predict Serious Non-AIDS Events in HIV-1-Infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Meena; Nigalye, Maitreyee; Somasunderam, Anoma; Martinez, Maria Laura; Yu, Xiaoying; Arduino, Roberto C.; Bell, Tanvir K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1-infected persons have increased risk of serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs) despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Increased circulating levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), soluble CD163 (sCD163), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at a single time point have been associated with SNAEs. However, whether changes in these biomarker levels predict SNAEs in HIV-1-infected persons is unknown. We hypothesized that greater decreases in inflammatory biomarkers would be associated with fewer SNAEs. We identified 39 patients with SNAEs, including major cardiovascular events, end stage renal disease, decompensated cirrhosis, non-AIDS-defining malignancies, and death of unknown cause, and age- and sex-matched HIV-1-infected controls. sCD14, sCD163, and IL-6 were measured at study enrollment (T1) and proximal to the event (T2) or equivalent duration in matched controls. Over ∼34 months, unchanged rather than decreasing levels of sCD14 and IL-6 predicted SNAEs. Older age and current illicit substance abuse, but not HCV coinfection, were associated with SNAEs. In a multivariate analysis, older age, illicit substance use, and unchanged IL-6 levels remained significantly associated with SNAEs. Thus, the trajectories of sCD14 and IL-6 levels predict SNAEs. Interventions to decrease illicit substance use may decrease the risk of SNAEs in HIV-1-infected persons. PMID:27344921

  8. CD14+CD16+ monocytes are the main target of Zika virus infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a paediatric study in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlmayr, Daniela; Andrade, Paulina; Gonzalez, Karla; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2017-11-01

    The recent Zika pandemic in the Americas is linked to congenital birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome. White blood cells (WBCs) play an important role in host immune responses early in arboviral infection. Infected WBCs can also function as 'Trojan horses' and carry viruses into immune-sheltered spaces, including the placenta, testes and brain. Therefore, defining which WBCs are permissive to Zika virus (ZIKV) is critical. Here, we analyse ZIKV infectivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and from Nicaraguan Zika patients and show CD14 + CD16 + monocytes are the main target of infection, with ZIKV replication detected in some dendritic cells. The frequency of CD14 + monocytes was significantly decreased, while the CD14 + CD16 + monocyte population was significantly expanded during ZIKV infection compared to uninfected controls. Viral RNA was detected in PBMCs from all patients, but in serum from only a subset, suggesting PBMCs may be a reservoir for ZIKV. In Zika patients, the frequency of infected cells was lower but the percentage of infected CD14 + CD16 + monocytes was significantly higher compared to dengue cases. The gene expression profile in monocytes isolated from ZIKV- and dengue virus-infected patients was comparable, except for significant differences in interferon-γ, CXCL12, XCL1, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 levels. Thus, our study provides a detailed picture of the innate immune profile of ZIKV infection and highlights the important role of monocytes, and CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in particular.

  9. [Usefulness of sCD14-ST in the diagnosis of sepsis in patient with renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Dario; Zanoli, Luca; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Granata, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Since many years, researchers have focused their studies to find out early sepsis biomarkers for the purpose of gaining time in the application of early goal-directed therapy protocol. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a reliable biomarker for sepsis, although it has a low specificity and prognostic value. Other recently proposed sepsis biomarkers such as interleukins, C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloid cells expressing triggering receptor-1 (TREM-1) and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) still have a controversial and uncertain clinical value. In 2004 a new biomarker, soluble CD14 SubType (sCD14-ST, Presepsin), with a good performance in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of sepsis has been proposed. First studies highlighted that Presepsin is highly sensitive and specific at the same time. However, further studies on the clinical value of Presepsin are needed, particularly in order to explain the relationship between Presepsin and kidney failure. Indeed, Presepsin is a 13 KDa molecule theoretically totally filtered by glomerulus and reabsorbed and metabolized by proximal convoluted tubules. Therefore, the Presepsin plasmatic level could be highly influenced by an acute kidney injury in the course of sepsis or by a pre-existing chronic kidney disease. In this article we reviewed the latest evidences about the diagnostic and prognostic performances of Presepsin as a sepsis biomarker. We evaluated the usefulness of Presepsin in the context of acute and chronic kidney dysfunction. The great number of articles have been collected and the thorough revision of data from the nephrologists perspective let us consider this work exhaustive and scientifically reliable, although concise: a good starting point for the physician who wants to make use of Presepsin.

  10. Exploring the link between innate immune activation and thymic function by measuring sCD14 and TRECs in HIV patients living in Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien De Voeght

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation is now viewed as a central event in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation during HIV infection. Thymic function failure is another crucial factor involved in HIV disease progression. The goal of this study was to explore the hypothesis of potential links between microbial translocation and thymic function in HIV-1 patients living in Belgium. The extent of microbial translocation was assessed through the measurement of soluble CD14 (sCD14. T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTRECs and dβTRECs were used as a measure of thymic function. Data were collected from 75 HIV-infected patients. Simple and complex linear regressions were done to analyze the link between these two processes. We found a statistically relevant negative correlation between thymopoiesis (sjTREC and sCD14 level (p = 0.004. These results suggest a link between thymic function failure, microbial translocation and innate immune activation.

  11. Adding exercise to rosuvastatin treatment: influence on C-reactive protein, monocyte toll-like receptor 4 expression, and inflammatory monocyte (CD14+CD16+) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Paul M; Flynn, Michael G; Markofski, Melissa M; Pence, Brandt D; Hannemann, Robert E

    2010-12-01

    Statin treatment and exercise training can reduce markers of inflammation when administered separately. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rosuvastatin treatment and the addition of exercise training on circulating markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, and CD14+CD16+ monocyte population size. Thirty-three hypercholesterolemic and physically inactive subjects were randomly assigned to rosuvastatin (R) or rosuvastatin/exercise (RE) groups. A third group of physically active hypercholesterolemic subjects served as a control (AC). The R and RE groups received rosuvastatin treatment (10 mg/d) for 20 weeks. From week 10 to week 20, the RE group also participated in an exercise training program (3d/wk). Measurements were made at baseline (Pre), week 10 (Mid), and week 20 (Post), and included TLR4 expression on CD14+ monocytes and CD14+CD16+ monocyte population size as determined by 3-color flow cytometry. Serum CRP was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TLR4 expression on CD14+ monocytes was higher in the R group at week 20. When treatment groups (R and RE) were combined, serum CRP was lower across time. Furthermore, serum CRP and inflammatory monocyte population size were lower in the RE group compared with the R group at the Post time point. When all groups (R, RE, and AC) were combined, TLR4 expression was greater on inflammatory monocytes (CD14+CD16+) compared with classic monocytes (CD14+CD16⁻) at all time points. In conclusion, rosuvastatin may influence monocyte inflammatory response by increasing TLR4 expression on circulating monocytes. The addition of exercise training to rosuvastatin treatment further lowered CRP and reduced the size of the inflammatory monocyte population, suggesting an additive anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional contribution of elevated circulating and hepatic non-classical CD14CD16 monocytes to inflammation and human liver fibrosis.

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    Henning W Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C(+ monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were recently recognized as important fibrosis modulators in mice. In humans, monocytes consist of classical CD14(+CD16(- and non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ cells. We aimed at investigating the relevance of monocyte subpopulations for human liver fibrosis, and hypothesized that 'non-classical' monocytes critically exert inflammatory as well as profibrogenic functions in patients during liver disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed circulating monocyte subsets from freshly drawn blood samples of 226 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD and 184 healthy controls by FACS analysis. Circulating monocytes were significantly expanded in CLD-patients compared to controls with a marked increase of the non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ subset that showed an activated phenotype in patients and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical progression. Correspondingly, CD14(+CD16(+ macrophages massively accumulated in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and FACS. Ligands of monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR1 and CCR5 were expressed at higher levels in fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, while CCL3 and CCL4 were also systemically elevated in CLD-patients. Isolated monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were functionally characterized regarding cytokine/chemokine expression and interactions with primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC in vitro. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes released abundant proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CD14(+CD16(+, but not CD14(+CD16(- monocytes could directly activate collagen-producing HSC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data

  13. How restrained eaters perceive the amount they eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, A

    1996-09-01

    The cognitive model of binge eating states that it is the awareness of a broken diet that disinhibits the restrained eater. It is, according to that model, the perception of having overeaten that triggers disinhibited eating. However, although the perception of the amount eaten plays a central role in cognitive restraint theory, it has never directly been tested how restrained subjects perceive the amount of food they eat. In the present studies, participants were given ad libitum access to large amounts of palatable food and both their perception of the amount eaten and their estimated caloric intake were compared with the amount they actually ate. The restrained participants in these studies ate more than the unrestrained participants. In the first and second studies, the restrained participants consumed 571 and 372 'forbidden' calories respectively, without having the feeling that they had eaten very much, let alone too much. Moreover in both studies, the restrained eaters underestimated their caloric intake, whereas unrestrained eaters estimated their caloric intake quite well. The potential implications of the present findings for the cognitive restraint model are discussed.

  14. Expansion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes producing TNF-α in complication-free diabetes type 1 juvenile onset patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myśliwska, Jolanta; Smardzewski, Marcin; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Raczyńska, Krystyna

    2012-10-01

    We concentrated on the complication-free phase of juvenile onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) searching for associations between concentration of inflammatory factors TNF-α, CRP and VEGF and two monocyte subsets the CD14(++)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(+). We analysed a randomly selected group of 150 patients without complications (disease duration 2.74 ± 2.51 years) at the start of the project and 5 years later. They were compared with 24 patients with retinopathy (6.53 ± 3.39 years of disease) and 30 healthy volunteers. Our results indicate that in the complication-free period the concentration of TNF-α significantly increased and continued to increase after retinopathy was established. After 5 years the percentage and absolute number of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes doubled in complication-free patients. Our study indicates that the size of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subset may be used alternatively to CRP values as an indicator of inflammation grade. Our results imply the necessity of trials using anti-TNF-α therapy in the complication-free phase of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 Levels Have Distinct Associations with Antiretroviral Treatment and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Castley

    Full Text Available We investigate the associations of three established plasma biomarkers in the context of HIV and treatment-related variables including a comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk assessment, within a large ambulatory HIV cohort. Patients were recruited in 2010 to form the Royal Perth Hospital HIV/CVD risk cohort. Plasma sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were measured in 475 consecutive patients with documented CVD risk (age, ethnicity, gender, smoking, blood pressure, BMI, fasting metabolic profile and HIV treatment history including immunological/virological outcomes. The biomarkers assessed showed distinct associations with virological response: CXCL10 strongly correlated with HIV-1 RNA (p0.2. Associations between higher sCD163 and protease inhibitor therapy (p = 0.05 and lower sCD14 with integrase inhibitor therapy (p = 0.02 were observed. Levels of sCD163 were also associated with CVD risk factors (age, ethnicity, HDL, BMI, with a favourable influence of Framingham score <10% (p = 0.04. Soluble CD14 levels were higher among smokers (p = 0.002, with no effect of other CVD risk factors, except age (p = 0.045. Our findings confirm CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 have distinct associations with different aspects of HIV infection and treatment. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with routinely monitored variables, sCD163 levels reflect a deeper level of virological suppression and influence of CVD risk factors, while sCD14 levels were not associated with routinely monitored variables, with evidence of specific effects of smoking and integrase inhibitor therapy warranting further investigation.

  16. Plasma CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 Levels Have Distinct Associations with Antiretroviral Treatment and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castley, Alison; Williams, Leah; James, Ian; Guelfi, George; Berry, Cassandra; Nolan, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the associations of three established plasma biomarkers in the context of HIV and treatment-related variables including a comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk assessment, within a large ambulatory HIV cohort. Patients were recruited in 2010 to form the Royal Perth Hospital HIV/CVD risk cohort. Plasma sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were measured in 475 consecutive patients with documented CVD risk (age, ethnicity, gender, smoking, blood pressure, BMI, fasting metabolic profile) and HIV treatment history including immunological/virological outcomes. The biomarkers assessed showed distinct associations with virological response: CXCL10 strongly correlated with HIV-1 RNA (p0.2). Associations between higher sCD163 and protease inhibitor therapy (p = 0.05) and lower sCD14 with integrase inhibitor therapy (p = 0.02) were observed. Levels of sCD163 were also associated with CVD risk factors (age, ethnicity, HDL, BMI), with a favourable influence of Framingham score <10% (p = 0.04). Soluble CD14 levels were higher among smokers (p = 0.002), with no effect of other CVD risk factors, except age (p = 0.045). Our findings confirm CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 have distinct associations with different aspects of HIV infection and treatment. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with routinely monitored variables, sCD163 levels reflect a deeper level of virological suppression and influence of CVD risk factors, while sCD14 levels were not associated with routinely monitored variables, with evidence of specific effects of smoking and integrase inhibitor therapy warranting further investigation. PMID:27355513

  17. Temporal attention for visual food stimuli in restrained eaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neimeijer, Renate A. M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Roefs, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Although restrained eaters try to limit their food intake, they often fail and indulge in exactly those foods that they want to avoid. A possible explanation is a temporal attentional bias for food cues. It could be that for these people food stimuli are processed relatively efficiently and require

  18. Circulating sCD14 is associated with virological response to pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin treatment in HIV/HCV co-infected patients.

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    Giulia Marchetti

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT through the gut accounts for immune activation and CD4+ loss in HIV and may influence HCV disease progression in HIV/HCV co-infection. We asked whether increased MT and immune activation may hamper anti-HCV response in HIV/HCV patients.98 HIV/HCV patients who received pegylated-alpha-interferon (peg-INF-alpha/ribavirin were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline MT (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, host response to MT (sCD14, CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+/CD8+, HCV genotype, severity of liver disease were assessed according to Early Virological Response (EVR: HCV-RNA <50 IU/mL at week 12 of therapy or ≥2 log(10 reduction from baseline after 12 weeks of therapy and Sustained Virological Response (SVR: HCV-RNA <50 IU/mL 24 weeks after end of therapy. Mann-Whitney/Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation were used. Multivariable regression was performed to determine factors associated with EVR/SVR.71 patients displayed EVR; 41 SVR. Patients with HCV genotypes 1-4 and cirrhosis presented a trend to higher sCD14, compared to patients with genotypes 2-3 (p = 0.053 and no cirrhosis (p = 0.052. EVR and SVR patients showed lower levels of circulating sCD14 (p = 0.0001, p = 0.026, respectively, but similar T-cell activation compared to Non-EVR (Null Responders, NR and Non-SVR (N-SVR subjects. sCD14 resulted the main predictive factor of EVR (0.145 for each sCD14 unit more, 95%CI 0.031-0.688, p = 0.015. SVR was associated only with HCV genotypes 2-3 (AOR 0.022 for genotypes 1-4 vs 2-3, 95%CI 0.001-0.469, p = 0.014.In HIV/HCV patients sCD14 correlates with the severity of liver disease and predicts early response to peg-INF-alpha/ribavirin, suggesting MT-driven immune activation as pathway of HIV/HCV co-infection and response to therapy.

  19. Cognitive and weight-related correlates of flexible and rigid restrained eating behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenhoefer, Joachim; Engel, Daniel; Holst, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Examine the association between components of restrained eating, cognitive performance and weight loss maintenance.......Examine the association between components of restrained eating, cognitive performance and weight loss maintenance....

  20. ASSOCIATION OF POLYMORPHISM OF C159T GENE OF RECEPTOR CD14 AND ANTIENDOTOXIN IMMUNITY IN PATIENTS WITH REFRACTORY / CORTICOSTEROIDSSENSITIVE ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisyuk Yu.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The refractory asthma refers to the phenotype, which is characterized by severe persistent course with frequent exacerbations and resistance to corticosteroid therapy. This phenotype of asthma can be related to C159T polymorphism of CD14 receptor gene Material and methods. There were studied the C159T polymorphism of CD14 gene in 331 patients with bronchial asthma. The control group consisted of 285 healthy individuals of Crimea. The C159T gene polymorphism of CD14 was detected by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction with electrophoretic detection. The distribution of genotypes was checked according to the law of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by using Fisher's exact test and χ2. There was used logistic regression to determine the difference in the frequency of genotypes and alleles. Results and discussion. In our study have been identified 291 patients with corticosteroid-sensitive and 40 with refractory asthma. The genotype distribution of control (CC – 34%, CT – 51%, CT – 15% and patients with corticosteroid-sensitive asthma (CC – 29%, CT – 53%, CT – 18% were in accordance with the law of Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium and did not significantly differ (χ2 = 2.204, P = 0.332. There were no significant differences when comparing the allele and genotype frequencies by using risk allele T and C model. In the control group the frequency distribution of genotypes CC – 34%, CT – 51%, TT – 15% did not differ significantly (χ2 = 3.540, P = 0.170 from refractory asthma (CC – 52%, CT – 35%, CT – 13%. The risk analysis for the T allele showed that the frequency of CT+TT genotype in patients with refractory asthma (49% was significantly lower (OR = 0.467, CI = [0.240-0.910], χ2 = 5.17, p = 0.023 compere to control (66 %. In turn, the difference of allelic frequencies for the control and patients with persistent asthma did not differ significantly (p = 0.076. The content of antiendotoxin antibody of class A in

  1. Cis and trans acting factors involved in human cytomegalovirus experimental and natural latent infection of CD14 (+ monocytes and CD34 (+ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprian C Rossetto

    Full Text Available The parameters involved in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV latent infection in CD14 (+ and CD34 (+ cells remain poorly identified. Using next generation sequencing we deduced the transcriptome of HCMV latently infected CD14 (+ and CD34 (+ cells in experimental as well as natural latency settings. The gene expression profile from natural infection in HCMV seropositive donors closely matched experimental latency models, and included two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, RNA4.9 and RNA2.7 as well as the mRNAs encoding replication factors UL84 and UL44. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on experimentally infected CD14 (+ monocytes followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq were employed to demonstrate both UL84 and UL44 proteins interacted with the latent viral genome and overlapped at 5 of the 8 loci identified. RNA4.9 interacts with components of the polycomb repression complex (PRC as well as with the MIE promoter region where the enrichment of the repressive H3K27me3 mark suggests that this lncRNA represses transcription. Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE, which identifies nucleosome-depleted viral DNA, was used to confirm that latent mRNAs were associated with actively transcribed, FAIRE analysis also showed that the terminal repeat (TR region of the latent viral genome is depleted of nucleosomes suggesting that this region may contain an element mediating viral genome maintenance. ChIP assays show that the viral TR region interacts with factors associated with the pre replication complex and a plasmid subclone containing the HCMV TR element persisted in latently infected CD14 (+ monocytes, strongly suggesting that the TR region mediates viral chromosome maintenance.

  2. Sensitivity to House Dust Mites Allergens with Atopic Asthma and Its Relationship with CD14 C(-159T) Polymorphism in Patients of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amlan; Dutta, Shampa; Podder, Sanjoy; Mondal, Priti; Laha, Arghya; Saha, Nimai Chandra; Moitra, Saibal; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2018-01-10

    India is the home to around 15-20 million asthmatics, and asthma prevalence is increasing in Indian metropolitan area, including Kolkata, West Bengal. Complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors are involved in asthma. Genome-wide search for susceptible loci regulating IgE response (atopy) have identified a candidate gene CD14 which is most important in the context of allergic responses of respiratory system. This study was aimed to investigate the role of house dust and house dust mites in development of bronchial asthma and to explore the possible association of candidate gene CD14 with disease manifestation among Kolkata patient population. Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 8 aeroallergens, including house dust and house dust mites and total serum IgE and allergen-specific IgE were measured. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was done in patients and nonasthmatic control (n = 255 in each) to characterize a functional polymorphism, C(-159)T, of CD14, a positional candidate gene for allergy. We identified house dust as the most common aeroallergen sensitizer among atopic patients in Kolkata followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) mites. Patient's sera contain significantly higher IgE level than that of control. Allergen-specific IgE antibody test revealed that 76.36% patients had specific IgE antibody against D. pteronyssinus mite. There was a significant difference in the distribution of alleles and genotypes for CD14 polymorphism with an increase in disease severity. So, in Kolkata, house dust mite is a common aeroallergen and D. pteronyssinus is predominant among mites. The present study revealed that bronchial asthma has a genetic background. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Configuration Synthesis for Fully Restrained 7-Cable-Driven Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Tang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cable distribution plays a vital role in Cable Driven Parallel Manipulators (CDPMs regarding tension and workspace quality, especially in fully restrained CDPMs. This paper focuses on three typical configurations of fully restrained CDPMs with 7 cables in order to introduce an approach for configuration synthesis. Firstly, the kinematic models of three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are set up. Then, in order to evaluate workspace quality, two new indices are proposed by using tensions along each cable, which are the All Cable Tension Distribution Index (ACTDI and Global Tension Distribution Index (GTDI. Next, the three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are analysed with the two indices. At the end, according to different performance requirements, the configurations of cable distribution are discussed and selected.

  4. Social ultrasonic vocalization in awake head-restrained mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter syllable interval distribution and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have higher proportions of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  5. Social Ultrasonic Vocalization in Awake Head-Restrained Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Benjamin; Hertz, Stav; Perets, Nisim; London, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats, and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding, and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM) to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM) and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in a free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM) and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter-syllable interval distribution, and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing the vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have a higher proportion of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  6. Bacterial lipoprotein delays apoptosis in human neutrophils through inhibition of caspase-3 activity: regulatory roles for CD14 and TLR-2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Colm P

    2012-02-03

    The human sepsis syndrome resulting from bacterial infection continues to account for a significant proportion of hospital mortality. Neutralizing strategies aimed at individual bacterial wall products (such as LPS) have enjoyed limited success in this arena. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) is a major constituent of the wall of diverse bacterial forms and profoundly influences cellular function in vivo and in vitro, and has been implicated in the etiology of human sepsis. Delayed polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis is a characteristic feature of human sepsis arising from Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacterial infection. Bacterial wall product ligation and subsequent receptor-mediated events upstream of caspase inhibition in neutrophils remain incompletely understood. BLP has been shown to exert its cellular effects primarily through TLR-2, and it is now widely accepted that lateral associations with the TLRs represent the means by which CD14 communicates intracellular messages. In this study, we demonstrate that BLP inhibits neutrophil mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a subsequent reduction in caspase-3 processing, ultimately leading to a significant delay in PMN apoptosis. Pretreatment of PMNs with an anti-TLR-2 mAb or anti-CD14 mAb prevented BLP from delaying PMN apoptosis to such a marked degree. Combination blockade using both mAbs completely prevented the effects of BLP (in 1 and 10 ng\\/ml concentrations) on PMN apoptosis. At higher concentrations of BLP, the antiapoptotic effects were observed, but were not as pronounced. Our findings therefore provide the first evidence of a crucial role for both CD14 and TLR-2 in delayed PMN apoptosis arising from bacterial infection.

  7. Concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, soluble CD14 and plasma lipids in relation to endotoxaemia in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Schütt, C.

    2002-01-01

    of endotoxin on its target cells (LPS-binding protein and sCD14) were increased. Endotoxin antagonists, such as bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and high-density lipoprotein, were increased in the pre-cirrhotic stages, whereas a significant reduction of the latter was observed in cirrhosis. Low......-density lipoprotein remained unchanged. The elevation of binding factors in the pre-cirrhotic stages of alcoholic liver disease might attenuate the effects of endotoxaemia, whereas in cirrhosis the reduction of high density lipoprotein, to which large quantities of endotoxin bind, may contribute to its pro...

  8. Thermal Behavior of Cylindrical Buckling Restrained Braces at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Talebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core’s surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.

  9. Thermal behavior of cylindrical buckling restrained braces at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Elnaz; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Zahmatkesh, Farshad; Yasreen, Airil; Mirza, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB) elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core's surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.

  10. Strategy of restraining ripple error on surface for optical fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tan; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Tam, Honyuen

    2014-09-10

    The influence from the ripple error to the high imaging quality is effectively reduced by restraining the ripple height. A method based on the process parameters and the surface error distribution is designed to suppress the ripple height in this paper. The generating mechanism of the ripple error is analyzed by polishing theory with uniform removal character. The relation between the processing parameters (removal functions, pitch of path, and dwell time) and the ripple error is discussed through simulations. With these, the strategy for diminishing the error is presented. A final process is designed and demonstrated on K9 work-pieces using the optimizing strategy with magnetorheological jet polishing. The form error on the surface is decreased from 0.216λ PV (λ=632.8  nm) and 0.039λ RMS to 0.03λ PV and 0.004λ RMS. And the ripple error is restrained well at the same time, because the ripple height is less than 6 nm on the final surface. Results indicate that these strategies are suitable for high-precision optical manufacturing.

  11. Soluble CD14 in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with markers of inflammation and axonal damage in untreated HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sofie; Pedersen, Karin Kæreby; Anesten, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-associated cognitive impairment has declined since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). However, milder forms of cognitive impairment persist. Inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been associated with cognitive impairment, and CSF neurofila......BACKGROUND: HIV-associated cognitive impairment has declined since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). However, milder forms of cognitive impairment persist. Inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been associated with cognitive impairment, and CSF...... neurofilament light chain protein (NFL) and CSF neopterin concentrations are increased in those patients. Microbial translocation in HIV infection has been suggested to contribute to chronic inflammation, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) are markers of microbial translocation...... and the resulting monocyte activation, respectively. We hypothesised that microbial translocation contributes to inflammation and axonal damage in the central nervous system (CNS) in untreated HIV infection. METHODS: We analyzed paired samples of plasma and CSF from 62 HIV-infected, untreated patients without...

  12. Vitamin D, d-dimer, Interferon γ, and sCD14 Levels are Independently Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective, International Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura W. Musselwhite

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To determine the immunological profile most important for IRIS prediction, we evaluated 20 baseline plasma biomarkers in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART. Patients were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled ART initiation trial in South Africa and Mexico to test whether maraviroc could prevent IRIS. Participants were classified prospectively as having IRIS within 6 months of ART initiation. Twenty plasma biomarkers were measured at study enrollment for 267 participants. Biomarkers were tested for predicting IRIS with adjustment for covariates chosen through forward stepwise selection. Sixty-two participants developed IRIS and of these 19 were tuberculosis (TB-IRIS. Baseline levels of vitamin D and higher d-dimer, interferon gamma (IFNγ, and sCD14 were independently associated with risk of IRIS in multivariate analyses. TB-IRIS cases exhibited a distinct biosignature from IRIS related to other pathogens, with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, sCD14, IFNγ, and lower levels of Hb that could be captured by a composite risk score. Elevated markers of Type 1 T helper (Th1 response, monocyte activation, coagulation and low vitamin D were independently associated with IRIS risk. Interventions that decrease immune activation and increase vitamin D levels warrant further study.

  13. Foxo4- and Stat3-dependent IL-10 production by progranulin in regulatory T cells restrains inflammatory arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenyu; Hu, Wenhuo; Shi, Lei; Mundra, Jyoti Joshi; Xiao, GuoZhi; Dustin, Michael L.; Liu, Chuan-ju

    2017-01-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) restrains inflammation and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis; however, the underlying immunological mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was a critical mediator for PGRN-mediated anti-inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis by using PGRN and IL-10 genetically modified mouse models. IL-10 green fluorescent protein reporter mice revealed that regulatory T (Treg) cells were the predominant source of IL-10 in response to PGRN. In addition, PGRN-mediated expansion and activation of Treg cells, as well as IL-10 production, depends on JNK signaling, but not on known PGRN-activated ERK and PI3K pathways. Furthermore, microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing screens led to the discovery of forkhead box protein O4 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 as the transcription factors required for PGRN induction of IL-10 in Treg cells. These findings define a previously unrecognized signaling pathway that underlies IL-10 production by PGRN in Treg cells and present new insights into the mechanisms by which PGRN resolves inflammation in inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases, particularly inflammatory arthritis.—Fu, W., Hu, W., Shi, L., Mundra, J. J. Xiao, G., Dustin, M. L., Liu, C. Foxo4- and Stat3-dependent IL-10 production by progranulin in regulatory T cells restrains inflammatory arthritis. PMID:28011648

  14. Gene expression profiling of Gram-negative bacteria-induced inflammation in human whole blood: The role of complement and CD14-mediated innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Lau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-sterile pathogen-induced sepsis and sterile inflammation like in trauma or ischemia–reperfusion injury may both coincide with the life threatening systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organ failure. Consequently, there is an urgent need for specific biomarkers in order to distinguish sepsis from sterile conditions. The overall aim of this study was to uncover putative sepsis biomarkers and biomarker pathways, as well as to test the efficacy of combined inhibition of innate immunity key players complement and Toll-like receptor co-receptor CD14 as a possible therapeutic regimen for sepsis. We performed whole blood gene expression analyses using microarray in order to profile Gram-negative bacteria-induced inflammatory responses in an ex vivo human whole blood model. The experiments were performed in the presence or absence of inhibitors of complement proteins (C3 and CD88 (C5a receptor 1 and CD14, alone or in combination. In addition, we used blood from a C5-deficient donor. Anti-coagulated whole blood was challenged with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli for 2 h, total RNA was isolated and microarray analyses were performed on the Affymetrix GeneChip Gene 1.0 ST Array platform. The initial experiments were performed in duplicates using blood from two healthy donors. C5-deficiency is very rare, and only one donor could be recruited. In order to increase statistical power, a technical replicate of the C5-deficient samples was run. Subsequently, log2-transformed intensities were processed by robust multichip analysis and filtered using a threshold of four. In total, 73 microarray chips were run and analyzed. The normalized and filtered raw data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO and are accessible with GEO Series accession number GSE55537. Linear models for microarray data were applied to estimate fold changes between data sets and the respective multiple testing adjusted p-values (FDR q-values. The

  15. Bacterial wall products induce downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on endothelial cells via a CD14-dependent mechanism: implications for surgical wound healing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, C

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogenic cytokine which has been identified as the principal polypeptide growth factor influencing endothelial cell (EC) migration and proliferation. Ordered progression of these two processes is an absolute prerequisite for initiating and maintaining the proliferative phase of wound healing. The response of ECs to circulating VEGF is determined by, and directly proportional to, the functional expression of VEGF receptors (KDR\\/Flt-1) on the EC surface membrane. Systemic sepsis and wound contamination due to bacterial infection are associated with significant retardation of the proliferative phase of wound repair. The effects of the Gram-negative bacterial wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) on VEGF receptor function and expression are unknown and may represent an important biological mechanism predisposing to delayed wound healing in the presence of localized or systemic sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a series of in vitro experiments investigating this phenomenon and its potential implications for infective wound repair. VEGF receptor density on ECs in the presence of LPS and BLP was assessed using flow cytometry. These parameters were assessed in hypoxic conditions as well as in normoxia. The contribution of CD14 was evaluated using recombinant human (rh) CD14. EC proliferation in response to VEGF was quantified in the presence and absence of LPS and BLP. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that LPS and BLP have profoundly repressive effects on VEGF receptor density in normoxic and, more pertinently, hypoxic conditions. The observed downregulation of constitutive and inducible VEGF receptor expression on ECs was not due to any directly cytotoxic effect of LPS and BLP on ECs, as measured by cell viability and apoptosis assays. We identified a pivotal role for soluble\\/serum CD14, a highly specific bacterial wall product receptor, in

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of olive seed polyphenolic extract in the THP1-XBLUE-CD14 human monocytes cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Castell, Ernesto; Veciana Galindo, C.; Torro Montell, L.; Sirvent Segura, E.; Rizo Baeza, M. M.; Gil Guillén, V.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de un extracto de naturaleza polifenólica de huesos de oliva. Material y métodos: Se incubó la línea celular THP1-XBlue-CD14 (invivogen), 80.000 células/pocillo, provocando inflamación (activación de NF-kb) mediante 0.1 μg/ml LPS (lipopolisacárido de E. coli) durante 24 horas. Se evaluó la presencia del extracto (10 y 50 mg/l, concentraciones bioseguras) durante 2 horas a 37 ºC, previa (efecto preventivo) y posterior a la ac...

  17. Atopy and new-onset asthma in young Danish farmers and CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 genetic polymorphisms: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, L A M; Bongers, S I M; Ruven, H J T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that exposure to high levels of microbial agents such as endotoxin in the farm environment decreases the risk of atopic sensitization. Genetic variation in innate immunity genes may modulate the response to microbial agents and thus influence susceptibility to asthma...... and atopy. OBJECTIVE: To study potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 genes, and atopy and new-onset asthma in young farmers. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 1901 young Danish farmers. We....../-651 promoter polymorphisms are associated with atopy prevalence among young adults exposed to farm environments. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  18. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW-BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H. Yang; J. Chen; D.N. He; X. Y. Ruan

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory anddepending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system, a simplifiedmethod to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental methodin cup-shaped drawing process. The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement. It shows the method is effective.

  19. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. We conducted an online survey in women aged between 40 and 66. Eating behavior was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in premenopausal (N = 318) and postmenopausal women (N = 250). All participants rated their self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and reported their weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference. 15.7% of all participants showed clinically meaningful scores on restrained eating. Postmenopausal women showed significantly higher scores on the EDE-Q subscale of restrained eating as compared to premenopausal women, but when controlling for body mass index, however, this finding was no longer significant. Further exploratory analyses suggest that particularly low or high self-esteem levels are associated with restrained eating. Self-esteem might serve as a mediator between menopausal status and restrained eating, however results of these additional analyses were inconsistent. Restrained eating may appear in middle-aged women. Particularly in postmenopausal women, restrained eating might be associated with lower and higher self-esteem.

  20. The osteo-inductive activity of bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells resides within the CD14+ population and is independent of the CD34+ population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, D; Seebach, C; Verboket, R; Schaible, A; Marzi, I; Bonig, H

    2018-03-06

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded on a scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote bone healing in a critical-size femur defect model. Being BMC a mixed population of predominantly mature haematopoietic cells, which cell type(s) is(are) instrumental for healing remains elusive. Although clinical therapies using BMC are often dubbed as stem cell therapies, whether stem cells are relevant for the therapeutic effects is unclear and, at least in the context of bone repair, seems dubious. Instead, in light of the critical contribution of monocytes and macrophages to tissue development, homeostasis and injury repair, in the current study it was hypothesised that BMC-mediated bone healing derived from the stem cell population. To test this hypothesis, bone remodelling studies were performed in an established athymic rats critical-size femoral defect model, with β-TCP scaffolds augmented with complete BMC or BMC immunomagnetically depleted of stem cells (CD34+) or monocytes/macrophages (CD14+). Bone healing was assessed 8 weeks after transplantation. Compared to BMC-augmented controls, when CD14- BMC, but not CD34- BMC were transplanted into the bone defect, femora possessed dramatically decreased biomechanical stability and new bone formation was markedly reduced, as measured by histology. The degree of vascularisation did not differ between the two groups. It was concluded that the monocyte fraction within the BMC provided critical osteo-inductive cues during fracture healing. Which factors were responsible at the molecular levels remained elusive. However, this study marked a significant progress towards elucidating the mechanisms by which BMC elicit their therapeutic effects, at least in bone regeneration.

  1. Development of an ex vivo cellular model of rheumatoid arthritis: critical role of CD14-positive monocyte/macrophages in the development of pannus tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Toshiko; Takahashi, Kyoko; Ishii, Osamu; Endo, Sachio; Hioki, Kyoji; Mori, Toshihito; Kikukawa, Tadahiro; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Ozaki, Shoichi; Yamada, Hidehiro

    2007-09-01

    To establish an ex vivo cellular model of pannus, the aberrant overgrowth of human synovial tissue (ST). Inflammatory cells that infiltrated pannus tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were collected without enzyme digestion, and designated as ST-derived inflammatory cells. Single-cell suspensions of ST-derived inflammatory cells were cultured in medium alone. Levels of cytokines produced in culture supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. ST-derived inflammatory cells were transferred into the joints of immunodeficient mice to explore whether these cells could develop pannus. CD14 and CD2 cells were depleted by negative selection. Culture of ST-derived inflammatory cells from 92 of 111 patients with RA resulted in spontaneous reconstruction of inflammatory tissue in vitro within 4 weeks. Ex vivo tissue contained fibroblasts, macrophages, T cells, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells. On calcium phosphate-coated slides, ST-derived inflammatory cell cultures showed numerous resorption pits. ST-derived inflammatory cell cultures continuously produced matrix metalloproteinase 9 and proinflammatory cytokines associated with osteoclastogenesis, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-8, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. More importantly, transferring ST-derived inflammatory cells into the joints of immunodeficient mice resulted in the development of pannus tissue and erosive joint lesions. Both in vitro development and in vivo development of pannus tissue by ST-derived inflammatory cells were inhibited by depleting CD14-positive, but not CD2-positive, cells from ST-derived inflammatory cells. These findings suggest that overgrowth of inflammatory cells from human rheumatoid synovium simulates the development of pannus. This may prove informative in the screening of potential antirheumatic drugs.

  2. Soybean polar lipids differently impact adipose tissue inflammation and the endotoxin transporters LBP and sCD14 in flaxseed vs. palm oil-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Manon; Couëdelo, Leslie; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Plaisancié, Pascale; Durand, Annie; Géloën, Alain; Joffre, Florent; Vaysse, Carole; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Laugerette, Fabienne

    2017-05-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are nutritional pathologies, characterized by a subclinical inflammatory state. Endotoxins are now well recognized as an important factor implicated in the onset and maintain of this inflammatory state during fat digestion in high-fat diet. As a preventive strategy, lipid formulation could be optimized to limit these phenomena, notably regarding fatty acid profile and PL emulsifier content. Little is known about soybean polar lipid (SPL) consumption associated to oils rich in saturated FA vs. anti-inflammatory omega-3 FA such as α-linolenic acid on inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. We then investigated in mice the effect of different synthetic diets enriched with two different oils, palm oil or flaxseed oil and containing or devoid of SPL on adipose tissue inflammation and endotoxin receptors. In both groups containing SPL, adipose tissue (WAT) increased compared with groups devoid of SPL and an induction of MCP-1 and LBP was observed in WAT. However, only the high-fat diet in which flaxseed oil was associated with SPL resulted in both higher WAT inflammation and higher circulating sCD14 in plasma. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that LPS transporters LBP and sCD14 and adipose tissue inflammation can be modulated by SPL in high fat diets differing in oil composition. Notably high-flaxseed oil diet exerts a beneficial metabolic impact, however blunted by PL addition. Our study suggests that nutritional strategies can be envisaged by optimizing dietary lipid sources in manufactured products, including fats/oils and polar lipid emulsifiers, in order to limit the inflammatory impact of palatable foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides in young women classified as restrained or unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilterscheid, Esther; Laessle, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Basal release of GUT peptides has been found to be altered in restrained eaters. Stress-induced secretion, however, has not yet been described, but could be a biological basis of overeating that exposes restrained eaters to a higher risk of becoming obese. The aim of the present study was to compare restrained and unrestrained eaters with respect to stress-induced release of the GUT peptides ghrelin and PYY. 46 young women were studied. Blood sampling for peptides was done before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. Ghrelin secretion after stress was significantly elevated in the restrained eaters, whereas no significant differences were detected for PYY. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides can be interpreted as a cause as well as a consequence of restrained eating.

  4. Elevated Plasma Soluble CD14 and Skewed CD16+ Monocyte Distribution Persist despite Normalisation of Soluble CD163 and CXCL10 by Effective HIV Therapy: A Changing Paradigm for Routine HIV Laboratory Monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castley, Alison; Berry, Cassandra; French, Martyn; Fernandez, Sonia; Krueger, Romano; Nolan, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated plasma and flow cytometric biomarkers of monocyte status that have been associated with prognostic utility in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, comparing 81 HIV+ individuals with a range of treatment outcomes to a group of 21 healthy control blood donors. Our aim is to develop and optimise monocyte assays that combine biological relevance, clinical utility, and ease of adoption into routine HIV laboratory practice. Design Cross-sectional evaluation of concurrent plasma and whole blood samples. Methods A flow cytometry protocol was developed comprising single-tube CD45, CD14, CD16, CD64, CD163, CD143 analysis with appropriately matched isotype controls. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), soluble CD163 (sCD163) and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA. Results HIV status was associated with significantly increased expression of CD64, CD143 and CD163 on CD16+ monocytes, irrespective of the virological response to HIV therapy. Plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 were also significantly elevated in association with viremic HIV infection. Plasma sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were restored to healthy control levels by effective antiretroviral therapy while sCD14 levels remained elevated despite virological suppression (p<0.001). Conclusions Flow cytometric and plasma biomarkers of monocyte activation indicate an ongoing systemic inflammatory response to HIV infection, characterised by persistent alterations of CD16+ monocyte expression profiles and elevated sCD14 levels, that are not corrected by antiretroviral therapy and likely to be prognostically significant. In contrast, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels declined on antiretroviral therapy, suggesting multiple activation pathways revealed by these biomarkers. Incorporation of these assays into routine clinical care is feasible and warrants further consideration, particularly in light of emerging therapeutic strategies that specifically target innate immune activation in HIV

  5. Elevated plasma soluble CD14 and skewed CD16+ monocyte distribution persist despite normalisation of soluble CD163 and CXCL10 by effective HIV therapy: a changing paradigm for routine HIV laboratory monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Castley

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated plasma and flow cytometric biomarkers of monocyte status that have been associated with prognostic utility in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, comparing 81 HIV+ individuals with a range of treatment outcomes to a group of 21 healthy control blood donors. Our aim is to develop and optimise monocyte assays that combine biological relevance, clinical utility, and ease of adoption into routine HIV laboratory practice. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of concurrent plasma and whole blood samples. METHODS: A flow cytometry protocol was developed comprising single-tube CD45, CD14, CD16, CD64, CD163, CD143 analysis with appropriately matched isotype controls. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14, soluble CD163 (sCD163 and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: HIV status was associated with significantly increased expression of CD64, CD143 and CD163 on CD16+ monocytes, irrespective of the virological response to HIV therapy. Plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 were also significantly elevated in association with viremic HIV infection. Plasma sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were restored to healthy control levels by effective antiretroviral therapy while sCD14 levels remained elevated despite virological suppression (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Flow cytometric and plasma biomarkers of monocyte activation indicate an ongoing systemic inflammatory response to HIV infection, characterised by persistent alterations of CD16+ monocyte expression profiles and elevated sCD14 levels, that are not corrected by antiretroviral therapy and likely to be prognostically significant. In contrast, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels declined on antiretroviral therapy, suggesting multiple activation pathways revealed by these biomarkers. Incorporation of these assays into routine clinical care is feasible and warrants further consideration, particularly in light of emerging therapeutic strategies that specifically target innate immune

  6. Properties of human blood monocytes. I. CD91 expression and log orthogonal light scatter provide a robust method to identify monocytes that is more accurate than CD14 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudig, Dorothy; Hunter, Kenneth W; Diamond, W John; Redelman, Doug

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to improve identification of human blood monocytes by using antibodies to molecules that occur consistently on all stages of monocyte development and differentiation. We examined blood samples from 200 healthy adults without clinically diagnosed immunological abnormalities by flow cytometry (FCM) with multiple combinations of antibodies and with a hematology analyzer (Beckman LH750). CD91 (α2 -macroglobulin receptor) was expressed only by monocytes and to a consistent level among subjects [mean median fluorescence intensity (MFI) = 16.2 ± 3.2]. Notably, only 85.7 ± 5.82% of the CD91(+) monocytes expressed high levels of the classical monocyte marker CD14, with some CD91(+) CD16(+) cells having negligible CD14, indicating that substantial FCM under-counts will occur when monocytes are identified by high CD14. CD33 (receptor for sialyl conjugates) was co-expressed with CD91 on monocytes but CD33 expression varied by nearly ten-fold among subjects (mean MFI = 17.4 ± 7.7). In comparison to FCM analyses, the hematology analyzer systematically over-counted monocytes and eosinophils while lymphocyte and neutrophil differential values generally agreed with FCM methods. CD91 is a better marker to identify monocytes than CD14 or CD33. Furthermore, FCM (with anti-CD91) identifies monocytes better than a currently used clinical CBC instrument. Use of anti-CD91 together with anti-CD14 and anti-CD16 supports the identification of the diagnostically significant monocyte populations with variable expression of CD14 and CD16. Copyright © 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  7. Folate Deficiency Could Restrain Decidual Angiogenesis in Pregnant Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of birth defects induced by folate deficiency was focused on mainly in fetal development. Little is known about the effect of folate deficiency on the maternal uterus, especially on decidual angiogenesis after implantation which establishes vessel networks to support embryo development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folate deficiency on decidual angiogenesis. Serum folate levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence. The status of decidual angiogenesis was examined by cluster designation 34 (CD34 immunohistochemistry and the expression of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, placental growth factor (PLGF, and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 were also tested. Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL, progesterone (P4, and estradiol (E2 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The folate-deficient mice had a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. Folate deficiency restrained decidual angiogenesis with significant abnormalities in vascular density and the enlargement and elongation of the vascular sinus. It also showed a reduction in the expressions of VEGFA, VEGFR2, and PLGF. In addition, the serum levels of P4, E2, LH, and PRL were reduced in folate-deficient mice, and the expression of progesterone receptor (PR and estrogen receptor α (ERα were abnormal. These results indicated that folate deficiency could impaire decidual angiogenesis and it may be related to the vasculotoxic properties of Hcy and the imbalance of the reproductive hormone.

  8. Seismic response of elastically restrained single bellows expansion joint in lateral mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameswara Rao, C.; Radhakrishna, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper attempts to derive an exact solution for the seismic response of U type of single bellows that are considered elastically restrained against rotation to classical fixed-fixed case considered by Morishita et al. (author)

  9. Cellular uptake of exogenous calcineurin B is dependent on TLR4/MD2/CD14 complexes, and CnB is an endogenous ligand of TLR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinju; Qin, Nannan; Zhang, Hongwei; Yang, Rui; Xiang, Benqiong; Wei, Qun

    2016-04-19

    Our previous research showed that recombinant calcineurin B (rhCnB) stimulates cytokine secretion by immune cells, probably through TLR4. Exogenous CnB can be incorporated into many different tumour cells in vitro, but the mode of uptake and receptors required remain unknown. Here, we report that exogenous CnB is taken up by cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner via clathrin-dependent receptor-mediated internalization. Our findings further confirm that uptake is mediated by the TLR4/MD2 complex together with the co-receptor CD14. The MST results revealed a high affinity between CnB and the TLR4 receptor complex. No binding was detected between CnB and LPS. CnB inhibited the uptake of LPS, and LPS also inhibited the uptake of CnB. These results indicate that the uptake of exogenous CnB did not occur through LPS and that CnB was not a chaperone of LPS. Thus, we conclude that TLR4 receptor complexes were required for the recognition and internalization of exogenous CnB. CnB could be a potential endogenous ligand of TLR4 and function as an agonist of TLR4. These properties of CnB support its potential for development as an anti-cancer drug.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW—BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Yang; J.Chen; 等

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory and depending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system,a simplified method to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental method in cup-shaped drawing process.The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement.It shows the method is effective.

  11. Patient restraining device for the pinhole collimator and gamma scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    A patient restraining device for use with the pinhole collimator of a conventional Gamma Scintillation Camera, the restraining device being made of an adapter ring and a patient holder. The adapter ring is secured directly to the pinhole collimator while the holder is adjustably mounted on the adapter. The adapter ring is so designed to accommodate a variety of holders so as to enable the scanning of many different areas of a patient's anatomy by the scintillation camera

  12. Thermal stress estimation in relation to spalling of HSC restrained with steel rings at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanibe T.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental study regarding the behavior of steel ring-restrained concrete in response to fire exposure. The study was conducted to enable estimation of thermal stress based on steel ring strain in such concrete under the conditions of a RABT 30 heating curve. The specimens used were made from high-strength concrete (Fc: 80 MPa restrained using steel rings with thicknesses of 0.5, 8 and 18 mm.

  13. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. METHODS: We conducted an online...

  14. Smoking for weight control: effect of priming for body image in female restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Nhean, Siphannay; Hinson, Riley E; Mase, Tricia

    2006-12-01

    Women are more likely than men to believe that smoking helps to control their weight, and this relationship may be more pronounced in those with eating disturbances, such as eating restraint. Restrained eaters have been shown to be more susceptible to media portrayals of idealized body image, like those used in tobacco advertising. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of an implicit prime for body image on expectations that smoking can control weight in restrained and non-restrained eaters. Participants were 40 females, who smoked an average of 7.65 (S.D.=4.38) cigarettes per day. Participants were presented with a bogus task of rating slides; either participants viewed 30 slides of nature scenes (neutral prime); or viewed 30 slides depicting fashion models (body image prime). Participants then completed questionnaires that assessed smoking expectancies, smoking history, and eating restraint. As hypothesized, restrained eaters who viewed the slides depicting models had greater likelihood ratings that smoking helps to control appetite and manage weight, in comparison to restrained eaters who viewed the control slides and non-restrained eaters who viewed either type of slides. There were no other group differences across the remaining smoking expectancy factors. Images similar to those used in tobacco advertising targeting women had the ability to elicit stronger beliefs that smoking is beneficial for weight control in a group of women who are at heightened risk for such beliefs.

  15. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González-Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram. First experimental results are shown.

  16. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Carlos; Fraile, Juan-Carlos; Pérez-Turiel, Javier; Damm, Ellen; Schneider, Jochen G; Zimmermann, Heiko; Schmitt, Daniel; Ihmig, Frank R

    2016-07-07

    Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC) sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram). First experimental results are shown.

  17. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes phagocytose antibody-opsonised Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes more efficiently than other monocyte subsets, and require CD16 and complement to do so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingling; Feng, Gaoqian; Beeson, James; Hogarth, P Mark; Rogerson, Stephen J; Yan, Yan; Jaworowski, Anthony

    2015-07-07

    With more than 600,000 deaths from malaria, mainly of children under five years old and caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, comes an urgent need for an effective anti-malaria vaccine. Limited details on the mechanisms of protective immunity are a barrier to vaccine development. Antibodies play an important role in immunity to malaria and monocytes are key effectors in antibody-mediated protection by phagocytosing antibody-opsonised infected erythrocytes (IE). Eliciting antibodies that enhance phagocytosis of IE is therefore an important potential component of an effective vaccine, requiring robust assays to determine the ability of elicited antibodies to stimulate this in vivo. The mechanisms by which monocytes ingest IE and the nature of the monocytes which do so are unknown. Purified trophozoite-stage P. falciparum IE were stained with ethidium bromide, opsonised with anti-erythrocyte antibodies and incubated with fresh whole blood. Phagocytosis of IE and TNF production by individual monocyte subsets was measured by flow cytometry. Ingestion of IE was confirmed by imaging flow cytometry. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes phagocytosed antibody-opsonised IE and produced TNF more efficiently than CD14(hi)CD16- and CD14(lo)CD16+ monocytes. Blocking experiments showed that Fcγ receptor IIIa (CD16) but not Fcγ receptor IIa (CD32a) or Fcγ receptor I (CD64) was necessary for phagocytosis. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes ingested antibody-opsonised IE when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were reconstituted with autologous serum but not heat-inactivated autologous serum. Antibody-opsonised IE were rapidly opsonised with complement component C3 in serum (t1/2 = 2-3 minutes) and phagocytosis of antibody-opsonised IE was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by an inhibitor of C3 activation, compstatin. Compared to other monocyte subsets, CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes expressed the highest levels of complement receptor 4 (CD11c) and activated complement receptor 3 (CD11b) subunits

  18. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Arreguin Camacho, Lucrecia O

    2015-01-01

    -kB inhibition in liver cancer achieved by the IKK inhibitor curcumin, RNAi and specific peptide SN50. The effects on CSCs were assessed by analysis of Side Population (SP), sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Molecular changes were determined by RT-qPCR, global gene expression microarray, EMSA, and Western...... blotting. RESULTS: HCC cell lines exposed to curcumin exhibited differential responses to curcumin and were classified as sensitive and resistant. In sensitive lines, curcumin-mediated induction of cell death was directly related to the extent of NF-kB inhibition. The treatment also led to a selective CSC......-depletion as evidenced by a reduced SP size, decreased sphere formation, down-regulation of CSC markers and suppressed tumorigenicity. Similarly, NF-kB inhibition by SN50 and siRNA against p65 suppressed tumor cell growth. In contrast, curcumin-resistant cells displayed a paradoxical increase in proliferation...

  19. Simplified elastic-plastic analysis of reinforced concrete structures - design method for self-restraining stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aihara, S.; Atsumi, K.; Ujiie, K.; Satoh, S.

    1981-01-01

    Self-restraining stresses generate not only moments but also axial forces. Therefore the moment and force equilibriums of cross section are considered simultaneously, in combination with other external forces. Thus, under this theory, two computer programs are prepared for. Using these programs, the design procedures which considered the reduction of self-restraining stress, become easy if the elastic design stresses, which are separated normal stresses and self-restraining stresses, are given. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the application of the simplified elastic-plastic analysis and to study its effectiveness. First this method is applied to analyze an upper shielding wall in MARK-2 type's Reactor building. The results are compared with those obtained by the elastic-plastic analysis of Finite Element Method. From this comparison it was confirmed that the method described, had adequate accuracy for re-bar design. As a second example, Mat slab of Reactor building is analyzed. The quantity of re-bars calculated by this method, comes to about two third of re-bars less than those required when self-restraining stress is considered as normal stress. Also, the self-restraining stress reduction factor is about 0.5. (orig./HP)

  20. Common TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kirstine Marie; Lindboe, Sarah Bjerre; Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa

    2007-01-01

    consecutive adult patients with culture proven Gram negative bacteremia admitted to a Danish hospital between 2000 and 2002. Analysis for commonly described SNPs of tumor necrosis-alpha, (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), CD14...... hazard regression analysis, increasing age, polymicrobial infection and haemoglobin levels were associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: We did not find any association between TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and outcome of Gram negative sepsis. Other host factors...... appear to be more important than the genotypes studied here in determining the severity and outcome of Gram negative sepsis....

  1. Increased level of both CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and CD14+HLA-DR⁻/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells and decreased level of dendritic cells in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes, Marie Klinge; Vangsted, Annette Juul; Meldgaard Knudsen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    +FOXP3+ Treg cells was increased in patients at diagnosis and not in patients in remission or with MGUS. Also, Treg cells from patients with MM were functionally intact as they were able to inhibit proliferation of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, we observed an increase in the proportion of CD14+HLA-DR...... as a consequence of the disease....

  2. Restraining and neck cutting or stunning and neck cutting of veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooij, E; van der Werf, J T N; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V A

    2012-05-01

    Brain and heart activities were measured in 31 veal calves during restraining and rotating followed by neck cutting with or without stunning to evaluate welfare. After neck cutting correlation dimension analyses and %power of EEG beta wave fraction decreased gradually to lower values resulting in an induction of unconsciousness lasting on average 80s. Corneal reflex response ceased 135±57s after neck cutting. The CD scores and the %power of beta waves fell immediately after post-cut captive bolt and pre-cut electrical stunning to levels indicating unconsciousness. Heart rate in lairage increased upon entrance to the restrainer and again after rotation, heart rate variability decreased. Rotating the restrainer 90°, 120° or 180° compromised veal calf welfare and should be avoided. It is recommended to use post-cut captive bolt stunning or pre-cut electrical stunning inducing immediate unconsciousness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mere exposure to palatable food cues reduces restrained eaters' physical effort to obtain healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

    2012-04-01

    We examined whether exposure to cues of attractive food reduces effortful behavior toward healthy foods for restrained eaters. After manipulating food pre-exposure, we recorded handgrip force while presenting participants with pictures of healthy food objects. Because participants were led to expect that they could obtain each object (not specified beforehand) by squeezing the handgrip as forcefully as possible while the object was displayed on the screen, the recorded handgrip force constitutes a measure of spontaneous effortful behavior. Results show that restrained eaters, but not unrestrained eaters, displayed less forceful action toward healthy food objects (i.e., lower exertion of force) when pre-exposed to tempting food cues. No effects were found on palatability perceptions of the healthy foods. The results provide further insight into why restrained eaters have difficulties in maintaining a low-calorie diet in food-rich environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma L-cystine/L-glutamate imbalance increases tumor necrosis factor-alpha from CD14+ circulating monocytes in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kakazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The innate immune cells can not normally respond to the pathogen in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Previous studies reported that antigen-presenting cells take up L-Cystine (L-Cys and secrete substantial amounts of L-Glutamate (L-Glu via the transport system Xc- (4F2hc+xCT, and that this exchange influences the immune responses. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis on the function of circulating monocytes. METHODS: We used a serum-free culture medium consistent with the average concentrations of plasma amino acids from patients with advanced cirrhosis (ACM, and examined the function of CD14+ monocytes or THP-1 under ACM that contained 0-300 nmol/mL L-Cys with LPS. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, we actually determined the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes, and evaluated the correlation between the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu ratio and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: The addition of L-Cys significantly increased the production of TNF alpha from monocytes under ACM. Monocytes with LPS and THP-1 expressed xCT and a high level of extracellular L-Cys enhanced L-Cys/L-Glu antiport, and the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio was decreased. The L-Cys transport was inhibited by excess L-Glu. In patients with advanced cirrhosis (n = 19, the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes were increased according to the Child-Pugh grade. The TNF-alpha mRNA of monocytes was significantly higher in the high L-Cys/L-Glu ratio group than in the low ratio group, and the plasma TNF-alpha was significantly correlated with the L-Cys/L-Glu ratio. CONCLUSIONS: A plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance, which appears in patients with advanced cirrhosis, increased the TNF-alpha from circulating monocytes via increasing the intracellular oxidative stress. These results may reflect the immune abnormality that appears in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

  5. CD33+ HLA-DR– Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Are Increased in Frequency in the Peripheral Blood of Type1 Diabetes Patients with Predominance of CD14+ Subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhane Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas by autoreactive T cells. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells that can potently suppress T cell responses. AIM: To detect the presence of MDSCs in T1D and compare their percentage in T1D versus healthy individuals. METHOD: Thirty T1D patients were included in the study. Diabetic patients with nephropathy (n = 18 and diabetic patients without nephropathy (n = 12. A control group of healthy individuals (n = 30 were also included. CD33+ and HLA-DR– markers were used to identify MDSCs by flow cytometry. CD14 positive and negative MDSCs subsets were also identified. RESULTS: MDSCs was significantly increased in T1D than the control group and diabetic patient with nephropathy compared to diabetic patients without nephropathy. M-MDSCs (CD14+ CD33+ HLA–DR− were the most abundant MDSCs subpopulation in all groups, however their percentage decrease in T1D than the control group. CONCLUSION: MDSCs are increased in the peripheral blood of T1D with a predominance of the CD14+ MDSCs subset. Future studies are needed to test the immune suppression function of MDSCs in T1D.

  6. Common TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen-Olsen Jesper

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes associated with sepsis and septic shock with conflicting results. Only few studies have combined the analysis of multiple SNPs in the same population. Methods Clinical data and DNA from consecutive adult patients with culture proven Gram negative bacteremia admitted to a Danish hospital between 2000 and 2002. Analysis for commonly described SNPs of tumor necrosis-α, (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 was done. Results Of 319 adults, 74% had sepsis, 19% had severe sepsis and 7% were in septic shock. No correlation between severity or outcome of sepsis was observed for the analyzed SNPs of TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 or TLR-4. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, increasing age, polymicrobial infection and haemoglobin levels were associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion We did not find any association between TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and outcome of Gram negative sepsis. Other host factors appear to be more important than the genotypes studied here in determining the severity and outcome of Gram negative sepsis.

  7. Modeling Restrained Shrinkage Induced Cracking in Concrete Rings Using the Thick Level Set Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nakhoul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling restrained shrinkage-induced damage and cracking in concrete is addressed herein. The novel Thick Level Set (TLS damage growth and crack propagation model is used and adapted by introducing shrinkage contribution into the formulation. The TLS capacity to predict damage evolution, crack initiation and growth triggered by restrained shrinkage in absence of external loads is evaluated. A study dealing with shrinkage-induced cracking in elliptical concrete rings is presented herein. Key results such as the effect of rings oblateness on stress distribution and critical shrinkage strain needed to initiate damage are highlighted. In addition, crack positions are compared to those observed in experiments and are found satisfactory.

  8. Effect of aggregate type, casting, thickness and curing condition on restrained strain of mass concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Choktaweekarn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element analysis is used for computing temperature and restrained strain inmass concrete. The model takes into account time, material properties, and mix proportion dependent behavior of concrete.The hydration heat and thermal properties used in the finite element analysis are obtained from our previously proposedadiabatic temperature rise model and are used as the input in the analysis. The analysis was done by varying size of massconcrete (especially thickness and the casting method in order to explain their effect on temperature and restrained strain inmass concrete. The casting methods used in the analysis are continuous and discontinuous casting. The discontinuouscasting consists of layer casting and block casting. Different types of aggregate were used in the analysis for studying theeffect of thermal properties of aggregate on temperature and restrained strain in mass concrete. Different conditions of curing(insulation and normal curing were also studied and compared. It was found from the analytical results that the maximumtemperature increases with the increase of the thickness of structure. The use of layer casting is more effective for thermalcracking control of mass concrete. The insulation curing method is preferable for mass concrete. Aggregate with low coefficientof thermal expansion is beneficial to reduce the restrained strain.

  9. Disarming Batterers through Restraining Orders: The Promise and the Reality in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seave, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Laws that prohibit persons under a domestic violence restraining order from purchasing or possessing a firearm are a primary way to keep guns out of the hands of batterers. In July 2005, the California Attorney General's Task Force on the Local Criminal Justice Response to Domestic Violence issued a report called Keeping the Promise: Victim Safety…

  10. Healthy cognition: Processes of self-regulatory success in restrained eating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, Esther K.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Two studies examined self-regulatory success in dieting. Previous research has indicated that restrained eaters (i.e., chronic dieters) might fail in their attempts at weight control because the perception of attractive food cues triggers hedonic thoughts about food and inhibits their dieting goal.

  11. Orthorexic and restrained eating behaviour in vegans, vegetarians, and individuals on a diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Friederike; Meyer, Frank; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2018-04-01

    Orthorexic eating behaviour, restrained eating, and veganism/vegetarianism are food selection strategies sharing several characteristics. Since there are no studies investigating their interrelationships, aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic and restrained eating behaviour in (1) a sample of vegans and vegetarians and (2) a sample of individuals on a diet to lose weight. Division of samples according to pre-defined criteria in (1) vegans (n = 114), vegetarians (n = 63), individuals with rare meat consumption (n = 83) and individuals with frequent meat consumption (n = 91) and in (2) participants on a diet with dietary change (n = 104), without dietary change (n = 37) and a control group of individuals not on a diet (n = 258). Orthorexic eating behaviour was assessed with the Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala and restrained eating was assessed with the Restraint Eating Scale. Vegans and vegetarians do not differ in orthorexic eating behaviour, but both groups score higher in orthorexic eating behaviour than individuals consuming red meat. There are no differences regarding restrained eating. Individuals on a diet with dietary change score higher in both orthorexic and restrained eating, than individuals without dietary change and individuals not on a diet. Individuals who restrict their eating behaviour, either predominantly due to ethical reasons or with the intention to lose weight, display more orthorexic eating behaviour than individuals not limiting their food consumption. Further research is needed to investigate whether veganism, vegetarianism, or frequent dieting behaviour serve as risk factors for orthorexia. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

  12. Relationship of dieting and restrained eating to self-reported caloric intake in female college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Katterman, Shawn N; Lowe, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    Evidence indicates that restrained eaters do not eat less than unrestrained eaters in the natural environment. However, no study has examined caloric intake in those who are currently dieting to lose, or avoid gaining, weight. The current study examined caloric intake using 24-hour food recalls among individuals dieting to lose weight, dieting to avoid weight gain, restrained nondieters, and unrestrained nondieters. Participants were 246 female college students participating in a weight gain prevention trial. The predicted significant difference in caloric intake across the four groups was found for beverage but not for food intake. Results reinforce past literature indicating that dieting/restraint status does not reflect hypo-caloric intake in naturalistic settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The research of SSR which can be restrained by photovoltaic grid connected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuan; Liu, Meng; Zheng, Wei; Li, Yudun; Wang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Utilization of photovoltaic power generation has attracted considerable attention, and it is growing rapidly due to its environmental benefits. The series capacitive compensation is needed to be introduced into the lines which could improve the transmission capacity. However, the series capacitive compensation may lead to sub-synchronous resonance(SSR). This paper proposes a method to restrain the SSR based on photovoltaic grid connected which is caused by series capacitive compensation. Sub-synchronous oscillation damping controller (SSDC) is designed based on complex torque coefficient approach, and the SSDC is added to the PV power station’s main controller to damp SSR. IEEE Second benchmark model is used as simulation model based on PSCAD/EMTDC. The results show that the designed SSDC could restrain SSR and improve stability in PV grid connected effectively.

  14. Personality and Cognitive Abilities: Predictors of Restrained, Uncontrolled and Emotional Eating Behaviours?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Kirstie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The psychology of eating behaviour merits more attention, due to the increasing prevalence of eating disorders, obesity and other eating related issues. There is a need for a more grounded understanding of the behavioural, emotional and cognitive aspects of dietary habits. Aim: To examine the relationship between personality, cognitive abilities and eating behaviours; Restrained Eating (RE), Uncontrolled Eating (UE) and Emotional Eating (EE). This was based on a series of pre...

  15. An experimental study of an energy absorbing restrainer for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, A.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, in the seismic design methodology of the piping systems in nuclear power plants, new and improved design criteria and calculation techniques which will lead to more reliable and cost saving design products have been investigated. For instance, problems for reducing the snubbers in nuclear power plants which provide high costs for their inspections and maintenances and related flexible design problems for the dynamic piping systems have been investigated. Thus, in order to replace snubbers, various types of alternative supporting devices such as dynamic absorbers, gapped support and energy absorbing support devices have been proposed. A number of energy absorbing restrainers have been designed in Japan and United-States by allowing yield to occur during strong earthquakes. Advantages and disadvantages of these restrainers were examined analytically and experimentally. In order to overcome the disadvantages, the authors introduced new absorbing material LSPZ (laminated super plastic zinc) in which SPZ is expected to have reliable ductility and also efficient energy absorbability still under the normal temperature condition. This paper is devoted to an experimental works for this updated absorbing restrainer

  16. Upgrading the seismic capacity of existing RC buildings using buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abou-Elfath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many existing RC buildings do not meet the lateral strength requirements of current seismic codes and are vulnerable to significant damage or collapse in the event of future earthquakes. In the past few decades, buckling-restrained braces have become increasingly popular as a lateral force resisting system because of their capability of improving the strength, the stiffness and the energy absorbing capacity of structures. This study evaluates the seismic upgrading of a 6-story RC-building using single diagonal buckling restrained braces. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio, the brace ductility factors and the member strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained in this study indicate that strengthening of RC buildings with buckling restrained braces is an efficient technique as it significantly increases the PGA capacity of the RC buildings. The results also indicate the increase in the PGA capacity of the RC building with the increase in the amount of the braces.

  17. Restrained Shrinkage Cracking of Fiber-Reinforced High-Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Saradar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Concrete shrinkage and volume reduction happens due to the loss of moisture, which eventually results in cracks and more concrete deformation. In this study, the effect of polypropylene (PP, steel, glass, basalt, and polyolefin fibers on compressive and flexural strength, drying shrinkage, and cracking potential, using the ring test at early ages of high-strength concrete mixtures, was investigated. The restrained shrinkage test was performed on concrete ring specimens according to the ASTM C1581 standard. The crack width and age of restrained shrinkage cracking were the main parameters studied in this research. The results indicated that the addition of fiber increases the compressive strength by 16%, 20%, and 3% at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days, respectively, and increases the flexural toughness index up to 7.7 times. Steel and glass fibers had a better performance in flexural strength, but relatively poor action in the velocity reduction and cracking time of the restrained shrinkage. Additionally, cracks in all concrete ring specimens except for the polypropylene-containing mixture, was developed to a full depth crack. The mixture with polypropylene fiber indicated a reduction in crack width up to 62% and an increasing age cracking up to 84%.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes Th17 expansion via regulation of human dendritic cells toward a high CD14 and low IL-12p70 phenotype that reprograms upon exogenous IFN-γ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jonas Nørskov; Laursen, Janne Marie; Rosholm, Lisbeth Buus

    2014-01-01

    ) are some of the first cells to interact with Mtb and they play an essential role in development of protective immunity against Mtb. Given that Mtb-infected macrophages have difficulties in degrading Mtb, they need help from IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells propagated via IL-12p70-producing DCs. Here we report...... that Mtb modifies human DC plasticity by expanding a CD14+ DC subset with weak IL-12p70-producing capacity. The CD14+ Mtb-promoted subset was furthermore poor inducers of IFN-γ by naive CD4+ T cells, but instead prompted IL-17A-producing RORγT+ CD4+ T cells. Mtb-derived peptidoglycan and mannosylated...... conclude that Mtb exploits DC plasticity to reduce production of IL-12p70, and that this process is entirely divertible by exogenous IFN-γ. These data suggest that strategies to increase local IFN-γ production in the lungs of tuberculosis patients may boost host immunity toward Mtb....

  19. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2005-03-03

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  20. Comparison of oxygen saturation values obtained from fingers on physically restrained or unrestrained sides of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Esra Akin; Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Khorshid, Leyla

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare semiexperimentally the pulse oximetry values obtained from a finger on restrained or unrestrained sides of the body. The pulse oximeter provides a noninvasive measurement of the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood. One of the procedures most frequently applied to patients in intensive care units is the application of physical restraint. Circulation problems are the most important complication in patients who are physically restrained. Evaluation of oxygen saturation from body parts in which circulation is impeded or has deteriorated can cause false results. The research sample consisted of 30 hospitalized patients who participated in the study voluntarily and who were concordant with the inclusion criteria of the study. Patient information and patient follow-up forms were used for data collection. Pulse oximetry values were measured simultaneously using OxiMax Nellcor finger sensors from fingers on the restrained and unrestrained sides of the body. Numeric and percentile distributions were used in evaluating the sociodemographic properties of patients. A significant difference was found between the oxygen saturation values obtained from a finger of an arm that had been physically restrained and a finger of an arm that had not been physically restrained. The mean oxygen saturation value measured from a finger of an arm that had been physically restrained was found to be 93.40 (SD, 2.97), and the mean oxygen saturation value measured from a finger of an arm that had not been physically restrained was found to be 95.53 (SD, 2.38). The results of this study indicate that nurses should use a finger of an arm that is not physically restrained when evaluating oxygen saturation values to evaluate them correctly.

  1. Psychotropic Drug Use in Physically Restrained, Critically Ill Adults Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Melanie; Burry, Lisa; Cheung, Alexandra; Farquharson, Tara; Traille, Marlene; Mantas, Ioanna; Mehta, Sangeeta; Rose, Louise

    2017-09-01

    Restraining therapies (physical or pharmacological) are used to promote the safety of both patients and health care workers. Some guidelines recommend nonpharmacological or pharmacological interventions be used before physical restraints in critically ill patients. To characterize psychotropic drug interventions before and after use of physical restraints in critically ill adults receiving mechanical ventilation. A single-center, prospective, observational study documenting psychotropic drug use and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) scores in the 2 hours before and the 6 hours after application of physical restraints. Ninety-three patients were restrained for a median of 21 hours (interquartile range, 9-70 hours). Thirty percent of patients did not receive a psychotropic drug or had a drug stopped or decreased before physical restraints were applied. More patients received a psychotropic drug intervention after use of physical restraints than before (86% vs 56%, P = .001). Administration of opioids was more common after the use of physical restraints (54% vs 20% of patients, P = .001) and accounted for more drug interventions (45% vs 29%, P = .001). Fifty patients had SAS scores from both time periods; 16% remained oversedated, 24% were appropriately sedated, and 16% remained agitated in both time periods. Patients became oversedated (20%), more agitated (10%), less agitated (8%), and less sedated (6%) after restraint use. Psychotropic drug interventions (mostly using opioids) were more common after use of physical restraints. Some patients may be physically restrained for anticipated treatment interference without consideration of pharmacological options and without documented agitation. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. Inhibition of Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 in Dendritic Cells Restrains CD4+ T Cell Effector Responses and Induces CD25+Foxp3+ T Regulatory Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Elizondo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF1 is a cytoplasmic scaffold protein shown to influence immune responses in macrophages and microglial cells. The protein contains Ca2+ binding EF-hand and PDZ interaction domains important for mediating intracellular signaling complexes. This study now reports that AIF1 is expressed in CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC and silencing of expression restrains induction of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell effector responses. AIF1 knockdown in murine DC resulted in impaired T cell proliferation and skewed polarization away from T helper type 1 and 17 fates. In turn, there was a parallel expansion of IL-10-producing and CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory subsets. These studies are the first to demonstrate that AIF1 expression in DC serves as a potent governor of cognate T cell responses and presents a novel target for engineering tolerogenic DC-based immunotherapies.

  3. Structural and kinematic evolution of a Miocene to Recent sinistral restraining bend: the Montejunto massif, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    The Montejunto massif lies in the apex of a large-scale restraining bend at the southern termination of a sinistral transpressive fault system, in the Lusitanian basin of Portugal. Cenozoic deformation within the Montejunto massif initiated with southerly directed thrusting along the southern boundary of the massif, in association with the development of the E-W oriented Montejunto anticline, probably during the Langhian. Deformation switched to the northern boundary of the massif, in association with a change to NW-directed thrusting and continued development of the Montejunto anticline. The youngest set of structures within the massif is related to the sinistral reactivation of the Arieiro fault system, and steeply inclined bedding. This late phase of deformation represents the accommodation of a component of sinistral displacement across the restraining bend along mechanical anisotropies formed during this progressive Cenozoic deformation event. Variation in the kinematic style of the Main Arieiro fault is related to the angle ( α) between the fault plane and the displacement vector. Where α≈20°, abrupt pene-contemporaneous switches in displacement direction are recorded along the fault, whereas strike-slip kinematics predominate where α<20°. The timing of deformation events in the Montejunto massif is uncertain. However, correlation with the established Cenozoic Africa/Europe plate convergence directions may provide potential temporal constraints.

  4. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, phunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885

  6. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Painchaud Guérard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating versus “hedonic” by two (restrained or not restrained by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese by two (men versus women factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations.

  7. [Tests and scales: restrains to use them by general practitioners. Descriptive transversal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, Camille; Levesque, Jean-Louis; Bouche, Gauthier

    2010-12-20

    Tests, even though recommended, are only few used by general practitioners (GP's). The aim of this study was to understand the reasons of this underuse. Descriptive transversal study, to explore knowledge, use and restrains to using ten tests related in the first 50 results of consultation in general practice. We questioned 121 GP's from Charente, selected ad random. The oldest tests (MMS, MNA, Fagerström, mini-GDS, IPSS, depression) are known by more than half of the GP's. Only one third is familiar with more recent tests devoted to ambulatory care (TSTS, FACE, venous thromboembolic risk), which are also used less (20% at most). Systematic use of all tests mixed up, never exceeds 30% of all GP's. The principal restrain to use these tests is lack of training (53%), which seems indeed to be inefficient in this domain; 20 to 60% of GP's who know the tests, do not use them, mainly because of doubts regarding their usefulness (38%). What really is the utility of these tests in ambulatory care? Their validity in general practice shows some gaps: their validation results seldom on studies conducted in primary care, impact studies to evaluate the benefits for patients are lacking, and tests designed for specific use by GP's are rare and lacking in validity. Development of research in primary care in this field would be desirable in order to develop relevant, feasible and acceptable tools to help decision making in general practice.

  8. Neurofeedback reduces overeating episodes in female restrained eaters: a randomized controlled pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Martin, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Overeating episodes, despite of intentions to control weight, are a common problem among women. Recurring episodes of overeating and dietary failure have been reported to result in higher Body Mass Indexes and to induce severe distress even in non-clinical groups. Based on findings from physiological research on eating behavior and craving, as well as previous biofeedback studies, we derived a cue exposure based EEG neurofeedback protocol to target overeating episodes. The treatment was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial, comparing a neurofeedback group (NFG; n = 14) with a waiting list control group (WLG; n = 13) in a sub-clinical sample of female restrained eaters. At post-treatment, the number of weekly overeating episodes and subsequent distress were significantly reduced in the NFG compared to the WLG (p  .50). In a 3 month follow-up, effects in the NFG remained stable. As secondary outcomes, perceived dieting success was enhanced after the treatment. At follow-up, additional beneficial effects on trait food craving were observed. Altogether, we found preliminary evidence for the cue exposure neurofeedback against overeating episodes in female restrained eaters, although specific effects and underlying mechanisms still have to be explored in future research.

  9. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Torab, Tina; Yen, Dorothy; Boyland, E J; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Make up your mind about food: A healthy mindset attenuates attention for high-calorie food in restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Attention bias for food could be a cognitive pathway to overeating in obesity and restrained eating. Yet, empirical evidence for individual differences (e.g., in restrained eating and body mass index) in attention bias for food is mixed. We tested experimentally if temporarily induced health versus palatability mindsets influenced attention bias for food, and whether restrained eating moderated this relation. After manipulating mindset (health vs. palatability) experimentally, food-related attention bias was measured by eye-movements (EM) and response latencies (RL) during a visual probe task depicting high-calorie food and non-food. Restrained eating was assessed afterwards. A significant interaction of mindset and restrained eating on RL bias emerged, β = 0.36, t(58) = 2.05, p = 0.045: A health mindset - as compared to a palatability mindset - attenuated attention bias for high-caloric food only in participants with higher eating restraint. No effects were observed on EM biases. The current results demonstrate that state differences in health versus palatability mindsets can cause attenuated attention bias for high-calorie food cues in participants with higher eating restraint. Our findings add to emerging evidence that state differences in mindsets can bias attention for food, above the influence of trait differences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A thermal active restrained shrinkage ring test to study the early age concrete behaviour of massive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briffaut, M.; Benboudjema, F.; Torrenti, J.M.; Nahas, G.

    2011-01-01

    In massive concrete structures, cracking may occur during hardening, especially if autogenous and thermal strains are restrained. The concrete permeability due to this cracking may rise significantly and thus increase leakage (in tank, nuclear containment...) and reduce the durability. The restrained shrinkage ring test is used to study the early age concrete behaviour (delayed strains evolution and cracking). This test shows, at 20 o C and without drying, for a concrete mix which is representative of a French nuclear power plant containment vessel (w/c ratio equal to 0.57), that the amplitude of autogenous shrinkage (about 40 μm/m for the studied concrete mix) is not high enough to cause cracking. Indeed, in this configuration, thermal shrinkage is not significant, whereas this is a major concern for massive structures. Therefore, an active test has been developed to study cracking due to restrained thermal shrinkage. This test is an evolution of the classical restrained shrinkage ring test. It allows to take into account both autogenous and thermal shrinkages. Its principle is to create the thermal strain effects by increasing the temperature of the brass ring (by a fluid circulation) in order to expand it. With this test, the early age cracking due to restrained shrinkage, the influence of reinforcement and construction joints have been experimentally studied. It shows that, as expected, reinforcement leads to an increase of the number of cracks but a decrease of crack widths. Moreover, cracking occurs preferentially at the construction joint.

  12. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi(®)) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco(®)). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of steel energy-absorbing restrainers and their incorporation into nuclear power plants for enhanced safety. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    This program for the development of steel energy-absorbing restrainers originated as a five year multi-institutional, interdisciplinary program. The resources of the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), the Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Richmond (EERC), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Battelle Pacific Northwestern Laboratories (BPNL) are utilized as well as advisors from industry, the utilities and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The present progress report involves the areas of experimental testing on the shaking table at the EERC, restrainer device design and testing, structural analyses and materials testing

  14. Increased Expression of T Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Domain 3 on CD14+ Monocytes Is Associated with Systemic Inflammatory Reaction and Brain Injury in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, ChangJun; Ge, HaiTao; Wang, Tao; Qin, JianBing; Liu, De; Liu, YuGuang

    2018-05-01

    To study the expression of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) on peripheral blood immunocytes, and the relationship between Tim-3 and the systemic inflammatory response or brain injury in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). According to the volume of hematoma at 12 hours after onset of ICH, 60 newly diagnosed patients with ICH were divided into the small (volume of hematoma <30 mL, 30 cases) and large (volume of hematoma ≥30 mL, 30 cases) ICH groups. The expression of Tim-3 on peripheral blood immunocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Tim-3 mRNA on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Meanwhile, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and S-100B protein were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score at Day 30 was used to estimate prognosis of patients. The leukocyte count, neutrophil count, monocyte count, TNF-α, IL-1β, and S-100B protein increased remarkably after ICH. However, all of them in the large ICH group increased more obviously, and there were significant differences when compared with those in the small ICH group (P < .01). The expression of Tim-3 mRNA on PBMCs in the large ICH group increased remarkably, peaked at Day 3, and was positively associated with the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and S-100B protein (P < .01). Tim-3 was predominantly expressed itself on CD14 + monocytes. There was a negative correlation between GOS score and Tim-3 mRNA, TNF-α, IL-1β, or S-100B protein. The expression of Tim-3 on CD14 + monocytes involves in systemic inflammatory reaction after ICH and may be a novel treatment target. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear energy contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions and long-term energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoda-Bakhsh, R.

    2004-01-01

    An important source of greenhouse gases, in particular Co 2 , is fossil fuel combustion for energy applications. Since nuclear power is an energy source that does not produce Co 2 , nuclear energy is already making a contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions. Because it has been internationally decided to reduce carbon dioxide emission before the year 2005 in order to avoid the green house catastrophy of the earth's atmosphere, and since there is an urgent need of energy especially in the developing countries, there is now a strong demand for alternative energy sources. While the established low cost energy production by light water nuclear fission reactors could be a solution for a period of transition (limited by resources of the light Uranium isotope), fusion energy is of interest for long- term and large scale energy production to provide the increased energy demand

  17. Bifurcations of a periodically forced microbial continuous culture model with restrained growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingli; Yuan, Qigang

    2017-08-01

    A three dimensional microbial continuous culture model with a restrained microbial growth rate is studied in this paper. Two types of dilution rates are considered to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the model. For the unforced system, fold bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are detected, and numerical simulations reveal that the system undergoes degenerate Hopf bifurcation. When the system is periodically forced, bifurcation diagrams for periodic solutions of period-one and period-two are given by researching the Poincaré map, corresponding to different bifurcation cases in the unforced system. Stable and unstable quasiperiodic solutions are obtained by Neimark-Sacker bifurcation with different parameter values. Periodic solutions of various periods can occur or disappear and even change their stability, when the Poincaré map of the forced system undergoes Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, flip bifurcation, and fold bifurcation. Chaotic attractors generated by a cascade of period doublings and some phase portraits are given at last.

  18. A plastic collapse method for evaluating rotation capacity of full-restrained steel moment connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungkoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method to model failure of steel beam plastic hinges due to local buckling and low-cycle fatigue is proposed herein. This method is based on the plastic collapse mechanism approach and a yield-line plastic hinge (YLPH model whose geometry is based on buckled shapes of beam plastic hinges observed in experiments. Two limit states, strength degradation failure induced by local buckling and low-cycle fatigue fracture, are considered. The proposed YLPH model was developed for FEMA-350 WUF-W, RBS and Free Flange connections and validated in comparisons to experimental data. This model can be used to estimate the seismic rotation capacity of fully restrained beam-column connections in special steel moment-resisting frames under both monotonic and cyclic loading conditions.

  19. How to restrain electroplex emission and enhance red emission intensity of Eu 3+ complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujun; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Huang, Jinzhao; Yuan, Guancai; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Xu, Xurong

    2007-11-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) of lanthanide complex profits from the intramolecular energy transfer from the triplet state of ligand to Ln (III) ions, but electroplex emission between ligand and host material may occur when the energy transfer is inefficient. The electroplex emission is completely restrained when 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7,-tetramethyljulolidy-9-enyl)-4Hpyran (DCJTB) and Eu(o-BBA)3(phen) are co-doped in poly (N-vinycarbzaole) (PVK). There are great spectra overlapping between electroplex emission and the excitation of DCJTB. The chromaticity coordinates of EL of co-doped device is kept constant (x = 0.55, y = 0.37) under different driving voltage.

  20. Numerical simulation and experiments of precision bar cutting based on high speed and restrained state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J.L.; Li, Y.T.; Liu, Z.Q.; Fu, J.H.; Ting, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    According to the disadvantages of conventional bar cutting technology such as low-cutting speed, inferior section quality, high-processing cost and so on, a kind of novel precision bar cutting technology has been proposed. The cutting mechanism has also been analyzed. Finite element numerical simulation of the bar cutting process under different working conditions has been carried out with DEFORM. The stress and strain fields at different cutting speed and the variation curves of the cutting force and appropriate cutting parameters have been obtained. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the cutting surface showed that the finite-element simulation result is correct and better cutting quality can be obtained with the developed bar cutting technology and equipment based on high speed and restrained state

  1. Dicer Is Required for Normal Cerebellar Development and to Restrain Medulloblastoma Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Zindy

    Full Text Available Dicer, a ribonuclease III enzyme, is required for the maturation of microRNAs. To assess its role in cerebellar and medulloblastoma development, we genetically deleted Dicer in Nestin-positive neural progenitors and in mice lacking one copy for the Sonic Hedgehog receptor, Patched 1. We found that conditional loss of Dicer in mouse neural progenitors induced massive Trp53-independent apoptosis in all proliferative zones of the brain and decreased proliferation of cerebellar granule progenitors at embryonic day 15.5 leading to abnormal cerebellar development and perinatal lethality. Loss of one copy of Dicer significantly accelerated the formation of mouse medulloblastoma of the Sonic Hedgehog subgroup in Patched1-heterozygous mice. We conclude that Dicer is required for proper cerebellar development, and to restrain medulloblastoma formation.

  2. When exercise does not pay: Counterproductive effects of impending exercise on energy intake among restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron Y; Lee, Li Ling; Cheon, Bobby K

    2018-04-01

    Evidence suggests people may overestimate the effectiveness of future positive behaviour, leading to counterproductive behaviours in the present. Applied to weight-management, we hypothesize that inaccurate expectations about impending exercise may impede weight management by promoting overconsumption prior to exercise. This study aimed to determine how expectations about impending exercise and its potential ability to expend energy may influence i) energy intake before exercise and ii) overall energy balance (energy intake minus energy expended via exercise). Using a randomised, counterbalanced design, 21 inactive, overweight males, following a baseline session, completed two experimental trials: i) ad-libitum snack meal (potato-crisps) followed by an exercise session (SE) and ii) ad-libitum snack meal only (SO). There was no main effect of condition (SE vs. SO) on ad-libitum snack intake (p = .917). However, after accounting for dietary restraint (covariate), a difference in snack intake between SE and SO was revealed (p = .050). Specifically, participants who scored higher in dietary restraint consumed more in the SE (vs. SO) session (162 ± 359 kcal more) compared with participants who scored lower in dietary restraint (89 ± 135 kcal less). Among restrained eaters, the relative (net) energy consumed after accounting for energy expended from exercise in SE was not different from the energy consumed in the SO condition, suggesting that energy expended via exercise in SE does not appear to negate extra energy consumed in this condition compared with SO. Of interest, desire to eat and prospective food consumption ratings at the start of the trial were greater (p ≤ .029) in SE compared with SO. Findings suggest that restrained-eaters are at risk of adopting compensatory eating behaviour that may impede negative energy balance typically resulting from exercise (i.e. expending insufficient energy to negate compensatory energy intake

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β promotes liver innate immune activation by restraining AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haoming; Wang, Han; Ni, Ming; Yue, Shi; Xia, Yongxiang; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Lu, Ling; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2018-02-13

    patients. Gsk3β promotes innate proinflammatory immune activation by restraining AMPK activation. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β promotes macrophage inflammatory activation by inhibiting the immune regulatory signalling of AMP-activated protein kinase and the induction of small heterodimer partner. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of glycogen synthase kinase 3β enhances innate immune regulation and protects liver from ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cone restraining and head-only electrical stunning in broilers: Effects on physiological responses and meat quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Verhoeven, M.T.W.; Hindle, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a new electrical stunning system for broilers. The objective of the first experiment was to evaluate the behavioral, neural, and physiological responses of 27 broilers after head-only electrical stunning while their bodies were restrained in cone-shaped

  5. 49 CFR 393.108 - How is the working load limit of a tiedown, or the load restraining value of a friction mat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... load restraining value of a friction mat, determined? 393.108 Section 393.108 Transportation Other... load restraining value of a friction mat, determined? (a) The working load limit (WLL) of a tiedown... load limits. (g) Friction mats which are not marked or rated by the manufacturer shall be considered to...

  6. A nudge in a healthier direction: How environmental cues help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Aline E; Stöckli, Sabrina; Brunner, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use. Therefore, two laboratory studies were conducted. They examined the Giacometti sculptures' effects on unhealthy and healthy food intake (Study 1) and on the completion of weight- and health-related fragmented words (Study 2). Study 1 indicated that the sculptures are weight-related by showing that they reduced food intake independent of food healthiness. Furthermore, the "Giacometti effect" was moderated by restrained eating. Restrained eaters, who are known for their weight-control goal, ate less after having been exposed to the thin sculptures. The results of Study 2 pointed in the same direction. Restrained eaters completed more weight-related words after being exposed to the sculptures. Overall, these studies suggest that the thin sculptures are primarily weight-related cues and particularly helpful for restrained eaters. Environmental weight-control cues such as the Giacometti sculptures could act as a counterforce to our obesogenic environment and help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal. In this way, they could nudge food decisions in a healthier direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comportamento de restrição alimentar e obesidade Restrained eating behavior and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bernardi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é uma doença de alta prevalência no mundo e é responsável por sérias repercussões orgânicas e psicossociais, desde a infância até a vida adulta. O comportamento alimentar tem bases biológicas e sociais e, associado, à obesidade, torna-se um processo ainda mais complexo pelos aspectos psicológicos envolvidos, os quais se expressam por meio de humor depressivo, ansiedade, sentimento de culpa e, também, por mecanismos fisiológicos, como a resistência ao jejum na vigência de dietas restritivas. Há evidências de que, em indivíduos obesos, comportamentos de compulsão alimentar e ou restrição são mais freqüentes e parecem ser, em parte, responsáveis pelos fracassos observados no tratamento da obesidade. As restrições e auto-imposições das pessoas que fazem dieta, parecem ter um efeito rebote, resultando em compulsão alimentar, a qual pode associar-se a conseqüências psicológicas, como a perda da auto-estima, mudanças de humor e distração. As reflexões desta revisão sugerem que os programas para redução de peso corporal devem enfocar as bases do comportamento alimentar e desenvolver, efetivamente, ações interdisciplinares que permitam obter resultados eficazes no tratamento da obesidade.Obesity is a widespread disease in the world, responsible for serious organic and psychosocial repercussions, from infancy to adulthood. Eating behavior has biological as well as social bases. Associated to obesity, it becomes an even more complex process, since it is accompanied by psychological aspects showing symptoms such as depressive moods, anxiety, feelings of guilt, and physiological mechanisms as, for instance, the resistance to fast during restrictive diets. Obese individuals prevalently present behaviors such as binge or restrained eating, both leading to failure in the treatment of obesity. Restrained eating refers to the tendency to restrict food intake consciously, in order to prevent weight gain or to

  8. Protection of children restrained in child safety seats in side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Locey, Caitlin M; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Maltese, Matthew R

    2010-10-01

    The performance of child restraint systems (CRS) in side impact motor vehicle crashes has been under study due to the injury and fatality burden of these events. Although previous research has quantified injury risk or described injured body regions, safety advances require an understanding of injury causation. Therefore, the objective was to delineate injury causation scenarios for CRS-restrained children in side impacts and document probable contact points in the vehicle interior. Two in-depth crash investigation databases, the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network and the Partners for Child Passenger Safety Study, were queried for rear-seated, CRS-restrained children in side impact crashes who sustained Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+ injury. These cases were reviewed by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and engineers to describe injury patterns, injury causation, and vehicle components that contributed to the injuries. Forty-one occupants (average age, 2.6 years) met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-four were near side to the crash, 7 were far side, and 10 were center seated. The most common injuries were to the skull and brain with an increasing proportion of skull fracture as age increased. Head and spine injuries without evidence of head contact were rare but present. All thoracic injuries were lung contusions and no rib fractures occurred. Near-side head and face contacts points were along the rear vertical plane of the window and the horizontal plane of the window sill. Head and face contact points for center- and far-side occupants were along the edges of the front seat back and front seat head restraint. Head injuries are the target for injury prevention for children in CRS in side impact crashes. Most of these injuries are due to the contact; for near-side occupants, contact with the CRS structure and the door interior, for far- or center-seated occupants, contact with the front seat back. These data are useful in developing both educational and

  9. Fluid-structure interaction of a rolling restrained body of revolution at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, D.; Ishay, M.; Gottlieb, O.

    2017-03-01

    The current work investigates numerically rolling instabilities of a free-to-roll slender rigid-body of revolution placed in a wind tunnel at a high angle of attack. The resistance to the roll moment is represented by a linear torsion spring and equivalent linear damping representing friction in the bearings of a simulated wind tunnel model. The body is subjected to a three-dimensional, compressible, laminar flow. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the second-order implicit finite difference Beam-Warming scheme, adapted to a curvilinear coordinate system, whereas the coupled structural second order equation of motion for roll is solved by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The body consists of a 3.5-diameter tangent ogive forebody with a 7.0-diameter long cylindrical afterbody extending aft of the nose-body junction to x/D = 10.5. We describe in detail the investigation of three angles of attack 20°, 40°, and 65°, at a Reynolds number of 30 000 (based on body diameter) and a Mach number of 0.2. Three distinct configurations are investigated as follows: a fixed body, a free-to-roll body with a weak torsion spring, and a free-to-roll body with a strong torsion spring. For each angle of attack the free-to-roll configuration portrays a distinct and different behavior pattern, including bi-stable limit-cycle oscillations. The bifurcation structure incorporates both large and small amplitude periodic roll oscillations where the latter lose their periodicity with increasing stiffness of the restraining spring culminating with distinct quasiperiodic oscillations. We note that removal of an applied upstream disturbance for a restrained body does not change the magnitude or complexity of the oscillations or of the flow patterns along the body. Depending on structure characteristics and flow conditions even a small rolling moment coefficient at the relatively low angle of attack of 20° may lead to large amplitude resonant roll oscillations.

  10. Design and Trajectory Analysis of Incompletely Restrained Cable-Suspension Swing System Driven by Two Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the swing conditions of a suspended platform of a construction shaft, marine ships, cars, etc., an incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables (IRCSWs2 was designed and parameter trajectories of displacements, angles and tensions were systematically investigated. Firstly, the motion mechanism of the IRCSWs2 is described and the corresponding kinematic model is established. For further evaluating the analytical expressions, the ADAMS simulation model and the physical prototype experimental model were developed. The basic consistency and slight difference among the three models are illustrated by a comparison of different parameters. The approximately linear relationship between the driving displacements of two cables and the swing angles of the platform was obtained. Finally, the effects of various parameters on displacements, angles and tensions were analysed, and the results indicate that the translation of a suspended platform is slight during its swing and that the novel IRCSWs2 can be used to drive heavy loads using a relatively small driving force, which is useful for simulating swing environmental conditions long-term, in addition to being cost-effective.

  11. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David; Raisamo, Susanna; Wiium, Nora

    2012-08-15

    In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%). In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths' future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  12. Neuropharmacological Manipulation of Restrained and Free-flying Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Eirik; Plath, Jenny A; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B

    2016-11-26

    Honey bees demonstrate astonishing learning abilities and advanced social behavior and communication. In addition, their brain is small, easy to visualize and to study. Therefore, bees have long been a favored model amongst neurobiologists and neuroethologists for studying the neural basis of social and natural behavior. It is important, however, that the experimental techniques used to study bees do not interfere with the behaviors being studied. Because of this, it has been necessary to develop a range of techniques for pharmacological manipulation of honey bees. In this paper we demonstrate methods for treating restrained or free-flying honey bees with a wide range of pharmacological agents. These include both noninvasive methods such as oral and topical treatments, as well as more invasive methods that allow for precise drug delivery in either systemic or localized fashion. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and describe common hurdles and how to best overcome them. We conclude with a discussion on the importance of adapting the experimental method to the biological questions rather than the other way around.

  13. Surface-restrained growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays with excellent thermal transport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Linquan; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jincheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ma, Chaoqun; Tai, Kaiping; Cong, Hongtao; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2017-06-22

    A vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array is a promising candidate for a high-performance thermal interface material in high-power microprocessors due to its excellent thermal transport property. However, its rough and entangled free tips always cause poor interfacial contact, which results in serious contact resistance dominating the total thermal resistance. Here, we employed a thin carbon cover to restrain the disorderly growth of the free tips of a VACNT array. As a result, all the free tips are seamlessly connected by this thin carbon cover and the top surface of the array is smoothed. This unique structure guarantees the participation of all the carbon nanotubes in the array in the heat transport. Consequently the VACNT array grown on a Cu substrate shows a record low thermal resistance of 0.8 mm 2 K W -1 including the two-sided contact resistances, which is 4 times lower than the best result previously reported. Remarkably, the VACNT array can be easily peeled away from the Cu substrate and act as a thermal pad with excellent flexibility, adhesive ability and heat transport capability. As a result the CNT array with a thin carbon cover shows great potential for use as a high-performance flexible thermal interface material.

  14. The transcription factor KLF2 restrains CD4⁺ T follicular helper cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June-Yong; Skon, Cara N; Lee, You Jeong; Oh, Soohwan; Taylor, Justin J; Malhotra, Deepali; Jenkins, Marc K; Rosenfeld, M Geoffrey; Hogquist, Kristin A; Jameson, Stephen C

    2015-02-17

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for efficient B cell responses, yet the factors that regulate differentiation of this CD4(+) T cell subset are incompletely understood. Here we found that the KLF2 transcription factor serves to restrain Tfh cell generation. Induced KLF2 deficiency in activated CD4(+) T cells led to increased Tfh cell generation and B cell priming, whereas KLF2 overexpression prevented Tfh cell production. KLF2 promotes expression of the trafficking receptor S1PR1, and S1PR1 downregulation is essential for efficient Tfh cell production. However, KLF2 also induced expression of the transcription factor Blimp-1, which repressed transcription factor Bcl-6 and thereby impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Furthermore, KLF2 induced expression of the transcription factors T-bet and GATA3 and enhanced Th1 differentiation. Hence, our data indicate KLF2 is pivotal for coordinating CD4(+) T cell differentiation through two distinct and complementary mechanisms: via control of T cell localization and by regulation of lineage-defining transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gun Violence Restraining Orders: Alternative or Adjunct to Mental Health-Based Restrictions on Firearms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; McGinty, Emma E; Barnhorst, Amy; Greenberg, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    The gun violence restraining order (GVRO) is a new tool for preventing gun violence. Unlike traditional approaches to prohibiting gun purchase and possession, which rely on a high threshold (adjudication by criminal justice or mental health systems) before intervening, the GVRO allows family members and intimate partners who observe a relative's dangerous behavior and believe it may be a precursor to violence to request a GVRO through the civil justice system. Once issued by the court, a GVRO authorizes law enforcement to remove any guns in the respondent's possession and prohibits the respondent from purchasing new guns. In September 2014, California's governor signed AB1014 into law, making California the first U.S. state to enact a GVRO law. This article describes the GVRO and the rationale behind the concept, considers case examples to assess the potential impact of the GVRO as a strategy for preventing gun violence, and reviews the content of the California law. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Design of focused and restrained subsets from extremely large virtual libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamois, Eric A; Lin, Chien T; Waldman, Marvin

    2003-11-01

    With the current and ever-growing offering of reagents along with the vast palette of organic reactions, virtual libraries accessible to combinatorial chemists can reach sizes of billions of compounds or more. Extracting practical size subsets for experimentation has remained an essential step in the design of combinatorial libraries. A typical approach to computational library design involves enumeration of structures and properties for the entire virtual library, which may be unpractical for such large libraries. This study describes a new approach termed as on the fly optimization (OTFO) where descriptors are computed as needed within the subset optimization cycle and without intermediate enumeration of structures. Results reported herein highlight the advantages of coupling an ultra-fast descriptor calculation engine to subset optimization capabilities. We also show that enumeration of properties for the entire virtual library may not only be unpractical but also wasteful. Successful design of focused and restrained subsets can be achieved while sampling only a small fraction of the virtual library. We also investigate the stability of the method and compare results obtained from simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GA).

  17. Early age damage quantification of actively restrained concrete using inverse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Ali

    Early-age cracking can be a significant problem in concrete pavements, floors, and bridge decks. Cracking occurs when the volumetric changes associated with drying, hydration, and temperature reduction are prevented. Good knowledge about the characteristics of early age concrete is necessary to achieve reliable crack control. Volumetric changes due to shrinkage depend on the type of concrete and its components. It has been found that light weight aggregates can work as internal reservoir to supply the concrete matrix with water that is needed during the early age; this process is called internal curing. Also fibers can give more ductility to the concrete and produce less shrinkage. There is a need to better understand the effects of early age uniaxial restraint on long term concrete mechanical performance. In this study, two types of concrete were studied (high performance fiber reinforced concrete and ordinary concrete) under actively restrained loading conditions to assess the effect on the long term fracture toughness and energy. Single edge notched specimens having dimensions of 250 mm x 150 mm x 75 mm and a notch to depth ratio of 0.33 were caste and used in both direct tension and three point bending. The direct tension tests were carried out on a direct tension loading frame constructed in house that was supplied with two mechanical jacks and load cell.

  18. Deformation Characteristics of Ultrahigh-Strength Concrete under Unrestrained and Restrained States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Ha Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As structures like skyscrapers and long-span bridges become larger, the demand for higher strength of concrete is increasing. However, research on ultrahigh-strength concrete (UHSC is still in its infancy. In particular, UHSC is known to have a considerably higher level of autogenous shrinkage than normal strength concrete (NSC, and the possibility of cracking at an early age is very high. Therefore, in this study, shrinkage and cracking behavior of high-strength concrete (HSC, very-high-strength concrete (VHSC, and UHSC were evaluated through unrestrained shrinkage test and restrained shrinkage test (ring test. The primary experimental variables are the compressive strength level according to the water-to-binder ratio (W/B, fly ash content, and concrete specimen thickness. The experimental results demonstrated that the drying shrinkage decreased as the W/B ratio and the fly ash replacement ratio increased, and the restraint cracks appeared to be the earliest and most brittle in the UHSC with the smallest W/B. Increased concrete thickness and incorporation of fly ash were observed to inhibit crack initiation effectively.

  19. Assessment of early-age cracking of high-performance concrete in restrained ring specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang-phu Nguyen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High-performance concrete (HPC is stronger and more durable than conventional concrete. However, shrinkage and shrinkage cracking are common phenomena in HPC, especially early-age cracking. This study assessed early-age cracking of HPC for two mixtures using restrained ring tests. The two mixtures were produced with water/binder mass ratio (mW/mB of 0.22 and 0.40, respectively. The results show that, with greater steel thickness, the higher degree of restraint resulted in a higher interface pressure and earlier cracking. With steel thickness of 6 mm, 19 mm, and 30 mm, the age of cracking were, respectively, 12 days, 8 days, and 5.4 days with the mW/mB = 0.22 mixture; and 22.5 days, 12.6 days, and 7.1 days with the mW/mB = 0.40 mixture. Cases of the same steel thickness show that the ring specimens with a thicker concrete wall crack later. With the mW/mB = 0.22 mixture, concrete walls with thicknesses of 37.5 mm, 75 mm, and 112.5 mm cracked at 3.4 days, 8.0 days, and 9.8 days, respectively; with the mW/mB = 0.40 mixture, the ages of cracking were 7.1 days, 12.6 days, and 16.0 days, respectively.

  20. Executive control resources and snack food consumption in the presence of restraining versus facilitating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Lowe, Cassandra; Vincent, Corita

    2014-08-01

    Prior studies have documented a negative relationship between strength of executive control resources (ECRs) and frequency of snack food consumption. However, little is known about what effect environmental cues (restraining versus facilitating) have on the engagement of such control resources. We presented 88 healthy adults with standardized tests of ECRs followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions to eat the bare minimum to make their ratings ("restraint condition"), eat as much as they like ("facilitation condition") or no special instructions. We surreptitiously measured the weight of food consumed during the taste test. Findings revealed a main effect of treatment condition, such that those in the restraint condition ate significantly less than those in either of the other conditions; however, this main effect was qualified by an ECR by treatment condition interaction. Specifically, those in the facilitation condition showed a strong negative association between ECR strength and amount of food consumed, whereas those in the restraint and control conditions did not. Findings suggest that the effect of ECR strength on consumption of snack food varies substantially by the characteristics of contextual cues.

  1. Hemin-Graphene Derivatives with Increased Peroxidase Activities Restrain Protein Tyrosine Nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Yang, Zhen; Li, Hailing; Gao, Zhonghong

    2017-12-14

    Protein tyrosine nitration is implicated in the occurrence and progression of pathological conditions involving free radical reactions. It is well recognized that hemin can catalyze protein tyrosine nitration in the presence of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. Generally, the catalytic efficiency is positively correlated to its peroxidase activity. In this study, however, it is found that the efficiency of hemin in catalyzing protein tyrosine nitration is largely suppressed after functionalization with graphene derivatives, even though its peroxidase-like activity is more than quadrupled. Further studies show that the oxidation of tyrosine is still observed for these composites; dityrosine formation, however, is greatly inhibited. Furthermore, these composites also exhibit strong effects on the oxidation of nitrite into nitrate. Therefore, we propose a mechanism in which hemin-graphene derivatives facilitate the oxidation of tyrosine and nitrite to produce tyrosyl radicals and nitrogen dioxide radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, but graphene interlayers serve as barriers that hinder radical-radical coupling reactions; consequently, protein tyrosine nitration is restrained. This property of hemin-graphene derivatives, by which they catalyze substrate oxidation but suppress radical-radical coupling reactions, shows their great potential in selective oxidation procedures for byproduct removal. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea López, Ana Lorena; Johnson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19–64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, psnack or drink frequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all psnacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks. PMID:27227409

  3. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea López, Ana Lorena; Johnson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19-64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, pmeal frequency (r = 0.10, pfrequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all pmeals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2) and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8), but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks.

  4. An implementation of the maximum-caliber principle by replica-averaged time-resolved restrained simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Riccardo; Tiana, Guido; Camilloni, Carlo

    2018-05-14

    Inferential methods can be used to integrate experimental informations and molecular simulations. The maximum entropy principle provides a framework for using equilibrium experimental data, and it has been shown that replica-averaged simulations, restrained using a static potential, are a practical and powerful implementation of such a principle. Here we show that replica-averaged simulations restrained using a time-dependent potential are equivalent to the principle of maximum caliber, the dynamic version of the principle of maximum entropy, and thus may allow us to integrate time-resolved data in molecular dynamics simulations. We provide an analytical proof of the equivalence as well as a computational validation making use of simple models and synthetic data. Some limitations and possible solutions are also discussed.

  5. The Sierra de Cabral range: a restraining bend related to the Sierra Ballena shear zone in Dom Feliciano belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H.

    2010-01-01

    Restraining and releasing bends occurring in all crustal environments are common but enigmatic features of strike-slip fault systems. They can be reported in all scales of observation. Regional-scale restraining bends are sites of mountain building, transpressional deformation and basement exhumation. Releasing bends are sites of subsidence, transtensional deformation and pull-apart basins. The Dom Feliciano Belt of Southern Uruguay has two main structures observed from the outer space: (i) the Sierra Ballena Shear Zone and (ii) the Sierra de Cabral flexure located to the SW of the former. Although a transpressional regime is commonly accepted for the Dom Feliciano Belt, the available tectonic models do not provide satisfactory explanations for its building mechanism. A restraining bend is proposed at the SW termination of Sierra Ballena strike-slip ductile shear zone. In a key-area (Alvariza Range) the relationship between the Zanja del Tigre volcanic-detritic and the calcareous succession shows three en-échelon upright bends of the same quartzite hanging-wall between two sub-vertical strike-slip faults, suggesting the existence of a shortened strike-slip duplex operating in viscous-elastic rheology. The deformation partitioning includes strike-slip and dip-slip simple-shear components as well as one contractional pure-shear component. Because restraining bends were scarcely described in Neoproterozoic low-grade regional exhumation conditions, this structural framework would be a natural laboratory to study fault kinematics, fault dynamics, their associated deformation and the tectonic and erosion constraints related to the exhumation of many crystalline terrains

  6. Mood and restrained eating moderate food-associated response inhibition in obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Rustemeier, Martina; Paslakis, Georgios; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Müller, Astrid; Herpertz, Stephan

    2018-03-30

    Recent research suggests that obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) show deficits in response inhibition, but findings are not consistent, especially when food-associated stimuli are presented. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of moderating factors by taking into account restrained eating and mood. Seventeen obese women with BED, 20 obese women without BED and 20 normal-weight controls (NW) were recruited. A go/no-go task with food-associated and control stimuli and questionnaires were administered. Obese BED showed less impairment of response inhibition to food-associated than to control stimuli, while this pattern was reversed in NW; no differences were observed for obese participants. Interestingly, group differences were moderated by the interaction of restrained eating and mood, and obese BED made the most commission errors to food-associated stimuli when they were restrained eaters and in a very positive mood at the time of testing. Our results might explain why some studies did not observe deficits in response inhibition to food-associated cues in BED. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco promoting and restraining factors among adolescents in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, D; Koivusilta, L; Raisamo, S; Rimpelä, A

    2012-08-01

    With a long history of tobacco cultivation, adolescents in Ghana are at relatively high risk of the emerging tobacco epidemic in developing countries. This study explored exposure to tobacco promoting/restraining factors and their associations with smoking and tawa (traditional smokeless tobacco) use among 13-18-year-old Ghanaians. School-based representative data were collected in 2008 (n = 1165). Prevalence rates of tobacco use, smoking and tawa use were 9.1% (11.5% boys and 6.4% girls), 6.6% (8.0% boys and 4.7% girls) and 5.7% (7.3% boys and 3.9% girls), respectively. Four percent of the respondents attended schools without a smoking ban, 66% had been taught about the harmful effects of smoking in the current school year, and 53% had been exposed to tobacco advertising. Fifty-three percent of adolescents who had tried to purchase tobacco products were not refused because of their age. Multivariate analyses found that attendance at a school where smoking was allowed, not having been taught about the harmful effects of smoking, exposure to tobacco advertising and parental smoking were positively associated with tobacco use, and knowledge that smoking is harmful to health and difficult to quit were negatively associated with tobacco use. Both smoking and tawa use were relatively low among Ghanaian adolescents. Exposure to tobacco advertising was high. There is no tobacco legislation in Ghana, but societal norms or cultural values seem to restrict smoking in schools and access to tobacco products. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural Refinement of Proteins by Restrained Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Non-interacting Molecular Fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of multiple conformational states is a prerequisite to understand the function of membrane transport proteins. Unfortunately, the determination of detailed atomic structures for all these functionally important conformational states with conventional high-resolution approaches is often difficult and unsuccessful. In some cases, biophysical and biochemical approaches can provide important complementary structural information that can be exploited with the help of advanced computational methods to derive structural models of specific conformational states. In particular, functional and spectroscopic measurements in combination with site-directed mutations constitute one important source of information to obtain these mixed-resolution structural models. A very common problem with this strategy, however, is the difficulty to simultaneously integrate all the information from multiple independent experiments involving different mutations or chemical labels to derive a unique structural model consistent with the data. To resolve this issue, a novel restrained molecular dynamics structural refinement method is developed to simultaneously incorporate multiple experimentally determined constraints (e.g., engineered metal bridges or spin-labels, each treated as an individual molecular fragment with all atomic details. The internal structure of each of the molecular fragments is treated realistically, while there is no interaction between different molecular fragments to avoid unphysical steric clashes. The information from all the molecular fragments is exploited simultaneously to constrain the backbone to refine a three-dimensional model of the conformational state of the protein. The method is illustrated by refining the structure of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD of the Kv1.2 potassium channel in the resting state and by exploring the distance histograms between spin-labels attached to T4 lysozyme. The resulting VSD structures are in good

  9. Triangularly arranged heat exchanger bundles to restrain wind effects on natural draft dry cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, H.T.; Yang, L.J.; Du, X.Z.; Yang, Y.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Triangularly arranged heat exchanger around the dry-cooling tower is proposed. • By coupling condenser with dry cooling system, TACHE performance is obtained. • At low wind speeds, cooling performance with TACHE is inferior to that with CACHE. • Better performance can be achieved for cooling system with TACHE at high wind speeds. • TACHE can be applied to the region with the strong prevailing wind all year around. - Abstract: It has been commonly recognized that the crosswind may deteriorate the cooling performance of the natural draft dry cooling system with vertically arranged heat exchanger bundles around the circumference of dry-cooling tower. With the purpose for restraining the adverse effects of ambient winds, a novel triangular configuration of heat exchanger bundles is proposed in this work. The air-side flow and heat transfer models coupled with the circulating water heat transfer process are developed for two kinds of natural draft dry cooling systems with the conventional circularly arranged and novel triangularly arranged heat exchanger bundles, by which the flow and temperature fields, mass flow rate of cooling air, outlet water temperature of heat exchanger and turbine back pressure are obtained. Three wind directions of 0°, 90°, and 180° are investigated at various wind speeds for the natural draft dry cooling system with triangularly arranged heat exchanger bundles, which are compared with the conventional system with circularly arranged heat exchanger bundles. The results show that the thermo-flow performances of the natural draft dry cooling system with triangularly arranged heat exchanger get improved significantly at high wind speeds and in the wind direction of 180°, thus a low turbine back pressure can be achieved, which is of benefit to the energy efficiency of the power generating unit. The natural draft dry cooling system with triangularly arranged heat exchanger is recommended to apply to the regions with

  10. A nanobody targeting the F-actin capping protein CapG restrains breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, Katrien; Bethuyne, Jonas; Cool, Steven; Impens, Francis; Ruano-Gallego, David; De Wever, Olivier; Vanloo, Berlinda; Van Troys, Marleen; Lambein, Kathleen; Boucherie, Ciska; Martens, Evelien; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Gevaert, Kris; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Sanders, Niek N; Gettemans, Jan

    2013-12-13

    Aberrant turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is intimately associated with cancer cell migration and invasion. Frequently however, evidence is circumstantial, and a reliable assessment of the therapeutic significance of a gene product is offset by lack of inhibitors that target biologic properties of a protein, as most conventional drugs do, instead of the corresponding gene. Proteomic studies have demonstrated overexpression of CapG, a constituent of the actin cytoskeleton, in breast cancer. Indirect evidence suggests that CapG is involved in tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. In this study, we used llama-derived CapG single-domain antibodies or nanobodies in a breast cancer metastasis model to address whether inhibition of CapG activity holds therapeutic merit. We raised single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) against human CapG and used these as intrabodies (immunomodulation) after lentiviral transduction of breast cancer cells. Functional characterization of nanobodies was performed to identify which biochemical properties of CapG are perturbed. Orthotopic and tail vein in vivo models of metastasis in nude mice were used to assess cancer cell spreading. With G-actin and F-actin binding assays, we identified a CapG nanobody that binds with nanomolar affinity to the first CapG domain. Consequently, CapG interaction with actin monomers or actin filaments is blocked. Intracellular delocalization experiments demonstrated that the nanobody interacts with CapG in the cytoplasmic environment. Expression of the nanobody in breast cancer cells restrained cell migration and Matrigel invasion. Notably, the nanobody prevented formation of lung metastatic lesions in orthotopic xenograft and tail-vein models of metastasis in immunodeficient mice. We showed that CapG nanobodies can be delivered into cancer cells by using bacteria harboring a type III protein secretion system (T3SS). CapG inhibition strongly reduces breast cancer metastasis. A nanobody-based approach offers

  11. Adsorption characteristics of sulfur powder by bamboo charcoal to restrain sulfur allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxi Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposures to particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 may influence the risk of birth defects and make you allergic, which causes serious harm to human health. Bamboo charcoal can adsorb harmful substances,that was of benefitto people’s health. In order to figure out the optimal adsorbtion condition and the intrinsic change of bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal blast time was 80 min of Na2SO3, 100 min of Na2S2O8, 20 min of Na2SO4, 120 min of Fe2(SO43 and 60 min or 100 min of S. FT-IR spectra showed that bamboo charcoal had five characteristic peaks of SS stretch, H2O stretch, OH stretch, CO stretch or CC stretch, and NO2 stretch at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1, respectively. For Na2SO3, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 20 min. For Na2S2O8, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Na2SO4, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Fe2(SO43, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 120 min. For S, the peaks at 3850 cm−1 and 3740 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min, the peaks at 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. It proved that bamboo charcoal could remove sulfur powder from air to restrain sulfur allergies.

  12. Attitudes towards child restrains and seat belts usage in the learned population of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Ejaz, Kiran; Waheed, Shahan; Kazi, Ghazala Irfan; Khursheed, Munawar

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicles crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury related morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Recent evidence proves that properly used child seat belts can dramatically reduce the risk of severe and life-threatening injury from MVCs. There are rarities of thought and inspiration regarding the use of child seat belts in our society and region, therefore we lack of data regarding factors and paucity of usage of child seat belts in motor vehicles. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of child seat belt usage among the educated population in Karachi, Pakistan. Altogether 304 employees were investigated. They were employees of Aga Khan University who were using their cars and having children younger than 10 years old. A cross sectional observational study was designed, and a 36-item questionnaire in English was used to collect data on participants' demographic details, designation, educational level, economic status, validity of driving license, number of children and cars, availability of adult seat belts and child seat belts along with their functionality, awareness, knowledge and attitude toward its use, and reason of not using these devices. SPSS version 20 for Windows was used to analyze the data and the Chi-square test was used. Totally 290 participants were recruited with a response rate of 72% (212). Of 212 participants, 126 (59%) were male. 154 (72.6%) participants had valid driver licenses, and 154 (72.6%) had adult seat belts in their vehicles. Only 32 (15%) reported regular use of adult seat belts. Although 168 (79.2%) participants had some knowledge about child restrains (CRs), only 65 (22%) had CRs in their cars. Eighty-two (38.7%) participants got the knowledge about CRs and seat belts from media. Mothers were more concerned about the use of CRs than fathers. Only 14 (6.6%) parents were found to use both adult and child seat belts all the time. Of the 157 parents who did not us use CRs, 42 considered unnecessary

  13. HDAC1 and HDAC2 restrain the intestinal inflammatory response by regulating intestinal epithelial cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomie Turgeon

    . Thus, epithelial HDAC1 and HDAC2 restrain the intestinal inflammatory response, by regulating intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

  14. Restrained shrinkage experiments on coated particle fuel compacts in the temperature range 600-1200 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.; Veringa, H.J.; Loelgen, R.

    1976-05-01

    Information on irradiation induced creep in reactor graphite and in fuel compact material is an essential ingredient in the design of any reactor core layout, because the creep plasticity of these materials diminishes the stresses which are built up in the fuel element during reactor operation. The restrained shrinkage method in which the shrinkage of a dumbbell shaped creep specimen is restrained by a graphite material which shows less irradiation shrinkage, offers a good possibility of performing a large series of tensile creep experiments in a limited irradiation volume. The irradiations, evaluations and the results of a series of restrained shrinkage experiments in which six different materials were tested, of which five were dummy coated particle compacts and one pure matrix material are described and discussed. These materials were irradiated in the High Flux Reactor of the Euratom Joint Research Centre in Petten/Netherlands. The irradiations were performed in three successive capsules at irradiation temperatures of 600 deg C, 900 deg C, 1050 deg C and 1200 deg C up to a neutron fluence of maximum 3x10 21 n.cm 2 (DNE). The post-irradiation examinations yielded plastic strains up to 2,3%, and values for the radiation creep coefficient were calculated, ranging from 4 to 8.10 -12 at 600 deg C and 8 to 30.10 -12 at 1200 deg C always given per dyn.cm -2 tensile stresses and per 10 20 n.cm -2 fluence units. Generally it was found that the creep behavior of these materials and the temperature dependence of the creep process could be compared with those for normal reactor graphites

  15. Response, thermal regulatory threshold and thermal breakdown threshold of restrained RF-exposed mice at 905 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, S [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Eom, S J [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schuderer, J [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstrasse 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Apostel, U [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Tillmann, T [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Dasenbrock, C [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Kuster, N [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-11-07

    The objective of this study was the determination of the thermal regulatory and the thermal breakdown thresholds for in-tube restrained B6C3F1 and NMRI mice exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at 905 MHz. Different levels of the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR 0, 2, 5, 7.2, 10, 12.6 and 20 W kg{sup -1}) have been applied to the mice inside the 'Ferris Wheel' exposure setup at 22 {+-} 2 {sup 0}C and 30-70% humidity. The thermal responses were assessed by measurement of the rectal temperature prior, during and after the 2 h exposure session. For B6C3F1 mice, the thermal response was examined for three different weight groups (20 g, 24 g, 29 g), both genders and for pregnant mice. Additionally, NMRI mice with a weight of 36 g were investigated for an interstrain comparison. The thermal regulatory threshold of in-tube restrained mice was found at SAR levels between 2 W kg{sup -1} and 5 W kg{sup -1}, whereas the breakdown of regulation was determined at 10.1 {+-} 4.0 W kg{sup -1}(K = 2) for B6C3F1 mice and 7.7 {+-} 1.6 W kg{sup -1}(K = 2) for NMRI mice. Based on a simplified power balance equation, the thresholds show a clear dependence upon the metabolic rate and weight. NMRI mice were more sensitive to thermal stress and respond at lower SAR values with regulation and breakdown. The presented data suggest that the thermal breakdown for in-tube restrained mice, whole-body exposed to radiofrequency fields, may occur at SAR levels of 6 W kg{sup -1}(K = 2) at laboratory conditions.

  16. DFsn collaborates with Highwire to down-regulate the Wallenda/DLK kinase and restrain synaptic terminal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiAntonio Aaron

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growth of new synapses shapes the initial formation and subsequent rearrangement of neural circuitry. Genetic studies have demonstrated that the ubiquitin ligase Highwire restrains synaptic terminal growth by down-regulating the MAP kinase kinase kinase Wallenda/dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. To investigate the mechanism of Highwire action, we have identified DFsn as a binding partner of Highwire and characterized the roles of DFsn in synapse development, synaptic transmission, and the regulation of Wallenda/DLK kinase abundance. Results We identified DFsn as an F-box protein that binds to the RING-domain ubiquitin ligase Highwire and that can localize to the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Loss-of-function mutants for DFsn have a phenotype that is very similar to highwire mutants – there is a dramatic overgrowth of synaptic termini, with a large increase in the number of synaptic boutons and branches. In addition, synaptic transmission is impaired in DFsn mutants. Genetic interactions between DFsn and highwire mutants indicate that DFsn and Highwire collaborate to restrain synaptic terminal growth. Finally, DFsn regulates the levels of the Wallenda/DLK kinase, and wallenda is necessary for DFsn-dependent synaptic terminal overgrowth. Conclusion The F-box protein DFsn binds the ubiquitin ligase Highwire and is required to down-regulate the levels of the Wallenda/DLK kinase and restrain synaptic terminal growth. We propose that DFsn and Highwire participate in an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin ligase complex whose substrates regulate the structure and function of synapses.

  17. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  18. Study Under AC Stimulation on Excitement Properties of Weighted Small-World Biological Neural Networks with Side-Restrain Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wujie; Luo Xiaoshu; Jiang Pinqun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of weighted small-world biological neural networks based on biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with side-restrain mechanism. Then we study excitement properties of the model under alternating current (AC) stimulation. The study shows that the excitement properties in the networks are preferably consistent with the behavior properties of a brain nervous system under different AC stimuli, such as refractory period and the brain neural excitement response induced by different intensities of noise and coupling. The results of the study have reference worthiness for the brain nerve electrophysiology and epistemological science.

  19. Crash characteristics and injury patterns of restrained front seat occupants in far-side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Halloway, Dale E; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J; Szabo, Aniko; Rudd, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the association between vehicle-, crash-, and demographic-related factors and injuries to front seat far-side occupants in modern environments. Field data were obtained from the NASS-CDS database for the years 2009-2012. Inclusion factors included the following: adult restrained front outboard-seated occupants, no ejection or rollovers, and vehicle model years less than 10 years old at the time of crash. Far-side crashes were determined by using collision deformation classification. Injuries were scored using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Injuries (MAIS 2+, MAIS 3+, M denotes maximum score) were examined based on demographics, change in velocity, vehicle type, direction of force, extent zone, collision partner, and presence of another occupant in the front seat. Only weighted data were used in the analysis. Injuries to the head and face, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and upper and lower extremity regions were studied. Odds ratios and upper and lower confidence intervals were estimated from multivariate analysis. Out of 519,195 far-side occupants, 17,715 were MAIS 2+ and 4,387 were MAIS 3+ level injured occupants. The mean age, stature, total body mass, and body mass index (BMI) were 40.7 years, 1.7 m, 77.2 kg, and 26.8 kg/m2, respectively. Of occupants with MAIS 2+ injuries, 51% had head and 19% had thorax injuries. Of occupants with MAIS 3+ injuries, 50% had head and 69% had thorax injuries. The cumulative distribution of changes in velocities at the 50th percentile for the struck vehicle for all occupants and occupants with MAIS 2+ and MAIS 3+ injuries were 19, 34, and 42 km/h, respectively. Furthermore, 73% of MAIS 2+ injuries and 86% of MAIS 3+ injuries occurred at a change in velocity of 24 km/h or greater. Odds of sustaining MAIS 2+ and MAIS 3+ injuries increased with each unit increase in change in velocity, stature, and age, with one exception. Odds of sustaining injuries were higher with the presence of an occupant in

  20. Focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters: a test of restraint theory and the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2014-04-01

    Although research consistently shows that images of thin women in the media (media body ideals) affect women negatively (e.g., increased weight dissatisfaction and food intake), this effect is less clear among restrained eaters. The majority of experiments demonstrate that restrained eaters - identified with the Restraint Scale - consume more food than do other participants after viewing media body ideal images; whereas a minority of experiments suggest that such images trigger restrained eaters' dietary restraint. Weight satisfaction and mood results are just as variable. One reason for these inconsistent results might be that different methods of image exposure (e.g., slideshow vs. film) afford varying levels of attention. Therefore, we manipulated attention levels and measured participants' weight satisfaction and food intake. We based our hypotheses on the elaboration likelihood model and on restraint theory. We hypothesised that advertent (i.e., processing the images via central routes of persuasion) and inadvertent (i.e., processing the images via peripheral routes of persuasion) exposure would trigger differing degrees of weight dissatisfaction and dietary disinhibition among restrained eaters (cf. restraint theory). Participants (N = 174) were assigned to one of four conditions: advertent or inadvertent exposure to media or control images. The dependent variables were measured in a supposedly unrelated study. Although restrained eaters' weight satisfaction was not significantly affected by either media exposure condition, advertent (but not inadvertent) media exposure triggered restrained eaters' eating. These results suggest that teaching restrained eaters how to pay less attention to media body ideal images might be an effective strategy in media-literary interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying Armed Respondents to Domestic Violence Restraining Orders and Recovering Their Firearms: Process Evaluation of an Initiative in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Claire, Barbara E.; Vittes, Katherine A.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a law enforcement initiative to screen respondents to domestic violence restraining orders for firearm ownership or possession and recover their firearms. Methods. The initiative was implemented in San Mateo and Butte counties in California from 2007 through 2010. We used descriptive methods to evaluate the screening process and recovery effort in each county, relying on records for individual cases. Results. Screening relied on an archive of firearm transactions, court records, and petitioner interviews; no single source was adequate. Screening linked 525 respondents (17.7%) in San Mateo County to firearms; 405 firearms were recovered from 119 (22.7%) of them. In Butte County, 88 (31.1%) respondents were linked to firearms; 260 firearms were recovered from 45 (51.1%) of them. Nonrecovery occurred most often when orders were never served or respondents denied having firearms. There were no reports of serious violence or injury. Conclusions. Recovering firearms from persons subject to domestic violence restraining orders is possible. We have identified design and implementation changes that may improve the screening process and the yield from recovery efforts. Larger implementation trials are needed. PMID:24328660

  2. Altered frontal inter-hemispheric resting state functional connectivity is associated with bulimic symptoms among restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuaiyu; Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Su, Yanhua; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-29

    Theory and research have indicated that restrained eating (RE) increases risk for binge-eating and eating disorder symptoms. According to the goal conflict model, such risk may result from disrupted hedonic-feeding control and its interaction with reward-driven eating. However, RE-related alterations in functional interactions among associated underlying brain regions, especially between the cerebral hemispheres, have rarely been examined directly. Therefore, we investigated inter-hemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among female restrained eaters (REs) (n=23) and unrestrained eaters (UREs) (n=24) following food deprivation as well as its relation to overall bulimia nervosa (BN) symptoms using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). Seed-based RSFC associated with areas exhibiting significant VMHC differences was also assessed. Compared to UREs, REs showed reduced VMHC in the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area involved in inhibiting hedonic overeating. REs also displayed decreased RSFC between the right DLPFC and regions associated with reward estimation--the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Finally, bulimic tendencies had a negative correlation with VMHC in the DLPFC and a positive correlation with functional connectivity (DLPFC and VMPFC) among REs but not UREs. Findings suggested that reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity in appetite inhibition regions and altered functional connectivity in reward related regions may help to explain why some REs fail to control hedonically-motivated feeding and experience higher associated levels of BN symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic model and workspace analysis of novel incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables is introduced in this article. Based on wrench of forces theory and Lagrange’s equation of first kind, the static and dynamics models of incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables are established, respectively. In order to obtain an intuitive understanding of the trajectory analysis, a dynamics model consisting of governing equation and geometric constraint conditions which is a set of the mixed differential-algebraic equation in mathematics is established. A typical feedback controller and an inverse model were set up to estimate the driving function. The effective workspace, which is used to guarantee an efficient swing process, mostly depends on the geometrical shape rather than the volume itself which was calculated by trajectory analysis. In order to estimate system features and ensure a limited range of tension in underconstrained spatial cable system, the probable location of unbalanced loading was evaluated by pointwise evaluation techniques during normal work.

  4. Neuropeptide Y and nestin expression in the hippocampal CA3 region following restrained and inverted stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guogang Sun; Ailing Li; Bo Chen; Guangbi Fan; Hongwen Xiao; Yue Chen; Jie Xu; Ye Nie; Bing Zhang; Lin Gong

    2011-01-01

    Our preliminary study demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY)/nestin-positive cells exhibit a consistent spatial distribution in the hippocampus of normal adult rats. However, following severe acute and chronic stress-induced impaired learning and memory, synchronous decreased expression of nestin and NPY takes place in the hippocampus, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, acute and chronic stress rat models were established using combined restrained and inverted stress. Results showed that learning and memory significantly decreased in acute and chronic stress rats. In addition, hippocampal cells were damaged, in particular in the acute stress rats, and nestin and NPY expression, as well as the number of NPY/nestin-positive cells in the CA3 region, significantly decreased. Furthermore, mature neurofilament 200-positive neurons were absent in the chronic stress rats. The NPY and cytoskeletal protein system equally contributed to stress-induced early learning and memory deficits, as well as sustained cerebral injury in the adult hippocampus.

  5. Workspace quality analysis and application for a completely restrained 3-Dof planar cable-driven parallel manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaoqiang; Tang, Lewei; Wang, Jinsong [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Sun, Dengfeng [Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)

    2013-08-15

    With the advantage of large workspace, low energy consumption and small inertia, the cable-driven parallel manipulator (CDPM) is suitable for heavy workpieces in rapid velocity and acceleration. We present a workspace analysis approach to solve force and torque equilibriums of completely restrained CDPMs. By this approach, not only the distribution but also the value of tensions driven by cables is investigated together. Two new indices, all cable tension distribution index (ACTDI) and area of the global quality workspace (AG) are proposed to evaluate the quality of the workspace. By concentrating on the workspace and its quality combined with the tension characteristics, these criteria are used to determine the optimal workspace in CDPMs. To verify the capacity of the proposed method, simulation examples are presented and the results demonstrate the approach's effectiveness. In the end, the dimensional design for a planar CDPM is discussed with the indices of workspace quality.

  6. Dynamical Analysis and Simulation Validation of Incompletely Restrained Cable-Suspended Swinging System Driven by Two Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility of the suspension multicables and driven length difference between two cables cause the translation and rotation of the platform in the incompletely restrained cable-suspended system driven by two cables (IRCSWs2, which are theoretically investigated in this paper. The suspension cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method (AMM and the equations of motion are derived from Lagrange equations of the first kind. Considering all the geometric matching conditions are approximately linear with external actuator, the differential algebraic equations (DAEs are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs. Using linear boundary conditions of the suspension cable, the current method can obtain not only the accurate longitudinal displacements of cable and posture of the platform, but also the tension between the platform and cables, and the current method is verified by ADAMS simulation.

  7. Workspace quality analysis and application for a completely restrained 3-Dof planar cable-driven parallel manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiaoqiang; Tang, Lewei; Wang, Jinsong; Sun, Dengfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the advantage of large workspace, low energy consumption and small inertia, the cable-driven parallel manipulator (CDPM) is suitable for heavy workpieces in rapid velocity and acceleration. We present a workspace analysis approach to solve force and torque equilibriums of completely restrained CDPMs. By this approach, not only the distribution but also the value of tensions driven by cables is investigated together. Two new indices, all cable tension distribution index (ACTDI) and area of the global quality workspace (AG) are proposed to evaluate the quality of the workspace. By concentrating on the workspace and its quality combined with the tension characteristics, these criteria are used to determine the optimal workspace in CDPMs. To verify the capacity of the proposed method, simulation examples are presented and the results demonstrate the approach's effectiveness. In the end, the dimensional design for a planar CDPM is discussed with the indices of workspace quality.

  8. Why Wet Kaolin can be used as a Crustal Analog and its Application to Fault Evolution at Restraining Bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.; van der Elst, N.; Schottenfeld, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    To simulate geologic deformation on observable time and length scales within the lab, a subset of analog modelers have used wet kaolin. Unlike the more often used sand, wet kaolin beautifully exhibits detailed fault structures. Furthermore, faults within the kaolin are more readily reactivated than those in sand. The low plasticity of kaolin (compared to other clays) gives it low shear strength. Consequently, the clay is a suitable analog material if we assume that the wet kaolin deforms by coulomb frictional failure. Koalin generally deforms as a Bingham solid and exhibits more complex deformation than the perfectly plastic behavior assumed with Coulomb failure. We performed fall cone and rheometric tests on wet kaolin to refine our quantitative understanding of its rheology. We use North American wet kaolin with density 1.65-1.7 g/cm3 and water content of 37.5-38.5%. The fall cone tests reveal that the undrained shear strength (100-160 Pa) is greater than previously measured with a viscometer. The rheometer tests show that the wet koalin exhibits many of the same properties of crustal materials including: 1) elastic behavior at low strains, 2) stress relaxation at near-failure strains, 3) creep under static load, 4) yield strength sensitive to strain rate and 5) rate and state dependent failure. Armed with quantitative values for this complex deformation, we can better scale the length and strain rate of the wet koalin experiments to specific crustal settings. Experiments of deformation around restraining bends show features very similar to those found in natural examples. The detailed fault structures produced in the wet kaolin can be analyzed to understand the evolution of active faulting at restraining bends.

  9. Perceived parental control of food intake is related to external, restrained and emotional eating in 7–12-year-old boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Bazelier, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eating behaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n=596). External eating

  10. C-NAP1 and rootletin restrain DNA damage-induced centriole splitting and facilitate ciliogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Pauline C; Saladino, Chiara; Dantas, Tiago J; Lalor, Pierce; Dockery, Peter; Morrison, Ciaran G

    2012-10-15

    Cilia are found on most human cells and exist as motile cilia or non-motile primary cilia. Primary cilia play sensory roles in transducing various extracellular signals, and defective ciliary functions are involved in a wide range of human diseases. Centrosomes are the principal microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells and contain two centrioles. We observed that DNA damage causes centriole splitting in non-transformed human cells, with isolated centrioles carrying the mother centriole markers CEP170 and ninein but not kizuna or cenexin. Loss of centriole cohesion through siRNA depletion of C-NAP1 or rootletin increased radiation-induced centriole splitting, with C-NAP1-depleted isolated centrioles losing mother markers. As the mother centriole forms the basal body in primary cilia, we tested whether centriole splitting affected ciliogenesis. While irradiated cells formed apparently normal primary cilia, most cilia arose from centriolar clusters, not from isolated centrioles. Furthermore, C-NAP1 or rootletin knockdown reduced primary cilium formation. Therefore, the centriole cohesion apparatus at the proximal end of centrioles may provide a target that can affect primary cilium formation as part of the DNA damage response.

  11. γδ T Cells Support Pancreatic Oncogenesis by Restraining αβ T Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Donnele; Zambirinis, Constantinos Pantelis; Seifert, Lena; Akkad, Neha; Mohan, Navyatha; Werba, Gregor; Barilla, Rocky; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Hundeyin, Mautin; Mani, Vishnu Raj Kumar; Avanzi, Antonina; Tippens, Daniel; Narayanan, Rajkishen; Jang, Jung-Eun; Newman, Elliot; Pillarisetty, Venu Gopal; Dustin, Michael Loran; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Hajdu, Cristina; Miller, George

    2016-09-08

    Inflammation is paramount in pancreatic oncogenesis. We identified a uniquely activated γδT cell population, which constituted ∼40% of tumor-infiltrating T cells in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Recruitment and activation of γδT cells was contingent on diverse chemokine signals. Deletion, depletion, or blockade of γδT cell recruitment was protective against PDA and resulted in increased infiltration, activation, and Th1 polarization of αβT cells. Although αβT cells were dispensable to outcome in PDA, they became indispensable mediators of tumor protection upon γδT cell ablation. PDA-infiltrating γδT cells expressed high levels of exhaustion ligands and thereby negated adaptive anti-tumor immunity. Blockade of PD-L1 in γδT cells enhanced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltration and immunogenicity and induced tumor protection suggesting that γδT cells are critical sources of immune-suppressive checkpoint ligands in PDA. We describe γδT cells as central regulators of effector T cell activation in cancer via novel cross-talk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proanthocyanidins-Will they effectively restrain conspicuous bacterial strains devolving on urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Venkataseshan; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2018-05-18

    Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies. It predominantly contains proanthocyanidins that belong to the class of polyphenols with repeating catechin and epicatechin monomeric units. Numerous studies have correlated proanthocyanidin consumption and prevention of bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Quorum sensing (QS) is the prime mechanism that drives bacteria to coordinate biofilm development and virulence expression. Reports have shown that proanthocyanidins are effective in disrupting cell-cell communication by quenching signal molecules. Overall, this review assesses the merits of proanthocyanidins and its effective oppression on adherence, motility, QS, and biofilm formation of major UTI strains such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis by comparing and evaluating results from many significant findings. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Restrained Proton Indicator in Combined Quantum-Mechanics/Molecular-Mechanics Dynamics Simulations of Proton Transfer through a Carbon Nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Adam W; Lin, Hai

    2017-09-14

    Recently, a collective variable "proton indicator" was purposed for tracking an excess proton solvated in bulk water in molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the position of this proton indicator as a reaction coordinate to model an excess proton migrating through a hydrophobic carbon nanotube in combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics simulations. Our results indicate that applying a harmonic restraint to the proton indicator in the bulk solvent near the nanotube pore entrance leads to the recruitment of water molecules into the pore. This is consistent with an earlier study that employed a multistate empirical valence bond potential and a different representation (center of excess charge) of the proton. We attribute this water recruitment to the delocalized nature of the solvated proton, which prefers to be in high-dielectric bulk solvent. While water recruitment into the pore is considered an artifact in the present simulations (because of the artificially imposed restraint on the proton), if the proton were naturally restrained, it could assist in building water wires prior to proton transfer through the pore. The potential of mean force for a proton translocation through the water-filled pore was computed by umbrella sampling, where the bias potentials were applied to the proton indicator. The free energy curve and barrier heights agree reasonably with those in the literature. The results suggest that the proton indicator can be used as a reaction coordinate in simulations of proton transport in confined environments.

  14. Parametric Assessment of Stress Development and Cracking in Internally Cured Restrained Mortars Experiencing Autogenous Deformations and Thermal Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Raoufi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model is used to examine how the properties of cementitious mortar are related to the stress development in the dual ring test. The results of this investigation are used to explain the thermal cracking behavior of mixtures containing prewetted lightweight aggregates (LWA by quantifying the contribution of several material properties individually. In addition to the beneficial effects of using the LWA as an internal curing agent to reduce the autogenous shrinkage of concrete, the LWA also helps to reduce the potential for thermal cracking due to a lower elastic modulus and increased stress relaxation. The rate of stress development, age of cracking, and magnitude of the temperature drop necessary to induce cracking in a dual ring specimen are dependent on a variety of factors, including the coefficient of thermal expansion of both the cementitious mortar and the restraining rings, elastic modulus of the mortar, creep effect of the mortar, and rate of thermal loading. Depending on the rate of cooling, cracking may or may not occur. The slowest rate of cooling (2.5∘C/h minimizes the effects of creep while cooling rates faster than 8∘C/h can produce a thermal gradient through the mortar cross-section that needs to be considered.

  15. Expression of executive control in situational context: Effects of facilitating versus restraining cues on snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter; Tran, Betty; Lowe, Cassandra; Vincent, Corita; Mourtzakis, Marina; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Prapavessis, Harry; Gidron, Yori

    2015-05-01

    To examine the effects of executive function (EF) on objectively measured high-calorie snack food consumption in 2 age groups and to explore the moderating influence of environmental cues. In Study 1, 43 older adults (M(age) = 74.81) and in Study 2, 79 younger adults (M(age) = 18.71) completed measures of EF and subsequently participated in a bogus taste-test paradigm wherein they were required to rate 3 highly appetitive (but high-calorie) snack foods on taste and texture. Grams of snack food consumed was measured covertly in the presence randomly assigned contextual cues (explicit semantic cues in Study 1; implicit visual cues in Study 2) that were facilitating or restraining in nature. Findings indicated that in both age groups, stronger EF predicted lower consumption of snack foods across conditions, and the effects of EF were most pronounced in the presence of facilitating cues. Older and younger adults with weaker EF tend to consume more high-calorie snack food compared with their stronger EF counterparts. These tendencies appear to be especially amplified in the presence of facilitating cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A method to restrain the charging effect on an insulating substrate in high energy electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyan, Yu; Shirui, Zhao; Yupeng, Jing; Yunbo, Shi; Baoqin, Chen

    2014-12-01

    Pattern distortions caused by the charging effect should be reduced while using the electron beam lithography process on an insulating substrate. We have developed a novel process by using the SX AR-PC 5000/90.1 solution as a spin-coated conductive layer, to help to fabricate nanoscale patterns of poly-methyl-methacrylate polymer resist on glass for phased array device application. This method can restrain the influence of the charging effect on the insulating substrate effectively. Experimental results show that the novel process can solve the problems of the distortion of resist patterns and electron beam main field stitching error, thus ensuring the accuracy of the stitching and overlay of the electron beam lithography system. The main characteristic of the novel process is that it is compatible to the multi-layer semiconductor process inside a clean room, and is a green process, quite simple, fast, and low cost. It can also provide a broad scope in the device development on insulating the substrate, such as high density biochips, flexible electronics and liquid crystal display screens.

  17. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  18. Comparison of Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes for Occupant Restrained without Belt Load Limiters and Those Restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN Belt Load Limiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret-Bruno, J Y; Trosseille, X; Page, Y; Huère, J F; Le Coz, J Y; Bendjellal, F; Diboine, A; Phalempin, T; Villeforceix, D; Baudrit, P; Guillemot, H; Coltat, J C

    2001-11-01

    In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties. In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have been equipped with the Programmed Restraint System (PRS) since 1995. The PRS is a restraint system that combines belt load limitation and pyrotechnic belt pretension. In an initial design of the Programmed Restraint System (PRS1), the belt load limiter was a steel component designed to shear at a given shoulder force, namely 6 kN. It was mounted between the retractor and the lower anchorage point of the belt. The design of the PRS was modified in 1998 (PRS2), but the principle of load limitation was maintained. The threshold was decreased to 4 kN and this lower belt belt-force limiter has been combined with a specially designed airbag. This paper reports on 347 real-world frontal accidents where the EES (Equivalent Energy Speed) ranged from 35 to 75 km/h. One hundred and ninety-eight (198) of these accidents involved cars equipped with the 6 kN load limiter

  19. Worry or craving? A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating.

  20. Inspiration or deflation? Feeling similar or dissimilar to slim and plus-size models affects self-evaluation of restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papies, Esther K; Nicolaije, Kim A H

    2012-01-01

    The present studies examined the effect of perceiving images of slim and plus-size models on restrained eaters' self-evaluation. While previous research has found that such images can lead to either inspiration or deflation, we argue that these inconsistencies can be explained by differences in perceived similarity with the presented model. The results of two studies (ns=52 and 99) confirmed this and revealed that restrained eaters with high (low) perceived similarity to the model showed more positive (negative) self-evaluations when they viewed a slim model, compared to a plus-size model. In addition, Study 2 showed that inducing in participants a similarities mindset led to more positive self-evaluations after viewing a slim compared to a plus-size model, but only among restrained eaters with a relatively high BMI. These results are discussed in the context of research on social comparison processes and with regard to interventions for protection against the possible detrimental effects of media images. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An effective simplified model of composite compression struts for partially-restrained steel frame with reinforced concrete infill walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohua; Chuang-Sheng, Walter Yang; Gu, Qiang; DesRoches, Reginald

    2018-04-01

    To resolve the issue regarding inaccurate prediction of the hysteretic behavior by micro-based numerical analysis for partially-restrained (PR) steel frames with solid reinforced concrete (RC) infill walls, an innovative simplified model of composite compression struts is proposed on the basis of experimental observation on the cracking distribution, load transferring mechanism, and failure modes of RC infill walls filled in PR steel frame. The proposed composite compression struts model for the solid RC infill walls is composed of α inclined struts and main diagonal struts. The α inclined struts are used to reflect the part of the lateral force resisted by shear connectors along the frame-wall interface, while the main diagonal struts are introduced to take into account the rest of the lateral force transferred along the diagonal direction due to the complicated interaction between the steel frame and RC infill walls. This study derives appropriate formulas for the effective widths of the α inclined strut and main diagonal strut, respectively. An example of PR steel frame with RC infill walls simulating simulated by the composite inclined compression struts model is illustrated. The maximum lateral strength and the hysteresis curve shape obtained from the proposed composite strut model are in good agreement with those from the test results, and the backbone curve of a PR steel frame with RC infill walls can be predicted precisely when the inter-story drift is within 1%. This simplified model can also predict the structural stiffness and the equivalent viscous damping ratio well when the inter-story drift ratio exceeds 0.5%.

  2. Sepsis and mechnaical ventilation restrain translation initiation in skeletal muscle by inducing AMPK-associated TSC[2] restriction of mTOR signaling in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In skeletal muscle, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor of AMP: ATP and modulates translation by repressing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Endotoxin (LPS)-induced sepsis reduces muscle protein synthesis by blunting translation initiation. We hypothe...

  3. A dark past, a restrained present, and an apocalyptic future: time perspective, personality, and life satisfaction among anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-09-01

    only the past positive and present hedonistic time dimensions predicted life satisfaction among patients. Conclusion Anorexia patients were less satisfied with life despite being more conscientious, social, and agreeable than controls. Moreover, compared to controls, patients had an unbalanced time perspective: a dark view of the past (i.e., high past negative, a restrained present (i.e., low present hedonistic and an apocalyptic view of the future (i.e., high present fatalistic. It is plausible to suggest that, therapeutic interventions should focus on empowering patients to cultivate a sentimental and positive view of the past (i.e., high past positive and the desire to experience pleasure without concern for future consequences (i.e., high present hedonistic so that they can make self-directed and flexible choices for their own well-being. Such interventions might have effects on life satisfaction beyond the patients’ temperamental disposition.

  4. A dark past, a restrained present, and an apocalyptic future: time perspective, personality, and life satisfaction among anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Granjard, Alexandre; Lundblad, Suzanna; Archer, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    time dimensions predicted life satisfaction among patients. Anorexia patients were less satisfied with life despite being more conscientious, social, and agreeable than controls. Moreover, compared to controls, patients had an unbalanced time perspective: a dark view of the past (i.e., high past negative), a restrained present (i.e., low present hedonistic) and an apocalyptic view of the future (i.e., high present fatalistic). It is plausible to suggest that, therapeutic interventions should focus on empowering patients to cultivate a sentimental and positive view of the past (i.e., high past positive) and the desire to experience pleasure without concern for future consequences (i.e., high present hedonistic) so that they can make self-directed and flexible choices for their own well-being. Such interventions might have effects on life satisfaction beyond the patients' temperamental disposition.

  5. ATP signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas......The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas...

  6. Rapid exhumation of Cretaceous arc-rocks along the Blue Mountains restraining bend of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, Jamaica, using thermochronometry from multiple closure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, William J.; Spotila, James A.; Prince, Philip S.; McAleer, Ryan J.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of rapid erosion on kinematic partitioning along transpressional plate margins is not well understood, particularly in highly erosive climates. The Blue Mountains restraining bend (BMRB) of eastern Jamaica, bound to the south by the left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF), offers an opportunity to test the effects of highly erosive climatic conditions on a 30-km-wide restraining bend system. No previous thermochronometric data exists in Jamaica to describe the spatial or temporal pattern of rock uplift and how oblique (> 20°) plate motion is partitioned into vertical strain. To define the exhumation history, we measured apatite (n = 10) and zircon (n = 6) (U-Th)/He ages, 40Ar/39Ar (n = 2; amphibole and K-spar) ages, and U/Pb zircon (n = 2) crystallization ages. Late Cretaceous U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages (74–68 Ma) indicate rapid cooling following shallow emplacement of plutons during north-south subduction along the Great Caribbean Arc. Early to middle Miocene zircon helium ages (19–14 Ma) along a vertical transect suggest exhumation and island emergence at ~ 0.2 mm/yr. Older zircon ages 10–15 km to the north (44–35 Ma) imply less rock uplift. Apatite helium ages are young (6–1 Ma) across the entire orogen, suggesting rapid exhumation of the BMRB since the late Miocene. These constraints are consistent with previous reports of restraining bend formation and early emergence of eastern Jamaica. An age-elevation relationship from a vertical transect implies an exhumation rate of 0.8 mm/yr, while calculated closure depths and thermal modeling suggests exhumation as rapid as 2 mm/yr. The rapid rock uplift rates in Jamaica are comparable to the most intense transpressive zones worldwide, despite the relatively slow (5–7 mm/yr) strike-slip rate. We hypothesize highly erosive conditions in Jamaica enable a higher fraction of plate motion to be accommodated by vertical deformation. Thus, strike-slip restraining bends may evolve differently

  7. The problem of the active material of a charge and the shattering effect of the explosive with restrained lateral dispersion of the blast products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markeev, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    The dependencies of the shattering effect on the active material and the width of the casing on an applied charge and the dependency of the active mass of the applied charge contained in the casing on its width are given. When there is restrained lateral dispersion of the blast products it is possible to perform a quantitave evaluation of the shattering effect of the blast from blast hole charges on cylindrical rock samples with a constant diameter, and to control the concentration of the blast energy by varying the height of the applied charge.

  8. Differences in gene expression profiles and signaling pathways in rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuanda; Hong, Quan; Yang, Jurong; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Gang; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei; Wu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a threatening syndrome because it causes the breakdown of skeletal muscle. Muscle destruction leads to the release of myoglobin, intracellular proteins, and electrolytes into the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in gene expression profiles and signaling pathways upon rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we used glycerol-induced renal injury as a model of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. We analyzed data and relevant information from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (No: GSE44925). The gene expression data for three untreated mice were compared to data for five mice with rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. The expression profiling of the three untreated mice and the five rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI mice was performed using microarray analysis. We examined the levels of Cyp3a13, Rela, Aldh7a1, Jun, CD14. And Cdkn1a using RT-PCR to determine the accuracy of the microarray results. The microarray analysis showed that there were 1050 downregulated and 659 upregulated genes in the rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI mice compared to the control group. The interactions of all differentially expressed genes in the Signal-Net were analyzed. Cyp3a13 and Rela had the most interactions with other genes. The data showed that Rela and Aldh7a1 were the key nodes and had important positions in the Signal-Net. The genes Jun, CD14, and Cdkn1a were also significantly upregulated. The pathway analysis classified the differentially expressed genes into 71 downregulated and 48 upregulated pathways including the PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. The results of this study indicate that the NF-κB, MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and apoptotic pathways are regulated in rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

  9. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Derivation of Reliable Geometries in QM Calculations of DNA Structures: Explicit Solvent QM/MM and Restrained Implicit Solvent QM Optimizations of G-Quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkionis, Konstantinos; Kruse, Holger; Šponer, Jiří

    2016-04-12

    Modern dispersion-corrected DFT methods have made it possible to perform reliable QM studies on complete nucleic acid (NA) building blocks having hundreds of atoms. Such calculations, although still limited to investigations of potential energy surfaces, enhance the portfolio of computational methods applicable to NAs and offer considerably more accurate intrinsic descriptions of NAs than standard MM. However, in practice such calculations are hampered by the use of implicit solvent environments and truncation of the systems. Conventional QM optimizations are spoiled by spurious intramolecular interactions and severe structural deformations. Here we compare two approaches designed to suppress such artifacts: partially restrained continuum solvent QM and explicit solvent QM/MM optimizations. We report geometry relaxations of a set of diverse double-quartet guanine quadruplex (GQ) DNA stems. Both methods provide neat structures without major artifacts. However, each one also has distinct weaknesses. In restrained optimizations, all errors in the target geometries (i.e., low-resolution X-ray and NMR structures) are transferred to the optimized geometries. In QM/MM, the initial solvent configuration causes some heterogeneity in the geometries. Nevertheless, both approaches represent a decisive step forward compared to conventional optimizations. We refine earlier computations that revealed sizable differences in the relative energies of GQ stems computed with AMBER MM and QM. We also explore the dependence of the QM/MM results on the applied computational protocol.

  11. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  12. Re-evaluating fault zone evolution, geometry, and slip rate along the restraining bend of the southern San Andreas Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blisniuk, K.; Fosdick, J. C.; Balco, G.; Stone, J. O.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents new multi-proxy data to provide an alternative interpretation of the late -to-mid Quaternary evolution, geometry, and slip rate of the southern San Andreas fault zone, comprising of the Garnet Hill, Banning, and Mission Creek fault strands, along its restraining bend near the San Bernardino Mountains and San Gorgonio Pass. Present geologic and geomorphic studies in the region indicate that as the Mission Creek and Banning faults diverge from one another in the southern Indio Hills, the Banning Fault Strand accommodates the majority of lateral displacement across the San Andreas Fault Zone. In this currently favored kinematic model of the southern San Andreas Fault Zone, slip along the Mission Creek Fault Strand decreases significantly northwestward toward the San Gorgonio Pass. Along this restraining bend, the Mission Creek Fault Strand is considered to be inactive since the late -to-mid Quaternary ( 500-150 kya) due to the transfer of plate boundary strain westward to the Banning and Garnet Hills Fault Strands, the Jacinto Fault Zone, and northeastward, to the Eastern California Shear Zone. Here, we present a revised geomorphic interpretation of fault displacement, initial 36Cl/10Be burial ages, sediment provenance data, and detrital geochronology from modern catchments and displaced Quaternary deposits that improve across-fault correlations. We hypothesize that continuous large-scale translation of this structure has occurred throughout its history into the present. Accordingly, the Mission Creek Fault Strand is active and likely a primary plate boundary fault at this latitude.

  13. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  14. STUDY ON ANTI-CRACKING PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METHOD OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CERAMSITE CONCRETE (SFRCC BASED ON PARTLY-RESTRAINED SHRINKAGE RING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi-fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study of crack resistance of steel fiber reinforced concrete in steel fiber on concrete deformation ability and prevent the Angle of the micro cracks, and the lack of overall evaluation on the performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete crack. By tinder barrier-free restrain some experimental research on steel fiber ceramsite concrete shrinkage ring crack resistance, and use the test results within the definition of steel ring strain from expansion to contraction cut-off age for early and late ages, and the ages of the cut-off point for the early and the late steel fiber ceramsite concrete anti-cracking performance evaluation. The results show that the anti-cracking properties of the steel fiber ceramic concrete are improved with the increase of steel fiber content.

  15. Three-dimensional structure of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor in solution. A study using nuclear magnetic resonance, distance geometry, and restrained molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clore, G.M.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Nilges, M.; Ryan, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The solution conformation of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (CPI) has been investigated by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The spectrum is assigned in a sequential manner by using two-dimensional NMR techniques to identify through-bond and through-space (<5 A) connectivities. A set of 309 approximate interproton distance restraints is derived from the two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra and used as the basis of a three-dimensional structure determination by a combination of metric matrix distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. A total of 11 converged distance geometry structures were computed and refined by using restrained molecular dynamics. The average atomic root mean square (rms) difference between the final 11 structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 1.4 +/- 0.3 A for residues 2-39 and 0.9 +/- 0.2 A for residues 5-37. The corresponding values for all atoms are 1.9 +/- 0.3 and 1.4 +/- 0.2 A, respectively. The computed structures are very close to the X-ray structure of CPI in its complex with carboxypeptidase, and the backbone atomic rms difference between the mean of the computed structures and the X-ray structure is only 1.2 A. Nevertheless, there are some real differences present which are evidenced by significant deviations between the experimental upper interproton distance limits and the corresponding interproton distances derived from the X-ray structure. These principally occur in two regions, residues 18-20 and residues 28-30, the latter comprising part of the region of secondary contact between CPI and carboxypeptidase in the X-ray structure

  16. Two-dimensional 1H and 31P NMR spectra and restrained molecular dynamics structure of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplex refined via a hybrid relaxation matrix procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, R.; Jones, C.R.; Gorenstein, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Assignment of the 1H and 31P resonances of a decamer DNA duplex, d(CGCTTAAGCG)2 was determined by two-dimensional COSY, NOESY and 1H-31P Pure Absorption phase Constant time (PAC) heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy. The solution structure of the decamer was calculated by an iterative hybrid relaxation matrix method combined with NOESY-distance restrained molecular dynamics. The distances from the 2D NOESY spectra were calculated from the relaxation rate matrix which were evaluated from a hybrid NOESY volume matrix comprising elements from the experiment and those calculated from an initial structure. The hybrid matrix-derived distances were then used in a restrained molecular dynamics procedure to obtain a new structure that better approximates the NOESY spectra. The resulting partially refined structure was then used to calculate an improved theoretical NOESY volume matrix which is once again merged with the experimental matrix until refinement is complete. JH3'-P coupling constants for each of the phosphates of the decamer were obtained from 1H-31P J-resolved selective proton flip 2D spectra. By using a modified Karplus relationship the C4'-C3'-O3'-P torsional angles were obtained. Comparison of the 31P chemical shifts and JH3'-P coupling constants of this sequence has allowed a greater insight into the various factors responsible for 31P chemical shift variations in oligonucleotides. It also provides an important probe of the sequence-dependent structural variation of the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of DNA in solution. These correlations are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in local helical structure perturb the deoxyribose phosphate backbone. The variation of the 31P chemical shift, and the degree of this variation from one base step to the next is proposed as a potential probe of local helical conformation within the DNA double helix

  17. Two-dimensional 1H and 31P NMR spectra and restrained molecular dynamics structure of an extrahelical adenosine tridecamer oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonowicz, E.; Roongta, V.; Jones, C.R.; Gorenstein, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    Assignment of the 1H and 31P NMR spectra of an extrahelical adenosine tridecamer oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplex, d(CGCAGAATTCGCG)2, has been made by two-dimensional 1H-1H and heteronuclear 31P-1H correlated spectroscopy. The downfield 31P resonance previously noted by Patel et al. (1982) has been assigned by both 17O labeling of the phosphate as well as a pure absorption phase constant-time heteronuclear 31P-1H correlated spectrum and has been associated with the phosphate on the 3' side of the extrahelical adenosine. JH3'-P coupling constants for each of the phosphates of the tridecamer were obtained from the 1H-31P J-resolved selective proton-flip 2D spectrum. By use of a modified Karplus relationship the C4-C3'-O3-P torsional angles (epsilon) were obtained. There exists a good linear correlation between 31P chemical shifts and the epsilon torsional angle. The 31P chemical shifts and epsilon torsional angles follow the general observation that the more internal the phosphate is located within the oligonucleotide sequence, the more upfield the 31P resonance occurs. Because the extrahelical adenosine significantly distorts the deoxyribose phosphate backbone conformation even several bases distant from the extrahelical adenosine, 31P chemical shifts show complex site- and sequence-specific variations. Modeling and NOESY distance-restrained energy minimization and restrained molecular dynamics suggest that the extrahelical adenosine stacks into the duplex. However, a minor conformation is also observed in the 1H NMR, which could be associated with a structure in which the extrahelical adenosine loops out into solution

  18. Rapid immune colloidal gold strip for cetacean meat restraining illegal trade and consumption: implications for conservation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chieh; Chin, Li-Te; Chu, Chi-Shih; Wang, Yu-Ting; Chan, Kun-Wei; Yang, Wei-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of cetacean meat is geographically common and often of undetermined sustainability. Besides, it can expose humans to contaminants and zoonotic pathogens. The illegality of possessing cetacean meat was likely under-reported in some countries due to lack of attention paid by the officials although DNA analysis of market products helped to show such practices. We developed two monoclonal antibodies against synthetic peptides of myoglobin (Mb) for constructing a rapid immune colloidal gold strip. Only cetacean Mb is capable of binding to both antibodies and presents positive signal while the Mb from other animals can bind only 1 of the antibodies and presents negative result. The strip for cetacean meat would be an applicable and cost-effective test for field inspectors and even the general public. It contributes to increase the reporting capacity and coverage of illegal cetacean meat possession, which has implications for global cetacean conservation and public health.

  19. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  20. SARM1 deletion restrains NAFLD induced by high fat diet (HFD) through reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen-Guo; An, Xu-Sheng

    2018-04-06

    SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice. Additionally, inflammatory response caused by HFD was alleviated by SARM1-deletion through inactivating TLR4/7/9 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Of note, SARM1-deletion also reduced the expressions of inflammation-associated molecules in hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, HFD administration led to oxidative stress in liver of mice, while being decreased in SARM1-KO mice. Moreover, SARM1-ablation improved lipid dyslipidemia by suppressing the mRNA levels of genes, linked to glycolysis, lipogenesis and transcriptional regulation. Insulin resistance was also attenuated by SARM1-deficiency through enhancing the activation of liver Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1)/FOXO1 pathways in HFD-fed mice. Also, SARM1-knockout improved neuropeptide Y (NPY), Pro-Opiomelanocortins (POMC), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP) and Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript 1 (CART1) expressions in hypothalamus of mice after HFD administration. In vitro, we found that the reduction of inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia induced by SARM1-knockout in primary hepatocytes after fructose stimulation was largely attributed to its suppression to TLR4/7/9. Together, the findings demonstrated that SARM1 might be an effective target for developing effective therapeutic strategies against NAFLD. Copyright © 2018

  1. Re-modulated technology of WDM-PON employing different DQPSK downstream signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Xin, Xiang-jun; Yu, Chong-xiu

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a kind of modulation architecture for wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDMPON) employing optical differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) downstream signals and two different modulation formats of re-modulated upstream signals. At the optical line terminal (OLT), 10 Gbit/s signal is modulated with DQPSK. At the optical network unit (ONU), part of the downstream signal is re-modulated with on-off keying (OOK) or inverse-return-to-zero (IRZ). Simulation results show the impact on the system employing NRZ, RZ and carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ). The analyses also reflect that the architecture can restrain chromatic dispersion and channel crosstalk, which makes it the best architecture of access network in the future.

  2. Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed asymmetric bistable system with mixed periodic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Feng, Guo; Wei, Xu; Liang, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker–Planck equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise intensity Q, multiplicative noise intensity D, static asymmetry r and delay time τ on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the static asymmetry r can restrain stochastic resonance, and the delay time τ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the longer the delay time τ is, the larger the additive noise intensity Q and the multiplicative noise intensity D are, when the stochastic resonance appears. (general)

  3. Integrin Signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Schelfaut, Roselien

    2005-01-01

    Integrins are receptors presented on most cells. By binding ligand they can generate signalling pathways inside the cell. Those pathways are a linkage to proteins in the cytosol. It is known that tumor cells can survive and proliferate in the absence of a solid support while normal cells need to be bound to ligand. To understand why tumour cells act that way, we first have to know how ligand-binding to integrins affect the cell. This research field includes studies on activation of proteins b...

  4. IL-10 Production Is Critical for Sustaining the Expansion of CD5+ B and NKT Cells and Restraining Autoantibody Production in Congenic Lupus-Prone Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Baglaenko

    Full Text Available The development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus is mediated by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. To decipher the genetics that contribute to pathogenesis and the production of pathogenic autoantibodies, our lab has focused on the generation of congenic lupus-prone mice derived from the New Zealand Black (NZB strain. Previous work has shown that an NZB-derived chromosome 4 interval spanning 32 to 151 Mb led to expansion of CD5+ B and Natural Killer T (NKT cells, and could suppress autoimmunity when crossed with a lupus-prone mouse strain. Subsequently, it was shown that CD5+ B cells but not NKT cells derived from these mice could suppress the development of pro-inflammatory T cells. In this paper, we aimed to further resolve the genetics that leads to expansion of these two innate-like populations through the creation of additional sub-congenic mice and to characterize the role of IL-10 in the suppression of autoimmunity through the generation of IL-10 knockout mice. We show that expansion of CD5+ B cells and NKT cells localizes to a chromosome 4 interval spanning 91 to 123 Mb, which is distinct from the region that mediates the majority of the suppressive phenotype. We also demonstrate that IL-10 is critical to restraining autoantibody production and surprisingly plays a vital role in supporting the expansion of innate-like populations.

  5. IL-10 Production Is Critical for Sustaining the Expansion of CD5+ B and NKT Cells and Restraining Autoantibody Production in Congenic Lupus-Prone Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglaenko, Yuriy; Manion, Kieran P; Chang, Nan-Hua; Gracey, Eric; Loh, Christina; Wither, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus is mediated by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. To decipher the genetics that contribute to pathogenesis and the production of pathogenic autoantibodies, our lab has focused on the generation of congenic lupus-prone mice derived from the New Zealand Black (NZB) strain. Previous work has shown that an NZB-derived chromosome 4 interval spanning 32 to 151 Mb led to expansion of CD5+ B and Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, and could suppress autoimmunity when crossed with a lupus-prone mouse strain. Subsequently, it was shown that CD5+ B cells but not NKT cells derived from these mice could suppress the development of pro-inflammatory T cells. In this paper, we aimed to further resolve the genetics that leads to expansion of these two innate-like populations through the creation of additional sub-congenic mice and to characterize the role of IL-10 in the suppression of autoimmunity through the generation of IL-10 knockout mice. We show that expansion of CD5+ B cells and NKT cells localizes to a chromosome 4 interval spanning 91 to 123 Mb, which is distinct from the region that mediates the majority of the suppressive phenotype. We also demonstrate that IL-10 is critical to restraining autoantibody production and surprisingly plays a vital role in supporting the expansion of innate-like populations.

  6. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  7. Pilot Study for Investigating the Cyclic Behavior of Slit Damper Systems with Recentering Shape Memory Alloy (SMA Bending Bars Used for Seismic Restrainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwon Seo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the steel slit dampers commonly utilized for aseismic design approach can dissipate considerable energy created by the yielding of base materials, large residual deformation may happen in the entire frame structure. After strong external excitation, repair costs will be incurred in restoring a structure to its original condition and to replace broken components. For this reason, alternative recentering devices characterized by smart structures, which mitigate the damage for such steel energy dissipation slit dampers, are developed in this study. These devices, feasibly functioning as seismic restrainers, can be improved by implementing superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA bending bars in a parallel motion with the steel energy-dissipating damper. The bending bars fabricated with superelastic SMAs provide self-centering forces upon unloading, and accordingly contribute to reducing permanent deformation in the integrated slit damper system. The steel slit dampers combined with the superelastic SMA bending bars are evaluated with respect to inelastic behavior as simulated by refined finite element (FE analyses. The FE slit damper models subjected to cyclic loads are calibrated to existing test results in an effort to predict behavior accurately. The responses of the proposed slit damper systems are compared to those of the conventionally used slit damper systems. From the analysis results, it is concluded that innovative steel slit dampers combined with superelastic SMA bending bars generate remarkable performance improvements in terms of post-yield strength, energy dissipation, and recentering capability.

  8. Treating the untreated: applying a community-based, culturally sensitive psychiatric intervention to confined and physically restrained mentally ill individuals in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Luh Ketut; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2011-11-01

    This study identified, mapped and treated the clinical features of mentally ill people, who had been isolated and restrained by family and community members as a result of a functional failure of the traditional medical, hospital-based mental health model currently practiced in Indonesia. A 10-month epidemiological population survey was carried out in Karangasem regency of Bali, Indonesia. A total of 404,591 individuals were clinically interviewed, of which 895 individuals with mental health problems were identified, with 23 satisfying criteria of physical restraint and confinement. Of the latter, twenty were males; age range was 19-69 years, all diagnosed by the researchers with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (ICD-10 diagnostic criteria). Duration of restraint ranged from 3 months to 30 years (mean = 8.1 years, SD = 8.3 years). Through the application of a holistic intervention model, all patients exhibited a remarkable recovery within 19 months of treatment. We conclude that the development of a community-based, culturally sensitive and respectful mental health model can serve as an optimum promoter of positive mental health outcomes.

  9. Acute Smc5/6 depletion reveals its primary role in rDNA replication by restraining recombination at fork pausing sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao P Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smc5/6, a member of the conserved SMC family of complexes, is essential for growth in most organisms. Its exact functions in a mitotic cell cycle are controversial, as chronic Smc5/6 loss-of-function alleles produce varying phenotypes. To circumvent this issue, we acutely depleted Smc5/6 in budding yeast and determined the first cell cycle consequences of Smc5/6 removal. We found a striking primary defect in replication of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA array. Each rDNA repeat contains a programmed replication fork barrier (RFB established by the Fob1 protein. Fob1 removal improves rDNA replication in Smc5/6 depleted cells, implicating Smc5/6 in the management of programmed fork pausing. A similar improvement is achieved by removing the DNA helicase Mph1 whose recombinogenic activity can be inhibited by Smc5/6 under DNA damage conditions. DNA 2D gel analyses further show that Smc5/6 loss increases recombination structures at RFB regions; moreover, mph1∆ and fob1∆ similarly reduce this accumulation. These findings point to an important mitotic role for Smc5/6 in restraining recombination events when protein barriers in rDNA stall replication forks. As rDNA maintenance influences multiple essential cellular processes, Smc5/6 likely links rDNA stability to overall mitotic growth.

  10. Interference and protection of electromagnetic pulse to digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Jiao Hongling; He Shanhong; Pan Chao; Feng Deren; Che Wenquan; Xiong Ying

    2013-01-01

    The effective electromagnetic pulse protection is studied in this paper, first the interference of electromagnetic pulse simulator path is analyzed, including the digital signal processor (DSP) and the discharge circuit of coupling interference and net electricity coupling interference. Using the structure optimization design, the hardware block reinforcement measurement and the setting of open software trap, and the watchdog anti-jamming measures, the interference test is completed such as the central processor core voltage of DSP, input/output (I/O) ports of DSP and the display screen. The experimental results show that the combination of hardware and software protection reinforcement technology is effective, and the interference pulse amplitude of DSP board I/O port and the kernel work voltage are reduced, and the interference duration is reduced from 2 μs to 400 ns. The interference pulse is effectively restrained. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of kinematics and injuries to restrained occupants in far-side crashes using full-scale vehicle and human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Umale, Sagar; Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Hadagali, Prasanaah; Pintar, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to perform a parametric study with different impact objects, impact locations, and impact speeds by analyzing occupant kinematics and injury estimations using a whole-vehicle and whole-body finite element-human body model (FE-HBM). To confirm the HBM responses, the biofidelity of the model was validated using data from postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests. The biofidelity of the model was validated using data from sled experiments and correlational analysis (CORA). Full-scale simulations were performed using a restrained Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) model seated on a 2001 Ford Taurus model using a far-side lateral impact condition. The driver seat was placed in the center position to represent a nominal initial impact condition. A 3-point seat belt with pretensioner and retractor was used to restrain the GHBMC model. A parametric study was performed using 12 simulations by varying impact locations, impacting object, and impact speed using the full-scale models. In all 12 simulations, the principal direction of force (PDOF) was selected as 90°. The impacting objects were a 10-in.-diameter rigid vertical pole and a movable deformable barrier. The impact location of the pole was at the C-pillar in the first case, at the B-pillar in the second case, and, finally, at the A-pillar in the third case. The vehicle and the GHBMC models were defined an initial velocity of 35 km/h (high speed) and 15 km/h (low speed). Excursion of the head center of gravity (CG), T6, and pelvis were measured from the simulations. In addition, injury risk estimations were performed on head, rib cage, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and pelvis. The average CORA rating was 0.7. The shoulder belt slipped in B- and C-pillar impacts but somewhat engaged in the A-pillar case. In the B-pillar case, the head contacted the intruding struck-side structures, indicating higher risk of injury. Occupant kinematics depended on interaction with

  12. Interferon Regulator Factor 8 (IRF8 Limits Ocular Pathology during HSV-1 Infection by Restraining the Activation and Expansion of CD8+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun

    Full Text Available Interferon Regulatory Factor-8 (IRF8 is constitutively expressed in monocytes and B cell lineages and plays important roles in immunity to pathogens and cancer. Although IRF8 expression is induced in activated T cells, the functional relevance of IRF8 in T cell-mediated immunity is not well understood. In this study, we used mice with targeted deletion of Irf8 in T-cells (IRF8KO to investigate the role of IRF8 in T cell-mediated responses during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 infection of the eye. In contrast to wild type mice, HSV-1-infected IRF8KO mice mounted a more robust anti-HSV-1 immune response, which included marked expansion of HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cells, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells into the cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG and enhanced elimination of virus within the trigeminal ganglion. However, the consequence of the enhanced immunological response was the development of ocular inflammation, limbitis, and neutrophilic infiltration into the cornea of HSV-1-infected IRF8KO mice. Surprisingly, we observed a marked increase in virus-specific memory precursor effector cells (MPEC in IRF8KO mice, suggesting that IRF8 might play a role in regulating the differentiation of effector CD8+ T cells to the memory phenotype. Together, our data suggest that IRF8 might play a role in restraining excess lymphocyte proliferation. Thus, modulating IRF8 levels in T cells can be exploited therapeutically to prevent immune-mediated ocular pathology during autoimmune and infectious diseases of the eye.

  13. Restrained shrinkage of masonry walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Rots, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    State of the art computational rnechanics, in combination with experimental programmes have a lot to offer in providing insight, characterization of total behaviour and predictive ability of structural masonry. Here numerical research towards rationalizing masonry wall movement joint positioning and

  14. [Cognitive aging mechanism of signaling effects on the memory for procedural sentences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Shimada, Hideaki

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the cognitive aging mechanism of signaling effects on the memory for procedural sentences. Participants were 60 younger adults (college students) and 60 older adults. Both age groups were assigned into two groups; half of each group was presented with procedural sentences with signals that highlighted their top-level structure and the other half with procedural sentences without them. Both groups were requested to perform the sentence arrangement task and the reconstruction task. Each task was composed of procedural sentences with or without signals. Results indicated that signaling supported changes in strategy utilization during the successive organizational processes and that changes in strategy utilization resulting from signaling improved the memory for procedural sentences. Moreover, age-related factors interfered with these signaling effects. This study clarified the cognitive aging mechanism of signaling effects in which signaling supports changes in the strategy utilization during organizational processes at encoding and this mediation promotes memory for procedural sentences, though disuse of the strategy utilization due to aging restrains their memory for procedural sentences.

  15. The TRPA1 ion channel is expressed in CD4+ T cells and restrains T-cell-mediated colitis through inhibition of TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Samuel; Aoki-Nonaka, Yukari; Lee, Jihyung; de Jong, Petrus R; Kim, Peter; Han, Tiffany; Yu, Timothy; To, Keith; Takahashi, Naoki; Boland, Brigid S; Chang, John T; Ho, Samuel B; Herdman, Scott; Corr, Maripat; Franco, Alessandra; Sharma, Sonia; Dong, Hui; Akopian, Armen N; Raz, Eyal

    2017-09-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) are calcium (Ca 2+ )-permeable ion channels mostly known as pain receptors in sensory neurons. However, growing evidence suggests their crucial involvement in the pathogenesis of IBD. We explored the possible contribution of TRPA1 and TRPV1 to T-cell-mediated colitis. We evaluated the role of Trpa1 gene deletion in two models of experimental colitis (ie, interleukin-10 knockout and T-cell-adoptive transfer models). We performed electrophysiological and Ca 2+ imaging studies to analyse TRPA1 and TRPV1 functions in CD4+ T cells. We used genetic and pharmacological approaches to evaluate TRPV1 contribution to the phenotype of Trpa1 -/- CD4+ T cells. We also analysed TRPA1 and TRPV1 gene expression and TRPA1 + TRPV1 + T cell infiltration in colonic biopsies from patients with IBD. We identified a protective role for TRPA1 in T-cell-mediated colitis. We demonstrated the functional expression of TRPA1 on the plasma membrane of CD4+ T cells and identified that Trpa1 -/- CD4+ T cells have increased T-cell receptor-induced Ca 2+ influx, activation profile and differentiation into Th1-effector cells. This phenotype was abrogated upon genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of the TRPV1 channel in mouse and human CD4+ T cells. Finally, we found differential regulation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 gene expression as well as increased infiltration of TRPA1 + TRPV1 + T cells in the colon of patients with IBD. Our study indicates that TRPA1 inhibits TRPV1 channel activity in CD4+ T cells, and consequently restrains CD4+ T-cell activation and colitogenic responses. These findings may therefore have therapeutic implications for human IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass and without interruption of native coronary flow using a novel anastomosis site restraining device ("Octopus").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, C; Jansen, E W; Tulleken, C A; Gründeman, P F; Mansvelt Beck, H J; van Dongen, J W; Hodde, K C; Bredée, J J

    1996-05-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of coronary artery bypass grafting on the beating heart without interruption of native coronary blood flow using a novel anastomosis site restraining device. Recently, an end-to-side bypass technique was described that does not require interruption of flow in the recipient artery. By means of a suction device ("Octopus"), in 31 pigs the epicardium was grasped and immobilized through an arm contraption fixed to the operating table. In the first 15 consecutive pigs (study I), the two-dimensional motion of an epicardial beacon was monitored. In 16 subsequent pigs (study II), an internal mammary artery was grafted under the microscope in two steps to a proximal coronary artery segment, without cardiopulmonary bypass. First, the internal mammary artery was sutured end-to-side to the outside of the coronary artery. Secondly, an orifice was punched in the partitioning coronary wall by an excimer laser catheter introduced through a temporary side-branch of the internal mammary artery. Study II: During 43 suction periods in four anastomosis areas, immobilization was achieved for 15 to 169 min (>30 h in total) in 13 open- and 9 closed-chest procedures without hemodynamic deterioration. The area circumscribed by the edges of the beacon trajectory (area in which the anastomosis is to be tracked) was reduced from 73.0 +/- 43.0 mm(2) (mean +/- SD) to 1.3 +/- 0.5 mm(2) (p<0.001) in the open-chest and to 0.2 +/- 0.2 mm(2) in the closed-chest procedure. At 6 weeks, no myocardial or coronary suction lesions were found. Study II: Nonocclusive anastomosis surgery required 25 +/- 3 min. No leakage, serious arrhythmias, graft closure or hemodynamic deterioration occurred during the procedure or for 2 h after ligating the coronary artery proximally. At 6 weeks, all seven grafts were patent. Coronary bypass on the beating heart without interruption of coronary flow is feasible. In both open- and in closed-chest procedures, the "Octopus" reduced

  17. Activation of inflammatory signaling by lipopolysaccharide produces a prolonged increase of voluntary alcohol intake in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y.A.; Benavidez, J.M.; Geil, C.; Perra, S.; Morikawa, H.; Harris, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that mice with genetic predisposition for high alcohol consumption as well as human alcoholics show changes in brain expression of genes related to immune signaling. In addition, mutant mice lacking genes related to immune function show decreased alcohol consumption (Blednov et al., in press), suggesting that immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption. To test the possibility that activation of immune signaling will increase alcohol consumption, we treated mice with lipopolysaccaride (LPS; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and tested alcohol consumption in the continuous two-bottle choice test. To take advantage of the long-lasting activation of brain immune signaling by LPS, we measured drinking beginning one week or one month after LPS treatment and continued the studies for several months. LPS produced persistent increases in alcohol consumption in C57/Bl6 J (B6) inbred mice, FVBxB6F1 and B6xNZBF1 hybrid mice, but not in FVB inbred mice. To determine if this effect of LPS is mediated through binding to TLR4, we tested mice lacking CD14, a key component of TLR4 signaling. These null mutants showed no increase of alcohol intake after treatment with LPS. LPS treatment decreased ethanol-conditioned taste aversion but did not alter ethanol-conditioned place preference (B6xNZBF1 mice). Electro-physiological studies of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area showed that pretreatment of mice with LPS decreased the neuronal firing rate. These results suggest that activation of immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption and alters certain aspects of alcohol reward/aversion. PMID:21266194

  18. Maternal mental health symptoms are positively related to emotional and restrained eating attitudes in a statewide sample of mothers participating in a supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jillian A; Hurley, Kristen M; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum, low-income mothers are at risk for mental health symptoms and obesity, and disordered eating attitudes may be associated with both mental health and obesity in this vulnerable population. The study objective is to determine whether higher levels of mental health symptoms are associated with increased odds of emotional and restrained eating attitudes in this sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Data on 711 mothers of infants Maternal mental health symptoms were measured on continuous scales for depression (PRIME-MD), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Emotional and restrained eating attitudes were measured with questions adapted from the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] was explored as a moderating variable. Mothers reporting higher levels of depression symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93, 95%CI: 2.71-5.69], anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.47-2.65), stress symptoms (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.67-2.61) and high overall mental health symptomatology (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.43-5.3) had increased odds of emotional eating attitudes. There were significant associations between symptoms of depression (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12-2.25) and increased odds of restrained eating attitudes. Obesity did not moderate the association. Mothers with mental health symptoms are at risk for disordered eating attitudes, which may increase risk of poor diet. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on addressing maternal mental health status and eating attitudes in the postpartum period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  20. Dectin-1 Regulates Hepatic Fibrosis and Hepatocarcinogenesis by Suppressing TLR4 Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Seifert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin receptor critical in anti-fungal immunity, but Dectin-1 has not been linked to regulation of sterile inflammation or oncogenesis. We found that Dectin-1 expression is upregulated in hepatic fibrosis and liver cancer. However, Dectin-1 deletion exacerbates liver fibro-inflammatory disease and accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis. Mechanistically, we found that Dectin-1 protects against chronic liver disease by suppressing TLR4 signaling in hepatic inflammatory and stellate cells. Accordingly, Dectin-1–/– mice exhibited augmented cytokine production and reduced survival in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-mediated sepsis, whereas Dectin-1 activation was protective. We showed that Dectin-1 inhibits TLR4 signaling by mitigating TLR4 and CD14 expression, which are regulated by Dectin-1-dependent macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF expression. Our study suggests that Dectin-1 is an attractive target for experimental therapeutics in hepatic fibrosis and neoplastic transformation. More broadly, our work deciphers critical cross-talk between pattern recognition receptors and implicates a role for Dectin-1 in suppression of sterile inflammation, inflammation-induced oncogenesis, and LPS-mediated sepsis.

  1. Dectin-1 Regulates Hepatic Fibrosis and Hepatocarcinogenesis by Suppressing TLR4 Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Lena; Deutsch, Michael; Alothman, Sara; Alqunaibit, Dalia; Werba, Gregor; Pansari, Mridul; Pergamo, Matthew; Ochi, Atsuo; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Levie, Elliot; Tippens, Daniel; Greco, Stephanie H; Tiwari, Shaun; Ly, Nancy Ngoc Giao; Eisenthal, Andrew; van Heerden, Eliza; Avanzi, Antonina; Barilla, Rocky; Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Rendon, Mauricio; Daley, Donnele; Pachter, H Leon; Hajdu, Cristina; Miller, George

    2015-12-01

    Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin receptor critical in anti-fungal immunity, but Dectin-1 has not been linked to regulation of sterile inflammation or oncogenesis. We found that Dectin-1 expression is upregulated in hepatic fibrosis and liver cancer. However, Dectin-1 deletion exacerbates liver fibro-inflammatory disease and accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis. Mechanistically, we found that Dectin-1 protects against chronic liver disease by suppressing TLR4 signaling in hepatic inflammatory and stellate cells. Accordingly, Dectin-1(-/-) mice exhibited augmented cytokine production and reduced survival in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated sepsis, whereas Dectin-1 activation was protective. We showed that Dectin-1 inhibits TLR4 signaling by mitigating TLR4 and CD14 expression, which are regulated by Dectin-1-dependent macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) expression. Our study suggests that Dectin-1 is an attractive target for experimental therapeutics in hepatic fibrosis and neoplastic transformation. More broadly, our work deciphers critical cross-talk between pattern recognition receptors and implicates a role for Dectin-1 in suppression of sterile inflammation, inflammation-induced oncogenesis, and LPS-mediated sepsis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Elucidation of the sequence selective binding mode of the DNA minor groove binder adozelesin, by high-field 1H NMR and restrained molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, L.

    1999-01-01

    Adozelesin (formerly U73-975, The Upjohn Co.) is a covalent, minor-groove binding analogue of the antitumour antibiotic (+)CC-1065. Adozelesin consists of a cyclopropapyrroloindole alkylating sub-unit identical to (+)CC-1065, plus indole and benzofuran sub-units which replace the more complex pyrroloindole B and C sub-units, respectively, of (+)CC-1065. Adozelesin is a clinically important drug candidate, since it does not contain the ethylene bridge moieties on the B and C sub-units which are thought to be responsible for the unusual delayed hepatotoxicity exhibited by (+)CC-1065. Sequencing techniques identified two consensus sequences for adozelesin binding as p(dA) and 5'(T/A)(T/A)T-A*(C/G)G. This suggests that adozelesin spans a total of five base-pairs and shows a preference for A=T base-pair rich sequences, thus avoiding steric crowding around the exocyclic NH 2 of guanine and a wide minor groove. In this project, the covalent modification of two DNA sequences, i.e. 5'd(CGTAAGCGCTTA*CG) 2 and 5'-d(CGAAAAA*CGG)· 5'-d(CCGTTTTTCG), by adozelesin was examined by high-field NMR and restrained molecular mechanics and dynamics. Previous studies of minor groove binding drugs, using techniques as diverse as NMR, X-ray crystallography and molecular modelling, indicate that the incorporation of a guanine into the consensus sequence sterically hinders binding and, more importantly, produces a wider minor groove which is a 'slack' fit for the ligand. The aim of this investigation was to provide an insight into the sequence selective binding of adozelesin to 5'-AAAAA*CG and 5'-GCTTA*CG. The 1 H NMR data revealed that, in both cases, β-helical structure and Watson-Crick base-pairing was maintained on adduct formation. The 5'-GCTTA*CG adduct displayed significant distortion of the guanine base on the non-covalently modified strand. This distortion resulted from an amalgamation of two factors. Firstly, the presence of a strong hydrogen-bond between the amide linker of the

  3. LPS-Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Signaling on Expression of Protein S and C4b-Binding Protein in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein S (PS, mainly synthesized in hepatocytes and endothelial cells, plays a critical role as a cofactor of anticoagulant activated protein C (APC. PS activity is regulated by C4b-binding protein (C4BP, structurally composed of seven α-chains (C4BPα and a β-chain (C4BPβ. In this paper, based primarily on our previous studies, we review the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced signaling which affects expression of PS and C4BP in the liver. Our in vivo studies in rats showed that after LPS injection, plasma PS levels are significantly decreased, whereas plasma C4BP levels first are transiently decreased after 2 to 12 hours and then significantly increased after 24 hours. LPS decreases PS antigen and mRNA levels in both hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs, and decreases C4BP antigen and both C4BPα and C4BPβ mRNA levels in hepatocytes. Antirat CD14 and antirat Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 antibodies inhibited LPS-induced NFκB activation in both hepatocytes and SECs. Furthermore, inhibitors of NFκB and MEK recovered the LPS-induced decreased expression of PS in both cell types and the LPS-induced decreased expression of C4BP in hepatocytes. These data suggest that the LPS-induced decrease in PS expression in hepatocytes and SECs and LPS-induced decrease in C4BP expression in hepatocytes are mediated by MEK/ERK signaling and NFκB activation and that membrane-bound CD14 and TLR-4 are involved in this mechanism.

  4. Retroactive signaling in short signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Alexandre Sepulchre

    Full Text Available In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles.

  5. Cell proliferation control by Notch signalling during imaginal discs development in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signalling pathway is evolutionary conserved and participates in numerous developmental processes, including the control of cell proliferation. However, Notch signalling can promote or restrain cell division depending on the developmental context, as has been observed in human cancer where Notch can function as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene. Thus, the outcome of Notch signalling can be influenced by the cross-talk between Notch and other signalling pathways. The use of model organisms such as Drosophila has been proven to be very valuable to understand the developmental role of the Notch pathway in different tissues and its relationship with other signalling pathways during cell proliferation control. Here we review recent studies in Drosophila that shed light in the developmental control of cell proliferation by the Notch pathway in different contexts such as the eye, wing and leg imaginal discs. We also discuss the autonomous and non-autonomous effects of the Notch pathway on cell proliferation and its interactions with different signalling pathways.

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Signaling Is Inhibited by the TLR4 Antagonists Rhodobacter sphaeroides Lipopolysaccharide and Eritoran (E5564) and Requires Direct Interaction with MD-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Phillips, Rachel L.; Boukhvalova, Marina S.; Pletneva, Lioubov M.; Shirey, Kari Ann; Gioannini, Theresa L.; Weiss, Jerrold P.; Chow, Jesse C.; Hawkins, Lynn D.; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Blanco, Jorge C. G.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a signaling receptor for structurally diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns, is activated by the RSV fusion (F) protein and by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a CD14-dependent manner. TLR4 signaling by LPS also requires the presence of an additional protein, MD-2. Thus, it is possible that F protein-mediated TLR4 activation relies on MD-2 as well, although this hypothesis has not been formally tested. LPS-free RSV F protein was found to activate NF-κB in HEK293T transfectants that express wild-type (WT) TLR4 and CD14, but only when MD-2 was coexpressed. These findings were confirmed by measuring F-protein-induced interleukin 1β (IL-1β) mRNA in WT versus MD-2−/− macrophages, where MD-2−/− macrophages failed to show IL-1β expression upon F-protein treatment, in contrast to the WT. Both Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS and synthetic E5564 (eritoran), LPS antagonists that inhibit TLR4 signaling by binding a hydrophobic pocket in MD-2, significantly reduced RSV F-protein-mediated TLR4 activity in HEK293T-TLR4–CD14–MD-2 transfectants in a dose-dependent manner, while TLR4-independent NF-κB activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was unaffected. In vitro coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed a physical interaction between native RSV F protein and MD-2. Further, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain of the F1 segment of RSV F protein interacts with MD-2. These data provide new insights into the importance of MD-2 in RSV F-protein-mediated TLR4 activation. Thus, targeting the interaction between MD-2 and RSV F protein may potentially lead to novel therapeutic approaches to help control RSV-induced inflammation and pathology. PMID:22872782

  7. Price signals and investment incentives in wholesale electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilopoulos, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    We look at how prices from energy-only power markets can send the right signals and give the correct incentives for investments in production capacity. Through numerical simulations of spot prices over 2003-2005 we compare the investment signal sent by observed electricity prices in France and what would be competitive prices with an optimal mix and with the installed capacity. Observed prices tend to overestimate profitability for the base-load, making the signal too strong and underestimate profitability for the peak load, making the signal too weak. However, as a large share of consumers is still paying regulated tariffs, scarcity rents are capped. We simulate future prices for France for 2010 to 2020 to understand the incentives to invest. When the entry is free, the incentives to invest given by the future prices are consistent with the optimal mix including the interconnections and nuclear build is strong. With political or regulatory barriers to the construction of new power plants for new entrants (i.e. finding new sites), there are no incentives for the incumbent (that owns all existing base-load and peak load capacity) to add more nuclear capacity. In this situation, new entry would have to be coal or gas except if units are bid strategically to maintain profitability and market share. Moreover, it can also be profitable to limit prices and restrain entry in order to receive higher future revenues. When the base-load is less concentrated and instead of a dominant firm the nuclear capacity is divided into five (equal share) firms, the incentives to invest reappear and the threat of entry becomes more credible. (author) [fr

  8. Signal sciences workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-01

    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing.

  9. Signal sciences workshop. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-01-01

    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing

  10. ECG signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A system extracts an ECG signal from a composite signal (308) representing an electric measurement of a living subject. Identification means (304) identify a plurality of temporal segments (309) of the composite signal corresponding to a plurality of predetermined segments (202,204,206) of an ECG

  11. Optimal Signal Quality Index for Photoplethysmogram Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A photoplethysmogram (PPG is a noninvasive circulatory signal related to the pulsatile volume of blood in tissue and is typically collected by pulse oximeters. PPG signals collected via mobile devices are prone to artifacts that negatively impact measurement accuracy, which can lead to a significant number of misleading diagnoses. Given the rapidly increased use of mobile devices to collect PPG signals, developing an optimal signal quality index (SQI is essential to classify the signal quality from these devices. Eight SQIs were developed and tested based on: perfusion, kurtosis, skewness, relative power, non-stationarity, zero crossing, entropy, and the matching of systolic wave detectors. Two independent annotators annotated all PPG data (106 recordings, 60 s each and a third expert conducted the adjudication of differences. The independent annotators labeled each PPG signal with one of the following labels: excellent, acceptable or unfit for diagnosis. All indices were compared using Mahalanobis distance, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, and support vector machine with leave-one-out cross-validation. The skewness index outperformed the other seven indices in differentiating between excellent PPG and acceptable, acceptable combined with unfit, and unfit recordings, with overall F 1 scores of 86.0%, 87.2%, and 79.1%, respectively.

  12. Optimal Signal Quality Index for Photoplethysmogram Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendi, Mohamed

    2016-09-22

    A photoplethysmogram (PPG) is a noninvasive circulatory signal related to the pulsatile volume of blood in tissue and is typically collected by pulse oximeters. PPG signals collected via mobile devices are prone to artifacts that negatively impact measurement accuracy, which can lead to a significant number of misleading diagnoses. Given the rapidly increased use of mobile devices to collect PPG signals, developing an optimal signal quality index (SQI) is essential to classify the signal quality from these devices. Eight SQIs were developed and tested based on: perfusion, kurtosis, skewness, relative power, non-stationarity, zero crossing, entropy, and the matching of systolic wave detectors. Two independent annotators annotated all PPG data (106 recordings, 60 s each) and a third expert conducted the adjudication of differences. The independent annotators labeled each PPG signal with one of the following labels: excellent, acceptable or unfit for diagnosis. All indices were compared using Mahalanobis distance, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, and support vector machine with leave-one-out cross-validation. The skewness index outperformed the other seven indices in differentiating between excellent PPG and acceptable, acceptable combined with unfit, and unfit recordings, with overall F 1 scores of 86.0%, 87.2%, and 79.1%, respectively.

  13. Eficácia do sistema de contenção (automatizado e mecânico no atordoamento de bovinos Effectiveness of the restraining system (automated and mechanical in the cattle stunning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bertoloni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 800 bovinos machos (nelore/anelorados, com idade entre 28 e 36 meses, foi atordoado com pistola pneumática, com pressão de operação de 11 a 12bar e haste de penetração de 15.9mm de diâmetro, em sistemas de contenção diferentes (mecânico e atomatizado. O box de contenção mecânico tradicional (2,53x0,88x2,20m não permitiu a contenção da cabeça do animal; no segundo tratamento utilizou-se box de contenção automatizado (2,60x0,85x2,30m, com parede lateral e piso móveis, guilhotina e elevador de cabeça. O box automatizado proporcionou menor número de disparos necessários para o atordoamento (1,0625±0,013 em comparação ao mecânico(1,2025±0,026, (P≤0,0001, reduziu a distância em relação ao ponto ideal no primeiro disparo (1,246±0,918 e 2,357±1,246 e no segundo (3,042±0,141 e 4,016±0,101, (P 0,0001, assim como proporcionou ausência de reflexo respiratório comparativamente ao sistema mecânico (0,0275±0,008, (P≤0,001. O box automatizado apresentou maior bem-estar e maior eficácia na contenção e insensibilização dos bovinosA total of 800 male cattle (Nelore, aged 28-36 months, stunned by pneumatic captive bolt pistol (operating pressure 160-175psi 11-12bar , air consumption (per cycle 1.45ft³ 41L , penetrating shaft diameter 0.625 in 15.9mm in different restrainer systems (mechanical and automated. The traditional mechanical restraint (2.53x0.88x2.20m did not allow the containment of the animal's head, the automated restrainer (2.60x0.85x2.30m allowed adjustable sidewall and restraint and elevating the head. The automatic restrainer provided smaller number of shots required for stunning (1.0625±0.013 compared to mechanical (1.2025±0.026 (P≤0.0001, reduced the distance from the ideal point in the first shot (1.246±0.918 and (2.357±1.246 and second (3.042±0.141 and (4.016±0.101 (P 0.0001, and provided no respiratory reflex compared to the mechanical system (0.0275±0.008, (P≤0.001. The

  14. Second-hand signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Studies of signaling theory have traditionally focused on the dyadic link between the sender and receiver of the signal. Within a science‐based perspective this framing has led scholars to investigate how patents and publications of firms function as signals. I explore another important type...... used by various agents in their search for and assessment of products and firms. I conclude by arguing how this second‐hand nature of signals goes beyond a simple dyadic focus on senders and receivers of signals, and thus elucidates the more complex interrelations of the various types of agents...

  15. p120-catenin differentially regulates cell migration by Rho-dependent intracellular and secreted signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epifano, Carolina; Megias, Diego; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    The adherens junction protein p120-catenin is implicated in the regulation of cadherin stability, cell migration and inflammatory responses in mammalian epithelial tissues. How these events are coordinated to promote wound repair is not understood. We show that p120 catenin regulates the intrinsic...... migratory properties of primary mouse keratinocytes, but also influences the migratory behavior of neighboring cells by secreted signals. These events are rooted in the ability of p120-catenin to regulate RhoA GTPase activity, which leads to a two-tiered control of cell migration. One restrains cell...... motility via an increase in actin stress fibers, reduction in integrin turnover and an increase in the robustness of focal adhesions. The other is coupled to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-24, which causally enhances randomized cell movements. Taken together, our results...

  16. Method of signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthomier, Charles

    1975-01-01

    A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr

  17. Measurand transient signal suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transient signal suppressor for use in a controls system which is adapted to respond to a change in a physical parameter whenever it crosses a predetermined threshold value in a selected direction of increasing or decreasing values with respect to the threshold value and is sustained for a selected discrete time interval is presented. The suppressor includes a sensor transducer for sensing the physical parameter and generating an electrical input signal whenever the sensed physical parameter crosses the threshold level in the selected direction. A manually operated switch is provided for adapting the suppressor to produce an output drive signal whenever the physical parameter crosses the threshold value in the selected direction of increasing or decreasing values. A time delay circuit is selectively adjustable for suppressing the transducer input signal for a preselected one of a plurality of available discrete suppression time and producing an output signal only if the input signal is sustained for a time greater than the selected suppression time. An electronic gate is coupled to receive the transducer input signal and the timer output signal and produce an output drive signal for energizing a control relay whenever the transducer input is a non-transient signal which is sustained beyond the selected time interval.

  18. Wnt signaling in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, T; Rindtorff, N; Boutros, M

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signaling is one of the key cascades regulating development and stemness, and has also been tightly associated with cancer. The role of Wnt signaling in carcinogenesis has most prominently been described for colorectal cancer, but aberrant Wnt signaling is observed in many more cancer entities. Here, we review current insights into novel components of Wnt pathways and describe their impact on cancer development. Furthermore, we highlight expanding functions of Wnt signaling for both solid and liquid tumors. We also describe current findings how Wnt signaling affects maintenance of cancer stem cells, metastasis and immune control. Finally, we provide an overview of current strategies to antagonize Wnt signaling in cancer and challenges that are associated with such approaches. PMID:27617575

  19. Cooperative ethylene receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived by a family of five ethylene receptor members in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. Genetic and biochemical studies suggest that the ethylene response is suppressed by ethylene receptor complexes, but the biochemical nature of the receptor signal is unknown. Without appropriate biochemical measures to trace the ethylene receptor signal and quantify the signal strength, the biological significance of the modulation of ethylene responses ...

  20. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  1. Influence of Signal and Noise on Statistical Fluctuation of Single-Mode Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dahai; Cheng Qinghua; Cao Li; Wu Dajin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of calculating the steady-state mean normalized intensity fluctuation of a signal-mode laser system driven by both colored pump noise with signal modulation and the quantum noise with cross-correlation between its real and imaginary parts, we analyze the influence of modulation signal, noise, and its correlation form on the statistical fluctuation of the laser system. We have found that when the amplitude of modulation signal weakens and its frequency quickens, the statistical fluctuation will reduce rapidly. The statistical fluctuation of the laser system can be restrained by reducing the intensity of pump noise and quantum noise. Moreover, with prolonging of colored cross-correlation time, the statistical fluctuation of laser system experiences a repeated changing process, that is, from decreasing to augmenting, then to decreasing, and finally to augmenting again. With the decreasing of the value of cross-correlation coefficient, the statistical fluctuation will decrease too. When the cross-correlation form between the real part and imaginary part of quantum noise is zero correlation, the statistical fluctuation of laser system has a minimum. Compared with the influence of intensity of pump noise, the influence of intensity of quantum noise on the statistical fluctuation is smaller.

  2. Digital signal processing the Tevatron BPM signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancelo, G.; James, E.; Wolbers, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Beam Position Monitor (TeV BPM) readout system at Fermilab's Tevatron has been updated and is currently being commissioned. The new BPMs use new analog and digital hardware to achieve better beam position measurement resolution. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton measurements. The signals provided by the two ends of the BPM pickups are processed by analog band-pass filters and sampled by 14-bit ADCs at 74.3MHz. A crucial part of this work has been the design of digital filters that process the signal. This paper describes the digital processing and estimation techniques used to optimize the beam position measurement. The BPM electronics must operate in narrow-band and wide-band modes to enable measurements of closed-orbit and turn-by-turn positions. The filtering and timing conditions of the signals are tuned accordingly for the operational modes. The analysis and the optimized result for each mode are presented

  3. Nichtkontinuierliche (zeitdiskrete) Signale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Zeitdiskrete Signale werden häufig aus zeitkontinuierlichen Signalen durch Abtastung erzeugt. Dass beide Signale gleichwertig sind, zeigt das Abtasttheorem (Kap. 116) von Shannon, sofern die Bedingung nach (116.2), f_{ab}≈(2{,}2 {\\ldots} 4)\\cdot fg) eingehalten wird. Digitale Signale haben Vorteile: Einfache Speicherung, Weiterverarbeitung in Rechnern, wenig störanfällige Übertragung. Für die Bearbeitung dieser Signale dienen die im Kapitel dargestellten Hilfsmittel: Diskrete Fouriertransformation; Schnelle Fouriertransformation; z-Transformation: Darstellung, Sätze zur z-Transformation, Korrespondenzen zu Zeitfunktionen, Beispiele.

  4. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  5. Radiation signal processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.; Knoll, G.; Strange, D.

    1980-01-01

    An improved signal processing system for radiation imaging apparatus comprises: a radiation transducer producing transducer signals proportional to apparent spatial coordinates of detected radiation events; means for storing true spatial coordinates corresponding to a plurality of predetermined apparent spatial coordinates relative to selected detected radiation events said means for storing responsive to said transducer signal and producing an output signal representative of said true spatial coordinates; and means for interpolating the true spatial coordinates of the detected radiation events located intermediate the stored true spatial coordinates, said means for interpolating communicating with said means for storing

  6. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  7. Viral RNA-Unprimed Rig-I Restrains Stat3 Activation in the Modulation of Regulatory T Cell/Th17 Cell Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Guo, He-Zhou; Li, Xian-Yang; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Wu; Zhao, Jun-Mei; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Innate immunity activation by viral RNA-primed retinoid acid inducible gene-I (Rig-I) in CD4 + T cells antagonizes TGFβ signaling to suppress the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, how viral RNA-unliganded Rig-I (apo-Rig-I) modulates Treg generation remains unclear. In this article, we show that, in the absence of viral infection, Treg differentiation of Rig-I -/- CD4 + T cells was compromised, in the presence of increased generation of Th17 cells and overactivation of Stat3, a critical regulator tilting the Treg/Th17 cell balance. Mechanistically, apo-Rig-I physically associates with Stat3, thereby inhibiting Jak1's association with Stat3 while facilitating Shp2's association to inhibit p-Stat3 levels. Interestingly, inhibition of Stat3 ameliorates the Treg/Th17 imbalance and the colitis observed in Rig-I -/- mice. Collectively, these results uncover an independent functional contribution of the apo-Rig-I/Stat3 interaction in the maintenance of Treg/Th17 cell balance. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Drought Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    depending upon the source and nature of signaling: (i) hormone signal, (ii) .... plants to regulate the rate of transpiration through minor structural .... cell has to keep spending energy (in the form of A TP) to maintain a .... enzymes and proteins in the regulation of cellular metabolism can be determined by either inactivating.

  9. Ubiquitination in apoptosis signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kooij, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on ubiquitination and protein degradation, with an emphasis on how these processes regulate apoptosis signaling. More specifically, our aims were: 1. To increase the understanding of ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis signaling. 2. To identify the E3

  10. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  11. SignalR blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed for software developers, primarily those with knowledge of C#, .NET, and JavaScript. Good knowledge and understanding of SignalR is assumed to allow efficient programming of core elements and applications in SignalR.

  12. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  13. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  14. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  15. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) modulates the effect of serum albumin on brain development by restraining the neurotrophic effect of oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Alejandro G; Polo-Hernández, Erica; Tabernero, Arantxa; Medina, José M

    2015-10-22

    We have previously shown that serum albumin controls perinatal rat brain development through the regulation of oleic acid synthesis by astrocytes. In fact, oleic acid synthesized and released by astrocytes promoted neurite growth, neuron migration and the arrangement of prospective synapses. In this work we show that alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is also present in the brain during embryonic development, its concentrations peaking at E15.5 and at E19.5. However, after E19.5 AFP concentrations plummeted concurrently with a sharp increase in serum albumin concentrations. At E15.5, AFP is present in caudal regions of the brain, particularly in brain areas undergoing differentiation during this period, such as the thalamic reticular nucleus of the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the amygdala and the hippocampus. Albumin was not detected in the brain at E15.5 but stained brain cells substantially on day E19.5, showing a very similar distribution to that of AFP under the same circumstances. The concentrations of free oleic acid in the brain were inversely correlated with those of AFP, suggesting that the signals elicited by AFP and oleic acid can be inversely associated. GAP-43, a marker of axonal growth that is highly expressed by the presence of oleic acid, was not co-localized with AFP except in the marginal zone and areas delimiting the subplate. AFP prevented the increase in GAP-43 expression caused by the presence of oleic acid in neurons in primary culture in vitro and in organotypic cultures of embryonic rat brain ex vivo, suggesting that AFP may modulate the effect of serum albumin on brain development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IL-4/IL-13 Heteroreceptor Influences Th17 Cell Conversion and Sensitivity to Regulatory T Cell Suppression To Restrain Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Subhasis; Ellis, Jason S; Cascio, Jason A; Miller, Mindy M; Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Cattin-Roy, Alexis N; Zaghouani, Habib

    2017-10-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 have been defined as anti-inflammatory cytokines that can counter myelin-reactive T cells and modulate experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. However, it is not known whether endogenous IL-4 and IL-13 contribute to the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and whether their function is coordinated with T regulatory cells (Tregs). In this study, we used mice in which the common cytokine receptor for IL-4 and IL-13, namely the IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα1 (13R) heteroreceptor (HR), is compromised and determined whether the lack of signaling by endogenous IL-4 and IL-13 through the HR influences the function of effector Th1 and Th17 cells in a Treg-dependent fashion. The findings indicate that mice-deficient for the HR (13R -/- ) are more susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis than mice sufficient for the HR (13R +/+ ) and develop early onset and more severe disease. Moreover, Th17 cells from 13R -/- mice had reduced ability to convert to Th1 cells and displayed reduced sensitivity to suppression by Tregs relative to Th17 effectors from 13R +/+ mice. These observations suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 likely operate through the HR and influence Th17 cells to convert to Th1 cells and to acquire increased sensitivity to suppression, leading to control of immune-mediated CNS inflammation. These previously unrecognized findings shed light on the intricacies underlying the contribution of cytokines to peripheral tolerance and control of autoimmunity. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Increased numbers of preexisting memory CD8 T cells and decreased T-bet expression can restrain terminal differentiation of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nikhil S; Cui, Weiguo; Dominguez, Claudia X; Chen, Jonathan H; Hand, Timothy W; Kaech, Susan M

    2011-10-15

    Memory CD8 T cells acquire effector memory cell properties after reinfection and may reach terminally differentiated, senescent states ("Hayflick limit") after multiple infections. The signals controlling this process are not well understood, but we found that the degree of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cell differentiation was intimately linked to the amount of T-bet expressed upon reactivation and preexisting memory CD8 T cell number (i.e., primary memory CD8 T cell precursor frequency) present during secondary infection. Compared with naive cells, memory CD8 T cells were predisposed toward terminal effector (TE) cell differentiation because they could immediately respond to IL-12 and induce T-bet, even in the absence of Ag. TE cell formation after secondary (2°) or tertiary infections was dependent on increased T-bet expression because T-bet(+/-) cells were resistant to these phenotypic changes. Larger numbers of preexisting memory CD8 T cells limited the duration of 2° infection and the amount of IL-12 produced, and consequently, this reduced T-bet expression and the proportion of 2° TE CD8 T cells that formed. Together, these data show that over repeated infections, memory CD8 T cell quality and proliferative fitness is not strictly determined by the number of serial encounters with Ag or cell divisions, but is a function of the CD8 T cell differentiation state, which is genetically controlled in a T-bet-dependent manner. This differentiation state can be modulated by preexisting memory CD8 T cell number and the intensity of inflammation during reinfection. These results have important implications for vaccinations involving prime-boost strategies.

  18. Bioelectric Signal Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Santana, A.; Pólo-Parada, L.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells.

  19. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  20. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  1. Adaptive signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 ..mu..sec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed.

  2. Adaptive signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  3. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  4. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 independently predict mortality in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Netanya G; Wand, Handan; Roque, Annelys

    2011-01-01

    Chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with intestinal permeability and microbial translocation that contributes to systemic immune activation, which is an independent predictor of HIV disease progression. The association of microbial translocation with clinical outcom...

  5. Pharmacodynamic Monitoring of Tacrolimus-based Immunosuppression in CD14+ Monocytes after Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Kannegieter (Nynke); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); M. Dieterich (Marjolein); G.N. de Graav (Gretchen); R. Kraaijeveld (Rens); A.T. Rowshani (Ajda); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); C.C. Baan (Carla)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Monocytes significantly contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury and allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. However, the knowledge about the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on monocyte activation is limited. Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for

  6. Microglia kill amyloid-beta1-42 damaged neurons by a CD14-dependent process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bate, Clive; Veerhuis, Robert; Eikelenboom, Piet; Williams, Alun

    2004-01-01

    Activated microglia are closely associated with neuronal damage in Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, neurons exposed to low concentrations of amyloid-beta1-42, a toxic fragment of the amyloid-beta protein, were killed by microglia in a process that required cell-cell contact. Pre-treating

  7. Cationic liposomal drug delivery system for specific targeting of human cd14+ monocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    blood when compared to adherence to granulocytes, T-lymphocytes, B- lymphocytes and/or NK cells in freshly drawn blood, to a lipid-based pharmaceutical composition comprising said liposomes and their use in monocytic associated prophylaxis, treatment or amelioration of a condition such as cancer...

  8. CD14CD16 Monocyte Subset Levels in Heart Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Barisione

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to define the distribution of monocyte subsets in a cohort of congestive heart failure (CHF patients, to verify whether increased severity of CHF is linked to the expansion of specific monocyte subsets, and finally to investigate the relationship between monocyte subset relative frequencies, laboratory parameters of inflammation, and monocyte ACE expression.

  9. Orexin/Hypocretin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Jyrki P

    Orexin/hypocretin peptide (orexin-A and orexin-B) signaling is believed to take place via the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), named OX 1 and OX 2 orexin receptors, as described in the previous chapters. Signaling of orexin peptides has been investigated in diverse endogenously orexin receptor-expressing cells - mainly neurons but also other types of cells - and in recombinant cells expressing the receptors in a heterologous manner. Findings in the different systems are partially convergent but also indicate cellular background-specific signaling. The general picture suggests an inherently high degree of diversity in orexin receptor signaling.In the current chapter, I present orexin signaling on the cellular and molecular levels. Discussion of the connection to (potential) physiological orexin responses is only brief since these are in focus of other chapters in this book. The same goes for the post-synaptic signaling mechanisms, which are dealt with in Burdakov: Postsynaptic actions of orexin. The current chapter is organized according to the tissue type, starting from the central nervous system. Finally, receptor signaling pathways are discussed across tissues, cell types, and even species.

  10. Signal flow analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, J R; Hiller, N

    1965-01-01

    Signal Flow Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of signal flow analysis. This book discusses the basic theory of signal flow graphs and shows their relation to the usual algebraic equations.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of properties of a flow graph. This text then demonstrates how flow graphs can be applied to a wide range of electrical circuits that do not involve amplification. Other chapters deal with the parameters as well as circuit applications of transistors. This book discusses as well the variety of circuits using ther

  11. Underwater Acoustic Signal Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Culver, Richard L; Sibul, Leon H; Bradley, David L

    2007-01-01

    .... The research is directed toward passive sonar detection and classification, continuous wave (CW) and broadband signals, shallow water operation, both platform-mounted and distributed systems, and frequencies below 1 kHz...

  12. Signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Deergha

    2018-01-01

    This textbook covers the fundamental theories of signals and systems analysis, while incorporating recent developments from integrated circuits technology into its examples. Starting with basic definitions in signal theory, the text explains the properties of continuous-time and discrete-time systems and their representation by differential equations and state space. From those tools, explanations for the processes of Fourier analysis, the Laplace transform, and the z-Transform provide new ways of experimenting with different kinds of time systems. The text also covers the separate classes of analog filters and their uses in signal processing applications. Intended for undergraduate electrical engineering students, chapter sections include exercise for review and practice for the systems concepts of each chapter. Along with exercises, the text includes MATLAB-based examples to allow readers to experiment with signals and systems code on their own. An online repository of the MATLAB code from this textbook can...

  13. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  14. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  15. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  16. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  17. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  18. Crystallization-mediated amorphous CuxO (x = 1, 2)/crystalline CuI p-p type heterojunctions with visible light enhanced and ultraviolet light restrained photocatalytic dye degradation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Cai, Yun; Zhou, Jian; Fang, Jun; Yang, Yang

    2017-04-01

    We report simple and cost-effective fabrication of amorphous CuxO (x = 1, 2)/crystalline CuI p-p type heterojunctions based on crystallization-mediated approaches including antisolvent crystallization and crystal reconstruction. Starting from CuI acetonitrile solution, large crystals in commercial CuI can be easily converted to aggregates consisting of small particles by the crystallization processes while the spontaneous oxidation of CuI by atmospheric/dissolved oxygen can induce the formation of trace CuxO on CuI surface. As a proof of concept, the as-fabricated CuxO/CuI heterojunctions exhibit effective photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methyl blue and other organic pollutants under visible light irradiation, although the wide band-gap semiconductor CuI is insensible to visible light. Unexpectedly, the CuxO/CuI heterojunctions exhibit restrained photocatalytic activity when ultraviolet light is applied in addition to the visible. It is suggested that the CuxO/CuI interface can enhance the spatial separation of the electron-hole pairs with the excitation of CuxO under visible light and prolong the lifetime of photogenerated charges with high redox ability. The present work represents a critically important step in advancing the crystallization technique for potential mass production of semiconductor heterojunctions in a mild manner.

  19. Source of seismic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovskii, B.A.; Khor' yakov, K.A.

    1980-08-30

    Patented is a source of seismic signals consisting of a shock generator with a basic low-voltage and auxillary high-voltage stator coils, a capacitive transformer and control switches. To increase the amplitude of signal excitation a condensor battery and auxillary commutator are introduced into the device, which are connected in parallel and serially into the circuit of the main low-voltage stator coil.

  20. Redox signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  1. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  2. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  3. Cellular signalling properties in microcircuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; El Manira, Abdeljabbar; Wallén, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Molecules and cells are the signalling elements in microcircuits. Recent studies have uncovered bewildering diversity in postsynaptic signalling properties in all areas of the vertebrate nervous system. Major effort is now being invested in establishing the specialized signalling properties...

  4. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  5. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  7. Quantum signaling game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantum approach to a signaling game; a special kind of extensive game of incomplete information. Our model is based on quantum schemes for games in strategic form where players perform unitary operators on their own qubits of some fixed initial state and the payoff function is given by a measurement on the resulting final state. We show that the quantum game induced by our scheme coincides with a signaling game as a special case and outputs nonclassical results in general. As an example, we consider a quantum extension of the signaling game in which the chance move is a three-parameter unitary operator whereas the players' actions are equivalent to classical ones. In this case, we study the game in terms of Nash equilibria and refine the pure Nash equilibria adapting to the quantum game the notion of a weak perfect Bayesian equilibrium. (paper)

  8. PKD signaling and pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a serious medical disorder with no current therapies directed to the molecular pathogenesis of the disorder. Inflammation, inappropriate intracellular activation of digestive enzymes, and parenchymal acinar cell death by necrosis are the critical pathophysiologic processes of acute pancreatitis. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the key molecular signals that mediate these pathobiologic processes and develop new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the appropriate signaling pathways in order to improve outcomes for this disease. A novel serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as key participants in signal transduction, and this family is increasingly being implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions and diseases. Methods This review summarizes recent findings of our group and others regarding the signaling pathway and the biological roles of the PKD family in pancreatic acinar cells. In particular, we highlight our studies of the functions of PKD in several key pathobiologic processes associated with acute pancreatitis in experimental models. Results Our findings reveal that PKD signaling is required for NF-κB activation/inflammation, intracellular zymogen activation, and acinar cell necrosis in rodent experimental pancreatitis. Novel small-molecule PKD inhibitors attenuate the severity of pancreatitis in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Further, this review emphasizes our latest advances in the therapeutic application of PKD inhibitors to experimental pancreatitis after the initiation of pancreatitis. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that PKD signaling is a necessary modulator in key initiating pathobiologic processes of pancreatitis, and that it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for treatments of this disorder. PMID:26879861

  9. Signal processing in microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbel, A.

    1984-01-01

    Signals occurring in microdosimetric measurements cover a dynamic range of 100 dB at a counting rate which normally stays below 10 4 but could increase significantly in case of an accident. The need for high resolution at low energies, non-linear signal processing to accommodate the specified dynamic range, easy calibration and thermal stability are conflicting requirements which pose formidable design problems. These problems are reviewed, and a practical approach to their solution is given employing a single processing channel. (author)

  10. Understanding signal integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Thierauf, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides you with practical guidance on understanding and interpreting signal integrity (SI) performance to help you with your challenging circuit board design projects. You find high-level discussions of important SI concepts presented in a clear and easily accessible format, including question and answer sections and bulleted lists.This valuable resource features rules of thumb and simple equations to help you make estimates of critical signal integrity parameters without using circuit simulators of CAD (computer-aided design). The book is supported with over 120 illustratio

  11. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  12. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  13. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  14. [Expression of ICAT and Wnt signaling-related proteins in the monocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by a new steroidal drug NSC67657].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J S; Wang, W J; Wang, T; Zhang, Y

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the expression of mRNA and proteins of β-catenin, TCF-4 (ICAT) and Wnt signaling pathway-related genes in the monocytic differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells induced by a new steroidal drug NSC67657. Wright's staining and α-NBE staining were used to observe the differentiation of HL-60 cells after 5 days of 10 μmol/L NSC67657 treatment. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the differentiation and cell cycles. The expressions of mRNA and proteins of ICAT and Wnt signaling pathway-related factors, including β-catenin, TCF-4, c-myc, cyclin D1 and TCF-1 before and after differentiation, were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Morphological observation showed that NSC67657 induced monocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells. At 5 days after 10 μmol/L NSC67657 treatment, the number of CD14(+) HL-60 cells was (94.37±2.84)%, significantly higher than the (1.31±0.09)% in control group (Pcells were of (18.76±0.98)%, significantly lower than that of (34.38±2.61) % in the control group (Pprotein, and down-regulated the expression of β-catenin mRNA and protin (Pprotein and nuclear protein in the HL-60 cells (P>0.05 for all). The target genes of Wnt signaling pathway, including c-myc, cyclinD1 and TCF-1 mRNA and proteins in the HL-60 cells were significantly down-regulated after NSC67657 treatment (Pcells, and down-regulates the expression of β-catenin and target genes of Wnt signaling pathway. These results indicate that Wnt signaling pathway may be directly or indirectly involved in the monocytic differentiation process of HL-60 cells.

  15. [Role of Rac1 signaling pathway of azathioprine and peptidoglycan in the regulation of monocyte-macrophage apoptosis in Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Jing, Y; Ran, Y; Zhao, J; Zhou, L; Wang, B M

    2018-04-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of macrophages and expression of Rac1 in the inflammatory site of Crohn's disease, and to investigate the effects of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and peptidoglycan on apoptosis of human peripheral blood monocyte-macrophage by regulating Rac1 signaling pathway. Methods: Ten patients with Crohn's disease and eight healthy controls diagnosed were enrolled at Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2013 to January 2014. The number of macrophages, apoptosis and expression of Rac1 in the inflammation sites and non-inflammation sites of intestinal mucosa were detected in both patients and controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were sorted by CD 14 immunomagnetic beads. The apoptosis of monocytes, expression of Rac1 and related apoptosis signaling molecules were detected in patients treated with peptidoglycan, 6-TG and Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 and another 15 healthy donors. Results: The number of macrophages and apoptotic cells significantly increased in the inflammatory group of Crohn's disease patients compared with the non-inflammatory group. The expression of PAK1, downstream molecular of Rac1 signaling pathway of macrophages was also significantly higher in the inflammatory group of Crohn's disease patients than that in healthy controls and non-inflammatory group. Compared with control group, anti-apoptotic signals (NF-κB, Bcl-xL and STAT-3) in PBMCs increased in the peptidoglycan group, while slightly decreased in 6-TG group. 6-TG and NSC23766 significantly promoted peptidoglycan-related anti-apoptosis [peptidoglycan group (8.6±3.7)%, peptidoglycan+ 6-TG group (42.0±2.7)%, peptidoglycan+ NSC23766 group (58.5±6.9)%, PRac1 signaling pathway leading to macrophage apoptosis.

  16. Crystallization-mediated amorphous Cu_xO (x = 1, 2)/crystalline CuI p–p type heterojunctions with visible light enhanced and ultraviolet light restrained photocatalytic dye degradation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongli; Cai, Yun; Zhou, Jian; Fang, Jun; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu_xO(x = 1, 2)/CuI p–p type heterojunctions were facilely constructed via crystallization-mediated approaches. • Cu_xO/CuI heterojunctions exhibit effective visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. • The Cu_xO/CuI interface can enhance the spatial separation of the photogenerated electron–hole pairs. • This work represents a critical step for mass production of functional semiconductor heterojunctions in a mild manner. - Abstract: We report simple and cost-effective fabrication of amorphous Cu_xO (x = 1, 2)/crystalline CuI p–p type heterojunctions based on crystallization-mediated approaches including antisolvent crystallization and crystal reconstruction. Starting from CuI acetonitrile solution, large crystals in commercial CuI can be easily converted to aggregates consisting of small particles by the crystallization processes while the spontaneous oxidation of CuI by atmospheric/dissolved oxygen can induce the formation of trace Cu_xO on CuI surface. As a proof of concept, the as-fabricated Cu_xO/CuI heterojunctions exhibit effective photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methyl blue and other organic pollutants under visible light irradiation, although the wide band-gap semiconductor CuI is insensible to visible light. Unexpectedly, the Cu_xO/CuI heterojunctions exhibit restrained photocatalytic activity when ultraviolet light is applied in addition to the visible. It is suggested that the Cu_xO/CuI interface can enhance the spatial separation of the electron–hole pairs with the excitation of Cu_xO under visible light and prolong the lifetime of photogenerated charges with high redox ability. The present work represents a critically important step in advancing the crystallization technique for potential mass production of semiconductor heterojunctions in a mild manner.

  17. Television picture signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Field or frame memories are often used in television receivers for video signal processing functions, such as noise reduction and/or flicker reduction. Television receivers also have graphic features such as teletext, menu-driven control systems, multilingual subtitling, an electronic TV-Guide, etc.

  18. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  19. Communication Signals in Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses mechanisms and functional intent of visual communication signals in iguanid/agamid lizards. Demonstrated that lizards communicate with each other by using pushups and head nods and that each species does this in its own way, conveying different types of information. (JN)

  20. Modeling binaural signal detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breebaart, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    With the advent of multimedia technology and powerful signal processing systems, audio processing and reproduction has gained renewed interest. Examples of products that have been developed are audio coding algorithms to efficiently store and transmit music and speech, or audio reproduction systems

  1. Quantum cloning and signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Weihs, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the close connections between cloning of quantum states and superluminal signaling. We present an optimal universal cloning machine based on stimulated emission recently proposed by the authors. As an instructive example, we show how a scheme for superluminal communication based on this cloning machine fails. (Authors)

  2. "Utilizing" signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-09-01

    What do inferring what a person is thinking or feeling, judging a defendant's guilt, and navigating a dimly lit room have in common? They involve perceptual uncertainty (e.g., a scowling face might indicate anger or concentration, for which different responses are appropriate) and behavioral risk (e.g., a cost to making the wrong response). Signal detection theory describes these types of decisions. In this tutorial, we show how incorporating the economic concept of utility allows signal detection theory to serve as a model of optimal decision making, going beyond its common use as an analytic method. This utility approach to signal detection theory clarifies otherwise enigmatic influences of perceptual uncertainty on measures of decision-making performance (accuracy and optimality) and on behavior (an inverse relationship between bias magnitude and sensitivity optimizes utility). A "utilized" signal detection theory offers the possibility of expanding the phenomena that can be understood within a decision-making framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role...... using insulin signalling as a model system....

  4. The spin and the restrained relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacry, H.

    1992-01-01

    The replacement of the Schroedinger position operator by a new one involving the spin variables obliges us to modify slightly the formulas of Lorentz transformations. Here we give a classical description of the way energy, momentum, space and time coordinates transform under a boost. (orig.)

  5. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  6. The newest digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae Uk

    2002-08-01

    This book deal with the newest digital signal processing, which contains introduction on conception of digital signal processing, constitution and purpose, signal and system such as signal, continuos signal, discrete signal and discrete system, I/O expression on impress response, convolution, mutual connection of system and frequency character,z transform of definition, range, application of z transform and relationship with laplace transform, Discrete fourier, Fast fourier transform on IDFT algorithm and FFT application, foundation of digital filter of notion, expression, types, frequency characteristic of digital filter and design order of filter, Design order of filter, Design of FIR digital filter, Design of IIR digital filter, Adaptive signal processing, Audio signal processing, video signal processing and application of digital signal processing.

  7. Quench detection/protection of an HTS coil by AE signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, M.; Nanato, N.; Aoki, D.; Kato, T.; Murase, S.

    2011-01-01

    A quench detection/protection system based on measuring AE signals was developed. The system was tested for a Bi2223 coil. Temperature rise after a quench occurrence was restrained at very low value. The normal zone propagation velocities in high T c superconductors are slow at high operation temperature and therefore local and excessive temperature rise generates at quench occurrence, and then the superconductors are degraded or burned. Therefore it is essential to detect the temperature rise in high T c superconducting (HTS) coils as soon as possible and protect them. The authors have presented a quench detection method for HTS coils by time-frequency visualization of AE signals and have shown its usefulness for a HTS coil with height and outer diameter of 40-50 mm. In this paper, the authors present a quench detection/protection system based on superior method in quench detection time to the previous method and show its usefulness for a larger HTS coil (height and outer diameter: 160-190 mm) than the previous coil.

  8. Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Glenn de; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2002-01-01

    Future gravitational wave detectors will include some form of signal mirror in order to alter the signal response of the device. We introduce interferometer configurations which utilize a variable reflectivity signal mirror allowing a tunable peak frequency and variable signal bandwidth. A detector configured with a Fabry-Perot cavity as the signal mirror is compared theoretically with one using a Michelson interferometer for a signal mirror. A system for the measurement of the interferometer signal responses is introduced. This technique is applied to a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with resonant sideband extraction. We present broadband measurements of the benchtop prototype's signal response for a range of signal cavity detunings. This technique is also applicable to most other gravitational wave detector configurations

  9. Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vine, G D; McClelland, D E

    2002-01-01

    Future gravitational wave detectors will include some form of signal mirror in order to alter the signal response of the device. We introduce interferometer configurations which utilize a variable reflectivity signal mirror allowing a tunable peak frequency and variable signal bandwidth. A detector configured with a Fabry-Perot cavity as the signal mirror is compared theoretically with one using a Michelson interferometer for a signal mirror. A system for the measurement of the interferometer signal responses is introduced. This technique is applied to a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with resonant sideband extraction. We present broadband measurements of the benchtop prototype's signal response for a range of signal cavity detunings. This technique is also applicable to most other gravitational wave detector configurations.

  10. Lymphocyte signaling: beyond knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexander; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of lymphocyte signaling was greatly enhanced by the advent of gene targeting, which allows the selective inactivation of a single gene. Although this gene 'knockout' approach is often informative, in many cases, the phenotype resulting from gene ablation might not provide a complete picture of the function of the corresponding protein. If a protein has multiple functions within a single or several signaling pathways, or stabilizes other proteins in a complex, the phenotypic consequences of a gene knockout may manifest as a combination of several different perturbations. In these cases, gene targeting to 'knock in' subtle point mutations might provide more accurate insight into protein function. However, to be informative, such mutations must be carefully based on structural and biophysical data.

  11. Sphingosine signaling and atherogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Cang-bao; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Edvinsson, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has diverse biological functions acting inside cells as a second messenger to regulate cell proliferation and survival, and extracellularly, as a ligand for a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) named the endothelial differentiation gene (EDG) family. Five...... closely related GPCRs of EDG family (EDG1, EDG3, EDG5, EDG6, and EDG8) have recently been identified as high-affinity S1P receptors. These receptors are coupled via Gi, Gq, G12/13, and Rho. The signaling pathways are linked to vascular cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis, intracellular Ca2......+ mobilization, and expression of adhesion molecules. The formation of an atherosclerotic lesion occurs through activation of cellular events that include monocyte adhesion to the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation. Thus, S1P signaling may play an important role...

  12. NMR signal transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheryaev, A.G.; Oliferchuk, N.L.

    1975-01-01

    A signal transducer of nuclear magnetic resonance for simultaneously measuring frequency and intensitivity of two various isotope signals, which are in one specimen is described. The transducer represents radiofrequency circuit with two resonance frequences, which is common for two autodyne generators. To decrease measuring time and to increase recording diagram stability the radiofrequency circuit has LC netork, in the inductivity of which investigated specimen is located; a circuit variable capacity is connected in parallel with one of the autodyne generators. Besides the radiofrequency circuit has an inductance coil in series with a standard specimen inside as well as a variable capacitor connected in parallel with the second autodyne generator. An amplitude of oscillation of each resonance frequency is controlled and adjusted separately. The transducer described can be used for the measurement of a nuclei concentration, isotope concentration and for the spin determination

  13. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  14. Calcium signaling in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Thomas, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    In hepatocytes, hormones linked to the formation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) evoke transient increases or spikes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), that increase in frequency with the agonist concentration. These oscillatory Ca2+ signals are thought to transmit the information encoded in the extracellular stimulus to down-stream Ca2+-sensitive metabolic processes. We have utilized both confocal and wide field fluorescence microscopy techniques to study the InsP3-dependent signaling pathway at the cellular and subcellular levels in the intact perfused liver. Typically InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]i spikes manifest as Ca2+ waves that propagate throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, and in the intact liver these [Ca2+]i increases are conveyed through gap junctions to encompass entire lobular units. The translobular movement of Ca2+ provides a means to coordinate the function of metabolic zones of the lobule and thus, liver function. In this article, we describe the characteristics of agonist-evoked [Ca2+]i signals in the liver and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves in the intact organ.

  15. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  16. Signal multiplexing scheme for LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujo, C.I.; Mohan, Shyam; Joshi, Gopal; Singh, S.K.; Karande, Jitendra

    2004-01-01

    For the proper operation of the LINAC some signals, RF (radio frequency) as well as LF (low frequency) have to be available at the Master Control Station (MCS). These signals are needed to control, calibrate and characterize the RF fields in the resonators. This can be achieved by proper multiplexing of various signals locally and then routing the selected signals to the MCS. A multiplexing scheme has been designed and implemented, which will allow the signals from the selected cavity to the MCS. High isolation between channels and low insertion loss for a given signal are important issues while selecting the multiplexing scheme. (author)

  17. Crystallization-mediated amorphous Cu{sub x}O (x = 1, 2)/crystalline CuI p–p type heterojunctions with visible light enhanced and ultraviolet light restrained photocatalytic dye degradation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongli; Cai, Yun; Zhou, Jian; Fang, Jun, E-mail: fangjun@njtech.edu.cn; Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangy@njtech.edu.cn

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Cu{sub x}O(x = 1, 2)/CuI p–p type heterojunctions were facilely constructed via crystallization-mediated approaches. • Cu{sub x}O/CuI heterojunctions exhibit effective visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. • The Cu{sub x}O/CuI interface can enhance the spatial separation of the photogenerated electron–hole pairs. • This work represents a critical step for mass production of functional semiconductor heterojunctions in a mild manner. - Abstract: We report simple and cost-effective fabrication of amorphous Cu{sub x}O (x = 1, 2)/crystalline CuI p–p type heterojunctions based on crystallization-mediated approaches including antisolvent crystallization and crystal reconstruction. Starting from CuI acetonitrile solution, large crystals in commercial CuI can be easily converted to aggregates consisting of small particles by the crystallization processes while the spontaneous oxidation of CuI by atmospheric/dissolved oxygen can induce the formation of trace Cu{sub x}O on CuI surface. As a proof of concept, the as-fabricated Cu{sub x}O/CuI heterojunctions exhibit effective photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methyl blue and other organic pollutants under visible light irradiation, although the wide band-gap semiconductor CuI is insensible to visible light. Unexpectedly, the Cu{sub x}O/CuI heterojunctions exhibit restrained photocatalytic activity when ultraviolet light is applied in addition to the visible. It is suggested that the Cu{sub x}O/CuI interface can enhance the spatial separation of the electron–hole pairs with the excitation of Cu{sub x}O under visible light and prolong the lifetime of photogenerated charges with high redox ability. The present work represents a critically important step in advancing the crystallization technique for potential mass production of semiconductor heterojunctions in a mild manner.

  18. Pathophysiology of Glucocorticoid Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellius, Géraldine; Trabado, Séverine; Bouligand, Jérôme; Delemer, Brigitte; Lombès, Marc

    2018-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC), such as cortisol or dexamethasone, control various physiological functions, notably those involved in development, metabolism, inflammatory processes and stress, and exert most of their effects upon binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, encoded by NR3C1 gene). GC signaling follows several consecutive steps leading to target gene transactivation, including ligand binding, nuclear translocation of ligand-activated GR complexes, DNA binding, coactivator interaction and recruitment of functional transcriptional machinery. Any step may be impaired and may account for altered GC signaling. Partial or generalized glucocorticoid resistance syndrome may result in a reduced level of functional GR, a decreased hormone affinity and binding, a defect in nuclear GR translocation, a decrease or lack of DNA binding and/or post-transcriptional GR modifications. To date, 26 loss-of-function NR3C1 mutations have been reported in the context of hypertension, hirsutism, adrenal hyperplasia or metabolic disorders. These clinical signs are generally associated with biological features including hypercortisolism without negative regulatory feedback loop on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Patients had often low plasma aldosterone and renin levels despite hypertension. Only one GR gain-of-function mutation has been described associating Cushing's syndrome phenotype with normal urinary-free cortisol. Some GR polymorphisms (ER22/23EK, GR-9β) have been linked to glucocorticoid resistance and a healthier metabolic profile whereas some others seemed to be associated with GC hypersensitivity (N363S, BclI), increasing cardiovascular risk (diabetes type 2, visceral obesity). This review focuses on the earlier findings on the pathophysiology of GR signaling and presents criteria facilitating identification of novel NR3C1 mutations in selected patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Purinergic Signalling: Therapeutic Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Burnstock

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic signalling, i.e., the role of nucleotides as extracellular signalling molecules, was proposed in 1972. However, this concept was not well accepted until the early 1990’s when receptor subtypes for purines and pyrimidines were cloned and characterised, which includes four subtypes of the P1 (adenosine receptor, seven subtypes of P2X ion channel receptors and 8 subtypes of the P2Y G protein-coupled receptor. Early studies were largely concerned with the physiology, pharmacology and biochemistry of purinergic signalling. More recently, the focus has been on the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential. There was early recognition of the use of P1 receptor agonists for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia and A2A receptor antagonists are promising for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Clopidogrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, is widely used for the treatment of thrombosis and stroke, blocking P2Y12 receptor-mediated platelet aggregation. Diquafosol, a long acting P2Y2 receptor agonist, is being used for the treatment of dry eye. P2X3 receptor antagonists have been developed that are orally bioavailable and stable in vivo and are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of chronic cough, bladder incontinence, visceral pain and hypertension. Antagonists to P2X7 receptors are being investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Other investigations are in progress for the use of purinergic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis, myocardial infarction, irritable bowel syndrome, epilepsy, atherosclerosis, depression, autism, diabetes, and cancer.

  20. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  1. Nichtperiodische zeitkontinuierliche Signale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Nichtperiodische Signale haben eine große Bedeutung für die Nachrichten- und Datenübertragung, weil Information nur in nichtdeterministischen Signalen enthalten ist (Teil "Nachrichtentechnik", Abschn. 92.4.1). Aber auch für die Energie- und Regelungstechnik sind sie von Interesse, weil sie entweder Ein- und Ausschaltvorgänge erfassen oder den Übergang von einem momentan stationären Zustand in einen neuen darstellen (Kurzschluss im Energieversorgungsnetz, Auftreten einer Störgröße im Regelsystem). Die Fourier- und die Laplacetransformation können bei nichtperiodischen zeitkontinuierlichen Signalen eingesetzt werden.

  2. Generation of earthquake signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjell, G.

    1994-01-01

    Seismic verification can be performed either as a full scale test on a shaker table or as numerical calculations. In both cases it is necessary to have an earthquake acceleration time history. This report describes generation of such time histories by filtering white noise. Analogue and digital filtering methods are compared. Different methods of predicting the response spectrum of a white noise signal filtered by a band-pass filter are discussed. Prediction of both the average response level and the statistical variation around this level are considered. Examples with both the IEEE 301 standard response spectrum and a ground spectrum suggested for Swedish nuclear power stations are included in the report

  3. Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Zayed, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling presents recent advances in multiscale analysis and modeling using wavelets and other systems. This book also presents applications in digital signal processing using sampling theory and techniques from various function spaces, filter design, feature extraction and classification, signal and image representation/transmission, coding, nonparametric statistical signal processing, and statistical learning theory. This book also: Discusses recently developed signal modeling techniques, such as the multiscale method for complex time series modeling, multiscale positive density estimations, Bayesian Shrinkage Strategies, and algorithms for data adaptive statistics Introduces new sampling algorithms for multidimensional signal processing Provides comprehensive coverage of wavelets with presentations on waveform design and modeling, wavelet analysis of ECG signals and wavelet filters Reviews features extraction and classification algorithms for multiscale signal and image proce...

  4. A Serpentine Way to Signaling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    the cell. The receptor transfers the signal to intracellular proteins ... and molecular mechanisms of GPCR signaling and how this discovery impacts ..... stabilize GPCR–G-protein interaction and resolve dynamics of ... elucidation stages. Kobilka.

  5. Biological signals classification and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiasaleh, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random, and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently ...

  6. EGFR-dependent signalling reduced and p38 dependent apoptosis required by Gallic acid in Malignant Mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroglu-Zergeroglu, Asuman; Candemir, Gulsife; Turhanlar, Ebru; Sagir, Fatma; Ayvali, Nurettin

    2016-12-01

    The unrestrained EGFR signalling contributes to malignant phenotype in a number of cancers including Malignant Mesotheliomas. Present study was designed to evaluate EGFR-dependent anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Gallic acid in transformed Mesothelial (MeT-5A) and Malignant Mesothelioma (SPC212) cells. Gallic acid reduced the viability of Malignant Mesothelioma cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. However, viability of mesothelial cells reduced only at high concentration and longer time periods. Gallic acid restrained the activation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and AKT proteins and down regulated expression of Cyclin D and Bcl-2 genes, but upregulated the expression of p21 gene in EGF-induced SPC212 cells. GA-induced transitory G1 arrest and triggered mitochondrial and death receptor mediated apoptosis, which requires p38MAPK activation. The data provided here indicate that GA is able to inhibit EGFR dependent proliferation and survival signals and induces p38 pathway dependent apoptosis in Malignant Mesothelioma cells. On the basis of these experimental findings it is worthwhile to investigate further the biological activity of Gallic acid on other Mesothelioma cell lines harbouring aberrant EGFR signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The canonical wnt signal restricts the glycogen synthase kinase 3/fbw7-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of eya1 phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Xue

    2014-07-01

    Haploinsufficiency of Eya1 causes the branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome, and abnormally high levels of Eya1 are linked to breast cancer progression and poor prognosis. Therefore, regulation of Eya1 activity is key to its tissue-specific functions and oncogenic activities. Here, we show that Eya1 is posttranslationally modified by ubiquitin and that its ubiquitination level is self-limited to prevent premature degradation. Eya1 has an evolutionarily conserved CDC4 phosphodegron (CPD) signal, a target site of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) kinase and Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase, which is required for Eya1 ubiquitination. Genetic deletion of Fbw7 and pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 significantly decrease Eya1 ubiquitination. Conversely, activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the canonical Wnt signal suppresses Eya1 ubiquitination. Compound Eya1(+/-); Wnt9b(+/-) mutants exhibit an increased penetrance of renal defect, indicating that they function in the same genetic pathway in vivo. Together, these findings reveal that the canonical Wnt and PI3K/Akt signal pathways restrain the GSK3/Fbw7-dependent Eya1 ubiquitination, and they further suggest that dysregulation of this novel axis contributes to tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Two-dimensional signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Garello, René

    2010-01-01

    This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.

  9. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  10. Astrocytes in endocannabinoid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Marta; Díez, Adolfo; Araque, Alfonso

    2014-10-19

    Astrocytes are emerging as integral functional components of synapses, responding to synaptically released neurotransmitters and regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. Thus, they functionally interact with neurons establishing tripartite synapses: a functional concept that refers to the existence of communication between astrocytes and neurons and its crucial role in synaptic function. Here, we discuss recent evidence showing that astrocytes are involved in the endocannabinoid (ECB) system, responding to exogenous cannabinoids as well as ECBs through activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors, which increase intracellular calcium and stimulate the release of glutamate that modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also discuss the consequences of ECB signalling in tripartite synapses on the astrocyte-mediated regulation of synaptic function, which reveal novel properties of synaptic regulation by ECBs, such as the spatially controlled dual effect on synaptic strength and the lateral potentiation of synaptic efficacy. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of ECB signalling for astrocytes in brain pathology and animal behaviour. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enjun; Brosché, Mikael

    2014-06-04

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling.

  12. Signals and systems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Wickert, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Getting mixed signals in your signals and systems course? The concepts covered in a typical signals and systems course are often considered by engineering students to be some of the most difficult to master. Thankfully, Signals & Systems For Dummies is your intuitive guide to this tricky course, walking you step-by-step through some of the more complex theories and mathematical formulas in a way that is easy to understand. From Laplace Transforms to Fourier Analyses, Signals & Systems For Dummies explains in plain English the difficult concepts that can trip you up

  13. Detection of signals in noise

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, Anthony D; Declaris, Nicholas

    1971-01-01

    Detection of Signals in Noise serves as an introduction to the principles and applications of the statistical theory of signal detection. The book discusses probability and random processes; narrowband signals, their complex representation, and their properties described with the aid of the Hilbert transform; and Gaussian-derived processes. The text also describes the application of hypothesis testing for the detection of signals and the fundamentals required for statistical detection of signals in noise. Problem exercises, references, and a supplementary bibliography are included after each c

  14. Multimodal signal variation in space and time : how important is matching a signal with its signaler?

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Ryan C.; Klein, Barrett; Stein, Joey; Ryan, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Multimodal signals (acoustic+visual) are known to be used by many anuran amphibians during courtship displays. The relative degree to which each signal component influences female mate choice, however, remains poorly understood. In this study we used a robotic frog with an inflating vocal sac and acoustic playbacks to document responses of female túngara frogs to unimodal signal components (acoustic and visual). We then tested female responses to a synchronous multimodal signal. Finally, we t...

  15. Purinergic signalling and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    , and common and divergent roles of receptors for nucleotides and nucleosides in different organ systems will be given. This integrated picture will aid our understanding of the challenges of the potential and currently used drugs targeted to specific organ/cells or disorders associated with diabetes.......The pancreas is an organ with a central role in nutrient breakdown, nutrient sensing and release of hormones regulating whole body nutrient homeostasis. In diabetes mellitus, the balance is broken-cells can be starving in the midst of plenty. There are indications that the incidence of diabetes...... type 1 and 2, and possibly pancreatogenic diabetes, is rising globally. Events leading to insulin secretion and action are complex, but there is emerging evidence that intracellular nucleotides and nucleotides are not only important as intracellular energy molecules but also as extracellular signalling...

  16. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  17. Wavelet analysis for nonstationary signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, Rosani Maria Libardi da

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical vibration signals play an important role in anomalies identification resulting of equipment malfunctioning. Traditionally, Fourier spectral analysis is used where the signals are assumed to be stationary. However, occasional transient impulses and start-up process are examples of nonstationary signals that can be found in mechanical vibrations. These signals can provide important information about the equipment condition, as early fault detection. The Fourier analysis can not adequately be applied to nonstationary signals because the results provide data about the frequency composition averaged over the duration of the signal. In this work, two methods for nonstationary signal analysis are used: Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and wavelet transform. The STFT is a method of adapting Fourier spectral analysis for nonstationary application to time-frequency domain. To have a unique resolution throughout the entire time-frequency domain is its main limitation. The wavelet transform is a new analysis technique suitable to nonstationary signals, which handles the STFT drawbacks, providing multi-resolution frequency analysis and time localization in a unique time-scale graphic. The multiple frequency resolutions are obtained by scaling (dilatation/compression) the wavelet function. A comparison of the conventional Fourier transform, STFT and wavelet transform is made applying these techniques to: simulated signals, arrangement rotor rig vibration signal and rotate machine vibration signal Hanning window was used to STFT analysis. Daubechies and harmonic wavelets were used to continuos, discrete and multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The results show the Fourier analysis was not able to detect changes in the signal frequencies or discontinuities. The STFT analysis detected the changes in the signal frequencies, but with time-frequency resolution problems. The wavelet continuos and discrete transform demonstrated to be a high efficient tool to detect

  18. Seismic signals hard clipping overcoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowa, Paula; Sokolowski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    In signal processing the clipping is understand as the phenomenon of limiting the signal beyond certain threshold. It is often related to overloading of a sensor. Two particular types of clipping are being recognized: soft and hard. Beyond the limiting value soft clipping reduces the signal real gain while the hard clipping stiffly sets the signal values at the limit. In both cases certain amount of signal information is lost. Obviously if one possess the model which describes the considered signal and the threshold value (which might be slightly more difficult to obtain in the soft clipping case), the attempt of restoring the signal can be made. Commonly it is assumed that the seismic signals take form of an impulse response of some specific system. This may lead to belief that the sine wave may be the most appropriate to fit in the clipping period. However, this should be tested. In this paper the possibility of overcoming the hard clipping in seismic signals originating from a geoseismic station belonging to an underground mine is considered. A set of raw signals will be hard-clipped manually and then couple different functions will be fitted and compared in terms of least squares. The results will be then analysed.

  19. Pleiotrophin Signaling Through PTNR in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powers, Ciaron

    2001-01-01

    ... of intracellular signaling cascades. The pleiotrophin signaling pathway is known to be important in angiogenesis and breast cancer growth, but the exact mechanisms of pleiotrophin signaling remain undefined...

  20. Kaempferol inhibits cell proliferation and glycolysis in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma via targeting EGFR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shihua; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Chunguang; Zhao, Tiejun; Jin, Hai; Fang, Wentao

    2016-08-01

    Antitumor activity of kaempferol has been studied in various tumor types, but its potency in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma is rarely known. Here, we reported the activity of kaempferol against esophagus squamous cell carcinoma as well as its antitumor mechanisms. Results of cell proliferation and colony formation assay showed that kaempferol substantially inhibited tumor cell proliferation and clone formation in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that tumor cells were induced G0/G1 phase arrest after kaempferol treatment, and the expression of protein involved in cell cycle regulation was dramatically changed. Except the potency on cell proliferation, we also discovered that kaempferol had a significant inhibitory effect against tumor glycolysis. With the downregulation of hexokinase-2, glucose uptake and lactate production in tumor cells were dramatically declined. Mechanism studies revealed kaempferol had a direct effect on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity, and along with the inhibition of EGFR, its downstream signaling pathways were also markedly suppressed. Further investigations found that exogenous overexpression of EGFR in tumor cells substantially attenuated glycolysis suppression induced by kaempferol, which implied that EGFR also played an important role in kaempferol-mediated glycolysis inhibition. Finally, the antitumor activity of kaempferol was validated in xenograft model and kaempferol prominently restrained tumor growth in vivo. Meanwhile, dramatic decrease of EGFR activity and hexokinase-2 expression were observed in kaempferol-treated tumor tissue, which confirmed these findings in vitro. Briefly, these studies suggested that kaempferol, or its analogues, may serve as effective candidates for esophagus squamous cell carcinoma management.

  1. Digitally programmable signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) includes a first memory from which data is written into a second memory formed of n banks. Each bank includes four memories and a multiplexer, the banks being read once during each time frame, the read-out bits being multiplexed and fed out serially in synchronism with a plurality of clock pulses occuring during a time frame. The resulting serial bit streams may be fed in parallel to a digital-to-analog converter. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material, optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range. (author)

  2. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  3. Multimodal signalling in estrildid finches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, A. C. R.; Funghi, C.; Soma, M.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual traits (e.g. visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multimodal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g. to increase the efficiency of communication) or that different signals trade off with each other...... (e.g. due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird...... compromise, but generally courtship dance also evolved independently from other signals. Instead of correlated evolution, we found that song, dance and colour are each related to different socio-ecological traits. Song complexity evolved together with ecological generalism, song performance with investment...

  4. Fundamentals of statistical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Steven M

    1993-01-01

    A unified presentation of parameter estimation for those involved in the design and implementation of statistical signal processing algorithms. Covers important approaches to obtaining an optimal estimator and analyzing its performance; and includes numerous examples as well as applications to real- world problems. MARKETS: For practicing engineers and scientists who design and analyze signal processing systems, i.e., to extract information from noisy signals — radar engineer, sonar engineer, geophysicist, oceanographer, biomedical engineer, communications engineer, economist, statistician, physicist, etc.

  5. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-09-30

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  6. Signal generation in gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.

    1993-01-01

    This tutorial describes the generation of electrical signals in gas detectors. Ionization of the gas by the passage of charged particles generates these signals. Starting with the Bethe-Bloch equation, the treatment is a general introduction to the production of ion-pairs in gas devices. I continue with the characterization of the ionization as an electrical signal, and calculate the signal current in a simple example. Another example demonstrates the effect of space charge on the design of a detector. The AGS Booster ionization profile monitor is a model for this calculation

  7. Paracrine signaling in a bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-07-15

    Cellular differentiation is triggered by extracellular signals that cause target cells to adopt a particular fate. Differentiation in bacteria typically involves autocrine signaling in which all cells in the population produce and respond to the same signal. Here we present evidence for paracrine signaling in bacterial populations-some cells produce a signal to which only certain target cells respond. Biofilm formation in Bacillus involves two centrally important signaling molecules, ComX and surfactin. ComX triggers the production of surfactin. In turn, surfactin causes a subpopulation of cells to produce an extracellular matrix. Cells that produced surfactin were themselves unable to respond to it. Likewise, once surfactin-responsive cells commenced matrix production, they no longer responded to ComX and could not become surfactin producers. Insensitivity to ComX was the consequence of the extracellular matrix as mutant cells unable to make matrix responded to both ComX and surfactin. Our results demonstrate that extracellular signaling was unidirectional, with one subpopulation producing a signal and a different subpopulation responding to it. Paracrine signaling in a bacterial population ensures the maintenance, over generations, of particular cell types even in the presence of molecules that would otherwise cause those cells to differentiate into other cell types.

  8. The Evolution of Covert Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Flamson, Thomas J; McElreath, Richard

    2018-03-20

    Human sociality depends upon the benefits of mutual aid and extensive communication. However, diverse norms and preferences complicate mutual aid, and ambiguity in meaning hinders communication. Here we demonstrate that these two problems can work together to enhance cooperation through the strategic use of deliberately ambiguous signals: covert signaling. Covert signaling is the transmission of information that is accurately received by its intended audience but obscured when perceived by others. Such signals may allow coordination and enhanced cooperation while also avoiding the alienation or hostile reactions of individuals with different preferences. Although the empirical literature has identified potential mechanisms of covert signaling, such as encryption in humor, there is to date no formal theory of its dynamics. We introduce a novel mathematical model to assess when a covert signaling strategy will evolve, as well as how receiver attitudes coevolve with covert signals. Covert signaling plausibly serves an important function in facilitating within-group cooperative assortment by allowing individuals to pair up with similar group members when possible and to get along with dissimilar ones when necessary. This mechanism has broad implications for theories of signaling and cooperation, humor, social identity, political psychology, and the evolution of human cultural complexity.

  9. Signal anomaly detection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, V.M.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Gloeckler, O.

    1988-08-01

    As part of a comprehensive signal validation system, we have developed a signal anomaly detector, without specifically establishing the cause of the anomaly. A signal recorded from process instrumentation is said to have an anomaly, if during steady-state operation, the deviation in the level of the signal, its root-mean-square (RMS) value, or its statistical distribution changes by a preset value. This deviation could be an unacceptable increase or a decrease in the quantity being monitored. An anomaly in a signal may be characterized by wideband or single-frequency noise, bias error, pulse-type error, nonsymmetric behavior, or a change in the signal bandwidth. Various signatures can be easily computed from data samples and compared against specified threshold values. We want to point out that in real processes, pulses can appear with different time widths, and at different rates of change of the signal. Thus, in characterizing an anomaly as a pulse-type, the fastest pulse width is constrained by the signal sampling interval. For example, if a signal is sampled at 100 Hz, we will not be able to detect pulses occurring at kHz rates. Discussion with utility and Combustion Engineering personnel indicated that it is not practical to detect pulses having a narrow time width. 9 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Thermal resonance in signal transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reigada, Ramon; Sarmiento, Antonio; Lindenberg, Katja

    2001-01-01

    We use temperature tuning to control signal propagation in simple one-dimensional arrays of masses connected by hard anharmonic springs and with no local potentials. In our numerical model a sustained signal is applied at one site of a chain immersed in a thermal environment and the signal-to-noise ratio is measured at each oscillator. We show that raising the temperature can lead to enhanced signal propagation along the chain, resulting in thermal resonance effects akin to the resonance observed in arrays of bistable systems

  11. Thermal resonance in signal transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigada, Ramon; Sarmiento, Antonio; Lindenberg, Katja

    2001-06-01

    We use temperature tuning to control signal propagation in simple one-dimensional arrays of masses connected by hard anharmonic springs and with no local potentials. In our numerical model a sustained signal is applied at one site of a chain immersed in a thermal environment and the signal-to-noise ratio is measured at each oscillator. We show that raising the temperature can lead to enhanced signal propagation along the chain, resulting in thermal resonance effects akin to the resonance observed in arrays of bistable systems.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide can modify differentiation and immunomodulatory potential of periodontal ligament stem cells via ERK1,2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolj, Tamara; Trivanović, Drenka; Djordjević, Ivana Okić; Mojsilović, Slavko; Krstić, Jelena; Obradović, Hristina; Janković, Srdja; Santibanez, Juan Francisco; Jauković, Aleksandra; Bugarski, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a pertinent deleterious factor in oral microenvironment for cells which are carriers of regenerative processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the emerging in vitro effects of LPS (Escherichia coli) on human periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) functions and associated signaling pathways. We demonstrated that LPS did not affect immunophenotype, proliferation, viability, and cell cycle of PDLSCs. However, LPS modified lineage commitment of PDLSCs inhibiting osteogenesis by downregulating Runx2, ALP, and Ocn mRNA expression, while stimulating chondrogenesis and adipogenesis by upregulating Sox9 and PPARγ mRNA expression. LPS promoted myofibroblast-like phenotype of PDLSCs, since it significantly enhanced PDLSC contractility, as well as protein and/or gene expression of TGF-β, fibronectin (FN), α-SMA, and NG2. LPS also increased protein and gene expression levels of anti-inflammatory COX-2 and pro-inflammatory IL-6 molecules in PDLSCs. Inhibition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) transendothelial migration in presence of LPS-treated PDLSCs was accompanied by the reduction of CD29 expression within MNCs. However, LPS treatment did not change the inhibitory effect of PDLSCs on mitogen-stimulated proliferation of CD4 + and the ratio of CD4 + CD25 high /CD4 + CD25 low lymphocytes. LPS-treated PDLSCs did not change the frequency of CD34 + and CD45 + cells, but decreased the frequency of CD33 + and CD14 + myeloid cells within MNCs. Moreover, LPS treatment attenuated the stimulatory effect of PDLSCs on CFC activity of MNCs, predominantly the CFU-GM number. The results indicated that LPS-activated ERK1,2 was at least partly involved in the observed effects on PDLSC differentiation capacity, acquisition of myofibroblastic attributes, and changes of their immunomodulatory features. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Stochastic resonance and stability for a stochastic metapopulation system subjected to non-Gaussian noise and multiplicative periodic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang-Kang, Wang; Xian-Bin, Liu; Yu, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the stability and stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon induced by the multiplicative periodic signal for a metapopulation system driven by the additive Gaussian noise, multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and noise correlation time is investigated. By using the fast descent method, unified colored noise approximation and McNamara and Wiesenfeld’s SR theory, the analytical expressions of the stationary probability distribution function and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are derived in the adiabatic limit. Via numerical calculations, each effect of the addictive noise intensity, the multiplicative noise intensity and the correlation time upon the steady state probability distribution function and the SNR is discussed, respectively. It is shown that multiplicative, additive noises and the departure parameter from the Gaussian noise can all destroy the stability of the population system. However, the noise correlation time can consolidate the stability of the system. On the other hand, the correlation time always plays an important role in motivating the SR and enhancing the SNR. Under different parameter conditions of the system, the multiplicative, additive noises and the departure parameter can not only excite SR phenomenon, but also restrain the SR phenomenon, which demonstrates the complexity of different noises upon the nonlinear system. (paper)

  14. Smoke Signal or Smoke Screen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergne, Jean-Philippe; Wernicke, Georg; Brenner, Steffen

    This paper explains the amount of disapproval faced by firms that overpay their CEO by integrating signaling and categorization theories. We argue that, in contexts characterized by intense scrutiny, ambivalent signals sent by firms suspend categorization by stakeholders, leading to further disap...

  15. Signals and systems with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Won Young; Song, Ik H; Cho, Yong S

    2009-01-01

    Covers some of the theoretical foundations and mathematical derivations that can be used in higher-level related subjects such as signal processing, communication, and control, minimizing the mathematical difficulty and computational burden. This book illustrates the usage of MATLAB and Simulink for signal and system analysis and design.

  16. Signaling equilibria in sensorimotor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibfried, Felix; Grau-Moya, Jordi; Braun, Daniel A

    2015-08-01

    Although complex forms of communication like human language are often assumed to have evolved out of more simple forms of sensorimotor signaling, less attention has been devoted to investigate the latter. Here, we study communicative sensorimotor behavior of humans in a two-person joint motor task where each player controls one dimension of a planar motion. We designed this joint task as a game where one player (the sender) possesses private information about a hidden target the other player (the receiver) wants to know about, and where the sender's actions are costly signals that influence the receiver's control strategy. We developed a game-theoretic model within the framework of signaling games to investigate whether subjects' behavior could be adequately described by the corresponding equilibrium solutions. The model predicts both separating and pooling equilibria, in which signaling does and does not occur respectively. We observed both kinds of equilibria in subjects and found that, in line with model predictions, the propensity of signaling decreased with increasing signaling costs and decreasing uncertainty on the part of the receiver. Our study demonstrates that signaling games, which have previously been applied to economic decision-making and animal communication, provide a framework for human signaling behavior arising during sensorimotor interactions in continuous and dynamic environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Noisy signaling: theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce noise in the signaling technology of an otherwise standard wasteful signaling model (Spence, 1973). We theoretically derive the properties of the equilibria under different levels of noise and we experimentally test how behavior changes with noise. We obtain three main insights. First,

  18. Signals in Communication Engineering History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Denise; Silva, Magno T. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark…

  19. Non-Smad signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yabing; Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Landström, Maréne

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is a key regulator of cell fate during embryogenesis and has also emerged as a potent driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition during tumor progression. TGFβ signals are transduced by transmembrane type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (TβRI and TβRII, respectively). The activated TβR complex phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3, converting them into transcriptional regulators that complex with Smad4. TGFβ also uses non-Smad signaling pathways such as the p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways to convey its signals. Ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and TGFβ-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) have recently been shown to be crucial for the activation of the p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Other TGFβ-induced non-Smad signaling pathways include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway, the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, and the Ras-Erk-MAPK pathway. Signals induced by TGFβ are tightly regulated and specified by post-translational modifications of the signaling components, since they dictate the subcellular localization, activity, and duration of the signal. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the field of TGFβ-induced responses by non-Smad signaling pathways.

  20. Signal analysis of ventricular fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbschleb, J.N.; Heethaar, R.M.; Tweel, L.H. van der; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.

    Signal analysis of electro(cardio)grams during ventricular fibrillation (VF) in dogs and human patients indicates more organization and regularity than the official WHO definition suggests. The majority of the signal is characterized by a power spectrum with narrow, equidistant peaks. In a further

  1. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Cré peau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum

  2. Signaling a Change of Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    introduced welfare state retrenchment measures. Social Democrats can win votes and join coalitions by shifting rightwards. In contrast, they can pursue policy objectives by shifting leftwards. To communicate these shifts, in other words, ‘changes of heart’, parties send signals to voters and other parties...... after having signalled ‘a change of heart’....

  3. Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can be of crucial importance for the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways have also been shown to be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials, effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future.

  4. Algebraic Methods to Design Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    to date on designing signals using algebraic and combinatorial methods. Mathematical tools from algebraic number theory, representation theory and... combinatorial objects in designing signals for communication purposes. Sequences and arrays with desirable autocorrelation properties have many...multiple access methods in mobile radio communication systems. We continue our mathematical framework based on group algebras, character theory

  5. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal...

  6. Mucin 4 Gene Silencing Reduces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Through the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Pathway in Nephrolithiasis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Sun

    2018-05-01

    -Px, CAT and SOD levels in the cultured supernatant were increased. Moreover, MUC4 silencing or ERK signaling pathway inactivation may decrease the formation of CaOx crystals. Conclusion: Taken together, silencing of MUC4 can inactivate the ERK signaling pathway and further restrain oxidative stress and CaOx crystal formation in RTEC. Thus, MUC4 represents a potential investigative focus target in nephrolithiasis.

  7. Signal processing for radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nakhostin, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a clear understanding of the principles of signal processing of radiation detectors. It puts great emphasis on the characteristics of pulses from various types of detectors and offers a full overview on the basic concepts required to understand detector signal processing systems and pulse processing techniques. Signal Processing for Radiation Detectors covers all of the important aspects of signal processing, including energy spectroscopy, timing measurements, position-sensing, pulse-shape discrimination, and radiation intensity measurement. The book encompasses a wide range of applications so that readers from different disciplines can benefit from all of the information. In addition, this resource: * Describes both analog and digital techniques of signal processing * Presents a complete compilation of digital pulse processing algorithms * Extrapolates content from more than 700 references covering classic papers as well as those of today * Demonstrates concepts with more than 340 origin...

  8. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Teng, Lei; Pyko, Ilya V.; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies

  9. Formation of Foamy Macrophages by Tuberculous Pleural Effusions Is Triggered by the Interleukin-10/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Axis through ACAT Upregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Genoula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb to persist in its human host relies on numerous immune evasion strategies, such as the deregulation of the lipid metabolism leading to the formation of foamy macrophages (FM. Yet, the specific host factors leading to the foamy phenotype of Mtb-infected macrophages remain unknown. Herein, we aimed to address whether host cytokines contribute to FM formation in the context of Mtb infection. Our approach is based on the use of an acellular fraction of tuberculous pleural effusions (TB-PE as a physiological source of local factors released during Mtb infection. We found that TB-PE induced FM differentiation as observed by the increase in lipid bodies, intracellular cholesterol, and expression of the scavenger receptor CD36, as well as the enzyme acyl CoA:cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT. Importantly, interleukin-10 (IL-10 depletion from TB-PE prevented the augmentation of all these parameters. Moreover, we observed a positive correlation between the levels of IL-10 and the number of lipid-laden CD14+ cells among the pleural cells in TB patients, demonstrating that FM differentiation occurs within the pleural environment. Downstream of IL-10 signaling, we noticed that the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was activated by TB-PE, and its chemical inhibition prevented the accumulation of lipid bodies and ACAT expression in macrophages. In terms of the host immune response, TB-PE-treated macrophages displayed immunosuppressive properties and bore higher bacillary loads. Finally, we confirmed our results using bone marrow-derived macrophage from IL-10−/− mice demonstrating that IL-10 deficiency partially prevented foamy phenotype induction after Mtb lipids exposure. In conclusion, our results evidence a role of IL-10 in promoting the differentiation of FM in the context of Mtb infection, contributing to our understanding of how alterations of the host metabolic

  10. Quorum Quenching Revisited—From Signal Decays to Signalling Confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In a polymicrobial community, while some bacteria are communicating with neighboring cells (quorum sensing, others are interrupting the communication (quorum quenching, thus creating a constant arms race between intercellular communication. In the past decade, numerous quorum quenching enzymes have been found and initially thought to inactivate the signalling molecules. Though this is widely accepted, the actual roles of these quorum quenching enzymes are now being uncovered. Recent evidence extends the role of quorum quenching to detoxification or metabolism of signalling molecules as food and energy source; this includes “signalling confusion”, a term coined in this paper to refer to the phenomenon of non-destructive modification of signalling molecules. While quorum quenching has been explored as a novel anti-infective therapy targeting, quorum sensing evidence begins to show the development of resistance against quorum quenching.

  11. DHEA-induced ovarian hyperfibrosis is mediated by TGF-β signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojuan; Wang, Wenqing; Liang, Qiao; He, Xuan; Xia, Yanjie; Shen, Shanmei; Wang, Hongwei; Gao, Qian; Wang, Yong

    2018-01-10

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic and endocrine disorder with pathological mechanisms remain unclear. The following study investigates the ovarian hyperfibrosis forming via transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway in Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)- induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model. We furthermore explored whether TGF-βRI inhibitor (SB431542) decreases ovarian fibrosis by counterbalancing the expression of fibrotic biomarkers. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Blank group (n = 6), Oil group (n = 6), and Oil + DHEA-induced model group (n = 6 + 12). The model groups were established by subcutaneous injection of DHEA for 35 consecutive days. The 12 successful model rats were additionally divided in vehicle group (n = 6) and SB431542-treated group (n = 6). Vehicle group and SB431542-treated group, served as administration group and were intraperitoneally injected with DMSO and SB431542 for additional 14 consecutive days. Ovarian morphology, fibrin and collagen localization and expression in ovaries were detected using H&E staining, immunohistochemistry and Sirius red staining. The ovarian protein and RNA were examined using Western blot and RT-PCR. In DHEA-induced ovary in rat, fibrin and collagen had significantly higher levels, while the main fibrosis markers (TGF-β, CTGF, fibronectin, a-SMA) were obviously upregulated. SB431542 significantly reduced the expression of pro-fibrotic molecules (TGF-β, Smad3, Smad2, a-SMA) and increased anti-fibrotic factor MMP2. TGF-βRI inhibitor (SB431542) inhibits the downstream signaling molecules of TGF-β and upregulates MMP2, which in turn prevent collagen deposition. Moreover, ovarian hyperfibrosis in DHEA-induced PCOS rat model could be improved by TGF-βRI inhibitor (SB431542) restraining the transcription of accelerating fibrosis genes and modulating EMT mediator.

  12. Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Additional Signal Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    device performance standard that addresses Coast Guard project sponsor and stakeholders needs. 17. Key Words Visual Distress Signal Device (VDSD...devices. The report discussed the concept of “effective intensity,” as used by the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse...efficacy of Cyan as a signal color. In order to move forward, the RDC project team met with CG-ENG-4 and other Coast Guard stakeholders (Offices of

  13. Fast digitizing and digital signal processing of detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaske, Roland

    2008-01-01

    A fast-digitizer data acquisition system recently installed at the neutron time-of-flight experiment nELBE, which is located at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, is tested with two different detector types. Preamplifier signals from a high-purity germanium detector are digitized, stored and finally processed. For a precise determination of the energy of the detected radiation, the moving-window deconvolution algorithm is used to compensate the ballistic deficit and different shaping algorithms are applied. The energy resolution is determined in an experiment with γ-rays from a 22 Na source and is compared to the energy resolution achieved with analogously processed signals. On the other hand, signals from the photomultipliers of barium fluoride and plastic scintillation detectors are digitized. These signals have risetimes of a few nanoseconds only. The moment of interaction of the radiation with the detector is determined by methods of digital signal processing. Therefore, different timing algorithms are implemented and tested with data from an experiment at nELBE. The time resolutions achieved with these algorithms are compared to each other as well as to reference values coming from analog signal processing. In addition to these experiments, some properties of the digitizing hardware are measured and a program for the analysis of stored, digitized data is developed. The analysis of the signals shows that the energy resolution achieved with the 10-bit digitizer system used here is not competitive to a 14-bit peak-sensing ADC, although the ballistic deficit can be fully corrected. However, digital methods give better result in sub-ns timing than analog signal processing. (orig.)

  14. Advanced optical signal processing of broadband parallel data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Hu, Hao; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration.......Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration....

  15. ESR signals of irradiated insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Kameya, Hiromi; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of irradiated insects using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was reported. The insects were maize weevil, red flour beetle, Indian meal moth and cigarette beetle that are hazardous to crops. The ESR spectra were consisted of a singlet at g=2 and a sextet centered at the similar g-value. The singlet signal is due to an organic free radical. The sextet signal is attributable to the hyperfine interactions from Mn 2+ ions. Upon irradiation, new signals were not detected. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , showed no variations before and after irradiation. (author)

  16. Statistical theory of signal detection

    CERN Document Server

    Helstrom, Carl Wilhelm; Costrell, L; Kandiah, K

    1968-01-01

    Statistical Theory of Signal Detection, Second Edition provides an elementary introduction to the theory of statistical testing of hypotheses that is related to the detection of signals in radar and communications technology. This book presents a comprehensive survey of digital communication systems. Organized into 11 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the theory of signal detection and the typical detection problem. This text then examines the goals of the detection system, which are defined through an analogy with the testing of statistical hypotheses. Other chapters consider

  17. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  18. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  19. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... methods for coded imaging, with the goal of making better anatomic and flow images and three-dimensional images. On the first stage, it investigates techniques for doing high-resolution coded imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional imaging. Subsequently it investigates how...... coded excitation can be used for increasing the frame rate. The work includes both simulated results using Field II, and experimental results based on measurements on phantoms as well as clinical images. Initially a mathematical foundation of signal modulation is given. Pulse compression based...

  20. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  1. Zufällige Signale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Die hier betrachteten Signale werden auch als stochastische Signale bezeichnet. Sie sind zufällig, d. h. ihr Augenblickswert ist nicht vorhersagbar. Abb. 118.1 zeigt eine Unterteilung nach den Signaleigenschaften. Über die nichtstationären Signale lässt sich keinerlei Aussage machen, und sie werden hier deshalb auch nicht weiter betrachtet. Für die stationären Signale gilt, dass ihr Momentanwert zwar auch nicht vorhergesagt werden kann, dass sie aber trotzdem gewisse auswertbare Eigenschaften besitzen, die allerdings statistischer Art sind und deshalb nur mit den Gesetzen der Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie erfasst werden können. Zwar sind - theoretisch - für die Anwendung der Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie unendlich viele Probenwerte zu nehmen, in der Praxis hat sich aber gezeigt, dass man auch mit einer endlichen Anzahl dem gesuchten Wert schon ausreichend nahe kommen kann.

  2. Signal Incongruence and its Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergne, Jean-Philippe; Wernicke, Maria Stokholm; Brenner, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    theory on signal incongruence, we find that firms engaged in philanthropy receive more media disapproval when they overcompensate their CEO, but they are also more likely to decrease CEO overcompensation as a response. Our study contributes to the signaling literature by theorizing about signal......We draw on the signaling and infomediary literatures to examine how media evaluations of CEO overcompensation (a negative cue associated with selfishness and greed) are affected by the presence of corporate philanthropy (a positive cue associated with altruism and generosity). In line with our...... incongruence, and to infomediary and corporate governance research by showing that media disapproval can lead to lower executive compensation. We also reconcile two conflicting views on firm prosocial behavior by showing that, in the presence of incongruent cues, philanthropy can simultaneously enhance...

  3. Mathematical Modelling Plant Signalling Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.; Byrne, H.M.; King, J.R.; Bennett, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    methods for modelling gene and signalling networks and their application in plants. We then describe specific models of hormonal perception and cross-talk in plants. This mathematical analysis of sub-cellular molecular mechanisms paves the way for more

  4. Signal transforms in dynamic measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Layer, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the analysis of measurement signals which requires specific mathematical operations like Convolution, Deconvolution, Laplace, Fourier, Hilbert, Wavelet or Z transform which are all presented in the present book. The different problems refer to the modulation of signals, filtration of disturbance as well as to the orthogonal signals and their use in digital form for the measurement of current, voltage, power and frequency are also widely discussed. All the topics covered in this book are presented in detail and illustrated by means of examples in MathCad and LabVIEW. This book provides a useful source for researchers, scientists and engineers who in their daily work are required to deal with problems of measurement and signal processing and can also be helpful to undergraduate students of electrical engineering.    

  5. Dopamine signaling: target in glioblastoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), 1116-1117 ISSN 1949-2553 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Dopamine signaling * glioblastoma * MAPK Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.359, year: 2014

  6. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  7. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  8. Identification of amino-acid residues in the V protein of peste des petits ruminants essential for interference and suppression of STAT-mediated interferon signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xusheng, E-mail: maxushengtt@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Yang, Xing [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Nian, Xiaofeng [Institute of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 07500 (China); Zhang, Zhidong; Dou, Yongxi [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Xuehu [Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou (China); Luo, Xuenong; Su, Junhong; Zhu, Qiyun [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China); Cai, Xuepeng, E-mail: caixp@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a fatal disease in small ruminants. V protein of PPRV plays a pivotal role in interfering with host innate immunity by blocking IFNs signaling through interacting with STAT1 and STAT2. In the present study, the results demonstrated that PPRV V protein blocks IFN actions in a dose dependent manner and restrains the translocation of STAT1/2 proteins. We speculate that the translocation inhibition might be caused by the interfering of the downstream of STAT protein. Mutagenesis defines that Cys cluster and Trp motif of PPRV V protein are essential for STAT-mediated IFN signaling. These findings give a new sight for the further studies to understand the delicate mechanism of PPRV to escape the IFN signaling. - Highlights: • PPRV V protein inhibits type I IFN production and blocks its activation. • PPRV V protein negatively regulates activation of ISRE and GAS promoter. • PPRV V protein inhibits nuclear translocation of STAT protein by non-degradation. • PNT and VCT domain of PPRV V protein inhibit IFN transduction. • PPRV V protein binds with STAT protein via some conserved motifs.

  9. Roquin Suppresses the PI3K-mTOR Signaling Pathway to Inhibit T Helper Cell Differentiation and Conversion of Treg to Tfr Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Katharina; Hu, Desheng; Guimaraes, Joao C; Alterauge, Dominik; Edelmann, Stephanie; Raj, Timsse; Kranich, Jan; Behrens, Gesine; Heiseke, Alexander; Floess, Stefan; Klein, Juliane; Maiser, Andreas; Marschall, Susan; Hrabĕ de Angelis, Martin; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Calkhoven, Cornelis F; Noessner, Elfriede; Brocker, Thomas; Huehn, Jochen; Krug, Anne B; Zavolan, Mihaela; Baumjohann, Dirk; Heissmeyer, Vigo

    2017-12-19

    Roquin proteins preclude spontaneous T cell activation and aberrant differentiation of T follicular helper (Tfh) or T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here we showed that deletion of Roquin-encoding alleles specifically in regulatory T (Treg) cells also caused the activation of conventional T cells. Roquin-deficient Treg cells downregulated CD25, acquired a follicular Treg (Tfr) cell phenotype, and suppressed germinal center reactions but could not protect from colitis. Roquin inhibited the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway by upregulation of Pten through interfering with miR-17∼92 binding to an overlapping cis-element in the Pten 3' UTR, and downregulated the Foxo1-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch. Loss of Roquin enhanced Akt-mTOR signaling and protein synthesis, whereas inhibition of PI3K or mTOR in Roquin-deficient T cells corrected enhanced Tfh and Th17 or reduced iTreg cell differentiation. Thereby, Roquin-mediated control of PI3K-mTOR signaling prevents autoimmunity by restraining activation and differentiation of conventional T cells and specialization of Treg cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intercellular signalling in Stigmatella aurantiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, W; Ulrich, S H

    1999-12-01

    The myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca is a prokaryotic model used to study intercellular signalling and the genetic determination of morphogenesis. Signalling factors and genes required for the generation of the elaborate multicellular fruiting body are to be identified. Recently, the structure of stigmolone, which is the pheromone necessary for fruiting body formation, was elucidated, and genes involved in development were characterised. Progress has also been made in the genetic accessibility of S. aurantiaca.

  11. Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sentiment analysis for PTSD signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Vadim; Sapounas, Demetrios

    2013-01-01

    This book describes a computational framework for real-time detection of psychological signals related to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in online text-based posts, including blogs and web forums. Further, it explores how emerging computational techniques such as sentiment mining can be used in real-time to identify posts that contain PTSD-related signals, flag those posts, and bring them to the attention of psychologists, thus providing an automated flag and referral capability.

  13. Aberrant Wnt Signaling in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. T. Staal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt signaling pathway is essential in the development and homeostasis of blood and immune cells, but its exact role is still controversial and is the subject of intense research. The malignant counterpart of normal hematopoietic cells, leukemic (stem cells, have hijacked the Wnt pathway for their self-renewal and proliferation. Here we review the multiple ways dysregulated Wnt signaling can contribute to leukemogenesis, both cell autonomously as well as by changes in the microenvironment.

  14. Wnt signaling in limb organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha-Loganathan, Poongodi; Nimmagadda, Suresh; Scaal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Secreted signaling molecules of the Wnt family have been found to play a central role in controlling embryonic development of a wide range of taxa from Hydra to humans. The most extensively studied Wnt signaling pathway is the canonical Wnt pathway, which controls gene expression by stabilizing β-catenin, and regulates a multitude of developmental processes. More recently, noncanonical Wnt pathways, which are β-catenin-independent, have been found to be important developmental regulators. Und...

  15. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deprettere, Ed; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Signal Processing Systems is organized in three parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools, describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies. This handbook is an essential tool for professionals in many fields and researchers of all levels.

  16. Hedgehog Signaling in Endochondral Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Ohba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays crucial roles in the patterning and morphogenesis of various organs within the bodies of vertebrates and insects. Endochondral ossification is one of the notable developmental events in which Hh signaling acts as a master regulator. Among three Hh proteins in mammals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh is known to work as a major Hh input that induces biological impact of Hh signaling on the endochondral ossification. Ihh is expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes of developing endochondral bones. Genetic studies so far have demonstrated that the Ihh-mediated activation of Hh signaling synchronizes chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during endochondral ossification by regulating the following processes: (1 chondrocyte differentiation; (2 chondrocyte proliferation; and (3 specification of bone-forming osteoblasts. Ihh not only forms a negative feedback loop with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP to maintain the growth plate length, but also directly promotes chondrocyte propagation. Ihh input is required for the specification of progenitors into osteoblast precursors. The combinatorial approaches of genome-wide analyses and mouse genetics will facilitate understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the roles of Hh signaling in endochondral ossification, providing genome-level evidence of the potential of Hh signaling for the treatment of skeletal disorders.

  17. Hedgehog Signaling in Endochondral Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays crucial roles in the patterning and morphogenesis of various organs within the bodies of vertebrates and insects. Endochondral ossification is one of the notable developmental events in which Hh signaling acts as a master regulator. Among three Hh proteins in mammals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is known to work as a major Hh input that induces biological impact of Hh signaling on the endochondral ossification. Ihh is expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes of developing endochondral bones. Genetic studies so far have demonstrated that the Ihh-mediated activation of Hh signaling synchronizes chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during endochondral ossification by regulating the following processes: (1) chondrocyte differentiation; (2) chondrocyte proliferation; and (3) specification of bone-forming osteoblasts. Ihh not only forms a negative feedback loop with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) to maintain the growth plate length, but also directly promotes chondrocyte propagation. Ihh input is required for the specification of progenitors into osteoblast precursors. The combinatorial approaches of genome-wide analyses and mouse genetics will facilitate understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the roles of Hh signaling in endochondral ossification, providing genome-level evidence of the potential of Hh signaling for the treatment of skeletal disorders. PMID:29615586

  18. Metabolites in vertebrate Hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Strand, Martin Frank; Krauss, Stefan; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2014-04-11

    The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is critical in embryonic development, stem cell biology, tissue homeostasis, chemoattraction and synapse formation. Irregular HH signaling is associated with a number of disease conditions including congenital disorders and cancer. In particular, deregulation of HH signaling has been linked to skin, brain, lung, colon and pancreatic cancers. Key mediators of the HH signaling pathway are the 12-pass membrane protein Patched (PTC), the 7-pass membrane protein Smoothened (SMO) and the GLI transcription factors. PTC shares homology with the RND family of small-molecule transporters and it has been proposed that it interferes with SMO through metabolites. Although a conclusive picture is lacking, substantial efforts are made to identify and understand natural metabolites/sterols, including cholesterol, vitamin D3, oxysterols and glucocorticoides, that may be affected by, or influence the HH signaling cascade at the level of PTC and SMO. In this review we will elaborate the role of metabolites in HH signaling with a focus on oxysterols, and discuss advancements in modern analytical approaches in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawal, Humaira Aziz; Asghar, Kashif; Bureik, Matthias; Jalal, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells) that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to pursue this field of science.

  20. Insulin Signaling and Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Christian; Abel, E. Dale

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin resistant states such as type 2 diabetes and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead (FOXO) transcriptional signaling or glucose transport which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed. PMID:27034277

  1. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  2. Proinflammatory cytokines and CD14 expression in mammary tissue of cows following intramammary inoculation of Panax ginseng at drying off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalle, C; Dallard, B E; Cadoche, M C; Pereyra, E A L; Neder, V E; Ortega, H H; Calvinho, L F

    2011-11-15

    The lack of efficacy of conventional strategies for the maintenance of healthy udders in domestic cattle has prompted studies on the use of immunomodulators or biological response modifiers (BRM) for this purpose. These compounds are agents that modify the host's response to pathogens leading to beneficial effects on disease outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng (GS) extract on the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the number of monocytes/macrophages present in bovine mammary tissues at drying off. Eight mammary quarters from six nonpregnant cows in late lactation were infused with 10 mL of GS (3mg/mL), six quarters were treated with 10 mL of placebo (vehicle alone) and six quarters were maintained as uninoculated controls. The analyses of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by immunohistochemistry revealed that the production of this proinflammatory cytokine significantly increased (Pmastitis at drying off, either alone or in conjunction with dry cow antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential roles of CD14 and toll-like receptors 4 and 2 in murine Acinetobacter pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, Sylvia; Wieland, Catharina W.; Florquin, Sandrine; Pantophlet, Ralph; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Tshimbalanga, Ntambua; Akira, Shizuo; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is increasingly associated with gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia, but the molecular mechanisms that play a role in innate defenses during A. baumannii infection have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To gain first insight

  4. DMPD: Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  5. Comparison of two apheresis systems for the collection of CD14+ cells intended to be used in dendritic cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Erwin F; Berger, Thomas G; Weisbach, Volker; Zimmermann, Robert; Ringwald, Jürgen; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Zingsem, Jürgen; Eckstein, Reinhold

    2003-09-01

    Monocytes collected by leukapheresis are increasingly used for dendritic cell (DC) culture in cell factories suitable for DC vaccination in cancer. Using modified MNC programs on two apheresis systems (Cobe Spectra and Fresenius AS.TEC204), leukapheresis components collected from 84 patients with metastatic malignant melanoma and from 31 healthy male donors were investigated. MNCs, monocytes, RBCs, and platelets (PLTs) in donors and components were analyzed by cell counters, WBC differential counts, and flow cytometry. In 5-L collections, Astec showed better results regarding monocyte collection rates (11.0 vs. 7.4 x 10(6)/min, p = 0.04) and efficiencies (collection efficiency, 51.9 vs. 31.9%; p Astec components contained high residual RBCs. Compared to components with low residual PLTs, high PLT concentration resulted in higher monocyte loss (48 vs. 20%, p Astec is more efficient in 5-L MNC collections compared to the Spectra. Components with high residual PLTs result in high MNC loss by purification procedures. Thus, optimizing MNC programs is essential to obtain components with high MNC yields and low residual cells as prerequisite for high DC yields.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (sCD14-ST) as a biomarker of infection and sepsis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guadiana Romualdo, Luis García; Torrella, Patricia Esteban; Acebes, Sergio Rebollo; Otón, María Dolores Albaladejo; Sánchez, Roberto Jiménez; Holgado, Ana Hernando; Santos, Enrique Jiménez; Freire, Alejandro Ortín

    2017-01-01

    Presepsin is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of sepsis. However, results reported about its value to diagnose sepsis in an emergency department (ED) are controversial, probably due to differences in the design of the studies. We have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin for infection and sepsis, compared with procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP), in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected infection. 223 patients with suspected infection were enrolled for the study. Blood samples were collected on admission for measurement of biomarkers. Definitive diagnosis was obtained afterwards by analysis of digital medical records. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to determine the diagnostic accuracy. Infection was confirmed in 200 patients, including 130 with non-complicated infection and 70 with sepsis. Median CRP, PCT and presepsin levels were significantly higher in patients with infection and sepsis. PCT was the biomarker with the highest performance for infection (ROC AUC: 0.910); for sepsis, PCT (ROC AUC: 0.815) and presepsin (ROC AUC: 0.775) shown a similar performance. Although presepsin is a valuable biomarker for diagnosis of infection and sepsis, its diagnostic accuracy in our study does not improve that of PCT. Its introduction in clinical practice is not justified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawal HA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humaira Aziz Sawal,1 Kashif Asghar,2 Matthias Bureik,3 Nasir Jalal4 1Healthcare Biotechnology Department, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, 2Basic Sciences Research, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Health Science Platform, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; 4Health Science Platform, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China Abstract: The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to

  8. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  9. Overlay Spectrum Sharing using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    in overlay cognitive radio system, where the secondary transmitter broadcasts a mixture of two different signals. The first signal is selected from the PGS scheme to match the primary message transmission. On the other hand, the second signal is chosen

  10. 300 Area signal cable study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  11. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  12. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  13. Signal analysis for failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parpaglione, M.C.; Perez, L.V.; Rubio, D.A.; Czibener, D.; D'Attellis, C.E.; Brudny, P.I.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Several methods for analysis of acoustic emission signals are presented. They are mainly oriented to detection of changes in noisy signals and characterization of higher amplitude discrete pulses or bursts. The aim was to relate changes and events with failure, crack or wear in materials, being the final goal to obtain automatic means of detecting such changes and/or events. Performance evaluation was made using both simulated and laboratory test signals. The methods being presented are the following: 1. Application of the Hopfield Neural Network (NN) model for classifying faults in pipes and detecting wear of a bearing. 2. Application of the Kohonnen and Back Propagation Neural Network model for the same problem. 3. Application of Kalman filtering to determine time occurrence of bursts. 4. Application of a bank of Kalman filters (KF) for failure detection in pipes. 5. Study of amplitude distribution of signals for detecting changes in their shape. 6. Application of the entropy distance to measure differences between signals. (author). 10 refs, 11 figs

  14. Leaders in Interdependent Contexts Suppress Nonverbal Assertiveness: A Multilevel Analysis of Japanese University Club Leaders' and Members' Rank Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Atsuki; Gobel, Matthias S; Uchida, Yukiko

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that leadership is signaled through nonverbal assertiveness. However, those studies have been mostly conducted in individualistic cultural contexts, such as in the U.S. Here, we suggest that one important strategy for goal attainment in collectivistic cultures is for leaders to self-regulate their behaviors. Thus, contrary to the previous evidence from individualistic cultural contexts, in collectivistic cultural contexts, leaders might suppress nonverbal assertiveness. To test this possibility, we assessed nonverbal behaviors (NVB) of Japanese leaders and members, and how they were evaluated by observers. We recruited Japanese leaders and members of university clubs and video-recorded them while introducing their club. Then, we coded their nonverbal rank signaling behavior. Finally, we asked a new set of naïve observers to watch these video-clips and to judge targets' suitability for being possible club leaders. Results of a multilevel analysis (level 1: individual participants, level 2: clubs) suggested that the more the club culture focused on tasks (rather than relationships), the more likely were leaders (but not members) of those clubs to suppress their nonverbal assertiveness. Naïve observers judged individuals who restrained from emitting nonverbal assertiveness as being more suitable and worthy club leaders. Thus, our findings demonstrate the cultural fit between contextual effects at the collective level (i.e., cultural orientation of a group) and the signaling and perceiving of social ranks at the individual level (i.e., suppression of nonverbal assertiveness). We discuss the importance of studying the cultural fit between the collective reality that people inhabit and people's psychology for future research in cultural psychology.

  15. Leaders in Interdependent Contexts Suppress Nonverbal Assertiveness: A Multilevel Analysis of Japanese University Club Leaders' and Members' Rank Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Ito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that leadership is signaled through nonverbal assertiveness. However, those studies have been mostly conducted in individualistic cultural contexts, such as in the U.S. Here, we suggest that one important strategy for goal attainment in collectivistic cultures is for leaders to self-regulate their behaviors. Thus, contrary to the previous evidence from individualistic cultural contexts, in collectivistic cultural contexts, leaders might suppress nonverbal assertiveness. To test this possibility, we assessed nonverbal behaviors (NVB of Japanese leaders and members, and how they were evaluated by observers. We recruited Japanese leaders and members of university clubs and video-recorded them while introducing their club. Then, we coded their nonverbal rank signaling behavior. Finally, we asked a new set of naïve observers to watch these video-clips and to judge targets' suitability for being possible club leaders. Results of a multilevel analysis (level 1: individual participants, level 2: clubs suggested that the more the club culture focused on tasks (rather than relationships, the more likely were leaders (but not members of those clubs to suppress their nonverbal assertiveness. Naïve observers judged individuals who restrained from emitting nonverbal assertiveness as being more suitable and worthy club leaders. Thus, our findings demonstrate the cultural fit between contextual effects at the collective level (i.e., cultural orientation of a group and the signaling and perceiving of social ranks at the individual level (i.e., suppression of nonverbal assertiveness. We discuss the importance of studying the cultural fit between the collective reality that people inhabit and people's psychology for future research in cultural psychology.

  16. Neurotrophin signaling and visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Li-Ya

    2014-06-01

    Neurotrophin family are traditionally recognized for their nerve growth promoting function and are recently identified as crucial factors in regulating neuronal activity in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The family members including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) are reported to have distinct roles in the development and maintenance of sensory phenotypes in normal states and in the modulation of sensory activity in disease. This paper highlights receptor tyrosine kinase (Trk) -mediated signal transduction by which neurotrophins regulate neuronal activity in the visceral sensory reflex pathways with emphasis on the distinct roles of NGF and BDNF signaling in physiologic and pathophysiological processes. Viscero-visceral cross-organ sensitization exists widely in human diseases. The role of neurotrophins in mediating neural cross talk and interaction in primary afferent neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and neurotrophin signal transduction in the context of cross-organ sensitization are also discussed.

  17. Cytokinin signaling during root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishopp, Anthony; Help, Hanna; Helariutta, Ykä

    2009-01-01

    The cytokinin class of phytohormones regulates division and differentiation of plant cells. They are perceived and signaled by a phosphorelay mechanism similar to those observed in prokaryotes. Research into the components of phosphorelay had previously been marred by genetic redundancy. However, recent studies have addressed this with the creation of high-order mutants. In addition, several new elements regulating cytokinin signaling have been identified. This has uncovered many roles in diverse developmental and physiological processes. In this review, we look at these processes specifically in the context of root development. We focus on the formation and maintenance of the root apical meristem, primary and secondary vascular development, lateral root emergence and development, and root nodulation. We believe that the root is an ideal organ with which to investigate cytokinin signaling in a wider context.

  18. Neural networks in signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Engineering has matured during the last decade. In research and design, control, supervision, maintenance and production, mathematical models and theories are used extensively. In all such applications signal processing is embedded in the process. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), because of their nonlinear, adaptive nature are well suited to such applications where the classical assumptions of linearity and second order Gaussian noise statistics cannot be made. ANN's can be treated as nonparametric techniques, which can model an underlying process from example data. They can also adopt their model parameters to statistical change with time. Algorithms in the framework of Neural Networks in Signal processing have found new applications potentials in the field of Nuclear Engineering. This paper reviews the fundamentals of Neural Networks in signal processing and their applications in tasks such as recognition/identification and control. The topics covered include dynamic modeling, model based ANN's, statistical learning, eigen structure based processing and generalization structures. (orig.)

  19. Wavelets and multiscale signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Albert

    1995-01-01

    Since their appearance in mid-1980s, wavelets and, more generally, multiscale methods have become powerful tools in mathematical analysis and in applications to numerical analysis and signal processing. This book is based on "Ondelettes et Traitement Numerique du Signal" by Albert Cohen. It has been translated from French by Robert D. Ryan and extensively updated by both Cohen and Ryan. It studies the existing relations between filter banks and wavelet decompositions and shows how these relations can be exploited in the context of digital signal processing. Throughout, the book concentrates on the fundamentals. It begins with a chapter on the concept of multiresolution analysis, which contains complete proofs of the basic results. The description of filter banks that are related to wavelet bases is elaborated in both the orthogonal case (Chapter 2), and in the biorthogonal case (Chapter 4). The regularity of wavelets, how this is related to the properties of the filters and the importance of regularity for t...

  20. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  1. Chansporter complexes in cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2017-09-01

    Ion channels facilitate diffusion of ions across cell membranes for such diverse purposes as neuronal signaling, muscular contraction, and fluid homeostasis. Solute transporters often utilize ionic gradients to move aqueous solutes up their concentration gradient, also fulfilling a wide variety of tasks. Recently, an increasing number of ion channel-transporter ('chansporter') complexes have been discovered. Chansporter complex formation may overcome what could otherwise be considerable spatial barriers to rapid signal integration and feedback between channels and transporters, the ions and other substrates they transport, and environmental factors to which they must respond. Here, current knowledge in this field is summarized, covering both heterologous expression structure/function findings and potential mechanisms by which chansporter complexes fulfill contrasting roles in cell signaling in vivo. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. The Dynamics of Costly Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott O. Wagner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Costly signaling is a mechanism through which the honesty of signals can be secured in equilibrium, even in interactions where communicators have conflicting interests. This paper explores the dynamics of one such signaling game: Spence’s model of education. It is found that separating equilibria are unlikely to emerge under either the replicator or best response dynamics, but that partially communicative mixed equilibria are quite important dynamically. These mixtures are Lyapunov stable in the replicator dynamic and asymptotically stable in the best response dynamic. Moreover, they have large basins of attraction, in fact larger than those of either pooling or separating equilibria. This suggests that these mixtures may play significant, and underappreciated, roles in the explanation of the emergence and stability of information transfer.

  3. Signals, systems, transforms, and digital signal processing with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Corinthios, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsIntroductionContinuous-Time SignalsPeriodic FunctionsUnit Step FunctionGraphical Representation of FunctionsEven and Odd Parts of a FunctionDirac-Delta ImpulseBasic Properties of the Dirac-Delta ImpulseOther Important Properties of the ImpulseContinuous-Time SystemsCausality, StabilityExamples of Electrical Continuous-Time SystemsMechanical SystemsTransfer Function and Frequency ResponseConvolution and CorrelationA Right-Sided and a Left-Sided FunctionConvolution with an Impulse and Its DerivativesAdditional Convolution PropertiesCorrelation FunctionProperties of the Correlation FunctionGraphical InterpretationCorrelation of Periodic FunctionsAverage, Energy and Power of Continuous-Time SignalsDiscrete-Time SignalsPeriodicityDifference EquationsEven/Odd DecompositionAverage Value, Energy and Power SequencesCausality, StabilityProblemsAnswers to Selected ProblemsFourier Series ExpansionTrigonometric Fourier SeriesExponential Fourier SeriesExponential versus ...

  4. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation-based signaling events happening within the first minute of receptor stimulation have so far only been analyzed by classical cell biological approaches like live-cell microscopy. The development of a quench flow system with a time resolution of one second coupled to a read...

  5. Conversion of interlaced image signals into progressive scanned image signals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    In a method of de-interlacing video data (F), at least three different de-interlacing algorithms (VTF, MED1, CM3) are applied on the video data (F) to obtain at least three de-interlaced signals (DIO-1, DIO-2, DIO-3), no majority of de-interlacing algorithms copying a single spatio-temporally

  6. Signals of Opportunity Navigation Using Wi-Fi Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Multiplexed Signals of Opportunity. Master’s Thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology, 2007. 33. Wiles, Charles. “Introducing the Gears Geolocation ... API for All Laptop WiFi Users”, October 2008. URL http://googlecode.blogspot.com. 88 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704–0188 The public

  7. Chaotic signals in digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Eisencraft, Marcio; Suyama, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chaotic Signals in Digital Communications combines fundamental background knowledge with state-of-the-art methods for using chaotic signals and systems in digital communications. The book builds a bridge between theoretical works and practical implementation to help researchers attain consistent performance in realistic environments. It shows the possible shortcomings of the chaos-based communication systems proposed in the literature, particularly when they are subjected to non-ideal conditions. It also presents a toolbox of techniques for researchers working to actually implement such system

  8. Digital signal processing for NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1994-01-01

    NDT begins to adapt and use the most recent developments of digital signal and image processing. We briefly sum up the main characteristics of NDT situations (particularly noise and inverse problem formulation) and comment on techniques already used or just emerging (SAFT, split spectrum, adaptive learning network, noise reference filtering, stochastic models, neural networks). This survey is focused on ultrasonics, eddy currents and X-ray radiography. The final objective of end users (availability of automatic diagnosis systems) cannot be achieved only by signal processing algorithms. A close cooperation with other techniques such as artificial intelligence has therefore to be implemented. (author). 20 refs

  9. Subgraph detection using graph signals

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar

    2017-03-06

    In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.

  10. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  11. PSpice for digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  12. Signal recovery in imaging photoplethysmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, Benjamin D; Mannapperuma, Kavan; Lesniewski, Peter J; Thomas, John C

    2013-01-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography is an emerging technique for the extraction of biometric information from people using video recordings. The focus is on extracting the cardiac heart rate of the subject by analysing the luminance of the colour video signal and identifying periodic components. Advanced signal processing is needed to recover the information required. In this paper, independent component analysis (ICA), principal component analysis, auto- and cross-correlation are investigated and compared with respect to their effectiveness in extracting the relevant information from video recordings. Results obtained are compared with those recorded by a modern commercial finger pulse oximeter. It is found that ICA produces the most consistent results. (paper)

  13. Queen signaling in social wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Social Hymenoptera are characterized by a reproductive division of labor, whereby queens perform most of the reproduction and workers help to raise her offspring. A long-lasting debate is whether queens maintain this reproductive dominance by manipulating their daughter workers into remaining...... sterile (queen control), or if instead queens honestly signal their fertility and workers reproduce according to their own evolutionary incentives (queen signaling). Here, we test these competing hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We show that in natural colonies of the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula...

  14. Subgraph detection using graph signals

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.

  15. Signal recovery in imaging photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Benjamin D; Mannapperuma, Kavan; Lesniewski, Peter J; Thomas, John C

    2013-11-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography is an emerging technique for the extraction of biometric information from people using video recordings. The focus is on extracting the cardiac heart rate of the subject by analysing the luminance of the colour video signal and identifying periodic components. Advanced signal processing is needed to recover the information required. In this paper, independent component analysis (ICA), principal component analysis, auto- and cross-correlation are investigated and compared with respect to their effectiveness in extracting the relevant information from video recordings. Results obtained are compared with those recorded by a modern commercial finger pulse oximeter. It is found that ICA produces the most consistent results.

  16. DMPD: Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16920490 Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macroph...tml) (.csml) Show Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages. PubmedID 16920490 Title Signal inte...gration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in

  17. Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...

  18. Cholinergic signalling in gut immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhawan, Shobhit; Cailotto, Cathy; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system shares many signalling molecules and receptors with the autonomic nervous system. A good example is the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), for which many immune cell types express cholinergic receptors (AChR). In the last decade the vagal nerve has emerged as an

  19. Multipactor theory for multicarrier signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.; Mattes, M.; Raboso, D.; Boria, V. E.; Gimeno, B.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a new theory of multipactor under multicarrier signals for parallel-plate geometries, assuming a homogeneous electric field and one-dimensional electron motion. It is the generalization of the nonstationary multipactor theory for single-carrier signals [S. Anza et al.,Phys. Plasmas 17, 062110 (2010)]. It is valid for multicarrier signals with an arbitrary number of carriers with different amplitude, arbitrary frequency, and phase conditions and for any material coating. This new theory is able to model the real dynamics of the electrons during the multipactor discharge for both single and double surface interactions. Among other parameters of the discharge, it calculates the evolution in time of the charge growth, electron absorption, and creation rates as well as the instantaneous secondary emission yield and order. An extensive set of numerical tests with particle-in-cell software has been carried out in order to validate the theory under many different conditions. This theoretical development constitutes the first multipactor theory which completely characterizes the multipactor discharge for arbitrary multicarrier signals, setting the first step for further investigations in the field.

  20. Eliminating ambiguity in digital signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1979-01-01

    Multiamplitude minimum shift keying (mamsk) transmission system, method of differential encoding overcomes problem of ambiguity associated with advanced digital-transmission techniques with little or no penalty in transmission rate, error rate, or system complexity. Principle of method states, if signal points are properly encoded and decoded, bits are detected correctly, regardless of phase ambiguities.

  1. Mathematical Modelling Plant Signalling Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, molecular genetic studies and the completion of the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome have increased knowledge of hormonal regulation in plants. These signal transduction pathways act in concert through gene regulatory and signalling networks whose main components have begun to be elucidated. Our understanding of the resulting cellular processes is hindered by the complex, and sometimes counter-intuitive, dynamics of the networks, which may be interconnected through feedback controls and cross-regulation. Mathematical modelling provides a valuable tool to investigate such dynamics and to perform in silico experiments that may not be easily carried out in a laboratory. In this article, we firstly review general methods for modelling gene and signalling networks and their application in plants. We then describe specific models of hormonal perception and cross-talk in plants. This mathematical analysis of sub-cellular molecular mechanisms paves the way for more comprehensive modelling studies of hormonal transport and signalling in a multi-scale setting. © EDP Sciences, 2013.

  2. [Automated processing of electrophysiologic signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenevskiĭ, N A; Gubanov, V V

    1995-01-01

    The paper outlines a diagram of a multichannel analyzer of electrophysiological signals while are significantly non-stationary (such as those of electroencephalograms, myograms, etc.), by using a method based on the ranging procedure by the change-over points which may be the points of infection, impaired locality, minima, maxima, discontinuity, etc.

  3. Biophysical Aspects of Transmembrane Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovich, Sandor

    2005-01-01

    Transmembrane signaling is one of the most significant cell biological events in the life and death of cells in general and lymphocytes in particular. Until recently biochemists and biophysicists were not accustomed to thinking of these processes from the side of a high number of complex biochemical events and an equally high number of physical changes at molecular and cellular levels at the same time. Both types of researchers were convinced that their findings are the most decisive, having higher importance than the findings of the other scientist population. Both casts were wrong. Life, even at cellular level, has a number of interacting physical and biochemical mechanisms, which finally build up the creation of an "excited" cell that will respond to particular signals from the outer or inner world. This book handles both aspects of the signalling events, and in some cases tries to unify our concepts and help understand the signals that govern the life and death of our cells. Not only the understanding, bu...

  4. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...

  5. Syndecans, signaling, and cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    1996-01-01

    structures within the heparan sulfate chains, leaving the roles of chondroitin sulfate chains and extracellular portion of the core proteins to be elucidated. Evidence that syndecans are a class of receptor involved in cell adhesion is mounting, and their small cytoplasmic domains may link...... transmembrane signaling from matrix to cytoskeleton, as proposed for other classes of adhesion receptors....

  6. Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Brassinosteroid Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant growth and development through a complex signal transduction pathway involving BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), which is the BR receptor, and its co-receptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). Both proteins are classified as Ser/Thr protein kinases. Recently,...

  7. VEGF Signaling in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon W. Shim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent growth factor playing diverse roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In the brain, VEGF mediates angiogenesis, neural migration and neuroprotection. As a permeability factor, excessive VEGF disrupts intracellular barriers, increases leakage of the choroid plexus endothelia, evokes edema, and activates the inflammatory pathway. Recently, we discovered that a heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF—a class of EGF receptor (EGFR family ligands—contributes to the development of hydrocephalus with subarachnoid hemorrhage through activation of VEGF signaling. The objective of this review is to entail a recent update on causes of death due to neurological disorders involving cerebrovascular and age-related neurological conditions and to understand the mechanism by which angiogenesis-dependent pathological events can be treated with VEGF antagonisms. The Global Burden of Disease study indicates that cancer and cardiovascular disease including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are two leading causes of death worldwide. The literature suggests that VEGF signaling in ischemic brains highlights the importance of concentration, timing, and alternate route of modulating VEGF signaling pathway. Molecular targets distinguishing two distinct pathways of VEGF signaling may provide novel therapies for the treatment of neurological disorders and for maintaining lower mortality due to these conditions.

  8. Robust power detector for wideband signals among many single tone signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, Cameron H.; Thompson, Douglas

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies for isolating a signal of interest from signals received contemporaneously by an antenna are described herein. A time period for which a signal of interest is present in a second signal can be identified based upon ratios of values of the second signal to the mean value of the second signal. When the ratio of the value of the second signal at a particular time to the mean of the second signal exceeds a threshold value, the signal of interest is considered to be present in the second signal.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of ABCA1-Null Macrophages Reveals a Role for Stomatin-Like Protein-2 in Raft Composition and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Saiful M; Zhu, Xuewei; Aloor, Jim J; Azzam, Kathleen M; Gabor, Kristin A; Ge, William; Addo, Kezia A; Tomer, Kenneth B; Parks, John S; Fessler, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Lipid raft membrane microdomains organize signaling by many prototypical receptors, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. Raft-localization of proteins is widely thought to be regulated by raft cholesterol levels, but this is largely on the basis of studies that have manipulated cell cholesterol using crude and poorly specific chemical tools, such as β-cyclodextrins. To date, there has been no proteome-scale investigation of whether endogenous regulators of intracellular cholesterol trafficking, such as the ATP binding cassette (ABC)A1 lipid efflux transporter, regulate targeting of proteins to rafts. Abca1(-/-) macrophages have cholesterol-laden rafts that have been reported to contain increased levels of select proteins, including TLR4, the lipopolysaccharide receptor. Here, using quantitative proteomic profiling, we identified 383 proteins in raft isolates from Abca1(+/+) and Abca1(-/-) macrophages. ABCA1 deletion induced wide-ranging changes to the raft proteome. Remarkably, many of these changes were similar to those seen in Abca1(+/+) macrophages after lipopolysaccharide exposure. Stomatin-like protein (SLP)-2, a member of the stomatin-prohibitin-flotillin-HflK/C family of membrane scaffolding proteins, was robustly and specifically increased in Abca1(-/-) rafts. Pursuing SLP-2 function, we found that rafts of SLP-2-silenced macrophages had markedly abnormal composition. SLP-2 silencing did not compromise ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux but reduced macrophage responsiveness to multiple TLR ligands. This was associated with reduced raft levels of the TLR co-receptor, CD14, and defective lipopolysaccharide-induced recruitment of the common TLR adaptor, MyD88, to rafts. Taken together, we show that the lipid transporter ABCA1 regulates the protein repertoire of rafts and identify SLP-2 as an ABCA1-dependent regulator of raft composition and of the innate immune response. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  10. Proteomic Analysis of ABCA1-Null Macrophages Reveals a Role for Stomatin-Like Protein-2 in Raft Composition and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Zhu, Xuewei; Aloor, Jim J.; Azzam, Kathleen M.; Gabor, Kristin A.; Ge, William; Addo, Kezia A.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Parks, John S.; Fessler, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid raft membrane microdomains organize signaling by many prototypical receptors, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. Raft-localization of proteins is widely thought to be regulated by raft cholesterol levels, but this is largely on the basis of studies that have manipulated cell cholesterol using crude and poorly specific chemical tools, such as β-cyclodextrins. To date, there has been no proteome-scale investigation of whether endogenous regulators of intracellular cholesterol trafficking, such as the ATP binding cassette (ABC)A1 lipid efflux transporter, regulate targeting of proteins to rafts. Abca1−/− macrophages have cholesterol-laden rafts that have been reported to contain increased levels of select proteins, including TLR4, the lipopolysaccharide receptor. Here, using quantitative proteomic profiling, we identified 383 proteins in raft isolates from Abca1+/+ and Abca1−/− macrophages. ABCA1 deletion induced wide-ranging changes to the raft proteome. Remarkably, many of these changes were similar to those seen in Abca1+/+ macrophages after lipopolysaccharide exposure. Stomatin-like protein (SLP)-2, a member of the stomatin-prohibitin-flotillin-HflK/C family of membrane scaffolding proteins, was robustly and specifically increased in Abca1−/− rafts. Pursuing SLP-2 function, we found that rafts of SLP-2-silenced macrophages had markedly abnormal composition. SLP-2 silencing did not compromise ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux but reduced macrophage responsiveness to multiple TLR ligands. This was associated with reduced raft levels of the TLR co-receptor, CD14, and defective lipopolysaccharide-induced recruitment of the common TLR adaptor, MyD88, to rafts. Taken together, we show that the lipid transporter ABCA1 regulates the protein repertoire of rafts and identify SLP-2 as an ABCA1-dependent regulator of raft composition and of the innate immune response. PMID:25910759

  11. Predicting Secretory Proteins with SignalP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    SignalP is the currently most widely used program for prediction of signal peptides from amino acid sequences. Proteins with signal peptides are targeted to the secretory pathway, but are not necessarily secreted. After a brief introduction to the biology of signal peptides and the history...

  12. Measuring displacement signal with an accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Bo

    2010-01-01

    An effective and simple way to reconstruct displacement signal from a measured acceleration signal is proposed in this paper. To reconstruct displacement signal by means of double-integrating the time domain acceleration signal, the Nyquist frequency of the digital sampling of the acceleration signal should be much higher than the highest frequency component of the signal. On the other hand, to reconstruct displacement signal by taking the inverse Fourier transform, the magnitude of the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal should be greater than the 6 dB increment line along the frequency axis. With a predetermined resolution in time and frequency domain, determined by the sampling rate to measure and record the original signal, reconstructing high-frequency signals in the time domain and reconstructing low-frequency signals in the frequency domain will produce biased errors. Furthermore, because of the DC components inevitably included in the sampling process, low-frequency components of the signals are overestimated when displacement signals are reconstructed from the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal. The proposed method utilizes curve-fitting around the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal before it is inverse-Fourier transformed. Curve-fitting around the dominant frequency components provides much better results than simply ignoring the insignificant frequency components of the signal

  13. Effects of vitamin D analog on bladder function and sensory signaling in animal models of cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Bennett; Redman, T Lawton; Zvara, Peter

    2013-02-01

    To measure the effects of nonhypercalcemic vitamin D receptor agonist elocalcitol on bladder function in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and on bladder function and sensory nerve activity in a mouse with acetic acid-evoked bladder irritation. Female Wistar rats and male Balb/C mice were gavaged once daily with elocalcitol diluted in miglyol 812 (treatment group) or miglyol alone (control group). On experimental day 12, polyethylene tubing was implanted into the urinary bladder in all the animals. In the mice, a bipolar electrode was positioned under a single postganglionic bladder nerve. At 48 hours after surgery, bladder function was measured in awake, freely moving rats during bladder filling with 0.9% NaCl and both bladder function and sensory nerve activity was measured in awake, restrained mice during continuous intravesical infusion of 0.9% NaCl followed by 0.25% acetic acid. In rats, the treatment group showed a significant increase in bladder capacity and decrease in number of nonvoiding bladder contractions. In mice, the filling pressure during saline infusion was similar in both groups; however, during acetic acid infusion, the average filling pressure was significantly increased (47%) in the control group but not in the elocalcitol treatment group. The firing rate at filling pressure for the treatment group was 3.6-fold and 2.7-fold lower than that in the control group during the saline and acetic acid infusion, respectively. Oral treatment with elocalcitol suppressed signs of detrusor overactivity in both animal models and exerted strong suppressive effect on urinary bladder sensory signaling during filling in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid argon TPC signal formation, signal processing and reconstruction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, B.

    2017-07-01

    This document describes a reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions benefits from the knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise. A unique clustering algorithm reconstructs line-like trajectories and vertices in two dimensions which are then matched to create of 3D objects. These techniques and algorithms are available to all experiments that use the LArSoft suite of software.

  15. The Fog signaling pathway: Insights into signaling in morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alyssa J.; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelia form the building blocks of many tissue and organ types. Epithelial cells often form a contiguous 2-dimensional sheet that is held together by strong adhesions. The mechanical properties conferred by these adhesions allow the cells to undergo dramatic three-dimensional morphogenetic movements while maintaining cell–cell contacts during embryogenesis and post-embryonic development. The Drosophila Folded gastrulation pathway triggers epithelial cell shape changes that drive gastrulation and tissue folding and is one of the most extensively studied examples of epithelial morphogenesis. This pathway has yielded key insights into the signaling mechanisms and cellular machinery involved in epithelial remodeling. In this review, we discuss principles of morphogenesis and signaling that have been discovered through genetic and cell biological examination of this pathway. We also consider various regulatory mechanisms and the system's relevance to mammalian development. We propose future directions that will continue to broaden our knowledge of morphogenesis across taxa. PMID:25127992

  16. Experiment and practice on signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The contents of this book contains basic practice of CEM Tool, discrete time signal and experiment and practice of system, experiment and practice of discrete time signal sampling, practice of frequency analysis, experiment of digital filter design, application of digital signal processing, project related voice, basic principle of signal processing, the technique of basic image signal processing, biology astronomy and Robot soccer with apply of image signal processing technique, control video signal and project related image. It also has an introduction of CEM Linker I. O in the end.

  17. Experiment and practice on signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-15

    The contents of this book contains basic practice of CEM Tool, discrete time signal and experiment and practice of system, experiment and practice of discrete time signal sampling, practice of frequency analysis, experiment of digital filter design, application of digital signal processing, project related voice, basic principle of signal processing, the technique of basic image signal processing, biology astronomy and Robot soccer with apply of image signal processing technique, control video signal and project related image. It also has an introduction of CEM Linker I. O in the end.

  18. Flanking signal and mature peptide residues influence signal peptide cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Shoba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal peptides (SPs mediate the targeting of secretory precursor proteins to the correct subcellular compartments in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Identifying these transient peptides is crucial to the medical, food and beverage and biotechnology industries yet our understanding of these peptides remains limited. This paper examines the most common type of signal peptides cleavable by the endoprotease signal peptidase I (SPase I, and the residues flanking the cleavage sites of three groups of signal peptide sequences, namely (i eukaryotes (Euk (ii Gram-positive (Gram+ bacteria, and (iii Gram-negative (Gram- bacteria. Results In this study, 2352 secretory peptide sequences from a variety of organisms with amino-terminal SPs are extracted from the manually curated SPdb database for analysis based on physicochemical properties such as pI, aliphatic index, GRAVY score, hydrophobicity, net charge and position-specific residue preferences. Our findings show that the three groups share several similarities in general, but they display distinctive features upon examination in terms of their amino acid compositions and frequencies, and various physico-chemical properties. Thus, analysis or prediction of their sequences should be separated and treated as distinct groups. Conclusion We conclude that the peptide segment recognized by SPase I extends to the start of the mature protein to a limited extent, upon our survey of the amino acid residues surrounding the cleavage processing site. These flanking residues possibly influence the cleavage processing and contribute to non-canonical cleavage sites. Our findings are applicable in defining more accurate prediction tools for recognition and identification of cleavage site of SPs.

  19. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plešinger, Filip; Jurčo, Juraj; Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2016), N38-N48 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA ČR GAP102/12/2034 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : data visualization * software * signal processing * ECG * EEG Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016

  20. Signal-to-Signal Ratio Independent Speaker Identification for Co-channel Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeidi, Rahim; Mowlaee, Pejman; Kinnunen, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider speaker identification for the co-channel scenario in which speech mixture from speakers is recorded by one microphone only. The goal is to identify both of the speakers from their mixed signal. High recognition accuracies have already been reported when an accurately...